Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.
2009-10-12
In this report we continue with the description of a newly developed numerical method to solve the drift kinetic equation for ions and electrons in toroidal plasmas. Several numerical aspects, already outlined in a previous report [Informes Tecnicos Ciemat 1165, mayo 2009], will be treated now in more detail. Aside from discussing the method in the context of other existing codes, various aspects will be now explained from the viewpoint of numerical methods: the way to solve convection equations, the adopted boundary conditions, the real-space meshing procedures along with a new software developed to build them, and some additional questions related with the parallelization and the numerical integration. (Author) 16 refs.
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Castillo Diaz, Ramon
2002-06-15
In this work the method of the finite element is applied to the bi-dimensional analysis of the induction motor in operation in steady state, excited by sine sources of laminar currents and sine sources of voltage. The analysis is focused mainly in the calculation of the electromagnetic torque. The topics of electromagnetic theory are covered and in an idealized model of the induction motor, analytically and numerically with the method of the finite element, in the variant method of Galerkin, the vectorial potential and the torque are calculated. The results obtained with the analytical and numerical methods are compared. Three formulations are developed to calculate the torque with the method of the finite element, using triangular elements of first order, based in the equation of force of Lorentz, the Maxwell tensor and the principle of the virtual work. Finally, a motor of induction of real characteristics is simulated, assuming it is connected to a three-phase voltage source. In this motor it is analyzed the convergence and the evolution in the results obtained of the torque with different discretions, and the torque-velocity performance curve is calculated. [Spanish] En este trabajo se aplica el metodo del elemento finito al analisis bidimensional del motor de induccion en operacion en estado estable, excitado por fuentes de corriente laminar senoidales y fuentes de voltaje senoidales. El analisis se enfoca principalmente en el calculo del par electromagnetico. Se tratan los topicos de teoria electromagnetica involucrados y en un modelo idealizado del motor de induccion, se calculan analitica y numericamente con el metodo del elemento finito, en la variante metodo de Galerkin, el potencial vectorial y el par. Se comparan resultados obtenidos con los metodos analiticos y numericos. Se desarrollan tres formulaciones para calcular el par con el metodo del elemento finito, utilizando elementos triangulares de primer orden, basadas en la ecuacion de fuerza de
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Martinez-Conesa, E. J.; Estrems-Amestoy, M.; Miguel-Eguia, V.; Garrido-Hernandez, A.; Guillen-Martinez, J. A.
2010-07-01
In this work, a numerical method for calculating the temperature field into the heat affected zone for butt welded joints is presented. The method has been developed for sheet welding and takes into account a bidimensional heat flow. It has built a computer program by MS-Excel books and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The model has been applied to the TIG process of AISI 304 stainless steel 2mm thickness sheet. The welding process has been considered without input materials. The numerical method may be used to help the designers to predict the temperature distribution in welded joints. (Author) 12 refs.
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Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.
2009-12-11
This report is the first of a series dedicated to the numerical calculation of the evolution of fusion plasmas in general toroidal geometry, including TJ-II plasmas. A kinetic treatment has been chosen: the evolution equation of the distribution function of one or several plasma species is solved in guiding center coordinates. The distribution function is written as a Maxwellian one modulated by polynomial series in the kinetic coordinates with no other approximations than those of the guiding center itself and the computation capabilities. The code allows also for the inclusion of the three-dimensional electrostatic potential in a self-consistent manner, but the initial objective has been set to solving only the neoclassical transport. A high order conservative method (Spectral Difference Method) has been chosen in order to discretized the equation for its numerical solution. In this first report, in addition to justifying the work, the evolution equation and its approximations are described, as well as the baseline of the numerical procedures. (Author) 28 refs.
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Ruiz, Rafael O.; Di Liscia, Marcelo H.; Diaz, Sergio E. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Sartendejas, Baruta (Venezuela)
2007-11-15
dynamic coefficients. [Spanish] La identificacion de los coeficientes dinamicos en cojinetes de aire es fundamental para un adecuado analisis rotodinamico. El presente trabajo muestra el desarrollo de un algoritmo que permite la obtencion directa de los coeficientes dinamicos en cojinetes hidrodinamicos de aire tanto de forma numerica como experimental. El banco de pruebas utilizado consta de dos cojinetes magneticos, los cuales soportan al rotor en sus extremos y a su vez funcionan como actuadores permitiendo inducir orbitas controladas en el rotor. El cojinete de prueba se encuentra ubicado entre los cojinetes magneticos. Las fuerzas dinamicas generadas en el cojinete de aire se registran a partir de tres celdas de carga. El algoritmo fue desarrollado en un codigo comercial de programacion grafica, a traves del cual se pueden colectar, controlar y procesar las senales. El comportamiento no lineal de este tipo de cojinetes dificulta el calculo de los coeficientes dinamicos, por esta razon el procesamiento de las senales en espacio frecuencial facilita de cierta manera su manejo. Por otra parte, el modelo numerico se comparo con los resultados experimentales obteniendo aproximaciones aceptables tanto en magnitud como en comportamiento. El calculo de los coeficientes dinamicos numericos se realizo resolviendo la ecuacion diferencial de Reynolds para un fluido compresible en el espesor de la pelicula de gas, tomando en consideracion el flujo masico del fluido que se introduce, asi como la perdida de presion que sufre el mismo al pasar a traves de los orificios de alimentacion. Los metodos numericos utilizados incluyen la resolucion de la ecuacion diferencial de Reynolds por diferencias finitas, el calculo del perfil de presiones realizando iteraciones sucesivas y el calculo de las fuerzas hidrodinamicas a traves de una integracion numerica de Simpson. Los coeficientes dinamicos numericos fueron hallados aplicando una tecnica de minimos cuadrados a las fuerzas hidrodinamicas
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Marchuk, G I [Akademiya Nauk, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)
1962-03-15
This paper discusses the development of methods for calculating intermediate and fast reactors. It deals with various approaches to the problems of physical calculation. The calculation of resonance effects is discussed. Consideration is given to multi-group systems of fundamental and conjugate equations, various applications of perturbation theory to the problems of physical reactor calculation, and numerical methods of solving fundamental and conjugate reactor equations, which approximate the method of spherical harmonics. The paper describes an application of the response method to the solution of critical-mass problems, and methods of calculating reactors with hydrogeneous moderators. The fundamental features of an effective one-group reactor model are described. (author) [French] L'auteur examine la mise au point de methodes pour le calcul de reacteurs a neutrons rapides et intermediaires . Il decrit diverses manieres d'aborder les problemes des calculs sur la physique des reacteurs, notamment le calcul des effets de resonance. Il s'attache particulierement aux points suivants: systemes d'equations fondamentales et conjuguees a plusieurs groupes; diverses applications de la theorie des perturbations aux problemes de calculs sur la physique des reacteurs; methodes numeriques pour resoudre les equations fondamentales et conjuguees, voisines de la methode des harmoniques spheriques. L'auteur decrit ensuite une maniere d'appliquer la methode de la reponse aux problemes de la masse critique ainsi que des methodes pour le calcul de reacteurs ralentis a l'hydrogene. Il decrit les caracteristique s fondamentale s d'un modele de reacteur a un groupe effectif. (author) [Spanish] El autor analiza el desarrollo de los metodos de calculo de los reactores nucleares que trabajan con neutrones rapidos y con neutrones intermedios. Examina diversos planteos de los problemas del calculo fisico. Indica la forma de tomar en cuenta los efectos de resonancia y menciona los sistemas
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Gomez Ros, J M; Delgado, A
1989-07-01
This report presents the application of numerical methods to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD), showing the advantages obtained over conventional evaluation systems. Different configurations of the analysis method are presented to operate in specific dosimetric applications of TLD, such as environmental monitoring and mailed dosimetry systems for quality assurance in radiotherapy facilities. (Author) 10 refs.
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Gomez Perez, R.; Melentijevic, S.
2014-07-01
This paper compares different analytical methods for analysis of rigid inclusions with finite element modeling. First of all, the load transfer in the distribution layer is analyzed for its different thicknesses and different inclusion grids to define the range between results obtained by analytical and numerical methods. The interaction between the soft soil and the inclusion in the estimation of settlements is studied as well. Considering different stiffness of the soft soil, settlements obtained analytical and numerically are compared. The influence of the soft soil modulus of elasticity on the neutral point depth was also performed by finite elements. This depth has a great importance for the definition of the total length of rigid inclusion. (Author)
Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis
improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Claramunt, R.; Rincon, E.; Zubizarreta, V.; Ros, A.
2001-07-01
The difficulty that exists in the analysis of mechanical stresses in bones is high due to its complex mechanical and morphological characteristics. This complexity makes generalists modelling and conclusions derived from prototype tests very questionable. In this article a relatively simple comparative analysis systematic method that allow us to establish some behaviour differences in different kind of prosthesis is presented. The method, applicable in principle to any joint problem, is based on analysing perturbations produced in natural stress states of a bone after insertion of a joint prosthesis and combines numerical analysis using a 3-D finite element model and experimental studies based on photoelastic coating and electric extensometry. The experimental method is applied to compare two total hip prosthesis cement-free femoral stems of different philosophy. One anatomic of new generation, being of oblique setting over cancellous bone and the other madreporique of trochantero-diaphyseal support over cortical bone. (Author) 4 refs.
Methods in nuclear reactors calculations; Metodos de calculo en reactores nucleares
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Velarde, G
1966-07-01
Studies are made of the neutron transport equation corresponding to the the real and virtual reactors, as well as the starting hypotheses. Methods are developed to solve the transport equation in slab geometry, and P{sub l}; B{sub l}; M{sub l}; S{sub n} and discrete ordinates approximations. (Author)
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Herraiz Lblanca, M. D.; Diaz Romero, F.; Casares Magaz, O.; Garrido Breton, C.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Hernandez Armas, J.
2013-07-01
This paper proposes a method that allows you to calculate the effective dose in any interventional radiology procedure using an anthropomorphic mannequin Alderson RANDO and dosimeters TLD 100 chip. This method has been applied to an angio Radiology procedure: the biliary drainage. The objectives that have been proposed are: to) put together a method that, on an experimental basis, allows to know dosis en organs to calculate effective dose in complex procedures and b) apply the method to the calculation of the effective dose of biliary drainage. (Author)
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Butragueno, J L; Blazquez, J B; Barrado, J M
1976-07-01
Response functions for cylindrical proportional counters with hydrogenated gases have been determined, taking in account only wall effect, by means of two independent calculus methods. One of them is a Monte Carlo application and the other one analytica at all. Results of both methods have been compared. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vianello, Elizabeth A.; Almeida, Carlos E. de [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Biaggio, Maria F. de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1998-09-01
This paper describes a manual method for dose calculation in brachytherapy of gynecological tumors, which allows the calculation of the doses at any plane or point of clinical interest. This method uses basic principles of vectorial algebra and the simulating orthogonal films taken from the patient with the applicators and dummy sources in place. The results obtained with method were compared with the values calculated with the values calculated with the treatment planning system model Theraplan and the agreement was better than 5% in most cases. The critical points associated with the final accuracy of the proposed method is related to the quality of the image and the appropriate selection of the magnification factors. This method is strongly recommended to the radiation oncology centers where are no treatment planning systems available and the dose calculations are manually done. (author) 10 refs., 5 figs.
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Nascimento, Francisco Rogerio Teixeira do
2013-07-01
The main objective of this work is to simulate electromagnetic fields using the Finite Element Method. Even in the easiest case of electrostatic and magnetostatic numerical simulation some problems appear when the nodal finite element is used. It is difficult to model vector fields with scalar functions mainly in non-homogeneous materials. With the aim to solve these problems two types of techniques are tried: the adaptive remeshing using nodal elements and the edge finite element that ensure the continuity of tangential components. Some numerical analysis of simple electromagnetic problems with homogeneous and non-homogeneous materials are performed using first, the adaptive remeshing based in various error indicators and second, the numerical solution of waveguides using edge finite element. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flores Armenta, Magaly [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)
1996-09-01
Mainly in new geothermal wells, it is necessary to evaluate the production in a very fast, simple and not expensive way, to know the convenience to install surface equipment, such as silencers and separators, to drive the steam to the commercial gathering system. In practice, one of the most known methods is the lip pressure one, which requires a simple set of installations. The objective of this paper is to validate the steam flow rate calculated by the lip pressure method, with respect to the ASME method. The ASME method is known for its accuracy, and is done by measuring the steam and liquid after a high pressure separator, by an orifice plate of known diameter and a triangular weir. Results of the validation show up the feasibility of application of the lip pressure method by using a simple adjustment equation. Percentage of mistake results less than 1%, without any notable influence of the production enthalpy. That equation to be applied in a general case, is as follows: Q{nu} =(20642)(F*P*D{sup 2}/{radical}h-2000). For the particular case of the Los Azufres geothermal field, the equation is: Q{nu}= 810*P*D{sup 2} [Espanol] En los pozos geotermicos, principalmente en los nuevos, es necesario evaluar su produccion de manera rapida, sencilla y economica, para determinar la conveniencia de instalar equipo superficial, como separadores, silenciadores, etc., que permita la integracion del vapor al sistema comercial de generacion electrica. Para fines practicos uno de los metodos mas conocidos es el de presion de labio, que solo requiere un arreglo sencillo de instalaciones superficiales. En este documento se validan y ajustan los calculos de produccion de vapor por ese metodo de presion de labio, con respecto a las mediciones exactas efectuadas con el metodo ASME. Este ultimo es reconocido internacionalmente por su precision, y se lleva a cabo separando la mezcla obtenida en superficie en un recipiente a presion para medir el vapor a traves de una placa de orificio
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Vianello, E.A.; Biaggio, M.F.; Dr, M.F.; Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas- (L.C.R.)-D.B.B.- UERJ- R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524- Pav. HLC- sala 136- CEP 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
1998-12-31
In treatments with radiations for gynecologic tumors is necessary to evaluate the quality of the results obtained by different calculation methods for the dose rates on the points of clinical interest (A, rectal, vesicle). The present work compares the results obtained by two methods. The Manual Calibration Method (MCM) tri dimensional (Vianello E., et.al. 1998), using orthogonal radiographs for each patient in treatment, and the Theraplan/T P-11 planning system (Thratonics International Limited 1990) this last one verified experimentally (Vianello et.al. 1996). The results show that MCM can be used in the physical-clinical practice with a percentile difference comparable at the computerized programs. (Author)
Calculation of uncertainties; Calculo de incertidumbres
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Diaz-Asencio, Misael [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos (Cuba)
2012-07-01
One of the most important aspects in relation to the quality assurance in any analytical activity is the estimation of measurement uncertainty. There is general agreement that 'the expression of the result of a measurement is not complete without specifying its associated uncertainty'. An analytical process is the mechanism for obtaining methodological information (measurand) of a material system (population). This implies the need for the definition of the problem, the choice of methods for sampling and measurement and proper execution of these activities for obtaining information. The result of a measurement is only an approximation or estimate of the value of the measurand, which is complete only when accompanied by an estimate of the uncertainty of the analytical process. According to the 'Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology' measurement uncertainty' is the parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand (or magnitude). This parameter could be a standard deviation or a confidence interval. The uncertainty evaluation requires detailed look at all possible sources, but not disproportionately. We can make a good estimate of the uncertainty concentrating efforts on the largest contributions. The key steps of the process of determining the uncertainty in the measurements are: - the specification of the measurand; - identification of the sources of uncertainty - the quantification of individual components of uncertainty, - calculate the combined standard uncertainty; - report of uncertainty. [Spanish] Uno de los aspectos mas importantes en relacion con el aseguramiento de la calidad en cualquier actividad analitica es la estimacion de la incertidumbre de la medicion. Existe el acuerdo general que 'la expresion del resultado de una medicion no esta completa sin especificar su incertidumbre asociada'. Un proceso analitico es el mecanismo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, Daniel Suescun
2007-07-01
This work presents two new methods for the solution of the inverse point kinetics equation. The first method is based on the integration by parts of the integral of the inverse point kinetics equation, which results in a power series in terms of the nuclear power in time dependence. Applying some conditions to the nuclear power, the reactivity is represented as first and second derivatives of this nuclear power. This new calculation method for reactivity has special characteristics, amongst which the possibility of using different sampling periods, and the possibility of restarting the calculation, after its interruption associated it with a possible equipment malfunction, allowing the calculation of reactivity in a non-continuous way. Apart from this reactivity can be obtained with or without dependency on the nuclear power memory. The second method is based on the Laplace transform of the point kinetics equations, resulting in an expression equivalent to the inverse kinetics equation as a function of the power history. The reactivity can be written in terms of the summation of convolution with response to impulse, characteristic of a linear system. For its digital form the Z-transform is used, which is the discrete version of the Laplace transform. In this method it can be pointed out that the linear part is equivalent to a filter named Finite Impulse Response (Fir). The Fir filter will always be, stable and non-varying in time, and, apart from this, it can be implemented in the non-recursive way. This type of implementation does not require feedback, allowing the calculation of reactivity in a continuous way. The proposed methods were validated using signals with random noise and showing the relationship between the reactivity difference and the degree of the random noise. (author)
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Alcarde, Lais F.; Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Oliveira, Ricardo S.; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: lais_alcarde@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2013-07-01
The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the antibody concentration in conjunction with bifunctional chelator. Assays were performed using a high performance liquid chromatograph, and the following conditions were used: flow rate of 1 mL / min, 15 min run time, 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 as the mobile phase and column of molecular exclusion BioSep SEC S-3000 (300 x 7.8 mm, 5 μM - Phenomenex). The calibration curve was obtained with AcM diluted in 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 by serial dilution, yielding the concentrations: 400 μg/mL, 200 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL and 12.5 μg/mL. From the calibration curve calculated the equation of the line and with it the concentration of the immunoconjugate. To ensure the validity of the method accuracy and precision studies were conducted. The accuracy test consisted in the evaluation of 3 samples of known concentration, being this test performed with low concentrations (50 μg/mL), medium (100 μg/mL) and high (200 μg/mL). The precision test consisted of 3 consecutive measurements of one sample of known concentration, subject to the conditions set forth above for the other tests. The correlation coefficient of the standard curve was greater than 97%, the accuracy was satisfactory at low concentrations as well as accuracy. The method was validated by showing it for the accurate and precise determination of the concentration of the immunoconjugate. Furthermore, this assay was found to be extremely important, because using the correct mass of the protein, the radiochemical purity of the radioimmunoconjugate was above 95% in all studies.
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Cecenas F, M., E-mail: mcf@iie.org.mx [Instituto Nacional de Electricidad y Energias Limpias, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2017-09-15
A parallel channel model with boiling and punctual neutron kinetics is used to compare the implementation of its programming in C language through a conventional scheme and through a parallel programming scheme. In both cases the subroutines written in C are practically the same, but they vary in the way of controlling the execution of the tasks that calculate the different channels. Parallel Virtual Machine is used for the parallel solution, which allows the passage of messages between tasks to control convergence and transfer the variables of interest between the tasks that run simultaneously on a platform equipped with a multi-core microprocessor. For some problems defined as a study case, such as the one presented in this paper, a computer with two cores can reduce the computation time to 54-56% of the time required by the same program in its conventional sequential version. Similarly, a processor with four cores can reduce the time to 22-33% of execution time of the conventional serial version. These results of substantially reducing the computation time are very motivating of all those applications that can be prepared to be parallelized and whose execution time is an important factor. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guasp, J; Navarro, C
1973-07-01
A FORTRAN V computer code for UNIVAC 1108/6 using a local Optical Model with spin-orbit interaction is described. The code calculates fast neutron cross sections, angular distribution, and Legendre moments for heavy and intermediate spherical nuclei. It allows for the possibility of automatic variation of potential parameters for experimental data fitting. (Author) 55 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavalcanti, Rafaelly L.; Oliveira, Jackson A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Rojas, Leopoldo O.A. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)
2008-07-01
This work has the main objective of evaluating the mathematical model developed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004) in terms of the prediction capacity for the calculation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). This model is based on Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and it considers the binary interaction parameters (Kij(T)) estimated by a contribution group method and dependent of the temperature. The model proposed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004), named PPR78 (Predictive Peng-Robinson), was implemented in this work by using the Fortran language. An optimization approach based on the stochastic algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used in order to calculate the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Simulations were accomplished for several binary systems and the results were concordant with some experimental data of the investigated systems. However, for some systems different from those presented by Jaubert and Mutelet (2004), the model presented low prediction capacity. In spite of the great demand of computational performance, the algorithm PSO demonstrated robustness during the calculation of VLE and it assured convergence in most of the cases. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bender, M. A. [Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)
1964-10-15
foie dix fois plus vite que par la scintigraphie classique. Le deuxieme avantage est que les donnees sont recueillies en meme temps sur la totalite de l'organe. Cela permet d'observer des processus dynamiques et d'utiliser des radioisotopes ou des composes marques ayant une periode physique ou biologique extremement courte. Plus la periode est courte, plus la dose administree peut etre elevee, ce qui permet des temps d'exploration d'autant plus reduits. La duree de l'exposition peut devenir tellement breve qu'il est desormais possible d'exploiter les techniques cinephotographiques pour l'Observation quantitative du passage de PHippuran marque a l'iode-131 dans le rein et du baryum-137m dans les cavites du coeur. (author) [Spanish] El autofluoroscopio es un dispositivo fijo que sirve para representar graficamente la distribucion de los isotopos emisores gamma en el cuerpo humano. Como los aparatos modernos de exploracion, ese instrumento dispone de un colimador sensible a fuentes profundas, con un poder de resolucion suficiente, y de un sistema de alta eficacia para la presentacion de datos con un contraste satisfactorio. El detector consiste en 300 cristales de Nal(Tl) de 2 pulg de espesor y -3/8- pulg de diametro dispuestos en 20 columnas y 15 hileras que forman un cuerpo de 6 x 9 pulg. Cada uno de los 300 cristales esta acoplado opticamente a dos conductores de luz de plexiglas; los 20 conductores de cada columna van unidos a un fotomultiplicador y los 15 de cada hilera a otro. Los impulsos que se producen simultaneamente en cualquier par de los 35 fotomultiplicadores permiten identificar el cristal en que ha ocurrido una interaccion. La senal localizadora determinada por el conjunto de los lotomultiplicadores es independiente de la amplitud del impulso. Los circuitos de anticoincidencia rechazan los impulsos simultaneos debidos a una interaccion de Compton seguida por la absorcion de la radiacion dispersa en un cristal adyacente. El caracter numerico del sistema de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, Antonio Andrade
1998-07-01
A new method for the calculation of sensitivity coefficients is developed. The new method is a combination of two methodologies used for calculating theses coefficients, which are the differential and the generalized perturbation theory methods. The method utilizes as integral parameter the average flux in an arbitrary region of the system. Thus, the sensitivity coefficient contains only the component corresponding to the neutron flux. To obtain the new sensitivity coefficient, the derivatives of the integral parameter, {phi}, with respect to {sigma} are calculated using the perturbation method and the functional derivatives of this generic integral parameter with respect to {sigma} and {phi} are calculated using the differential method. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rossi, Lubianka Ferrari Russo
2014-07-01
The main target of this study is to introduce a new method for calculating the coefficients of sensibility through the union of differential method and generalized perturbation theory, which are the two methods generally used in reactor physics to obtain such variables. These two methods, separated, have some issues turning the sensibility coefficients calculation slower or computationally exhaustive. However, putting them together, it is possible to repair these issues and build a new equation for the coefficient of sensibility. The method introduced in this study was applied in a PWR reactor, where it was performed the sensibility analysis for the production and {sup 239}Pu conversion rate during 120 days (1 cycle) of burnup. The computational code used for both burnup and sensibility analysis, the CINEW, was developed in this study and all the results were compared with codes widely used in reactor physics, such as CINDER and SERPENT. The new mathematical method for calculating the sensibility coefficients and the code CINEW provide good numerical agility and also good efficiency and security, once the new method, when compared with traditional ones, provide satisfactory results, even when the other methods use different mathematical approaches. The burnup analysis, performed using the code CINEW, was compared with the code CINDER, showing an acceptable variation, though CINDER presents some computational issues due to the period it was built. The originality of this study is the application of such method in problems involving temporal dependence and, not least, the elaboration of the first national code for burnup and sensitivity analysis. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carvalho, Monaco [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1998-07-01
In this paper, is presented a new theoretical approach developed in order to determine by direct method, non iterative, the load flow among the N bus bar of a generic power system. This method has been used to, from a single line simplified system of a typical industrial substation, used in the petroleum and by products storage and transportation facilities, calculate the voltage drops at bus bars and motors terminals from starting of the electric motors, after defining active and reactive power expressions flowing among bus bars, as a function of their voltages, impedance of connecting cables and of the loads connected to them. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uriarte Hueda, A; Lopez Perez, B; Gutierrez Jodra, L
1960-07-01
An exposure is made of calculation methods for ion exchange installations based on kinetic considerations and similarity with other unitary operations. Factors to be experimentally obtained as well as difficulties which may occur in its determination are also given. Calculation procedures most commonly used in industry are enclosed and explained with numerical resolution of a problem of water demineralization. (Author) 22 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ono, Carla Rachel; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Watanabe, Tomoco; Costa, Paulo Luiz Aguirre; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: crachelo@usp.br; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; Machado, Marcia Melo Campos [Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital Universitario; Liberato Junior, Waldyr de Paula
2006-01-15
Objective:To standardize a method and determine normal values for absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children with normal creatinine clearance. Materials and methods: Twenty-two children (between 7 months and 10 years of age; mean 4.5 years) without clinical evidence of renal disease were studied using 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Eighteen had normal renal ultrasonography, micturating urethrocystography, creatinine clearance and visual interpretation of the scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA. Four children were excluded, one with incomplete creatinine clearance and three due to reduction in the creatinine clearance. Absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA (DMSA-Abs) was expressed as the fraction of the administered dose retained by each kidney six hours after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: DMSA-Abs was 21.8 +- 3.2% for the right kidney and 23.1 +-3.3% for the left kidney. There was no correlation between renal uptake and the age groups studied, although there was a tendency to an increase in the creatinine clearance with age. Conclusion: Normal values of DMSA-Abs can be used as an additional parameter for the initial diagnostic evaluation and during follow-up of renal diseases, mainly when bilateral impairment of renal function is suspected or in a patient with a single functioning kidney (in which renal differential function is of limited value). (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, Leticia Jenisch
2007-07-01
Accurate analysis of resonance absorption in heterogeneous systems is essential in problems like criticality, breeding ratios and fuel depletion calculations. In compact arrays of fuel rods, resonance absorption is strongly affected by the Dancoff factor, defined in mis study as the probability that a neutron emitted from the surface of a fuel element, enters another fuel element without any collusion in the moderator or cladding. In fact, in the most practical cases of irregular cells, it is observed that inaccuracies in computing both Grey and Black Dancoff factors, i.e. for partially and perfectly absorbing fuel rods, can lead to considerable errors in the calculated values of such integral quantities. For this reason, much effort has been made in the past decades to further improve the models for calculating Dancoff factors, a task that has been accomplished in connection with the development of faster computers. In the WIMS code, Black Dancoff factors based on the above mentioned collusion probability definition are computed in cluster geometry, for each one of the symmetrically distinct fuel pin positions in the cell. Sets of equally-spaced parallel lines are drawn in subroutine PIJ, at a number of discrete equally-incremented azimuthal angles, covering the whole system and forming a mesh over which the in-plane integrations of the Bickley functions are carried out by simple trapezoidal rule, leading to the first-flight collusion matrices. Although fast, the method in PIJ is inefficient, since the constructed mesh does not depended on the system details, so that regions of small relative volumes are crossed out by relatively few lines, which affects the convergence of the calculated probabilities. A new routine (PIJM) was then created to incorporate a more efficient integration scheme considering each system region individually, minimizing convergence problems and reducing the number of neutron track lines required in the in-plane integrations for any given
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar H, F; Torres A, C; Filio L, C [ININ, Gcia. de Reactores, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
1982-09-15
Due to the control or safety bars in a nuclear reactor are constituted by strongly absorbent materials, the Diffusion Theory like tool for the calculation of bar values is not directly applicable, should it use the Transport Theory. However the speed and economy of the Diffusion codes for the reactors calculation, those make attractiveness and by this reason its are used in the determination of characteristic parameters and even in the determination of bar values, not without before to make some theoretical developments that allow to make applicable this theory. The application of the Diffusion Theory in strongly absorbent media is based on the use of some effective cross sections distinct from the real ones obtained when imposing the reason that among the flow and it gradient in the external surface of such media (control element in general, bar type or flagstone) be similar to the one obtained using Transport Theory in all the control region (multiplicative and absorbent media) with those real cross sections. The effective cross sections were obtained of the Leopard-NUMICE cell code which has incorporate the respective calculation theory of effective cross sections. Later these constants its were used in the bidimensional diffusion code Exterminator-II, simulating in it, the distribution of safety or control bars. From the cell code its were also obtained the respective constants of the homogeneous fuel cell. The results as soon as those obtained bar values of the diffusion code, its were compared with some experimental results obtained in the R{phi} Swedish reactor of natural uranium and heavy water. In this work an analysis of the bar value of one of them, trying to determine the applicability of the method is made. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guasp, J.
1974-07-01
A Fortran V computer code for Univac 1108/6 using the partial statistical (or compound nucleus) model is described. The code calculates fast neutron cross sections for the (n, n'), (n, p), (n, d) and (n, {alpha}) reactions and the angular distributions and Legendre moments for the (n, n) and (n, n') processes in heavy and intermediate spherical nuclei. A local Optical Model with spin-orbit interaction for each level is employed, allowing for the width fluctuation and Moldauer corrections, as well as the inclusion of discrete and continuous levels. (Author) 67 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.
2009-12-11
This report is the third of a series [Informes Tecnicos Ciemat 1165 y 1172] devoted to the development of a new numerical code to solve the guiding center equation for electrons and ions in toroidal plasmas. Two calculation meshes corresponding to axisymmetric tokamaks are now prepared and the kinetic equation is expanded so the standard terms of neoclassical theory --fi rst order terms in the Larmor radius expansion-- can be identified, restricting the calculations correspondingly. Using model density and temperature profiles for the plasma, several convergence test are performed depending on the calculation meshes and the expansions of the distribution function; then the results are compared with the theory [Hinton and Hazeltine, Rev. Mod. Phys. (1976)]. (Author) 18 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guasp, J
1974-07-01
A Fortran V computer code for Univac 1108/6 using the partial statistical (or compound nucleus) model is described. The code calculates fast neutron cross sections for the (n, n'), (n, p), (n, d) and (n, {alpha}) reactions and the angular distributions and Legendre moments for the (n, n) and (n, n') processes in heavy and intermediate spherical nuclei. A local Optical Model with spin-orbit interaction for each level is employed, allowing for the width fluctuation and Moldauer corrections, as well as the inclusion of discrete and continuous levels. (Author) 67 refs.
RA-0 reactor. New neutronic calculations; Reactor RA-0. Nuevos calculos neutronicos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rumis, D; Leszczynski, F
1991-12-31
An updating of the neutronic calculations performed at the RA-0 reactor, located at the Natural, Physical and Exact Sciences Faculty of Cordoba National University, are herein described. The techniques used for the calculation of a reactor like the RA-0 allows prediction in detail of the flux behaviour in the core`s interior and in the reflector, which will be helpful for experiments design. In particular, the use of WIMSD4 code to make calculations on the reactor implies a novelty in the possible applications of this code to solve the problems that arise in practice. (Author). [Espanol] En este trabajo se actualizan los calculos neutronicos realizados para el reactor RA-0, instalado en la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Cordoba. Se describen los calculos realizados hasta la fecha y los resultados obtenidos. Las tecnicas incorporadas al calculo de un reactor como el RA-0 permiten predecir en detalle el comportamiento del flujo en el interior del nucleo y en el reflector, lo que sera una importante ayuda en el diseno de experimentos. En particular, el empleo del codigo WIMSD4 para calculos del reactor completo constituye una novedad en las posibles aplicaciones de ese codigo para resolver problemas que se presentan en la practica. (Autor).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Profio, A. E.; Koppel, J. U. [General Atomic Division of General Dynamics Corporation, John Jay Hopkins Laboratory for Pure and Applied Science, San Diego, CA (United States); Adamantiades, A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)
1965-08-15
transcurre hasta que la velocidad de los neutrones pulsados disminuya en la medida necesaria para que estos alcancen la energia, el angulo y la posicion de observacion apetecidas. El tiempo medio es una correccion de las mediciones de espectros neutronicos en la masa hechas segun el metodo del tiempo de vuelo, y la variacion impone limites al poder de resolucion efectivo de tales experimentos. Estos parametros son igualmente importantes en los detectores cuyo funcionamiento se base en la moderacion, en los experimentos con el metodo de tiempo de vuelo en los que un moderador situado cerca de la fuente de neutrones pulsados proporciona neutrones de baja energia, y en la espectrometria del tiempo de moderacion. Se han ideado diversos metodos analfticos y numericos para calcular la distribucion espacio-energia angulo-tiempo o sus integrales. Ha podido demostrarse que los momentos temporales Empty-Set {sup (n)} (r, {Omega}, v, t) = {integral}{sub 0}{sup {infinity}}t{sup n} Empty-Set (r, {Omega}, v, t)dt, pueden calcularse aplicando repetidamente una clave de transporte en regimen estacionario. El termino de la fuente para el calculo del momento 'n'es igual a nv{sup -1} Empty-Set {sup (n-1)}. Los autores presentan los resultados correspondientes a maquetas del reactor TRIGA en las que se emplean medios multiplicadores y no multiplicadores. Otro valioso metodo de calculo consiste en emplear una clave de Monte Cario en funcion del tiempo. Los autores exponen los resultados del calculo de un flujo que escapa de una delgada placa de plomo. Se han hecho mediciones del tiempo de moderacion hasta la energia de corte del Cd y hasta la resonancia de 1,46 eV del In en agua y en tolueno. Los rayos gamma de captura se detectaron con un contador de centelleo. Esta tecnica exige disponer de una fuente de suficiente intensidad y de un detector eficaz debido a la brevedad del ciclo de trabajo (escasa anchura de las rafagas para la resolucion del tiempo de moderacion y amplio intervalo entre los
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez Ros, J M; Delgado, A
1989-07-01
This report presents a method for the numerical analysis of complex thermoluminescence glow curves resolving the individual glow peak components. The method employs first order kinetics analytical expressions and is based In a Marquart-Levenberg minimization procedure. A simplified version of this method for thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is also described and specifically developed to operate whit Lithium Fluoride TLD-100. (Author). 36 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez R, Alejandro; Garcia I, Rafael; Mazur C, Zdislaw [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2004-07-01
The analysis begins with the generation of a computational geometric model of the gas turbine nozzle using reverse engineering techniques. For the obtaining of the original geometry of the blade, a measurement machine by coordinates and computerized numerical control was used. Next, the computational model is converted into a three-dimensional mesh. In advance, a study of boundary conditions was made of the nozzle material as well as of the turbine operating conditions during non-operating cycles, start-ups and shut-downs. On the other hand, with the boundary conditions imposed to the model, the distributions of the temperature and pressures on the aerofoil profile of the nozzle blade were calculated. These results had to be manipulated to be exported to a finite element software (ANSYS); at this point, another nozzle model was elaborated to be able to import the temperature distribution. With the temperatures correctly imported, the simulations for the calculation of the thermal stresses were made in the nozzle. [Spanish] El analisis inicia con la generacion de un modelo geometrico computacional de la tobera de la turbina de gas utilizando tecnicas de ingenieria inversa. Para la obtencion de la geometria original del alabe, se utilizo una maquina de medicion por coordenadas y control numerico computarizado. A continuacion, el modelo computacional es convertido en una malla tridimensional. Con antelacion, se realizo un estudio de las condiciones de frontera, tanto del material de la tobera como de las condiciones de operacion de la turbina, durante ciclos de paro, arranque y disparo. Por otra parte, con las condiciones de frontera impuestas al modelo, se calcularon las distribuciones de las temperaturas y presiones sobre el perfil aerodinamico de la paleta de la tobera. Estos resultados tuvieron que ser manipulados para ser exportados a un software de elemento finito (ANSYS); en este punto, se elaboro otro modelo de la tobera para poder importar la distribucion de
Numerical modeling of a rotor misalignment; Modelado numerico del desalineamiento de un rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leon Pina, Roberto
2009-12-15
In the turbo-machinery area after an unbalancing, the misalignment is the fault that most frequently appears, and this one has been little studied compared to the unbalance. The misalignment appears when the geometric centers of two shafts and/or bearings do not coincide, these differences take place by different factors such as: incorrect installation of the bearings or rotors, thermal effects, or rotor weight, to mention some of them. The of the misalignment diagnosis continues being an area little studied, since the effects it generates are complex and include diverse physical processes reason why it presents/displays similar symptoms to those of other faults; thus, one of the methods that are used to diagnose this fault, is based on analyzing the vibration phantoms but this works only under particular conditions. In order to reproduce the dynamic behavior of a misaligned rotor, in the present work non-linear simplified models of the supports are used, whose objective is to contribute to facilitate future studies of the flow-dynamic behavior of the bearing, helping to identify the type and magnitude of the existing non-linearity in the supports and leaning in the analysis of the vibratory behavior of misaligned rotors observed in the field. [Spanish] En el area de turbomaquinaria despues del desbalance, el desalineamiento es la falla que se presenta con mayor frecuencia, y esta se ha estudiado poco comparada con el desbalance. El desalineamiento se presenta cuando los centros geometricos de dos flechas y/o chumaceras no coinciden, estas diferencias se producen por diferentes factores como: instalacion incorrecta de las chumaceras o rotores, efectos termicos, o el peso del rotor, por mencionar algunos. El diagnostico del desalineamiento sigue siendo una area poco estudiada, ya que los efectos que genera son complejos y abarcan diversos procesos fisicos por lo que presenta sintomas similares a los de otras fallas; asi, uno de los metodos que se utilizan para
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogel Ramirez, Alejandro
2007-07-01
The central idea behind this work is the developing of a numeric-experimental model, useful to optimize the biomass stratified gasifier design. Firstly, model validation will be carried up by comparison with reference experimental data available. This study describes a 1-D + 2-D numerical model used to simulate the gasification of pine wood pellets in a stratified downdraft gasifier whereby Eulerian conservation equations are solved for particle and gas phase components, velocities and specific enthalpies. The model takes into account the biomass particle process such as heating up, drying, primary pyrolysis of biomass, secondary pyrolysis of tar, homogeneous reactions and heterogeneous combustion/gasification reactions, and particle size change. This CFD model can be used to predict temperature profiles, gas composition, producer gas lower heating value, and carbon conversion efficiency, and the reactor performance when operating parameters and feed properties are changed. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} and RNG {kappa}-{epsilon} models were used to simulate the turbulent flow conditions. [Spanish] La idea central del presente trabajo es el desarrollo de un modelo numerico- experimental, para optimizar el diseno de gasificadores estratificados de biomasa. Primeramente, el modelo sera validado utilizando datos experimentales disponibles en la literatura. Este estudio describe un modelo numerico 1-D+2-D, utilizado para simular la gasificacion de 'pelets' de madera de pino en un gasificador estratificado de flujos paralelos, en el que se resuelven ecuaciones de conservacion Eulerianas para los componentes de la fase gaseosa, la fase solida, velocidades y entalpias especificas. El modelo considera procesos como: calentamiento, secado de la biomasa, pirolisis primaria de la madera, pirolisis secundaria de los alquitranes, reacciones homogeneas, reacciones heterogeneas de combustion/gasificacion y cambio en el tamano de la particula. Este modelo CFD puede ser
Calculo de la Barra Antivuelco de un Vehículo Automotor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier García de la Figal
2005-09-01
Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata acerca del calculo de la barra antivuelco del FORD modelo A, desarrollado por elInstituto de Desarrollo Automotriz, IDA, teniendo en cuenta las fuerzas que la cinta de seguridad de losautomovilistas, ejerce sobre la citada barra, ante un choque que provoca una aceleración de 20 g en elvehículo. El calculo se hace mediante la confección de un modelo de elementos finitos de la barra y lacarrocería, para lo cual se hace uso de un programa profesional de elementos finitos.Se determinan los esfuerzos máximos y los equivalentes, tanto de las partes metálicas del sistema, queson fundamentalmente tubos de acero, como de las partes de material compuesto (poliéster con fibras devidrio E, propios de la carrocería del vehículo. Todo lo cual permite hacer los cálculos y comprobacionesa resistencia de todo el conjunto. Así mismo, se determinan los desplazamientos en todos los sentidos detodos las partes del sistema, para poder realizar los correspondientes análisis de rigidez.El objetivo final de todos los análisis es determinar lo adecuado o no de las soluciones y materialespropuestos para el sistema, bajo la acción de la citada carga de impacto.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez C, Raymundo; Morales G, Juan R; Diaz C, Alen; Lara V, Araceli; Lizardi R, Arturo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Vaca M, Mabel [UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
2000-07-01
The temperature distribution of air through a solar heater is determined by means of the equations of heat, mass, momentum, and energy conservation. The solution is obtained by means of the numeric model of finite volume, using the CFC2000 software, V. 3.3. The studied flow is laminar. The temperature distribution resulted quite similar for different Reynolds numbers; the greatest difference was less than 4 Celsius degrees, for similar ranges of solar radiation. The influence of the separation that exists between the clear cover and the free surface of the material used as thermal summit (b) was analyzed. A difference up to 41 Celsius degrees for a Reynolds number of 1000 and values of b between 3 and 7 cm. For a Reynolds of 2000, the difference was of 29 Celsius degrees, in the same range of b. [Spanish] Se determinan la distribucion de temperaturas del aire, a lo largo de un calentador solar, aplicando las ecuaciones de conservacion de masa, cantidad de movimiento y energia. La solucion se obtiene con el modelo numerico de volumen finito y la utilizacion del programa de computadora llamado CFC2000 version 3.3. El flujo estudiado es del tipo laminar. La distribucion de temperaturas resulto ser muy semejante para diferentes valores del numero de Reynolds, la diferencia mayor resulto menor a 4 grados Celsius, para rangos similares de radiacion solar. Se analizo la influencia de la separacion que existe entre la cubierta transparente y la superficie libre del material que sirve como almacen termico (b). Se encontro una diferencia maxima de hasta 41 grados celsius para un numero de Reynolds de 1000 y los valores de b entre 3 y 7 cm. Cuando el Reynolds fue de 2000 la diferencia fue de 29 grados Celsius, en el mismo rango de b.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franco, David; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)
1994-12-31
The efficiency calculation of steam generators is not always simple. The purpose of this paper is to propose an algorithm for the calculation of steam generators efficiency, easy to understand and carry out, in the form of a series of steps to be followed. It takes as starting point that the person in charge of applying these calculations has knowledge of the combustion processes and thermodynamic principles that rule such processes. [Espanol] El calculo de la eficiencia de los generadores de vapor no siempre es sencillo, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el de proponer un algoritmo de calculo de eficiencia de generadores de vapor, el cual sea facil de entender y de llevar a cabo, en forma de una serie de pasos a seguir. Se toma como punto de partida, que la persona encargada de aplicar estos calculos tenga el conocimiento de los procesos de combustion y principios termodinamicos que rigen tales procesos.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodas Grapain, Arturo
1999-07-01
One of the main problems involved in air quality models to calculate the pollutant concentration in a single point in the space and time, is the complexity of the numerical method. Even though the numerical methods are based on sophisticated and elaborated mathematics. They present two important and inevitable drawbacks: the stability of the numerical method. This means that its capacity to obtain reliable convergency in relation to the calculated values and real values is limited. The time and memory consumption. The high machine memory used to perform the numerical procedures and the time needed to prepare such procedures. Another problem is the mathematical basis of the structure of the air quality model. Commonly, simple models can perform quick estimations; however they are not exact contrary to the complex and elaborated models. In order to employ these complex models a high speed computer (workstations or Cray computer) is required. For this reason, this work presents a model approach with a relatively simple theoretical structure. The structure of this model named MOTTQUIP (modelo de transporte turbulento y quimica de plumas) can provide good results in point concentration operations. These results are compared with those obtained by two moderately complex mathematical models (Georgopoulos-Seinfeld and Lipphardt reactive plume models). The model developed in this work, shows a special feature where the solution of the differential equations are not involved explicitly. Therefore, it does not present the typical difficult in solving this kind of equations with the traditional numerical methods. [Spanish] Uno de los principales problemas que se presentan en los modelos de calidad del aire para el calculo de la concentracion de un cierto contaminante, para un punto dado en el espacio y en el tiempo, es la complejidad del metodo numerico involucrado para este fin, debido a que dichos metodos de calculo estan basados en matematicas sofisticadas y muy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Godoy, Antonio Varejao de
1989-07-01
This work studies in a deterministic point of view a lightning discharges that strikes directly the transmission line tower top. The calculation methods of this kind of surges: the method of successive reflections introduced by Jordan and the method of field well as compared with these purpose. Based on this two approaches a computational program is developed to calculate the overvoltage on the insulator string and the required parameters. Based on the results of this analysis, the simplest and most efficient method is chosen and where a simple sensitivity analysis is made for the following parameters: the impedance of lightning stroke channel, the tower foot impedance, time to crest of stroke shape function and tower surge impedance. This analysis is performed in order to verify the voltage variation on the insulator string. Finally, the last parameter, the tower surge impedance is emphasized comparing its calculated values with the measured values by geometrical model technique. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dominguez Munoz, F.; Ruzafa Cueto, J.; Carrillo andres, A.; Cejudo Lopez, J. M.
2008-07-01
The FCHART method is extensively used in Spain as a tool for sizing solar hot water systems. However, when it comes to apply the method to installations with long runs of distribution and recirculation piping, we find the problem that FCHART does not explicitly address the effects of these pipes. In this paper, a centralized solar installation supplying hot water to a 28-apartment building is analyzed with FCHART and with detailed mathematical model. It is concluded that the hot water distribution network has a large impact on the solar fraction, whose magnitude is difficult to calculate other than by using the detailed mathematical model. (Author)
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Gutierrez Delgado, Wilson; Kubiak, Janusz; Serrano Romero, Luis Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1990-12-31
In the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotary machines is very common to utilize simple calculation methods for the mechanical and thermal stresses, dynamic and thermodynamic analysis and flow of fluids in this machines (Gutierrez et al., 1989). The analysis with these methods provides the necessary results for the project initial stage of the machine. Later on, more complex tools are employed to refine the design of some machine components. In the Gutierrez report et al., (1989) 34 programs were developed for the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotating equipment; in this article, one of them is presented in which a method for the analysis of mechanical and thermal stresses is applied in discs of uniform or variable thickness that are normally found in turbomachines and rotary equipment. [Espanol] En el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de maquinas rotatorias es muy comun emplear metodos de calculo sencillos para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos, analisis dinamico y termodinamico y de flujo de fluidos en estas maquinas (Gutierrez et al., 1989). El analisis con estos metodos proporcionan los resultados necesarios para la etapa del proyecto inicial de la maquina. Posteriormente, para refinar el diseno de algunos componentes de la maquina, se aplican las herramientas mas complejas. En el informe de Gutierrez et al., (1989) se desarrollan 34 programas para el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de equipo rotatorio; en este articulo, se presenta uno de ellos, en el que se emplea un metodo para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos en discos de espesor constante o variable que se encuentran comunmente en turbomaquinas y en equipos rotatorios.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutierrez Delgado, Wilson; Kubiak, Janusz; Serrano Romero, Luis Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1991-12-31
In the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotary machines is very common to utilize simple calculation methods for the mechanical and thermal stresses, dynamic and thermodynamic analysis and flow of fluids in this machines (Gutierrez et al., 1989). The analysis with these methods provides the necessary results for the project initial stage of the machine. Later on, more complex tools are employed to refine the design of some machine components. In the Gutierrez report et al., (1989) 34 programs were developed for the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotating equipment; in this article, one of them is presented in which a method for the analysis of mechanical and thermal stresses is applied in discs of uniform or variable thickness that are normally found in turbomachines and rotary equipment. [Espanol] En el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de maquinas rotatorias es muy comun emplear metodos de calculo sencillos para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos, analisis dinamico y termodinamico y de flujo de fluidos en estas maquinas (Gutierrez et al., 1989). El analisis con estos metodos proporcionan los resultados necesarios para la etapa del proyecto inicial de la maquina. Posteriormente, para refinar el diseno de algunos componentes de la maquina, se aplican las herramientas mas complejas. En el informe de Gutierrez et al., (1989) se desarrollan 34 programas para el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de equipo rotatorio; en este articulo, se presenta uno de ellos, en el que se emplea un metodo para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos en discos de espesor constante o variable que se encuentran comunmente en turbomaquinas y en equipos rotatorios.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guillo, J. F.; Lucas, M.; Lucas, R.; Vicente, P. G.
2008-07-01
It has analyzed the impact of distribution losses in the size of solar installations by comparing two methods commonly used in calculating the contribution of solar residential building: f-chart and dynamic simulation. 3 schemes have been analysed in a building 22 houses and 70 occupants located in the IV and climate in the province of Alicante. For comparison between the two methodologies have been used for calculating the same values input from climate data as consumption of ACS. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Carlos Eduardo da
2009-07-01
The increase of gas and petroleum demanding in the national and international markets, the specification and certification of the chemical analysis results of gas and oil pipe-line have became more and more challenging. A continuous development has been outlined to improve API grade alloy steels (American Petroleum Institute). The steel properties depend on the chemical composition control and process parameters during its manufacturing. In this work, a comparison of the measurement uncertainty between X-ray fluorescence (WD system) and Optical Emission (OES-spark) spectrometry, for API grade steel plant samples analysis, was outlined. Usually, this kind of analyze requires less than 40 seconds for full chemical characterization for adjustment in the process parameters production. The main influence source in the chemical analysis was evaluated for design of experiments. The constituents and trace elements such as Al, Si, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Nb, Mo and Sn were determined using the ASTM E-322, E-415, E-1009 and E-1085 standard methodologies. The 185A and 187A certified reference materials from CMI (Czech Metrology Institute) were used for evaluation of the methods. The uncertainty of the measurement, precision, accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements were obtained applying statistic tests, recommended by ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of measurement for each element is discussed for both techniques. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosales, Mario; De la Torre, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1990-12-31
In this article are described the computational characteristics of the Package CALIIE 2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the calculation of bi-dimensional electromagnetic fields. The computational implementation of the package is based in the electromagnetic and numerical statements formerly published in this series. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas computacionales del paquete CALIIE 2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para calcular campos electromagneticos bidimensionales. La implantacion computacional del paquete se basa en los planteamientos electromagneticos y numericos antes publicados en esta serie.
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Rosales, Mario; De la Torre, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1989-12-31
In this article are described the computational characteristics of the Package CALIIE 2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the calculation of bi-dimensional electromagnetic fields. The computational implementation of the package is based in the electromagnetic and numerical statements formerly published in this series. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas computacionales del paquete CALIIE 2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para calcular campos electromagneticos bidimensionales. La implantacion computacional del paquete se basa en los planteamientos electromagneticos y numericos antes publicados en esta serie.
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Perez V, Jesus B; Robles G, Saul; Villa M, Hector A; Cabanillas L, Rafael E [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)
2000-07-01
In this work the development of an interactive software, visible over the World Wide Web, is presented to support the basic calculation required to control the solar gain inside buildings and houses. The site has two main parts: one part describes in a very required parameters to design devices for the control of the illumination inside the buildings, like overhangs and wingwalls for shading. The other part has the routines and procedures to calculate the sun position for any date and position over the earth, and the horizontal and vertical protection angles. The part to implement the calculations has been developed as a Java applet which can run on any platform and let the users, in an interactive way, to get the results. This software makes possible that any Internet user can run the application from his/her own computer without having to compile of use sophisticated procedures as it happens with traditional languages. With this web site it is intended to cover the necessity of having simple and reliable means for architects and civil engineers to support the use of solar energy and the saving of energy in bioclimatic design of buildings. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un sitio interactivo visible en el World Wide Web (WWW) que pretende servir de apoyo para los calculos basicos de control de asoleamiento en viviendas y edificios. El sitio esta conformado por dos partes principales: una parte cubre el aspecto informativo, donde en forma sencilla y clara, se explican los conceptos y parametros necesarios para disenar los dispositivos de control, alerones y parteluces. La otra parte contiene los procedimientos y las rutinas de calculo para la determinacion de la posicion solar para cualquier fecha del ano desde cualquier punto sobre la tierra, asi como los angulos de sombreado vertical y horizontal. Para la realizacion de los calculos se ha construido un applet de Java, el cual puede ejecutarse desde cualquier plataforma de computacion y
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Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo
2014-09-01
There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)
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Santoyo Gutierrez, Edgar; Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Santoyo Gutierrez, Socrates; Morales Rosas, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1993-09-01
The objective of this paper is to describe a numerical study to determine the flow characteristics that predominate in geothermal wells and that produces a significant amount of non-condensable gases. It is known that these gases affect the thermodynamic conditions that dominate the fluid transport in the well or inclusively within the proper producing reservoir, therefore, it is extremely important to evaluate this effect. For this purpose the numerical model Geopozo V2.0 was developed. This model considers the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as the representative gas of the non-condensable gases present in the geothermal fluid. Due to this consideration, Geopozo V2.0 includes a methodology or the estimation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of geothermal fluids, considering these as a mix of two components: H{sub 2}O (vapor and liquid) and CO{sub 2}, under conditions of monophasic and biphasic flow. The application of Geopozo V2.0 for a typical case of flow in geothermal wells with high CO{sub 2} content revealed that the presence of this gas affects significantly the location of the flashing point inside the well and consequently, the amount of steam produced. This is of importance or the design and selection of the surface and generation equipment, aspect that to this date has been ignored (Suwana, 1991). [Espanol] El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un estudio numerico para determinar las caracteristicas del flujo que predominan en pozos geotermicos y que producen una cantidad significante de gases incondensables. Se tiene conocimiento de que estos gases afectan las condiciones termodinamicas que dominan el transporte de fluidos en el pozo o incluso dentro del mismo yacimiento geotermico productor, por lo que es de suma importancia evaluar dicho efecto. Para ello fue desarrollado el modelo numerico Geopozo V2.0. Este modelo considera al dioxido de carbono (CO{sub 2}) como el gas representativo de los incondensables presentes en el fluido geotermico
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Beltran Fernandez, Juan Alfonso; Hernandez Gomez, Luis H; Urriolagoitia Calderon, Guillermo; Villa y Rabasa, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Gustavo Ricardo; Mendoza Nunez, Maribel A [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Zacatenco (Mexico)
2004-10-15
In this piece of work some fracture testings on specimens with a lateral fracture are made to analyze the resultant stress state around of the tip of the fracture and the way in which the strength of the material is modified to get the fracture toughness, to the load mode I. Also, it is explained the way in which mechanic properties were got in the Polymetil-Methacylate, (PMMA), such as: modulus of elasticity, maximum tensile stress, yielding stress and stress-unitary strain, stress-rate and strain-rate curves, throughout of the carry out of the tensile testing. With the objective to know the real mechanical behavior with the initial loading conditions established and different testing velocities. All and each one of the results are calculated experimental and numerically and validated throughout of the finite element method, using the software ANSYS 5.5.3. [Spanish] En este trabajo se efectuan pruebas de fractura en especimenes con una grieta lateral, para analizar el estado de esfuerzos resultantes alrededor de la punta de la grieta y la forma en que se afecta la resistencia del material a fin de obtener la tenacidad de fractura para el modo de carga I. Ademas, se explica la forma como se obtienen las propiedades mecanicas en el polimetil metacrilato (PMMA), tales como: modulo de elasticidad, esfuerzo normal maximo, esfuerzo de cadencia y las curvas esfuerzo-deformacion unitaria, esfuerzo-tiempo (stress-rate) y deformacion-tiempo (strain-rate), a traves de la realizacion de la prueba de tension. Se busca conocer el comportamiento mecanico real ante las condiciones de carga establecidas y a distintas velocidades de prueba. Todo y cada uno de los resultados se efectuan de manera experimental y son evaluados numericamente a traves del metodo del elemento finito, con el programa ANSYS 5.5.3.
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Suescun D, D.; Figueroa J, J. H. [Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali, Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Matematicas, Calle 18 No. 118-250, Cali, Valle del Cauca (Colombia); Rodriguez R, K. C.; Villada P, J. P., E-mail: dsuescun@javerianacali.edu.co [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Fisica, Calle 13 No. 100-00, Cali, Valle del Cauca (Colombia)
2015-09-15
A new method to solve numerically the inverse equation of punctual kinetics without using Lagrange interpolating polynomial is formulated; this method uses a polynomial approximation with N points based on a process of recurrence for simulating different forms of nuclear power. The results show a reliable accuracy. Furthermore, the method proposed here is suitable for real-time measurements of reactivity, with step sizes of calculations greater that Δt = 0.3 s; due to its precision can be used to implement a digital meter of reactivity in real time. (Author)
Shield calculations, optimization vs. paradigm; Calculos de blindajes, optimizacion vs. paradigma
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Cornejo D, N.; Hernandez S, A.; Martinez G, A. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47 Playa C.P. 11300 LaHabana (Cuba)]. e-mail: nestor@cphr.edu.cu
2006-07-01
Many shieldings have been designed under the criteria of 'Maximum dose rates of project'. It has created the paradigm of those 'low dose rates', for the one which not few specialists would consider unacceptable levels of dose rate superior to the units of {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}, independently of the exposure times. At the present time numerous shieldings are being designed considering dose restrictions in real times of exposure. After these new shieldings, the dose rates could be notably superior to those after traditional shieldings, without it implies inadequate designs or constructive errors. In the work significant differences in levels of dose rates and thickness of shieldings estimated by both methods for some typical facilities. It was concluded that the use of real times of exposure is more adequate for the optimization of the Radiological Protection, although this method demands bigger care in its application. (Author)
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Duran, I; Martinez-Laso, L
1989-07-01
We present here the methods we used to analyse the characteristic parameters of drift chambers. The algorithms to calculate the electric potential in any point for any drift chamber geometry are presented. We include the description of the programs used to calculate the electric field, the drift paths, the drift velocity and the drift time. The results and the errors are discussed. (Author) 7 refs.
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Delgado Martinez, D. E.
2009-07-01
It is estimated that cohesive soils are present in about in about 80% of the Cuban territory. Most of these soils are pre consolidated as a result of the country's geo-environmental conditions. That's why it is important, in the Cuban context, to determine accurately the soil pre consolidation load, correct the oedometric curve and apply these concepts to settlement computation. In this paper, a study is presented to define how to estimate the pre consolidation pressure by using several methods. A database was created. It consisted of 102 pre consolidated soils, which are typical from the central region of Cuban. These soil we analyzed by several Cuban geotechnical research centers. (Author) 12 refs.
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Ocampo ramos, J. C.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Zankl, M.
2015-07-01
The LIFE program (VOXEL-PHANTOM-BASED SOFTWARE FOR INTERNAL DOSE ASSESSMENT) is developing new software for dose assessment in patients undergoing nuclear medicine examinations. This paper shows some of the validation and comparison tests that have been carried out for the case of the F-18 FDG. Unlike current programs (eg. OLINDA) using phantoms stylized size reference, the new developed software uses the pre calculated library Specific Absorption Fractions (SAF) of photons and electrons based on different anthropomorphic phantoms voxelized and the SAF new computational phantoms of the ICRP for photons, electrons, neutrons and alphas. In addition, the software uses the latest information from nuclear decay of the ICRP 107 (2008). The software is being widely put on trial and comparison with other methods of calculation available. (Author)
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Battat, M E [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)
1962-03-15
utilise la methode S{sub n} pour resoudre le probleme du transport neutronique. La comparaison entre les valeurs calculees et les valeurs mesurees des parametres, tels que le coefficient thermique, l'efficacite des barres de controle et la masse critique, presente aussi de l'interet pour evaluer le degre de confiance que l'on peut accorder aux calculs des bureaux d'etudes. (author) [Spanish] Como parte de un programa de ensayos de combustibles de plutonio para reactores reproductores de neutrones rapidos, se ha construido y puesto en marcha en el Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory un reactor experimental de 1 MW refrigerado por sodio, cuyo cuerpo contiene una aleacion fundida de plutonio y hierro (90 atomos por ciento de Pu y 10 atomos por ciento de Fe; punto de fusion: 410 deg. C). La reactividad se regula por medio de un reflector de acero inoxidable y de cuatro barras de control de niquel situadas fuera del nucleo. Se han llevado a cabo experimentos a temperaturas (isotermicas) de 80, 160 y 480 deg. C en el cuerpo, a fin de determinar la masa critica y la eficacia del reflector a cada una de esas temperaturas. Tambien se midio la eficacia de las barras de control, por registro de los periodos y del coeficiente termico de la reactividad. Aplicando el metodo S{sub n} de resolucion del problema del transporte neutronico, se efectuaron calculos para determinar los parametros nucleares basicos del reactor. La comparacion entre los valores calculados y los valores medidos de parametros tales como el coeficiente termico, la eficacia de las barras de control y la masa critica, presenta tambien interes en lo que se refiere a la evaluacion del grado de confianza que puede atribuirse a los calculos del proyectista. (author) [Russian] V kachestve chasti programmy po razvitiyu plutonievogo topliva dlya reaktorov-razmnozhitele j na bystrykh nejtronakh Los-Alamosskaya nauchnaya laboratoriya skonstruirovala i ehkspluatiruet ispytatel'nyj reaktor s natrievym okhlazhdeniem moshchnost'yu v
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Portillo Jimenez, Canek [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico)]. E-mail: cnk@uas.uasnet.mx
2010-11-15
It is presented a software application for calculating the thickness of the thermal insulation used in various facilities where there are thermal systems using solar energy. The software facilitates the calculation of the thermal cover thickness over components such as pipes (flat or round), storage and other devices that require thermal protection, installed in outdoors or indoors. The software was programmed in Visual Basic by following the technical specifications of the current regulations in the field. Application examples are performed, obtaining certain results that are discussed briefly. [Spanish] Se presenta un software de aplicacion para el calculo de los espesores de los aislantes termicos, utilizados en diferentes instalaciones donde existen sistemas de aprovechamiento termico de energia solar. El software facilita el calculo del grosor del recubrimiento termico en componentes tales como: tuberias (planas o circulares), depositos acumuladores y otros aparatos que necesiten proteccion termica, instalados en exteriores o en interiores. El software fue programado en Visual Basic siguiendo las especificaciones tecnicas de la normatividad vigente en la materia. Se realizan ejemplos de aplicacion, donde se obtienen ciertos resultados de los cuales se hace una breve discusion.
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Silvestre, Larissa Jacome Barros
2016-07-01
Nuclear accidents in the world led to the establishment of rigorous criteria and requirements for nuclear power plant operations by the international regulatory bodies. By using specific computer programs, simulations of various accidents and transients likely to occur at any nuclear power plant are required for certifying and licensing a nuclear power plant. Based on this scenario, some sophisticated computational tools have been used such as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5), which is the most widely used code for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of accidents and transients in nuclear reactors in Brazil and worldwide. A major difficulty in the simulation by using RELAP5 code is the amount of information required for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic accidents or transients. The preparation of the input data requires a great number of mathematical operations to calculate the geometry of the components. Thus, for those calculations performance and preparation of RELAP5 input data, a friendly mathematical preprocessor was designed. The Visual Basic for Application (VBA) for Microsoft Excel demonstrated to be an effective tool to perform a number of tasks in the development of the program. In order to meet the needs of RELAP5 users, the RELAP5 Calculation Program (Programa de Calculo do RELAP5 - PCRELAP5) was designed. The components of the code were codified; all entry cards including the optional cards of each one have been programmed. In addition, an English version for PCRELAP5 was provided. Furthermore, a friendly design was developed in order to minimize the time of preparation of input data and errors committed by users. In this work, the final version of this preprocessor was successfully applied for Safety Injection System (SIS) of Angra 2. (author)
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Millan Barrera, Cecia; Ramirez Leon, Hermilo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)
2001-12-01
A numerical analysis is applied to a flow in an open channel and deformed by a three dimensional obstacle. The proposed model solves the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations, to which a {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model is coupled. The numerical analysis was constructed using a finite difference formulation for time evaluation purposed and staggered cells for space evaluation. The main goal of the present work was to study the turbulent structures and patterns of the flow due to an obstacle at the bottom of the channel plate. Our results are according to those found in the related literature. Flow patterns allow establishing the generation of turbulent structures by means of a comparison between this study and a most recent related work that evaluates the vorticity of the flow. [Spanish] Se reportan los resultados obtenidos, mediante simulaciones numericas, del movimiento del flujo en un canal con superficie libre y un obstaculo en el fondo. El sistema ecuaciones utilizado resuelve las ecuaciones de Navier-Stokes en tres dimensiones, al cual se le acoplo un modelo de turbulencia tipo {kappa}-{epsilon}. La solucion se obtiene numericamente utilizando un esquema en diferencias finitas para la evaluacion temporal de las variables y una celda escalonada para la evaluacion espacial de las mismas. El objetivo del modelo es estudiar los patrones de flujo y las estructuras turbulentas que se generan debido a la presencia del obstaculo. El estudio se realizo para un flujo en tres dimensiones. Los resultados son satisfactorios, ya que muestran concordancia con otros estudios numericos y experimentales encontrados en la literatura.
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Monteiro, M A.M. [NUCLEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martinez, A S [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia
1990-01-01
It is presented a method for the Resonance Integral Calculation in the fuel and moderator regions, including the shadowing effect. This effect appears due to the presence of several fuel rods in a infinite moderator region. The method is based on the approximations to the J ({xi}, {beta}) function and theirs partial derivatives in relation to {beta}. The dependence of the Resonance Integral in the J ({xi}, {beta}) comes from the rational approximation to the neutron escape probability. The final results were obtained in a very simple and fast way, and they show the good accuracy of the method. (author).
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Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz
2010-07-01
An efficient and precise method for calculation of Doppler broadening function is very important to obtain average group microscopic cross sections, self shielding factors, resonance integrals and others reactor physics parameter. In this thesis two different methods for calculation of Doppler broadening function and interference term will be presented. The main method is based on a new integral form for Doppler broadening function {psi}(x,{zeta}) which gives a mathematical interpretation of the approximation proposed by Bethe and Placzek, as the convolution of the Lorentzian function with a Gaussian function. This interpretation besides leading to a new integral form for {psi}(x,{zeta}), enables to obtain a simple analytic solution for the Doppler broadening function. (author)
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Rodrigues, Adenilson Paiva, E-mail: adenilson-fisica@hotmail.com.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Meireles, Ramiro Conceicao [Fundacao do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2016-07-01
This work is the result of a laboratory activity performed in Radiological Sciences Laboratory (CRL), linked to the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). This practice aimed to determine the absorbed dose to water, through the primary calibration method called dosimetry Fricke, which consists of ferrous ions (Fe + 2) to ferric (Fe + 3), generated by water radiolysis products which is the structural change of water molecule caused by ionizing radiation. A spectrophotometer was used to extract data for analysis at a wavelength (λ) 304 and 224 nm with function of measuring the absorbance using bottles with irradiated and nonirradiated Fricke solution. (author)
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Rubio Marroquin, Gabriel Omar
2004-03-15
With the purpose of avoiding the installation of new transmission lines, some researches have proposed the installation of SIFLETCA devices. Therefore in this thesis, different models in steady state of diverse SIFLETCA devices are described, such as: compensator variable series (VSC), static compensator of VArs (SCV), transformer phase shifter (TPS), transformer with changer under load (TWCL) and the universal controller of power flows (UCPF). In addition, it is developed in this thesis the equations used in the Jacobean of the method Newton-Raphson, to solve power flows including SIFLETCA devices. The different applications that are obtained when installing a device, such as prevention of flows in ring, electronic barrier, increment in the transmission capacity and specification of the power flow in transmission lines. On the other hand in the thesis, an analysis of sensitivities of a power system in steady state is developed. Also the control parameters are proposed in the thesis for which the sensitivities are calculated. Also, a performance index is used to measure the degree of congestion of an electrical system. In calculating the sensitivities the obtained results of the power flows are utilized. Four electrical networks are used to find where each SIFLETCA device must be located to reduce the congestion in the system. Also, the method developed in the thesis is compared with a method of sensitivities that uses DC flows, for validation and to show the advantages of using the Newton method in power flows. [Spanish] Con el fin de evitar instalar nuevas lineas de transmision, algunos investigadores han propuesto la instalacion de los dispositivos SIFLETCA. Por lo tanto en esta tesis, se describe diferentes modelos en estado estacionario de diversos dispositivos SIFLETCA, siendo: compensador serie variable (CSV), compensador estatico de VArs (CEV), transformador desfasador (TD), transformador con cambiador bajo carga (TTC) y el controlador universal de flujos
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Cortes C, A. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2003-07-01
The National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) carries out periodically measurements of corporal activity to Occupationally Exposed Personnel (POE) to determine that the received doses are in according to that settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Security. In this work the results of the incorporated activity estimates starting from the results of the measurements that were carried out in the one CNSNS laboratory are presented, with which it should be determine lastly the internal dose. Its were used different methodologies to estimate the incorporated activity: estimate with isolated data, estimate with global data and method of the best estimate, demonstrating this last to be the more appropriate to determine the internal dose. (Author)
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Suescun D, D. [Universidad Surcolombiana, Av. Pastrana Borrero - Carrera 1, Neiva, Huila (Colombia); Rojas A, O., E-mail: daniel.suescun@usco.edu.co [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla, Av. 9 Pte 1908, Barrio de Santiago, 72410 Puebla (Mexico)
2017-09-15
The measurement of reactivity is a function of time and its calculation results from the variation in nuclear power from the inverse equation of punctual kinetics. This equation is a differential integral, where the term of the integral conserves the historical power and the differential part is directly related to the period of the reactor. In practice, in a nuclear plant, sensors are required to record the signals. For example, the movements of the control rods that cause the fluctuations of nuclear power over time commonly generate signals with noise, an event that makes difficult to estimate the reactivity. Thus is necessary and very useful to build digital reactivity meters in real time, since allows a reactor to be operated with greater security. The calculation of the reactivity is carried out using punctual kinetics, especially the concentration of delayed neutron precursors. In this work we present a new way to reduce the fluctuations in the calculation of the reactivity, for the high precision we propose the generalization of the predictor and corrector of the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton (ABM) method of order 4 to solve numerically the equations of the point kinetics for the calculation of the reactivity, without using the power history, due to the nature of the equations of the punctual kinetics, the modifiers of the different predictors are used to increase the accuracy in the approximation obtained accompanied by the filter known as Savitzky-Golay (Sg), allow to reduce the fluctuations of reactivity. It is known that the Sg filter softens and does not attenuate the nuclear power regardless of its shape, guarantees to reduce noise levels up to σ = 0.01, with a calculation time step of σ = 0.01, s. This formulation uses a polynomial approximation of Gram, with a degree d = 2, to calculate the convolution coefficients by means of an analytical formula that is implemented computationally and avoids problems of bad conditioning, caused by the inversion of a
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Frota, Marco A.; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria (LARARA)]. E-mail: egbakel@vm.uff.br
2005-07-01
Some radiation facilities are designed with little shielding in the ceiling above the accelerator. A problem may then arise as a result of the radiation scattered by the atmosphere to points at ground level outside the treatment room. Stray radiation of this type is referred to as skyshine, and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 51 (NCRP 1977) gives methods for the calculation of skyshine for accelerator facilities. McGinley (1993) has compared skyshine measurements made at an 18 MeV medical accelerator facility with values calculated using the techniques presented in NCRP Report No. 51. Measurements were made of the photon levels outside a treatment room housing a Varian 2100 deg C. The roof above the accelerator was designed for weather protection only and offered little shielding for the primary beam and scattered radiation. The distance from the treatment room floor to the roof was 4.27 m, and the primary walls were constructed of concrete 2.0 m thick.The secondary walls were fabricated of concrete 0.99 m thick. The results for the photon skyshine rate dose as a function of distance from the isocenter using Monte Carlo code, are compared with those in NCRP publication 74 and measured obtained. The photon skyshine dose rates simulated for real clinic spectra transmitted through roof range from 4.7 to 14.6 nSv.s{sup -1}. (author)
Nueva formula matemática para el calculo de la proteinuria de 24 horas en niños
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José R. Salabarría
1996-08-01
Full Text Available Se elaboró una fórmula matemática para la cuantificación de la excreción urinaria de proteínas en 24 horas en niños y adolescentes, derivada de la relación proteinuria creatinuria (RPC. Se procesaron 104 muestras de orina de 24 horas, las cuales se dividieron en 2 grupos de acuerdo con la excreción diaria de creatinina. La proteinuria de 24 horas se determinó en cada grupo por el método tradicional y mediante la fórmula propuesta. Se obtuvo una excelente correlación (r = 0,994 y una elevada concordancia en el grupo con recolecciones adecuadas de orina, no así en el grupo con recolecciones inadecuadas (r = 0,896. Al comparar las RPC en 30 muestras de orina obtenidas en 3 diferentes períodos, con la RPC de 24 horas correspondiente se obtuvo una elevada correlación (r 0,99; no obstante la que guardó mayor identidad fue la del período comprendido entre las 7:00 a.m. y 12:00 m.A mathematical formula for the quantification of 24-hour urinary protein excretion in children and adolescents, derived from the proteinuria-creatinuria relation (PCR was elaborated. 104 urine specimens were processed and divided into two groups according to daily creatinine excretion. 24-hour proteinuria was determined in each group by the traditional method and by the formula proposed. An excelent correlation (r=0,994 and an elevated correspondence in the group with adequate urine collections were obtained, but it was not so in the group with inadequate collections (r=0,896. On comparing the PCR in 30 urine specimens collected at three different periods with the corresponding 24-hour PCR, an elevated correlation (r 0,99 was obtained; however, the one with the greatest identity was that collected between 7:00 a.m. and 12:00 m.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ling Fiona W.M.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. M. Kimball
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.
A digital method for period measurements in a nuclear reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mundim, Sergio Gorretta
1971-02-01
The present paper begins by giving a theoretical treatment for the nuclear reactor period. The conventional method of measuring the period is analysed and some previously developed digital methods are described. The paper criticises the latter, pointing out some deficiencies which the proposed process is able to eliminate. All errors connected with this process are also analysed. The paper presents suitable solutions to reduce them to a minimum. The total error is found to he less than the error presented by the other methods described. A digital period meter is designed with memory resources and an automatic scaler changer. Integrated circuits specifications are used in it. Real time experiments with nuclear reactors were made in order to check te validity of the method. The data acquired were applied to a simulated digital period meter implemented in a general purpose computer. The nuclear part of the work was developed at the 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear' and the simulation work was dane at the 'Departamento de Calculo Cientifico' of COPPE, which also advised the author in the completion of this thesis. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1999-09-01
The fundamental objective of the project is the elaboration of a user friendly computer programme which allows to mining technicians an easy application of the empirical calculation methods of mining subsidence. As is well known these methods use, together with a suitable theoretical support, the experimental data obtained during a long period of mining activities in areas of different geological and geomechanical nature. Thus they can incorporate to the calculus the local parameters that hardly could be taken into account by using pure theoretical methods. In general, as basic calculation method, it has been followed the procedure development by the VNIMI Institute of Leningrad, a particularly suitable method for application to the most various conditions that may occur in the mining of flat or steep seams. The computer programme has been worked out on the basis of MicroStation System (5.0 version) of INTERGRAPH which allows the development of new applications related to the basic aims of the project. An important feature, of the programme that may be quoted is the easy adaptation to local conditions by adjustment of the geomechanical or mining parameters according to the values obtained from the own working experience. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Velarde, G; Guerra, J
1972-07-01
A theoretical method to extend the applicability of P{sub 1} approximation to strong absorbers is given. Tables of effective diffusion parameters for slab and cylindrical geometry as well as a summary of expressions for obtaining the extrapolation length in cases of interest, are included. (Author) 21 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Landeros-Ayala, S.; Neri-Vela, R; Cruz-Sanchez, H.; Hernandez-Bautista, H. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
2002-03-01
Fatim Haidara), combinado con los mapas globales de distribucion de lluvia de Crane, para el calculo de la atencion por lluvia en sistema de comunicacion por satelite que operen en la Banda Ka. Ademas, se proponen diametros de antena para los sistemas de comunicaciones en Banda Ka en diferentes localidades de la Republica Mexicana, empleando para ello, los margenes de atencion por lluvia obtenidos a trav del Modelo DAH, y usando como referencia las caracteristicas del satelite de comunicaciones ANIK F2 y de una estacion terrena VSAT.Se muestra una fig. de la atenuacion por lluvia a 27.5 gHz y de los diametros de antena para banda Ka en Mexico. Se da una tabla de la atenuacion por lluvia a 29.5 GHz y a 20.2 GHz.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reyes Martinez, Oscar Alfonso; Pascacio de los Santos, Alberth; Perez Abad, Carlos Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Leon Rivera, Nicolas [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)
2012-07-01
construccion es la Central Hidroelectrica La Yesca, el cual concluira a finales de 2012 y consiste en dos generadores electricos de 375 MW, 17 kV. Sera el segundo en potencia y el tercero en generacion electrica en el sistema. De acuerdo con las normas nacionales e internacionales, debe efectuarse un conjunto de pruebas estaticas y dinamicas en estos generadores antes de la puesta en servicio, para asegurar su operacion apropiada. La prueba de resistencia de alto voltaje del devanado del estator, la prueba de corto circuito subito trifasico y el calculo de eficiencia energetica son algunas de las pruebas mas importantes por realizar en un nuevo generador electrico. Estas pruebas son dificiles de efectuar en sitio debido a la capacidad del equipo requerido, por lo que muy pocas companias en el mundo pueden conducirlas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minano Herrero, J. A.; Sarasa Rubio, A.; Roldan Arjona, J. M.
2011-07-01
The purpose of this paper is to calculate values of BSF in water and comparison with data on air 11SF found in the literature. For this simulations have been performed by the Monte Carlo method for calculating values ??kerma water in the presence of a manikin of this material and in the absence thereof. The simulations were performed for monoenergetic beams in order to facilitate the calculation of the BSF for any spectral distribution of those found in the field of radiology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Queralt, R. (Junta de Saneamientos. Generalidad de Catalua (Spain))
1993-03-01
The calculation of the investment involved in purifying industrial waste water poses certain problems since this is affected either by employing complicated methods which require a great deal of data or, as the sole alternative, through subjective estimates. The present article purposes an intermediate system based on simplified formulas for which it is only necessary to know three parameters, namely, (in the majority of cases) the industrial activity, the flow and the Q.O.D. (Author)
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Arteaga de Murphy, C; Ferro F, G; Pedraza L, M; Montoya M, C E [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion, Vasco de Quiroga 15, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2000-07-01
The determination of the absorbed radiation dose is an essential factor to assess the risk to patient with a diagnostic study of nuclear medicine but over all it is indispensable for predicting the efficiency of individualized radio pharmacotherapy and weighting up the risk/benefit of the treatment. In studies for diagnostic or/and treatment of nuclear medicine generally the absorbed radiation dose is not determined for each patient since the methods for estimating it are laborious and include complex models such biological as mathematical, therefore is very important to have a relatively easy method. The obtained data with {sup 99m} Tc-Abp., a new radiopharmaceutical for osseous gammagraphy, were used with the purpose of exemplifying a practical method. The radio pharmacokinetic parameters were determined during 24 hours in 10 health voluntaries and serial gamma grams were taken during two hours to another voluntaries. The obtained data were used to estimate, with the MIRDOSE3 computer program, the absorbed radiation dose in an osseous dragging with {sup 99m} Tc-Abp. is low: 0.00472 m Gy/MBq to osseous marrow, mainly to the vertebral column and femur, and 0.00169 m Gy/ MBq to whole body. These data are lower than those informed in the medical literature for other bis phosphonates. (Author)
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Garcia de Viedma Alonso, L.
1963-07-01
SYRIO is a code for the inversion of a non-singular square matrix whose order is not higher than 40 for the UNIVAC-UCT (SS-90). The treatment stands from the inversion formula of sherman and Morrison, and following the Herbert S. Wilf's method for special matrices, generalize the procedure to any kind of non-singular square matrices. the limitation of the matrix order is not inherent of the program itself but imposed by the storage capacity of the computer for which it was coded. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia de Viedma Alonso, L.
1963-07-01
SYRIO is a code for the inversion of a non-singular square matrix whose order is not higher than 40 for the UNIVAC-UCT (SS-90). The treatment stands from the inversion formula of sherman and Morrison, and following the Herbert S. Wilf's method for special matrices, generalize the procedure to any kind of non-singular square matrices. the limitation of the matrix order is not inherent of the program itself but imposed by the storage capacity of the computer for which it was coded. (Author)
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Pereira, Valmir; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear
2002-07-01
The objective of this work is the obtention of the mathematical adjoint flux, having as its support the nodal expansion method (NEM) for coarse mesh problems. Since there are difficulties to evaluate this flux by using NEM. directly, a coarse mesh finite difference program was developed to obtain this adjoint flux. The coarse mesh finite difference formulation (DFMG) adopted uses results of the direct calculation (node average flux and node face averaged currents) obtained by NEM. These quantities (flux and currents) are used to obtain the correction factors which modify the classical finite differences formulation . Since the DFMG formulation is also capable of calculating the direct flux it was also tested to obtain this flux and it was verified that it was able to reproduce with good accuracy both the flux and the currents obtained via NEM. In this way, only matrix transposition is needed to calculate the mathematical adjoint flux. (author)
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Le Roux, Galo A.C.; Medeiros, Claudia Larini; Gatti, Anderson C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica
2008-07-01
The objective of this work is the implementation of a software that calculates the Simulated Distillation (SimDis) curve of a crude oil, according to ASTM D5307 (Standard Test Method for the Determination of Boiling Range Distribution of Crude Petroleum by Gas Chromatography). The software is based on the principle that the area of a chromatogram is proportional to the mass percent of crude oil recovered at a given retention time. The boiling points and retention times are correlated by a calibration curve. In order to make the software friendly windows were implemented, that are organized in a menu. Therefore the software turned up more easy to use and practical for the computation of Simulated Distillation Analysis. (author)
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Pedrinha, Saulo; Simoes, Leonardo; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Carneiro, Jason T.G. [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2008-07-01
The calculation of the volume of hydrocarbons generated from a particular source rock a sedimentary basin provides numerical data that help to better describe the petroleum system, and evaluate its potential. Among the various methodologies developed for calculating the volume of oil there is a proposal by Schmoker (1994), which has the advantage to take into account the occurrence of the source rock area in the basin, and the spatial variations in the main geological parameters. Using the tools of a GIS, through the manipulation of georeferred maps, it is possible to calculate the volume of oil generated in a way that would be virtually impossible by using punctual data, only. Even the discretiation maps in minors areas allows, via attribute table in the GIS, the application of a Monte Carlo simulation, which allows to incorporate all the uncertainties related to the input data in the calculation, obtaining distributions of volumes associated with various parts of the final map being integrated throughout the basin. Isopac and maturation maps (Gonzaga et al., 2000), along with TOC data from Barreirinha formation, Amazon Basin, have been scanned and georeferred and, once in the GIS database, were treated in order to spatially distribute the geological properties of the source rock. Then, such maps were handled in accordance with Schmoker (1994) method, leading to a map of mass and distribution of oil generated in the basin at the regional scale. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lava, Deise D.; Borges, Diogo da S.; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Guimaraes, Antonio C.F.; Moreira, Maria de L., E-mail: deise_dy@hotmail.com, E-mail: diogosb@outlook.com, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tony@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2014-07-01
This paper is prepared in order to address calculations of shielding to minimize the interaction of patients with ionizing radiation and / or personnel. The work includes the use of protection report Radiation in Dental Medicine (NCRP-145 or Radiation Protection in Dentistry), which establishes calculations and standards to be adopted to ensure safety to those who may be exposed to ionizing radiation in dental facilities, according to the dose limits established by CNEN-NN-3.1 standard published in September / 2011. The methodology comprises the use of computer language for processing data provided by that report, and a commercial application used for creating residential projects and decoration. The FORTRAN language was adopted as a method for application to a real case. The result is a programming capable of returning data related to the thickness of material, such as steel, lead, wood, glass, plaster, acrylic, acrylic and leaded glass, which can be used for effective shielding against single or continuous pulse beams. Several variables are used to calculate the thickness of the shield, as: number of films used in the week, film load, use factor, occupational factor, distance between the wall and the source, transmission factor, workload, area definition, beam intensity, intraoral and panoramic exam. Before the application of the methodology is made a validation of results with examples provided by NCRP-145. The calculations redone from the examples provide answers consistent with the report.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cancino, Beatriz; Roth, Pedro; Stolz, German [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Bonneschky, Alexis [Cottbus University, Cottbus (Germany)
2000-07-01
The aim of this work was to develop a method which permits to calculate and predict the theoretically possible electrical energy which can be obtained in different places in Chile with photovoltaic panels used in solar home systems. Chile is a country with a high solar radiation, specially in its northern part, between parallels 18 degrees with a daily mean energy of 4600 Wh/m{sup 2} over the year and 37 degrees, with 3700 Wh/m{sup 2}. Therefore, the use of photovoltaic power is an interesting alternative to be studied and used. Nevertheless, the photovoltaic possibilities have not been studied and no evaluation of real possibilities exist. In a previous paper, the absence of an installation guide for solar home systems have been mentioned. And also the lack of information regarding the real electrical energy needs of people. This work pretends to be the first approximation to a detailed chart and list of possible electric supplies using photovoltaic panels in different locations of Chile. It is made with a computer program which permits to calculate the solar radiation on a tilted surface, on a hourly bases. It uses geographical data and the daily average of monthly radiation. Therefore, the hourly energy, harnessed by the panel can be established and the total energy for some place calculated. [Spanish] El objetivo de este trabajo, es el de mostrar a traves de un listado y un mapa nacional, la cantidad teorica de energia electrica que puede ser obtenida a traves del uso de paneles fotovoltaicos principalmente destinados a Solar Home System (SHS) en Chile. Chile es un pais con una alta oferta de energia solar ubicada principalmente en la zona norte y centro del pais, aproximadamente entre los paralelos 18 grados (sobre 4600 Wh/m{sup 2} dia promedio anual) y 37 grados Sur (sobre 3700 Wh/m{sup 2} dia promedio anual). Por lo que el uso de paneles fotovoltaicos representa una alternativa interesante de ser estudiada y aprovechada. Sin embargo, no existe una evaluacion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loureiro, Eduardo Cesar de Miranda
1998-06-01
The increasing utilization of oral X-rays, especially in youngsters and children, calls for the assessment of equivalent doses in their organs and tissues. With this purpose, a Monte Carlo code was adapted to simulate an X-ray source irradiating phantoms of the MIRD-5 type with different ages (10, 15 and 40 years old) to calculate the conversion coefficients which transform the exposure at skin to equivalent doses at several organs and tissues of interest. In order to check the computer program, simulations were performed for adult patients using the original code (ADAM.FOR developed at the GSF-Germany) and the adapted program (MCDRO.PAS). Good agreement between results obtained with both codes was observed. Irradiations of the incisive, canine and molar teeth were simulated. The conversion factors were calculated for the following organs and tissues: thyroid, active bone narrow (head and whole body), bone (facial skeleton, cranium and whole body), skin (head and whole body) and crystalline. Based on the obtained results, it follows that the younger the patient and the larger the field area, the higher the dose in assessed organs and tissues. The variation of the source-skin distance does not change the conversion coefficients. On the other hand, the increase in the voltage applied to the X-ray tube causes an increase in the calculated conversion coefficients. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meireles, Ramiro Conceicao
2016-07-01
The shielding calculation methodology for radiotherapy services adopted in Brazil and in several countries is that described in publication 151 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP 151). This methodology however, markedly employs several approaches that can impact both in the construction cost and in the radiological safety of the facility. Although this methodology is currently well established by the high level of use, some parameters employed in the calculation methodology did not undergo to a detailed assessment to evaluate the impact of the various approaches considered. In this work the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code was used with the purpose of evaluating the above mentioned approaches. TVLs values were obtained for photons in conventional concrete (2.35g / cm{sup 3}), considering the energies of 6, 10 and 25 MeV, respectively, first considering an isotropic radiation source impinging perpendicular to the barriers, and subsequently a lead head shielding emitting a shaped beam, in the format of a pyramid trunk. Primary barriers safety margins, taking in account the head shielding emitting photon beam pyramid-shaped in the energies of 6, 10, 15 and 18 MeV were assessed. A study was conducted considering the attenuation provided by the patient's body in the energies of 6,10, 15 and 18 MeV, leading to new attenuation factors. Experimental measurements were performed in a real radiotherapy room, in order to map the leakage radiation emitted by the accelerator head shielding and the results obtained were employed in the Monte Carlo simulation, as well as to validate the entire study. The study results indicate that the TVLs values provided by (NCRP, 2005) show discrepancies in comparison with the values obtained by simulation and that there may be some barriers that are calculated with insufficient thickness. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the additional safety margins considered when calculating the width of the primary barrier of radiotherapy rooms are conservative. They also show that the attenuation provided by the patient's body decreases with increased energy, with the highest attenuation being 0.54, for the energy of 6 MeV. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sierra Barcedo, I.; Hernandez Gonzalez, C.; Benito Alonso, P.; Lopez Zarza, C.
2011-07-01
This paper describes the methodology used to conduct the validation of the quantification technique of content by spectrophotometry creatinine in urine samples of exposed workers at risk of internal counter and the study of all sources uncertainty that influence in the process. This technique is used to carry out the normalization of the amount of urine to urinary 24h, necessary for dosimetric purposes, as well as a criterion for acceptance of rejection of urine specimens received by the laboratory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hidalgo Lopez, A [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)
2002-07-01
The aim of this research is to simulate the isotopic and heat release and transport through the geosphere, from a geological repository of high level nuclear waste. in order to achieve it, different physical processes, that have to do with the problem, are considered: groundwater flow, radioactive decay, nuclide dissolution in groundwater, heat generation, mass and heat transport. Some of these phenomena are related among the, which allows to build a coupled model,which is the starting point to generate a FORTRAN code. The flow and transport models are developed in two spatial dimensions and are integrated in space by means of a finite volume method. The time integration is fulfilled by a {theta}-method. Moreover, the advection-diffusion equation is solved by two finite volume techniques. In the first one a linear interpolation is used whereas in the second it is used a quadratic one. Also, a consistency an stability study of both methods is carried out in order to compare their stability zones and the errors appearing. Stability is analysed by applying the von Neumann method, which is based upon Fourier series. Although it is a classical technique when dealing with finite-difference schemes, it is here applied to two finite volume schemes. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Japiassu, Fernando Parois
2013-07-01
calculation based on current operating conditions. When it comes to thickness of secondary barriers, calculations based on averages of treatments over six months show results below the proposed thicknesses in the shielding design of the public facility. However, data reflecting the most extreme situations observed in routine operations how that the thickness proposed in the design project does not meet hielding requirements. In the private facility, more conservative estimates were used in the shielding design, which resultedin suitable barrier thickness in both normal and extreme operation conditions. In fact, the actual barrier thicknesis in average 31 cm greater than the ehickness required by the reality-based data. The primary barrier thickness resulting from reality-based calculations supports the assumption than smaller primary barrier thickness is required in facilities using modern techniques of radiation therap, as opposed to thickness requirements in facilities that only uses conventional treatment techniques. The hypothesis of increased thickness requirements for secondary barriers of installations using IMRT was confirmed by data obtained from the public facility. The results obtained from the private facility denote that the addition of conservative factors in the calculation method will produce barriers suitable for both average and extreme conditions of accelerator usage. However, corresponding increased costs must also be considered. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mundim, Sergio Gorretta
1971-02-15
The present paper begins by giving a theoretical treatment for the nuclear reactor period. The conventional method of measuring the period is analysed and some previously developed digital methods are described. The paper criticises the latter, pointing out some deficiencies which the proposed process is able to eliminate. All errors connected with this process are also analysed. The paper presents suitable solutions to reduce them to a minimum. The total error is found to he less than the error presented by the other methods described. A digital period meter is designed with memory resources and an automatic scaler changer. Integrated circuits specifications are used in it. Real time experiments with nuclear reactors were made in order to check te validity of the method. The data acquired were applied to a simulated digital period meter implemented in a general purpose computer. The nuclear part of the work was developed at the 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear' and the simulation work was dane at the 'Departamento de Calculo Cientifico' of COPPE, which also advised the author in the completion of this thesis. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mundim, Sergio Gorretta
1971-02-15
The present paper begins by giving a theoretical treatment for the nuclear reactor period. The conventional method of measuring the period is analysed and some previously developed digital methods are described. The paper criticises the latter, pointing out some deficiencies which the proposed process is able to eliminate. All errors connected with this process are also analysed. The paper presents suitable solutions to reduce them to a minimum. The total error is found to he less than the error presented by the other methods described. A digital period meter is designed with memory resources and an automatic scaler changer. Integrated circuits specifications are used in it. Real time experiments with nuclear reactors were made in order to check te validity of the method. The data acquired were applied to a simulated digital period meter implemented in a general purpose computer. The nuclear part of the work was developed at the 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear' and the simulation work was dane at the 'Departamento de Calculo Cientifico' of COPPE, which also advised the author in the completion of this thesis. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vargas Cuervo, Carlos Hernan
1997-03-01
The main objective of this work is to develop a methodology to optimize the simultaneous computation of two parameters in the process of production history matching. This work describes a procedure to minimize an objective function established to find the values of the parameters which are modified in the process. The parameters are chosen after a sensibility analysis. Two optimization methods are tested: a Region Search Method (MBR) and Polytope Method. Both are based in direct search methods which do not require the function derivative. The software PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) is used to parallelize the simulation runs, allowing the acceleration of the process and the search of multiple solutions. The validation of the methodology is applied to two reservoir models: one homogeneous and other heterogeneous. The advantages of each method and of the parallelization are also present. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Hilton Penha [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia do Produto; Passos, Alex Sandro Barbosa [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento do Produto
2001-07-01
This article describes a method for calculation of the loss of load curve for the ventilation axial circuits. The method assumes the ventilation circuit representation in a way similar to the electrical circuits. The great difficulty of circuit solution resides in the non linearity of the loss of load resistances and the equations relating the pressures and flows. The method is based on the association of the resistance curves of loss of load in a such way that, when the resistance curve of the total circuit loss of load is obtained, the blower operation point can be easily obtained and, consequently, the individual flows for each section of the circuit.
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Pizarro Trigo, F.; Morillas Ruiz, J.; Nunuz Martinez, L.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.
2011-07-01
The purpose of this paper is to compare different methods of calculating the effective factor enhanced dynamic wedge (EDWF) with the values ??obtained in measurements of symmetric and asymmetric fields.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casado Sanchez, C.; Rubio Oviedo, P.
2014-07-01
This paper presents a method to define surround profiles of burning and fraction of holes suited for use in applications of credit to burning of BWR fuel from results obtained with the module STARBUCS of SCALE. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza, R.; Pereira, L.M.; Orlande, H.R.B.; Cotta, R.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica
1997-12-31
This paper deals with the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient of KBr in sand saturated with water. The present inverse parameter estimation problem is solved with Levenberg-Marquardt method. Simulated experimental data is used in order to assess the accuracy of this method as applied to the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient. The experimental apparatus is described and the value estimated for the parameter obtained with actual experimental data is presented in the paper. A statistical analysis is performed in order to obtain an estimate for the standard deviation for the parameter. (author) 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.; helcio at serv.com.ufrj.br
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reyes R, R.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Brun, E.; Dumonteil, E.; Malvagi, F., E-mail: emeric.brun@cea.fr [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternative, Service d' Etude des Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees, Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SERMA/LTSD, Bat 470, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2011-11-15
Burnt calculations were realized for a fuel model based on the technology of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor, GFR. The fuel design is based on bars. The code MCNPX-CINDER90 and the CSADA method for the burnt calculations were used. Models of homogeneous and heterogeneous fuel assembly were studied; for the burnt calculations of the fuel homogeneous model was considered the tracking of three series (Tiers) of evolution of the fission products. The Tier 1 tracks a reduced group of fission products, the Tier 2 tracks to the arrangement of fission products that are contained in the library of cross sections XSDIR of MCNPX; and the Tier 3 tracks 1325 fission products. The results were compared with those obtained with Tripoli-4-D in function of the calculation methods: 1) Explicit Euler, as method of first order; and 2) CSADA, as method of second order. According to the results was observed that the infinite multiplication factor varies in function of the fission products quantity that are tracked. The calculation time used by MCNPX-C90 with the series Tier 3 is more than double than the used by Tripoli-4-D, therefore this last code has advantage over MCNPX-C90 in the case of neutrons analysis of fast reactors. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Rey, P. de la; Sanchez Carrasca, M.; Yanez Lopez, D.; Macias Verde, D.; Martin Oliva, R.
2011-07-01
In recent years, the progress experienced in cancer treatment with ionizing radiation can deliver higher doses to smaller volumes and better shaped, making it necessary to take into account new aspects in the calculation of structural barriers. Furthermore, given that forecasts suggest that in the near future will install a large number of accelerators, or existing ones modified, we believe a useful tool to estimate the thickness of the structural barriers of treatment rooms. The shielding calculation methods are based on standard DIN 6847-2 and the recommendations given by the NCRP 151. In our experience we found only estimates originated from the DIN. Therefore, we considered interesting to develop an application that incorporates the formulation suggested by the NCRP, together with previous work based on the rules DIN allow us to establish a comparison between the results of both methods. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franca, Fernando
1995-12-31
In this work we investigate the local magnetic properties and the electronic structure of HCP Fe, as well introducing transition metals atoms 3d (Cs, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in HCP iron matrix. We employed the discrete variational method (DVM), which is an orbital molecular method which incorporate the Hartree-Fock-Slater theory and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO), in the self-consistent charge approximation and the local density approximation of Von Barth and Hedin to the exchange-correlation potential. We used the embedded cluster model to investigate the electronic structure and the local magnetic properties for the central atom of a cluster of 27 atoms immersed in the microcrystal representing the HCP Fe. (author) 32 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez, J L; Lopez, J
1986-07-01
Using the ORIGEN-2 Coda, the decay heat and neutron and photon sources for an irradiated PWR fuel element have been calculated. Also, parametric studies on the behaviour of the magnitudes with the burn-up, linear heat power and irradiation and cooling times were performed. Finally, a comparison between our results and other design calculations shows a good agreement and confirms the validity of the used method. (Author) 6 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez C, E.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, U. P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Longoria G, L. C., E-mail: evalle@esfm.ipn.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2011-11-15
One of the main objectives related with the safety in any nuclear power plant, including the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, is to guarantee the structural integrity of the pressure vessel of the reactor. To identify and quantifying the damage caused be neutron irradiation in the vessel of any nuclear reactor, is necessary to know as much the neutron flux as the fluence that it has been receiving during their time of operation life, since the observables damages by means of tests mechanics are products of micro-structural effects, induced by neutron irradiation, therefore, is important the study and prediction of the neutron flux to have a better knowledge of the damage that are receiving these materials. In our calculation the code DORT was used, which solves the transport equation in discreet coordinates and in two dimensions (x-y, r-{theta} and r-z), in accord to the regulator guide, it requires to make and approach of the neutron flux in three dimensions by means of the Synthesis Method. Whit this method is possible to achieve a representation of the flux in 3D combining or synthesizing the calculated fluxes by DORT code in r-{theta}, r-z and r. In this work the application of the Synthesis Method is presented, according to the Regulator Guide 1.190, to determine the fluxes 3D in the interns of a BWR using three different space meshes. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-12-31
The Sociedad Anonima Hullera Vasco-Leonesa (HVL) is working in a highly tectonised deposit, which very thick and irregular sub vertical seams, whose particular characteristics led to follow an investigation project for the final preparation of a model to estimate the global subsidence produced during and after the works. The working method in use has been basically observatory, until the necessary values were achieved to establish a representative model of the subsidence phenomenon. The information was gathered in two stages: the most interesting details in existence were collected in the first stage and in the second one, a wide measurement work was accomplished, in order to how the ground moved while the subsidence process. The movements of the ground were measured on the surface, with classical topographic means, as well as in the underground with extensometers. Different methods have been followed for the final preparation of the estimate model, in order to select the most suitable one. Some models have been studied: the classical procedures of influence functions, the tenso-deformational models solved by means of numerical models in computers and the theoretical models based on closed solutions. A theoretical model has been selected, following J. LITWINSISZYN and S. G. AVERSHING`s theory, which has been solved using the method of finite differences in an elasticity system. Finally two computer applications were created: one of them which allows to obtain subsidence previsions and deformations, and another one focused to make the accomplishment of topographic control measurement easier. As a whole, it can be stated that, starting from this project, HVL has a suitable means to continue controlling the evolution of the subsidence and, if needed, to adjust adequately the defined model. (Author)
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Petersen, Claudio Zen
2008-07-01
In this dissertation we use the Laplace transform to derive expressions for nonstandard albedo boundary conditions for one and two non-multiplying regions at the ends of one dimensional domains. In practice, the fuel regions of reactor cores are surrounded by reflector regions that reduce neutron leakage. In order to exclude the reflector regions from the calculations, we introduce a reflection coefficient or albedo. We use the present albedo boundary conditions to solve numerically slab-geometry monoenergetic and multigroup diffusion equations using the conventional finite difference method. Numerical results are generated for fixed source and eigenvalue diffusion problems in slab geometry(author)
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Garcez, R.W.D.; Lopes, J.M.; Silva, A.X., E-mail: marqueslopez@yahoo.com.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/PEN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Domingues, A.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Lima, M.A.F. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia
2014-07-01
A method based on gamma spectroscopy and on the use of voxel phantoms to calculate dose due to ingestion of {sup 40}K contained in bean samples are presented in this work. To quantify the activity of radionuclide, HPGe detector was used and the data entered in the input file of MCNP code. The highest value of equivalent dose was 7.83 μSv.y{sup -1} in the stomach for white beans, whose activity 452.4 Bq.Kg{sup -1} was the highest of the five analyzed. The tool proved to be appropriate when you want to calculate the dose in organs due to ingestion of food. (author)
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Schaeffer, Lirio; Guedes, Luiz F.M. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica e dos Materiais
1987-12-31
In this work, general considerations are initially performed about the spread and the main factors which influence it in the rolling process.It was established a prior analysis of the models in the case of oval and diamond profiles rolling. Afterwards, three mathematical models to calculate the spread are presented. It was notes that for some mathematical models, because their expressions are presented for the rectangular sections rolling, it was necessary to use auxiliary methods, which are also shown in this work. 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.
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Gasco, C; Navarro, N; Gonzalez, P; Heras, M C; Gapan, M P; Alonso, C; Calderon, A; Sanchez, D; Morante, R; Fernandez, M; Gajate, A; Alvarez, A
2008-08-06
The Department of Vigilance Radiologica y Radiactividad Ambiental from CIEMAT has developed an appropriate analytical methodology for Fe-55 and Ni-63 sequential determination in environmental samples based on the procedure used by RIS0 Laboratories. The experimental results obtained in the mayor and minor elements behaviour (soil and air constituents) in the different types of resins used for separating Fe-55 and Ni-63 are showed in this report. The measuring method of both isotopes by scintillation counting has been optimized with Ultima Gold liquid with different concentrations of stable element Fe and Ni. The decontamination factors of different gamma-emitters are experimentally determined in this method with the presence of soil matrix. The Fe-55 and Ni-63 activity concentrations and their associated uncertainties have been calculated from the counting data and sample preparation. A computer application has been implemented in Visual Basic in excel sheets for: (I) obtaining the counting data from spectrometer and counts in each window, (II) representing graphically the background and sample spectrums, (III) determining the activity concentration and its associated uncertainty and (IV) calculating the characteristic limits using ISO 11929 (2007) with various confidence levels. (Author) 30 refs.
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Rezende, Gabriel Fonseca da Silva
2015-06-01
Many radiotherapy centers acquire 15 and 18 MV linear accelerators to perform more effective treatments for deep tumors. However, the acquisition of these equipment must be accompanied by an additional care in shielding planning of the rooms that will house them. In cases where space is restricted, it is common to find primary barriers made of concrete and metal. The drawback of this type of barrier is the photoneutron emission when high energy photons (e.g. 15 and 18 MV spectra) interact with the metallic material of the barrier. The emission of these particles constitutes a problem of radiation protection inside and outside of radiotherapy rooms, which should be properly assessed. A recent work has shown that the current model underestimate the dose of neutrons outside the treatment rooms. In this work, a computational model for the aforementioned problem was created from Monte Carlo Simulations and Artificial Intelligence. The developed model was composed by three neural networks, each being formed of a pair of material and spectrum: Pb18, Pb15 and Fe18. In a direct comparison with the McGinley method, the Pb18 network exhibited the best responses for approximately 78% of the cases tested; the Pb15 network showed better results for 100% of the tested cases, while the Fe18 network produced better answers to 94% of the tested cases. Thus, the computational model composed by the three networks has shown more consistent results than McGinley method. (author)
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Oliveira, A.C.J.G. de
1988-12-01
Sensitivity calculations are very important in design and safety of nuclear reactor cores. Large codes with a great number of physical considerations have been used to perform sensitivity studies. However, these codes need long computation time involving high costs. The perturbation theory has constituted an efficient and economical method to perform sensitivity analysis. The present work is an application of the perturbation theory (matricial formalism) to a simplified model of DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) analysis to perform sensitivity calculations in PWR cores. Expressions to calculate the sensitivity coefficients of enthalpy and coolant velocity with respect to coolant density and hot channel area were developed from the proposed model. The CASNUR.FOR code to evaluate these sensitivity coefficients was written in Fortran. The comparison between results obtained from the matricial formalism of perturbation theory with those obtained directly from the proposed model makes evident the efficiency and potentiality of this perturbation method for nuclear reactor cores sensitivity calculations (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs.
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Diaz Hernandez, G.; Silva Casarin, R. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
2001-03-01
A method for solving the wave refraction phenomena through a computational model, which solves the wave height and propagation angle from deep to shallow water including wave breaking, is shown. The program considers the shoaling and refraction effects, wave-currents interaction and the non-linearity assumption. The numerical model is based in two principles: the irrotationality of the wave number, which is reduced to the Snell's law for planar bathymetry, and the conservation of wave action, which is reduced to the energy conservation concept when no current interaction occurs. The two-step Lax-Wendroff differential method was used to calculate and solve the entire computational grid. Three different examples that help represent the whole method are shown; the first case is based on an idealized plane and horizontal bathymetry, the second case is the experimental model developed by Berkhoff (1982), and finally the Noda (1974) example is reproduced. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo numerico para estudiar el fenomeno de la refraccion del oleaje inducida por la presencia de corrientes, cambios batimetricos, rotura y disipacion. El modelo calcula sobre una malla computacional la altura y la direccion local del oleaje. El programa considera los efectos de asomeramiento, refraccion, interaccion oleaje-corriente y su no-linearidad. Los principios que utiliza el modelo son dos; la irrotacionalidad del numero de onda, que para batimetria plana se reduce a la ley de Snell y el principio de conservacion de la accion de ondas, que se simplifica al concepto de la conservacion de la energia cuando no existen corrientes. El metodo diferencial que se utiliza para el calculo e interpolacion de datos sobre la malla de discretizacion es Lax-Wendroff en dos pasos. Se muestran tres casos que ayudan a representar el metodo en su totalidad: el primero se modela con base en una batimetria idealizada, plana y horizontal, el segundo se simula a partir del medolo experimental de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz-Hernandez, G.; Silva-Casarin, R. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
2001-03-01
A method for solving the wave refraction phenomena through a computational model, which solves the wave height and propagation angle from deep to shallow water including wave breaking, is shown. The program considers the shoaling and refraction effects, wave-currents interaction and the non-linearity assumption. The numerical model is based in two principles: the irrotationality of the wave number, which is reduced to the Snell's law for planar bathymetry, and the conservation of wave action, which is reduced to the energy conservation concept when no current interaction occurs. The two-step Lax-Wendroff differential method was used to calculate and solve the entire computational grid. Three different examples that help represent the whole method is shown; the first case is based on an idealized plane and horizontal bathymetry, the second case is the experimental model developed by Berkhoff (1982), and finally the Noda (1974) example is reproduced. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo numerico para estudiar el fenomeno de la refraccion del oleaje inducida por la presencia de corrientes, cambios batim ricos, rotura y disipacion. El modelo calcula sobre una malla computacional la altura y la direccion local del oleaje. El programa considera los efectos de asomeramiento, refraccion, interaccion oleaje-corriente y su no-linearidad. Los principios que utiliza el modelo son dos; la irrotacionalidad del numero de onda, que para batimetria plana se reduce a la ley de Snell y el principio de conservacion de la accion de ondas, que se simplifica al concepto de la conservacion de la energia cuando no existen corrientes. El metodo diferencial que se utiliza para el calculo e interpoleccion de datos sobre la malla de discretizacion es Lax-Wendroff en dos pasos. Se muestran tres casos que ayudan a representar el metodo en su totalidad: el primero se modela con base en una batimetria idealizada, plana y horizontal, el segundo se simula a partir del modelo experimental de Berkhoff
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Bazan, V.; Goni, C.; Castella, L.; Brandaleze, E.; Verdeja, L. F.; Parra, R.
2006-07-01
The viscosity of the lands represents one of the most relevant variables of most of the processes metallurgical and kinetics of the refine operations, since it is one of the decisive factors of the efficiency in the reactions between metal and lag, as much as slag-refractory. In the last decades, the mathematical models of different metallurgical processes have established methods to predict viscosity of mixtures of oxides fused to high temperatures in function of the chemical composition. The model developed by Toguri, based on the data reported by Johasen and Winterhager et al has proposed the Kv model. The used index it is similar to the relationship used in the steel industry like the basicity index. It is presented in this work values determined of viscosity in experimental form by means of the technique of inclined plane. (Author)
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Fairbanks, L.R.; Barbi, G.L.; Silva, W.T. da; Reis, E.G.F. dos; Borges, L.F.; Bertucci, E.C.; Maciel, M.F.; Amaral, L.L. do, E-mail: lefairbanks@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia
2010-07-01
Since the cross-section for various radiation interactions is dependent upon tissue material, the presence of heterogeneities affects the final dose delivered. This paper aims to analyze how different treatment planning algorithms (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Clarkson) work when heterogeneity corrections are used. To that end, a farmer-type ionization chamber was positioned reproducibly (during the time of CT as well as irradiation) inside several phantoms made of aluminum, bone, cork and solid water slabs. The percent difference between the dose measured and calculated by the various algorithms was less than 5%; This is in accordance with the recommendation of several references.The convolution method shows better results for high density materials (difference {approx}1 %), whereas the Superposition algorithm is more accurate for low densities (around 1,1%).
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Fairbanks, Leandro R.; Barbi, Gustavo L.; Silva, Wiliam T.; Reis, Eduardo G.F.; Borges, Leandro F.; Bertucci, Edenyse C.; Maciel, Marina F.; Amaral, Leonardo L., E-mail: lefairbanks@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia
2011-07-01
Since the cross-section for various radiation interactions is dependent upon tissue material, the presence of heterogeneities affects the final dose delivered. This paper aims to analyze how different treatment planning algorithms (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Clarkson) work when heterogeneity corrections are used. To that end, a farmer-type ionization chamber was positioned reproducibly (during the time of CT as well as irradiation) inside several phantoms made of aluminum, bone, cork and solid water slabs. The percent difference between the dose measured and calculated by the various algorithms was less than 5%.The convolution method shows better results for high density materials (difference {approx}1 %), whereas the Superposition algorithm is more accurate for low densities (around 1,1%). (author)
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Vieira, Jose Wilson
2004-07-15
The MAX phantom has been developed from existing segmented images of a male adult body, in order to achieve a representation as close as possible to the anatomical properties of the reference adult male specified by the ICRP. In computational dosimetry, MAX can simulate the geometry of a human body under exposure to ionizing radiations, internal or external, with the objective of calculating the equivalent dose in organs and tissues for occupational, medical or environmental purposes of the radiation protection. This study presents a methodology used to build a new computational exposure model MAX/EGS4: the geometric construction of the phantom; the development of the algorithm of one-directional, divergent, and isotropic radioactive sources; new methods for calculating the equivalent dose in the red bone marrow and in the skin, and the coupling of the MAX phantom with the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Finally, some results of radiation protection, in the form of conversion coefficients between equivalent dose (or effective dose) and free air-kerma for external photon irradiation are presented and discussed. Comparing the results presented with similar data from other human phantoms it is possible to conclude that the coupling MAX/EGS4 is satisfactory for the calculation of the equivalent dose in radiation protection. (author)
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Mueller, Marcio Rogerio; Silva, Marco Antonio da; Rodrigues, Laura Natal [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia]. E-mail: mrmuller@usp.br
2005-12-01
Objective: To develop and implement a software based on the manual calculation algorithm for verification of the calculations in radiotherapy monitor units and to establish acceptance levels as a mechanism of quality assurance. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from Clinac 600C and 2100C Varian linear accelerators and the computerized treatment planning system used was CadPlan{sup TM}. Results: For the 6 MV beams the acceptance levels for deviations among the calculations of monitor units, divided by treatment area, were the following: breast (0.0%{+-}1.7%), head and neck (1.5%{+-}0.5%), hypophysis (-1.7%{+-}0.5%), pelvis (2.1%{+-}2.1%) and thorax (0.2%{+-}1.3%). For the 15 MV beams the suggested level for pelvis in all the treatment techniques was (3.2%{+-}1.3%). Conclusion: The present data are sufficient to justify the use of the software in the clinical practice as a tool for the quality assurance program. (author)
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Lima, Flavio Augusto Pimentel de; Rosa, Renata Gualberto Cordeiro [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2008-07-01
The Petroleum Law states that the concession contract will also have provisions regarding the government takes established by the bid tender. However, the criteria for calculating the value of Royalties are set forth in the Decree 2.705/98, enacted to set such criteria, taking into account the volumes of production and the reference prices for oil and natural gas. The following aspects are analyzed in this paper: the method for calculating the volumes subject to the impact of Royalties; definition of the reference price for natural gas, the general rule for setting up the reference price in case the sale was made at market price; the special rule in case the sale was not made on a market basis, in case there is no sale or in case of breach of the conditions set in that Decree; and the settlement of the reference price in situations where only part of the volumes produced are sold on contracts that meet the requirements of the Decree. In conclusion the problems caused by gaps in legislation will be highlighted, particularly with regard to concessions granted to consortia as well as the inconsistencies between the applicable legislation, which may provide different analysis, including by the ANP, according to the features of each case. (author)
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Medina C, D.; Hernandez A, P. L.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)
2015-10-15
This paper describes a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium, with graphite moderator and a source of {sup 252}Cf, whose dose levels in the periphery allows its use in teaching and research activities. The design was done by the Monte Carlo method with the code MCNP5 where the geometry, dimensions and fuel was varied in order to obtain the best design. The result is a cubic reactor of 110 cm side with graphite moderator and reflector. In the central part they have 9 ducts that were placed in the direction of axis Y. The central duct contains the source of {sup 252}Cf, of 8 other ducts, are two irradiation ducts and the other six contain a molten salt ({sup 7}LiF - BeF{sub 2} - ThF{sub 4} - UF{sub 4}) as fuel. For design the k{sub eff}, neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent was calculated. In the first instance the above calculation for a virgin fuel was called case 1, then a percentage of {sup 233}U was used and the percentage of Th was decreased and was called case 2. This with the purpose to compare two different fuels working inside the reactor. In the case 1 a value was obtained for the k{sub eff} of 0.13 and case 2 of 0.28, maintaining the subcriticality in both cases. In the dose levels the higher value is in case 2 in the axis Y with a value of 3.31 e-3 ±1.6% p Sv/Q this value is reported in for one. With this we can calculate the exposure time of personnel working in the reactor. (Author)
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Claro, Thiago Ribeiro
2011-07-01
The dose resulting from internal contamination can be estimated with the use of biokinetic models combined with experimental results obtained from bioanalysis and assessment of the time of incorporation. The biokinetics models are represented by a set of compartments expressing the transportation, retention and elimination of radionuclides from the body. The ICRP publications, number 66, 78 and 100, present compartmental models for the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and for systemic distribution for an array of radionuclides of interest for the radiological protection. The objective of this work is to develop a computational code for the internal doses assessment of the main radionuclides of occupational exposure at IPEN. Consequently serving as a agile and efficient tool for the designing, visualization and resolution of compartmental models of any nature. The architecture of the system was conceived containing two independent software: CBT - responsible for the setup and manipulation of models and SSID - responsible for the mathematical solution of the models. Four different techniques are offered for the resolution of system of equations, including semi-analytical and numerical methods, allowing for comparison of precision and performance of both. The software was developed in C{ne} programming, using a Microsoft Access database and XML standards for file exchange with other applications. Compartmental models for uranium, thorium and iodine radionuclides were generated for the validation of the CBT software. The models were subsequently solved via SSID software and the results compared with the values published in the issue 78 of ICRP. In all cases the system replicated the values published by ICRP. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Massicano, Felipe
2010-07-01
distribution. A major advantage is the high accuracy obtained to calcium and phosphorus which have great influence on the dose distribution calculation. For the second objective it was developed the Attenuation Corretion SPECT PET (ACPS) software which performs the attenuation correction in PET and SPECT images through of 1a order Chang method and create the relative activity distribution within of patient. Finally, the data generated by the two software, was formatted to SCMS which in provides the complete information do the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code for radiation transport simulation for dose distribution estimation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lerner, A M [Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
1997-12-31
A basic problem in nuclear reactor physics in that of the description of the neutron population behaviour in the multiplicative medium of a nuclear fuel. Due to the magnitude of the physical problem involved and the present degree of technological evolution regarding computing resources, of increasing complexity and possibilities, the calculation programs or codes have turned to be a basic auxiliary tool in reactor physics. In order to analyze the global problem, several aspects should be taken into consideration. The first aspect to be considered is that of the availability of the necessary nuclear data. The second one is the existence of a variety of methods and models to perform the calculations. The final phase for this kind of analysis is the qualification of the computing programs to be used, i.e. the verification of the validity domain of its nuclear data and the models involved. The last one is an essential phase, and in order to carry it on great variety of calculations are required, that will check the different aspects contained in the code. We here analyze the most important physical processes that take place in a nuclear reactor cell, and we consider the qualification of the lattice code WIMS, that calculates the neutronic parameters associated with such processes. Particular emphasis has been put in the application to natural uranium fuelled reactor, heavy water cooled and moderated, as the Argentinean power reactors now in operation. A wide set of experiments has been chosen: a.-Fresh fuel in zero-power experimental facilities and power reactors; b.-Irradiated fuel in both types of facilities; c.-Benchmark (prototype) experiments with loss of coolant. From the whole analysis it was concluded that for the research reactors, as well as for the heavy water moderated power reactors presently operating in our country, or those that could operate in a near future, the lattice code WIMS is reliable and produces results within the experimental values and
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Solanilla, R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
1964-02-15
nombreuses geometries - faite par comparaison avec certains des principaux parametres d'un reseau y/o de multiplication effective, est satisfaisante, l'ecart entre la reactivite obtenue par le calcul et le chiffre donne par l'experience,n'etant pas, en general, superieur a 2%. (author) [Spanish] Con el empleo de la teoria de dos grupos modificados por fisiones epitermales, se ha analizado un conjunto de sistemas criticos dotados de reflector y moderador de agiia liviana y variado enriquecimiento en {sup 235}U del combustible nuclear. Las secciones eficaces del grupo termal empleadas son las consignadas en las Tablas de Amster para mezclas hidrogenadas a diferentes temperaturas; concentraciones de {sup 235}U y absorbedores en 1/v. El efecto de heterogeneidad en las secciones eficaces ha sido tratado aproximadamente modificando las concentraciones de los absorbedores por variacion espacial del flujo termico en la celda elemental. El factor de desventaja ha sido calculado empleando la formula de Amouyal-Benoist. El coeficiente de difusion termal ha sido definido como la inversa del triple de la seccion eficaz macroscopica de transporte homogeneizada sobre el volumen de la celda elemental. Las constantes del grupo rapido han sido calculadas'de acuerdo al esquema de Ombrellaro de tres grupos rapidos de difusion (10 MeV a 0,821 MeV; 0,821 MeV a 5,5 keV; 5,5 keV a 0,625 eV) con secciones eficacesmicroscopicas ajustadas para cada grupo. La definicion de Ombrellaro de las constantes neutionicas de los tres,grupos rapidos en funcion de las secciones eficaces ajustadas ha sido modificada para el tercer grupo de acuerdo al tratamiento de Hick de la absorcion efectiva de resonancia del {sup 238}U, basada en el computo de la integral de resonancia efectiva. Los calculos han sido realizadas computando la integral de resonancia efectiva del: {sup 238}U por la formula obtenida, por el autor, del calculo teorico, con reduccion de la relacion S/M de acuerdo a la aproximacion del Bell del
Dosimetry in intravascular brachytherapy; Calculos dosimetricos em braquiterapia intravascular
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho
2000-03-01
Among the cardiovascular diseases responsible for deaths in the adult population in almost all countries of the world, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which generally occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Several diagnostic techniques and therapies are being tested for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than traditional surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment).Recently, the idea of delivering high radiation doses to coronary arteries to avoid or delay restenosis has been suggested. Known as intravascular brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis in some patient populations. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for the attending staff for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, o,30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several candidate radionuclides as well. Two s tent sources (metallic prosthesis that put inside of patient's artery through angioplasty) employing {sup 32} P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various radionuclides and source geometries are discussed. The dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients for this promising new technology. (author)
Analisis del rendimiento y consumo de programas orientados al calculo
Ruiz Ramírez, Marcos
2016-01-01
Estudio que pretende crear una implementación de computación paralela/vectorial a las funciones y rutinas de cálculo del primer nivel del BLAS, recogida en una librería (estática o dinámica), analizando su impacto energético.
Dosimetry in intravascular brachytherapy; Calculos dosimetricos em braquiterapia intravascular
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho
2000-03-01
Among the cardiovascular diseases responsible for deaths in the adult population in almost all countries of the world, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which generally occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Several diagnostic techniques and therapies are being tested for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than traditional surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment).Recently, the idea of delivering high radiation doses to coronary arteries to avoid or delay restenosis has been suggested. Known as intravascular brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis in some patient populations. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for the attending staff for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, o,30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several candidate radionuclides as well. Two s tent sources (metallic prosthesis that put inside of patient's artery through angioplasty) employing {sup 32} P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various radionuclides and source geometries are discussed. The dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients for this promising new technology. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Straub, C. P.; Kahn, B.; Wellman, H. N.; Telles, N. C.; Seltzer, R. A. [Radiological Health Research Activities, Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, US Public Health Service, Department Of Health, Education and Welfare, Cincinnati, OH (United States)
1964-11-15
Retention of radionuclides and stable chemicals in infants aged 1 to 11 months has been measured since 1960. Infants volunteered by staff members for study in their-respective home environments were selected,after consultation with the family paediatrician and our staff physician. The infants were fed commercially prepared prepackaged foods ad lib; in terms of quantity and kind These foods, the air breathed, and the water-used directly and in preparation of the formula constituted the normal intake of radionuclides and stable chemicals of interest. Aliquots of the food, water, diapers, and paper tissues used are analysed. Excreta were collected in disposable diapers, and separated into those containing urine or faeces. Retention of the following radionuclides and stable elements was or will be determined: strontium-90, strontium-89, caesium-137, radium-226, calcium, strontium, phosphorus, and potassium. The study differs from previous ones in several ways. The radionuclides and stable elements were at normally encountered concentrations and in their normally encountered chemical forms. Air, and water contaminated at environmental levels and commercially available-food materials were the only sources of intake, since no radionuclides or stable chemicals were, added to the diet. The infants studied were normal, healthy (not hospitalized) youngsters in their home environments. The major problems in this study consisted of (1) controlling and maintaining records of all of the food intake, (2) collecting all-of the excreta, (3) obtaining an excreta-sample large enough for accurate measurement of the radionuclide and stable components contained; and (4) measuring radionuclide and stable component concentrations in the intake and excreta accurately enough that significant retention values could be computed. A case worker was utilized for control of intake and excreta information and an electronic computer for data processing. Intake values of the analysed components were checked by comparing ''phantom meals'' with computed amounts based on aliquots. A special paper diaper with a low. stable strontium, concentration was developed and utilized. Calcium and phosphorus retention values were computed.and are now available for 30 infants. Strontium-90 retention relative to calcium was found to be higher in infants than in adults. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont mesure-depuis 1960 la retention de radionucleides et d'elements stables chez des enfants ages de 1 a 11 mois. Ils ont choisi les sujets apres consultation du pediatre de famille et du medecin de l'etablissement, parmi des enfants en bas age mis benevolement a leur disposition par des membres du personnel, en vue d'une etude dans le milieu familial. Ces enfants ont{sup e}te nourris selon leurs besoins et leurs gouts avec des preparations alimentaires conditionnees du commerce. Ces preparations renfermaient, avec l'air respire et l'eau consommee directement ou utilisee pour La confection des repas, toutes les quantites absorbees des radionucleides et des elements stables etudies. Les auteurs ont analyse des parties aliquotes des aliments, de l'eau, des couches et des serviettes en papier utilises. Ils ont recueilli les excreta dans des couches non reutilisables en separant celles qui contenaient l'urine de celles qui contenaient les feces. Ils ont determine ou determineront la retention des radionucleides et elements stables suivants: strontium 90, strontium 89, cesium 137, radium 226, calcium, strontium, phosphore et potassium. Cette etude differe en plusieurs points des etudes precedentes. Les radionucleides et elements stables se trouvaient a leur taux de concentration normal et dans leurs combinaisons chimiques habituelles. L'air et l'eau dont le taux de contamination etait le taux normal du milieu et les produits alimentaires du commerce ont. ete les seules sources d'absorption, aucun radionucleide ni element stable n ayant ete ajoute au regime. Les enfants en bas age observes etaient des sujets normalement sains (jamais hospitalises), vivant dans leur milieu familial. Les principaux problemes a resoudre au cours de cette etude portaient sur les operations suivantes: a) Verifier et comptabiliser toutes les quantites de produits alimentaires ingerees; b) Recueillir tous les excreta ; c) Prelever un echantillon d'excreta assez volumineux pour permettre un dosage precis des radionucleides et des elements stables qu'il contenait; d) Mesurer les concentrations de radionucleides et d'elements stables dans les substances absorbees et dans les excreta, de facon assez precise pour pouvoir calculer des valeurs significatives de la retention. Les auteurs ont eu recours a un enqueteur pour la verification des renseignements sur les quantites absorbees et les excreta, et ont utilise un ordinateur pour le traitement des donnees. Ils ont controle les quantites absorbees des elements etudies en comparant des 'repas fantomes' aux quantites calculees d'apres les parties aliquotes. Ils ont mis au point et utilise des couches en papier special ayant une faible concentration en strontium stable. Ils ont calcule la retention du phosphore et du calcium et ils disposent des valeurs correspondantes pour 30 enfants en bas age. Ils ont constate que le rapport entre la retention du strontium 90 et celle du calcium etait plus eleve chez les enfants en bas age que chez les adultes. (author) [Spanish] Desde 1960 se viene midiendo la retencion de ciertos radionuclidos y elementos estables en los niflos de pecho de uno a once meses. Los niflos, puestos a disposicion voluntariamente por funcionarios para el estudio en el ambiente familiar, se seleccionaron previa consulta con el pediatra de la familia y el medico de la institucion de los autores. Los ninos consumen alimentos de tipo comercial corriente, ya preparados y empaquetados, sin restriccion en lo que se refiere a cantidad y calidad. Estos productos alimenticios, el aire inhalado y el agua utilizada directamente y en preparacion del biberon constituyen la absorcion normal de radionuclidos y de elementos estables de interes. Se analizan partes alicuotas de los productos alimenticios, del agua, de los panales y del papel higienico utizados. Las excreta se recogen en panales que se desechan despues de utilizados, separandose los que contienen orina delos que contienen heces. Se ha determinado o se determinara la retencion de los siguientes radionuclidos y elementos estables: estroncio-90, estroncio-89, cesio-137, radio-226, calcio, estroncio, fosforo y potasio. El estudio difiere en varios aspectos de los anteriormente realizados. Los radionuclidos y elementos estables se presentan en concentraciones y formas quimicas normales. Las sustancias absorbidas provienen exclusivamente del aire y del agua, cuyo grado de contaminacion es el mismo que el del medio ambiente, y de los alimentos que se adquieren en el comercio, pues ningun otro radionuclido ni elemento estable se anade a dicha dieta. Los ninos examinados disfrutan de salud normal (no estan hospitalizados) y permanecen en el ambiente familiar. Los principales problemas de este estudio consistieron en: a) llevar cuenta y razon de todos los alimentos ingeridos, b) recoger todas las excreta, c) obtener una muestra de las excreta suficientemente grande para poder-determinar cuantitativamente los radionuclidos y elementos estables contenidos, d) medir las concentraciones de radionuclidos y elementos estables en los alimentos y en las excreta con exactitud suficiente para poder determinar los valores significativos de retencion. Con objeto de fiscalizar la informacion relativa a alimentos ingeridos y a excreciones se utilizaron los servicios de una persona dedicada especialmente a esa tarea, recurriendose a una calculadora electronica para la elaboracion de los datos. Los valores de ingestion de los componentes analizados se han comprobado comparando 'comidas tipo de referencia' con las cantidades calculadas partiendo de las partes alicuotas analizadas. Se ha preparado y utilizado un panal de papel especial con baja concentracion de estroncio estable. Se han calculado los valores de retencion para el calcio y el fosforo en el caso de 30 ninos. Las observaciones efectuadas demuestran que la retencion relativa de estroncio-90, referida al calcio, es mas elevada en los ninos que en los adultos. (author) [Russian] Nachinaja s 1960 goda provoditsja izmerenie stepeni zaderzhki radioizotopov i ustojchivyh himicheskih soedinenij u detej v vozraste ot 1 goda do 11 let. Za det'mi s so glasija roditelej velis' nabljudenija v sootvetstvujushhej domashnej srede, deti otbiralis' posle konsul'tacii s detskim vrachom, lechivshim rebenka, i vrachom laboratorii. Deti pitalis' gotovymi produktami ad lib opredelennogo kachestva i assortimenta. Pishhevye produkty, vdyhaemyj vozduh i voda, ispol'zuemye neposredstvenno i v processe podgotovki formuly, javljalis' istochnikom normal'nogo postuplenija v organizm izuchaemyh radioizotopov i ustojchivyh himicheskih soedinenij. Proizvodilsja'analiz obrazcov pishhevyh produktov, vody, ispol'zuemyh salfetok i bumagi. Vydelenija sobiralis' v podlezhashhie udaleniju salfetki, otdel'no mocha i kal. Opredeljalos' ili budet opredeljat'sja zaderzhka sledujushhih radioizotopov i ustojchivyh jelementov: stroncij-90, stroncij-89, cezij-137, radij-226, kal'cij, stroncij, fosfor i kalij. Jeti issledovanija znachitel'no otlichajutsja ot predydushhih. Radioizotopy i ustojchivye jelementy nahodilis' v obychnyh koncentracijah i v obychno vstrechajushhihsja himicheskih formah. Vozduh i voda, zagrjaznennye do urovnja okruzhajushhej sredy, i imejushhiesja v prodazhe pishhevye produkty javljalis' edinstvennym istochnikom pogloshhenija, poskol'ku nikakie radioizotopy i ustojchivye himicheskie soedinenija ne dobavljalis'. Issleduemye deti predstavljali soboj obychnyh zdorovyh (negospital'zirovannyh) detej v ih obychnoj domashnej srede. Osnovnye problemy pri provedenii jetih issledovanij zakljuchalis' v 1) kontrolirovanii i registracii vsej potrebljaemoj pishhi, 2) sbore vseh vydelenij, 3) poluchenii dostatochno bol'shih obrazcov vydelenij dlja tochnogo izmerenija soderzhanija radioizotopov i ustojchivyh komponentov, i 4) dostatochno tochnom izmerenii koncentracij pogloshhaemyh i vydeljaemyh radioizotopov i ustojchivyh komponentov, chtoby mozhno bylo poluchit' dostovernye velichiny zaderzhki izotopov. Dlja sbora informacii o pogloshenii i vydelenii i dlja obrabotki dannyh byl privlechen special'nyj sotrudnik i ispol'zovana jelektronnaja schetnaja mashina. Velichiny pogloshhenija analiziruemyh komponentov proverjalis' putem sravnenija ''kontrol'nyh obrazcov pishhi'' s raschetnymi dannymi, poluchennymi pri izmerenii obrazcov. Ispol'zovalis' special'nye bumazhnye salfetki s nizkoj koncentraciej ustojchivogo stroncija. Byli rasschitany velichiny zaderzhki kal'cija i fosfora dlja 30 detej. Ustanovleno, chto zaderzhka stroncija-90 po sravneniju s kal'ciem u detej bol'she, chem u vzroslyh. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Ampudia, J.
2003-07-01
The introduction of macros in trie calculation sheets allows the automatic application of various dating models using unsupported ''210 Pb data from a data base. The calculation books the contain the models have been modified to permit the implementation of these macros. The Marine and Aquatic Radioecology group of CIEMAT (MARG) will be involved in new European Projects, thus new models have been developed. This report contains a detailed description of: a) the new implement macros b) the design of a dating Menu in the calculation sheet and c) organization and structure of the data base. (Author) 4 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaychouhi, A.; Mota, M.; Uribes, O.; Lora, C.
2014-07-01
This paper aims to show the development of the methodology of NPP Cofrentes has been used in the preparation, evaluation, analysis and calculations of uncertainty applied to the values of the parameters of category 2 and 3 of the Improved Operating Technical Specifications. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez Giralda, C.
2005-07-01
The main objective of this thesis is to search for points of correspondence between the classic and quantum behavior of the dynamics of non-rigid molecular system HO2 (Hidroperoxil Radix), and too, the study of the manifestation mode as the regularity than the ergodicity from the point of view of the classical and quantum mechanics laws. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casnati, E.; Breuer, F. [Gruppo di Dosimetria e Standardizzazione, CNEN, Centro di Studi Nucleari della Casaccia, Rome (Italy)
1965-06-15
For the calculation of the dose the Loevinger formula for beta particles and an exponential formula for electromagnetic radiations are generally used. In the present paper, the authors intend to examine whether, in the case of cutaneous contamination, the use of an exponential formula (like the formula of Rossi and Ellis) and a similar formula might be considered as satisfactory for the calculation of the beta and the gamma dose, respectively. With this aim the results obtained for this particular type of geometry by the Rossi and Ellis formula and by the Loevinger formula for beta particles have been compared; for gamma radiation the values obtained by the exponential formula and by two more elaborated formulae, suitable for the conditions of maximum photonic build-up and of null photonic build-up, were compared. The results permit the conclusion that, for the geometric conditions considered, both the dose from beta radiation and that from gamma radiation to the basal layer of the skin can be determined by the exponential type formula: the results in fact are acceptable from a health protection standpoint. (author) [French] Pour le calcul de la dose, on utilise generalement la formule de Loevinger pour les particules beta et la formule exponentielle pour le rayonnement electromagnetique. Les auteurs se proposentde determiner si, dans le cas d'une contamination cutanee, l'emploi d'une formule exponentielle (comme la formule de Rossi et Ellis) et une formule analogue peut etre considere comme satisfaisant pour le calcul de la dose beta et de la dose gamma respectivement. Ils comparent pour cela les resultats obtenus pour ce type particulier de geometrie par la formule de Rossi et Ellis et par la formule de Loevinger pour les particules beta; pour les rayons gamma, ils comparent les valeurs obtenues par la formule exponentielle et par deux formules plus elaborees qui conviennent pour les conditions de formation maximum de photons et de formation nulle de photons. Les resultats permettent de conclure que, dans la geometrie consideree, on peut determiner par des formules de type exponentielle, d'une part la dose imputable aux rayons beta et, d'autre part, la dose imputable aux rayons gamma pour la couche basale de la peau;- on peut considerer les resultats comme acceptables du point de vue de la radioprotection. (author) [Spanish] La dosis absorbida, suele calcularse mediante la formula de Loevinger cuando se trate de particulas beta mientras que para las radiaciones electromagneticas se recurre habitualmente a una formula exponencial. En la memoria, los autores se proponen examinar si en el caso de contaminacion cutanea puede considerarse satisfactorio el empleo de una formula exponencial (la formula de Rossi y Ellis) y de una formula similar para calcular la dosis beta y la dosis gamma, respectivamente. Con este objeto, se han comparado los resultados.obtenidos para este tipo especial de geometria por medio de la formula de Rossi y Ellis y con la formula de Loevinger para partfculas beta; por lo que respecta a la radiacion gamma, se han comparado los valores obtenidos mediante la formula exponencial y con otras dos formulas mas complejas, que se ajustan a las condiciones de acumulacion fotonica maxima nula, respectivamente. Estos resultados permiten sacar la conclusion de que, dadas las condiciones geometricas de que se trata, pueden determinarse mediante la formula de tipo exponencial tanto la dosis de radiacion beta como la dosis de radiacion gamma en la dermis. Los resultados son aceptables desde el punto de vista de la proteccion radiologica. (author) [Russian] Obychno pri podschete dozy ispol'zuetsja formula Laevingera dlja chastic i jeksponencial'naja formula dlja jelektromagnitnyh izluchenij. V doklade rassmatrivaetsja vopros o tom, mozhno li schitat' udovletvoritel'nym ispol'zovanie jeksponencial'noj formuly (podobnoj formule Rossi i Jellisa) i analogichnyh formul pri podschete sootvetstvenno beta- i gamma-dozy. S jetoj cel'ju sravnivajutsja rezul'taty, poluchennye dlja jetogo opredelennogo vida geometrii s pomoshh'ju formuly Rossi i Jellisa i formuly Loevingera dlja beta-chastic. Dlja gamma-izluchenija provoditsja sravnenie velichin, poluchennyh s pomoshh'ju jeksponencial'noj formuly i dvuh drugih analogichnyh formul, prigodnyh dlja uslovij maksimal'nogo i nulevogo nakoplenija fotonov. Rezul'taty pozvoljajut zakljuchit', chto pri imejushhihsja geometricheskih uslovijah kak doza ot beta-izluchenija, tak i doza ot gamma-izluchenija dlja osnovnogo sloja kozhi mozhet opredeljat'sja s pomoshh'ju formuly jeksponencial'nogo tipa. Rezul'taty fakticheski priemlemy takzhe s tochki zrenija ohrany zdorov'ja. (author)
Nayfeh, Ali H
2008-01-01
1. Introduction 1 2. Straightforward Expansions and Sources of Nonuniformity 23 3. The Method of Strained Coordinates 56 4. The Methods of Matched and Composite Asymptotic Expansions 110 5. Variation of Parameters and Methods of Averaging 159 6. The Method of Multiple Scales 228 7. Asymptotic Solutions of Linear Equations 308 References and Author Index 387 Subject Index 417
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konecny, C.
1975-01-01
Two main methods of separation using the distillation method are given and evaluated, namely evaporation and distillation in carrier gas flow. Two basic apparatus are described for illustrating the methods used. The use of the distillation method in radiochemistry is documented by a number of examples of the separation of elements in elemental state, volatile halogenides and oxides. Tables give a survey of distillation methods used for the separation of the individual elements and give conditions under which this separation takes place. The suitability of the use of distillation methods in radiochemistry is discussed with regard to other separation methods. (L.K.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dominguez Gonzalez, Gustavo [Petroleos Mexicanos, Refineria Miguel Hidalgo, Tula de Allende (Mexico)
1993-12-31
In this paper the theoretical fundament and formulae of the power factor are analyzed and a relationship among kilowatts, kilovars and power factor, is shown; also it deals with power factor in combination with load groups, as well as the numerical calculation of the required kvar for the desired improvement of the power factor. Additionally the technical and economical aspects of the capacitors and synchronous motors are contemplated, as well as their location in the electric system in order to achieve the maximum benefits. Finally, the savings obtained with the installation of capacitors in the electric power system of the Miguel Hidalgo refinery, are explained. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se analizan los fundamentos teoricos y formulas del factor de potencia y se muestra la relacion entre kilowatts, kilovars y factor de potencia; tambien trata al factor de potencia combinado de grupos de cargas, asi como el calculo numerico de los KVAR necesarios para la mejora deseada del factor de potencia. Ademas se contemplan aspectos tecnicos y economicos de los capacitores y los motores sincronos, asi como la ubicacion de los mismos en el sistema electrico para lograr los maximos beneficios. Finalmente se explican las ganancias economicas que se obtuvieron al instalarse capacitores en el sistema electrico de potencia de la refineria Miguel Hidalgo.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dominguez Gonzalez, Gustavo [Petroleos Mexicanos, Refineria Miguel Hidalgo, Tula de Allende (Mexico)
1992-12-31
In this paper the theoretical fundament and formulae of the power factor are analyzed and a relationship among kilowatts, kilovars and power factor, is shown; also it deals with power factor in combination with load groups, as well as the numerical calculation of the required kvar for the desired improvement of the power factor. Additionally the technical and economical aspects of the capacitors and synchronous motors are contemplated, as well as their location in the electric system in order to achieve the maximum benefits. Finally, the savings obtained with the installation of capacitors in the electric power system of the Miguel Hidalgo refinery, are explained. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se analizan los fundamentos teoricos y formulas del factor de potencia y se muestra la relacion entre kilowatts, kilovars y factor de potencia; tambien trata al factor de potencia combinado de grupos de cargas, asi como el calculo numerico de los KVAR necesarios para la mejora deseada del factor de potencia. Ademas se contemplan aspectos tecnicos y economicos de los capacitores y los motores sincronos, asi como la ubicacion de los mismos en el sistema electrico para lograr los maximos beneficios. Finalmente se explican las ganancias economicas que se obtuvieron al instalarse capacitores en el sistema electrico de potencia de la refineria Miguel Hidalgo.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guevara Ruiz, Paulina; Ortiz Perez, Maria Deogracias [Laboratorio de Bioquimica, Facultad de de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, (Mexico)]. E-mail: mdortiz@uaslp.mx
2009-05-15
Similarly to other countries, ground water from Mexico is naturally polluted by fluoride. The main effects of fluoride at typical ground water concentrations are dental fluorosis, neurological deficits and reproductive disorders. In order to verify that the fluoride concentration is within the allowed guideline in Mexico (NOM 127 and 201), it is important to monitor fluoride levels in water and commercial beverages. The aim of this work is to develop a modification of the standard potentiometric method for fluoride determination in water, in order to reduce costs and amount of potentially toxic waste substances. Both methods were validated, the standard potentiometric method with the ion selective electrode and the microscale modification proposed in this paper. The methods were compared using statistic tests and graphics, followed by the comparison of 125 samples of commercial bottled water sold in the city of San Luis Potosi. Optimal results were obtained for the validation of both methods, and the microscale modification showed statistically identical results to those obtained with the standard method in all samples of bottled water. The microscale modification is a good alternative for fluoride assessment in water and beverages, and it represents a 95 % reduction of costs and chemical waste. [Spanish] En varios paises, incluido Mexico se presenta una contaminacion natural con fluoruro en agua subterranea; los principales efectos en la salud observados en poblacion expuesta a concentraciones mayores al valor permisible (que en Mexico es de 1.5 mg/L) son la fluorosis dental y esqueletica, asi como dano reproductivo y neurologico. En varios estados de la republica Mexicana, este problema es aun desconocido, de ahi la necesidad de evaluar las concentraciones de fluoruro en agua de consumo en varias comunidades. Asi, el objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar un metodo a microescala para la determinacion de fluoruro en agua, que al reducir la cantidad de reactivo y
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia Estrada, Gerardo [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)
1996-09-01
producir un mapa en coordenadas planas rectangulares en metros. Durante la delimitacion de la ventana se hace un filtrado simple para disminuir los errores numericos que existen en el archivo y si se desea puede elegirse un submuestreo de los datos para preparar mapas menos detallados pero de gran cobertura. El programa ha sido desarrollado y probado extensamente en la Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) de Mexico, en donde se utiliza en estudios regionales para la elaboracion de mapas base, el trazo automatico de perfiles topograficos y el calculo de condiciones de frontera para modelos termicos. Otros usos directos son el calculo de las correcciones por rugosidad o la estimacion de efectos isostaticos en estudios gravimetricos, la estimacion de cotas topograficas para puntos de coordenadas horizontales conocidas, el modelado termico de efectos climaticos en funcion de la topografia, el calculo automatico de volumenes de material y muchos otros.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
The assumed deflection shapes used in the approximate methods such as in the Galerkin's method were normally ... to direct compressive forces Nx, was derived by Navier. [3]. ..... tend to give higher frequency and stiffness, as well as.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valle G, E. del; Mugica R, C.A. [IPN, ESFM, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: cmugica@ipn.mx
2005-07-01
In our country, in last congresses, Gomez et al carried out reactivity calculations based on the solution of the diffusion equation for an energy group using nodal methods in one dimension and the TPL approach (Lineal Perturbation Theory). Later on, Mugica extended the application to the case of multigroup so much so much in one as in two dimensions (X Y geometry) with excellent results. Presently work is carried out similar calculations but this time based on the solution of the neutron transport equation in X Y geometry using nodal methods and again the TPL approximation. The idea is to provide a calculation method that allows to obtain in quick form the reactivity solving the direct problem as well as the enclosed problem of the not perturbed problem. A test problem for the one that results are provided for the effective multiplication factor is described and its are offered some conclusions. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1996-12-01
The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin
1999-01-01
When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...... methods as a way of handling these special problems. It is assumed that we have methods for solving normal ODE systems and index-1 systems....
Maria Kikila; Ioannis Koutelekos
2012-01-01
Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. As discipline is defined the process that help children to learn appropriate behaviors and make good choices. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the discipline methods. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to the discipline methods. Results: In the literature it is ci...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchis, H.; Aucher, P.
1990-01-01
The maintenance method applied at the Hague is summarized. The method was developed in order to solve problems relating to: the different specialist fields, the need for homogeneity in the maintenance work, the equipment diversity, the increase of the materials used at the Hague's new facilities. The aim of the method is to create a knowhow formalism, to facilitate maintenance, to ensure the running of the operations and to improve the estimation of the maintenance cost. One of the method's difficulties is the demonstration of the profitability of the maintenance operations [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Portela, Carlos M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Moreno O, German [Antioquia Univ., Medellin (Colombia). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica
1995-12-31
The optimization of overhead electric power transmission lines leads to compact projects in which the neighbourhood electric and magnetic field are a critical restriction. The Load Simulation Method enables the reliable calculation of such fields. Presented are equations for the application of such conditions. Results are presented 9 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanovich, M.; Murray, A.
1992-01-01
The principles involved in the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter are described, as are the principles behind methods of radiation detection. Different types of radiation detectors are described and methods of detection such as alpha, beta and gamma spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis are presented. Details are given of measurements of uranium-series disequilibria. (UK)
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Perez Calero, J. I.
2008-07-01
In the present work tries to study important paper which they carry out the Composites, in the complex process of the design of solar bi convex refractive concentrators, that would be unthinkable and irrealizables without the aid of them, when having necessary the technical characteristics that they make them viable. It contributes, also, the methodologies followed for the accomplishment of optimal prototypes, by means of Numeric Methods (specially Finite elements) and experimental, on simple prototypes and of characterization of composite laminates. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
2002-01-01
. Method mixins use shared name spaces to transfer information between caller and callee, as opposed to traditional invocation which uses parameters and returned results. This relieves a caller from dependencies on the callee, and it allows direct transfer of information further down the call stack, e......The procedure call mechanism has conquered the world of programming, with object-oriented method invocation being a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, where traditional...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
2002-01-01
invocation is optimized for as-is reuse of existing behavior. Tight coupling reduces flexibility, and traditional invocation tightly couples transfer of information and transfer of control. Method mixins decouple these two kinds of transfer, thereby opening the doors for new kinds of abstraction and reuse......The procedure call mechanism has conquered the world of programming, with object-oriented method invocation being a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, where traditional....... Method mixins use shared name spaces to transfer information between caller and callee, as opposed to traditional invocation which uses parameters and returned results. This relieves a caller from dependencies on the callee, and it allows direct transfer of information further down the call stack, e...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.
2003-01-01
Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
2005-01-01
The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, ...... the call stack, e.g., to a callee's callee. The mechanism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta. Variants of the mechanism could be added to almost any imperative programming language.......The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior...
Arranz Saiz, Francisco Javier; Correa Hernando, Eva Cristina; Jiménez Ariza, Heidi Tatiana; Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Garcia-Herrero, Javier; Robla Villalba, José Ignacio; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar
2011-01-01
Los modelos matemáticos de transferencia de humedad desde el alimento al medio circundante durante el proceso de secado dependen de dos parámetros: coeficiente de difusividad efectiva D y coeficiente convectivo de transferencia de masa hm, cuya determinación experimental se basa en la consideración de un sistema difusivo sencillo de solución analítica bien conocida. Para el caso, que aquí nos ocupa, de difusión monodimensional en una lámina infinita de grosor 2l, la solución analítica de ...
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Segura, J.; Fernandez de Cordoba, P.
1993-01-01
We solve the Schrodinger equation in order to study the time evolution of a wave packet in different situations of physical interest. This work illustrates, with pedagogical aim, some quantum phenomena which shock our classical conception of the universe: propagation in classically forbidden regions, energy quantization. (Author)
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Muller, A.L. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Tecnologia em Computacao Grafica (TecGraf); Vargas Junior, E.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Vaz, L.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Mecanica Aplicada e Estruturas; Goncalves, C.J. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)
2008-07-01
In the boreholes projects, the minimization of the instability problems is extreme importance. In the boreholes instability analysis, two failure mechanisms are generally considered, namely, failure due to either tensile or compressive stresses. Considering these mechanisms, the correct determination of the lower and upper limits of pressures, generated by the drilling fluid in the walls of the boreholes, is an alternative for minimization of the instability problems. The mechanisms of compression or tensile failure can be described in terms of mechanical and fluid flow responses of the transient fluid mechanical coupling problem. This paper proposes a numerical procedure, using finite elements, of the coupled fluid mechanical processes, for automatically determining the lower and upper limits of pressures on the walls of borehole, to ensure, according assumptions and criteria of failure pre-established, the stability of the same. The automatic obtaining those values has the purpose of replace the approximate obtaining by trial and error processes. A hypothetical example of application is show, and from this, inferred considerations about the proposed procedure. (author)
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Sanchez, J.J.; Gorostiza, C.
1995-12-01
The RELIEVE program was developed in order to its integration with the expert system SIRENAS, in the frame of the Industrial Risks Programme, within the CIEMAT center. For accomplishing this mentioned system, arose the necessity of an additional component unable for analyzing the topography (relieve) of the territory in which the focused site is located. That one is just the mission of the RELIEVE program. Basically RELIEVE analyses the digitalized data points of a determined topographic area, around a location of interest. The program allows us estimation by numerical techniques, using IMSL library, of the deep width, and other geometrical characteristics of the valley that are involved in. Optionally RELIEVE produces also graphical outputs concerning 3D representation of topographical map, level curves, sections of interest considered in the valley, etc., by means of the DISSPLA II library, running in the IBM system of the CIEMAT. (Author)
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Sanchez, J.J.; Gorostiza, C.
1995-07-01
The RELIEVE program was developed in order to its integration with the expert system SIRENAS, in the frame of the Industrial Risks Programme, within the CIEMAT center. For accomplishing this mentioned system, arose the necessity of an additional component enabled for analyzing the topography (relieve) of the territory in which the focused site is located. That is just the mission of the RELIEVE program. Basically RELIEVE analyses the digitalized data points of a determinate topographic area, around a location of interest. The program allows us estimation by numerical techniques, using IMSL library, of the deep width, and other geometrical characteristics of the valley that is involved in. Optionally RELIEVE produces also graphical outputs concerning 3D representation of topographical map, level curves, sections of interest considered in the valley, etc., by means of the DISSPLA II library, running in the IBM system of the CIEMAT. (Author) 5 refs.
Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
2005-01-01
The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior...... of abstraction and reuse. Method mixins use shared name spaces to transfer information between caller and callee, as opposed to traditional invocation which uses parameters and returned results. This relieves the caller from dependencies on the callee, and it allows direct transfer of information further down...... the call stack, e.g., to a callee's callee. The mechanism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta. Variants of the mechanism could be added to almost any imperative programming language....
Szulc, Stefan
1965-01-01
Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then
Halberstam, Heine
2011-01-01
Derived from the techniques of analytic number theory, sieve theory employs methods from mathematical analysis to solve number-theoretical problems. This text by a noted pair of experts is regarded as the definitive work on the subject. It formulates the general sieve problem, explores the theoretical background, and illustrates significant applications.""For years to come, Sieve Methods will be vital to those seeking to work in the subject, and also to those seeking to make applications,"" noted prominent mathematician Hugh Montgomery in his review of this volume for the Bulletin of the Ameri
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)
1993-01-01
Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.
Rogers, R.
2013-01-01
In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals
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Bibergal, A V; Leshchinsky, N I; Margulis, U Ya; Khrushev, V G [Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)
1960-07-15
The report describes the principal requirements for gamma units intended for various purposes. Several methods of calculating the dose fields for various forms of irradiators are given, as well as graphs, nomograms and formulae to estimate the amount of gamma-ray dose absorbed by the irradiated object from cobalt-60 and caesium-137. Some of the calculated data have been confirmed by experiment. The advantages of irradiators of various geometry employed in experimental and commercial units are discussed. The irradiation technique for various objects is analyzed and the optimum irradiation conditions (radiation utilization factor, dose field homogeneity, etc.) are discussed. Several rational shielding systems are suggested to simplify irradiation process and recharging, and to reduce the cost of design and operation. (author) [French] Resume Cette communication expose les conditions fondamentales auxquelles doivent satisfaire les installations emettrices de rayonnement gamma, destinees, a divers usages. Elle explique certaines methodes pour le calcul des champs recevant une dose determinee en fonction de la forme du dispositif d'irradiation; elle contient des courbes, des nomogrammes et des formules permettant de calculer la valeur de la dose de rayons gamma du cobalt-60 et du cesium-137 recue par l'echantillon soumis a l'irradiation. Certaines donnees etablies par le calcul ont ete confirmees experimentalement. On examine l'utilite d'employer des dispositifs d'irradiation de configurations variees dans des installations experimentales et des installations industrielles. Les auteurs examinent la technologie de l'irradiation de divers echantillons en vue de choisir les conditions optimales d'irradiation (facteur d'utilisation du rayonnement, uniformite du champ recevant une dose determinee, etc.). Quelques systemes rationnels de protection, simplifiant le processus d'irradiation, sont exposes ainsi que des methodes permettant un echange de charge dans les
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosales, Mauricio F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1988-12-31
This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part. Here are only considered the magnetic systems or electric systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density or total electric load density is known. The algorithms that have been implanted in the software CLIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are developed in order to obtain numerical solutions for these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained by means of the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte. Aqui solo se consideran sistemas magneticos o sistemas electricos en regiones cerradas con simetria translacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total o densidad de carga electrica total es conocida. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se han implantado en el programa de computo CLIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) con el fin de obtener soluciones numericas para estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.
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Rosales, Mauricio F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1987-12-31
This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part. Here are only considered the magnetic systems or electric systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density or total electric load density is known. The algorithms that have been implanted in the software CLIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are developed in order to obtain numerical solutions for these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained by means of the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte. Aqui solo se consideran sistemas magneticos o sistemas electricos en regiones cerradas con simetria translacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total o densidad de carga electrica total es conocida. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se han implantado en el programa de computo CLIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) con el fin de obtener soluciones numericas para estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.
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Vivanco, M.G. Bernui de; Cardenas R, A. [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Angamos No. 2520, Surquillo, Lima (Peru)]. e-mail: gisellebdv@hotmail.com
2006-07-01
The ocular brachytherapy many times unique alternative to conserve the visual organ in patients of ocular cancer, one comes carrying out in the National Institute of Neoplastic Illnesses (INEN) using threads of Iridium 192; those which, they are placed in radial form on the interior surface of a spherical cap of gold of 18 K; the cap remains in the eye until reaching the prescribed dose by the doctor. The main objective of this work is to be able to calculate in a correct and practical way the one time that the treatment of ocular brachytherapy should last to reach the dose prescribed by the doctor. To reach this objective I use the Sievert integral corrected by attenuation effects and scattering (Meisberg polynomials); calculating it by the Simpson method. In the calculations by means of the Sievert integral doesn't take into account the scattering produced by the gold cap neither the variation of the constant of frequency of exposure with the distance. The calculations by means of Sievert integral are compared with those obtained using the Monte Carlo Penelope simulation code, where it is observed that they agree at distances of the surface of the cap greater or equal to 2mm. (Author)
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Morato, Paulo Cesar Vidal Morato [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2012-07-01
By owning many tanks, vessels and process equipment, PETROBRAS has developed the concept of 'Fitness-For-Service' (suitability for use) under the standard API RP 579, i.e. to verify the structural integrity and remaining useful life of equipment in service. In this paper we will discuss how to calculate the remaining useful life of equipment used in accordance with such criteria and with this technical data, calculate the depreciated price. Steps: verification of applicability; surveys of the technical data of the equipment; surveys the minimum thickness of plating equipment over the years; calculation of the average annual rate of corrosion (tc); calculation of the required minimum thickness according to the criteria of API RP 579 (tr); calculation of remaining useful life (nr); calculation of the depreciated price (Vd) equipment. Conclusions: intended for evaluation of tanks price, vessels and process equipment according to API RP 579 concepts. Estimate the remaining useful life of equipment used and calculates the depreciated price. Scientific method based, consistent and robust, due to calculating established the remaining useful life. (author)
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Rosales, Mario F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1988-12-31
This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part of the series for the indirect solution of partial differential equations. Magnetic systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density is partially known (induction problems) are considered. Includes the ability to deal with means in movement and a sinusoidal behavior for the source density current is assumed. Some algorithms are developed that are implanted in the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to obtain the numerical solutions of these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained through the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte de la serie y en el planteamiento proporcionado en la segunda parte para la solucion indirecta de ecuaciones diferenciales parciales. Se consideran sistemas magneticos en regiones cerradas con simetria traslacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total es parcialmente conocida (problemas de induccion). Incluye la capacidad para tratar medios con movimiento y se supone un comportamiento senoidal para la densidad de corriente fuente. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se implantan en el programa de computo CALIIE-2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para obtener las soluciones numericas de estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.
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Cruz L, C. A.
2015-07-01
In the present thesis, the software DERA (Dispersion of Radioactive Effluents into the Atmosphere) was developed in order to calculate the equivalent dose, external and internal, associated with the release of radioactive effluents into the atmosphere from a nuclear facility. The software describes such emissions in normal operation, and not considering the exceptional situations such as accidents. Several tools were integrated for describing the dispersion of radioactive effluents using site meteorological information (average speed and wind direction and the stability profile). Starting with the calculation of the concentration of the effluent as a function of position, DERA estimates equivalent doses using a set of EPA s and ICRP s coefficients. The software contains a module that integrates a database with these coefficients for a set of 825 different radioisotopes and uses the Gaussian method to calculate the effluents dispersion. This work analyzes how adequate is the Gaussian model to describe emissions type -puff-. Chapter 4 concludes, on the basis of a comparison of the recommended correlations of emissions type -puff-, that under certain conditions (in particular with intermittent emissions) it is possible to perform an adequate description using the Gaussian model. The dispersion coefficients (σ{sub y} and σ{sub z}), that using the Gaussian model, were obtained from different correlations given in the literature. Also in Chapter 5 is presented the construction of a particular correlation using Lagrange polynomials, which takes information from the Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves (PGT). This work also contains a state of the art about the coefficients that relate the concentration with the equivalent dose. This topic is discussed in Chapter 6, including a brief description of the biological-compartmental models developed by the ICRP. The software s development was performed using the programming language Python 2.7, for the Windows operating system (the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ximenes, Edmir
2006-07-01
Tools for dosimetric calculations are of the utmost importance for the basic principles of radiological protection, not only in nuclear medicine, but also in other scientific calculations. In this work a mathematical model of the Brazilian woman is developed in order to be used as a basis for calculations of Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) in internal organs and in the skeleton, in accord with the objectives of diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. The model developed here is similar in form to that of Snyder, but modified to be more relevant to the case of the Brazilian woman. To do this, the formalism of the Monte Carlo method was used by means of the ALGAM- 97{sup R} computational code. As a contribution to the objectives of this thesis, we developed the computational system cSAF - consultation for Specific Absorbed Fractions (cFAE from Portuguese acronym) - which furnishes several 'look-up' facilities for the research user. The dialogue interface with the operator was planned following current practices in the utilization of event-oriented languages. This interface permits the user to navigate by means of the reference models, choose the source organ, the energy desired, and receive an answer through an efficient and intuitive dialogue. The system furnishes, in addition to the data referring to the Brazilian woman, data referring to the model of Snyder and to the model of the Brazilian man. The system makes available not only individual data to the SAFs of the three models, but also a comparison among them. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, William S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: wssantos@ipen.br, E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br, E-mail: aperini@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maia, Ana F., E-mail: afmaia@ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
2014-07-01
Cardiac procedures are among the most common procedures in interventional radiology (IR), and can lead to high medical and occupational exposures, as in most cases are procedures complex and long lasting. In this work, conversion coefficients (CC) for the risk of cancer, normalized by kerma area product (KAP) to the patient, cardiologist and nurse were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. The patient and the cardiologist were represented by anthropomorphic simulators MESH, and the nurse by anthropomorphic phantom FASH. Simulators were incorporated into the code of Monte Carlo MCNPX. Two scenarios were created: in the first (1), lead curtain and protective equipment suspended were not included, and in the second (2) these devices were inserted. The radiographic parameters employed in Monte Carlo simulations were: tube voltage of 60 kVp and 120 kVp; filtration of the beam and 3,5 mmAl beam area of 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}. The average values of CCs to eight projections (in 10{sup -4} / Gy.cm{sup 2} were 1,2 for the patient, 2,6E-03 (scenario 1) and 4,9E-04 (scenario 2) for cardiologist and 5,2E-04 (scenario 1) and 4,0E-04 (Scenario 2) to the nurse. The results show a significant reduction in CCs for professionals, when the lead curtain and protective equipment suspended are employed. The evaluation method used in this work can provide important information on the risk of cancer patient and professional, and thus improve the protection of workers in cardiac procedures of RI.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, Luciano Fabricio Dias
2006-07-01
In this work the magnetic hyperfine field acting on Ce atoms substituting the rare-earths in R Ag compounds (R = Gd e Nd) was studied by means of first-principles electronic structure calculations. The employed method was the Augmented Plane Waves plus local orbitals (APW+lo), embodied in the WIEN2k program, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and with the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential. The super-cell approach was utilized in order to simulate for the Ce atoms acting as impurities in the R Ag matrix. In order to improve for correlation effects within the 4f shells, a Hubbard term was added to the DFT Hamiltonian, within a procedure called GGA+U. It was found that the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) generated by the Ce 4f electron is the main component of the total MHF and that the Ce 4f ground state level is probably a combination of the m{sub l} = -2 and m{sub l} = -1 sub-levels. In addition, the ground-state magnetic structure was determined for Ho Ag and Nd Ag by observing the behavior of the total energy as a function of the lattice volume for several possible magnetic ordering in these compounds, namely, ferromagnetic, and the (0,0,{pi}), ({pi},{pi},0) and (({pi},{pi},{pi}) types of anti-ferromagnetic ordering of rare-earth atoms. It was found that the ground-state magnetic structure is anti-ferromagnetic of type ({pi},{pi},0) for both, the Ho Ag and Nd Ag compounds. The energy difference of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ordering is very small in the case of the Nd Ag compound. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ximenes, Edmir
2006-07-01
Tools for dosimetric calculations are of the utmost importance for the basic principles of radiological protection, not only in nuclear medicine, but also in other scientific calculations. In this work a mathematical model of the Brazilian woman is developed in order to be used as a basis for calculations of Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) in internal organs and in the skeleton, in accord with the objectives of diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. The model developed here is similar in form to that of Snyder, but modified to be more relevant to the case of the Brazilian woman. To do this, the formalism of the Monte Carlo method was used by means of the ALGAM- 97{sup R} computational code. As a contribution to the objectives of this thesis, we developed the computational system cSAF - consultation for Specific Absorbed Fractions (cFAE from Portuguese acronym) - which furnishes several 'look-up' facilities for the research user. The dialogue interface with the operator was planned following current practices in the utilization of event-oriented languages. This interface permits the user to navigate by means of the reference models, choose the source organ, the energy desired, and receive an answer through an efficient and intuitive dialogue. The system furnishes, in addition to the data referring to the Brazilian woman, data referring to the model of Snyder and to the model of the Brazilian man. The system makes available not only individual data to the SAFs of the three models, but also a comparison among them. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marhol, M.; Stary, J.
1975-01-01
The characteristics are given of chromatographic separation and the methods are listed. Methods and data on materials used in partition, adsorption, precipitation and ion exchange chromatography are listed and conditions are described under which ion partition takes place. Special attention is devoted to ion exchange chromatography where tables are given to show the course of values of the partition coefficients of different ions in dependence on the concentration of agents and the course of equilibrium sorptions on different materials in dependence on the solution pH. A theoretical analysis is given and the properties of the most widely used ion exchangers are listed. Experimental conditions and apparatus used for each type of chromatography are listed. (L.K.)
Dahlquist, Germund
1974-01-01
""Substantial, detailed and rigorous . . . readers for whom the book is intended are admirably served."" - MathSciNet (Mathematical Reviews on the Web), American Mathematical Society.Practical text strikes fine balance between students' requirements for theoretical treatment and needs of practitioners, with best methods for large- and small-scale computing. Prerequisites are minimal (calculus, linear algebra, and preferably some acquaintance with computer programming). Text includes many worked examples, problems, and an extensive bibliography.
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Rojas C, E. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santos C, C. L. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan y Jesus Carranza, Toluca 50120, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: leticia.rojas@inin.gob.mx
2009-10-15
The {sup 188}Re is a radionuclide of radiation gamma emitter, useful in obtaining of gamma-graphic images, but it is also emitter of beta radiations and Auger electrons. A bio-molecule directed to a specific receptor of a cancer cell labeled with a emitter radionuclide of beta particles and Auger electrons, as the {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin, it has the potential to be used in radiotherapy of molecular targets for its capacity to penetrate to cellular nucleus. In this system, the radiation dose is distributed in way located at microscopic levels in sub cellular specific places, where Auger emissions contributes of significant way in absorbed dose. The cellular dosimetry is realized in most of cases, using analytic or semi analytical methods, for example the cellular MIRD methodology. However, it is required to complement these calculations simulating the electrons transport and considering experimental bio kinetics data. Therefore, in this work preliminary results are presented of dosimetric calculation to sub cellular level for {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin by Monte Carlo simulation, using the 2008 version of PENELOPE: PENEASY code. The spatial distribution of absorbed dose in membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, was calculated with geometry of a cell of 10 {mu}m of diameter, a nucleus of 2 {mu}m of ratio and membrane of 0.2 {mu}m of thickness, considering elementary constitution for each cellular compartment proposal in literature. The total number of disintegrations at sub cellular level was evaluated integrating the activity in function of time starting from experimental bio kinetics data in mamma cancer cells MDA-MB231. The preliminary results show that 46.4% of total disintegrations for unit of captured activity by cell occurs in nucleus, 38.4% in membrane and 15.2% in cytoplasm. The due absorbed dose to Auger electrons for 1 Bq of {sup 188}Re located in cellular membrane were respectively of 1.32E-1 and 1.43E-1 Gy in cytoplasm and nucleus. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urquiza, Gustavo [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); Adamkowski, Adam [The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery (Poland); Kubiak, Janusz; Sierra, Fernando [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); Janicki, Waldemar [The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery (Poland); Fernandez, J. Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)
2007-07-15
This paper describes the methodology applied for measuring water flow through a 170-MW hydraulic turbine. The flow rate was measured using the pressure-time method, also known as the Gibson method. This method uses the well-known water hammer phenomenon in pipelines; in turbine penstocks, for instance. The version of this method used here is based on measuring, during total stop of the water stream, the time-history of pressure change in one section of the turbine penstock and relate it to the pressure in the upper reservoir to which the penstock is connected. The volumetric flow rate is determined from the relevant integration of the measured temporary pressure rise. Flow measurement was possible this way because the influence of the penstock inlet was negligible as far as an error of the measurement is concerned. The length of the penstock was 300 m. Previous experience and a standard IEC-41-1991 were the criteria adopted and applied. A fast and efficient acquisition system, including a 16 bit card, was used. The flow rate was calculated using a computer program developed and tested on several cases. The results obtained with the Gibson method were used for calibration of the on-line flow measuring system based on the Winter-Kennedy method as one of the index methods. This method is very often used for continuous monitoring of the flow rate through hydraulic turbines, when the calibration has been done on site by using the results of measurements obtained by the absolute method. Having measured the flow rate and output power, the efficiency was calculated for any operating conditions. A curve showing the best operating conditions based on the highest efficiency is presented and discussed. The details of the instrumentation, its installation, and the results obtained are discussed in the paper. [Spanish] Este articulo describe la metodologia aplicada para la medicion del flujo en una turbina hidraulica de 170 MW. El flujo se midio utilizando el metodo de presion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.
2002-01-01
Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furukawa, Toshiharu; Shibuya, Kiichiro.
1985-01-01
Purpose: To provide a method of eliminating radioactive contaminations capable of ease treatment for decontaminated liquid wastes and grinding materials. Method: Those organic grinding materials such as fine wall nuts shell pieces cause no secondary contaminations since they are softer as compared with inorganic grinding materials, less pulverizable upon collision against the surface to be treated, being capable of reusing and producing no fine scattering powder. In addition, they can be treated by burning. The organic grinding material and water are sprayed by a nozzle to the surface to be treated, and decontaminated liquid wastes are separated into solid components mainly composed of organic grinding materials and liquid components mainly composed of water by filtering. The thus separated solid components are recovered in a storage tank for reuse as the grinding material and, after repeating use, subjected to burning treatment. While on the other hand, water is recovered into a storage tank and, after repeating use, purified by passing through an ion exchange resin-packed column and decontaminated to discharge. (Horiuchi, T.)
Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.
1959-09-29
A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.
Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.
2012-12-18
A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geary, W.J.
1986-01-01
This little volume is one of an extended series of basic textbooks on analytical chemistry produced by the Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning project in the UK. Prefatory sections explain its mission, and how to use the Open Learning format. Seventeen specific sections organized into five chaptrs begin with a general discussion of nuclear properties, types, and laws of nuclear decay and proceeds to specific discussions of three published papers (reproduced in their entirety) giving examples of radiochemical methods which were discussed in the previous chapter. Each section begins with an overview, contains one or more practical problems (called self-assessment questions or SAQ's), and concludes with a summary and a list of objectives for the student. Following the main body are answers to the SAQ's, and several tables of physical constants, SI prefixes, etc. A periodic table graces the inside back cover
Moment methods and Lanczos methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitehead, R.R.
1980-01-01
In contrast to many of the speakers at this conference I am less interested in average properties of nuclei than in detailed spectroscopy. I will try to show, however, that the two are very closely connected and that shell-model calculations may be used to give a great deal of information not normally associated with the shell-model. It has been demonstrated clearly to us that the level spacing fluctuations in nuclear spectra convey very little physical information. This is true when the fluctuations are averaged over the entire spectrum but not if one's interest is in the lowest few states, whose spacings are relatively large. If one wishes to calculate a ground state (say) accurately, that is with an error much smaller than the excitation energy of the first excited state, very high moments, μ/sub n/, n approx. 200, are needed. As I shall show, we use such moments as a matter of course, albeit without actually calculating them; in fact I will try to show that, if at all possible, the actual calculations of moments is to be avoided like the plague. At the heart of the new shell-model methods embodied in the Glasgow shell-model program and one or two similar ones is the so-called Lanczos method and this, it turns out, has many deep and subtle connections with the mathematical theory of moments. It is these connections that I will explore here
Sugarcane exergy calculation; Calculo de la exergia de la cana de azucar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez P, Maria I.; Nebra P, Silvia A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: mariai@fem.unicamp.br.; sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Martinez R, Arnaldo [Universidade de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica. Centro de Estudios de Refrigeracion Luis Fernando Brossard Perez]. E-mail: arnaldo@fim.ceefe.uo.edu.cu
2000-07-01
This paper presents a sugarcane exergy calculation, carried out considering the material as constituted by dry fiber and juice, being the last one that includes all the sucrose and water present in sugarcane. The variation intervals of sugarcane chemical composition and consequently the chemical composition of fibre and juice were obtained from a bibliography research. the finals results show that, the fibre exergy, as was considered totally dry and without sucrose, is a function of it chemical composition only. The quotient between the exergy and low calorific value has a middle value of 1,14 and the middle value of it exergy was 2329 kJ/kg of cane. Based on the environmental reference proposed by Szargut for the sugarcane juice exergy determination, it was obtained that the mixture component of the juice exergy has no piratical influence in the total exergy juice value, being the value of the reactive exergy component the determining of a middle value of sugarcane juice exergy of 2814,25 kJ/kg of juice and 2380Kj/Kg of cane. The sugarcane exergy value obtained for 8-18% of fiber, 75-82% of water and 14.5-22% of sucrose was 4709Kj/kg of cane. (author)
Un error en los calculos matematicos destroza el acelerador de particulas del CERN
Cernuda, Olalla
2007-01-01
The most famous particle accelerator in the world, who is at CERN, has suffered a catastrophic damage after a great explosion took place in its depths. This explosion has an absolutely scientific explanation: a mathematical mistake in the design of the anchorages of great magnets. (1 page)
Calculo de volúmenes en modelos remallados de elementos finitos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrés Lapuebla-Ferri
2011-06-01
Full Text Available El Método de los Elementos Finitos asistido por ordenador es una herramienta muy extendida en ingeniería. En ciertas aplicaciones, se precisa modificar la malla del modelo a lo largo del proceso de simulación, lo que se conoce como remallado. En estos casos, además, suele ser necesario realizar mediciones en el modelo de elementos finitos, como por ejemplo calcular el volumen de ciertas regiones del mismo. Los paquetes comerciales disponibles en la actualidad permiten satisfacer algunas de estas necesidades, aunque adolecen de ciertas limitaciones. En este trabajo se presenta una aplicación desarrollada en el código propio de MatlabQc, que permite el cálculo aproximado del volumen de una región del espacio comprendida entre una malla de elementos finitos cuadriláteros lineales y otra malla topológicamente equivalente a la anterior, esta última obtenida a través de un proceso de remallado.
La Vision que tienen del Calculo los Diplomados en Empresariales: Un Test Final
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seijas Macías, J. Antonio
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Como docentes de Matemáticas Aplicadas a la Economía y Empresa somos conscientes de las a veces difíciles relaciones entre ambas disciplinas. ¿En qué sentido se diluyen las matemáticas en la economía? ¿Qué queda de ellas en los alumnos de empresa al acabar la carrera? ¿El lenguaje matemático sigue teniendo significado para ellos? Este trabajo pretende responder a estas preguntas tomando como referencia un test pasado a los alumnos del último año de la diplomatura de Ciencias Empresariales de la Universidad de A Coruña.
ESTUDIO TEÓRICO DE LA MOLÉCULA DE HIDROGENO CALCULO AB-INITIO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Quitián
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Utilizando la técnica LCGO-SCF-MO (Combinación Lineal de los Orbitales Moleculares en Orbitales Gausianos, en el método del Campo Auto-Coherente, se determinaron las energías de orbital, la energía electrónica total, la energía de repulsión nuclear y la energía de Hartree-Fock de la molécula de hidrógeno en su estado fundamental, mediante un cálculo ab initio y utilizando una base de funciones gausianas. Los orbitales moleculares fueron desarrollados en términos de una función Is contraída por átomo de hidrógeno, obtenida por la minimización de los coeficientes y de los exponentes de los orbitales gausianos para el átomo aislado. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten afirmar que la base molecular mejora sensiblemente los resultados, acercándose más al límite de Hartree-Fock.
Calculo de Parámetros Electrónicos Para el Grafito Bernal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudia Villaquirán
2002-06-01
Full Text Available Using ab-initio calculation, we have computed different electronic parameters associated with the transport coefficients of graphite Bernal. Software CRYSTAL¹ was used with a Pople standard STO- 21G* basis set. Different hamiltonians were tested, choosing a restricted Hartree-Fock one, because it generated the best qualitative results. All graphites studied present a valence bandwidth near 0.60 a.u., in agreement with the literature. In hexagonal Bernal graphite the splitting of the valence P band was accentuated, and E F = -0.00140 a.u. The surface Fermi is located around the HKH edge of the first Brillouin zone. In general such surfaces present a central electron orbit of maximal size in the plane, which diminish in size when the z component of the vector moves in KH direction. Integrating on the surface Fermi calculates the time relaxation parallel and the time relaxation perpendicular and finally we evaluate the parallel and perpendicular resistivity.
Calculos de estabilidade e divisão de fases por meio de redes neurais artificiais
Jones Erni Schmitz
2006-01-01
Resumo: A simulação de processos é um componente fundamental de uma grande variedade de atividades de Engenharia de Processos, tais como a Otimização Online, o controle em Tempo Real, a Identificação, etc. O cálculo de Equilíbrio de Fases é uma atividade fundamental em qualquer simulação de processos de separação. O elevado tempo computacional deste cálculo provocado pela sua natureza iterativa pode criar incompatibilidades entre a atividade de simulação e as aplicações em tempo real que ela ...
Esquivel Fonseca, Leidy Gioanna
2013-01-01
El presente trabajo de grado busca definir cuál es el mejor método para determinar el valor en riesgo del contrato de futuro de energía eléctrica que se transa en Colombia, para cumplir con este objetivo se toma como referencia el marco histórico del VaR y de los futuros seguido de las características de la fijación de precios, la estructura del contrato, que políticas y métodos hay para cubrirse del riesgo y como se realiza en otros países, realizando algunos cálculos de los modelos más trad...
Maria Helena Cano de Andrade
1991-01-01
Resumo: Este trabalho é uma contribuição ao estudo de processos de separação envolvendo fases em equilibrio liquido-liquido-vapor. Os seguintes aspectos são abordados: (1) desenvolvimento de um algoritmo eficiente de cálculo de flash liquido-liquido-vapor e sua aplicação para gerar diagramas de fases e em cálculos de destilação; (2) avaliação da utilização de parâmetros binários do modelo UNIQUAC obtidos de dados bifásicos em cálculos trifásicos de misturas ternárias; (3) medidas experimentai...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez Portilla, M. I.; Marquez, J.
2011-07-01
Radiological protection aims to limit the ionizing radiation received by people and equipment, which in numerous occasions requires of protection shields. Although, for certain configurations, there are analytical formulas, to characterize these shields, the design setup may be very intensive in numerical calculations, therefore the most efficient from to design the shields is by means of computer programs to calculate dose and dose rates. In the present article we review the codes most frequently used to perform these calculations, and the techniques used by such codes. (Author) 13 refs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frederik Kortlandt
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The basis of linguistic reconstruction is the comparative method, which starts from the assumption that there is “a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident”, implying the existence of a common source (thus Sir William Jones in 1786. It follows that there must be a possible sequence of developments from the reconstructed system to the attested data. These developments must have been either phonetically regular or analogical. The latter type of change requires a model and a motivation. A theory which does not account for the data in terms of sound laws and well-motivated analogical changes is not a linguistic reconstruction but philosophical speculation.The pre-laryngealist idea that any Proto-Indo-European long vowel became acute in Balto-Slavic is a typical example of philosophical speculation contradicted by the comparative evidence. Other examples are spontaneous glottalization (Jasanoff’s “acute assignment”, unattested anywhere in the world, Jasanoff’s trimoraic long vowels, Eichner’s law, Osthoff’s law, and Szemerényi’s law, which is an instance of circular reasoning. The Balto-Slavic acute continues the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals and the glottalic feature of the traditional Proto-Indo-European “unaspirated voiced” obstruents (Winter’s law. My reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European glottalic obstruents is based on direct evidence from Indo-Iranian, Armenian, Baltic and Germanic and indirect evidence from Indo-Iranian, Greek, Latin and Slavic.
Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza
Bennett, Gordon D.
1987-01-01
Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hostrup, Astrid Kuijers
1999-01-01
An introduction to BDF-methods is given. The use of these methods on differential algebraic equations (DAE's) with different indexes with respect to order, stability and convergens of the BDF-methods is presented.......An introduction to BDF-methods is given. The use of these methods on differential algebraic equations (DAE's) with different indexes with respect to order, stability and convergens of the BDF-methods is presented....
Uranium price forecasting methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuller, D.M.
1994-01-01
This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again
Methods in aquatic bacteriology
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Austin, B
1988-01-01
.... Within these sections detailed chapters consider sampling methods, determination of biomass, isolation methods, identification, the bacterial microflora of fish, invertebrates, plants and the deep...
Transport equation solving methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granjean, P.M.
1984-06-01
This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeHaan, A. Jr.; Leventhal, L.; Benson, P. [Tracerlab, Richmond, CA (United States)
1965-10-15
The resolution of complex mixtures of gamma-ray emitters has been expedited by the use of highly sophisticated gamma-ray spectrometers in association with digital computers. These instruments have now become generally available or easily accessible to technical laboratories. This paper discusses the techniques used in this laboratory to obtain the concentrations of individual gamma-emitting radionuclides in fallout samples and compares the results obtained by the various mathematical methods on composite samples. The computer derived data are compared with results obtained by radiochemical analysis of the sample. Binary mixtures were analysed by methods outlined below and then the analysis was extended to the many component system. A computer method was developed which normalizes gamma-ray spectra to minimize the effect of long-term spectrometer drift and converts the spectrum to an energy co-ordinate system. The effects of an ''unexpected photopeak, ''zero intensity component, and overlapping peaks on the solution by the various methods were investigated with special emphasis on low-level samples. The most common mathematical methods for resolving a composite gamma-ray spectrum into its components were investigated. Most of these procedures lead to estimates for the concentrations of the different gamma-ray emitters by one of the following methods: (1) The successive elimination of the radionuclides with higher energy photopeaks subtracting the pure spectrum from the composite spectrum until it has been resolved; (2) Peak resolution without stripping; (3) The establishment of a set of simultaneous linear equations of the same order as the number of radionuclides in the mixture and its solution; (4) The estimation of the unknown concentrations by the method of least-squares, either conventional or weighted; (5) A combined statistical and least-squares method employing stepwise multiple linear regression, an attempt to integrate decision-making processes into the
Advanced differential quadrature methods
Zong, Zhi
2009-01-01
Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...
Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods
Wu, Xiaohua
2017-01-01
Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.
Bellman, Richard Ernest
1970-01-01
In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat
Consumer Behavior Research Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chrysochou, Polymeros
2017-01-01
This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garncarek, Z.
1989-01-01
The three circle method in its general form is presented. The method is especially useful for investigation of shapes of agglomerations of objects. An example of its applications to investigation of galaxies distribution is given. 17 refs. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup
2010-01-01
The paper challenges the dominant and widespread view that a good design method will guarantee a systematic approach as well as certain results. First, it explores the substantial differences between on the one hand the conception of methods implied in Pahl & Beitz’s widely recognized text book...... on engineering design, and on the other hand the understanding of method use, which has emerged from micro-sociological studies of practice (ethnomethodology). Second, it reviews a number of case studies conducted by engineering students, who were instructed to investigate the actual use of design methods...... in Danish companies. The paper concludes that design methods in practice deviate substantially from Pahl & Beitz’s description of method use: The object and problems, which are the starting points for method use, are more contested and less given than generally assumed; The steps of methods are often...
Mastorakis, Nikos E
2009-01-01
Features contributions that are focused on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics. This book carries chapters that advanced methods and various variations on known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Byeong Hae
1992-02-01
This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.
Conformable variational iteration method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omer Acan
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.
VALUATION METHODS- LITERATURE REVIEW
Dorisz Talas
2015-01-01
This paper is a theoretical overview of the often used valuation methods with the help of which the value of a firm or its equity is calculated. Many experts (including Aswath Damodaran, Guochang Zhang and CA Hozefa Natalwala) classify the methods. The basic models are based on discounted cash flows. The main method uses the free cash flow for valuation, but there are some newer methods that reveal and correct the weaknesses of the traditional models. The valuation of flexibility of managemen...
Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise
2015-04-08
Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.
Possibilities of roentgenological method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivash, Eh.S.; Sal'man, M.M.
1980-01-01
Literary and experimental data on estimating possibilities of roentgenologic investigations using an electron optical amplifier, X-ray television and roentgen cinematography are generalized. Different methods of studying gastro-intestinal tract are compared. The advantage of the roentgenologic method over the endoscopic method after stomach resection is shown [ru
The Generalized Sturmian Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avery, James Emil
2011-01-01
these ideas clearly so that they become more accessible. By bringing together these non-standard methods, the book intends to inspire graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and academics to think of novel approaches. Is there a method out there that we have not thought of yet? Can we design a new method...... generations of researchers were left to work out how to achieve this ambitious goal for molecular systems of ever-increasing size. This book focuses on non-mainstream methods to solve the molecular electronic Schrödinger equation. Each method is based on a set of core ideas and this volume aims to explain...
Mimetic discretization methods
Castillo, Jose E
2013-01-01
To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leasure, C.S.
1992-01-01
The Department of Energy (DOE) has established an analytical methods compendium development program to integrate its environmental analytical methods. This program is administered through DOE's Laboratory Management Division (EM-563). The primary objective of this program is to assemble a compendium of analytical chemistry methods of known performance for use by all DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. This compendium will include methods for sampling, field screening, fixed analytical laboratory and mobile analytical laboratory analyses. It will also include specific guidance on the proper selection of appropriate sampling and analytical methods in using specific analytical requirements
Methods for assessing geodiversity
Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco
2017-04-01
The accepted systematics of geodiversity assessment methods will be presented in three categories: qualitative, quantitative and qualitative-quantitative. Qualitative methods are usually descriptive methods that are suited to nominal and ordinal data. Quantitative methods use a different set of parameters and indicators to determine the characteristics of geodiversity in the area being researched. Qualitative-quantitative methods are a good combination of the collection of quantitative data (i.e. digital) and cause-effect data (i.e. relational and explanatory). It seems that at the current stage of the development of geodiversity research methods, qualitative-quantitative methods are the most advanced and best assess the geodiversity of the study area. Their particular advantage is the integration of data from different sources and with different substantive content. Among the distinguishing features of the quantitative and qualitative-quantitative methods for assessing geodiversity are their wide use within geographic information systems, both at the stage of data collection and data integration, as well as numerical processing and their presentation. The unresolved problem for these methods, however, is the possibility of their validation. It seems that currently the best method of validation is direct filed confrontation. Looking to the next few years, the development of qualitative-quantitative methods connected with cognitive issues should be expected, oriented towards ontology and the Semantic Web.
Methods of Software Verification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. E. Gurin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problem of software verification (SW. Methods of software verification designed to check the software for compliance with the stated requirements such as correctness, system security and system adaptability to small changes in the environment, portability and compatibility, etc. These are various methods both by the operation process and by the way of achieving result. The article describes the static and dynamic methods of software verification and paid attention to the method of symbolic execution. In its review of static analysis are discussed and described the deductive method, and methods for testing the model. A relevant issue of the pros and cons of a particular method is emphasized. The article considers classification of test techniques for each method. In this paper we present and analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of the static analysis of dependencies, as well as their views, which can reduce the number of false positives in situations where the current state of the program combines two or more states obtained both in different paths of execution and in working with multiple object values. Dependences connect various types of software objects: single variables, the elements of composite variables (structure fields, array elements, the size of the heap areas, the length of lines, the number of initialized array elements in the verification code using static methods. The article pays attention to the identification of dependencies within the framework of the abstract interpretation, as well as gives an overview and analysis of the inference tools.Methods of dynamic analysis such as testing, monitoring and profiling are presented and analyzed. Also some kinds of tools are considered which can be applied to the software when using the methods of dynamic analysis. Based on the work a conclusion is drawn, which describes the most relevant problems of analysis techniques, methods of their solutions and
Efecto de la concentracion de hidrogeno en la red de hierro bcc por calculos ab-initio
Sánchez, Javier; Andrés, Pedro L. de; Fullea, J.; Andrade, C.
2008-01-01
Utilizando cálculos mecano-cuánticos de primeros principios hemos estudiado la interacción del hidrógeno con la red cúbica centrada en el cuerpo del hierro. El hidrógeno intersticial puede ocupar dos posiciones de alta simetría en la red: el hueco octaédrico y el tetraédrico. Nuestros cálculos nos proporcionan barreras de difusión entre ambos huecos, que analizamos para entender la propagación del hidrogeno a través de la red de hierro. Se ha estudiado el efecto de la concentración de hidróge...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serna, Eduardo
2003-06-01
Full Text Available A composite material can be defined as the combination of two or more materials with the aim of obtaining a new product with improved properties. Composite materials, composed of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibers, are currently used as structural elements, in spite of the uncertainties on strength, deformability and durability. The use of pultruded profiles in shapes similar to those used in metallic construction, results in an interesting solution for this material when high resistance. protection against chemical attacks and lightness are required. The structural key point of those materials are the joints. The present paper is focused on joints composed of bolted plates on the wings of IPN pultruded profiles. Different tests conducted in LABEIN are described. Likewise, this paper deals with tests carried out with the purpose of analysing the feasibility of joints with high resistance bolts.Se entiende como material compuesto la combinación de dos o más materiales para obtener un nuevo producto que mejore las propiedades individuales de cada uno ellos. Se está comenzando a emplear el material compuesto. formado por una matriz de tipo polimérico o resina reforzada con fibras. como elementos estructurales. pero con reticencias originadas por las incertidumbres existentes en la actualidad relativas a su resistencia, deformabilidad y durabilidad. Este material aporta un importante interés cuando se quieren obtener elementos estructurales de alta resistencia . protección frente a ataques químicos y ligereza. utilizando perfiles a la manera de la estructura metálica. fabricados por pultrusión, Debido a que el punto crítico estructural se encuentra en las uniones. el presente artículo se centrará en los empalmes atornillados con cubrejuntas de alas de perfiles pultruídos IPN, describiendo los ensayos de diferente naturaleza realizados en las instalaciones del Centro Tecnológico LABEIN. A su vez se recogen los ensayos previos desarrollados para analizar la viabilidad de ejecutar uniones por rozamiento con tornillos de alta resistencia.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz Carlos Bertges
Full Text Available Foram avaliados os resultados tardios da colocação de cálculos biliares humanos, de colesterol, na cavidade peritoneal de ratos. Constituíram-se cinco grupos: cinco ratos foram apenas laparotomizados com manuseio da cavidade; cinco foram laparotomizados e receberam um ponto com fio monofilamentar cinco zeros no sulco paracólico direito e mesentério; dez receberam cálculos que foram deixados livres na cavidade peritoneal; em dez, os clculos foram fixados no sulco paracólico direito e, finalmente, dez tiveram clculos fixados no mesentério. Os animais foram mortos após cinco meses de pós-operatório quando se observou a cavidade abdominal e foi coletado material para estudo histopatológico. Concluiu-se que os cálculos não foram absorvidos, desenvolveram uma reação peritoneal do tipo corpo estranho com formação de plastrão e foram envolvidos por tecido fibroso e células inflamatórias.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. García de la Figal Costales
2002-01-01
Full Text Available La tarea que se acomete es el cálculo a resistencia y rigidez de un tanque para el almacenamiento de agua, de 200 000 litrosde capacidad, construido de plástico reforzado con fibras de vidrio, PRFV. El mismo es cilíndrico vertical, de 8 metros dediámetro por 4.2 metros de altura. Los materiales seleccionados para la conformación de las láminas con las que se haránlos laminados de PRFV, fueron: resina poliéster isosftálica, y fibras de vidrio E.La carga fundamental a soportar por el tanque será la presión debida a la columna de agua en su interior, pero por estar a laintemperie y en zona de playa, se considerará también la acción de las dilataciones debidas a la temperatura, así como laacción de un ciclón.Palabras claves: resistencia, recipiente, composites, elementos finitos._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The stress and strains calculation of a water reinforced fiber glass container is carried out by means of a modern FiniteElement program, because the high complexity of calculus. The soported main load is the pressure caused by the column ofwater.Key words: Resistance, vessels, composites, finite elements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marten-Fuertes, F.
1995-01-01
The use of computer codes to analyze the phenomena of severe accidents is very important to take decisions in Nuclear Safety. This paper presents the MELCOR code used to calculate the TMLB sequence of PWR with natural circulation into the vessels. The main goal of this code is its application for the PSA (probabilistic safety analysis)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, T.; Angeles, A.; Flores C, J., E-mail: teodoro.garcia@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2013-10-15
In this work the conditions of nuclear safety were determined as much in normal conditions as in the accident event of the nuclear fuel warehouse of the reactor TRIGA Mark III of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The warehouse contains standard fuel elements Leu - 8.5/20, a control rod with follower of standard fuel type Leu - 8.5/20, fuel elements Leu - 30/20, and the reactor fuel Sur-100. To check the subcritical state of the warehouse the effective multiplication factor (keff) was calculated. The keff calculation was carried out with the code MCNPX. (Author)
Componentes Principales (C.P. de los sistemas de calculo del IPC base 92 y sistema IPC base 2001
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julio Pallas González
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Nueve años después de que se adoptara un cambio de base en el cálculo del IPC para el Estado Español, asistimos a un cambio de sistema en el cálculo del mismo, naciendo el sistema de índices de precios, base 2001. A lo largo de este trabajo y utilizando el programa estadístico SPSS, se tratará de realizar un análisis multivariante, sobre las distintas variables que componen el IPC base 92, del estado español, y las del índice, atendiendo al nuevo sistema base 2001, que entró en vigor en enero de 2002. De todas las técnicas multivariantes susceptibles de ser aplicadas en este trabajo, se utilizaran el análisis de componentes principales y el análisis factorial, con el fin de obtener factores no observables que permitan explicar, perdiendo la mínima información, las variables originales que representan.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manzanares, P.
1997-11-01
During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs.
Calculo Preliminar de la Tasa de Meteorización del Batolito Antioqueño, Cordillera Central, Colombia
Carolina Garcia; Michel Hermelin
2004-01-01
Este trabajo es una estimación preliminar del tiempo necesario para generar la espesa capa de saprolito que caracteriza el perfil de meteorización actual de un batolito cuarzodiorítico cretácico que aflora en altiplanos de la Cordillera Central de Colombia, entre 5º50' y 7º00' de latitud Norte y 74º50' y 75º35' de longitud Oeste y a alturas entre 750 y 2700 m.Se utilizan datos obtenidos previamente mediante el análisis de la composición química de las aguas superficiales d...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jimeno de Osso, F
1971-07-01
Simple procedures for the calculation of radiation exposition, half thickness, shield thickness, etc. are described and equations and graphs are included for those gamma-emitting radionuclides, that are more often used in radiochemical laboratories. Application is made of these procedures to three radionuclides, bromine-82, sodium-24 and cobalt-60 which cover a rather wl.de energy range; theoretical results are compared with those obtained from experimental measurements. (Author) 23 refs.
MEDINA RUIZ, VÍCTOR MANUEL
2016-01-01
[ES] El objetivo fundamental del presente trabajo es el diseño y cálculo de la estructura metálica, así como su cimentación, de una nave para una industria dedicada a la fabricación de paneles fotovoltaicos en el Parque Tecnológico de Paterna (Valencia). El espacio interior debe ser suficiente para contener todas las áreas necesarias en una industria de dichas características: Oficinas, Vestuarios, Almacén y Línea de Producción (Soldadura, montaje…). Para la realización del cál...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saraiva, J. Tome [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal). E-mail: jsaraiva@inescn.pt
1999-07-01
This paper presents a model for systematic and structured impact evaluation of the uncertainties existent in the load powers, on the spot prices on the various bars of a electric power system. The application developed allows the specification of load power as inaccurate trapezoidal numbers and adopts the DC model for the representation of system exploration conditions. Considering the influence of the loss power on the formulation of a spot prices spatial distribution, the model allows the inclusion of transmission network loss estimation. The results correspond to appurtenance functions of spot prices in each barm, consisting of a discrete set of ordered pais which integrates the spot price values and the appurtenance or compatibility level, in accordance with Fuzzy Sets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villarino, Eduardo; Hergenreder, Daniel [Investigacion Aplicada, INVAP, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)
2000-07-01
In this work is described the neutronic calculation line used to design the CAREM reactor.A description of the codes used and the interfaces between the different programs are presented.Both, the normal calculation line and the alternative or verification calculation line are included.The calculation line used to obtain the kinetics parameters (effective delayed-neutron fraction and prompt-neutron lifetime) is also included.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: mfernandes@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Goldberg, Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Urologia; Sakate, Makoto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem; Louzada, Mario J.Q. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria; Fernandes, Marco F.S. [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia Geral
2010-07-01
Radiological Images of kidneys stones were analyzed, quantifying the optical density (D.O.) and the blackening degree in the radiographic film of the samples. Studies of the literature, analyses of samples and interviews with specialists of the Center of Sciences and Technologies of Materials (CCTM) of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Researches (IPEN/CNEN-SP), after crystallographic analysis for absorption techniques and diffraction of ray-X, showed that D.O. of the stones it is more directly dependent of their dimensions of what of their contents concentration. It is the researchers' consensus that as larger D.O. of the radiographic image of the calculation renal, larger her density (g/cm{sup 3}) and therefore larger the importance of the application of an appropriate energy for the fragmentation of the calculation. This energy, supplied by the equipment extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) it depends on several parameters inside the ones which the anatomy and the patient's position and of the own limitations of the lithotripsy equipment. This interpretation, at least for the analyzed samples, it disappoints a simplistic correlation among the parameters of the shock waves used in the lithotripsy procedures and the measures of D.O. and characteristics minerals. Another restriction factor is the discrepancy of the radiological image the kidneys stones camped in the patient, surrounded by the organs and interposed bone structures, and gotten her through the analysis of the fragments expelled after the accomplishment of ESWL, which present great variety of granulations. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adroer, M.; Bodas, J.; Coma, J.
2001-07-01
Reverse osmosis if a technique used ever more frequently for the desalination of water. it is very important to maintain the permeability of the membrane as much as possible throughout its life, and in order to do this, is necessary to know the incrustations properties of the water in contact with the membrane. The Adicro program has been developed to calculate the characteristics of this water from the analysis of the intake water, the type of membrane used, and the recovery percentage. It also calculates the necessary inhibitor doses and, finally, whether the supply water is apt for use in the plant under the predicted conditions or whether it should be modified. (Author) 2 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marco, Antonino Di [International Paint (Akzo Nobel Ltda.), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2004-07-01
The economic importance of the condition of the immersed hull cannot be underestimated; any increase of the roughness may result in a significant increase in the operational costs of a ship. There are two main types of roughness, biological and physical, each one with its proper characteristics of macro and micro roughness; when an increase in the roughness of the underwater hull occurs, the frictional resistance of the ship or .drag. also increases, resulting in additional power and consequent increase of the fuel consumption to keep the speed of the ship. Keeping the power constant will result in lower speed and greater voyage times. Aiming the better understanding of the effect of the roughness in the performance, costs and operational efficiency of a ship, International Paint developed a new model called 'Hull Roughness Penalty Calculator', a program that predicts the increase of the hull roughness during in service time specified service and combines it with the fouling risk associated with different types of antifoulings. The model compares fuel consumptions and costs of different types of TBT free antifoulings to derive the potential benefit, and also can be used to compare the emissions of carbon dioxide and sulphur oxides. (author)
Calculo Preliminar de la Tasa de Meteorización del Batolito Antioqueño, Cordillera Central, Colombia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carolina Garcia
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Este trabajo es una estimación preliminar del tiempo necesario para generar la espesa capa de saprolito que caracteriza el perfil de meteorización actual de un batolito cuarzodiorítico cretácico que aflora en altiplanos de la Cordillera Central de Colombia, entre 5º50' y 7º00' de latitud Norte y 74º50' y 75º35' de longitud Oeste y a alturas entre 750 y 2700 m.Se utilizan datos obtenidos previamente mediante el análisis de la composición química de las aguas superficiales de cuatro cuencas con áreas diferentes, ubicadas sobre el Batolito Antioqueño, al este de Medellín. Los cáculos se hicieron con el método basado en la pérdida de componentes en solución utilizando diferentes valores de solutos. Al utilizar la pérdida de sílice se obtiene un tiempo de meteorización de unos 6 x 10 6 años, comparable con el obtenido mediante la datación de las cenizas volcánicas mas antiguas que recubren la topografía actual y que indican la fecha mínima de configuración de la superficie de erosión.A pesar de resultar de una serie de suposiciones simplificadoras, este resultado es interesante y justifica la realización de determinaciones mas detalladas. Confirma la larga preservación de superficies de erosión antiguas conformadas sobre un saprolito que desde hace varios millones de años no ha sido sometido a una erosión profunda, fenómeno poco común en una zona tectónicamente activa como la estudiada.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villescas, G.; Corchon, F.
2013-07-01
he neutron fluence plays an important role in the study of the structural integrity of the reactor vessel after a certain time of neutron irradiation. The NRC defined in the Regulatory Guide 1.190, the way must be estimated neutron fluence, including uncertainty analysis of the validation process (creep uncertainty is ? 20%). TRANSWARE Enterprises Inc. developed a methodology for calculating the neutron flux, 1,190 based guide, known as RAMA. Uncertainty values obtained with this methodology, for about 18 vessels, are less than 10%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robalinho, Eric
2009-07-01
This work presents the development of a numerical computer model and methodology to study and design polymeric exchange membrane fuel cell - PEM. For the validation of experimental results, a sequence of routines, appropriate to fit the data obtained in the laboratory, was described. At the computational implementation it was created a new strategy of coupling two 3-dimensional models to satisfy the requirements of the comprehensive model of the fuel cell, including its various geometries and materials, as well as the various physical and chemical processes simulated. To effective assessment of the real cell analogy with numerical model, numerical studies were carried out. Comparisons with values obtained in the literature, characterization of variables through laboratory experiments and estimates from models already tested in the literature were also performed. Regarding the experimental part, a prototype of a fuel cell unit of 144 cm of geometric area was designed, produced and operated at laboratory with the purpose of validating the numerical computer model proposed, with positive results. The results of simulations for the 2D and 3D geometries proposed are presented in the form of polarization curves, highlighting the catalytic layer model based on the geometry of agglomerates. Parametric and sensitivity studies are presented to illustrate the change in performance of the fuel cell studied. The final model is robust and useful as a tool for design and optimization of PEM type fuel cells in a wide range of operating conditions. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiguemoto, Denis; Rodrigues, Vinicius Mastelaro [DPR Engenharia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tsukada, Raphael; Mendes, Jose Ricardo Palaquim [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Serapiao, Adriane Beatriz de Souza [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Estevam, Valdir [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2012-07-01
The challenges posed by recent discoveries of oil accumulations at bigger distances from the cost and ultra deep water depths (above 2500 meters) have stimulated the development of technologies and equipment to overcome these challenges. A major technological issue is the need for larger vessels capable of withstanding the weight of installed equipment and pipe production, which significantly increase the manufacturing cost which is already of the order of billions of dollars. The oil industry has focused efforts on developing solutions aimed to reduce weight installed on production platforms. In this context the Subsea Separation Systems was developed in order to carry out the primary processing under the water, thereby reducing the processing plant installed in the oil production platforms. It is a biphasic (liquid and gas) separator that sends the phases to the platform by means of independent pipes. This paper presents a numerical simulator developed to understand the behavior of the liquid level inside the Subsea Separations Systems for its operating conditions. A control system for liquid level was tested and evaluated considering the behavior of fluids within the Subsea Separation System and the pipes that carry them to the production unit. The numerical simulator developed allows a quick and practical understanding of the behavior of the liquid level inside the equipment and also the behavior of pressure and flow within the production pipe which produce benefits for the development design. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez, A.; Vives, L.; Rodriguez, L.; Cota, S. D. S.
2012-11-01
A regional groundwater flow model under a steady-state regime has been developed within the framework of the Project for the Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development of the Guarani Aquifer System. The model has allowed the comparison of several plausible hypotheses concerning different conceptual models, mainly with regard to alternative hydraulic conductivity zoning. We assess here the influence of the flow regime, either steady-state or temporal, on the magnitude of hydraulic conductivity and the water balance. The response time to various external stresses is also analyzed. The results indicate that the effect of increasing pumping is immediately noticeable close to pumping wells whilst the effect manifests with a lag time, though less intensively, as the distance from the pumping centre increments. The effect of pumping would be imperceptible 300 km away, at least for the simulated conditions in a 100-year scenario. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robalinho, Eric
2009-07-01
This work presents the development of a numerical computer model and methodology to study and design polymeric exchange membrane fuel cell - PEM. For the validation of experimental results, a sequence of routines, appropriate to fit the data obtained in the laboratory, was described. At the computational implementation it was created a new strategy of coupling two 3-dimensional models to satisfy the requirements of the comprehensive model of the fuel cell, including its various geometries and materials, as well as the various physical and chemical processes simulated. To effective assessment of the real cell analogy with numerical model, numerical studies were carried out. Comparisons with values obtained in the literature, characterization of variables through laboratory experiments and estimates from models already tested in the literature were also performed. Regarding the experimental part, a prototype of a fuel cell unit of 144 cm{sup 2} of geometric area was designed, produced and operated at laboratory with the purpose of validating the numerical computer model proposed, with positive results. The results of simulations for the 2D and 3D geometries proposed are presented in the form of polarization curves, highlighting the catalytic layer model based on the geometry of agglomerates. Parametric and sensitivity studies are presented to illustrate the change in performance of the fuel cell studied. The final model is robust and useful as a tool for design and optimization of PEM type fuel cells in a wide range of operating conditions. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Agostino, E; Turko, B
1963-06-01
A fully automatized control system for neutron spectromcters is described. The system works with a 1620 type IBM data processing system, which prepares the instructions for spectrometer operation on punched tape. The measured data and all necessary instructions are printed out and punched on tape, ready for final treatment by the data processing system. (auth)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-10-01
The second meeting of R and D in radioactive waste management was organized by ENRESA on June 1995 in Madrid. The main objective was to disseminate the most relevant works within the R and D plan, and to establish an adequate form involved for discussion R and D radioactive waste management. The meeting was articulated in the followings sessions: I.- Low and medium radioactive wastes II.- High level radioactive wastes: activities of ENRESA III.- High level radioactive wastes: near field IV.- Biosphere, radiological protection, behaviour evaluation V.-Dismantling and decommissioning nuclear facilities VI.- Geosphere (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palmieri, Bruno Leonhardt; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos; Rezende, Hugo Cesar, E-mail: blp@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEM-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Schweizer, Fernando Lage Araujo, E-mail: flas@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear
2013-07-01
In this work two numerical models were developed for the study of the flow in the pool of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor-RMB using two computer codes: FLUENT and CFX. The codes presents big differences that may affect the results and performance of the simulation. An example is the mesh, which can be fully composed of regular hexahedral and present local refinement in FLUENT, due to the implementation of the solution focused on the element, which is not possible in CFX, which takes a node-centric solution. The temperature profiles were evaluated over the time of simulation. The research and the defining of an appropriate and optimized numerical model will be of fundamental importance for the RMB hot water layer project.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molinero, J.; Samper, J.
2003-07-01
Several countries around the world are considering the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep repositories located in fractured granite formations. Evaluating the long term safety of such repositories requires sound conceptual and numerical models which must consider simultaneously groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical and radiological processes. These models are being developed from data and knowledge gained from in situ experiments carried out at deep underground laboratories such as that of Aspo, Sweden, constructed in fractured granite. The Redox Zone Experiment is one of such experiments performed at Aspo in order to evaluate the effects of the construction of the access tunnel on the hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions of a fracture zone intersected by the tunnel. Previous authors interpreted hydrochemical and isotopic data of this experiment using a mass-balance approach based on a qualitative description of groundwater flow conditions. Such an interpretation, however, is subject to uncertainties related to an over-simplified conceptualization of groundwater flow. Here we present numerical models of groundwater flow and solute transport for this fracture zone. The first model is based on previously published conceptual model. It presents noticeable un consistencies and fails to match simultaneously observed draw downs and chloride breakthrough curves. To overcome its limitations, a revised flow and transport model is presented which relies directly on available hydrodynamic and transport parameters, is based on the identification of appropriate flow and transport boundary conditions and uses, when needed, solute data extrapolated from nearby fracture zones. A significant quantitative improvement is achieved with the revised model because its results match simultaneously drawdown and chloride data. Other improvements are qualitative and include: ensuring consistency of hydrodynamic and hydrochemical data and avoiding inconsistencies. (Author) 26 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Renato Goncalves dos; Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Sa, Reginaldo Ventura de; Hochleitner, Fabio; Correa, Eduardo Barbosa [AQUAMET Meteorologia e Projeto de Sistemas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2008-07-01
This work discusses the use of numerical prediction using ensemble as boundary condition in pollutants dispersion models, applied in a hypothetical case of an oil spill occurrence in Itaguai Port. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been used to simulate hydrodynamics and NICOIL Eulerian model to forecast oil spill dispersion, and ensemble wind forecast from Global Forecast System (GFS), aiming to assess the importance of this parameter variability in oil dispersion at sea. The wind scenarios using ensemble members has showed significant dispersion when compared to control simulation, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the atmospheric modeling can generate considerable variations in the placement of the final spot of oil. The region of interest was the Sepetiba Bay, located on the southern coast of the Rio de Janeiro state; because of port operations carried out around the Port of Itaguai where they can, eventually, oil leaks occur. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xavier, Alexandre Monticuco [Petroleo Brasileiro, S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2012-07-01
This paper describes a methodology and shows some results from an automated adjust of the numerical reservoir simulation model accomplished during Drill Steam Test (DST - before the completion of the well) and a Production Test (PT - after completion of the well) in a gas field HPHT (High Pressure High Temperature) horizontal well in Santos Basin. The achievement of these tests in the numerical reservoir simulator is very useful in the characterization of reservoir properties in different areas of reservoir, mainly in regions without data from basic petrophysics (cores and sidewall cores). The adjust of the drill steam test and production test can support the characterization of the test drainage area and forecast the well potential before and after the well completion including these effects in the simulation model. These effects can show a reasonable reduction in production of this well, confirming the importance of these data inside of the simulation model. Between the period of the drill steam test and production test, the well was temporarily abandoned with drilling fluid providing a reduction in their potential. The results of these adjusts respect the bottom hole pressures and observed gas rates showing the consistency of the analysis. The achievement of these tests provides adjust of many reservoir properties: horizontal and vertical permeabilities (during the DST) and the well effective length and skin (during the PT). These tools demonstrate to be relevant and robust to achieve these adjusts and easy application considering lots of variables. The parallel processing had a substantial functions in this job, because the large number of simulation made. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourdon, B.
2003-01-01
The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra- 210 Pb, U-Pa, 14 C, 36 Cl, 10 Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svabo, Connie
2016-01-01
is presented and an example is provided of a first exploratory engagement with it. The method is used in a specific project Becoming Iris, making inquiry into arts-based knowledge creation during a three month visiting scholarship at a small, independent visual art academy. Using the performative schizoid......A performative schizoid method is developed as a method contribution to performance as research. The method is inspired by contemporary research in the human and social sciences urging experimentation and researcher engagement with creative and artistic practice. In the article, the method...... method in Becoming Iris results in four audio-visual and performance-based productions, centered on an emergent theme of the scholartist as a bird in borrowed feathers. Interestingly, the moral lesson of the fable about the vain jackdaw, who dresses in borrowed peacock feathers and becomes a castout...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferguson, A.J.
1974-01-01
An outline of the theory of angular correlations is presented, and the difference between the modern density matrix method and the traditional wave function method is stressed. Comments are offered on particular angular correlation theoretical techniques. A brief discussion is given of recent studies of gamma ray angular correlations of reaction products recoiling with high velocity into vacuum. Two methods for optimization to obtain the most accurate expansion coefficients of the correlation are discussed. (1 figure, 53 references) (U.S.)
Maximum Quantum Entropy Method
Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon
2018-01-01
Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, G.E.
1985-01-01
The Rossi Alpha Method has proved to be valuable for the determination of prompt neutron lifetimes in fissile assemblies having known reproduction numbers at or near delayed critical. This workshop report emphasizes the pioneering applications of the method by Dr. John D. Orndoff to fast-neutron critical assemblies at Los Alamos. The value of the method appears to disappear for subcritical systems where the Rossi-α is no longer an α-eigenvalue
Barndt, William
2003-01-01
Over the past few years, the number of political science departments offering qualitative methods courses has grown substantially. The number of qualitative methods textbooks has kept pace, providing instructors with an overwhelming array of choices. But how to decide which text to choose from this exhortatory smorgasbord? The scholarship desperately needs evaluated. Yet the task is not entirely straightforward: qualitative methods textbooks reflect the diversity inherent in qualitative metho...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....
Applied Bayesian hierarchical methods
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Congdon, P
2010-01-01
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Posterior Inference from Bayes Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling in Relation to Monte Carlo Methods: Obtaining Posterior...
[Methods of quantitative proteomics].
Kopylov, A T; Zgoda, V G
2007-01-01
In modern science proteomic analysis is inseparable from other fields of systemic biology. Possessing huge resources quantitative proteomics operates colossal information on molecular mechanisms of life. Advances in proteomics help researchers to solve complex problems of cell signaling, posttranslational modification, structure and functional homology of proteins, molecular diagnostics etc. More than 40 various methods have been developed in proteomics for quantitative analysis of proteins. Although each method is unique and has certain advantages and disadvantages all these use various isotope labels (tags). In this review we will consider the most popular and effective methods employing both chemical modifications of proteins and also metabolic and enzymatic methods of isotope labeling.
Melendez, Jordan
2014-01-01
This note presents two model-independent methods for use in the alignment of the ALFA forward detectors. Using a Monte Carlo simulated LHC run at \\beta = 90m and \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, the Kinematic Peak alignment method is utilized to reconstruct the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t for single-diractive protons. The Hot Spot method uses fluctuations in the hitmap density to pinpoint particular regions in the detector that could signal a misalignment. Another method uses an error function fit to find the detector edge. With this information, the vertical alignment can be determined.
Method of chronokinemetrical invariants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, Yu.S.; Shelkovenko, A.Eh.
1976-01-01
A particular case of a general dyadic method - the method of chronokinemetric invariants is formulated. The time-like dyad vector is calibrated in a chronometric way, and the space-like vector - in a kinemetric way. Expressions are written for the main physical-geometrical values of the dyadic method and for differential operators. The method developed may be useful for predetermining the reference system of a single observer, and also for studying problems connected with emission and absorption of gravitational and electromagnetic waves [ru
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez, R. B. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); De Saussure, G.; Silver, E. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
1964-04-15
. Les theories, qui ont ete verifiees sont celles de: 1. Nordheim-Scalettar, 2. Hurwitz-Roe, 3. et celle du code de diffusion numerique. Les auteurs ont calcule l'effet des barres cruciformes a l'aide de la methode de transformation conforme de Hurwitz-Roe et ont trouve pour le laplacien la valeur de 0,0188 cm{sup -2} qui est voisine du resultat de l'experience, 0,0187 {+-} 0,0006 cm-2. Pour les barres epaisses, les previsions de la theorie de Nordheim-Scallettar et de la theorie du code de diffusion depassent les resultats experimentaux d'environ lOyeo. Les deux methodes ont toutefois etabli des previsions correctes en ce qui concerne l'interaction entre les barres epaisses. Pour les barres minces, la methode Nordheim-Scalettar est extremement precise. On peut s'attendre a trouver l'ecart constate pour les barres epaisses, lorsqu'on utilise la theorie de diffusion pour calculer l'effet des barres ayant une section de dimensions comparables a celle du libre parcours moyen des neutrons dans le ralentisseur. On procede actuellement a des mesures avec des banes de dimensions intermediaires pour determiner le point a partir duquel la theorie de la diffusion n'est plus valable. (author) [Spanish] El calculo de la eficacia de las barras de control se complica por el hecho de que esta depende a la vez de la distribucion de las energias neutronicas y de la geometria del conjunto. Cuando se trata de comparar los datos teoricos con los resultados experimentales obtenidos en otros reactores o en sistemas subcriticos, surgen dificultades derivadas de la complejidad intrinseca de tales sistemas. La tecnica de la extincion neutronica brinda la posibilidad de establecer un modelo neutronico integramente termico, en el cual el efecto de la distribucion de energias neutronicas se puede separar de los efectos espaciales. Por lo tanto, es dable estudiar el factor geometrico de la eficacia de las barras de control sin reparar en las caracteristicas del espectro neutronico y luego es
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porter, J.F.
1996-01-01
Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the use of physical and chemical methods for evaluating material integrity without impairing its intended usefulness or continuing service. Nondestructive tests are used by manufaturer's for the following reasons: 1) to ensure product reliability; 2) to prevent accidents and save human lives; 3) to aid in better product design; 4) to control manufacturing processes; and 5) to maintain a uniform quality level. Nondestructive testing is used extensively on power plants, oil and chemical refineries, offshore oil rigs and pipeline (NDT can even be conducted underwater), welds on tanks, boilers, pressure vessels and heat exchengers. NDT is now being used for testing concrete and composite materials. Because of the criticality of its application, NDT should be performed and the results evaluated by qualified personnel. There are five basic nondestructive examination methods: 1) liquid penetrant testing - method used for detecting surface flaws in materials. This method can be used for metallic and nonmetallic materials, portable and relatively inexpensive. 2) magnetic particle testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in ferromagnetic materials; 3) radiographic testing - method used to detect internal flaws and significant variation in material composition and thickness; 4) ultrasonic testing - method used to detect internal and external flaws in materials. This method uses ultrasonics to measure thickness of a material or to examine the internal structure for discontinuities. 5) eddy current testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in conductive materials. Not one nondestructive examination method can find all discontinuities in all of the materials capable of being tested. The most important consideration is for the specifier of the test to be familiar with the test method and its applicability to the type and geometry of the material and the flaws to be detected
Methods for data classification
Garrity, George [Okemos, MI; Lilburn, Timothy G [Front Royal, VA
2011-10-11
The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.
Computational methods working group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabriel, T.A.
1997-09-01
During the Cold Moderator Workshop several working groups were established including one to discuss calculational methods. The charge for this working group was to identify problems in theory, data, program execution, etc., and to suggest solutions considering both deterministic and stochastic methods including acceleration procedures.
2014-01-01
The present invention relates to a method for exchanging data between at least two servers with use of a gateway. Preferably the method is applied to healthcare systems. Each server holds a unique federated identifier, which identifier identifies a single patient (P). Thus, it is possible for the
Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin
2006-01-01
The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…
Methods of numerical relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piran, T.
1983-01-01
Numerical Relativity is an alternative to analytical methods for obtaining solutions for Einstein equations. Numerical methods are particularly useful for studying generation of gravitational radiation by potential strong sources. The author reviews the analytical background, the numerical analysis aspects and techniques and some of the difficulties involved in numerical relativity. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotikov, A.V.
1993-01-01
A new method of massive Feynman diagrams calculation is presented. It provides a fairly simple procedure to obtain the result without the D-space integral calculation (for the dimensional regularization). Some diagrams are calculated as an illustration of this method capacities. (author). 7 refs
BOUCHER, JOHN G.
THE AUTHOR STATES THAT BEFORE PRESENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS CAN BE DISCUSSED INTELLIGENTLY, THE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS WHICH HAS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE METHODS MUST BE CONSIDERED. MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS WERE BEGINNING TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH WHEN NOAM CHOMSKY, IN HIS 1966…
Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.
2011-01-01
"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…
Thomas P. Holmes; Wiktor L. Adamowicz
2003-01-01
Stated preference methods of environmental valuation have been used by economists for decades where behavioral data have limitations. The contingent valuation method (Chapter 5) is the oldest stated preference approach, and hundreds of contingent valuation studies have been conducted. More recently, and especially over the last decade, a class of stated preference...
Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org
Radiation borehole logging method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wylie, A.; Mathew, P.J.
1977-01-01
A method of obtaining an indication of the diameter of a borehole is described. The method comprises subjecting the walls of the borehole to monoenergetic gamma radiation and making measurements of the intensity of gamma radiation backscattered from the walls. The energy of the radiation is sufficiently high for the shape to be substantially independent of the density and composition of the borehole walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moser, H.; Rauert, W.
1980-01-01
Of the investigation methods used in hydrology, tracer methods hold a special place as they are the only ones which give direct insight into the movement and distribution processes taking place in surface and ground waters. Besides the labelling of water with salts and dyes, as in the past, in recent years the use of isotopes in hydrology, in water research and use, in ground-water protection and in hydraulic engineering has increased. This by no means replaces proven methods of hydrological investigation but tends rather to complement and expand them through inter-disciplinary cooperation. The book offers a general introduction to the application of various isotope methods to specific hydrogeological and hydrological problems. The idea is to place the hydrogeologist and the hydrologist in the position to recognize which isotope method will help him solve his particular problem or indeed, make a solution possible at all. He should also be able to recognize what the prerequisites are and what work and expenditure the use of such methods involves. May the book contribute to promoting cooperation between hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers and isotope specialists, and thus supplement proven methods of investigation in hydrological research and water utilization and protection wherever the use of isotope methods proves to be of advantage. (orig./HP) [de
Essential numerical computer methods
Johnson, Michael L
2010-01-01
The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface of the current and potential applications of computers and computer methods in biomedical research. The various chapters within this volume include a wide variety of applications that extend far beyond this limited perception. As part of the Reliable Lab Solutions series, Essential Numerical Computer Methods brings together chapters from volumes 210, 240, 321, 383, 384, 454, and 467 of Methods in Enzymology. These chapters provide ...
Saucez, Ph
2001-01-01
The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajabalinejad, M.
2010-01-01
To reduce cost of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for time-consuming processes, Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) is introduced in this paper. The BMC method reduces number of realizations in MC according to the desired accuracy level. BMC also provides a possibility of considering more priors. In other words, different priors can be integrated into one model by using BMC to further reduce cost of simulations. This study suggests speeding up the simulation process by considering the logical dependence of neighboring points as prior information. This information is used in the BMC method to produce a predictive tool through the simulation process. The general methodology and algorithm of BMC method are presented in this paper. The BMC method is applied to the simplified break water model as well as the finite element model of 17th Street Canal in New Orleans, and the results are compared with the MC and Dynamic Bounds methods.
Nölting, Bengt
2006-01-01
Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deville, J.P.
1998-01-01
Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)
Cooperative method development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette
2008-01-01
The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Martin Trandberg
2014-01-01
This chapter showcases how mobile methods are more than calibrated techniques awaiting application by tourism researchers, but productive in the enactment of the mobile (Law and Urry, 2004). Drawing upon recent findings deriving from a PhD course on mobility and mobile methods it reveals...... the conceptual ambiguousness of the term ‘mobile methods’. In order to explore this ambiguousness the chapter provides a number of examples deriving from tourism research, to explore how mobile methods are always entangled in ideologies, predispositions, conventions and practice-realities. Accordingly......, the engagements with methods are acknowledged to be always political and contextual, reminding us to avoid essentialist discussions regarding research methods. Finally, the chapter draws on recent fieldwork to extend developments in mobilities-oriented tourism research, by employing auto-ethnography to call...
Determination method of radiostrontium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1984-01-01
This manual provides determination methods of strontium-90 and strontium-89 in the environment released from nuclear facilities, and it is a revised edition of the previous manual published in 1974. As for the preparation method of radiation counting sample, ion exchange method, oxalate separation method and solvent extraction method were adopted in addition to the method of fuming nitric acid separation adopted in the previous edition. Strontium-90 is determined by the separation and radioactivity determination of yttrium-90 in radioequilibrium with strontium-90. Strontium-89 is determined by subtraction of radioactivity of strontium-90 plus yttrium-90 from gross radioactivity of isolated strontium carbonate. Radioactivity determination should be carried out with a low-background 2 π-gas-flow counting system for the mounted sample on a filter having a chemical form of ferric hydroxide, yttrium oxalate or strontium carbonate. This manual describes sample preparation procedures as well as radioactivity counting procedures for environmental samples of precipitates as rain or snow, airborne dust, fresh water, sea water and soil, and also for ash sample made from biological or food samples such as grains, vegetables, tea leaves, pine needle, milk, marine organisms, and total diet, by employing a method of fuming nitric acid separation, ion exchange separation, oxalate precipitate separation or solvent extraction separation (only for an ash sample). Procedures for reagent chemicals preparation is also attached to this manual. (Takagi, S.)
Ghosh, Sujit K
2010-01-01
Bayesian methods are rapidly becoming popular tools for making statistical inference in various fields of science including biology, engineering, finance, and genetics. One of the key aspects of Bayesian inferential method is its logical foundation that provides a coherent framework to utilize not only empirical but also scientific information available to a researcher. Prior knowledge arising from scientific background, expert judgment, or previously collected data is used to build a prior distribution which is then combined with current data via the likelihood function to characterize the current state of knowledge using the so-called posterior distribution. Bayesian methods allow the use of models of complex physical phenomena that were previously too difficult to estimate (e.g., using asymptotic approximations). Bayesian methods offer a means of more fully understanding issues that are central to many practical problems by allowing researchers to build integrated models based on hierarchical conditional distributions that can be estimated even with limited amounts of data. Furthermore, advances in numerical integration methods, particularly those based on Monte Carlo methods, have made it possible to compute the optimal Bayes estimators. However, there is a reasonably wide gap between the background of the empirically trained scientists and the full weight of Bayesian statistical inference. Hence, one of the goals of this chapter is to bridge the gap by offering elementary to advanced concepts that emphasize linkages between standard approaches and full probability modeling via Bayesian methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lynnerup, Niels
2009-01-01
Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as minima......Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well...... as minimally-destructive chemical, physical and biological methods for, e.g., stable isotopes, trace metals and DNA....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Athanasios Drigas
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This article bridges the gap between the Montessori Method and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in contemporary education. It reviews recent research works which recall the Montessori philosophy, principles and didactical tools applying to today’s computers and supporting technologies in children’s learning process. This article reviews how important the stimulation of human senses in the learning process is, as well as the development of Montessori materials using the body and the hand in particular, all according to the Montessori Method along with recent researches over ICTs. Montessori Method within information society age acquires new perspectives, new functionality and new efficacy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubansky, A.
1980-01-01
The rubidium-strontium geological dating method is based on the determination of the Rb and Sr isotope ratio in rocks, mainly using mass spectrometry. The method is only practical for silicate minerals and rocks, potassium feldspars and slates. Also described is the rubidium-strontium isochrone method. This, however, requires a significant amount of experimental data and an analysis of large quantities of samples, often of the order of tons. The results are tabulated of rubidium-strontium dating of geological formations in the Czech Socialist Republic. (M.S.)
Structural Reliability Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.
The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....
Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes
2013-05-14
A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.
Nuclear physics mathematical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balian, R.; Gervois, A.; Giannoni, M.J.; Levesque, D.; Maille, M.
1984-01-01
The nuclear physics mathematical methods, applied to the collective motion theory, to the reduction of the degrees of freedom and to the order and disorder phenomena; are investigated. In the scope of the study, the following aspects are discussed: the entropy of an ensemble of collective variables; the interpretation of the dissipation, applying the information theory; the chaos and the universality; the Monte-Carlo method applied to the classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics; the finite elements method, and the classical ergodicity [fr
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olivarius, Signe
of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...
Electromigration method in radiochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makarova, T.P.; Stepanov, A.V.
1977-01-01
Investigations are reviewd of the period 1969-1975 accomplished by such methods as zonal electrophoresis in countercurrent, focusing electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, electrophoresis with elution, continuous two-dimensional electrophoresis. Since the methods considered are based on the use of porous fillers for stabilizing the medium, some attention is given to the effect of the solid-solution interface on the shape and rate of motion of the zones of the rare-earth elements investigated, Sr and others. The trend of developing electrophoresis as a method for obtaining high-purity elements is emphasized
Numerical methods using Matlab
Lindfield, George
2012-01-01
Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use
Model Correction Factor Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes
1997-01-01
The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...
Imaging methods in otorhinolaryngology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frey, K.W.; Mees, K.; Vogl, T.
1989-01-01
This book is the work of an otorhinolaryngologist and two radiologists, who combined their experience and efforts in order to solve a great variety and number of problems encountered in practical work, taking into account the latest technical potentials and the practical feasibility, which is determined by the equipment available. Every chapter presents the full range of diagnostic methods applicable, starting with the suitable plain radiography methods and proceeding to the various tomographic scanning methods, including conventional tomography. Every technique is assessed in terms of diagnostic value and drawbacks. (orig./MG) With 778 figs [de
Generalized subspace correction methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolm, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Arbenz, P.; Gander, W. [Eidgenoessiche Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland)
1996-12-31
A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.
Concrete compositions and methods
Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua
2015-06-23
Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.
Oza, Nikunj C.
2004-01-01
Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edgington, T.S.; Plow, E.F.
1979-01-01
The discovery of an isomeric species of carcinoembryonic antigen and methods of isolation, identification and utilization as a radiolabelled species of the same as an aid in the diagnosis of adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract are disclosed. 13 claims
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gatty, B
1986-04-01
Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively.
Energy consumption assessment methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sutherland, K S
1975-01-01
The why, what, and how-to aspects of energy audits for industrial plants, and the application of energy accounting methods to a chemical plant in order to assess energy conservation possibilities are discussed. (LCL)
Stochastic optimization methods
Marti, Kurt
2005-01-01
Optimization problems arising in practice involve random parameters. For the computation of robust optimal solutions, i.e., optimal solutions being insensitive with respect to random parameter variations, deterministic substitute problems are needed. Based on the distribution of the random data, and using decision theoretical concepts, optimization problems under stochastic uncertainty are converted into deterministic substitute problems. Due to the occurring probabilities and expectations, approximative solution techniques must be applied. Deterministic and stochastic approximation methods and their analytical properties are provided: Taylor expansion, regression and response surface methods, probability inequalities, First Order Reliability Methods, convex approximation/deterministic descent directions/efficient points, stochastic approximation methods, differentiation of probability and mean value functions. Convergence results of the resulting iterative solution procedures are given.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chemistry for their pioneering contri butions to the development of computational methods in quantum chemistry and density functional theory .... program of Pop Ie for ab-initio electronic structure calculation of molecules. This ab-initio MO ...
Methods for cellobiosan utilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linger, Jeffrey; Beckham, Gregg T.
2017-07-11
Disclosed herein are enzymes useful for the degradation of cellobiosan in materials such a pyrolysis oils. Methods of degrading cellobiosan using enzymes or organisms expressing the same are also disclosed.
Methods of neutron spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doerschel, B.
1981-01-01
The different methods of neutron spectrometry are based on the direct measurement of neutron velocity or on the use of suitable energy-dependent interaction processes. In the latter case the measuring effect of a detector is connected with the searched neutron spectrum by an integral equation. The solution needs suitable unfolding procedures. The most important methods of neutron spectrometry are the time-of-flight method, the crystal spectrometry, the neutron spectrometry by use of elastic collisions with hydrogen nuclei, and neutron spectrometry with the aid of nuclear reactions, especially of the neutron-induced activation. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are contrasted considering the resolution, the measurable energy range, the sensitivity, and the experimental and computational efforts. (author)
Nölting, Bengt
2010-01-01
Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and about 270 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers, and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 3rd edition: Introduces rapid partial protein ladder sequencing - an important...
This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, K.
1987-01-01
A relationship between the number projection and the shell model methods is investigated in the case of a single-j shell. We can find a one-to-one correspondence between the number projected and the shell model states
Etching method employing radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, B.N.; Winters, H.F.
1982-01-01
This invention provides a method for etching a silicon oxide, carbide, nitride, or oxynitride surface using an electron or ion beam in the presence of a xenon or krypton fluoride. No additional steps are required after exposure to radiation
GEM simulation methods development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tikhonov, V.; Veenhof, R.
2002-01-01
A review of methods used in the simulation of processes in gas electron multipliers (GEMs) and in the accurate calculation of detector characteristics is presented. Such detector characteristics as effective gas gain, transparency, charge collection and losses have been calculated and optimized for a number of GEM geometries and compared with experiment. A method and a new special program for calculations of detector macro-characteristics such as signal response in a real detector readout structure, and spatial and time resolution of detectors have been developed and used for detector optimization. A detailed development of signal induction on readout electrodes and electronics characteristics are included in the new program. A method for the simulation of charging-up effects in GEM detectors is described. All methods show good agreement with experiment
Improved radioanalytical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.
1995-01-01
Methods for the chemical characterization of the environment are being developed under a multitask project for the Analytical Services Division (EM-263) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. This project focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. We have developed improved methods, for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99 and strontium-89/90, radium, and actinides from soil and water; and for separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences. Among the novel separation techniques being used are element- and class-specific resins and membranes. (The 3M Corporation is commercializing Empore trademark membranes under a cooperative research and development agreement [CRADA] initiated under this project). We have also developed methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method requires less rigorous chemical separations than traditional radiochemical analyses because of its mass-selective mode of detection. Actinides and their progeny have been isolated and concentrated from a variety of natural water matrices by using automated batch separation incorporating selective resins prior to ICP-MS analyses. In addition, improvements in detection limits, sample volume, and time of analysis were obtained by using other sample introduction techniques, such as ultrasonic nebulization and electrothermal vaporization. Integration and automation of the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology by using flow injection analysis is underway, with an objective of automating methods to achieve more reproducible results, reduce labor costs, cut analysis time, and minimize secondary waste generation through miniaturization of the process
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Sysala, Stanislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 70, č. 11 (2015), s. 2621-2637 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : system of nonlinear equations * Newton method * load increment method * elastoplasticity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122115003818
Nuclear methods monitor nutrition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, B.J.
1988-01-01
Neutron activation of nitrogen and hydrogen in the body, the isotope dilution technique and the measurement of naturally radioactive potassium in the body are among the new nuclear methods, now under collaborative development by the Australian Nuclear Scientific and Technology Organization and medical specialists from several Sydney hospitals. These methods allow medical specialists to monitor the patient's response to various diets and dietary treatments in cases of cystic fibrosis, anorexia nervosa, long-term surgical trauma, renal diseases and AIDS. ills
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, K.
1990-01-01
During the last decade fission track (FT) analysis has evolved as an important tool in exploration for hydrocarbon resources. Most important is this method's ability to yield information about temperatures at different times (history), and thus relate oil generation and time independently of other maturity parameters. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the basics of the method and give an example from the author's studies. (AB) (14 refs.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Yang Su; Oh, Byeong Seong
2010-05-01
This book introduces measurement and error, statistics of experimental data, population, sample variable, distribution function, propagation of error, mean and measurement of error, adjusting to rectilinear equation, common sense of error, experiment method, and record and statement. It also explains importance of error of estimation, systematic error, random error, treatment of single variable, significant figure, deviation, mean value, median, mode, sample mean, sample standard deviation, binomial distribution, gauss distribution, and method of least squares.
Methods for measuring shrinkage
Chapman, Paul; Templar, Simon
2006-01-01
This paper presents findings from research amongst European grocery retailers into their methods for measuring shrinkage. The findings indicate that: there is no dominant method for valuing or stating shrinkage; shrinkage in the supply chain is frequently overlooked; data is essential in pinpointing where and when loss occurs and that many retailers collect data at the stock-keeping unit (SKU) level and do so every 6 months. These findings reveal that it is difficult to benc...
Method of saccharifying cellulose
Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.
1983-05-13
A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.
Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY
2012-01-24
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Methods of experimental physics
Williams, Dudley
1962-01-01
Methods of Experimental Physics, Volume 3: Molecular Physics focuses on molecular theory, spectroscopy, resonance, molecular beams, and electric and thermodynamic properties. The manuscript first considers the origins of molecular theory, molecular physics, and molecular spectroscopy, as well as microwave spectroscopy, electronic spectra, and Raman effect. The text then ponders on diffraction methods of molecular structure determination and resonance studies. Topics include techniques of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic, nuclear quadropole, and electron spin reson
Henke, Luke
2010-01-01
The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics
VALUATION METHODS- LITERATURE REVIEW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dorisz Talas
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical overview of the often used valuation methods with the help of which the value of a firm or its equity is calculated. Many experts (including Aswath Damodaran, Guochang Zhang and CA Hozefa Natalwala classify the methods. The basic models are based on discounted cash flows. The main method uses the free cash flow for valuation, but there are some newer methods that reveal and correct the weaknesses of the traditional models. The valuation of flexibility of management can be conducted mainly with real options. This paper briefly describes the essence of the Dividend Discount Model, the Free Cash Flow Model, the benefit from using real options and the Residual Income Model. There are a few words about the Adjusted Present Value approach as well. Different models uses different premises, and an overall truth is that if the required premises are real and correct, the value will be appropriately accurate. Another important condition is that experts, analysts should choose between the models on the basis of the purpose of valuation. Thus there are no good or bad methods, only methods that fit different goals and aims. The main task is to define exactly the purpose, then to find the most appropriate valuation technique. All the methods originates from the premise that the value of an asset is the present value of its future cash flows. According to the different points of view of different techniques the resulted values can be also differed from each other. Valuation models and techniques should be adapted to the rapidly changing world, but the basic statements remain the same. On the other hand there is a need for more accurate models in order to help investors get as many information as they could. Today information is one of the most important resources and financial models should keep up with this trend.
Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J
2001-01-01
The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beauwens, B.; Arkuszewski, J.; Boryszewicz, M.
1981-01-01
Results obtained in the field of linear iterative methods within the Coordinated Research Program on Transport Theory and Advanced Reactor Calculations are summarized. The general convergence theory of linear iterative methods is essentially based on the properties of nonnegative operators on ordered normed spaces. The following aspects of this theory have been improved: new comparison theorems for regular splittings, generalization of the notions of M- and H-matrices, new interpretations of classical convergence theorems for positive-definite operators. The estimation of asymptotic convergence rates was developed with two purposes: the analysis of model problems and the optimization of relaxation parameters. In the framework of factorization iterative methods, model problem analysis is needed to investigate whether the increased computational complexity of higher-order methods does not offset their increased asymptotic convergence rates, as well as to appreciate the effect of standard relaxation techniques (polynomial relaxation). On the other hand, the optimal use of factorization iterative methods requires the development of adequate relaxation techniques and their optimization. The relative performances of a few possibilities have been explored for model problems. Presently, the best results have been obtained with optimal diagonal-Chebyshev relaxation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Gálvez Toro
2006-03-01
Full Text Available La evaluación de un autor científico-profesional tiene sentido en un sistema competitivo en el que la puntuación más elevada tiene efectos en la carrera del autor o en el acceso a financiación. En el proceso de evaluación hay que considerar dos dimensiones bien diferenciadas que se suelen confundir: el método de medida y la fuente de datos. El primero debe ser universal y válido para todos los autores. El segundo debe estar adaptado al área de conocimiento del autor. Recientemente J.E. Hirsch ha desarrollado un nuevo indicador que parece resuelve los problemas de validez de los sistemas de calculo conocidos hasta ahora. Ese indicador se denomina factor h, y difiere de una comunidad científica a otra, es decir, de disciplina a disciplina, por lo que es necesario desarrollar investigación que defina sus valores en todas las ramas del saber (índice h por disciplina. El valor del número h representa la biografía científica de un autor. No mide inmediatez, sino grandes periodos de tiempo. La actividad científico-profesional es biográfica, por tanto, era necesario crear un indicador que midiera carrera y recorrido. Un autor reconocido en su área, tendrá un mayor factor h al final de su vida profesional que en sus comienzos con independencia de la revista en la que publique o el medio que utilice para la divulgación de sus aportaciones.The evaluation of a scientific-professional author makes sense in a competitive system in which the highest rating has effects in the author’s career or in his access to funding. In the evaluation process it is necessary to consider two differentiated dimensions that are usually confused: the measure method and the data source. The first one must be universal and valid for all authors. The second one should be adapted to the author’s field of study. J.E. Hirsch has recently developed a new indicator that apparently resolves the validity problems of the calculation systems known to date. This
Independent random sampling methods
Martino, Luca; Míguez, Joaquín
2018-01-01
This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the li...
Liseikin, Vladimir D
2017-01-01
This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.
Bayesian methods in reliability
Sander, P.; Badoux, R.
1991-11-01
The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.
Le, Khanh Chau
2012-01-01
The above examples should make clear the necessity of understanding the mechanism of vibrations and waves in order to control them in an optimal way. However vibrations and waves are governed by differential equations which require, as a rule, rather complicated mathematical methods for their analysis. The aim of this textbook is to help students acquire both a good grasp of the first principles from which the governing equations can be derived, and the adequate mathematical methods for their solving. Its distinctive features, as seen from the title, lie in the systematic and intensive use of Hamilton's variational principle and its generalizations for deriving the governing equations of conservative and dissipative mechanical systems, and also in providing the direct variational-asymptotic analysis, whenever available, of the energy and dissipation for the solution of these equations. It will be demonstrated that many well-known methods in dynamics like those of Lindstedt-Poincare, Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky, Ko...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Racolta, P.M.
1994-01-01
The tribological field of activity is mainly concerned with the relative movement of different machine components, friction and wear phenomena and their dependence upon lubrication. Tribological studies on friction and wear processes are important because they lead to significant parameter-improvements of engineering tools and machinery components. A review of fundamental aspects of both friction and wear phenomena is presented. A number of radioindicator-based methods have been known for almost four decades, differing mainly with respect to the mode of introducing the radio-indicators into the machine part to be studied. All these methods briefly presented in this paper are based on the measurement of the activity of wear products and therefore require high activity levels of the part. For this reason, such determinations can be carried out only in special laboratories and under conditions which do not usually agree with the conditions of actual use. What is required is a sensitive, fast method allowing the determination of wear under any operating conditions, without the necessity of stopping and disassembling the machine. The above mentioned requirements are the features that have made the Thin Layer Activation technique (TLA) the most widely used method applied in wear and corrosion studies in the last two decades. The TLA principle, taking in account that wear and corrosion processes are characterised by a loss of material, consists in an ion beam irradiation of a well defined volume of a machine part subjected to wear. The radioactivity level changes can usually be measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy methods. A review of both main TLA fields of application in major laboratories abroad and of those performed at the U-120 cyclotron of I.P.N.E.-Bucharest together with the existing trends to extend other nuclear analytical methods to tribological studies is presented as well. (author). 25 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. González Rey
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A pesar de que la optimización y el diseño racional de los engranajes han sido temas de muchas investigaciones, aún siguensiendo del interés de muchos especialistas y estudiosos de los engranajes. Las razones fundamentales para este hecho estáncondicionadas en primer lugar a que el diseño de un engranaje es en extremo complejo debido al número de variables,limitaciones y relaciones que involucra, y por otro lado existe la particularidad de que para cada caso de optimización lafunción objetivo, las restricciones y las variables independientes son generalmente diferentes. En los últimos años losnuevos sistemas de computación para auxiliar al diseño (CAD han sido empleados como alternativas para el cálculo de losengranajes, pero la variedad de sistemas y las amplias posibilidades de generación de modelos matemáticos empleados enla evaluación de esfuerzos y deformaciones requieren de una validación de sus resultados a partir de cotejarlos con losprocedimientos y normas establecidos por la práctica y la experiencia de años. Es conocido que los resultados de los nuevossistemas CAD con implementación del método de elementos finitos son generalmente muy dependientes de la forma degeneración de los modelos de piezas y conjuntos diseñados por complicados procedimientos, que son tratados cuál una cajanegra por los proveedores de estos potentes programas y sistemas en el mercado de la informática. En este sentido, elpresente trabajo pretende contrastar los esfuerzos obtenidos mediante el empleo de dos de los más potentes sistemas CADdirigidos a la aplicación del método de los elementos finitos, como son el Solid Edge y el Cosmo Edge, con losprocedimientos de cálculo derivados de las vigentes normas ISO para evaluar la capacidad de carga de los engranajescilíndricos. En el trabajo se exponen las bases del método de generación del perfil de los dientes de un engranaje cilíndricode dientes rectos, un algoritmo de calculo de
Methods for pretreating biomass
Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo
2017-05-09
A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.
Dunn, William L
2012-01-01
Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble
Oermann, M H
1990-01-01
Research on teaching methods in nursing education was categorized into studies on media, CAI, and other nontraditional instructional strategies. While the research differed, some generalizations may be made from the findings. Multimedia, whether it is used for individual or group instruction, is at least as effective as traditional instruction (lecture and lecture-discussion) in promoting cognitive learning, retention of knowledge, and performance. Further study is needed to identify variables that may influence learning and retention. While learner attitudes toward mediated instruction tended to be positive, investigators failed to control for the effect of novelty. Control over intervening variables was lacking in the majority of studies as well. Research indicated that CAI is as effective as other teaching methods in terms of knowledge gain and retention. Attitudes toward CAI tended to be favorable, with similar problems in measurement as those evidenced in studies of media. Chang (1986) also recommends that future research examine the impact of computer-video interactive instruction on students, faculty, and settings. Research is needed on experimental teaching methods, strategies for teaching problem solving and clinical judgment, and ways of improving the traditional lecture and discussion. Limited research in these areas makes generalizations impossible. There is a particular need for research on how to teach students the diagnostic reasoning process and encourage critical thinking, both in terms of appropriate teaching methods and the way in which those strategies should be used. It is interesting that few researchers studied lecture and lecture-discussion except as comparable teaching methods for research on other strategies. Additional research questions may be generated on lecture and discussion in relation to promoting concept learning, an understanding of nursing and other theories, transfer of knowledge, and development of cognitive skills. Few
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortin, Ph.
2000-01-01
This document gives a first introduction to 14 C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14 C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14 C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)
Methods of Multivariate Analysis
Rencher, Alvin C
2012-01-01
Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit
Tautomerism methods and theories
Antonov, Liudmil
2013-01-01
Covering the gap between basic textbooks and over-specialized scientific publications, this is the first reference available to describe this interdisciplinary topic for PhD students and scientists starting in the field. The result is an introductory description providing suitable practical examples of the basic methods used to study tautomeric processes, as well as the theories describing the tautomerism and proton transfer phenomena. It also includes different spectroscopic methods for examining tautomerism, such as UV-VIs, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR spectrosc
Speeding Fermat's factoring method
McKee, James
A factoring method is presented which, heuristically, splits composite n in O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps. There are two ideas: an integer approximation to sqrt(q/p) provides an O(n^{1/2+epsilon}) algorithm in which n is represented as the difference of two rational squares; observing that if a prime m divides a square, then m^2 divides that square, a heuristic speed-up to O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps is achieved. The method is well-suited for use with small computers: the storage required is negligible, and one never needs to work with numbers larger than n itself.
High frequency asymptotic methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouche, D.; Dessarce, R.; Gay, J.; Vermersch, S.
1991-01-01
The asymptotic methods allow us to compute the interaction of high frequency electromagnetic waves with structures. After an outline of their foundations with emphasis on the geometrical theory of diffraction, it is shown how to use these methods to evaluate the radar cross section (RCS) of complex tri-dimensional objects of great size compared to the wave-length. The different stages in simulating phenomena which contribute to the RCS are reviewed: physical theory of diffraction, multiple interactions computed by shooting rays, research for creeping rays. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 insets
Practical methods of optimization
Fletcher, R
2013-01-01
Fully describes optimization methods that are currently most valuable in solving real-life problems. Since optimization has applications in almost every branch of science and technology, the text emphasizes their practical aspects in conjunction with the heuristics useful in making them perform more reliably and efficiently. To this end, it presents comparative numerical studies to give readers a feel for possibile applications and to illustrate the problems in assessing evidence. Also provides theoretical background which provides insights into how methods are derived. This edition offers rev
Electrorheological fluids and methods
Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.
2015-06-02
Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peel, J.L.; Waites, W.M.
1981-01-01
A method of sterilisation of food packaging is described which comprises treating microorganisms with an ultraviolet irradiated solution of hydrogen peroxide to render the microorganisms non-viable. The wavelength of ultraviolet radiation used is wholly or predominantly below 325 nm and the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide is no greater than 10% by weight. The method is applicable to a wide variety of microorganisms including moulds, yeasts, bacteria, viruses and protozoa and finds particular application in the destruction of spore-forming bacteria, especially those which are dairy contaminants. (U.K.)
Unorthodox theoretical methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nedd, Sean [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2012-01-01
The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bardenet Rémi
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Bayesian inference often requires integrating some function with respect to a posterior distribution. Monte Carlo methods are sampling algorithms that allow to compute these integrals numerically when they are not analytically tractable. We review here the basic principles and the most common Monte Carlo algorithms, among which rejection sampling, importance sampling and Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC methods. We give intuition on the theoretical justification of the algorithms as well as practical advice, trying to relate both. We discuss the application of Monte Carlo in experimental physics, and point to landmarks in the literature for the curious reader.
The SPH homogeneization method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kavenoky, Alain
1978-01-01
The homogeneization of a uniform lattice is a rather well understood topic while difficult problems arise if the lattice becomes irregular. The SPH homogeneization method is an attempt to generate homogeneized cross sections for an irregular lattice. Section 1 summarizes the treatment of an isolated cylindrical cell with an entering surface current (in one velocity theory); Section 2 is devoted to the extension of the SPH method to assembly problems. Finally Section 3 presents the generalisation to general multigroup problems. Numerical results are obtained for a PXR rod bundle assembly in Section 4
Splines and variational methods
Prenter, P M
2008-01-01
One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension
Probabilistic methods for physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cirier, G
2013-01-01
We present an asymptotic method giving a probability of presence of the iterated spots of R d by a polynomial function f. We use the well-known Perron Frobenius operator (PF) that lets certain sets and measure invariant by f. Probabilistic solutions can exist for the deterministic iteration. If the theoretical result is already known, here we quantify these probabilities. This approach seems interesting to use for computing situations when the deterministic methods don't run. Among the examined applications, are asymptotic solutions of Lorenz, Navier-Stokes or Hamilton's equations. In this approach, linearity induces many difficult problems, all of whom we have not yet resolved.
Smith, C.S.
1959-08-01
A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.
Supercritical fluid analytical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.
1988-01-01
Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems
Bao, Lei; Stonebraker, Stephen R.; Sadaghiani, Homeyra
2008-09-01
The traditional methods of assigning and grading homework in large enrollment physics courses have raised concerns among many instructors and students. In this paper we discuss a cost-effective approach to managing homework that involves making half of the problem solutions available to students before the homework is due. In addition, students are allowed some control in choosing which problems to solve. This paper-based approach to homework provides more detailed and timely support to students and increases the amount of self-direction in the homework process. We describe the method and present preliminary results on how students have responded.
Molecular methods for biofilms
Ferrera, Isabel; Balagué , Vanessa; Voolstra, Christian R.; Aranda, Manuel; Bayer, Till; Abed, Raeid M.M.; Dobretsov, Sergey; Owens, Sarah M.; Wilkening, Jared; Fessler, Jennifer L.; Gilbert, Jack A.
2014-01-01
This chapter deals with both classical and modern molecular methods that can be useful for the identification of microorganisms, elucidation and comparison of microbial communities, and investigation of their diversity and functions. The most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples; these are discussed in the first part. The second part provides an overview over DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing methods. Protocols and analysis software as well as potential pitfalls associated with application of these methods are discussed. Community fingerprinting analyses that can be used to compare multiple microbial communities are discussed in the third part. This part focuses on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) methods. In addition, classical and next-generation metagenomics methods are presented. These are limited to bacterial artificial chromosome and Fosmid libraries and Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing, as these methods are currently the most frequently used in research. Isolation of nucleic acids: This chapter discusses, the most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples. Nucleic acid isolation methods generally include three steps: cell lysis, removal of unwanted substances, and a final step of DNA purification and recovery. The first critical step is the cell lysis, which can be achieved by enzymatic or mechanical procedures. Removal of proteins, polysaccharides and other unwanted substances is likewise important to avoid their interference in subsequent analyses. Phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol is commonly used to recover DNA, since it separates nucleic acids into an aqueous phase and precipitates proteins and
Molecular methods for biofilms
Ferrera, Isabel
2014-08-30
This chapter deals with both classical and modern molecular methods that can be useful for the identification of microorganisms, elucidation and comparison of microbial communities, and investigation of their diversity and functions. The most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples; these are discussed in the first part. The second part provides an overview over DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing methods. Protocols and analysis software as well as potential pitfalls associated with application of these methods are discussed. Community fingerprinting analyses that can be used to compare multiple microbial communities are discussed in the third part. This part focuses on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) methods. In addition, classical and next-generation metagenomics methods are presented. These are limited to bacterial artificial chromosome and Fosmid libraries and Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing, as these methods are currently the most frequently used in research. Isolation of nucleic acids: This chapter discusses, the most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples. Nucleic acid isolation methods generally include three steps: cell lysis, removal of unwanted substances, and a final step of DNA purification and recovery. The first critical step is the cell lysis, which can be achieved by enzymatic or mechanical procedures. Removal of proteins, polysaccharides and other unwanted substances is likewise important to avoid their interference in subsequent analyses. Phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol is commonly used to recover DNA, since it separates nucleic acids into an aqueous phase and precipitates proteins and
Software specification methods
Habrias, Henri
2010-01-01
This title provides a clear overview of the main methods, and has a practical focus that allows the reader to apply their knowledge to real-life situations. The following are just some of the techniques covered: UML, Z, TLA+, SAZ, B, OMT, VHDL, Estelle, SDL and LOTOS.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-01-01
This invention provides a method for removing nuclear fuel elements from a fabrication building while at the same time testing the fuel elements for leaks without releasing contaminants from the fabrication building or from the fuel elements. The vacuum source used, leak detecting mechanism and fuel element fabrication building are specified to withstand environmental hazards. (UK)
Photovoltaic device and method
Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L
2015-01-27
The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alverbro, Karin
2010-01-01
Many decision-making situations today affect humans and the environment. In practice, many such decisions are made without an overall view and prioritise one or other of the two areas. Now and then these two areas of regulation come into conflict, e.g. the best alternative as regards environmental considerations is not always the best from a human safety perspective and vice versa. This report was prepared within a major project with the aim of developing a framework in which both the environmental aspects and the human safety aspects are integrated, and decisions can be made taking both fields into consideration. The safety risks have to be analysed in order to be successfully avoided and one way of doing this is to use different kinds of risk analysis methods. There is an abundance of existing methods to choose from and new methods are constantly being developed. This report describes some of the risk analysis methods currently available for analysing safety and examines the relationships between them. The focus here is mainly on human safety aspects
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. HEV and cirrhosis: methods. Study group. Patients with cirrhosis and recent jaundice for <30 d. Controls. Patients with liver cirrhosis but no recent worsening. Exclusions. Significant alcohol consumption. Recent hepatotoxic drugs. Recent antiviral therapy. Recent ...
Method of killing microorganisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tensmeyer, L.G.
1980-01-01
A method of sterilizing the contents of containers involves exposure to a plasma induced therein by focusing a high-power laser beam in an electromagnetic field preferably for a period of from 1.0 millisec to 1.0 secs. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berthomier, Charles
1975-01-01
A method capable of handling the amplitude and the frequency time laws of a certain kind of geophysical signals is described here. This method is based upon the analytical signal idea of Gabor and Ville, which is constructed either in the time domain by adding an imaginary part to the real signal (in-quadrature signal), or in the frequency domain by suppressing negative frequency components. The instantaneous frequency of the initial signal is then defined as the time derivative of the phase of the analytical signal, and his amplitude, or envelope, as the modulus of this complex signal. The method is applied to three types of magnetospheric signals: chorus, whistlers and pearls. The results obtained by analog and numerical calculations are compared to results obtained by classical systems using filters, i.e. based upon a different definition of the concept of frequency. The precision with which the frequency-time laws are determined leads then to the examination of the principle of the method and to a definition of instantaneous power density spectrum attached to the signal, and to the first consequences of this definition. In this way, a two-dimensional representation of the signal is introduced which is less deformed by the analysis system properties than the usual representation, and which moreover has the advantage of being obtainable practically in real time [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahaffy, J.H.; Liles, D.R.; Bott, T.F.
1981-01-01
The numerical methods and physical models used in the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) versions PD2 and PF1 are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on TRAC-PF1, the version specifically designed to analyze small-break loss-of-coolant accidents
The Prescribed Velocity Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...
Immunocytochemical methods and protocols
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Javois, Lorette C
1999-01-01
... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...
Adhesive compositions and methods
Allen, Scott D.; Sendijarevic, Vahid; O'Connor, James
2017-12-05
The present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesive compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesives derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure:. In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive polyurethane compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.
Ferrari's Method and Technology
Althoen, Steve
2005-01-01
Some tips that combine knowledge of mathematics history and technology for adapting Ferrar's method to factor quintics with a TI-83 graphing calculator are presented. A demonstration on the use of the root finder and regression capabilities of the graphing calculator are presented, so that the tips can be easily adapted for any graphing calculator…
Dasenbrock, Reed Way
1995-01-01
Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary…
Sparse Classification - Methods & Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Einarsson, Gudmundur
for analysing such data carry the potential to revolutionize tasks such as medical diagnostics where often decisions need to be based on only a few high-dimensional observations. This explosion in data dimensionality has sparked the development of novel statistical methods. In contrast, classical statistics...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braendas, E.
1986-01-01
The method of complex scaling is taken to include bound states, resonances, remaining scattering background and interference. Particular points of the general complex coordinate formulation are presented. It is shown that care must be exercised to avoid paradoxical situations resulting from inadequate definitions of operator domains. A new resonance localization theorem is presented
Alternative methods in criticality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedicini, J.M.
1982-01-01
In this thesis two new methods of calculating the criticality of a nuclear system are introduced and verified. Most methods of determining the criticality of a nuclear system depend implicitly upon knowledge of the angular flux, net currents, or moments of the angular flux, on the system surface in order to know the leakage. For small systems, leakage is the predominant element in criticality calculations. Unfortunately, in these methods the least accurate fluxes, currents, or moments are those occurring near system surfaces or interfaces. This is due to a mathematical inability to satisfy rigorously with a finite order angular polynomial expansion or angular difference technique the physical boundary conditions which occur on these surfaces. Consequently, one must accept large computational effort or less precise criticality calculations. The methods introduced in this thesis, including a direct leakage operator and an indirect multiple scattering leakage operator, obviate the need to know angular fluxes accurately at system boundaries. Instead, the system wide scalar flux, an integral quantity which is substantially easier to obtain with good precision is sufficient to obtain production, absorption, scattering, and leakage rates
African Journals Online (AJOL)
David Norris
genetic variance and its distribution in the population structure can lead to the design of optimum ... Recent developments in statistical methods and computing algorithms ..... This may be an indication of the general effect of the population structure. .... Presentation at the 40th anniversary, Institute of Genetics and Animal.
Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.
2010-10-26
A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.
Embodied Design Ideation methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wilde, Danielle; Vallgårda, Anna; Tomico, Oscar
2017-01-01
Embodied design ideation practices work with relationships between body, material and context to enliven design and research potential. Methods are often idiosyncratic and – due to their physical nature – not easily transferred. This presents challenges for designers wishing to develop and share ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
TiO2 nanotubes have been synthesized by sol–gel template method using alumina membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, UV absorption spectrum and X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the structure, morphology and optical ...
Audience Methods and Gratifications.
Lull, James
A model of need gratification inspired by the work of K.E. Rosengren suggests a theoretical framework making it possible to identify, measure, and assess the components of the need gratification process with respect to the mass media. Methods having cognitive and behavioral components are designed by individuals to achieve need gratification. Deep…
Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.
2008-08-19
A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.
Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille
of handling multiple, fluid realities with multiple, fluid methods. Empirically, the paper works with mediation in fashion - that is efforts the active shaping of relations between producer and consumer through communication, marketing and PR. Fashion mediation is by no means simple, but organise complex...
Universal Image Steganalytic Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Banoci
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In the paper we introduce a new universal steganalytic method in JPEG file format that is detecting well-known and also newly developed steganographic methods. The steganalytic model is trained by MHF-DZ steganographic algorithm previously designed by the same authors. The calibration technique with the Feature Based Steganalysis (FBS was employed in order to identify statistical changes caused by embedding a secret data into original image. The steganalyzer concept utilizes Support Vector Machine (SVM classification for training a model that is later used by the same steganalyzer in order to identify between a clean (cover and steganographic image. The aim of the paper was to analyze the variety in accuracy of detection results (ACR while detecting testing steganographic algorithms as F5, Outguess, Model Based Steganography without deblocking, JP Hide and Seek which represent the generally used steganographic tools. The comparison of four feature vectors with different lengths FBS (22, FBS (66 FBS(274 and FBS(285 shows promising results of proposed universal steganalytic method comparing to binary methods.
Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.
1973-01-01
Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.
Research Methods in Sociolinguistics
Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel
2014-01-01
The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…
Kriging : Methods and Applications
Kleijnen, J.P.C.
2017-01-01
In this chapter we present Kriging— also known as a Gaussian process (GP) model— which is a mathematical interpolation method. To select the input combinations to be simulated, we use Latin hypercube sampling (LHS); we allow uniform and non-uniform distributions of the simulation inputs. Besides
Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee
2013-04-16
The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.
Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.; Balakrishnan, N.; Brandimarte, P.; Everitt, B.; Molenberghs, G.; Piegorsch, W.; Ruggeri, F.
2015-01-01
Six Sigma is built on principles and methods that have proven themselves over the twentieth century. It has incorporated the most effective approaches and integrated them into a full program. It offers a management structure for organizing continuous improvement of routine tasks, such as
Andersson, Pher G
2008-01-01
With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.
Methods of information processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kosarev, Yu G; Gusev, V D
1978-01-01
Works are presented on automation systems for editing and publishing operations by methods of processing symbol information and information contained in training selection (ranking of objectives by promise, classification algorithm of tones and noise). The book will be of interest to specialists in the automation of processing textural information, programming, and pattern recognition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mamedov, N Ya; Kadymova, K S; Dzhafarov, Sh T
1963-10-28
One type of dual completion method utilizes a single tubing string. Through the use of the proper tubing equipment, the fluid from the low-productive upper formation is lifted by utilizing the surplus energy of a submerged pump, which handles the production from the lower stratum.
Methods Evolved by Observation
Montessori, Maria
2016-01-01
Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…
Alternative methods in criticality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedicini, J.M.
1982-01-01
Two new methods of calculating the criticality of a nuclear system are introduced and verified. Most methods of determining the criticality of a nuclear system depend implicitly upon knowledge of the angular flux, net currents, or moments of the angular flux, on the system surface in order to know the leakage. For small systems, leakage is the predominant element in criticality calculations. Unfortunately, in these methods the least accurate fluxes, currents, or moments are those occuring near system surfaces or interfaces. This is due to a mathematical inability to satisfy rigorously with a finite order angular polynomial expansion or angular difference technique the physical boundary conditions which occur on these surfaces. Consequently, one must accept large computational effort or less precise criticality calculations. The methods introduced in this thesis, including a direct leakage operator and an indirect multiple scattering leakage operator, obviate the need to know angular fluxes accurately at system boundaries. Instead, the system wide scalar flux, an integral quantity which is substantially easier to obtain with good precision, is sufficient to obtain production, absorption, scattering, and leakage rates
WATER CHEMISTRY ASSESSMENT METHODS
This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...
Isaacson, Eugene
1994-01-01
This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.
Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.
2013-06-11
A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karosiene, Edita
Analysis. The chapter provides detailed explanations on how to use different methods for T cell epitope discovery research, explaining how input should be given as well as how to interpret the output. In the last chapter, I present the results of a bioinformatics analysis of epitopes from the yellow fever...... peptide-MHC interactions. Furthermore, using yellow fever virus epitopes, we demonstrated the power of the %Rank score when compared with the binding affinity score of MHC prediction methods, suggesting that this score should be considered to be used for selecting potential T cell epitopes. In summary...... immune responses. Therefore, it is of great importance to be able to identify peptides that bind to MHC molecules, in order to understand the nature of immune responses and discover T cell epitopes useful for designing new vaccines and immunotherapies. MHC molecules in humans, referred to as human...
Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin
2016-06-21
Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.
Motor degradation prediction methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.
1996-12-01
Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.
Vempala, Santosh S
2005-01-01
Random projection is a simple geometric technique for reducing the dimensionality of a set of points in Euclidean space while preserving pairwise distances approximately. The technique plays a key role in several breakthrough developments in the field of algorithms. In other cases, it provides elegant alternative proofs. The book begins with an elementary description of the technique and its basic properties. Then it develops the method in the context of applications, which are divided into three groups. The first group consists of combinatorial optimization problems such as maxcut, graph coloring, minimum multicut, graph bandwidth and VLSI layout. Presented in this context is the theory of Euclidean embeddings of graphs. The next group is machine learning problems, specifically, learning intersections of halfspaces and learning large margin hypotheses. The projection method is further refined for the latter application. The last set consists of problems inspired by information retrieval, namely, nearest neig...
Liseikin, Vladimir D
2010-01-01
This book is an introduction to structured and unstructured grid methods in scientific computing, addressing graduate students, scientists as well as practitioners. Basic local and integral grid quality measures are formulated and new approaches to mesh generation are reviewed. In addition to the content of the successful first edition, a more detailed and practice oriented description of monitor metrics in Beltrami and diffusion equations is given for generating adaptive numerical grids. Also, new techniques developed by the author are presented, in particular a technique based on the inverted form of Beltrami’s partial differential equations with respect to control metrics. This technique allows the generation of adaptive grids for a wide variety of computational physics problems, including grid clustering to given function values and gradients, grid alignment with given vector fields, and combinations thereof. Applications of geometric methods to the analysis of numerical grid behavior as well as grid ge...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suzić Nenad
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper displays the application of the Cross-Impact method in pedagogy, namely a methodological approach which crosses variables in a novel, but statistically justified manner. The method is an innovation in pedagogy as well as in research methodology of social and psychological phenomena. Specifically, events and processes are crossed, that is, experts' predictions of about future interaction of events and processes. Therefore, this methodology is futuristic; it concerns predicting future, which is of key importance for pedagogic objectives. The paper presents two instances of the cross-impact approach: the longer, displayed in fourteen steps, and the shorter, in four steps. They are both accompanied with mathematic and statistical formulae allowing for quantification, that is, a numerical expression of the probability of a certain event happening in the future. The advantage of this approach is that it facilitates planning in education which so far has been solely based on lay estimates and assumptions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steijn, Arthur
2016-01-01
Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...... context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, Stephen.
1992-01-01
In a method of avoiding use of nuclear radiation, eg gamma rays, X-rays, electron beams, for testing semiconductor components for resistance to hard radiation, which hard radiation causes data corruption in some memory devices and 'latch-up' in others, similar fault effects can be achieved using a xenon or other 'light' flash gun even though the penetration of light is significantly less than that of gamma rays. The method involves treating a device with gamma radiation, measuring a particular fault current at the onset of a fault event, repeating the test with light to confirm the occurrence of the fault event at the same measured fault current, and using the fault current value as a reference for future tests using light on similar devices. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahaney, W.C.
1984-01-01
The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)
Xα method with pseudopotentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szasz, L.
1980-01-01
The Xα method for an atom or molecule is transformed into an all-electron pseudopotential formalism. The equations of the Xα method are exactly transformed into pseudo-orbital equations and the resulting pseudopotentials are replaced by simple density-dependent potentials derived from Thomas-Fermi model. It is shown that the new formalism satisfies the virial theorem. As the first application it is shown that the model explains the shell-structure of atoms by the property that the pseudo-orbitals for the (ns), (np), (nd) etc. electrons are, in a very good approximation, the solutions of the same equation and have their maxima at the same point thereby creating the peaks in the radial density characterizing the shell structure. (orig.)
Developments in Surrogating Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hans van Dormolen
2005-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.
Motor degradation prediction methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.
1996-01-01
Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures
Thermoluminescence dating method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zink, A.
2004-01-01
A crystal that is submitted to radiation stores energy and releases this energy under the form of light whenever it is heated. These 2 properties: the ability to store energy and the ability to reset the energy stored are the pillars on which time dating methods like thermoluminescence are based. A typical accuracy of the thermoluminescence method is between 5 to 7% but an accuracy of 3% can be reached with a sufficient number of measurement. This article describes the application of thermoluminescence to the dating of a series of old terra-cotta statues. This time measurement is absolute and does not require any calibration, it represents the time elapsed since the last heating of the artifact. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Megy, J.A.
1980-01-01
A method was developed for making nuclear-grade zirconium from a zirconium compound, which ismore economical than previous methods since it uses aluminum as the reductant metal rather than the more expensive magnesium. A fused salt phase containing the zirconium compound to be reduced is first prepared. The fused salt phase is then contacted with a molten metal phase which contains aluminum and zinc. The reduction is effected by mutual displacment. Aluminum is transported from the molten metal phase to the fused salt phase, replacing zirconium in the salt. Zirconium is transported from the fused salt phase to the molten metal phase. The fused salt phase and the molten metal phase are then separated, and the solvent metal and zirconium are separated by distillation or other means. (DN)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roxana L. IONESCU
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Companies operating in a global economy that is constantly changing and developming, especially during the financial crisis and political instability. It is necessary to adapt and develop sales methods in such environment. For large companies who base their activity on sales it has become a necessity to learn different types of sales approaches because their knowledge enables them to grow the number of customers and therefore the sales and the turnover. This paper aims to exame the most effective sales methods used on the highly sensitive economic and social environment – the insurance market. In the field of insurances, the sales process is even more important because sellers need to sell an intangible product that may materialize in the future, but there is no certainty.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fong-Zhi Chen
2001-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the Plücker coordinates representation is used to formulate the ruled surface and the molecular path for pumping speed performance evaluation of a molecular vacuum pump. The ruled surface represented by the Pliicker coordinates is used to develop a criterion for when gas molecules hit the pump surface wall. The criterion is applied to analyze the flow rate of a new developed vacuum pump in transition regimes by using the DSMC (Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. When a molecule flies in a neutral electrical field its path is a straight line. If the molecular path and the generators of a ruled surface are both represented by the Pliicker coordinates, the position of the molecular hit on the wall can be verified by the reciprocal condition of the lines. The Plücker coordinates representation is quite convenient in the DSMC method for this three-dimensional molecular flow simulation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.
2013-01-01
There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....
Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian
2004-05-18
The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, J.D.
1986-01-01
A method is described of treatment of opacity of the lens of an eye resulting from foreign matter at the back surface of the eye lens within the vitreous fluid body of the eye with a passively Q-switched laser device. The method consists of: (a) generating a single lasing pulse emitted from the laser device focused within the eye vitreous fluid body, spaced from the lens back surface, creating a microplasma dot in the vitreous fluid body (b) then increasing the frequency of the lasing pulses emitted from the lasing device having a frequency greater than the life of the microplasma to generate an elongated lasing plasma within the eye vitreous fluid moving toward the lens back surface, until the elongated lasing plasma contacts and destroys the foreign matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Brutzel, L.
2015-01-01
Dislocation-Dynamics (DD) technique is identified as the method able to model the evolution of material plastic properties as a function of the microstructural transformation predicted at the atomic scale. Indeed, it is the only simulation method capable of taking into account the collective behaviour of a large number of dislocations inside a realistic microstructure. DD simulations are based on the elastic dislocation theory following rules inherent to the dislocation core structure often call 'local rules'. All the data necessary to establish the local rules for DD have to come directly from experiment or alternatively from simulations carried out at the atomic scale such as molecular dynamics or ab initio calculations. However, no precise information on the interaction between two dislocations or between dislocations and defects induced by irradiation are available for nuclear fuels. Therefore, in this article the DD technique will be presented and some examples are given of what can be achieved with it. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cathleen HASKINS
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Dr. Maria Montessori provided the world with a powerful philosophy and practice for the advancement of humanity: change how we educate children and we change the world. She understood two things very clearly: One, that we can build a better world, a more just and peaceful place, when we educate for the realization of the individual and collective human potential; and two, that the only way to create an educational system that will that will serve this end is to scrap the current system entirely and replace it with a completely new system. She gave us a system through which to accomplish that goal: The Montessori Method. The following is a personal and professional account of the Montessori Method of educating children.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, L.E.
1975-07-01
Stereoscopic methods used in TEM are reviewed. The use of stereoscopy to characterize three-dimensional structures observed by TEM has become widespread since the introduction of instruments operating at 1 MV. In its emphasis on whole structures and thick specimens this approach differs significantly from conventional methods of microstructural analysis based on three-dimensional image reconstruction from a number of thin-section views. The great advantage of stereo derives from the ability to directly perceive and measure structures in three-dimensions by capitalizing on the unsurpassed human ability for stereoscopic matching of corresponding details on picture pairs showing the same features from different viewpoints. At this time, stereo methods are aimed mainly at structural understanding at the level of dislocations, precipitates, and irradiation-induced point-defect clusters in crystal and on the cellular irradiation-induced point-defect clusters in crystal and on the cellular level of biological specimens. 3-d reconstruction methods have concentrated on the molecular level where image resolution requirements dictate the use of very thin specimens. One recent application of three-dimensional coordinate measurements is a system developed for analyzing depth variations in the numbers, sizes and total volumes of voids produced near the surfaces of metal specimens during energetic ion bombardment. This system was used to correlate the void volumes at each depth along the ion range with the number of atomic displacements produced at that depth, thereby unfolding the entire swelling versus dose relationship from a single stereo view. A later version of this system incorporating computer-controlled stereo display capabilities is now being built
Polymer compositions and methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.
2018-02-06
The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.
Methods of celestial mechanics
Brouwer, Dirk
2013-01-01
Methods of Celestial Mechanics provides a comprehensive background of celestial mechanics for practical applications. Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that is devoted to the motions of celestial bodies. This book is composed of 17 chapters, and begins with the concept of elliptic motion and its expansion. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other aspects of celestial mechanics, including gravity, numerical integration of orbit, stellar aberration, lunar theory, and celestial coordinates. Considerable chapters explore the principles and application of various mathematical metho
Assessment methods for rehabilitation.
Biefang, S; Potthoff, P
1995-09-01
Diagnostics and evaluation in medical rehabilitation should be based on methods that are as objective as possible. In this context quantitative methods are an important precondition. We conducted for the German Pensions Insurance Institutions (which are in charge of the medical and vocational rehabilitation of workers and employees) a survey on assessment methods for rehabilitation which included an evaluation of American literature, with the aim to indicate procedures that can be considered for adaptation in Germany and to define further research requirements. The survey identified: (1) standardized procedures and instrumented tests for the assessment of musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary and neurophysiological function; (2) personality, intelligence, achievement, neuropsychological and alcoholism screening tests for the assessment of mental or cognitive function; (3) rating scales and self-administered questionnaires for the assessment of Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL Scales); (4) generic profiles and indexes as well as disease-specific measures for the assessment of health-related quality of life and health status; and (5) rating scales for vocational assessment. German equivalents or German versions exist only for a part of the procedures identified. Translation and testing of Anglo-Saxon procedures should have priority over the development of new German methods. The following procedures will be taken into account: (a) instrumented tests for physical function, (b) IADL Scales, (c) generic indexes of health-related quality of life, (d) specific quality of life and health status measures for disorders of the circulatory system, metabolic system, digestive organs, respiratory tract and for cancer, and (e) vocational rating scales.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cronauer, D.C.; Kehl, W.L.
1977-06-08
In a method to liquify coal in the presence of hydrogen and hydrogen-transfer solvents, a hydrogenation catalyst is used in which an amorphous aluminium phosphate is taken as catalyst carrier. The particular advantage of aluminium phosphate catalyst carriers is their property of not loosing their mechanical strength even after manifold oxidizing regeneration (burning off the deposited carbon). The quantity of carbon deposited on the catalyst when using an aluminium phosphate carrier is considerably loss than with usual catalyst carriers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, D.R.
1981-01-01
The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (identification, quantification of risk); some approaches to risk evaluation (use of the 'no risk' principle; the 'acceptable risk' method; risk balancing; comparison of risks, benefits and other costs); cost benefit analysis; an alternative approach (tabulation and display; description and reduction of the data table); identification of potential decision sets consistent with the constraints. Some references are made to nuclear power. (U.K.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Kukharenko
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Content curated - a new activity (started in 2008 qualified network users with process large amounts of information to represent her social network users. To prepare content curators developed 7 weeks distance course, which examines the functions, methods and tools curator. Courses showed a significant relationship success learning on the availability of advanced personal learning environment and the ability to process and analyze information.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornecsu, M.
1995-01-01
The work describes a method of documenting the AUDIT plan upon the basis of two quantitative elements resulting from quality assurance program appraisal system function implementation degree as established from the latest AUDIT performed an system function weight in QAP, respectively, appraised by taking into account their significance for the activities that are to be performed in the period for which the AUDITs are planned. (Author) 3 Figs., 2 Refs
Method for separating isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jepson, B.E.
1976-01-01
The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Borsch
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider two different approaches to the methods stegoanalysis applicable to common multimedia formats. The first approach uses the verification and the analysis of changes in the fields of media files that must remain constant throughout the bit stream of potential container file. The second approach is more complicated for implementation and involves collecting of information by means of many experiments.
Situational Method Engineering
Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ralyte, Jolita; Par, Agerfalk; Rossi, Matti
2014-01-01
While previously available methodologies for software – like those published in the early days of object technology – claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all t...
Situational method engineering
Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti
2014-01-01
While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the
Chang, Shih-ger [El Cerrito, CA; Liu, Shou-heng [Kaohsiung, TW; Liu, Zhao-rong [Beijing, CN; Yan, Naiqiang [Berkeley, CA
2009-01-20
Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.
Method for making nanomaterials
Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng
2013-06-04
A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.
Chen, J.-Y.
1992-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.
METHOD OF ADAPTIVE MAGNETOTHERAPY
Rudyk, Valentine Yu.; Tereshchenko, Mykola F.; Rudyk, Tatiana A.
2016-01-01
Practical realization of adaptive control in magnetotherapy apparatus acquires an actual importance on the modern stage of development of magnetotherapy.The structural scheme of method of adaptive impulsive magnetotherapy and algorithm of adaptive control of feed-back signal during procedure of magnetotherapy is represented.A feed-back in magnetotherapy complex will be realized with control of magnetic induction and analysis of man's physiological indexes (temperature, pulse, blood prassure, ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.
1988-01-01
A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging
Trottenberg, U; Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods
1991-01-01
These proceedings contain a selection of papers presented at the Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods which was held in Bonn on October 1-4, 1990. Following conferences in 1981 and 1985, a platform for the presentation of new Multigrid results was provided for a third time. Multigrid methods no longer have problems being accepted by numerical analysts and users of numerical methods; on the contrary, they have been further developed in such a successful way that they have penetrated a variety of new fields of application. The high number of 154 participants from 18 countries and 76 presented papers show the need to continue the series of the European Multigrid Conferences. The papers of this volume give a survey on the current Multigrid situation; in particular, they correspond to those fields where new developments can be observed. For example, se veral papers study the appropriate treatment of time dependent problems. Improvements can also be noticed in the Multigrid approach for semiconductor eq...
Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki
1987-01-01
The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kase, M.B.
1985-01-01
The objective of this study was to provide, in cooperation with ORNL and LANL, specimens required for studies to develop organic insulators having the cryogenic neutron irradiation resistance required for MFE systems utilizing superconducting magnetic confinement. To develop test methods and analytical procedures for assessing radiation damage. To stimulate and participate in international cooperation directed toward accomplishing these objectives. The system for producing uniaxially reinforced, 3-4 mm (0.125 in) diameter rod specimens has been refined and validated by production of excellent quality specimens using liquid-mix epoxy resin systems. The methodology is undergoing further modification to permit use of hot-melt epoxy and polyimide resin systems as will be required for the experimental program to be conducted in the NLTNIF reactor at ORNL. Preliminary studies indicate that short beam and torsional shear test methods will be useful in evaluating radiation degradation. Development of these and other applicable test methods are continuing. A cooperative program established with laboratories in Japan and in England has resulted in the production and testing of specimens having an identical configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leclerc, J.P.
2001-01-01
The first international congress on 'Tracers and tracing methods' took place in Nancy in May 2001. The objective of this second congress was to present the current status and trends on tracing methods and their applications. It has given the opportunity to people from different fields to exchange scientific information and knowledge about tracer methodologies and applications. The target participants were the researchers, engineers and technologists of various industrial and research sectors: chemical engineering, environment, food engineering, bio-engineering, geology, hydrology, civil engineering, iron and steel production... Two sessions have been planned to cover both fundamental and industrial aspects: 1)fundamental development (tomography, tracer camera visualization and particles tracking; validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations by tracer experiments and numerical residence time distribution; new tracers and detectors or improvement and development of existing tracing methods; data treatments and modeling; reactive tracer experiments and interpretation) 2)industrial applications (geology, hydrogeology and oil field applications; civil engineering, mineral engineering and metallurgy applications; chemical engineering; environment; food engineering and bio-engineering). The program included 5 plenary lectures, 23 oral communications and around 50 posters. Only 9 presentations are interested for the INIS database
Development of partitioning method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubota, Kazuo; Dojiri, Shigeru; Kubota, Masumitsu
1988-10-01
The literature survey was carried out on the amount of natural resources, behaviors in reprocessing process and in separation and recovery methods of the platinum group elements and technetium which are contained in spent fuel. The essential results are described below. (1) The platinum group elements, which are contained in spent fuel, are quantitatively limited, compared with total demand for them in Japan. And estimated separation and recovery cost is rather high. In spite of that, development of these techniques is considered to be very important because the supply of these elements is almost from foreign resources in Japan. (2) For recovery of these elements, studies of recovery from undisolved residue and from high level liquid waste (HLLW) also seem to be required. (3) As separation and recovery methods, following techniques are considered to be effective; lead extraction, liquid metal extraction, solvent extraction, ion-exchange, adsorption, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis or their combination. (4) But each of these methods has both advantages and disadvantages. So development of such processes largely depends on future works. (author) 94 refs
Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools
Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak
1996-01-01
This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.
1996-06-01
Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.
Methods of mathematical optimization
Vanderplaats, G. N.
The fundamental principles of numerical optimization methods are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential engineering applications. The basic optimization process is described; unconstrained and constrained minimization problems are defined; a general approach to the design of optimization software programs is outlined; and drawings and diagrams are shown for examples involving (1) the conceptual design of an aircraft, (2) the aerodynamic optimization of an airfoil, (3) the design of an automotive-engine connecting rod, and (4) the optimization of a 'ski-jump' to assist aircraft in taking off from a very short ship deck.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Monchusi, B
2012-10-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info Monchusi_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1953 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Monchusi_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Novel Mining Methods 4th... 2012 Slide 12 CSIR mine safety platform AR Drone Differential time-of-flight beacon Sampling ? CSIR 2012 Slide 13 Reef Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) head Scan X-Y Laser/Spectrometer/Computer Rock Breaking ? CSIR 2012 Slide...
Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods
Hajjari, Tayebeh
2012-11-01
With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.
ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION METHOD
Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.
1958-11-01
A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .
A Pluralistic, Longitudinal Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Evers, Winie; Marroun, Sana; Young, Louise
2017-01-01
There is recognition in business markets of the need for connected relationships to enable the survival and growth of firms. Finding new ways to collaborate enables firms to better seek opportunities and challenges and enhance network capability. However the traditional methods used to research...... and analysis. Longitudinal research considers a Danish advertising and communication firm looking for new ideas by involving their network in order to help them to compete in their environment of rapid globalization and emergence of new technologies. A five stage research design considered how network...
METHOD OF ELECTROPOLISHING URANIUM
Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.
1959-07-14
A method of electropolishing the surface of uranium articles is presented. The process of this invention is carried out by immersing the uranium anticle into an electrolyte which contains from 35 to 65% by volume sulfuric acid, 1 to 20% by volume glycerine and 25 to 50% by volume of water. The article is made the anode in the cell and polished by electrolyzing at a voltage of from 10 to 15 volts. Discontinuing the electrolysis by intermittently withdrawing the anode from the electrolyte and removing any polarized film formed therein results in an especially bright surface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrzej Piotrowski
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In industrial practice, hobs are manufactured and used. The problem boils down to the identification of a hob with defining its profile, which depends on many design and technological parameters (such as the grinding wheel size, profile, type and positioning during machining. This makes the basis for the correct execution and sharpening of the tool. The accuracy of the hob determines the quality of gear wheel teeth being shaped. The article presents the hob identification methods that are possible to be used in industrial and laboratory practice.
Radioanalytical methods manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, N.W.; Dean, J.R.
1986-01-01
This Radioanalytical Methods manual is comprised of 12 chapters. It includes a review of the pertinent literature up to the end of 1982 pertaining to the measurement of the radioactive species listed under the terms of the contract. Included is methodology recommended for the decompositions of soils, tailings, ores, biological samples and air filters. Detailed analytical methodology for the measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, gross gamma, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, thorium-232, thorium-230, thorium-228, total thorium, radon-222, radon-220 and radon-219 is presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witte, N.S.
1998-01-01
The classical formalism of the Moment Problem has been combined with a cumulant approach and applied to the extensive many-body problem. This has yielded many new exact results for many-body systems in the thermodynamic limit - for the ground state energy, for excited state gaps, and for arbitrary ground state averages. The method applies to any extensive Hamiltonian system, for any phase or symmetry arising in the model, whether on a lattice or in the continuum, and for any dimensionality. The theorems are of a nonperturbative nature with respect to any couplings occuring in the model. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponman, T.J.
1984-01-01
For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)
Reiss, Howard
1997-01-01
Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of ""constraints"" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. It will be especially useful as an auxiliary text to be used along with any standard treatment.Unlike some texts, Methods of Thermodynamics does not use statistical m
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunnett, C.J.
1980-01-01
A novel method is described for processing the analogue signals from the photomultiplier tubes in a tomographic X-ray scanner. The system produces a series of pulses whose instantaneous frequency depends on the detected intensity of the X-radiation. A timer unit is used to determine the segment scan intervals and also to deduce the average radiation intensity detected during this interval. The overall system is claimed to possess the advantageous properties of low time delay, wide bandwidth and relative low cost. (U.K.)
Del Pico, Wayne J
2014-01-01
Simplify the estimating process with the latest data, materials, and practices Electrical Estimating Methods, Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide to estimating electrical costs, with data provided by leading construction database RS Means. The book covers the materials and processes encountered by the modern contractor, and provides all the information professionals need to make the most precise estimate. The fourth edition has been updated to reflect the changing materials, techniques, and practices in the field, and provides the most recent Means cost data available. The complexity of el
Introduction to functional methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faddeev, L.D.
1976-01-01
The functional integral is considered in relation to Feynman diagrams and phase space. The holomorphic form of the functional integral is then discussed. The main problem of the lectures, viz. the construction of the S-matrix by means of the functional integral, is considered. The functional methods described explicitly take into account the Bose statistics of the fields involved. The different procedure used to treat fermions is discussed. An introduction to the problem of quantization of gauge fields is given. (B.R.H.)
Inspection Methods in Programming.
1981-06-01
Counting is a a specialization of Iterative-generation in which the generating function is Oneplus ) Waters’ second category of plan building method...is Oneplus and the initial input is 1. 0 I 180 CHAPTER NINE -ta a acio f igr9-.IeaieGnrtoPln 7 -7 STEADY STATE PLANS 181 TemporalPlan counting...specializalion iterative-generation roles .action(afu nction) ,tail(counting) conslraints .action.op = oneplus A .action.input = 1 The lItcrative-application
Powell, James; Reich, Morris; Danby, Gordon
1997-07-22
A magnetic imager 10 includes a generator 18 for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager 10 also includes a sensor 20 for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object.
Geometrical method of decoupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Baumgarten
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E[over →], B[over →], and P[over →], which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When
Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.
2012-02-21
A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.
Moses, E.I.
1992-12-01
A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.
Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.
2005-03-15
A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.
Methods of statistical physics
Akhiezer, Aleksandr I
1981-01-01
Methods of Statistical Physics is an exposition of the tools of statistical mechanics, which evaluates the kinetic equations of classical and quantized systems. The book also analyzes the equations of macroscopic physics, such as the equations of hydrodynamics for normal and superfluid liquids and macroscopic electrodynamics. The text gives particular attention to the study of quantum systems. This study begins with a discussion of problems of quantum statistics with a detailed description of the basics of quantum mechanics along with the theory of measurement. An analysis of the asymptotic be
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.
1978-01-01
Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)
Alternative Methods of Regression
Birkes, David
2011-01-01
Of related interest. Nonlinear Regression Analysis and its Applications Douglas M. Bates and Donald G. Watts ".an extraordinary presentation of concepts and methods concerning the use and analysis of nonlinear regression models.highly recommend[ed].for anyone needing to use and/or understand issues concerning the analysis of nonlinear regression models." --Technometrics This book provides a balance between theory and practice supported by extensive displays of instructive geometrical constructs. Numerous in-depth case studies illustrate the use of nonlinear regression analysis--with all data s
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delincee, H.
1991-01-01
The purpose of this session is to discuss the various possibilities for detecting modifications in DNA after irradiation and whether these changes can be utilized as an indicator for the irradiation treatment of foods. The requirement to be fulfilled is that the method be able to distinguish irradiated food without the presence of a control sample, thus the measured response after irradiation must be large enough to supersede background levels from other treatments. Much work has been performed on the effects of radiation on DNA, particularly due to its importance in radiation biology. The main lesions of DNA as a result of irradiation are base damage, damage of the sugar moiety, single strand and double strand breaks. Crosslinking between bases also occurs, e.g. production of thymine dimers, or between DNA and protein. A valuable review on how to utilize these DNA changes for detection purposes has already appeared. Tables 1, 2 and 3 list the proposed methods of detecting changes in irradiated DNA, some identified products as examples for a possible irradiation indicator, in the case of immunoassay the substance used as antigen, and some selected literature references. In this short review, it is not intended to provide a complete literature survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Akihito.
1994-01-01
A Pt wire electrode is supported from the periphery relative to a Pd electrode by way of a polyethylene or teflon plate in heavy water, and electrolysis is applied while varying conditions successively in a sawteeth fashion at an initial stage, and after elapse of about one week, a pulse current is supplied to promote nuclear reaction and to generate excess heat greater than a charged electric power. That is, small amount of neutron emission is increased and electrolytic cell temperature is elevated by varying the electrolysis conditions successively in the sawteeth fashion at the initial stage. In addition, when the pulse electric current is supplied after elapse of about one week, the electrolytic cell temperature is abnormally elevated, so that the promotion of nuclear reaction phenomenon and the generation of excess heat greater than the charged electric power are recognized. Then, a way to control power level and time fluctuation of cold fusion is attained, thereby contributing to development of a further method for generating excess heat as desired. In addition, it contributes to a development for a method of obtaining such an excess heat that can be taken as a new energy. (N.H.)
Research methods in information
Pickard, Alison Jane
2013-01-01
The long-awaited 2nd edition of this best-selling research methods handbook is fully updated and includes brand new coverage of online research methods and techniques, mixed methodology and qualitative analysis. There is an entire chapter contributed by Professor Julie McLeod, Sue Childs and Elizabeth Lomas focusing on research data management, applying evidence from the recent JISC funded 'DATUM' project. The first to focus entirely on the needs of the information and communications community, it guides the would-be researcher through the variety of possibilities open to them under the heading "research" and provides students with the confidence to embark on their dissertations. The focus here is on the 'doing' and although the philosophy and theory of research is explored to provide context, this is essentially a practical exploration of the whole research process with each chapter fully supported by examples and exercises tried and tested over a whole teaching career. The book will take readers through eac...
Spent fuel reprocessing method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoji, Hirokazu; Mizuguchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.
1996-01-01
Spent oxide fuels containing oxides of uranium and transuranium elements are dismantled and sheared, then oxide fuels are reduced into metals of uranium and transuranium elements in a molten salt with or without mechanical removal of coatings. The reduced metals of uranium and transuranium elements and the molten salts are subjected to phase separation. From the metals of uranium and transuranium elements subjected to phase separation, uranium is separated to a solid cathode and transuranium elements are separated to a cadmium cathode by an electrolytic method. Molten salts deposited together with uranium to the solid cathode, and uranium and transuranium elements deposited to the cadmium cathode are distilled to remove deposited molten salts and cadmium. As a result, TRU oxides (solid) such as UO 2 , Pu 2 in spent fuels can be reduced to U and TRU by a high temperature metallurgical method not using an aqueous solution to separate them in the form of metal from other ingredients, and further, metal fuels can be obtained through an injection molding step depending on the purpose. (N.H.)
Neutron source multiplication method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clayton, E.D.
1985-01-01
Extensive use has been made of neutron source multiplication in thousands of measurements of critical masses and configurations and in subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in situ that provide data for criticality prevention and control in nuclear materials operations. There is continuing interest in developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity, or k/sub eff/, of plant operations, but the required measurements are difficult to carry out and interpret on the far subcritical configurations usually encountered. The relationship between neutron multiplication and reactivity is briefly discussed and data presented to illustrate problems associated with the absolute measurement of neutron multiplication and reactivity in subcritical systems. A number of curves of inverse multiplication have been selected from a variety of experiments showing variations observed in multiplication during the course of critical and subcritical experiments where different methods of reactivity addition were used, with different neutron source detector position locations. Concern is raised regarding the meaning and interpretation of k/sub eff/ as might be measured in a far subcritical system because of the modal effects and spectrum differences that exist between the subcritical and critical systems. Because of this, the calculation of k/sub eff/ identical with unity for the critical assembly, although necessary, may not be sufficient to assure safety margins in calculations pertaining to far subcritical systems. Further study is needed on the interpretation and meaning of k/sub eff/ in the far subcritical system
Magnesium fluoride recovery method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.
1989-01-01
A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 rhoCi/gm. The method comprises the steps of: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; repeating the last two steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 rhoCi/gm
Method of pancreas scintigraphy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michele, E.; Schmidt, H.A.E.
1976-01-01
Scintigraphy of the pancreas is important because of a lack of simple internal and x-ray pancreas diagnostic examination methods, non-burdening to the patient, yet providing sufficient evidence. We conceived a double isotope subtraction method aimed at widespread application; financially, it should be within the range even of smaller nuclear medicine departments. A scanner is combined with double impulse processing and a subtraction unit (Picker Dualscanner) and an adapted x-ray unit with the x-ray tube aimed at the scan-field. Commercial sup(Se-75)selenium methionine is used for pancreas imagining. sup(TC-99m)colloidal sulphur is used as a liver indicator. After barium-brei application orally, an x-ray is taken of the gastro-intestinal tract, so as to be able to delineate the pancreas from other epigastric organs also able to accumulate methionine. The subtraction photoscan is then inscribed on this pre-exposed film without any shift of the patient. It is also possible to use two parallel films (x-ray/photoscan) and then to superposition them
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saller, H.A.; Hodge, E.S.; Paprocki, S.J.; Dayton, R.W.
1987-01-01
A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors is described comprising providing an assembly comprising fuel units consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, the cladding sheets being of greater width and length than the core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of the core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in the recesses. The assembly further comprises second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000 0 F, arranged between a pair of the second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units. The filler plates have the same thickness as the second side pieces. The method further comprises enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through the envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of the envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal
Terahertz composite imaging method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAO Xiaoli; REN Jiaojiao; ZHANG Dandan; CAO Guohua; LI Lijuan; ZHANG Xinming
2017-01-01
In order to improve the imaging quality of terahertz(THz) spectroscopy, Terahertz Composite Imaging Method(TCIM) is proposed. The traditional methods of improving THz spectroscopy image quality are mainly from the aspects of de-noising and image enhancement. TCIM breaks through this limitation. A set of images, reconstructed in a single data collection, can be utilized to construct two kinds of composite images. One algorithm, called Function Superposition Imaging Algorithm(FSIA), is to construct a new gray image utilizing multiple gray images through a certain function. The features of the Region Of Interest (ROI) are more obvious after operating, and it has capability of merging ROIs in multiple images. The other, called Multi-characteristics Pseudo-color Imaging Algorithm(McPcIA), is to construct a pseudo-color image by combining multiple reconstructed gray images in a single data collection. The features of ROI are enhanced by color differences. Two algorithms can not only improve the contrast of ROIs, but also increase the amount of information resulting in analysis convenience. The experimental results show that TCIM is a simple and effective tool for THz spectroscopy image analysis.
Chemical decontamination method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishiwaki, Hitoshi.
1996-01-01
Metal wastes contaminated by radioactive materials are contained in a rotational decontamination vessel, and the metal wastes are rotated therein while being in contact with a slight amount of a decontamination liquid comprising a mineral acid. As the mineral acid, a mixed acid of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and fluoric acid is preferably used. Alternatively, chemical decontamination can also be conducted by charging an acid resistant stirring medium in the rotational decontamination vessel. The surface of the metal wastes is uniformly covered by the slight amount of decontamination liquid to dissolve the surface layer. In addition, heat of dissolution generated in this case is accumulated in the inside of the rotational decontamination vessel, the temperature is elevated with no particular heating, thereby enabling to obtain an excellent decontamination effect substantially at the same level as in the case of heating the liquid to 70degC in a conventional immersion decontamination method. Further, although contact areas between the metal wastes and the immersion vessel are difficult to be decontaminated in the immersion decontamination method, all of areas can be dissolved uniformly in the present invention. (T.M.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Chia-Jean
2007-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.
Magnetohydrodynamic generation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masai, Tadahisa; Ishibashi, Eiichi; Kojima, Akihiro.
1967-01-01
The present invention relates to a magneto-hydrodynamic generation method which increases the conductivity of active gas and the generated energy. In the conventional method of open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic generation, the working fluid does not possess a favorable electric conductivity since the collision cross section is large when the combustion is carried out in a condition of excess oxygen. Furthermore, combustion under a condition of oxygen shortage is uncapable of completely converting the generated energy. The air preheater or boiler is not sufficient to collect the waste gas resulting in damage and other economic disadvantages. In the present invention, the combustion gas caused by excess fuel in the combuster is supplied to the generator as the working gas, to which air or fully oxidized air is added to be reheated. While incomplete gas used for heat collection is not adequate, the unburned damage may be eliminated by combusting again and increasing the gas temperature and heat collection rate. Furthermore, a diffuser is mounted at the rear side of the generator to decrease the gas combustion rate. Thus, even when directly absorbing the preheated fully oxidized air or the ordinary air, the boiler is free from damage caused by combustion delay or impulsive force. (M. Ishida)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Toshio; Hida, Kazuki; Yoshioka, Ritsuo.
1990-01-01
The enrichment degree of fuels initially loaded in a reactor core was made extremely lower than that of fresh fuels to be loaded in the succeeding cycle, or the enrichment degree for all of the initially loaded fuels was made identical with that of the fresh fuels in the conventional reactor operation method. In this operation method, since the initially loaded fuels are sometimes taken out after the completion of the cycle at the low burnup degree as it is, it can not be said to reduce the fuel cycle cost. As a means for dissolving this problem, at least two different kinds of initially loaded fuels are prepared. The enrichment degree of the highly enriched fuels is made identical with that of the fresh fuels, and the enrichment degree and the number of low enriched fuels are not changed after the completion of the first cycle but they are operated till the end of the second cycle. Further, all of the fuels at the low enrichment degree are taken out after the completion of the second cycle and exchanged with the fresh fuels. As a result, high burnup ratio of the initially loaded fuels can be increased, to improve the fuel economy. (I.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyon, R K
1975-05-22
Isotopes of a gaseous compound can be separated by multi-infrared photoabsorption which follows a selective dissociation of the excited molecules by single photon absorption of photons of visible or UV radiation. The process involves three steps. Firstly, the molecules to be separated are irradiated with a high-energy IR laser, whereby the molecules of the compound containing the lighter isotopes are preferably excited. They are then irradiated by a second laser with UV or visible light whose frequency of radiation brings the excited molecules into a form in which they can be separated from the non-excited molecules. The third step is the reformation of the substances according to known methods. A power density of at least 10/sup 4/ watt/cm/sup 2/ per torr gas pressure with an irradiation time of 10/sup -10/ to 5 x 10/sup -5/ seconds in the presence of a second gas with at least 5 times higher partial pressure is necessary for the IR radiation. The method may be used for UF/sub 6/ for which an example is given here.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishida, Ryuichi; Hatanaka, Tatsuo.
1969-01-01
A friction welding method for forming a lattice-shaped base and tie plate supporter for fuel elements is disclosed in which a plate formed with a concavity along its edge is pressure welded to a rotating member such as a boss by longitudinally contacting the projecting surfaces remaining on either side of the concavity with the rotating member during the high speed rotation thereof in the presence of an inert gas. Since only the two projecting surfaces of the plate are fused by friction to the rotary member, heat expansion is absorbed by the concavity to prevent distortion; moreover, a two point contact surface assures a stable fitting and promotes the construction of a rigid lattice in which a number of the abovementioned plates are friction welded between rotating members to form any desired complex arrangement. The inert has serves to protect the material quality of the contacting surfaces from air during the welding step. The present invention thus provides a method in which even Zircaloy may be friction welded in place of casting stainless steel in the construction of supporting lattices to thereby enhance neutron economy. (K. J. Owens)
Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools
Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak
1996-01-01
This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e. the configuration of a project approach that is tuned to the project at hand. A language and support tool for the engineering of situational methods are discussed.
Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making
Habuchi, Satoshi
2017-03-16
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.
Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making
Habuchi, Satoshi; Piwonski, Hubert Marek; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi
2017-01-01
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.
Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.
1960-08-30
A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.
Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.
1997-04-01
A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.
Mathematical methods in engineering
Machado, José
2014-01-01
This book presents a careful selection of the contributions presented at the Mathematical Methods in Engineering (MME10) International Symposium, held at the Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra- Engineering Institute of Coimbra (IPC/ISEC), Portugal, October 21-24, 2010. The volume discusses recent developments about theoretical and applied mathematics toward the solution of engineering problems, thus covering a wide range of topics, such as: Automatic Control, Autonomous Systems, Computer Science, Dynamical Systems and Control, Electronics, Finance and Economics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Fractional Mathematics, Fractional Transforms and Their Applications, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Image and Signal Analysis, Image Processing, Mechanics, Mechatronics, Motor Control and Human Movement Analysis, Nonlinear Dynamics, Partial Differential Equations, Robotics, Acoustics, Vibration and Control, and Wavelets.
Radiofrequency attenuator and method
Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ
2009-01-20
Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.
Tolle, Charles R [Idaho Falls, ID; Clark, Denis E [Idaho Falls, ID; Smartt, Herschel B [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Karen S [Idaho Falls, ID
2009-10-06
A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Utamura, Motoaki; Urata, Megumu.
1976-01-01
Object: To detect failed fuel element in a reactor with high precision by measuring the radioactivity concentrations for more than one nuclides of fission products ( 131 I and 132 I, for example) contained in each sample of coolant in fuel channel. Method: The radioactivity concentrations in the sampled coolant are obtained from gamma spectra measured by a pulse height analyser after suitable cooling periods according to the half-lives of the fission products to be measured. The first measurement for 132 I is made in two hours after sampling, and the second for 131 I is started one day after the sampling. Fuel element corresponding to the high radioactivity concentrations for both 131 I and 132 I is expected with certainty to have failed
Feldenkrais, Moshé
1981-01-01
Moshe Feldenkrais is known from the textbooks as a collaborator of Joliot-Curie, Langevin, and Kowarski participating in the first nuclear fission experiments. During the war he went to Great Britain and worked on the development of submarine detection devices. From experimental physics, following finally a suggestion of Lew Kowarski, he turned his interest to neurophysiology and neuropsychology. He studied the cybernetical organisation between human body dynamics and the mind. He developed his method known as "Functional integration" and "Awareness through movement". It has been applied with surprising results to post-traumatic rehabilitation, psychotherapy, re-education of the mentally or physically handicapped, and improvement of performance in sports. It can be used by everybody who wants to discover his natural grace of movement.
Interval methods: An introduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj
2006-01-01
This chapter contains selected papers presented at the Minisymposium on Interval Methods of the PARA'04 Workshop '' State-of-the-Art in Scientific Computing ''. The emphasis of the workshop was on high-performance computing (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides...... the potential for solving increasingly difficult computational problems. However, given the complexity of modern computer architectures, the task of realizing this potential needs careful attention. A main concern of HPC is the development of software that optimizes the performance of a given computer....... An important characteristic of the computer performance in scientific computing is the accuracy of the Computation results. Often, we can estimate this accuracy by using traditional statistical techniques. However, in many practical situations, we do not know the probability distributions of different...
Baryons with functional methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, Christian S.
2017-01-01
We summarise recent results on the spectrum of ground-state and excited baryons and their form factors in the framework of functional methods. As an improvement upon similar approaches we explicitly take into account the underlying momentum-dependent dynamics of the quark-gluon interaction that leads to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. For light octet and decuplet baryons we find a spectrum in very good agreement with experiment, including the level ordering between the positive- and negative-parity nucleon states. Comparing the three-body framework with the quark-diquark approximation, we do not find significant differences in the spectrum for those states that have been calculated in both frameworks. This situation is different in the electromagnetic form factor of the Δ, which may serve to distinguish both pictures by comparison with experiment and lattice QCD.
Modified risk evaluation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Udell, C.J.; Tilden, J.A.; Toyooka, R.T.
1993-08-01
The purpose of this paper is to provide a structured and cost-oriented process to determine risks associated with nuclear material and other security interests. Financial loss is a continuing concern for US Department of Energy contractors. In this paper risk is equated with uncertainty of cost impacts to material assets or human resources. The concept provides a method for assessing the effectiveness of an integrated protection system, which includes operations, safety, emergency preparedness, and safeguards and security. The concept is suitable for application to sabotage evaluations. The protection of assets is based on risk associated with cost impacts to assets and the potential for undesirable events. This will allow managers to establish protection priorities in terms of the cost and the potential for the event, given the current level of protection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinberg, M.; Manowitz, B.; Waide, C.H.
1976-01-01
A method and apparatus are described for producing rockbolts in the roof of a subterranean cavity in which two components of an ambient temperature curable resin system are premixed and then inserted into a bore hole. The mixture is permitted to polymerize in situ, and then the hardened material is cut off at the entrance to the hole leaving a hardened portion for insertion into the next hole as a precursor. In a preferred embodiment, a flexible glass roving is employed to reinforce the material in the hole and a metal tube inserted to support the roving while it is fed into the hole and also to provide venting. The roving and tube is then cut off and left in the hole
Method of controlling reactivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tochihara, Hiroshi.
1982-01-01
Purpose: To improve the reactivity controlling characteristics by artificially controlling the leakage of neutron from a reactor and providing a controller for controlling the reactivity. Method: A reactor core is divided into several water gaps to increase the leakage of neutron, its reactivity is reduced, a gas-filled control rod or a fuel assembly is inserted into the gap as required, the entire core is coupled in a system to reduce the leakage of the neutron, and the reactivity is increased. The reactor shutdown is conducted by the conventional control rod, and to maintain critical state, boron density varying system is used together. Futher, a control rod drive is used with that similar to the conventional one, thereby enabling fast reactivity variation, and the positive reactivity can be obtained by the insertion, thereby improving the reactivity controlling characteristics. (Yoshihara, H.)
Method for radioactivity monitoring
Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.
1976-10-26
The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Toshiro.
1983-01-01
Purpose: To decrease the cost and shorten the working time by saving fueling neutron detectors and their components. Method: Incore drive tubes for the neutron source range monitor (SRM) and intermediate range monitor (IRM) are disposed respectively within in a reactor core and a SRM detector assembly is inserted to the IRM incore drive tube which is most nearest to the neutron source upon reactor fueling. The reactor core reactivity is monitored by the SRM detector assembly. The SRM detector asesembly inserted into the IRM drive tube is extracted at the time of charging fuels up to the frame connecting the SRM and, thereafter, IRM detection assembly is inserted into the IRM drive tube and the SRM detector assembly is inserted into the SRM drive tube respectively for monitoring the reactor core. (Sekiya, K.)
Radioactive air sampling methods
Maiello, Mark L
2010-01-01
Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.
1999-01-01
The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Funakoshi, Toshio; Inagaki, Yuzo; Hashimoto, Yasuhide.
1985-01-01
Purpose: To convert radioactive wastes into the final state for storage (artificial rocks) in a short period of time. Method: Radioactive burnable wastes such as spent papers, cloths and oils and activated carbons are burnt into ashes in a burning furnace, while radioactive liquid wastes such as liquid wastes of boric acid, exhausted cleaning water and decontaminating liquid wastes are powderized in a drying furnace or calcining furnace. These powders are joined with silicates as such as white clay, silica and glass powder and a liquid alkali such as NaOH or Ca(OH) 2 and transferred to a solidifying vessel. Then, the vessel is set to a hydrothermal reactor, heated and pressurized, then taken out about 20 min after and tightly sealed. In this way, radioactive wastes are converted through the hydrothermal reactions into aqueous rock stable for a long period of time to obtain solidification products insoluble to water and with an extremely low leaching rate. (Ikeda, J.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delano, M.A.
1991-01-01
This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant
Introduction to perturbation methods
Holmes, M
1995-01-01
This book is an introductory graduate text dealing with many of the perturbation methods currently used by applied mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. The author has based his book on a graduate course he has taught several times over the last ten years to students in applied mathematics, engineering sciences, and physics. The only prerequisite for the course is a background in differential equations. Each chapter begins with an introductory development involving ordinary differential equations. The book covers traditional topics, such as boundary layers and multiple scales. However, it also contains material arising from current research interest. This includes homogenization, slender body theory, symbolic computing, and discrete equations. One of the more important features of this book is contained in the exercises. Many are derived from problems of up- to-date research and are from a wide range of application areas.
2002-07-02
2002 US 6,413,589 B1 35 36 yttria or CaO, can also be made porous by sol gel , or by superconductor powders 32 is at least 20 to 50 C. below its...Display Research Conference, (1988). 3,949,263 A 4/1976 Harper "Laser Method for Synthesis and Processing of Continuous 4,009,027 A 2/1977 Naidich et al...spots on reinforcing 33,800, WO3 (7.16) 33,600, Fe2O3 (5.24) 23,100, MoO3 carbon fibers in carbon composites; (4.692) 20,100, and MnO2 (5.026) 21,900
Chattamvelli, Rajan
2015-01-01
DATA MINING METHODS, Second Edition discusses both theoretical foundation and practical applications of datamining in a web field including banking, e-commerce, medicine, engineering and management. This book starts byintroducing data and information, basic data type, data category and applications of data mining. The second chapterbriefly reviews data visualization technology and importance in data mining. Fundamentals of probability and statisticsare discussed in chapter 3, and novel algorithm for sample covariants are derived. The next two chapters give an indepthand useful discussion of data warehousing and OLAP. Decision trees are clearly explained and a new tabularmethod for decision tree building is discussed. The chapter on association rules discusses popular algorithms andcompares various algorithms in summary table form. An interesting application of genetic algorithm is introduced inthe next chapter. Foundations of neural networks are built from scratch and the back propagation algorithm is derived...
Mintěl, Tomáš
2009-01-01
Tato diplomová práce se zabývá akcelerací interpolačních metod s využitím GPU a architektury NVIDIA (R) CUDA TM. Grafický výstup je reprezentován demonstrační aplikací pro transformaci obrazu nebo videa s použitím vybrané interpolace. Časově kritické části kódu jsou přesunuty na GPU a vykonány paralelně. Pro práci s obrazem a videem jsou použity vysoce optimalizované algoritmy z knihovny OpenCV, od firmy Intel. This master's thesis deals with acceleration of pixel interpolation methods usi...
Computational Methods in Medicine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence requires Logic. But its Classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it is absolutely necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, such as Fuzzy Logic, Modal Logic, Non-Monotonic Logic, and so on [2]. Among the things that AI needs to represent are Categories, Objects, Properties, Relations between objects, Situations, States, Time, Events, Causes and effects, Knowledge about knowledge, and so on. The problems in AI can be classified in two general types
[3, 4], Search Problems and Representation Problem. There exist different ways to reach this objective. So, we have [3] Logics, Rules, Frames, Associative Nets, Scripts and so on, that are often interconnected. Also, it will be very useful, in dealing with problems of uncertainty and causality, to introduce Bayesian Networks and particularly, a principal tool as the Essential Graph. We attempt here to show the scope of application of such versatile methods, currently fundamental in Medicine.
Method of electrostatic filtration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devienne, F.M.
1975-01-01
Electrostatic filtration of secondary ions of mass m in a given mass ratio with a primary ion of mass M which has formed the secondary ions by fission is carried out by a method which consists in forming a singly-charged primary ion of the substance having a molecular mass M and extracting the ion at a voltage V 1 with respect to ground. The primary ion crosses a potential barrier V 2 , in producing the dissociation of the ion into at least two fragments of secondary ions and in extracting the fragment ion of mass m at a voltage V 2 . Filtration is carried out in an electrostatic analyzer through which only the ions of energy eV'' are permitted to pass, detecting the ions which have been filtered. The mass m of the ions is such that (M/m) = (V 1 - V 2 )/(V'' - V 2 )
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O'Leary, R.F.
1997-01-01
A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs
Lubrication method and apparatus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCarty, R.S.
1988-05-03
In a combustion turbine engine comprising a bearing member journaling a rotatable component, and compressor means providing pressurized air, the method of providing liquid lubricant to the bearing member is described comprising the steps of: providing the liquid lubricant sealed within a collapsible and penetrable bladder member; enclosing the bladder member and lubricant within a substantially closed housing sealingly cooperating with the bladder member to define a pair of chambers; arranging a penetrating lance member in one of the pair of chambers in confronting relationship with the bladder member; providing communication of the pressurized air with the other of the pair of chambers to force the bladder member into impaled sealing relationship with the lance member; communicating the lubricant to the bearing member via the lance member; and utilizing the pressurized air within the other chamber to collapse the bladder member, simultaneously flowing the lubricant to the bearing member.