Sample records for methods biofilmin muodostus

  1. Evaluation of two autoinducer-2 quantification methods for application in marine environments

    Wang, Tian-Nyu


    This study evaluated two methods, namely high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioassay, for autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quantification in marine samples. Using both methods, the study also investigated the stability of AI-2 in varying pH, temperature and media, as well as quantified the amount of AI-2 signals in marine samples.HPLC-FLD method showed a higher level of reproducibility and precision compared to V. harveyi BB170 bioassay. Alkaline pH > 8 and high temperature (> 37°C) increased the instability of AI-2. The AI-2 concentrations in seawater were low, ca. 3.2-27.6 pmol l-1 whereas 8- week old marine biofilm grew on an 18.8 cm2 substratum accumulated ca. 0.207 nmol of AI-2.Both methods have pros and cons for AI-2 quantification in marine samples. Regardless, both methods reported a ubiquitous presence of AI-2 in both planktonic and biomass fractions of seawater, as well as in marine biofilm.In this study, AI-2 signals were for the first time enumerated in marine samples to reveal the ubiquitous presence of AI-2 in this environment. The findings suggest a possible role of AI-2 in biofilm formation in marine environment, and the contribution of AI-2 in biofilm-associated problems such as biofouling and biocorrosion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Method

    Ling Fiona W.M.


    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  3. method

    L. M. Kimball


    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  4. Perturbation methods

    Nayfeh, Ali H


    1. Introduction 1 2. Straightforward Expansions and Sources of Nonuniformity 23 3. The Method of Strained Coordinates 56 4. The Methods of Matched and Composite Asymptotic Expansions 110 5. Variation of Parameters and Methods of Averaging 159 6. The Method of Multiple Scales 228 7. Asymptotic Solutions of Linear Equations 308 References and Author Index 387 Subject Index 417

  5. Distillation methods

    Konecny, C.


    Two main methods of separation using the distillation method are given and evaluated, namely evaporation and distillation in carrier gas flow. Two basic apparatus are described for illustrating the methods used. The use of the distillation method in radiochemistry is documented by a number of examples of the separation of elements in elemental state, volatile halogenides and oxides. Tables give a survey of distillation methods used for the separation of the individual elements and give conditions under which this separation takes place. The suitability of the use of distillation methods in radiochemistry is discussed with regard to other separation methods. (L.K.)

  6. galerkin's methods


    The assumed deflection shapes used in the approximate methods such as in the Galerkin's method were normally ... to direct compressive forces Nx, was derived by Navier. [3]. ..... tend to give higher frequency and stiffness, as well as.

  7. Mining Method

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  8. Projection Methods

    Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin


    When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...... methods as a way of handling these special problems. It is assumed that we have methods for solving normal ODE systems and index-1 systems....

  9. Discipline methods

    Maria Kikila; Ioannis Koutelekos


    Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. As discipline is defined the process that help children to learn appropriate behaviors and make good choices. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the discipline methods. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to the discipline methods. Results: In the literature it is ci...

  10. Maintenance methods

    Sanchis, H.; Aucher, P.


    The maintenance method applied at the Hague is summarized. The method was developed in order to solve problems relating to: the different specialist fields, the need for homogeneity in the maintenance work, the equipment diversity, the increase of the materials used at the Hague's new facilities. The aim of the method is to create a knowhow formalism, to facilitate maintenance, to ensure the running of the operations and to improve the estimation of the maintenance cost. One of the method's difficulties is the demonstration of the profitability of the maintenance operations [fr

  11. Spectroscopic methods

    Ivanovich, M.; Murray, A.


    The principles involved in the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter are described, as are the principles behind methods of radiation detection. Different types of radiation detectors are described and methods of detection such as alpha, beta and gamma spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis are presented. Details are given of measurements of uranium-series disequilibria. (UK)

  12. Method Mixins

    Ernst, Erik


    . Method mixins use shared name spaces to transfer information between caller and callee, as opposed to traditional invocation which uses parameters and returned results. This relieves a caller from dependencies on the callee, and it allows direct transfer of information further down the call stack, e......The procedure call mechanism has conquered the world of programming, with object-oriented method invocation being a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, where traditional...

  13. Method Mixins

    Ernst, Erik


    invocation is optimized for as-is reuse of existing behavior. Tight coupling reduces flexibility, and traditional invocation tightly couples transfer of information and transfer of control. Method mixins decouple these two kinds of transfer, thereby opening the doors for new kinds of abstraction and reuse......The procedure call mechanism has conquered the world of programming, with object-oriented method invocation being a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, where traditional....... Method mixins use shared name spaces to transfer information between caller and callee, as opposed to traditional invocation which uses parameters and returned results. This relieves a caller from dependencies on the callee, and it allows direct transfer of information further down the call stack, e...

  14. Dosimetry methods

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.


    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  15. Method Mixins

    Ernst, Erik


    The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, ...... the call stack, e.g., to a callee's callee. The mechanism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta. Variants of the mechanism could be added to almost any imperative programming language.......The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior...

  16. Ensemble Methods

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio


    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  17. Method Mixins

    Ernst, Erik


    The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior...... of abstraction and reuse. Method mixins use shared name spaces to transfer information between caller and callee, as opposed to traditional invocation which uses parameters and returned results. This relieves the caller from dependencies on the callee, and it allows direct transfer of information further down...... the call stack, e.g., to a callee's callee. The mechanism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta. Variants of the mechanism could be added to almost any imperative programming language....

  18. Statistical methods

    Szulc, Stefan


    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  19. Sieve methods

    Halberstam, Heine


    Derived from the techniques of analytic number theory, sieve theory employs methods from mathematical analysis to solve number-theoretical problems. This text by a noted pair of experts is regarded as the definitive work on the subject. It formulates the general sieve problem, explores the theoretical background, and illustrates significant applications.""For years to come, Sieve Methods will be vital to those seeking to work in the subject, and also to those seeking to make applications,"" noted prominent mathematician Hugh Montgomery in his review of this volume for the Bulletin of the Ameri

  20. Characterization methods

    Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)


    Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.

  1. Digital Methods

    Rogers, R.


    In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals

  2. Chromatographic methods

    Marhol, M.; Stary, J.


    The characteristics are given of chromatographic separation and the methods are listed. Methods and data on materials used in partition, adsorption, precipitation and ion exchange chromatography are listed and conditions are described under which ion partition takes place. Special attention is devoted to ion exchange chromatography where tables are given to show the course of values of the partition coefficients of different ions in dependence on the concentration of agents and the course of equilibrium sorptions on different materials in dependence on the solution pH. A theoretical analysis is given and the properties of the most widely used ion exchangers are listed. Experimental conditions and apparatus used for each type of chromatography are listed. (L.K.)

  3. Numerical methods

    Dahlquist, Germund


    ""Substantial, detailed and rigorous . . . readers for whom the book is intended are admirably served."" - MathSciNet (Mathematical Reviews on the Web), American Mathematical Society.Practical text strikes fine balance between students' requirements for theoretical treatment and needs of practitioners, with best methods for large- and small-scale computing. Prerequisites are minimal (calculus, linear algebra, and preferably some acquaintance with computer programming). Text includes many worked examples, problems, and an extensive bibliography.

  4. Sampling methods

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.


    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  5. Decontaminating method

    Furukawa, Toshiharu; Shibuya, Kiichiro.


    Purpose: To provide a method of eliminating radioactive contaminations capable of ease treatment for decontaminated liquid wastes and grinding materials. Method: Those organic grinding materials such as fine wall nuts shell pieces cause no secondary contaminations since they are softer as compared with inorganic grinding materials, less pulverizable upon collision against the surface to be treated, being capable of reusing and producing no fine scattering powder. In addition, they can be treated by burning. The organic grinding material and water are sprayed by a nozzle to the surface to be treated, and decontaminated liquid wastes are separated into solid components mainly composed of organic grinding materials and liquid components mainly composed of water by filtering. The thus separated solid components are recovered in a storage tank for reuse as the grinding material and, after repeating use, subjected to burning treatment. While on the other hand, water is recovered into a storage tank and, after repeating use, purified by passing through an ion exchange resin-packed column and decontaminated to discharge. (Horiuchi, T.)


    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.


    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

  7. Casting methods

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.


    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  8. Radiochemical methods

    Geary, W.J.


    This little volume is one of an extended series of basic textbooks on analytical chemistry produced by the Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning project in the UK. Prefatory sections explain its mission, and how to use the Open Learning format. Seventeen specific sections organized into five chaptrs begin with a general discussion of nuclear properties, types, and laws of nuclear decay and proceeds to specific discussions of three published papers (reproduced in their entirety) giving examples of radiochemical methods which were discussed in the previous chapter. Each section begins with an overview, contains one or more practical problems (called self-assessment questions or SAQ's), and concludes with a summary and a list of objectives for the student. Following the main body are answers to the SAQ's, and several tables of physical constants, SI prefixes, etc. A periodic table graces the inside back cover

  9. Moment methods and Lanczos methods

    Whitehead, R.R.


    In contrast to many of the speakers at this conference I am less interested in average properties of nuclei than in detailed spectroscopy. I will try to show, however, that the two are very closely connected and that shell-model calculations may be used to give a great deal of information not normally associated with the shell-model. It has been demonstrated clearly to us that the level spacing fluctuations in nuclear spectra convey very little physical information. This is true when the fluctuations are averaged over the entire spectrum but not if one's interest is in the lowest few states, whose spacings are relatively large. If one wishes to calculate a ground state (say) accurately, that is with an error much smaller than the excitation energy of the first excited state, very high moments, μ/sub n/, n approx. 200, are needed. As I shall show, we use such moments as a matter of course, albeit without actually calculating them; in fact I will try to show that, if at all possible, the actual calculations of moments is to be avoided like the plague. At the heart of the new shell-model methods embodied in the Glasgow shell-model program and one or two similar ones is the so-called Lanczos method and this, it turns out, has many deep and subtle connections with the mathematical theory of moments. It is these connections that I will explore here

  10. On method

    Frederik Kortlandt


    Full Text Available The basis of linguistic reconstruction is the comparative method, which starts from the assumption that there is “a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident”, implying the existence of a common source (thus Sir William Jones in 1786. It follows that there must be a possible sequence of developments from the reconstructed system to the attested data. These developments must have been either phonetically regular or analogical. The latter type of change requires a model and a motivation. A theory which does not account for the data in terms of sound laws and well-motivated analogical changes is not a linguistic reconstruction but philosophical speculation.The pre-laryngealist idea that any Proto-Indo-European long vowel became acute in Balto-Slavic is a typical example of philosophical speculation contradicted by the comparative evidence. Other examples are spontaneous glottalization (Jasanoff’s “acute assignment”, unattested anywhere in the world, Jasanoff’s trimoraic long vowels, Eichner’s law, Osthoff’s law, and Szemerényi’s law, which is an instance of circular reasoning. The Balto-Slavic acute continues the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals and the glottalic feature of the traditional Proto-Indo-European “unaspirated voiced” obstruents (Winter’s law. My reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European glottalic obstruents is based on direct evidence from Indo-Iranian, Armenian, Baltic and Germanic and indirect evidence from Indo-Iranian, Greek, Latin and Slavic.

  11. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...

  12. BDF-methods

    Hostrup, Astrid Kuijers


    An introduction to BDF-methods is given. The use of these methods on differential algebraic equations (DAE's) with different indexes with respect to order, stability and convergens of the BDF-methods is presented.......An introduction to BDF-methods is given. The use of these methods on differential algebraic equations (DAE's) with different indexes with respect to order, stability and convergens of the BDF-methods is presented....

  13. Uranium price forecasting methods

    Fuller, D.M.


    This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again

  14. Methods in aquatic bacteriology

    Austin, B


    .... Within these sections detailed chapters consider sampling methods, determination of biomass, isolation methods, identification, the bacterial microflora of fish, invertebrates, plants and the deep...

  15. Transport equation solving methods

    Granjean, P.M.


    This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr

  16. Advanced differential quadrature methods

    Zong, Zhi


    Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...

  17. Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods

    Wu, Xiaohua


    Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.

  18. Methods of nonlinear analysis

    Bellman, Richard Ernest


    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  19. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    Chrysochou, Polymeros


    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  20. Dissolution Methods Database

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  1. The three circle method

    Garncarek, Z.


    The three circle method in its general form is presented. The method is especially useful for investigation of shapes of agglomerations of objects. An example of its applications to investigation of galaxies distribution is given. 17 refs. (author)

  2. Design Methods in Practice

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    The paper challenges the dominant and widespread view that a good design method will guarantee a systematic approach as well as certain results. First, it explores the substantial differences between on the one hand the conception of methods implied in Pahl & Beitz’s widely recognized text book...... on engineering design, and on the other hand the understanding of method use, which has emerged from micro-sociological studies of practice (ethnomethodology). Second, it reviews a number of case studies conducted by engineering students, who were instructed to investigate the actual use of design methods...... in Danish companies. The paper concludes that design methods in practice deviate substantially from Pahl & Beitz’s description of method use: The object and problems, which are the starting points for method use, are more contested and less given than generally assumed; The steps of methods are often...

  3. Advances in Numerical Methods

    Mastorakis, Nikos E


    Features contributions that are focused on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics. This book carries chapters that advanced methods and various variations on known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.

  4. Basic Finite Element Method

    Lee, Byeong Hae


    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  5. Conformable variational iteration method

    Omer Acan


    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.


    Dorisz Talas


    This paper is a theoretical overview of the often used valuation methods with the help of which the value of a firm or its equity is calculated. Many experts (including Aswath Damodaran, Guochang Zhang and CA Hozefa Natalwala) classify the methods. The basic models are based on discounted cash flows. The main method uses the free cash flow for valuation, but there are some newer methods that reveal and correct the weaknesses of the traditional models. The valuation of flexibility of managemen...

  7. Mixed methods research.

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise


    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  8. Possibilities of roentgenological method

    Sivash, Eh.S.; Sal'man, M.M.


    Literary and experimental data on estimating possibilities of roentgenologic investigations using an electron optical amplifier, X-ray television and roentgen cinematography are generalized. Different methods of studying gastro-intestinal tract are compared. The advantage of the roentgenologic method over the endoscopic method after stomach resection is shown [ru

  9. The Generalized Sturmian Method

    Avery, James Emil


    these ideas clearly so that they become more accessible. By bringing together these non-standard methods, the book intends to inspire graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and academics to think of novel approaches. Is there a method out there that we have not thought of yet? Can we design a new method...... generations of researchers were left to work out how to achieve this ambitious goal for molecular systems of ever-increasing size. This book focuses on non-mainstream methods to solve the molecular electronic Schrödinger equation. Each method is based on a set of core ideas and this volume aims to explain...

  10. Mimetic discretization methods

    Castillo, Jose E


    To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and

  11. DOE methods compendium

    Leasure, C.S.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established an analytical methods compendium development program to integrate its environmental analytical methods. This program is administered through DOE's Laboratory Management Division (EM-563). The primary objective of this program is to assemble a compendium of analytical chemistry methods of known performance for use by all DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. This compendium will include methods for sampling, field screening, fixed analytical laboratory and mobile analytical laboratory analyses. It will also include specific guidance on the proper selection of appropriate sampling and analytical methods in using specific analytical requirements

  12. Methods for assessing geodiversity

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco


    The accepted systematics of geodiversity assessment methods will be presented in three categories: qualitative, quantitative and qualitative-quantitative. Qualitative methods are usually descriptive methods that are suited to nominal and ordinal data. Quantitative methods use a different set of parameters and indicators to determine the characteristics of geodiversity in the area being researched. Qualitative-quantitative methods are a good combination of the collection of quantitative data (i.e. digital) and cause-effect data (i.e. relational and explanatory). It seems that at the current stage of the development of geodiversity research methods, qualitative-quantitative methods are the most advanced and best assess the geodiversity of the study area. Their particular advantage is the integration of data from different sources and with different substantive content. Among the distinguishing features of the quantitative and qualitative-quantitative methods for assessing geodiversity are their wide use within geographic information systems, both at the stage of data collection and data integration, as well as numerical processing and their presentation. The unresolved problem for these methods, however, is the possibility of their validation. It seems that currently the best method of validation is direct filed confrontation. Looking to the next few years, the development of qualitative-quantitative methods connected with cognitive issues should be expected, oriented towards ontology and the Semantic Web.

  13. Methods of Software Verification

    R. E. Gurin


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problem of software verification (SW. Methods of software verification designed to check the software for compliance with the stated requirements such as correctness, system security and system adaptability to small changes in the environment, portability and compatibility, etc. These are various methods both by the operation process and by the way of achieving result. The article describes the static and dynamic methods of software verification and paid attention to the method of symbolic execution. In its review of static analysis are discussed and described the deductive method, and methods for testing the model. A relevant issue of the pros and cons of a particular method is emphasized. The article considers classification of test techniques for each method. In this paper we present and analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of the static analysis of dependencies, as well as their views, which can reduce the number of false positives in situations where the current state of the program combines two or more states obtained both in different paths of execution and in working with multiple object values. Dependences connect various types of software objects: single variables, the elements of composite variables (structure fields, array elements, the size of the heap areas, the length of lines, the number of initialized array elements in the verification code using static methods. The article pays attention to the identification of dependencies within the framework of the abstract interpretation, as well as gives an overview and analysis of the inference tools.Methods of dynamic analysis such as testing, monitoring and profiling are presented and analyzed. Also some kinds of tools are considered which can be applied to the software when using the methods of dynamic analysis. Based on the work a conclusion is drawn, which describes the most relevant problems of analysis techniques, methods of their solutions and

  14. Radiometric dating methods

    Bourdon, B.


    The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra- 210 Pb, U-Pa, 14 C, 36 Cl, 10 Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  15. Performative Schizoid Method

    Svabo, Connie


    is presented and an example is provided of a first exploratory engagement with it. The method is used in a specific project Becoming Iris, making inquiry into arts-based knowledge creation during a three month visiting scholarship at a small, independent visual art academy. Using the performative schizoid......A performative schizoid method is developed as a method contribution to performance as research. The method is inspired by contemporary research in the human and social sciences urging experimentation and researcher engagement with creative and artistic practice. In the article, the method...... method in Becoming Iris results in four audio-visual and performance-based productions, centered on an emergent theme of the scholartist as a bird in borrowed feathers. Interestingly, the moral lesson of the fable about the vain jackdaw, who dresses in borrowed peacock feathers and becomes a castout...

  16. Angular correlation methods

    Ferguson, A.J.


    An outline of the theory of angular correlations is presented, and the difference between the modern density matrix method and the traditional wave function method is stressed. Comments are offered on particular angular correlation theoretical techniques. A brief discussion is given of recent studies of gamma ray angular correlations of reaction products recoiling with high velocity into vacuum. Two methods for optimization to obtain the most accurate expansion coefficients of the correlation are discussed. (1 figure, 53 references) (U.S.)

  17. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon


    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  18. Rossi Alpha Method

    Hansen, G.E.


    The Rossi Alpha Method has proved to be valuable for the determination of prompt neutron lifetimes in fissile assemblies having known reproduction numbers at or near delayed critical. This workshop report emphasizes the pioneering applications of the method by Dr. John D. Orndoff to fast-neutron critical assemblies at Los Alamos. The value of the method appears to disappear for subcritical systems where the Rossi-α is no longer an α-eigenvalue

  19. Qualitative methods textbooks

    Barndt, William


    Over the past few years, the number of political science departments offering qualitative methods courses has grown substantially. The number of qualitative methods textbooks has kept pace, providing instructors with an overwhelming array of choices. But how to decide which text to choose from this exhortatory smorgasbord? The scholarship desperately needs evaluated. Yet the task is not entirely straightforward: qualitative methods textbooks reflect the diversity inherent in qualitative metho...

  20. The Box Method

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  1. Applied Bayesian hierarchical methods

    Congdon, P


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Posterior Inference from Bayes Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling in Relation to Monte Carlo Methods: Obtaining Posterior...

  2. [Methods of quantitative proteomics].

    Kopylov, A T; Zgoda, V G


    In modern science proteomic analysis is inseparable from other fields of systemic biology. Possessing huge resources quantitative proteomics operates colossal information on molecular mechanisms of life. Advances in proteomics help researchers to solve complex problems of cell signaling, posttranslational modification, structure and functional homology of proteins, molecular diagnostics etc. More than 40 various methods have been developed in proteomics for quantitative analysis of proteins. Although each method is unique and has certain advantages and disadvantages all these use various isotope labels (tags). In this review we will consider the most popular and effective methods employing both chemical modifications of proteins and also metabolic and enzymatic methods of isotope labeling.

  3. Methods in ALFA Alignment

    Melendez, Jordan


    This note presents two model-independent methods for use in the alignment of the ALFA forward detectors. Using a Monte Carlo simulated LHC run at \\beta = 90m and \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, the Kinematic Peak alignment method is utilized to reconstruct the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t for single-diractive protons. The Hot Spot method uses fluctuations in the hitmap density to pinpoint particular regions in the detector that could signal a misalignment. Another method uses an error function fit to find the detector edge. With this information, the vertical alignment can be determined.

  4. Method of chronokinemetrical invariants

    Vladimirov, Yu.S.; Shelkovenko, A.Eh.


    A particular case of a general dyadic method - the method of chronokinemetric invariants is formulated. The time-like dyad vector is calibrated in a chronometric way, and the space-like vector - in a kinemetric way. Expressions are written for the main physical-geometrical values of the dyadic method and for differential operators. The method developed may be useful for predetermining the reference system of a single observer, and also for studying problems connected with emission and absorption of gravitational and electromagnetic waves [ru

  5. Nondestructive testing method

    Porter, J.F.


    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the use of physical and chemical methods for evaluating material integrity without impairing its intended usefulness or continuing service. Nondestructive tests are used by manufaturer's for the following reasons: 1) to ensure product reliability; 2) to prevent accidents and save human lives; 3) to aid in better product design; 4) to control manufacturing processes; and 5) to maintain a uniform quality level. Nondestructive testing is used extensively on power plants, oil and chemical refineries, offshore oil rigs and pipeline (NDT can even be conducted underwater), welds on tanks, boilers, pressure vessels and heat exchengers. NDT is now being used for testing concrete and composite materials. Because of the criticality of its application, NDT should be performed and the results evaluated by qualified personnel. There are five basic nondestructive examination methods: 1) liquid penetrant testing - method used for detecting surface flaws in materials. This method can be used for metallic and nonmetallic materials, portable and relatively inexpensive. 2) magnetic particle testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in ferromagnetic materials; 3) radiographic testing - method used to detect internal flaws and significant variation in material composition and thickness; 4) ultrasonic testing - method used to detect internal and external flaws in materials. This method uses ultrasonics to measure thickness of a material or to examine the internal structure for discontinuities. 5) eddy current testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in conductive materials. Not one nondestructive examination method can find all discontinuities in all of the materials capable of being tested. The most important consideration is for the specifier of the test to be familiar with the test method and its applicability to the type and geometry of the material and the flaws to be detected

  6. Methods for data classification

    Garrity, George [Okemos, MI; Lilburn, Timothy G [Front Royal, VA


    The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

  7. Computational methods working group

    Gabriel, T.A.


    During the Cold Moderator Workshop several working groups were established including one to discuss calculational methods. The charge for this working group was to identify problems in theory, data, program execution, etc., and to suggest solutions considering both deterministic and stochastic methods including acceleration procedures.

  8. Method for exchanging data


    The present invention relates to a method for exchanging data between at least two servers with use of a gateway. Preferably the method is applied to healthcare systems. Each server holds a unique federated identifier, which identifier identifies a single patient (P). Thus, it is possible for the

  9. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin


    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  10. Methods of numerical relativity

    Piran, T.


    Numerical Relativity is an alternative to analytical methods for obtaining solutions for Einstein equations. Numerical methods are particularly useful for studying generation of gravitational radiation by potential strong sources. The author reviews the analytical background, the numerical analysis aspects and techniques and some of the difficulties involved in numerical relativity. (Auth.)

  11. Differential equation method

    Kotikov, A.V.


    A new method of massive Feynman diagrams calculation is presented. It provides a fairly simple procedure to obtain the result without the D-space integral calculation (for the dimensional regularization). Some diagrams are calculated as an illustration of this method capacities. (author). 7 refs




  13. Research Methods in Education

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.


    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  14. Attribute-Based Methods

    Thomas P. Holmes; Wiktor L. Adamowicz


    Stated preference methods of environmental valuation have been used by economists for decades where behavioral data have limitations. The contingent valuation method (Chapter 5) is the oldest stated preference approach, and hundreds of contingent valuation studies have been conducted. More recently, and especially over the last decade, a class of stated preference...

  15. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet

  16. Radiation borehole logging method

    Wylie, A.; Mathew, P.J.


    A method of obtaining an indication of the diameter of a borehole is described. The method comprises subjecting the walls of the borehole to monoenergetic gamma radiation and making measurements of the intensity of gamma radiation backscattered from the walls. The energy of the radiation is sufficiently high for the shape to be substantially independent of the density and composition of the borehole walls

  17. Isotope methods in hydrology

    Moser, H.; Rauert, W.


    Of the investigation methods used in hydrology, tracer methods hold a special place as they are the only ones which give direct insight into the movement and distribution processes taking place in surface and ground waters. Besides the labelling of water with salts and dyes, as in the past, in recent years the use of isotopes in hydrology, in water research and use, in ground-water protection and in hydraulic engineering has increased. This by no means replaces proven methods of hydrological investigation but tends rather to complement and expand them through inter-disciplinary cooperation. The book offers a general introduction to the application of various isotope methods to specific hydrogeological and hydrological problems. The idea is to place the hydrogeologist and the hydrologist in the position to recognize which isotope method will help him solve his particular problem or indeed, make a solution possible at all. He should also be able to recognize what the prerequisites are and what work and expenditure the use of such methods involves. May the book contribute to promoting cooperation between hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers and isotope specialists, and thus supplement proven methods of investigation in hydrological research and water utilization and protection wherever the use of isotope methods proves to be of advantage. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Essential numerical computer methods

    Johnson, Michael L


    The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface of the current and potential applications of computers and computer methods in biomedical research. The various chapters within this volume include a wide variety of applications that extend far beyond this limited perception. As part of the Reliable Lab Solutions series, Essential Numerical Computer Methods brings together chapters from volumes 210, 240, 321, 383, 384, 454, and 467 of Methods in Enzymology. These chapters provide ...

  19. Adaptive method of lines

    Saucez, Ph


    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  20. Bayesian Monte Carlo method

    Rajabalinejad, M.


    To reduce cost of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for time-consuming processes, Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) is introduced in this paper. The BMC method reduces number of realizations in MC according to the desired accuracy level. BMC also provides a possibility of considering more priors. In other words, different priors can be integrated into one model by using BMC to further reduce cost of simulations. This study suggests speeding up the simulation process by considering the logical dependence of neighboring points as prior information. This information is used in the BMC method to produce a predictive tool through the simulation process. The general methodology and algorithm of BMC method are presented in this paper. The BMC method is applied to the simplified break water model as well as the finite element model of 17th Street Canal in New Orleans, and the results are compared with the MC and Dynamic Bounds methods.

  1. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    Nölting, Bengt


    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...

  2. The surface analysis methods

    Deville, J.P.


    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)

  3. Cooperative method development

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette


    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  4. Engaging with mobile methods

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg


    This chapter showcases how mobile methods are more than calibrated techniques awaiting application by tourism researchers, but productive in the enactment of the mobile (Law and Urry, 2004). Drawing upon recent findings deriving from a PhD course on mobility and mobile methods it reveals...... the conceptual ambiguousness of the term ‘mobile methods’. In order to explore this ambiguousness the chapter provides a number of examples deriving from tourism research, to explore how mobile methods are always entangled in ideologies, predispositions, conventions and practice-realities. Accordingly......, the engagements with methods are acknowledged to be always political and contextual, reminding us to avoid essentialist discussions regarding research methods. Finally, the chapter draws on recent fieldwork to extend developments in mobilities-oriented tourism research, by employing auto-ethnography to call...

  5. Determination method of radiostrontium


    This manual provides determination methods of strontium-90 and strontium-89 in the environment released from nuclear facilities, and it is a revised edition of the previous manual published in 1974. As for the preparation method of radiation counting sample, ion exchange method, oxalate separation method and solvent extraction method were adopted in addition to the method of fuming nitric acid separation adopted in the previous edition. Strontium-90 is determined by the separation and radioactivity determination of yttrium-90 in radioequilibrium with strontium-90. Strontium-89 is determined by subtraction of radioactivity of strontium-90 plus yttrium-90 from gross radioactivity of isolated strontium carbonate. Radioactivity determination should be carried out with a low-background 2 π-gas-flow counting system for the mounted sample on a filter having a chemical form of ferric hydroxide, yttrium oxalate or strontium carbonate. This manual describes sample preparation procedures as well as radioactivity counting procedures for environmental samples of precipitates as rain or snow, airborne dust, fresh water, sea water and soil, and also for ash sample made from biological or food samples such as grains, vegetables, tea leaves, pine needle, milk, marine organisms, and total diet, by employing a method of fuming nitric acid separation, ion exchange separation, oxalate precipitate separation or solvent extraction separation (only for an ash sample). Procedures for reagent chemicals preparation is also attached to this manual. (Takagi, S.)

  6. Basics of Bayesian methods.

    Ghosh, Sujit K


    Bayesian methods are rapidly becoming popular tools for making statistical inference in various fields of science including biology, engineering, finance, and genetics. One of the key aspects of Bayesian inferential method is its logical foundation that provides a coherent framework to utilize not only empirical but also scientific information available to a researcher. Prior knowledge arising from scientific background, expert judgment, or previously collected data is used to build a prior distribution which is then combined with current data via the likelihood function to characterize the current state of knowledge using the so-called posterior distribution. Bayesian methods allow the use of models of complex physical phenomena that were previously too difficult to estimate (e.g., using asymptotic approximations). Bayesian methods offer a means of more fully understanding issues that are central to many practical problems by allowing researchers to build integrated models based on hierarchical conditional distributions that can be estimated even with limited amounts of data. Furthermore, advances in numerical integration methods, particularly those based on Monte Carlo methods, have made it possible to compute the optimal Bayes estimators. However, there is a reasonably wide gap between the background of the empirically trained scientists and the full weight of Bayesian statistical inference. Hence, one of the goals of this chapter is to bridge the gap by offering elementary to advanced concepts that emphasize linkages between standard approaches and full probability modeling via Bayesian methods.

  7. Methods in mummy research

    Lynnerup, Niels


    Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as minima......Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well...... as minimally-destructive chemical, physical and biological methods for, e.g., stable isotopes, trace metals and DNA....

  8. Montessori Method and ICTs

    Athanasios Drigas


    Full Text Available This article bridges the gap between the Montessori Method and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in contemporary education. It reviews recent research works which recall the Montessori philosophy, principles and didactical tools applying to today’s computers and supporting technologies in children’s learning process. This article reviews how important the stimulation of human senses in the learning process is, as well as the development of Montessori materials using the body and the hand in particular, all according to the Montessori Method along with recent researches over ICTs. Montessori Method within information society age acquires new perspectives, new functionality and new efficacy.

  9. Rubidium-strontium method

    Dubansky, A.


    The rubidium-strontium geological dating method is based on the determination of the Rb and Sr isotope ratio in rocks, mainly using mass spectrometry. The method is only practical for silicate minerals and rocks, potassium feldspars and slates. Also described is the rubidium-strontium isochrone method. This, however, requires a significant amount of experimental data and an analysis of large quantities of samples, often of the order of tons. The results are tabulated of rubidium-strontium dating of geological formations in the Czech Socialist Republic. (M.S.)

  10. Structural Reliability Methods

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  11. Catalytic reforming methods

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes


    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  12. Nuclear physics mathematical methods

    Balian, R.; Gervois, A.; Giannoni, M.J.; Levesque, D.; Maille, M.


    The nuclear physics mathematical methods, applied to the collective motion theory, to the reduction of the degrees of freedom and to the order and disorder phenomena; are investigated. In the scope of the study, the following aspects are discussed: the entropy of an ensemble of collective variables; the interpretation of the dissipation, applying the information theory; the chaos and the universality; the Monte-Carlo method applied to the classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics; the finite elements method, and the classical ergodicity [fr

  13. Methods for RNA Analysis

    Olivarius, Signe

    of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...

  14. Electromigration method in radiochemistry

    Makarova, T.P.; Stepanov, A.V.


    Investigations are reviewd of the period 1969-1975 accomplished by such methods as zonal electrophoresis in countercurrent, focusing electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, electrophoresis with elution, continuous two-dimensional electrophoresis. Since the methods considered are based on the use of porous fillers for stabilizing the medium, some attention is given to the effect of the solid-solution interface on the shape and rate of motion of the zones of the rare-earth elements investigated, Sr and others. The trend of developing electrophoresis as a method for obtaining high-purity elements is emphasized

  15. Numerical methods using Matlab

    Lindfield, George


    Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use

  16. Model Correction Factor Method

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes


    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  17. Imaging methods in otorhinolaryngology

    Frey, K.W.; Mees, K.; Vogl, T.


    This book is the work of an otorhinolaryngologist and two radiologists, who combined their experience and efforts in order to solve a great variety and number of problems encountered in practical work, taking into account the latest technical potentials and the practical feasibility, which is determined by the equipment available. Every chapter presents the full range of diagnostic methods applicable, starting with the suitable plain radiography methods and proceeding to the various tomographic scanning methods, including conventional tomography. Every technique is assessed in terms of diagnostic value and drawbacks. (orig./MG) With 778 figs [de

  18. Generalized subspace correction methods

    Kolm, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Arbenz, P.; Gander, W. [Eidgenoessiche Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland)


    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  19. Concrete compositions and methods

    Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua


    Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.

  20. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Oza, Nikunj C.


    Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

  1. Diagnostic method and reagent

    Edgington, T.S.; Plow, E.F.


    The discovery of an isomeric species of carcinoembryonic antigen and methods of isolation, identification and utilization as a radiolabelled species of the same as an aid in the diagnosis of adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract are disclosed. 13 claims

  2. Methods of dating

    Gatty, B


    Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively.

  3. Energy consumption assessment methods

    Sutherland, K S


    The why, what, and how-to aspects of energy audits for industrial plants, and the application of energy accounting methods to a chemical plant in order to assess energy conservation possibilities are discussed. (LCL)

  4. Stochastic optimization methods

    Marti, Kurt


    Optimization problems arising in practice involve random parameters. For the computation of robust optimal solutions, i.e., optimal solutions being insensitive with respect to random parameter variations, deterministic substitute problems are needed. Based on the distribution of the random data, and using decision theoretical concepts, optimization problems under stochastic uncertainty are converted into deterministic substitute problems. Due to the occurring probabilities and expectations, approximative solution techniques must be applied. Deterministic and stochastic approximation methods and their analytical properties are provided: Taylor expansion, regression and response surface methods, probability inequalities, First Order Reliability Methods, convex approximation/deterministic descent directions/efficient points, stochastic approximation methods, differentiation of probability and mean value functions. Convergence results of the resulting iterative solution procedures are given.

  5. Predictive Methods of Pople

    Chemistry for their pioneering contri butions to the development of computational methods in quantum chemistry and density functional theory .... program of Pop Ie for ab-initio electronic structure calculation of molecules. This ab-initio MO ...

  6. Methods for cellobiosan utilization

    Linger, Jeffrey; Beckham, Gregg T.


    Disclosed herein are enzymes useful for the degradation of cellobiosan in materials such a pyrolysis oils. Methods of degrading cellobiosan using enzymes or organisms expressing the same are also disclosed.

  7. Methods of neutron spectrometry

    Doerschel, B.


    The different methods of neutron spectrometry are based on the direct measurement of neutron velocity or on the use of suitable energy-dependent interaction processes. In the latter case the measuring effect of a detector is connected with the searched neutron spectrum by an integral equation. The solution needs suitable unfolding procedures. The most important methods of neutron spectrometry are the time-of-flight method, the crystal spectrometry, the neutron spectrometry by use of elastic collisions with hydrogen nuclei, and neutron spectrometry with the aid of nuclear reactions, especially of the neutron-induced activation. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are contrasted considering the resolution, the measurable energy range, the sensitivity, and the experimental and computational efforts. (author)

  8. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    Nölting, Bengt


    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and about 270 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers, and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 3rd edition: Introduces rapid partial protein ladder sequencing - an important...

  9. Lean Government Methods Guide

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  10. Number projection method

    Kaneko, K.


    A relationship between the number projection and the shell model methods is investigated in the case of a single-j shell. We can find a one-to-one correspondence between the number projected and the shell model states

  11. Etching method employing radiation

    Chapman, B.N.; Winters, H.F.


    This invention provides a method for etching a silicon oxide, carbide, nitride, or oxynitride surface using an electron or ion beam in the presence of a xenon or krypton fluoride. No additional steps are required after exposure to radiation

  12. GEM simulation methods development

    Tikhonov, V.; Veenhof, R.


    A review of methods used in the simulation of processes in gas electron multipliers (GEMs) and in the accurate calculation of detector characteristics is presented. Such detector characteristics as effective gas gain, transparency, charge collection and losses have been calculated and optimized for a number of GEM geometries and compared with experiment. A method and a new special program for calculations of detector macro-characteristics such as signal response in a real detector readout structure, and spatial and time resolution of detectors have been developed and used for detector optimization. A detailed development of signal induction on readout electrodes and electronics characteristics are included in the new program. A method for the simulation of charging-up effects in GEM detectors is described. All methods show good agreement with experiment

  13. Improved radioanalytical methods

    Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.


    Methods for the chemical characterization of the environment are being developed under a multitask project for the Analytical Services Division (EM-263) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. This project focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. We have developed improved methods, for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99 and strontium-89/90, radium, and actinides from soil and water; and for separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences. Among the novel separation techniques being used are element- and class-specific resins and membranes. (The 3M Corporation is commercializing Empore trademark membranes under a cooperative research and development agreement [CRADA] initiated under this project). We have also developed methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method requires less rigorous chemical separations than traditional radiochemical analyses because of its mass-selective mode of detection. Actinides and their progeny have been isolated and concentrated from a variety of natural water matrices by using automated batch separation incorporating selective resins prior to ICP-MS analyses. In addition, improvements in detection limits, sample volume, and time of analysis were obtained by using other sample introduction techniques, such as ultrasonic nebulization and electrothermal vaporization. Integration and automation of the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology by using flow injection analysis is underway, with an objective of automating methods to achieve more reproducible results, reduce labor costs, cut analysis time, and minimize secondary waste generation through miniaturization of the process

  14. Continuation Newton methods

    Axelsson, Owe; Sysala, Stanislav


    Roč. 70, č. 11 (2015), s. 2621-2637 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : system of nonlinear equations * Newton method * load increment method * elastoplasticity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2015

  15. Nuclear methods monitor nutrition

    Allen, B.J.


    Neutron activation of nitrogen and hydrogen in the body, the isotope dilution technique and the measurement of naturally radioactive potassium in the body are among the new nuclear methods, now under collaborative development by the Australian Nuclear Scientific and Technology Organization and medical specialists from several Sydney hospitals. These methods allow medical specialists to monitor the patient's response to various diets and dietary treatments in cases of cystic fibrosis, anorexia nervosa, long-term surgical trauma, renal diseases and AIDS. ills

  16. The fission track method

    Hansen, K.


    During the last decade fission track (FT) analysis has evolved as an important tool in exploration for hydrocarbon resources. Most important is this method's ability to yield information about temperatures at different times (history), and thus relate oil generation and time independently of other maturity parameters. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the basics of the method and give an example from the author's studies. (AB) (14 refs.)

  17. Experimental physics method

    Jeong, Yang Su; Oh, Byeong Seong


    This book introduces measurement and error, statistics of experimental data, population, sample variable, distribution function, propagation of error, mean and measurement of error, adjusting to rectilinear equation, common sense of error, experiment method, and record and statement. It also explains importance of error of estimation, systematic error, random error, treatment of single variable, significant figure, deviation, mean value, median, mode, sample mean, sample standard deviation, binomial distribution, gauss distribution, and method of least squares.

  18. Methods for measuring shrinkage

    Chapman, Paul; Templar, Simon


    This paper presents findings from research amongst European grocery retailers into their methods for measuring shrinkage. The findings indicate that: there is no dominant method for valuing or stating shrinkage; shrinkage in the supply chain is frequently overlooked; data is essential in pinpointing where and when loss occurs and that many retailers collect data at the stock-keeping unit (SKU) level and do so every 6 months. These findings reveal that it is difficult to benc...

  19. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.


    A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  20. Method of treating depression

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY


    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  1. Methods of experimental physics

    Williams, Dudley


    Methods of Experimental Physics, Volume 3: Molecular Physics focuses on molecular theory, spectroscopy, resonance, molecular beams, and electric and thermodynamic properties. The manuscript first considers the origins of molecular theory, molecular physics, and molecular spectroscopy, as well as microwave spectroscopy, electronic spectra, and Raman effect. The text then ponders on diffraction methods of molecular structure determination and resonance studies. Topics include techniques of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic, nuclear quadropole, and electron spin reson

  2. The ICARE Method

    Henke, Luke


    The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics


    Dorisz Talas


    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical overview of the often used valuation methods with the help of which the value of a firm or its equity is calculated. Many experts (including Aswath Damodaran, Guochang Zhang and CA Hozefa Natalwala classify the methods. The basic models are based on discounted cash flows. The main method uses the free cash flow for valuation, but there are some newer methods that reveal and correct the weaknesses of the traditional models. The valuation of flexibility of management can be conducted mainly with real options. This paper briefly describes the essence of the Dividend Discount Model, the Free Cash Flow Model, the benefit from using real options and the Residual Income Model. There are a few words about the Adjusted Present Value approach as well. Different models uses different premises, and an overall truth is that if the required premises are real and correct, the value will be appropriately accurate. Another important condition is that experts, analysts should choose between the models on the basis of the purpose of valuation. Thus there are no good or bad methods, only methods that fit different goals and aims. The main task is to define exactly the purpose, then to find the most appropriate valuation technique. All the methods originates from the premise that the value of an asset is the present value of its future cash flows. According to the different points of view of different techniques the resulted values can be also differed from each other. Valuation models and techniques should be adapted to the rapidly changing world, but the basic statements remain the same. On the other hand there is a need for more accurate models in order to help investors get as many information as they could. Today information is one of the most important resources and financial models should keep up with this trend.

  4. The lod score method.

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J


    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  5. Advances in iterative methods

    Beauwens, B.; Arkuszewski, J.; Boryszewicz, M.


    Results obtained in the field of linear iterative methods within the Coordinated Research Program on Transport Theory and Advanced Reactor Calculations are summarized. The general convergence theory of linear iterative methods is essentially based on the properties of nonnegative operators on ordered normed spaces. The following aspects of this theory have been improved: new comparison theorems for regular splittings, generalization of the notions of M- and H-matrices, new interpretations of classical convergence theorems for positive-definite operators. The estimation of asymptotic convergence rates was developed with two purposes: the analysis of model problems and the optimization of relaxation parameters. In the framework of factorization iterative methods, model problem analysis is needed to investigate whether the increased computational complexity of higher-order methods does not offset their increased asymptotic convergence rates, as well as to appreciate the effect of standard relaxation techniques (polynomial relaxation). On the other hand, the optimal use of factorization iterative methods requires the development of adequate relaxation techniques and their optimization. The relative performances of a few possibilities have been explored for model problems. Presently, the best results have been obtained with optimal diagonal-Chebyshev relaxation

  6. Independent random sampling methods

    Martino, Luca; Míguez, Joaquín


    This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the li...

  7. Grid generation methods

    Liseikin, Vladimir D


    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  8. Bayesian methods in reliability

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.


    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  9. Energy methods in dynamics

    Le, Khanh Chau


    The above examples should make clear the necessity of understanding the mechanism of vibrations and waves in order to control them in an optimal way. However vibrations and waves are governed by differential equations which require, as a rule, rather complicated mathematical methods for their analysis. The aim of this textbook is to help students acquire both a good grasp of the first principles from which the governing equations can be derived, and the adequate mathematical methods for their solving. Its distinctive features, as seen from the title, lie in the systematic and intensive use of Hamilton's variational principle and its generalizations for deriving the governing equations of conservative and dissipative mechanical systems, and also in providing the direct variational-asymptotic analysis, whenever available, of the energy and dissipation for the solution of these equations. It will be demonstrated that many well-known methods in dynamics like those of Lindstedt-Poincare, Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky, Ko...

  10. Nuclear methods for tribology

    Racolta, P.M.


    The tribological field of activity is mainly concerned with the relative movement of different machine components, friction and wear phenomena and their dependence upon lubrication. Tribological studies on friction and wear processes are important because they lead to significant parameter-improvements of engineering tools and machinery components. A review of fundamental aspects of both friction and wear phenomena is presented. A number of radioindicator-based methods have been known for almost four decades, differing mainly with respect to the mode of introducing the radio-indicators into the machine part to be studied. All these methods briefly presented in this paper are based on the measurement of the activity of wear products and therefore require high activity levels of the part. For this reason, such determinations can be carried out only in special laboratories and under conditions which do not usually agree with the conditions of actual use. What is required is a sensitive, fast method allowing the determination of wear under any operating conditions, without the necessity of stopping and disassembling the machine. The above mentioned requirements are the features that have made the Thin Layer Activation technique (TLA) the most widely used method applied in wear and corrosion studies in the last two decades. The TLA principle, taking in account that wear and corrosion processes are characterised by a loss of material, consists in an ion beam irradiation of a well defined volume of a machine part subjected to wear. The radioactivity level changes can usually be measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy methods. A review of both main TLA fields of application in major laboratories abroad and of those performed at the U-120 cyclotron of I.P.N.E.-Bucharest together with the existing trends to extend other nuclear analytical methods to tribological studies is presented as well. (author). 25 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo


    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  12. Exploring Monte Carlo methods

    Dunn, William L


    Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble

  13. Research on teaching methods.

    Oermann, M H


    Research on teaching methods in nursing education was categorized into studies on media, CAI, and other nontraditional instructional strategies. While the research differed, some generalizations may be made from the findings. Multimedia, whether it is used for individual or group instruction, is at least as effective as traditional instruction (lecture and lecture-discussion) in promoting cognitive learning, retention of knowledge, and performance. Further study is needed to identify variables that may influence learning and retention. While learner attitudes toward mediated instruction tended to be positive, investigators failed to control for the effect of novelty. Control over intervening variables was lacking in the majority of studies as well. Research indicated that CAI is as effective as other teaching methods in terms of knowledge gain and retention. Attitudes toward CAI tended to be favorable, with similar problems in measurement as those evidenced in studies of media. Chang (1986) also recommends that future research examine the impact of computer-video interactive instruction on students, faculty, and settings. Research is needed on experimental teaching methods, strategies for teaching problem solving and clinical judgment, and ways of improving the traditional lecture and discussion. Limited research in these areas makes generalizations impossible. There is a particular need for research on how to teach students the diagnostic reasoning process and encourage critical thinking, both in terms of appropriate teaching methods and the way in which those strategies should be used. It is interesting that few researchers studied lecture and lecture-discussion except as comparable teaching methods for research on other strategies. Additional research questions may be generated on lecture and discussion in relation to promoting concept learning, an understanding of nursing and other theories, transfer of knowledge, and development of cognitive skills. Few

  14. Carbon 14 dating method

    Fortin, Ph.


    This document gives a first introduction to 14 C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14 C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14 C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)

  15. Methods of Multivariate Analysis

    Rencher, Alvin C


    Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit

  16. Tautomerism methods and theories

    Antonov, Liudmil


    Covering the gap between basic textbooks and over-specialized scientific publications, this is the first reference available to describe this interdisciplinary topic for PhD students and scientists starting in the field. The result is an introductory description providing suitable practical examples of the basic methods used to study tautomeric processes, as well as the theories describing the tautomerism and proton transfer phenomena. It also includes different spectroscopic methods for examining tautomerism, such as UV-VIs, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR spectrosc

  17. Speeding Fermat's factoring method

    McKee, James

    A factoring method is presented which, heuristically, splits composite n in O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps. There are two ideas: an integer approximation to sqrt(q/p) provides an O(n^{1/2+epsilon}) algorithm in which n is represented as the difference of two rational squares; observing that if a prime m divides a square, then m^2 divides that square, a heuristic speed-up to O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps is achieved. The method is well-suited for use with small computers: the storage required is negligible, and one never needs to work with numbers larger than n itself.

  18. High frequency asymptotic methods

    Bouche, D.; Dessarce, R.; Gay, J.; Vermersch, S.


    The asymptotic methods allow us to compute the interaction of high frequency electromagnetic waves with structures. After an outline of their foundations with emphasis on the geometrical theory of diffraction, it is shown how to use these methods to evaluate the radar cross section (RCS) of complex tri-dimensional objects of great size compared to the wave-length. The different stages in simulating phenomena which contribute to the RCS are reviewed: physical theory of diffraction, multiple interactions computed by shooting rays, research for creeping rays. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 insets

  19. Practical methods of optimization

    Fletcher, R


    Fully describes optimization methods that are currently most valuable in solving real-life problems. Since optimization has applications in almost every branch of science and technology, the text emphasizes their practical aspects in conjunction with the heuristics useful in making them perform more reliably and efficiently. To this end, it presents comparative numerical studies to give readers a feel for possibile applications and to illustrate the problems in assessing evidence. Also provides theoretical background which provides insights into how methods are derived. This edition offers rev

  20. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.


    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  1. Method of sterilization

    Peel, J.L.; Waites, W.M.


    A method of sterilisation of food packaging is described which comprises treating microorganisms with an ultraviolet irradiated solution of hydrogen peroxide to render the microorganisms non-viable. The wavelength of ultraviolet radiation used is wholly or predominantly below 325 nm and the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide is no greater than 10% by weight. The method is applicable to a wide variety of microorganisms including moulds, yeasts, bacteria, viruses and protozoa and finds particular application in the destruction of spore-forming bacteria, especially those which are dairy contaminants. (U.K.)

  2. Unorthodox theoretical methods

    Nedd, Sean [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.

  3. Monte Carlo methods

    Bardenet Rémi


    Full Text Available Bayesian inference often requires integrating some function with respect to a posterior distribution. Monte Carlo methods are sampling algorithms that allow to compute these integrals numerically when they are not analytically tractable. We review here the basic principles and the most common Monte Carlo algorithms, among which rejection sampling, importance sampling and Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC methods. We give intuition on the theoretical justification of the algorithms as well as practical advice, trying to relate both. We discuss the application of Monte Carlo in experimental physics, and point to landmarks in the literature for the curious reader.

  4. The SPH homogeneization method

    Kavenoky, Alain


    The homogeneization of a uniform lattice is a rather well understood topic while difficult problems arise if the lattice becomes irregular. The SPH homogeneization method is an attempt to generate homogeneized cross sections for an irregular lattice. Section 1 summarizes the treatment of an isolated cylindrical cell with an entering surface current (in one velocity theory); Section 2 is devoted to the extension of the SPH method to assembly problems. Finally Section 3 presents the generalisation to general multigroup problems. Numerical results are obtained for a PXR rod bundle assembly in Section 4

  5. Splines and variational methods

    Prenter, P M


    One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension

  6. Probabilistic methods for physics

    Cirier, G


    We present an asymptotic method giving a probability of presence of the iterated spots of R d by a polynomial function f. We use the well-known Perron Frobenius operator (PF) that lets certain sets and measure invariant by f. Probabilistic solutions can exist for the deterministic iteration. If the theoretical result is already known, here we quantify these probabilities. This approach seems interesting to use for computing situations when the deterministic methods don't run. Among the examined applications, are asymptotic solutions of Lorenz, Navier-Stokes or Hamilton's equations. In this approach, linearity induces many difficult problems, all of whom we have not yet resolved.


    Smith, C.S.


    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  8. Supercritical fluid analytical methods

    Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.


    Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems

  9. A flexible homework method

    Bao, Lei; Stonebraker, Stephen R.; Sadaghiani, Homeyra


    The traditional methods of assigning and grading homework in large enrollment physics courses have raised concerns among many instructors and students. In this paper we discuss a cost-effective approach to managing homework that involves making half of the problem solutions available to students before the homework is due. In addition, students are allowed some control in choosing which problems to solve. This paper-based approach to homework provides more detailed and timely support to students and increases the amount of self-direction in the homework process. We describe the method and present preliminary results on how students have responded.

  10. Molecular methods for biofilms

    Ferrera, Isabel; Balagué , Vanessa; Voolstra, Christian R.; Aranda, Manuel; Bayer, Till; Abed, Raeid M.M.; Dobretsov, Sergey; Owens, Sarah M.; Wilkening, Jared; Fessler, Jennifer L.; Gilbert, Jack A.


    This chapter deals with both classical and modern molecular methods that can be useful for the identification of microorganisms, elucidation and comparison of microbial communities, and investigation of their diversity and functions. The most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples; these are discussed in the first part. The second part provides an overview over DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing methods. Protocols and analysis software as well as potential pitfalls associated with application of these methods are discussed. Community fingerprinting analyses that can be used to compare multiple microbial communities are discussed in the third part. This part focuses on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) methods. In addition, classical and next-generation metagenomics methods are presented. These are limited to bacterial artificial chromosome and Fosmid libraries and Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing, as these methods are currently the most frequently used in research. Isolation of nucleic acids: This chapter discusses, the most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples. Nucleic acid isolation methods generally include three steps: cell lysis, removal of unwanted substances, and a final step of DNA purification and recovery. The first critical step is the cell lysis, which can be achieved by enzymatic or mechanical procedures. Removal of proteins, polysaccharides and other unwanted substances is likewise important to avoid their interference in subsequent analyses. Phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol is commonly used to recover DNA, since it separates nucleic acids into an aqueous phase and precipitates proteins and

  11. Molecular methods for biofilms

    Ferrera, Isabel


    This chapter deals with both classical and modern molecular methods that can be useful for the identification of microorganisms, elucidation and comparison of microbial communities, and investigation of their diversity and functions. The most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples; these are discussed in the first part. The second part provides an overview over DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing methods. Protocols and analysis software as well as potential pitfalls associated with application of these methods are discussed. Community fingerprinting analyses that can be used to compare multiple microbial communities are discussed in the third part. This part focuses on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) methods. In addition, classical and next-generation metagenomics methods are presented. These are limited to bacterial artificial chromosome and Fosmid libraries and Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing, as these methods are currently the most frequently used in research. Isolation of nucleic acids: This chapter discusses, the most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples. Nucleic acid isolation methods generally include three steps: cell lysis, removal of unwanted substances, and a final step of DNA purification and recovery. The first critical step is the cell lysis, which can be achieved by enzymatic or mechanical procedures. Removal of proteins, polysaccharides and other unwanted substances is likewise important to avoid their interference in subsequent analyses. Phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol is commonly used to recover DNA, since it separates nucleic acids into an aqueous phase and precipitates proteins and

  12. Software specification methods

    Habrias, Henri


    This title provides a clear overview of the main methods, and has a practical focus that allows the reader to apply their knowledge to real-life situations. The following are just some of the techniques covered: UML, Z, TLA+, SAZ, B, OMT, VHDL, Estelle, SDL and LOTOS.

  13. Leak detection method


    This invention provides a method for removing nuclear fuel elements from a fabrication building while at the same time testing the fuel elements for leaks without releasing contaminants from the fabrication building or from the fuel elements. The vacuum source used, leak detecting mechanism and fuel element fabrication building are specified to withstand environmental hazards. (UK)

  14. Photovoltaic device and method

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L


    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  15. Methods for Risk Analysis

    Alverbro, Karin


    Many decision-making situations today affect humans and the environment. In practice, many such decisions are made without an overall view and prioritise one or other of the two areas. Now and then these two areas of regulation come into conflict, e.g. the best alternative as regards environmental considerations is not always the best from a human safety perspective and vice versa. This report was prepared within a major project with the aim of developing a framework in which both the environmental aspects and the human safety aspects are integrated, and decisions can be made taking both fields into consideration. The safety risks have to be analysed in order to be successfully avoided and one way of doing this is to use different kinds of risk analysis methods. There is an abundance of existing methods to choose from and new methods are constantly being developed. This report describes some of the risk analysis methods currently available for analysing safety and examines the relationships between them. The focus here is mainly on human safety aspects

  16. HEV and cirrhosis: methods

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. HEV and cirrhosis: methods. Study group. Patients with cirrhosis and recent jaundice for <30 d. Controls. Patients with liver cirrhosis but no recent worsening. Exclusions. Significant alcohol consumption. Recent hepatotoxic drugs. Recent antiviral therapy. Recent ...

  17. Method of killing microorganisms

    Tensmeyer, L.G.


    A method of sterilizing the contents of containers involves exposure to a plasma induced therein by focusing a high-power laser beam in an electromagnetic field preferably for a period of from 1.0 millisec to 1.0 secs. (U.K.)

  18. Method of signal analysis

    Berthomier, Charles


    A method capable of handling the amplitude and the frequency time laws of a certain kind of geophysical signals is described here. This method is based upon the analytical signal idea of Gabor and Ville, which is constructed either in the time domain by adding an imaginary part to the real signal (in-quadrature signal), or in the frequency domain by suppressing negative frequency components. The instantaneous frequency of the initial signal is then defined as the time derivative of the phase of the analytical signal, and his amplitude, or envelope, as the modulus of this complex signal. The method is applied to three types of magnetospheric signals: chorus, whistlers and pearls. The results obtained by analog and numerical calculations are compared to results obtained by classical systems using filters, i.e. based upon a different definition of the concept of frequency. The precision with which the frequency-time laws are determined leads then to the examination of the principle of the method and to a definition of instantaneous power density spectrum attached to the signal, and to the first consequences of this definition. In this way, a two-dimensional representation of the signal is introduced which is less deformed by the analysis system properties than the usual representation, and which moreover has the advantage of being obtainable practically in real time [fr

  19. TRAC methods and models

    Mahaffy, J.H.; Liles, D.R.; Bott, T.F.


    The numerical methods and physical models used in the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) versions PD2 and PF1 are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on TRAC-PF1, the version specifically designed to analyze small-break loss-of-coolant accidents

  20. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...

  1. Immunocytochemical methods and protocols

    Javois, Lorette C


    ... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...

  2. Adhesive compositions and methods

    Allen, Scott D.; Sendijarevic, Vahid; O'Connor, James


    The present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesive compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesives derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure:. In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive polyurethane compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  3. Ferrari's Method and Technology

    Althoen, Steve


    Some tips that combine knowledge of mathematics history and technology for adapting Ferrar's method to factor quintics with a TI-83 graphing calculator are presented. A demonstration on the use of the root finder and regression capabilities of the graphing calculator are presented, so that the tips can be easily adapted for any graphing calculator…

  4. Truth and Methods.

    Dasenbrock, Reed Way


    Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary…

  5. Sparse Classification - Methods & Applications

    Einarsson, Gudmundur

    for analysing such data carry the potential to revolutionize tasks such as medical diagnostics where often decisions need to be based on only a few high-dimensional observations. This explosion in data dimensionality has sparked the development of novel statistical methods. In contrast, classical statistics...

  6. Method of complex scaling

    Braendas, E.


    The method of complex scaling is taken to include bound states, resonances, remaining scattering background and interference. Particular points of the general complex coordinate formulation are presented. It is shown that care must be exercised to avoid paradoxical situations resulting from inadequate definitions of operator domains. A new resonance localization theorem is presented

  7. Alternative methods in criticality

    Pedicini, J.M.


    In this thesis two new methods of calculating the criticality of a nuclear system are introduced and verified. Most methods of determining the criticality of a nuclear system depend implicitly upon knowledge of the angular flux, net currents, or moments of the angular flux, on the system surface in order to know the leakage. For small systems, leakage is the predominant element in criticality calculations. Unfortunately, in these methods the least accurate fluxes, currents, or moments are those occurring near system surfaces or interfaces. This is due to a mathematical inability to satisfy rigorously with a finite order angular polynomial expansion or angular difference technique the physical boundary conditions which occur on these surfaces. Consequently, one must accept large computational effort or less precise criticality calculations. The methods introduced in this thesis, including a direct leakage operator and an indirect multiple scattering leakage operator, obviate the need to know angular fluxes accurately at system boundaries. Instead, the system wide scalar flux, an integral quantity which is substantially easier to obtain with good precision is sufficient to obtain production, absorption, scattering, and leakage rates

  8. Materials and Methods

    David Norris

    genetic variance and its distribution in the population structure can lead to the design of optimum ... Recent developments in statistical methods and computing algorithms ..... This may be an indication of the general effect of the population structure. .... Presentation at the 40th anniversary, Institute of Genetics and Animal.

  9. Biomass treatment method

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.


    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  10. Embodied Design Ideation methods

    Wilde, Danielle; Vallgårda, Anna; Tomico, Oscar


    Embodied design ideation practices work with relationships between body, material and context to enliven design and research potential. Methods are often idiosyncratic and – due to their physical nature – not easily transferred. This presents challenges for designers wishing to develop and share ...

  11. gel template method

    TiO2 nanotubes have been synthesized by sol–gel template method using alumina membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, UV absorption spectrum and X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the structure, morphology and optical ...

  12. Audience Methods and Gratifications.

    Lull, James

    A model of need gratification inspired by the work of K.E. Rosengren suggests a theoretical framework making it possible to identify, measure, and assess the components of the need gratification process with respect to the mass media. Methods having cognitive and behavioral components are designed by individuals to achieve need gratification. Deep…

  13. Method for forming ammonia

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.


    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  14. Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages

    Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    of handling multiple, fluid realities with multiple, fluid methods. Empirically, the paper works with mediation in fashion - that is efforts the active shaping of relations between producer and consumer through communication, marketing and PR. Fashion mediation is by no means simple, but organise complex...

  15. Universal Image Steganalytic Method

    V. Banoci


    Full Text Available In the paper we introduce a new universal steganalytic method in JPEG file format that is detecting well-known and also newly developed steganographic methods. The steganalytic model is trained by MHF-DZ steganographic algorithm previously designed by the same authors. The calibration technique with the Feature Based Steganalysis (FBS was employed in order to identify statistical changes caused by embedding a secret data into original image. The steganalyzer concept utilizes Support Vector Machine (SVM classification for training a model that is later used by the same steganalyzer in order to identify between a clean (cover and steganographic image. The aim of the paper was to analyze the variety in accuracy of detection results (ACR while detecting testing steganographic algorithms as F5, Outguess, Model Based Steganography without deblocking, JP Hide and Seek which represent the generally used steganographic tools. The comparison of four feature vectors with different lengths FBS (22, FBS (66 FBS(274 and FBS(285 shows promising results of proposed universal steganalytic method comparing to binary methods.

  16. Ergonomics research methods

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.


    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  17. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel


    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  18. Kriging : Methods and Applications

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.


    In this chapter we present Kriging— also known as a Gaussian process (GP) model— which is a mathematical interpolation method. To select the input combinations to be simulated, we use Latin hypercube sampling (LHS); we allow uniform and non-uniform distributions of the simulation inputs. Besides

  19. Sampling system and method

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee


    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  20. Six Sigma method

    Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.; Balakrishnan, N.; Brandimarte, P.; Everitt, B.; Molenberghs, G.; Piegorsch, W.; Ruggeri, F.


    Six Sigma is built on principles and methods that have proven themselves over the twentieth century. It has incorporated the most effective approaches and integrated them into a full program. It offers a management structure for organizing continuous improvement of routine tasks, such as

  1. Modern Reduction Methods

    Andersson, Pher G


    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  2. Methods of information processing

    Kosarev, Yu G; Gusev, V D


    Works are presented on automation systems for editing and publishing operations by methods of processing symbol information and information contained in training selection (ranking of objectives by promise, classification algorithm of tones and noise). The book will be of interest to specialists in the automation of processing textural information, programming, and pattern recognition.

  3. Dual completion method

    Mamedov, N Ya; Kadymova, K S; Dzhafarov, Sh T


    One type of dual completion method utilizes a single tubing string. Through the use of the proper tubing equipment, the fluid from the low-productive upper formation is lifted by utilizing the surplus energy of a submerged pump, which handles the production from the lower stratum.

  4. Methods Evolved by Observation

    Montessori, Maria


    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  5. Alternative methods in criticality

    Pedicini, J.M.


    Two new methods of calculating the criticality of a nuclear system are introduced and verified. Most methods of determining the criticality of a nuclear system depend implicitly upon knowledge of the angular flux, net currents, or moments of the angular flux, on the system surface in order to know the leakage. For small systems, leakage is the predominant element in criticality calculations. Unfortunately, in these methods the least accurate fluxes, currents, or moments are those occuring near system surfaces or interfaces. This is due to a mathematical inability to satisfy rigorously with a finite order angular polynomial expansion or angular difference technique the physical boundary conditions which occur on these surfaces. Consequently, one must accept large computational effort or less precise criticality calculations. The methods introduced in this thesis, including a direct leakage operator and an indirect multiple scattering leakage operator, obviate the need to know angular fluxes accurately at system boundaries. Instead, the system wide scalar flux, an integral quantity which is substantially easier to obtain with good precision, is sufficient to obtain production, absorption, scattering, and leakage rates


    This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...

  7. Analysis of numerical methods

    Isaacson, Eugene


    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  8. Die singulation method

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.


    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  9. Epitope prediction methods

    Karosiene, Edita

    Analysis. The chapter provides detailed explanations on how to use different methods for T cell epitope discovery research, explaining how input should be given as well as how to interpret the output. In the last chapter, I present the results of a bioinformatics analysis of epitopes from the yellow fever...... peptide-MHC interactions. Furthermore, using yellow fever virus epitopes, we demonstrated the power of the %Rank score when compared with the binding affinity score of MHC prediction methods, suggesting that this score should be considered to be used for selecting potential T cell epitopes. In summary...... immune responses. Therefore, it is of great importance to be able to identify peptides that bind to MHC molecules, in order to understand the nature of immune responses and discover T cell epitopes useful for designing new vaccines and immunotherapies. MHC molecules in humans, referred to as human...

  10. Methods for forming particles

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin


    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  11. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.


    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  12. The random projection method

    Vempala, Santosh S


    Random projection is a simple geometric technique for reducing the dimensionality of a set of points in Euclidean space while preserving pairwise distances approximately. The technique plays a key role in several breakthrough developments in the field of algorithms. In other cases, it provides elegant alternative proofs. The book begins with an elementary description of the technique and its basic properties. Then it develops the method in the context of applications, which are divided into three groups. The first group consists of combinatorial optimization problems such as maxcut, graph coloring, minimum multicut, graph bandwidth and VLSI layout. Presented in this context is the theory of Euclidean embeddings of graphs. The next group is machine learning problems, specifically, learning intersections of halfspaces and learning large margin hypotheses. The projection method is further refined for the latter application. The last set consists of problems inspired by information retrieval, namely, nearest neig...

  13. Grid generation methods

    Liseikin, Vladimir D


    This book is an introduction to structured and unstructured grid methods in scientific computing, addressing graduate students, scientists as well as practitioners. Basic local and integral grid quality measures are formulated and new approaches to mesh generation are reviewed. In addition to the content of the successful first edition, a more detailed and practice oriented description of monitor metrics in Beltrami and diffusion equations is given for generating adaptive numerical grids. Also, new techniques developed by the author are presented, in particular a technique based on the inverted form of Beltrami’s partial differential equations with respect to control metrics. This technique allows the generation of adaptive grids for a wide variety of computational physics problems, including grid clustering to given function values and gradients, grid alignment with given vector fields, and combinations thereof. Applications of geometric methods to the analysis of numerical grid behavior as well as grid ge...

  14. Cross-impact method

    Suzić Nenad


    Full Text Available The paper displays the application of the Cross-Impact method in pedagogy, namely a methodological approach which crosses variables in a novel, but statistically justified manner. The method is an innovation in pedagogy as well as in research methodology of social and psychological phenomena. Specifically, events and processes are crossed, that is, experts' predictions of about future interaction of events and processes. Therefore, this methodology is futuristic; it concerns predicting future, which is of key importance for pedagogic objectives. The paper presents two instances of the cross-impact approach: the longer, displayed in fourteen steps, and the shorter, in four steps. They are both accompanied with mathematic and statistical formulae allowing for quantification, that is, a numerical expression of the probability of a certain event happening in the future. The advantage of this approach is that it facilitates planning in education which so far has been solely based on lay estimates and assumptions.

  15. Method through motion

    Steijn, Arthur


    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...... context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model...

  16. Semiconductor testing method

    Brown, Stephen.


    In a method of avoiding use of nuclear radiation, eg gamma rays, X-rays, electron beams, for testing semiconductor components for resistance to hard radiation, which hard radiation causes data corruption in some memory devices and 'latch-up' in others, similar fault effects can be achieved using a xenon or other 'light' flash gun even though the penetration of light is significantly less than that of gamma rays. The method involves treating a device with gamma radiation, measuring a particular fault current at the onset of a fault event, repeating the test with light to confirm the occurrence of the fault event at the same measured fault current, and using the fault current value as a reference for future tests using light on similar devices. (author)

  17. Quaternary dating methods

    Mahaney, W.C.


    The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)

  18. method with pseudopotentials

    Szasz, L.


    The Xα method for an atom or molecule is transformed into an all-electron pseudopotential formalism. The equations of the Xα method are exactly transformed into pseudo-orbital equations and the resulting pseudopotentials are replaced by simple density-dependent potentials derived from Thomas-Fermi model. It is shown that the new formalism satisfies the virial theorem. As the first application it is shown that the model explains the shell-structure of atoms by the property that the pseudo-orbitals for the (ns), (np), (nd) etc. electrons are, in a very good approximation, the solutions of the same equation and have their maxima at the same point thereby creating the peaks in the radial density characterizing the shell structure. (orig.)

  19. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Hans van Dormolen


    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  20. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.


    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  1. Thermoluminescence dating method

    Zink, A.


    A crystal that is submitted to radiation stores energy and releases this energy under the form of light whenever it is heated. These 2 properties: the ability to store energy and the ability to reset the energy stored are the pillars on which time dating methods like thermoluminescence are based. A typical accuracy of the thermoluminescence method is between 5 to 7% but an accuracy of 3% can be reached with a sufficient number of measurement. This article describes the application of thermoluminescence to the dating of a series of old terra-cotta statues. This time measurement is absolute and does not require any calibration, it represents the time elapsed since the last heating of the artifact. (A.C.)

  2. Method of reducing zirconium

    Megy, J.A.


    A method was developed for making nuclear-grade zirconium from a zirconium compound, which ismore economical than previous methods since it uses aluminum as the reductant metal rather than the more expensive magnesium. A fused salt phase containing the zirconium compound to be reduced is first prepared. The fused salt phase is then contacted with a molten metal phase which contains aluminum and zinc. The reduction is effected by mutual displacment. Aluminum is transported from the molten metal phase to the fused salt phase, replacing zirconium in the salt. Zirconium is transported from the fused salt phase to the molten metal phase. The fused salt phase and the molten metal phase are then separated, and the solvent metal and zirconium are separated by distillation or other means. (DN)


    Roxana L. IONESCU


    Full Text Available Companies operating in a global economy that is constantly changing and developming, especially during the financial crisis and political instability. It is necessary to adapt and develop sales methods in such environment. For large companies who base their activity on sales it has become a necessity to learn different types of sales approaches because their knowledge enables them to grow the number of customers and therefore the sales and the turnover. This paper aims to exame the most effective sales methods used on the highly sensitive economic and social environment – the insurance market. In the field of insurances, the sales process is even more important because sellers need to sell an intangible product that may materialize in the future, but there is no certainty.

  4. in the DSMC Method

    Fong-Zhi Chen


    Full Text Available In this study, the Plücker coordinates representation is used to formulate the ruled surface and the molecular path for pumping speed performance evaluation of a molecular vacuum pump. The ruled surface represented by the Pliicker coordinates is used to develop a criterion for when gas molecules hit the pump surface wall. The criterion is applied to analyze the flow rate of a new developed vacuum pump in transition regimes by using the DSMC (Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. When a molecule flies in a neutral electrical field its path is a straight line. If the molecular path and the generators of a ruled surface are both represented by the Pliicker coordinates, the position of the molecular hit on the wall can be verified by the reciprocal condition of the lines. The Plücker coordinates representation is quite convenient in the DSMC method for this three-dimensional molecular flow simulation.

  5. Method card design dimensions

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.


    There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....

  6. Ion sensing method

    Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian


    The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.

  7. Laser device and method

    Myers, J.D.


    A method is described of treatment of opacity of the lens of an eye resulting from foreign matter at the back surface of the eye lens within the vitreous fluid body of the eye with a passively Q-switched laser device. The method consists of: (a) generating a single lasing pulse emitted from the laser device focused within the eye vitreous fluid body, spaced from the lens back surface, creating a microplasma dot in the vitreous fluid body (b) then increasing the frequency of the lasing pulses emitted from the lasing device having a frequency greater than the life of the microplasma to generate an elongated lasing plasma within the eye vitreous fluid moving toward the lens back surface, until the elongated lasing plasma contacts and destroys the foreign matter

  8. Dislocation-dynamics method

    Van Brutzel, L.


    Dislocation-Dynamics (DD) technique is identified as the method able to model the evolution of material plastic properties as a function of the microstructural transformation predicted at the atomic scale. Indeed, it is the only simulation method capable of taking into account the collective behaviour of a large number of dislocations inside a realistic microstructure. DD simulations are based on the elastic dislocation theory following rules inherent to the dislocation core structure often call 'local rules'. All the data necessary to establish the local rules for DD have to come directly from experiment or alternatively from simulations carried out at the atomic scale such as molecular dynamics or ab initio calculations. However, no precise information on the interaction between two dislocations or between dislocations and defects induced by irradiation are available for nuclear fuels. Therefore, in this article the DD technique will be presented and some examples are given of what can be achieved with it. (author)

  9. The Montessori Method

    Cathleen HASKINS


    Full Text Available Dr. Maria Montessori provided the world with a powerful philosophy and practice for the advancement of humanity: change how we educate children and we change the world. She understood two things very clearly: One, that we can build a better world, a more just and peaceful place, when we educate for the realization of the individual and collective human potential; and two, that the only way to create an educational system that will that will serve this end is to scrap the current system entirely and replace it with a completely new system. She gave us a system through which to accomplish that goal: The Montessori Method. The following is a personal and professional account of the Montessori Method of educating children.

  10. Stereoscopic methods in TEM

    Thomas, L.E.


    Stereoscopic methods used in TEM are reviewed. The use of stereoscopy to characterize three-dimensional structures observed by TEM has become widespread since the introduction of instruments operating at 1 MV. In its emphasis on whole structures and thick specimens this approach differs significantly from conventional methods of microstructural analysis based on three-dimensional image reconstruction from a number of thin-section views. The great advantage of stereo derives from the ability to directly perceive and measure structures in three-dimensions by capitalizing on the unsurpassed human ability for stereoscopic matching of corresponding details on picture pairs showing the same features from different viewpoints. At this time, stereo methods are aimed mainly at structural understanding at the level of dislocations, precipitates, and irradiation-induced point-defect clusters in crystal and on the cellular irradiation-induced point-defect clusters in crystal and on the cellular level of biological specimens. 3-d reconstruction methods have concentrated on the molecular level where image resolution requirements dictate the use of very thin specimens. One recent application of three-dimensional coordinate measurements is a system developed for analyzing depth variations in the numbers, sizes and total volumes of voids produced near the surfaces of metal specimens during energetic ion bombardment. This system was used to correlate the void volumes at each depth along the ion range with the number of atomic displacements produced at that depth, thereby unfolding the entire swelling versus dose relationship from a single stereo view. A later version of this system incorporating computer-controlled stereo display capabilities is now being built

  11. Polymer compositions and methods

    Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.


    The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  12. Methods of celestial mechanics

    Brouwer, Dirk


    Methods of Celestial Mechanics provides a comprehensive background of celestial mechanics for practical applications. Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that is devoted to the motions of celestial bodies. This book is composed of 17 chapters, and begins with the concept of elliptic motion and its expansion. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other aspects of celestial mechanics, including gravity, numerical integration of orbit, stellar aberration, lunar theory, and celestial coordinates. Considerable chapters explore the principles and application of various mathematical metho

  13. Assessment methods for rehabilitation.

    Biefang, S; Potthoff, P


    Diagnostics and evaluation in medical rehabilitation should be based on methods that are as objective as possible. In this context quantitative methods are an important precondition. We conducted for the German Pensions Insurance Institutions (which are in charge of the medical and vocational rehabilitation of workers and employees) a survey on assessment methods for rehabilitation which included an evaluation of American literature, with the aim to indicate procedures that can be considered for adaptation in Germany and to define further research requirements. The survey identified: (1) standardized procedures and instrumented tests for the assessment of musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary and neurophysiological function; (2) personality, intelligence, achievement, neuropsychological and alcoholism screening tests for the assessment of mental or cognitive function; (3) rating scales and self-administered questionnaires for the assessment of Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL Scales); (4) generic profiles and indexes as well as disease-specific measures for the assessment of health-related quality of life and health status; and (5) rating scales for vocational assessment. German equivalents or German versions exist only for a part of the procedures identified. Translation and testing of Anglo-Saxon procedures should have priority over the development of new German methods. The following procedures will be taken into account: (a) instrumented tests for physical function, (b) IADL Scales, (c) generic indexes of health-related quality of life, (d) specific quality of life and health status measures for disorders of the circulatory system, metabolic system, digestive organs, respiratory tract and for cancer, and (e) vocational rating scales.

  14. Method to liquefy coal

    Cronauer, D.C.; Kehl, W.L.


    In a method to liquify coal in the presence of hydrogen and hydrogen-transfer solvents, a hydrogenation catalyst is used in which an amorphous aluminium phosphate is taken as catalyst carrier. The particular advantage of aluminium phosphate catalyst carriers is their property of not loosing their mechanical strength even after manifold oxidizing regeneration (burning off the deposited carbon). The quantity of carbon deposited on the catalyst when using an aluminium phosphate carrier is considerably loss than with usual catalyst carriers.

  15. Methods of risk assessment

    Jones, D.R.


    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (identification, quantification of risk); some approaches to risk evaluation (use of the 'no risk' principle; the 'acceptable risk' method; risk balancing; comparison of risks, benefits and other costs); cost benefit analysis; an alternative approach (tabulation and display; description and reduction of the data table); identification of potential decision sets consistent with the constraints. Some references are made to nuclear power. (U.K.)


    V. Kukharenko


    Full Text Available Content curated - a new activity (started in 2008 qualified network users with process large amounts of information to represent her social network users. To prepare content curators developed 7 weeks distance course, which examines the functions, methods and tools curator. Courses showed a significant relationship success learning on the availability of advanced personal learning environment and the ability to process and analyze information.

  17. AUDIT plan documenting method

    Cornecsu, M.


    The work describes a method of documenting the AUDIT plan upon the basis of two quantitative elements resulting from quality assurance program appraisal system function implementation degree as established from the latest AUDIT performed an system function weight in QAP, respectively, appraised by taking into account their significance for the activities that are to be performed in the period for which the AUDITs are planned. (Author) 3 Figs., 2 Refs

  18. Method for separating isotopes

    Jepson, B.E.


    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  19. Methods of Stegoanalysis

    A. S. Borsch


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider two different approaches to the methods stegoanalysis applicable to common multimedia formats. The first approach uses the verification and the analysis of changes in the fields of media files that must remain constant throughout the bit stream of potential container file. The second approach is more complicated for implementation and involves collecting of information by means of many experiments.

  20. Situational Method Engineering

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ralyte, Jolita; Par, Agerfalk; Rossi, Matti


    While previously available methodologies for software – like those published in the early days of object technology – claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all t...

  1. Situational method engineering

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti


    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  2. Method for scavenging mercury

    Chang, Shih-ger [El Cerrito, CA; Liu, Shou-heng [Kaohsiung, TW; Liu, Zhao-rong [Beijing, CN; Yan, Naiqiang [Berkeley, CA


    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  3. Method for making nanomaterials

    Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng


    A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

  4. Comments on PDF methods

    Chen, J.-Y.


    Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.


    Rudyk, Valentine Yu.; Tereshchenko, Mykola F.; Rudyk, Tatiana A.


    Practical realization of adaptive control in magnetotherapy apparatus acquires an actual importance on the modern stage of development of magnetotherapy.The structural scheme of method of adaptive impulsive magnetotherapy and algorithm of adaptive control of feed-back signal during procedure of magnetotherapy is represented.A feed-back in magnetotherapy complex will be realized with control of magnetic induction and analysis of man's physiological indexes (temperature, pulse, blood prassure, ...

  6. Rapid flow imaging method

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.


    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  7. Multigrid methods III

    Trottenberg, U; Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods


    These proceedings contain a selection of papers presented at the Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods which was held in Bonn on October 1-4, 1990. Following conferences in 1981 and 1985, a platform for the presentation of new Multigrid results was provided for a third time. Multigrid methods no longer have problems being accepted by numerical analysts and users of numerical methods; on the contrary, they have been further developed in such a successful way that they have penetrated a variety of new fields of application. The high number of 154 participants from 18 countries and 76 presented papers show the need to continue the series of the European Multigrid Conferences. The papers of this volume give a survey on the current Multigrid situation; in particular, they correspond to those fields where new developments can be observed. For example, se­ veral papers study the appropriate treatment of time dependent problems. Improvements can also be noticed in the Multigrid approach for semiconductor eq...

  8. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki


    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  9. Materials and test methods

    Kase, M.B.


    The objective of this study was to provide, in cooperation with ORNL and LANL, specimens required for studies to develop organic insulators having the cryogenic neutron irradiation resistance required for MFE systems utilizing superconducting magnetic confinement. To develop test methods and analytical procedures for assessing radiation damage. To stimulate and participate in international cooperation directed toward accomplishing these objectives. The system for producing uniaxially reinforced, 3-4 mm (0.125 in) diameter rod specimens has been refined and validated by production of excellent quality specimens using liquid-mix epoxy resin systems. The methodology is undergoing further modification to permit use of hot-melt epoxy and polyimide resin systems as will be required for the experimental program to be conducted in the NLTNIF reactor at ORNL. Preliminary studies indicate that short beam and torsional shear test methods will be useful in evaluating radiation degradation. Development of these and other applicable test methods are continuing. A cooperative program established with laboratories in Japan and in England has resulted in the production and testing of specimens having an identical configuration

  10. Tracers and tracing methods

    Leclerc, J.P.


    The first international congress on 'Tracers and tracing methods' took place in Nancy in May 2001. The objective of this second congress was to present the current status and trends on tracing methods and their applications. It has given the opportunity to people from different fields to exchange scientific information and knowledge about tracer methodologies and applications. The target participants were the researchers, engineers and technologists of various industrial and research sectors: chemical engineering, environment, food engineering, bio-engineering, geology, hydrology, civil engineering, iron and steel production... Two sessions have been planned to cover both fundamental and industrial aspects: 1)fundamental development (tomography, tracer camera visualization and particles tracking; validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations by tracer experiments and numerical residence time distribution; new tracers and detectors or improvement and development of existing tracing methods; data treatments and modeling; reactive tracer experiments and interpretation) 2)industrial applications (geology, hydrogeology and oil field applications; civil engineering, mineral engineering and metallurgy applications; chemical engineering; environment; food engineering and bio-engineering). The program included 5 plenary lectures, 23 oral communications and around 50 posters. Only 9 presentations are interested for the INIS database

  11. Development of partitioning method

    Kubota, Kazuo; Dojiri, Shigeru; Kubota, Masumitsu


    The literature survey was carried out on the amount of natural resources, behaviors in reprocessing process and in separation and recovery methods of the platinum group elements and technetium which are contained in spent fuel. The essential results are described below. (1) The platinum group elements, which are contained in spent fuel, are quantitatively limited, compared with total demand for them in Japan. And estimated separation and recovery cost is rather high. In spite of that, development of these techniques is considered to be very important because the supply of these elements is almost from foreign resources in Japan. (2) For recovery of these elements, studies of recovery from undisolved residue and from high level liquid waste (HLLW) also seem to be required. (3) As separation and recovery methods, following techniques are considered to be effective; lead extraction, liquid metal extraction, solvent extraction, ion-exchange, adsorption, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis or their combination. (4) But each of these methods has both advantages and disadvantages. So development of such processes largely depends on future works. (author) 94 refs

  12. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak


    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e.

  13. The data embedding method

    Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.


    Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

  14. Methods of mathematical optimization

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    The fundamental principles of numerical optimization methods are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential engineering applications. The basic optimization process is described; unconstrained and constrained minimization problems are defined; a general approach to the design of optimization software programs is outlined; and drawings and diagrams are shown for examples involving (1) the conceptual design of an aircraft, (2) the aerodynamic optimization of an airfoil, (3) the design of an automotive-engine connecting rod, and (4) the optimization of a 'ski-jump' to assist aircraft in taking off from a very short ship deck.

  15. Novel mining methods

    Monchusi, B


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Monchusi_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1953 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Monchusi_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Novel Mining Methods 4th... 2012 Slide 12 CSIR mine safety platform AR Drone Differential time-of-flight beacon Sampling ? CSIR 2012 Slide 13 Reef Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) head Scan X-Y Laser/Spectrometer/Computer Rock Breaking ? CSIR 2012 Slide...

  16. Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods

    Hajjari, Tayebeh


    With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.


    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.


    A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .

  18. A Pluralistic, Longitudinal Method

    Evers, Winie; Marroun, Sana; Young, Louise


    There is recognition in business markets of the need for connected relationships to enable the survival and growth of firms. Finding new ways to collaborate enables firms to better seek opportunities and challenges and enhance network capability. However the traditional methods used to research...... and analysis. Longitudinal research considers a Danish advertising and communication firm looking for new ideas by involving their network in order to help them to compete in their environment of rapid globalization and emergence of new technologies. A five stage research design considered how network...


    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.


    A method of electropolishing the surface of uranium articles is presented. The process of this invention is carried out by immersing the uranium anticle into an electrolyte which contains from 35 to 65% by volume sulfuric acid, 1 to 20% by volume glycerine and 25 to 50% by volume of water. The article is made the anode in the cell and polished by electrolyzing at a voltage of from 10 to 15 volts. Discontinuing the electrolysis by intermittently withdrawing the anode from the electrolyte and removing any polarized film formed therein results in an especially bright surface.

  20. Hob Identification Methods

    Andrzej Piotrowski


    Full Text Available In industrial practice, hobs are manufactured and used. The problem boils down to the identification of a hob with defining its profile, which depends on many design and technological parameters (such as the grinding wheel size, profile, type and positioning during machining. This makes the basis for the correct execution and sharpening of the tool. The accuracy of the hob determines the quality of gear wheel teeth being shaped. The article presents the hob identification methods that are possible to be used in industrial and laboratory practice.

  1. Radioanalytical methods manual

    Chiu, N.W.; Dean, J.R.


    This Radioanalytical Methods manual is comprised of 12 chapters. It includes a review of the pertinent literature up to the end of 1982 pertaining to the measurement of the radioactive species listed under the terms of the contract. Included is methodology recommended for the decompositions of soils, tailings, ores, biological samples and air filters. Detailed analytical methodology for the measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, gross gamma, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, thorium-232, thorium-230, thorium-228, total thorium, radon-222, radon-220 and radon-219 is presented

  2. The analytic Lanczos method

    Witte, N.S.


    The classical formalism of the Moment Problem has been combined with a cumulant approach and applied to the extensive many-body problem. This has yielded many new exact results for many-body systems in the thermodynamic limit - for the ground state energy, for excited state gaps, and for arbitrary ground state averages. The method applies to any extensive Hamiltonian system, for any phase or symmetry arising in the model, whether on a lattice or in the continuum, and for any dimensionality. The theorems are of a nonperturbative nature with respect to any couplings occuring in the model. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  3. Maximum entropy methods

    Ponman, T.J.


    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  4. Methods of thermodynamics

    Reiss, Howard


    Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of ""constraints"" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. It will be especially useful as an auxiliary text to be used along with any standard treatment.Unlike some texts, Methods of Thermodynamics does not use statistical m

  5. Scanning apparatus and method

    Brunnett, C.J.


    A novel method is described for processing the analogue signals from the photomultiplier tubes in a tomographic X-ray scanner. The system produces a series of pulses whose instantaneous frequency depends on the detected intensity of the X-radiation. A timer unit is used to determine the segment scan intervals and also to deduce the average radiation intensity detected during this interval. The overall system is claimed to possess the advantageous properties of low time delay, wide bandwidth and relative low cost. (U.K.)

  6. Electrical estimating methods

    Del Pico, Wayne J


    Simplify the estimating process with the latest data, materials, and practices Electrical Estimating Methods, Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide to estimating electrical costs, with data provided by leading construction database RS Means. The book covers the materials and processes encountered by the modern contractor, and provides all the information professionals need to make the most precise estimate. The fourth edition has been updated to reflect the changing materials, techniques, and practices in the field, and provides the most recent Means cost data available. The complexity of el

  7. Introduction to functional methods

    Faddeev, L.D.


    The functional integral is considered in relation to Feynman diagrams and phase space. The holomorphic form of the functional integral is then discussed. The main problem of the lectures, viz. the construction of the S-matrix by means of the functional integral, is considered. The functional methods described explicitly take into account the Bose statistics of the fields involved. The different procedure used to treat fermions is discussed. An introduction to the problem of quantization of gauge fields is given. (B.R.H.)

  8. Inspection Methods in Programming.


    Counting is a a specialization of Iterative-generation in which the generating function is Oneplus ) Waters’ second category of plan building Oneplus and the initial input is 1. 0 I 180 CHAPTER NINE -ta a acio f igr9-.IeaieGnrtoPln 7 -7 STEADY STATE PLANS 181 TemporalPlan counting...specializalion iterative-generation roles .action(afu nction) ,tail(counting) conslraints .action.op = oneplus A .action.input = 1 The lItcrative-application

  9. Magnetic imager and method

    Powell, James; Reich, Morris; Danby, Gordon


    A magnetic imager 10 includes a generator 18 for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager 10 also includes a sensor 20 for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object.

  10. Geometrical method of decoupling

    C. Baumgarten


    Full Text Available The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E[over →], B[over →], and P[over →], which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When

  11. Control system design method

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.


    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  12. Laser pulse stacking method

    Moses, E.I.


    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  13. Method for thinning specimen

    Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.


    A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.

  14. Methods of statistical physics

    Akhiezer, Aleksandr I


    Methods of Statistical Physics is an exposition of the tools of statistical mechanics, which evaluates the kinetic equations of classical and quantized systems. The book also analyzes the equations of macroscopic physics, such as the equations of hydrodynamics for normal and superfluid liquids and macroscopic electrodynamics. The text gives particular attention to the study of quantum systems. This study begins with a discussion of problems of quantum statistics with a detailed description of the basics of quantum mechanics along with the theory of measurement. An analysis of the asymptotic be

  15. Washing method of filter

    Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.


    Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)

  16. Alternative Methods of Regression

    Birkes, David


    Of related interest. Nonlinear Regression Analysis and its Applications Douglas M. Bates and Donald G. Watts ".an extraordinary presentation of concepts and methods concerning the use and analysis of nonlinear regression models.highly recommend[ed].for anyone needing to use and/or understand issues concerning the analysis of nonlinear regression models." --Technometrics This book provides a balance between theory and practice supported by extensive displays of instructive geometrical constructs. Numerous in-depth case studies illustrate the use of nonlinear regression analysis--with all data s

  17. Introduction to DNA methods

    Delincee, H.


    The purpose of this session is to discuss the various possibilities for detecting modifications in DNA after irradiation and whether these changes can be utilized as an indicator for the irradiation treatment of foods. The requirement to be fulfilled is that the method be able to distinguish irradiated food without the presence of a control sample, thus the measured response after irradiation must be large enough to supersede background levels from other treatments. Much work has been performed on the effects of radiation on DNA, particularly due to its importance in radiation biology. The main lesions of DNA as a result of irradiation are base damage, damage of the sugar moiety, single strand and double strand breaks. Crosslinking between bases also occurs, e.g. production of thymine dimers, or between DNA and protein. A valuable review on how to utilize these DNA changes for detection purposes has already appeared. Tables 1, 2 and 3 list the proposed methods of detecting changes in irradiated DNA, some identified products as examples for a possible irradiation indicator, in the case of immunoassay the substance used as antigen, and some selected literature references. In this short review, it is not intended to provide a complete literature survey

  18. Cold fusion method

    Takahashi, Akihito.


    A Pt wire electrode is supported from the periphery relative to a Pd electrode by way of a polyethylene or teflon plate in heavy water, and electrolysis is applied while varying conditions successively in a sawteeth fashion at an initial stage, and after elapse of about one week, a pulse current is supplied to promote nuclear reaction and to generate excess heat greater than a charged electric power. That is, small amount of neutron emission is increased and electrolytic cell temperature is elevated by varying the electrolysis conditions successively in the sawteeth fashion at the initial stage. In addition, when the pulse electric current is supplied after elapse of about one week, the electrolytic cell temperature is abnormally elevated, so that the promotion of nuclear reaction phenomenon and the generation of excess heat greater than the charged electric power are recognized. Then, a way to control power level and time fluctuation of cold fusion is attained, thereby contributing to development of a further method for generating excess heat as desired. In addition, it contributes to a development for a method of obtaining such an excess heat that can be taken as a new energy. (N.H.)

  19. Research methods in information

    Pickard, Alison Jane


    The long-awaited 2nd edition of this best-selling research methods handbook is fully updated and includes brand new coverage of online research methods and techniques, mixed methodology and qualitative analysis. There is an entire chapter contributed by Professor Julie McLeod, Sue Childs and Elizabeth Lomas focusing on research data management, applying evidence from the recent JISC funded 'DATUM' project. The first to focus entirely on the needs of the information and communications community, it guides the would-be researcher through the variety of possibilities open to them under the heading "research" and provides students with the confidence to embark on their dissertations. The focus here is on the 'doing' and although the philosophy and theory of research is explored to provide context, this is essentially a practical exploration of the whole research process with each chapter fully supported by examples and exercises tried and tested over a whole teaching career. The book will take readers through eac...

  20. Spent fuel reprocessing method

    Shoji, Hirokazu; Mizuguchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.


    Spent oxide fuels containing oxides of uranium and transuranium elements are dismantled and sheared, then oxide fuels are reduced into metals of uranium and transuranium elements in a molten salt with or without mechanical removal of coatings. The reduced metals of uranium and transuranium elements and the molten salts are subjected to phase separation. From the metals of uranium and transuranium elements subjected to phase separation, uranium is separated to a solid cathode and transuranium elements are separated to a cadmium cathode by an electrolytic method. Molten salts deposited together with uranium to the solid cathode, and uranium and transuranium elements deposited to the cadmium cathode are distilled to remove deposited molten salts and cadmium. As a result, TRU oxides (solid) such as UO 2 , Pu 2 in spent fuels can be reduced to U and TRU by a high temperature metallurgical method not using an aqueous solution to separate them in the form of metal from other ingredients, and further, metal fuels can be obtained through an injection molding step depending on the purpose. (N.H.)

  1. Neutron source multiplication method

    Clayton, E.D.


    Extensive use has been made of neutron source multiplication in thousands of measurements of critical masses and configurations and in subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in situ that provide data for criticality prevention and control in nuclear materials operations. There is continuing interest in developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity, or k/sub eff/, of plant operations, but the required measurements are difficult to carry out and interpret on the far subcritical configurations usually encountered. The relationship between neutron multiplication and reactivity is briefly discussed and data presented to illustrate problems associated with the absolute measurement of neutron multiplication and reactivity in subcritical systems. A number of curves of inverse multiplication have been selected from a variety of experiments showing variations observed in multiplication during the course of critical and subcritical experiments where different methods of reactivity addition were used, with different neutron source detector position locations. Concern is raised regarding the meaning and interpretation of k/sub eff/ as might be measured in a far subcritical system because of the modal effects and spectrum differences that exist between the subcritical and critical systems. Because of this, the calculation of k/sub eff/ identical with unity for the critical assembly, although necessary, may not be sufficient to assure safety margins in calculations pertaining to far subcritical systems. Further study is needed on the interpretation and meaning of k/sub eff/ in the far subcritical system

  2. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.


    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 rhoCi/gm. The method comprises the steps of: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; repeating the last two steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 rhoCi/gm

  3. Method of pancreas scintigraphy

    Michele, E.; Schmidt, H.A.E.


    Scintigraphy of the pancreas is important because of a lack of simple internal and x-ray pancreas diagnostic examination methods, non-burdening to the patient, yet providing sufficient evidence. We conceived a double isotope subtraction method aimed at widespread application; financially, it should be within the range even of smaller nuclear medicine departments. A scanner is combined with double impulse processing and a subtraction unit (Picker Dualscanner) and an adapted x-ray unit with the x-ray tube aimed at the scan-field. Commercial sup(Se-75)selenium methionine is used for pancreas imagining. sup(TC-99m)colloidal sulphur is used as a liver indicator. After barium-brei application orally, an x-ray is taken of the gastro-intestinal tract, so as to be able to delineate the pancreas from other epigastric organs also able to accumulate methionine. The subtraction photoscan is then inscribed on this pre-exposed film without any shift of the patient. It is also possible to use two parallel films (x-ray/photoscan) and then to superposition them

  4. Method of bonding

    Saller, H.A.; Hodge, E.S.; Paprocki, S.J.; Dayton, R.W.


    A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors is described comprising providing an assembly comprising fuel units consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, the cladding sheets being of greater width and length than the core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of the core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in the recesses. The assembly further comprises second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000 0 F, arranged between a pair of the second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units. The filler plates have the same thickness as the second side pieces. The method further comprises enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through the envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of the envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal

  5. Terahertz composite imaging method

    QIAO Xiaoli; REN Jiaojiao; ZHANG Dandan; CAO Guohua; LI Lijuan; ZHANG Xinming


    In order to improve the imaging quality of terahertz(THz) spectroscopy, Terahertz Composite Imaging Method(TCIM) is proposed. The traditional methods of improving THz spectroscopy image quality are mainly from the aspects of de-noising and image enhancement. TCIM breaks through this limitation. A set of images, reconstructed in a single data collection, can be utilized to construct two kinds of composite images. One algorithm, called Function Superposition Imaging Algorithm(FSIA), is to construct a new gray image utilizing multiple gray images through a certain function. The features of the Region Of Interest (ROI) are more obvious after operating, and it has capability of merging ROIs in multiple images. The other, called Multi-characteristics Pseudo-color Imaging Algorithm(McPcIA), is to construct a pseudo-color image by combining multiple reconstructed gray images in a single data collection. The features of ROI are enhanced by color differences. Two algorithms can not only improve the contrast of ROIs, but also increase the amount of information resulting in analysis convenience. The experimental results show that TCIM is a simple and effective tool for THz spectroscopy image analysis.

  6. Chemical decontamination method

    Nishiwaki, Hitoshi.


    Metal wastes contaminated by radioactive materials are contained in a rotational decontamination vessel, and the metal wastes are rotated therein while being in contact with a slight amount of a decontamination liquid comprising a mineral acid. As the mineral acid, a mixed acid of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and fluoric acid is preferably used. Alternatively, chemical decontamination can also be conducted by charging an acid resistant stirring medium in the rotational decontamination vessel. The surface of the metal wastes is uniformly covered by the slight amount of decontamination liquid to dissolve the surface layer. In addition, heat of dissolution generated in this case is accumulated in the inside of the rotational decontamination vessel, the temperature is elevated with no particular heating, thereby enabling to obtain an excellent decontamination effect substantially at the same level as in the case of heating the liquid to 70degC in a conventional immersion decontamination method. Further, although contact areas between the metal wastes and the immersion vessel are difficult to be decontaminated in the immersion decontamination method, all of areas can be dissolved uniformly in the present invention. (T.M.)

  7. Nanoscale waveguiding methods

    Wang Chia-Jean


    Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic generation method

    Masai, Tadahisa; Ishibashi, Eiichi; Kojima, Akihiro.


    The present invention relates to a magneto-hydrodynamic generation method which increases the conductivity of active gas and the generated energy. In the conventional method of open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic generation, the working fluid does not possess a favorable electric conductivity since the collision cross section is large when the combustion is carried out in a condition of excess oxygen. Furthermore, combustion under a condition of oxygen shortage is uncapable of completely converting the generated energy. The air preheater or boiler is not sufficient to collect the waste gas resulting in damage and other economic disadvantages. In the present invention, the combustion gas caused by excess fuel in the combuster is supplied to the generator as the working gas, to which air or fully oxidized air is added to be reheated. While incomplete gas used for heat collection is not adequate, the unburned damage may be eliminated by combusting again and increasing the gas temperature and heat collection rate. Furthermore, a diffuser is mounted at the rear side of the generator to decrease the gas combustion rate. Thus, even when directly absorbing the preheated fully oxidized air or the ordinary air, the boiler is free from damage caused by combustion delay or impulsive force. (M. Ishida)

  9. Reactor operation method

    Suzuki, Toshio; Hida, Kazuki; Yoshioka, Ritsuo.


    The enrichment degree of fuels initially loaded in a reactor core was made extremely lower than that of fresh fuels to be loaded in the succeeding cycle, or the enrichment degree for all of the initially loaded fuels was made identical with that of the fresh fuels in the conventional reactor operation method. In this operation method, since the initially loaded fuels are sometimes taken out after the completion of the cycle at the low burnup degree as it is, it can not be said to reduce the fuel cycle cost. As a means for dissolving this problem, at least two different kinds of initially loaded fuels are prepared. The enrichment degree of the highly enriched fuels is made identical with that of the fresh fuels, and the enrichment degree and the number of low enriched fuels are not changed after the completion of the first cycle but they are operated till the end of the second cycle. Further, all of the fuels at the low enrichment degree are taken out after the completion of the second cycle and exchanged with the fresh fuels. As a result, high burnup ratio of the initially loaded fuels can be increased, to improve the fuel economy. (I.S.)

  10. Method of isotope separation

    Lyon, R K


    Isotopes of a gaseous compound can be separated by multi-infrared photoabsorption which follows a selective dissociation of the excited molecules by single photon absorption of photons of visible or UV radiation. The process involves three steps. Firstly, the molecules to be separated are irradiated with a high-energy IR laser, whereby the molecules of the compound containing the lighter isotopes are preferably excited. They are then irradiated by a second laser with UV or visible light whose frequency of radiation brings the excited molecules into a form in which they can be separated from the non-excited molecules. The third step is the reformation of the substances according to known methods. A power density of at least 10/sup 4/ watt/cm/sup 2/ per torr gas pressure with an irradiation time of 10/sup -10/ to 5 x 10/sup -5/ seconds in the presence of a second gas with at least 5 times higher partial pressure is necessary for the IR radiation. The method may be used for UF/sub 6/ for which an example is given here.

  11. Friction welding method

    Ishida, Ryuichi; Hatanaka, Tatsuo.


    A friction welding method for forming a lattice-shaped base and tie plate supporter for fuel elements is disclosed in which a plate formed with a concavity along its edge is pressure welded to a rotating member such as a boss by longitudinally contacting the projecting surfaces remaining on either side of the concavity with the rotating member during the high speed rotation thereof in the presence of an inert gas. Since only the two projecting surfaces of the plate are fused by friction to the rotary member, heat expansion is absorbed by the concavity to prevent distortion; moreover, a two point contact surface assures a stable fitting and promotes the construction of a rigid lattice in which a number of the abovementioned plates are friction welded between rotating members to form any desired complex arrangement. The inert has serves to protect the material quality of the contacting surfaces from air during the welding step. The present invention thus provides a method in which even Zircaloy may be friction welded in place of casting stainless steel in the construction of supporting lattices to thereby enhance neutron economy. (K. J. Owens)

  12. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak


    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e. the configuration of a project approach that is tuned to the project at hand. A language and support tool for the engineering of situational methods are discussed.

  13. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    Habuchi, Satoshi


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.

  14. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    Habuchi, Satoshi; Piwonski, Hubert Marek; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.


    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.


    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  16. Method for welding beryllium

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.


    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  17. Mathematical methods in engineering

    Machado, José


    This book presents a careful selection of the contributions presented at the Mathematical Methods in Engineering (MME10) International Symposium, held at the Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra- Engineering Institute of Coimbra (IPC/ISEC), Portugal, October 21-24, 2010. The volume discusses recent developments about theoretical and applied mathematics toward the solution of engineering problems, thus covering a wide range of topics, such as:  Automatic Control, Autonomous Systems, Computer Science, Dynamical Systems and Control,  Electronics, Finance and Economics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Fractional Mathematics, Fractional Transforms and Their Applications,  Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Image and Signal Analysis, Image Processing, Mechanics, Mechatronics, Motor Control and Human Movement Analysis, Nonlinear Dynamics, Partial Differential Equations, Robotics, Acoustics, Vibration and Control, and Wavelets.

  18. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ


    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  19. Method for forming materials

    Tolle, Charles R [Idaho Falls, ID; Clark, Denis E [Idaho Falls, ID; Smartt, Herschel B [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Karen S [Idaho Falls, ID


    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  20. Failed fuel detection method

    Utamura, Motoaki; Urata, Megumu.


    Object: To detect failed fuel element in a reactor with high precision by measuring the radioactivity concentrations for more than one nuclides of fission products ( 131 I and 132 I, for example) contained in each sample of coolant in fuel channel. Method: The radioactivity concentrations in the sampled coolant are obtained from gamma spectra measured by a pulse height analyser after suitable cooling periods according to the half-lives of the fission products to be measured. The first measurement for 132 I is made in two hours after sampling, and the second for 131 I is started one day after the sampling. Fuel element corresponding to the high radioactivity concentrations for both 131 I and 132 I is expected with certainty to have failed

  1. Physics and my method

    Feldenkrais, Moshé


    Moshe Feldenkrais is known from the textbooks as a collaborator of Joliot-Curie, Langevin, and Kowarski participating in the first nuclear fission experiments. During the war he went to Great Britain and worked on the development of submarine detection devices. From experimental physics, following finally a suggestion of Lew Kowarski, he turned his interest to neurophysiology and neuropsychology. He studied the cybernetical organisation between human body dynamics and the mind. He developed his method known as "Functional integration" and "Awareness through movement". It has been applied with surprising results to post-traumatic rehabilitation, psychotherapy, re-education of the mentally or physically handicapped, and improvement of performance in sports. It can be used by everybody who wants to discover his natural grace of movement.

  2. Interval methods: An introduction

    Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj


    This chapter contains selected papers presented at the Minisymposium on Interval Methods of the PARA'04 Workshop '' State-of-the-Art in Scientific Computing ''. The emphasis of the workshop was on high-performance computing (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides...... the potential for solving increasingly difficult computational problems. However, given the complexity of modern computer architectures, the task of realizing this potential needs careful attention. A main concern of HPC is the development of software that optimizes the performance of a given computer....... An important characteristic of the computer performance in scientific computing is the accuracy of the Computation results. Often, we can estimate this accuracy by using traditional statistical techniques. However, in many practical situations, we do not know the probability distributions of different...

  3. Baryons with functional methods

    Fischer, Christian S.


    We summarise recent results on the spectrum of ground-state and excited baryons and their form factors in the framework of functional methods. As an improvement upon similar approaches we explicitly take into account the underlying momentum-dependent dynamics of the quark-gluon interaction that leads to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. For light octet and decuplet baryons we find a spectrum in very good agreement with experiment, including the level ordering between the positive- and negative-parity nucleon states. Comparing the three-body framework with the quark-diquark approximation, we do not find significant differences in the spectrum for those states that have been calculated in both frameworks. This situation is different in the electromagnetic form factor of the Δ, which may serve to distinguish both pictures by comparison with experiment and lattice QCD.

  4. Modified risk evaluation method

    Udell, C.J.; Tilden, J.A.; Toyooka, R.T.


    The purpose of this paper is to provide a structured and cost-oriented process to determine risks associated with nuclear material and other security interests. Financial loss is a continuing concern for US Department of Energy contractors. In this paper risk is equated with uncertainty of cost impacts to material assets or human resources. The concept provides a method for assessing the effectiveness of an integrated protection system, which includes operations, safety, emergency preparedness, and safeguards and security. The concept is suitable for application to sabotage evaluations. The protection of assets is based on risk associated with cost impacts to assets and the potential for undesirable events. This will allow managers to establish protection priorities in terms of the cost and the potential for the event, given the current level of protection

  5. Pumpable rockbolt method

    Steinberg, M.; Manowitz, B.; Waide, C.H.


    A method and apparatus are described for producing rockbolts in the roof of a subterranean cavity in which two components of an ambient temperature curable resin system are premixed and then inserted into a bore hole. The mixture is permitted to polymerize in situ, and then the hardened material is cut off at the entrance to the hole leaving a hardened portion for insertion into the next hole as a precursor. In a preferred embodiment, a flexible glass roving is employed to reinforce the material in the hole and a metal tube inserted to support the roving while it is fed into the hole and also to provide venting. The roving and tube is then cut off and left in the hole

  6. Method of controlling reactivity

    Tochihara, Hiroshi.


    Purpose: To improve the reactivity controlling characteristics by artificially controlling the leakage of neutron from a reactor and providing a controller for controlling the reactivity. Method: A reactor core is divided into several water gaps to increase the leakage of neutron, its reactivity is reduced, a gas-filled control rod or a fuel assembly is inserted into the gap as required, the entire core is coupled in a system to reduce the leakage of the neutron, and the reactivity is increased. The reactor shutdown is conducted by the conventional control rod, and to maintain critical state, boron density varying system is used together. Futher, a control rod drive is used with that similar to the conventional one, thereby enabling fast reactivity variation, and the positive reactivity can be obtained by the insertion, thereby improving the reactivity controlling characteristics. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. Method for radioactivity monitoring

    Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.


    The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.

  8. Method of reactor fueling

    Saito, Toshiro.


    Purpose: To decrease the cost and shorten the working time by saving fueling neutron detectors and their components. Method: Incore drive tubes for the neutron source range monitor (SRM) and intermediate range monitor (IRM) are disposed respectively within in a reactor core and a SRM detector assembly is inserted to the IRM incore drive tube which is most nearest to the neutron source upon reactor fueling. The reactor core reactivity is monitored by the SRM detector assembly. The SRM detector asesembly inserted into the IRM drive tube is extracted at the time of charging fuels up to the frame connecting the SRM and, thereafter, IRM detection assembly is inserted into the IRM drive tube and the SRM detector assembly is inserted into the SRM drive tube respectively for monitoring the reactor core. (Sekiya, K.)

  9. Radioactive air sampling methods

    Maiello, Mark L


    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  10. Freeze drying method

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.


    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser

  11. Rock solidification method

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Funakoshi, Toshio; Inagaki, Yuzo; Hashimoto, Yasuhide.


    Purpose: To convert radioactive wastes into the final state for storage (artificial rocks) in a short period of time. Method: Radioactive burnable wastes such as spent papers, cloths and oils and activated carbons are burnt into ashes in a burning furnace, while radioactive liquid wastes such as liquid wastes of boric acid, exhausted cleaning water and decontaminating liquid wastes are powderized in a drying furnace or calcining furnace. These powders are joined with silicates as such as white clay, silica and glass powder and a liquid alkali such as NaOH or Ca(OH) 2 and transferred to a solidifying vessel. Then, the vessel is set to a hydrothermal reactor, heated and pressurized, then taken out about 20 min after and tightly sealed. In this way, radioactive wastes are converted through the hydrothermal reactions into aqueous rock stable for a long period of time to obtain solidification products insoluble to water and with an extremely low leaching rate. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Reduced NOX combustion method

    Delano, M.A.


    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  13. Introduction to perturbation methods

    Holmes, M


    This book is an introductory graduate text dealing with many of the perturbation methods currently used by applied mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. The author has based his book on a graduate course he has taught several times over the last ten years to students in applied mathematics, engineering sciences, and physics. The only prerequisite for the course is a background in differential equations. Each chapter begins with an introductory development involving ordinary differential equations. The book covers traditional topics, such as boundary layers and multiple scales. However, it also contains material arising from current research interest. This includes homogenization, slender body theory, symbolic computing, and discrete equations. One of the more important features of this book is contained in the exercises. Many are derived from problems of up- to-date research and are from a wide range of application areas.

  14. Ceramic Coating Method


    2002 US 6,413,589 B1 35 36 yttria or CaO, can also be made porous by sol gel , or by superconductor powders 32 is at least 20 to 50 C. below its...Display Research Conference, (1988). 3,949,263 A 4/1976 Harper "Laser Method for Synthesis and Processing of Continuous 4,009,027 A 2/1977 Naidich et al...spots on reinforcing 33,800, WO3 (7.16) 33,600, Fe2O3 (5.24) 23,100, MoO3 carbon fibers in carbon composites; (4.692) 20,100, and MnO2 (5.026) 21,900

  15. Data mining methods

    Chattamvelli, Rajan


    DATA MINING METHODS, Second Edition discusses both theoretical foundation and practical applications of datamining in a web field including banking, e-commerce, medicine, engineering and management. This book starts byintroducing data and information, basic data type, data category and applications of data mining. The second chapterbriefly reviews data visualization technology and importance in data mining. Fundamentals of probability and statisticsare discussed in chapter 3, and novel algorithm for sample covariants are derived. The next two chapters give an indepthand useful discussion of data warehousing and OLAP. Decision trees are clearly explained and a new tabularmethod for decision tree building is discussed. The chapter on association rules discusses popular algorithms andcompares various algorithms in summary table form. An interesting application of genetic algorithm is introduced inthe next chapter. Foundations of neural networks are built from scratch and the back propagation algorithm is derived...

  16. Pixel Interpolation Methods

    Mintěl, Tomáš


    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá akcelerací interpolačních metod s využitím GPU a architektury NVIDIA (R) CUDA TM. Grafický výstup je reprezentován demonstrační aplikací pro transformaci obrazu nebo videa s použitím vybrané interpolace. Časově kritické části kódu jsou přesunuty na GPU a vykonány paralelně. Pro práci s obrazem a videem jsou použity vysoce optimalizované algoritmy z knihovny OpenCV, od firmy Intel. This master's thesis deals with acceleration of pixel interpolation methods usi...

  17. Computational Methods in Medicine

    Angel Garrido


    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence requires Logic. But its Classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it is absolutely necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, such as Fuzzy Logic, Modal Logic, Non-Monotonic Logic, and so on [2]. Among the things that AI needs to represent are Categories, Objects, Properties, Relations between objects, Situations, States, Time, Events, Causes and effects, Knowledge about knowledge, and so on. The problems in AI can be classified in two general types
    [3, 4], Search Problems and Representation Problem. There exist different ways to reach this objective. So, we have [3] Logics, Rules, Frames, Associative Nets, Scripts and so on, that are often interconnected. Also, it will be very useful, in dealing with problems of uncertainty and causality, to introduce Bayesian Networks and particularly, a principal tool as the Essential Graph. We attempt here to show the scope of application of such versatile methods, currently fundamental in Medicine.

  18. Method of electrostatic filtration

    Devienne, F.M.


    Electrostatic filtration of secondary ions of mass m in a given mass ratio with a primary ion of mass M which has formed the secondary ions by fission is carried out by a method which consists in forming a singly-charged primary ion of the substance having a molecular mass M and extracting the ion at a voltage V 1 with respect to ground. The primary ion crosses a potential barrier V 2 , in producing the dissociation of the ion into at least two fragments of secondary ions and in extracting the fragment ion of mass m at a voltage V 2 . Filtration is carried out in an electrostatic analyzer through which only the ions of energy eV'' are permitted to pass, detecting the ions which have been filtered. The mass m of the ions is such that (M/m) = (V 1 - V 2 )/(V'' - V 2 )

  19. Method for welding beryllium

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O'Leary, R.F.


    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs

  20. Lubrication method and apparatus

    McCarty, R.S.


    In a combustion turbine engine comprising a bearing member journaling a rotatable component, and compressor means providing pressurized air, the method of providing liquid lubricant to the bearing member is described comprising the steps of: providing the liquid lubricant sealed within a collapsible and penetrable bladder member; enclosing the bladder member and lubricant within a substantially closed housing sealingly cooperating with the bladder member to define a pair of chambers; arranging a penetrating lance member in one of the pair of chambers in confronting relationship with the bladder member; providing communication of the pressurized air with the other of the pair of chambers to force the bladder member into impaled sealing relationship with the lance member; communicating the lubricant to the bearing member via the lance member; and utilizing the pressurized air within the other chamber to collapse the bladder member, simultaneously flowing the lubricant to the bearing member.

  1. Ultrasonic grinding method

    Miyahara, Shuji.


    An ultrasonic generator and a liquid supply nozzle are opposed to an object to be ground and a pump is started in this state to supply an organic solvent. Matters to be decontaminated which adheres to the surface of the object to be ground and are difficult to be removed by a mere mechanical removing method can be eliminated previously by the surface active effect of the organic solvent such as ethanol prior to the oscillation of the ultrasonic generator. Subsequently, when the ultrasonic generator is oscillated, scales in the floated state can be removed simply. Further, since the organic solvent can penetrate to provide the surface active effect even in such a narrow portion that the top end of the ultrasonic generator is difficult to the intruded at the surface of the object to be ground, the decontaminating treatment can be applied also to such a narrow portion. (T.M.)

  2. Development of partitioning method

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Shirahashi, Koichi; Kubota, Masumitsu


    Precipitation behavior of elements in a high-level liquid waste (HLW) was studied by using the simulated liquid waste, when the transuranic elements group was precipitated and separated as oxalate from HLW generated from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The results showed that over 90 % of strontium and barium were precipitated when oxalic acid was directly added to HLW to precipitate the transuranic elements group, and the percentages of these elements precipitated were affected by molybdenum and or zirconium. Therefore, a method of adding oxalic acid into the filtrate was studied after removing previously molybdenum and zirconium as precipitate by denitrating HLW, and it was found that precipitated fractions of strontium and barium could be suppressed about 10 %. Adding oxalic acid under the co-existance of ascorbic acid is effective for quantitative precipitation of neptunium in HLW. In this case, it was found that adding ascorbic acid had little influence on precipitation behavior of the other elements except palladium. (author)

  3. Microencapsulation system and method

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)


    A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

  4. Floating Silicon Method

    Kellerman, Peter


    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  5. Gas centrifuge purge method

    Theurich, Gordon R.


    1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.

  6. Section for qualitative methods (Letter)

    Todd, Z.; Madill, A.


    Qualitative research methods are increasingly used in all areas of psychology. We have proposed a new Section – the Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section – for anyone with an interest in using these research methods.

  7. Detection methods for irradiated food

    Stevenson, M.H.


    The plenary lecture gives a brief historical review of the development of methods for the detection of food irradiation and defines the demands on such methods. The methods described in detail are as follows: 1) Physical methods: As examples of luminescence methods, thermoluminescence and chermoluminescence are mentioned; ESR spectroscopy is discussed in detail by means of individual examples (crustaceans, frutis and vegetables, spieces and herbs, nuts). 2) Chemical methods: Examples given for these are methods that make use of alterations in lipids through radiation (formation of long-chain hydrocarbons, formation of 2-alkyl butanones), respectively radiation-induced alterations in the DNA. 3) Microbiological methods. An extensive bibliography is appended. (VHE) [de

  8. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  9. Comparative law as method and the method of comparative law

    Hage, J.C.; Adams, M.; Heirbaut, D.


    This article addresses both the justificatory role of comparative law within legal research (comparative law as method) and the method of comparative law itself. In this connection two questions will be answered: 1. Is comparative law a method, or a set of methods, for legal research? 2. Does

  10. Detector array and method

    Timothy, J.G.; Bybee, R.L.


    A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array

  11. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C


    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.

  12. Assay method and compositions


    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine( 3 H)-methyl. The O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin- 3 H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin- 3 H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated ( 3 H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  13. Method of reactor operation

    Maeda, Katsuji.


    Purpose: To prevent stress corrosion cracks in stainless steels caused from hydrogen peroxide in reactor operation in which the density of hydrogen peroxide in the reactor water is controlled upon reactor start-up. Method: A heat exchanger equipped with a heat source for applying external heat is disposed into the recycling system for reactor coolants. Upon reactor start-up, the coolants are heated by the heat exchanger till arriving at a temperature at which the dissolving rate is faster than the forming rate of hydrogen peroxide in the coolants, and nuclear heating is started after reaching the above temperature. The temperature of the reactor water is increased in such a manner and, when it arrives at 140 0 C, extraction of control elements is started and the heat source for the heat exchanger is interrupted simultaneously. In this way spikes in the density of hydrogen peroxide are suppressed upon reactor start-up to thereby decrease the stress corrosion cracks in stainless steels. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. Method for etherifications

    Jones, E.M. Jr.


    A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.

  15. Reactor operation method

    Osumi, Katsumi; Miki, Minoru.


    Purpose: To prevent stress corrosion cracks by decreasing the dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the coolants within a reactor container upon transient operation such as at the start-up or shutdown of bwr type reactors. Method: After a condensate has been evacuated, deaeration operation is conducted while opening a main steam drain line, as well as a main steam separation valve and a by-pass valve in a turbine by-pass line connecting the main steam line and the condenser without by way of a turbine, and the reactor is started-up by the extraction of control rods after the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the cooling water within a pressure vessel has been decreased below a predetermined value. Nuclear heating is started after the reactor water has been increased to about 150 0 C by pump heating after the end of the deaeration operation for preventing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen in the reactor water from temporarily increasing immediately after the start-up. The corrosive atmosphere in the reactor vessel can thus be moderated. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Using Finite Element Method

    M.H.R. Ghoreishy


    Full Text Available This research work is devoted to the footprint analysis of a steel-belted radial tyre (185/65R14 under vertical static load using finite element method. Two models have been developed in which in the first model the tread patterns were replaced by simple ribs while the second model was consisted of details of the tread blocks. Linear elastic and hyper elastic (Arruda-Boyce material models were selected to describe the mechanical behavior of the reinforcing and rubbery parts, respectively. The above two finite element models of the tyre were analyzed under inflation pressure and vertical static loads. The second model (with detailed tread patterns was analyzed with and without friction effect between tread and contact surfaces. In every stage of the analysis, the results were compared with the experimental data to confirm the accuracy and applicability of the model. Results showed that neglecting the tread pattern design not only reduces the computational cost and effort but also the differences between computed deformations do not show significant changes. However, more complicated variables such as shape and area of the footprint zone and contact pressure are affected considerably by the finite element model selected for the tread blocks. In addition, inclusion of friction even in static state changes these variables significantly.

  17. Methods of channeling simulation

    Barrett, J.H.


    Many computer simulation programs have been used to interpret experiments almost since the first channeling measurements were made. Certain aspects of these programs are important in how accurately they simulate ions in crystals; among these are the manner in which the structure of the crystal is incorporated, how any quantity of interest is computed, what ion-atom potential is used, how deflections are computed from the potential, incorporation of thermal vibrations of the lattice atoms, correlations of thermal vibrations, and form of stopping power. Other aspects of the programs are included to improve the speed; among these are table lookup, importance sampling, and the multiparameter method. It is desirable for programs to facilitate incorporation of special features of interest in special situations; examples are relaxations and enhanced vibrations of surface atoms, easy substitution of an alternate potential for comparison, change of row directions from layer to layer in strained-layer lattices, and different vibration amplitudes for substitutional solute or impurity atoms. Ways of implementing all of these aspects and features and the consequences of them will be discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs

  18. Methods for geochemical analysis

    Baedecker, Philip A.


    The laboratories for analytical chemistry within the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey are administered by the Office of Mineral Resources. The laboratory analysts provide analytical support to those programs of the Geologic Division that require chemical information and conduct basic research in analytical and geochemical areas vital to the furtherance of Division program goals. Laboratories for research and geochemical analysis are maintained at the three major centers in Reston, Virginia, Denver, Colorado, and Menlo Park, California. The Division has an expertise in a broad spectrum of analytical techniques, and the analytical research is designed to advance the state of the art of existing techniques and to develop new methods of analysis in response to special problems in geochemical analysis. The geochemical research and analytical results are applied to the solution of fundamental geochemical problems relating to the origin of mineral deposits and fossil fuels, as well as to studies relating to the distribution of elements in varied geologic systems, the mechanisms by which they are transported, and their impact on the environment.

  19. Method of reactor operation

    Nakajima, Takeshi


    Purpose: To minimize the power change due to the increase in xenone and power distribution after reaching the rated power in the case of using fresh fuels no requiring conditioning operation thereby starting the nuclear reactor in a short period of time and stably. Method: When control rods are entirely inserted only with a purpose for the compensation of the reactivity in a xenon-unsaturated state such as upon starting of the nuclear reactor, peaking is generated in the lower portion of the reactor core. Therefore, it is necessary to insert control rods for additionally suppressing the peaking in the lower portion of the reactor core to a relatively shallow level. In view of the above, a plurality of control rods are divided into a first control rod group finally inserted in the rated power state and a second control rod group other than the above. Then, the power is once elevated to the rated power level by means of such an intermediate control rod pattern that the ratio of the total extraction amount between the first control rod group and the second control rod group is made constant. Then, the control rods are extracted stepwise while setting the ratio of the total extraction amount constant in accordance with the change of the accumulating amount of xenone, to thereby obtain the purpose. (kamimura, M.)

  20. Standing footprint diagnostic method

    Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.


    Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

  1. Conference on Logical Methods

    Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic


    The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...

  2. Method of hydrospalling

    Oudenhoven, M.S.


    A method is disclosed of breaking rock from a free surface which uses hydrofracturing to induce rock failure. Initially, a hole is cut in the rock face to a depth suitable for spalling by a high pressure water jet drill. Next, at the bottom of this hole a thin circular slot is hydraulically cut into the rock. The slot's circular axis is cut parallel to the transverse axis of the hole and the slot is made larger than the hole diameter. Following this step, a high pressure packer, with a high pressure tube passing through its center, is inserted into the drill hole. This packer is placed near the bottom of the hole above the slot and inflated. A fluid, like water, under high pressure is pumped down the hole past the packer into the slotted area. This high pressure fluid initiates a tensile fracture in the rock at the circular periphery of the slot. Tension is induced in the rock at this peripheral location due to the small radius of curvature existing there. This circular tensile fracture propagates outward away from the drill hole and upward to the free rock surface. After the rock fragment is broken free, pressure is released from the packer and it is withdrawn from the hole letting the fragment drop. To advance through the rock, the process is continuously repeated with the high pressure fluid being applied to the slotted area over a very short time period

  3. Measured attenuation correction methods

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.


    Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)

  4. Mimetic finite difference method

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail


    The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.

  5. Improved cytometry method

    McLean, J.R.N.


    Chromosome aberrations are widely used as biological indicators of radiation exposure. Chromosomes, isolated from human peripheral blood lymphocytes, are assessed by microscopy for the presence of dicentric aberrations. Dicentric figures are produced almost exclusively by exposure to ionizing radiation. The 'natural' background frequency of the dicentric in non-smoking humans is estimated at 1 in 1000-2000 cells (1). The frequency of this aberration increases with the radiation dose and age, and may possibly be related to lifestyle. The chromosome dicentric is most reliable as a biological dosimeter for uniform whole body exposures delivered at high dose rate (acute exposure). One practical shortcoming of using the frequency of dicentrics as an indicator of radiation dose, is the labor intensive nature of the analysis. State-of-the-art imaging software cannot recognize the wide variety of shapes that can be assumed by dicentric chromosomes. The time required to perform other labor intensive elements of the analytical process can be decreased by means of computer routines. These components include data reduction, recording and collation. Often, these tasks contribute little to the validity of the final dose estimate but nevertheless represent bookkeeping functions that are essential for verification and audit purposes should the need ever arise. This report describes a computer-assisted method of chromosomes dicentric analysis that more than doubles the efficiency of the analytical process. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  6. Statistical methods for forecasting

    Abraham, Bovas


    The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists."This book, it must be said, lives up to the words on its advertising cover: ''Bridging the gap between introductory, descriptive approaches and highly advanced theoretical treatises, it provides a practical, intermediate level discussion of a variety of forecasting tools, and explains how they relate to one another, both in theory and practice.'' It does just that!"-Journal of the Royal Statistical Society"A well-written work that deals with statistical methods and models that can be used to produce short-term forecasts, this book has wide-ranging applications. It could be used in the context of a study of regression, forecasting, and time series ...

  7. Law, Marxism and Method

    Paul O'Connell


    Full Text Available Law is crucial to the maintenance and reproduction of capitalism. While Marx never produced a comprehensive theory of law, state and rights, there is much in his work, and in the broader Marxist tradition, that can help us understand the nature and role of law in contemporary capitalism. This paper sketches out some of the key resources from within the Marxist tradition that can assist us in developing Marxist understandings of law, state and rights today. Specifically, the focus is on the question of method, drawing out three key strands from Marx's own work: (i the importance of dialectical materialist analysis; (ii the historically specific and transitory nature of capitalism and (iii the centrality of class antagonism and class struggle. The argument advanced here, in sum, is that Marxist explanations of law, state and rights should foreground these analytical reference points, in order to make the role of law intelligible, and to begin to sketch how movements for fundamental social change might understand and engage with the law.

  8. Selective gas exhaustion method

    Hirano, Yoichi


    The present invention provides a method capable of evacuating gases at an exhaustion rate which varies depending on the kind of gases. For example, in a thermonuclear experimental device, a hydrogen gas exhaustion rate is determined to 0 and an exhaustion rate for other impure gases is made greater. Namely, a baffle plate is cooled to a temperature to a level at which the vapor pressure of gases to evacuate a baffle plate is required in a pump incorporating a baffle plate, for example, a cryopump or a sorption pump. In this case, the level of the vapor pressure required for evacuating the exhaustion gas ingredients is 1 x 10 -8 Torr or less, preferably, 1 x 10 -9 Torr. In a thermonuclear experimental device, a gas having a lower boiling point next to hydrogen is neon, but neon is scarcely present in natural world. Nitrogen has a lower boiling point next thereto, and if the temperature is lowered to such a level that the vapor pressure for evacuating gases such as nitrogen, and carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon or methane having a boiling point at or lower than nitrogen is required. Then, evacuation rate sufficient for gases other than hydrogen gas can be obtained. (I.S.)

  9. Improved cytometry method

    McLean, J R.N. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Radiation Protection Bureau


    Chromosome aberrations are widely used as biological indicators of radiation exposure. Chromosomes, isolated from human peripheral blood lymphocytes, are assessed by microscopy for the presence of dicentric aberrations. Dicentric figures are produced almost exclusively by exposure to ionizing radiation. The `natural` background frequency of the dicentric in non-smoking humans is estimated at 1 in 1000-2000 cells (1). The frequency of this aberration increases with the radiation dose and age, and may possibly be related to lifestyle. The chromosome dicentric is most reliable as a biological dosimeter for uniform whole body exposures delivered at high dose rate (acute exposure). One practical shortcoming of using the frequency of dicentrics as an indicator of radiation dose, is the labor intensive nature of the analysis. State-of-the-art imaging software cannot recognize the wide variety of shapes that can be assumed by dicentric chromosomes. The time required to perform other labor intensive elements of the analytical process can be decreased by means of computer routines. These components include data reduction, recording and collation. Often, these tasks contribute little to the validity of the final dose estimate but nevertheless represent bookkeeping functions that are essential for verification and audit purposes should the need ever arise. This report describes a computer-assisted method of chromosomes dicentric analysis that more than doubles the efficiency of the analytical process. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. 40 years of formal methods

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus


    In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification-oriented met...

  11. Methods for magnetostatic field calculation

    Vorozhtsov, S.B.


    Two methods for magnetostatic field calculation: differential and integrat are considered. Both approaches are shown to have certain merits and drawbacks, choice of the method depend on the type of the solved problem. An opportunity of combination of these tWo methods in one algorithm (hybrid method) is considered

  12. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    Kugel, H.W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.


    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly IBW-generated sheared flows

  13. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    Kugel, H.W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.


    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows

  14. Explorative methods in linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar


    The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....

  15. Method Points: towards a metric for method complexity

    Graham McLeod


    Full Text Available A metric for method complexity is proposed as an aid to choosing between competing methods, as well as in validating the effects of method integration or the products of method engineering work. It is based upon a generic method representation model previously developed by the author and adaptation of concepts used in the popular Function Point metric for system size. The proposed technique is illustrated by comparing two popular I.E. deliverables with counterparts in the object oriented Unified Modeling Language (UML. The paper recommends ways to improve the practical adoption of new methods.

  16. Dianhydrides, polyimides, methods of making each, and methods of use

    Ma, Xiaohua; Pinnau, Ingo; Ghanem, Bader


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for an aromatic dianhydride, a method of making an aromatic dianhydride, an aromatic dianhydride-based polyimide, a method of making an aromatic dianhydride-based polyimide, and the like.

  17. The Method of Manufactured Universes for validating uncertainty quantification methods

    Stripling, H.F.; Adams, M.L.; McClarren, R.G.; Mallick, B.K.


    The Method of Manufactured Universes is presented as a validation framework for uncertainty quantification (UQ) methodologies and as a tool for exploring the effects of statistical and modeling assumptions embedded in these methods. The framework

  18. Dianhydrides, polyimides, methods of making each, and methods of use

    Ma, Xiaohua


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for an aromatic dianhydride, a method of making an aromatic dianhydride, an aromatic dianhydride-based polyimide, a method of making an aromatic dianhydride-based polyimide, and the like.

  19. A nodal method based on matrix-response method

    Rocamora Junior, F.D.; Menezes, A.


    A nodal method based in the matrix-response method, is presented, and its application to spatial gradient problems, such as those that exist in fast reactors, near the core - blanket interface, is investigated. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Earthquake prediction by Kina Method

    Kianoosh, H.; Keypour, H.; Naderzadeh, A.; Motlagh, H.F.


    Earthquake prediction has been one of the earliest desires of the man. Scientists have worked hard to predict earthquakes for a long time. The results of these efforts can generally be divided into two methods of prediction: 1) Statistical Method, and 2) Empirical Method. In the first method, earthquakes are predicted using statistics and probabilities, while the second method utilizes variety of precursors for earthquake prediction. The latter method is time consuming and more costly. However, the result of neither method has fully satisfied the man up to now. In this paper a new method entitled 'Kiana Method' is introduced for earthquake prediction. This method offers more accurate results yet lower cost comparing to other conventional methods. In Kiana method the electrical and magnetic precursors are measured in an area. Then, the time and the magnitude of an earthquake in the future is calculated using electrical, and in particular, electrical capacitors formulas. In this method, by daily measurement of electrical resistance in an area we make clear that the area is capable of earthquake occurrence in the future or not. If the result shows a positive sign, then the occurrence time and the magnitude can be estimated by the measured quantities. This paper explains the procedure and details of this prediction method. (authors)

  1. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    Renard, Laetitia; El Eter, Mohamad; Caps, Valerie; Basset, Jean-Marie


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  2. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    McKim, Courtney A.


    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  3. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    Renard, Laetitia


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  4. Stated preference methods using R

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo


    Stated Preference Methods Using R explains how to use stated preference (SP) methods, which are a family of survey methods, to measure people's preferences based on decision making in hypothetical choice situations. Along with giving introductory explanations of the methods, the book collates information on existing R functions and packages as well as those prepared by the authors. It focuses on core SP methods, including contingent valuation (CV), discrete choice experiments (DCEs), and best-worst scaling (BWS). Several example data sets illustrate empirical applications of each method with R

  5. Lectures on Monte Carlo methods

    Madras, Neal


    Monte Carlo methods form an experimental branch of mathematics that employs simulations driven by random number generators. These methods are often used when others fail, since they are much less sensitive to the "curse of dimensionality", which plagues deterministic methods in problems with a large number of variables. Monte Carlo methods are used in many fields: mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, finance, computer science, and biology, for instance. This book is an introduction to Monte Carlo methods for anyone who would like to use these methods to study various kinds of mathemati

  6. A method cache for Patmos

    Degasperi, Philipp; Hepp, Stefan; Puffitsch, Wolfgang


    For real-time systems we need time-predictable processors. This paper presents a method cache as a time-predictable solution for instruction caching. The method cache caches whole methods (or functions) and simplifies worst-case execution time analysis. We have integrated the method cache...... in the time-predictable processor Patmos. We evaluate the method cache with a large set of embedded benchmarks. Most benchmarks show a good hit rate for a method cache size in the range between 4 and 16 KB....

  7. The Plastic Tension Field Method

    Hansen, Thomas


    This paper describes a calculation method for steel plate girders with transverse web stiffeners subjected to shear. It may be used for predicting the failure load or, as a design method, to determine the optimal amount of internal web stiffeners. The new method is called the plastic tension field...... method. The method is based on the theory of plasticity and is analogous to the so-called diagonal compression field method developed for reinforced concrete beams with transverse stirrups, which is adopted in the common European concrete code (Eurocode 2). Many other theories have been developed...

  8. Numerical Methods for Stochastic Computations A Spectral Method Approach

    Xiu, Dongbin


    The first graduate-level textbook to focus on fundamental aspects of numerical methods for stochastic computations, this book describes the class of numerical methods based on generalized polynomial chaos (gPC). These fast, efficient, and accurate methods are an extension of the classical spectral methods of high-dimensional random spaces. Designed to simulate complex systems subject to random inputs, these methods are widely used in many areas of computer science and engineering. The book introduces polynomial approximation theory and probability theory; describes the basic theory of gPC meth

  9. Axiomatic method and category theory

    Rodin, Andrei


    This volume offers readers a coherent look at the past, present and anticipated future of the Axiomatic Method. It presents a hypothetical New Axiomatic Method, which establishes closer relationships between mathematics and physics.

  10. Clostridium difficile: methods and protocols

    Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam P


    .... difficile research to describe the recently developed methods for studying the organism. These range from methods for isolation of the organism, molecular typing, genomics, genetic manipulation, and the use of animal models...

  11. Methods of respiratory system investigation

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.


    Different methods of chest organs investigation are discussed in detail: roentgenoscopy, roentgenography, tomography and others. A detailed roentgenologic semiotics of every method is presented, as well as their comparative evaluation

  12. Methods of making microfluidic devices

    Buttner, Ulrich; Mashraei, Yousof; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Salama, Khaled N.


    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of designs and structures, however, fabrication methods are either time consuming or expensive to produce, in terms of the facilities and equipment needed. A fast and economically viable method is provided

  13. Statistical methods for quality improvement

    Ryan, Thomas P


    ...."-TechnometricsThis new edition continues to provide the most current, proven statistical methods for quality control and quality improvementThe use of quantitative methods offers numerous benefits...

  14. Operator theory and numerical methods

    Fujita, H; Suzuki, T


    In accordance with the developments in computation, theoretical studies on numerical schemes are now fruitful and highly needed. In 1991 an article on the finite element method applied to evolutionary problems was published. Following the method, basically this book studies various schemes from operator theoretical points of view. Many parts are devoted to the finite element method, but other schemes and problems (charge simulation method, domain decomposition method, nonlinear problems, and so forth) are also discussed, motivated by the observation that practically useful schemes have fine mathematical structures and the converses are also true. This book has the following chapters: 1. Boundary Value Problems and FEM. 2. Semigroup Theory and FEM. 3. Evolution Equations and FEM. 4. Other Methods in Time Discretization. 5. Other Methods in Space Discretization. 6. Nonlinear Problems. 7. Domain Decomposition Method.

  15. Collect method of uranium hexafluoride

    Moura, S.C.; Bustillos, O.W.V.


    A collect method of uranium hexafluoride was designed, constructed and assembled in Analytical Laboratory from Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo, Brazil. This method of collect is main for quality control of uranium hexafluoride. (author)


    A. L. Osipov


    Full Text Available The basic statistical methods used in conducting the genetic analysis of human traits. We studied by segregation analysis, linkage analysis and allelic associations. Developed software for the implementation of these methods support.

  17. Method Development in Forensic Toxicology.

    Peters, Frank T; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona


    In the field of forensic toxicology, the quality of analytical methods is of great importance to ensure the reliability of results and to avoid unjustified legal consequences. A key to high quality analytical methods is a thorough method development. The presented article will provide an overview on the process of developing methods for forensic applications. This includes the definition of the method's purpose (e.g. qualitative vs quantitative) and the analytes to be included, choosing an appropriate sample matrix, setting up separation and detection systems as well as establishing a versatile sample preparation. Method development is concluded by an optimization process after which the new method is subject to method validation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  18. Mixed methods research for TESOL

    Brown, James; Farr, Fiona


    Defining and discussing the relevance of theoretical and practical issues involved in mixed methods research. Covering the basics of research methodology, this textbook shows you how to choose and combine quantitative and qualitative research methods to b

  19. Birth control - slow release methods

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  20. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    ... women in a year Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Implant Reversible Intrauterine Device (IUD) Permanent Male Sterilization ... 0.5 % Diaphragm 12 % How to make your method most effective After procedure, little or nothing to ...

  1. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.


    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented

  2. International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS

    Benvenuti, Elena


    This book gathers selected contributions on emerging research work presented at the International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS (X-DMS), held in Ferrara in September 2015. It highlights the most relevant advances made at the international level in the context of expanding classical discretization methods, like finite elements, to the numerical analysis of a variety of physical problems. The improvements are intended to achieve higher computational efficiency and to account for special features of the solution directly in the approximation space and/or in the discretization procedure. The methods described include, among others, partition of unity methods (meshfree, XFEM, GFEM), virtual element methods, fictitious domain methods, and special techniques for static and evolving interfaces. The uniting feature of all contributions is the direct link between computational methodologies and their application to different engineering areas.

  3. Methods for evaluating imaging methods of limited reproducibility

    Krummenauer, F.


    Just like new drugs, new or modified imaging methods must be subjected to objective clinical tests, including tests on humans. In this, it must be ensured that the principle of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) are followed with regard to medical, administrative and methodical quality. Innovative methods fo clinical epidemiology and medical biometry should be applied from the planning stage to the final statistical evaluation. The author presents established and new methods for planning, evaluation and reporting of clinical tests of diagnostic methods, and especially imaging methods, in clinical medicine and illustrates these by means of current research projects in the various medical disciplines. The strategies presented are summarized in a recommendation based on the concept of phases I - IV of clinical drug testing in order to enable standardisation of the clinical evaluation of imaging methods. (orig.)

  4. Mining method selection by integrated AHP and PROMETHEE method.

    Bogdanovic, Dejan; Nikolic, Djordje; Ilic, Ivana


    Selecting the best mining method among many alternatives is a multicriteria decision making problem. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the implementation of an integrated approach that employs AHP and PROMETHEE together for selecting the most suitable mining method for the "Coka Marin" underground mine in Serbia. The related problem includes five possible mining methods and eleven criteria to evaluate them. Criteria are accurately chosen in order to cover the most important parameters that impact on the mining method selection, such as geological and geotechnical properties, economic parameters and geographical factors. The AHP is used to analyze the structure of the mining method selection problem and to determine weights of the criteria, and PROMETHEE method is used to obtain the final ranking and to make a sensitivity analysis by changing the weights. The results have shown that the proposed integrated method can be successfully used in solving mining engineering problems.

  5. Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis

    Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.


    This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.

  6. Bayesian methods for data analysis

    Carlin, Bradley P.


    Approaches for statistical inference Introduction Motivating Vignettes Defining the Approaches The Bayes-Frequentist Controversy Some Basic Bayesian Models The Bayes approach Introduction Prior Distributions Bayesian Inference Hierarchical Modeling Model Assessment Nonparametric Methods Bayesian computation Introduction Asymptotic Methods Noniterative Monte Carlo Methods Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Model criticism and selection Bayesian Modeling Bayesian Robustness Model Assessment Bayes Factors via Marginal Density Estimation Bayes Factors

  7. An improvement on LSB+ method

    Qazanfari, Kazem; Ghaemmaghami, Shahrokh


    The Least Significant Bit (LSB) substitution is an old and simple data hiding method that could almost effortlessly be implemented in spatial or transform domain over any digital media. This method can be attacked by several steganalysis methods, because it detectably changes statistical and perceptual characteristics of the cover signal. A typical method for steganalysis of the LSB substitution is the histogram attack that attempts to diagnose anomalies in the cover image's histogram. A well...

  8. Methods for Equating Mental Tests.


    1983) compared conventional and IRT methods for equating the Test of English as a Foreign Language ( TOEFL ) after chaining. Three conventional and...three IRT equating methods were examined in this study; two sections of TOEFL were each (separately) equated. The IRT methods included the following: ( A separate base form was established for each of the six equating methods. Instead of equating the base-form TOEFL to itself, the last (eighth

  9. Interactive Nonlinear Multiobjective Optimization Methods

    Miettinen, Kaisa; Hakanen, Jussi; Podkopaev, Dmitry


    An overview of interactive methods for solving nonlinear multiobjective optimization problems is given. In interactive methods, the decision maker progressively provides preference information so that the most satisfactory Pareto optimal solution can be found for her or his. The basic features of several methods are introduced and some theoretical results are provided. In addition, references to modifications and applications as well as to other methods are indicated. As the...

  10. Mixed methods for telehealth research.

    Caffery, Liam J; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Wade, Victoria


    Mixed methods research is important to health services research because the integrated qualitative and quantitative investigation can give a more comprehensive understanding of complex interventions such as telehealth than can a single-method study. Further, mixed methods research is applicable to translational research and program evaluation. Study designs relevant to telehealth research are described and supported by examples. Quality assessment tools, frameworks to assist in the reporting and review of mixed methods research, and related methodologies are also discussed.

  11. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.


    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  12. Multivariate analysis: models and method

    Sanz Perucha, J.


    Data treatment techniques are increasingly used since computer methods result of wider access. Multivariate analysis consists of a group of statistic methods that are applied to study objects or samples characterized by multiple values. A final goal is decision making. The paper describes the models and methods of multivariate analysis

  13. Pixe method as microanalytical instrument

    Tabacniks, M.H.


    The PIXE method (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) as analytical method presenting the evolution, the theoretical fundaments, the detection limit, the optimization for operational conditions is evaluated. The applications of the method to air pollution control and aerosol studies in regions such as Antartic, Amazon and other regions are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Activity based costing (ABC Method

    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache


    Full Text Available In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity BasedCosting method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurreddue to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages ofsuch classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  15. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    Bertulani, C.A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.


    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions. (paper)

  16. Methods of making textured catalysts

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA


    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  17. Chemical control methods and tools

    Steven Manning; James. Miller


    After determining the best course of action for control of an invasive plant population, it is important to understand the variety of methods available to the integrated pest management professional. A variety of methods are now widely used in managing invasive plants in natural areas, including chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods. Once the preferred...

  18. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.


    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  19. Multivariate analysis methods in physics

    Wolter, M.


    A review of multivariate methods based on statistical training is given. Several multivariate methods useful in high-energy physics analysis are discussed. Selected examples from current research in particle physics are discussed, both from the on-line trigger selection and from the off-line analysis. Also statistical training methods are presented and some new application are suggested [ru

  20. Methods of English language teaching

    Козелецька, І.С.


    The grammar translation method instructs students in grammar, and provides vocabulary with direct translations to memorize. It was the predominant method in Europe in the 19th century. Most instructors now acknowledge that this method is ineffective by itself. It is now most commonly used in the traditional instruction of the classical languages.

  1. Safety training for working youth: Methods used versus methods wanted.

    Zierold, Kristina M


    Safety training is promoted as a tool to prevent workplace injury; however, little is known about the safety training experiences young workers get on-the-job. Furthermore, nothing is known about what methods they think would be the most helpful for learning about safe work practices. To compare safety training methods teens get on the job to those safety training methods teens think would be the best for learning workplace safety, focusing on age differences. A cross-sectional survey was administered to students in two large high schools in spring 2011. Seventy percent of working youth received safety training. The top training methods that youth reported getting at work were safety videos (42%), safety lectures (25%), and safety posters/signs (22%). In comparison to the safety training methods used, the top methods youth wanted included videos (54%), hands-on (47%), and on-the-job demonstrations (34%). This study demonstrated that there were differences in training methods that youth wanted by age; with older youth seemingly wanting more independent methods of training and younger teens wanting more involvement. Results indicate that youth want methods of safety training that are different from what they are getting on the job. The differences in methods wanted by age may aid in developing training programs appropriate for the developmental level of working youth.


    Vladimíra OSADSKÁ


    Full Text Available In this paper, we review basic stochastic methods which can be used to extend state-of-the-art deterministic analytical methods for risk analysis. We can conclude that the standard deterministic analytical methods highly depend on the practical experience and knowledge of the evaluator and therefore, the stochastic methods should be introduced. The new risk analysis methods should consider the uncertainties in input values. We present how large is the impact on the results of the analysis solving practical example of FMECA with uncertainties modelled using Monte Carlo sampling.

  3. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    Arlart, I.P.


    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.) [de

  4. Models and methods in thermoluminescence

    Furetta, C.


    This work contains a conference that was treated about the principles of the luminescence phenomena, the mathematical treatment concerning the thermoluminescent emission of light as well as the Randall-Wilkins model, the Garlick-Gibson model, the Adirovitch model, the May-Partridge model, the Braunlich-Scharman model, the mixed first and second order kinetics, the methods for evaluating the kinetics parameters such as the initial rise method, the various heating rates method, the isothermal decay method and those methods based on the analysis of the glow curve shape. (Author)

  5. Factorization method of quadratic template

    Kotyrba, Martin


    Multiplication of two numbers is a one-way function in mathematics. Any attempt to distribute the outcome to its roots is called factorization. There are many methods such as Fermat's factorization, Dixońs method or quadratic sieve and GNFS, which use sophisticated techniques fast factorization. All the above methods use the same basic formula differing only in its use. This article discusses a newly designed factorization method. Effective implementation of this method in programs is not important, it only represents and clearly defines its properties.

  6. Methods for purifying carbon materials

    Dailly, Anne [Pasadena, CA; Ahn, Channing [Pasadena, CA; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA


    Methods of purifying samples are provided that are capable of removing carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from a sample containing a carbon material having a selected structure. Purification methods are provided for removing residual metal catalyst particles enclosed in multilayer carbonaceous impurities in samples generate by catalytic synthesis methods. Purification methods are provided wherein carbonaceous impurities in a sample are at least partially exfoliated, thereby facilitating subsequent removal of carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from the sample. Methods of purifying carbon nanotube-containing samples are provided wherein an intercalant is added to the sample and subsequently reacted with an exfoliation initiator to achieve exfoliation of carbonaceous impurities.

  7. Models and methods in thermoluminescence

    Furetta, C. [ICN, UNAM, A.P. 70-543, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This work contains a conference that was treated about the principles of the luminescence phenomena, the mathematical treatment concerning the thermoluminescent emission of light as well as the Randall-Wilkins model, the Garlick-Gibson model, the Adirovitch model, the May-Partridge model, the Braunlich-Scharman model, the mixed first and second order kinetics, the methods for evaluating the kinetics parameters such as the initial rise method, the various heating rates method, the isothermal decay method and those methods based on the analysis of the glow curve shape. (Author)

  8. Efficient searching in meshfree methods

    Olliff, James; Alford, Brad; Simkins, Daniel C.


    Meshfree methods such as the Reproducing Kernel Particle Method and the Element Free Galerkin method have proven to be excellent choices for problems involving complex geometry, evolving topology, and large deformation, owing to their ability to model the problem domain without the constraints imposed on the Finite Element Method (FEM) meshes. However, meshfree methods have an added computational cost over FEM that come from at least two sources: increased cost of shape function evaluation and the determination of adjacency or connectivity. The focus of this paper is to formally address the types of adjacency information that arises in various uses of meshfree methods; a discussion of available techniques for computing the various adjacency graphs; propose a new search algorithm and data structure; and finally compare the memory and run time performance of the methods.

  9. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.


    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  10. User interface inspection methods a user-centered design method

    Wilson, Chauncey


    User Interface Inspection Methods succinctly covers five inspection methods: heuristic evaluation, perspective-based user interface inspection, cognitive walkthrough, pluralistic walkthrough, and formal usability inspections. Heuristic evaluation is perhaps the best-known inspection method, requiring a group of evaluators to review a product against a set of general principles. The perspective-based user interface inspection is based on the principle that different perspectives will find different problems in a user interface. In the related persona-based inspection, colleagues assume the

  11. A Novel Polygonal Finite Element Method: Virtual Node Method

    Tang, X. H.; Zheng, C.; Zhang, J. H.


    Polygonal finite element method (PFEM), which can construct shape functions on polygonal elements, provides greater flexibility in mesh generation. However, the non-polynomial form of traditional PFEM, such as Wachspress method and Mean Value method, leads to inexact numerical integration. Since the integration technique for non-polynomial functions is immature. To overcome this shortcoming, a great number of integration points have to be used to obtain sufficiently exact results, which increases computational cost. In this paper, a novel polygonal finite element method is proposed and called as virtual node method (VNM). The features of present method can be list as: (1) It is a PFEM with polynomial form. Thereby, Hammer integral and Gauss integral can be naturally used to obtain exact numerical integration; (2) Shape functions of VNM satisfy all the requirements of finite element method. To test the performance of VNM, intensive numerical tests are carried out. It found that, in standard patch test, VNM can achieve significantly better results than Wachspress method and Mean Value method. Moreover, it is observed that VNM can achieve better results than triangular 3-node elements in the accuracy test.

  12. The Monte Carlo method the method of statistical trials

    Shreider, YuA


    The Monte Carlo Method: The Method of Statistical Trials is a systematic account of the fundamental concepts and techniques of the Monte Carlo method, together with its range of applications. Some of these applications include the computation of definite integrals, neutron physics, and in the investigation of servicing processes. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an overview of the basic features of the Monte Carlo method and typical examples of its application to simple problems in computational mathematics. The next chapter examines the computation of multi-dimensio

  13. Evaluation of Kjeldahl digestion method

    Amin, M.; Flowers, T.H.


    The evaluation of the Kjeldahl digestion method was investigated by comparing measured values of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium using three salt and catalyst mixture in Standard Kjeldahl digestion method and Salicyclic acid Modification method with certified values of plant material as well as comparison was made for determination of total nitrogen from steam distillation method verses the Technicon Auto-analyzer, and phosphorus Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method verses Molybdate/ Metavanadate method on the Technicon Auto-Analyzer. The 1 g salt/catalyst mixture recovered less nitrogen than the 2.5 g in the standard Kjeldahl method due to the lower temperature and incomplete digestion in both plant and soil samples. The 2.5 g catalyst mixture partially recovered nitrate in the standard Kjeldahl method and the salicylic acid modification fail to recover all over nitrate in plant material. Use of 2.5 g salt catalyst mixture and selenium appears to promote nitrogen losses in salicylic acid modification method but not in the standard Kjeldahl method of digestion for soil samples. No interference of selenium or copper was observed in Nitrogen and Phosphorus on calorimetric determination. The standard Kjeldahl method with 2.5 g of salt/catalyst mixture of sodium sulphate copper sulphate (10:1) in 5 ml sulfuric acid were found suitable for determination of total Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The steam distillation and the Technicon Auto-Analyzer technique measure similar amounts of ammonium nitrogen. However, the Technicon Auto analyzer technique is easier, rapid, higher degree of reproducibility, precise, accurate, reliable and free from human error. The amount of phosphorus measured by the Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method was more accurate than by the Molybdate/Metavanadate method on Technicon Auto-Analyzer. (author)

  14. Multivariate methods for particle identification

    Visan, Cosmin


    The purpose of this project was to evaluate several MultiVariate methods in order to determine which one, if any, offers better results in Particle Identification (PID) than a simple n$\\sigma$ cut on the response of the ALICE PID detectors. The particles considered in the analysis were Pions, Kaons and Protons and the detectors used were TPC and TOF. When used with the same input n$\\sigma$ variables, the results show similar perfoance between the Rectangular Cuts Optimization method and the simple n$\\sigma$ cuts. The method MLP and BDT show poor results for certain ranges of momentum. The KNN method is the best performing, showing similar results for Pions and Protons as the Cuts method, and better results for Kaons. The extension of the methods to include additional input variables leads to poor results, related to instabilities still to be investigated.

  15. Reflexive Learning through Visual Methods

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    What. This chapter concerns how visual methods and visual materials can support visually oriented, collaborative, and creative learning processes in education. The focus is on facilitation (guiding, teaching) with visual methods in learning processes that are designerly or involve design. Visual...... methods are exemplified through two university classroom cases about collaborative idea generation processes. The visual methods and materials in the cases are photo elicitation using photo cards, and modeling with LEGO Serious Play sets. Why. The goal is to encourage the reader, whether student...... or professional, to facilitate with visual methods in a critical, reflective, and experimental way. The chapter offers recommendations for facilitating with visual methods to support playful, emergent designerly processes. The chapter also has a critical, situated perspective. Where. This chapter offers case...

  16. Strengthening method of concrete structure

    Inge, Wewin; Audrey; Nugroho, Sofie; Njo, Helen


    Building extension in Indonesia is not favored, and not many people know the advantages of the method because architects and engineers tend to lack the knowledge and experience. The aim of this paper is to explain a method on how to strengthen a concrete building structure that people can use/learn as a better way to cut potential cost and save time. The strengthening method explained in this paper is steel jacketing, providing a case study of this method in the extension of a restaurant located in Medan, Indonesia. In this study, engineers calculated that the tensile stress of the existing RC column and beam is not strong enough to reinforce the building extension applied load. Therefore, the steel jacketing method can be applied to improve the column and beam strength and ductility. The result of the case study proves that this is one of the best methods for building extension applied in Indonesia.

  17. Negotiating a Systems Development Method

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Hedström, Karin

    Systems development methods (or methods) are often applied in tailored version to fit the actual situation. Method tailoring is in most the existing literature viewed as either (a) a highly rational process with the method engineer as the driver where the project members are passive information providers or (b) an unstructured process where the systems developer makes individual choices, a selection process without any driver. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate that important design decisions during method tailoring are made by project members through negotiation. The study has been carried out using the perspective of actor-network theory. Our narratives depict method tailoring as more complex than (a) and (b) show the driver role rotates between the project members, and design decisions are based on influences from several project members. However, these design decisions are not consensus decisions.

  18. Decentralized Quasi-Newton Methods

    Eisen, Mark; Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro


    We introduce the decentralized Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (D-BFGS) method as a variation of the BFGS quasi-Newton method for solving decentralized optimization problems. The D-BFGS method is of interest in problems that are not well conditioned, making first order decentralized methods ineffective, and in which second order information is not readily available, making second order decentralized methods impossible. D-BFGS is a fully distributed algorithm in which nodes approximate curvature information of themselves and their neighbors through the satisfaction of a secant condition. We additionally provide a formulation of the algorithm in asynchronous settings. Convergence of D-BFGS is established formally in both the synchronous and asynchronous settings and strong performance advantages relative to first order methods are shown numerically.

  19. Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Method

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)


    Methods are provided for forming spherical multilamellar microcapsules having alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic liquid layers, surrounded by flexible, semi-permeable hydrophobic or hydrophilic outer membranes which can be tailored specifically to control the diffusion rate. The methods of the invention rely on low shear mixing and liquid-liquid diffusion process and are particularly well suited for forming microcapsules containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These methods can be carried out in the absence of gravity and do not rely on density-driven phase separation, mechanical mixing or solvent evaporation phases. The methods include the process of forming, washing and filtering microcapsules. In addition, the methods contemplate coating microcapsules with ancillary coatings using an electrostatic field and free fluid electrophoresis of the microcapsules. The microcapsules produced by such methods are particularly useful in the delivery of pharmaceutical compositions.

  20. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    Wheeldon, J.


    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  1. Identification methods of irradiated food

    Raffi, J.J.


    After a general review of the different possible methods, the stress is put upon the ones close to application: electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and method of lipids. The problem of the specificity of each method is discussed (proof or presumption): they are then placed in the context of the programme of identification of irradiated foods just co-organized by the author with the Community Bureau of Reference (CEC) [fr

  2. Qualitative methods in workplace learning

    Fabritius, Hannele


    Methods of learning in the workplace will be introduced. The methods are connect to competence development and to the process of conducting development discussions in a dialogical way. The tools developed and applied are a fourfold table, a cycle of work identity, a plan of personal development targets, a learning meeting and a learning map. The methods introduced will aim to better learning at work.

  3. The Source Equivalence Acceleration Method

    Everson, Matthew S.; Forget, Benoit


    Highlights: • We present a new acceleration method, the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method. • SEAM forms an equivalent coarse group problem for any spatial method. • Equivalence is also formed across different spatial methods and angular quadratures. • Testing is conducted using OpenMOC and performance is compared with CMFD. • Results show that SEAM is preferable for very expensive transport calculations. - Abstract: Fine-group whole-core reactor analysis remains one of the long sought goals of the reactor physics community. Such a detailed analysis is typically too computationally expensive to be realized on anything except the largest of supercomputers. Recondensation using the Discrete Generalized Multigroup (DGM) method, though, offers a relatively cheap alternative to solving the fine group transport problem. DGM, however, suffered from inconsistencies when applied to high-order spatial methods. While an exact spatial recondensation method was developed and provided full spatial consistency with the fine group problem, this approach substantially increased memory requirements for realistic problems. The method described in this paper, called the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method (SEAM), forms a coarse-group problem which preserves the fine-group problem even when using higher order spatial methods. SEAM allows recondensation to converge to the fine-group solution with minimal memory requirements and little additional overhead. This method also provides for consistency when using different spatial methods and angular quadratures between the coarse group and fine group problems. SEAM was implemented in OpenMOC, a 2D MOC code developed at MIT, and its performance tested against Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration on the C5G7 benchmark problem and on a 361 group version of the problem. For extremely expensive transport calculations, SEAM was able to outperform CMFD, resulting in speed-ups of 20–45 relative to the normal power

  4. Methods of Mitigating Double Taxation

    Lindhe, Tobias


    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of existing methods of mitigating double taxation of corporate income within a standard cost of capital model. Two of the most well-known and most utilized methods, the imputation and the split rate systems, do not mitigate double taxation in corporations where the marginal investment is financed with retained earnings. However, all methods are effective when the marginal investment is financed with new share issues. The corporate tax rate, fiscal ...

  5. Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks

    Nielsen, Hans Bruun


    to formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...... demonstrated that this method offers good starting values for a Newton-Raphson iteration....

  6. Chebyshev and Fourier spectral methods

    Boyd, John P


    Completely revised text focuses on use of spectral methods to solve boundary value, eigenvalue, and time-dependent problems, but also covers Hermite, Laguerre, rational Chebyshev, sinc, and spherical harmonic functions, as well as cardinal functions, linear eigenvalue problems, matrix-solving methods, coordinate transformations, methods for unbounded intervals, spherical and cylindrical geometry, and much more. 7 Appendices. Glossary. Bibliography. Index. Over 160 text figures.



    be made of them. It is a method which, in exchange for a good shilling, gives you a pocketful of bad halfpence.”10 But Hamly is no advocate of... method to teach them, offering students “opportunities to make tough choices, study their decision-making calculus, and appreciate the consequences.”37 Dr...Conventional Instructional Method : A Randomized Controlled Trial with Third-Year Medical Students .” PLOS ONE 8, no. 12 (December 2013): e82328. http

  8. Statistical Methods in Integrative Genomics

    Richardson, Sylvia; Tseng, George C.; Sun, Wei


    Statistical methods in integrative genomics aim to answer important biology questions by jointly analyzing multiple types of genomic data (vertical integration) or aggregating the same type of data across multiple studies (horizontal integration). In this article, we introduce different types of genomic data and data resources, and then review statistical methods of integrative genomics, with emphasis on the motivation and rationale of these methods. We conclude with some summary points and future research directions. PMID:27482531

  9. Teaching methods in PE teaching

    Šekeljić, Goran V.; Stamatović, Milovan V.


    The methods used in teaching physical education, as well as in every other very specific teaching area, have their own uniqueness and enormous importance in teaching. In the last fifty years literature showed many different methods systematized by several different criteria. Some were just taken from general didactics, some were tailored to the needs of physical education classes, and a few new ones were discovered. The special value of this work is that the existing methods are supplemented ...

  10. Quantitative Methods for Teaching Review

    Irina Milnikova; Tamara Shioshvili


    A new method of quantitative evaluation of teaching processes is elaborated. On the base of scores data, the method permits to evaluate efficiency of teaching within one group of students and comparative teaching efficiency in two or more groups. As basic characteristics of teaching efficiency heterogeneity, stability and total variability indices both for only one group and for comparing different groups are used. The method is easy to use and permits to rank results of teaching review which...


    Muhammad Jarir


    This paper examined the most important methods used in the teaching of Islamic fiqh at the university level. The paper identified two types of methods and highlighted their advantages and disadvantages. The study particularly highlighted the Islamic perception of the methods and the optimal characteristics of a fiqh instructor. The paper concluded with a number of suggestion and recommendation that’s my correct the course of university teaching of Islamic fiqh. The paper mainly calls for the ...

  12. Regression methods for medical research

    Tai, Bee Choo


    Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the

  13. Methods to establish flaw tolerances

    Varga, T.


    Three conventional methods used to establish flaw tolerances are compared with new approaches using fracture mechanics. The conventional methods are those based on (a) non-destructive testing methods; (b) fabrication and quality assurance experience; and (c) service and damage experience. Pre-requisites of fracture mechanics methods are outlined, and summaries given of linear elastic mechanics (LEFM) and elastoplastic fracture mechanics (EPFM). The latter includes discussion of C.O.D.(crack opening displacement), the J-integral and equivalent energy. Proposals are made for establishing flaw tolerances. (U.K.)

  14. An introduction to g methods.

    Naimi, Ashley I; Cole, Stephen R; Kennedy, Edward H


    Robins' generalized methods (g methods) provide consistent estimates of contrasts (e.g. differences, ratios) of potential outcomes under a less restrictive set of identification conditions than do standard regression methods (e.g. linear, logistic, Cox regression). Uptake of g methods by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding both conceptual and technical details. We present a simple worked example that illustrates basic concepts, while minimizing technical complications. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  15. Projector Method: theory and examples

    Dahl, E.D.


    The Projector Method technique for numerically analyzing lattice gauge theories was developed to take advantage of certain simplifying features of gauge theory models. Starting from a very general notion of what the Projector Method is, the techniques are applied to several model problems. After these examples have traced the development of the actual algorithm from the general principles of the Projector Method, a direct comparison between the Projector and the Euclidean Monte Carlo is made, followed by a discussion of the application to Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics in two and three spatial dimensions. Some methods for improving the efficiency of the Projector in various circumstances are outlined. 10 refs., 7 figs

  16. Creativity Methods in Interaction Design

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim


    The field of interaction design encompasses a variety of methods for fostering innovation and creativity. In this paper, we present a selection of such methods that scaffold ideation and concept development in the early phases of design. As a conceptual frame for discussing these methods, we...... introduce four aspects that are particularly salient in the field of interaction design: tradition and transcendence, convergence and divergence, degree of structure, and sources of inspiration. We then outline how the methods relate to each of these aspects. The paper contributes to design practitioners...

  17. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D


    .... Such methods include those based upon spectrophotometry, flame emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, as well as gravimetry, titrimetry and the use of ion-selective electrodes...

  18. Methods of making microfluidic devices

    Buttner, Ulrich


    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of designs and structures, however, fabrication methods are either time consuming or expensive to produce, in terms of the facilities and equipment needed. A fast and economically viable method is provided to allow, for example, research groups to have access to microfluidic fabrication. Unlike most fabrication methods, a method is provided to fabricate a microfluidic device in one step. In an embodiment, a resolution of 50 micrometers was achieved by using maskless high-resolution digital light projection (MDLP). Bonding and channel fabrication of complex or simple structures can be rapidly incorporated to fabricate the microfluidic devices.

  19. Method for producing redox shuttles

    Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Dzwiniel, Trevor L.; Krumdick, Gregory K.


    A single step method for producing a redox shuttle having the formula 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate) is provided, the method comprising phosphorylating tert butyl hydroquinone with a phosphate-containing reagent. Also provided is method for producing 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate), the method comprising solubilizing tert-butyl hydroquinone and tetrabutylammonium bromide with methyltetrahydrofuran to create a mixture; heating the mixture while adding base to the mixture in an amount to turn the mixture orange; and adding diethyl chlorophosphate to the orange mixture in an amount to phosphorylate the hydroquinone.

  20. Seismic design and analysis methods

    Varpasuo, P.


    Seismic load is in many areas of the world the most important loading situation from the point of view of structural strength. Taking this into account it is understandable, that there has been a strong allocation of resources in the seismic analysis during the past ten years. In this study there are three areas of the center of gravity: (1) Random vibrations; (2) Soil-structure interaction and (3) The methods for determining structural response. The solution of random vibration problems is clarified with the aid of applications in this study and from the point of view of mathematical treatment and mathematical formulations it is deemed sufficient to give the relevant sources. In the soil-structure interaction analysis the focus has been the significance of frequency dependent impedance functions. As a result it was obtained, that the description of the soil with the aid of frequency dependent impedance functions decreases the structural response and it is thus always the preferred method when compared to more conservative analysis types. From the methods to determine the C structural response the following four were tested: (1) The time history method; (2) The complex frequency-response method; (3) Response spectrum method and (4) The equivalent static force method. The time history appeared to be the most accurate method and the complex frequency-response method did have the widest area of application. (orig.). (14 refs., 35 figs.)

  1. New methods for MR angiography

    Nishimura, D.G.; Pauly, J.M.; Macovski, A.; Jackson, J.I.; Conolly, S.M.


    The authors explored several methods of projection vessel imaging suitable for coronary arteries and vessels in the head and neck. To produce a vessel signal, one subtractive method varies the time-of-flight effects of blood flowing into an imaged slab by tagging different regions between measurements. A second method avoids a subtraction operation by using a sequence of pulses designed to excite flowing blood only. Manipulation of the imaging gradients to create velocity-dependent phase or magnitude changes can augment the flow sensitivity. In humans, these methods have demonstrated excellent static material, vessel contrast, and resolution

  2. Optimization of Medical Teaching Methods

    Wang Fei


    Full Text Available In order to achieve the goal of medical education, medicine and adapt to changes in the way doctors work, with the rapid medical teaching methods of modern science and technology must be reformed. Based on the current status of teaching in medical colleges method to analyze the formation and development of medical teaching methods, characteristics, about how to achieve optimal medical teaching methods for medical education teachers and management workers comprehensive and thorough change teaching ideas and teaching concepts provide a theoretical basis.

  3. Color image definition evaluation method based on deep learning method

    Liu, Di; Li, YingChun


    In order to evaluate different blurring levels of color image and improve the method of image definition evaluation, this paper proposed a method based on the depth learning framework and BP neural network classification model, and presents a non-reference color image clarity evaluation method. Firstly, using VGG16 net as the feature extractor to extract 4,096 dimensions features of the images, then the extracted features and labeled images are employed in BP neural network to train. And finally achieve the color image definition evaluation. The method in this paper are experimented by using images from the CSIQ database. The images are blurred at different levels. There are 4,000 images after the processing. Dividing the 4,000 images into three categories, each category represents a blur level. 300 out of 400 high-dimensional features are trained in VGG16 net and BP neural network, and the rest of 100 samples are tested. The experimental results show that the method can take full advantage of the learning and characterization capability of deep learning. Referring to the current shortcomings of the major existing image clarity evaluation methods, which manually design and extract features. The method in this paper can extract the images features automatically, and has got excellent image quality classification accuracy for the test data set. The accuracy rate is 96%. Moreover, the predicted quality levels of original color images are similar to the perception of the human visual system.

  4. ASME method for particle reconstruction

    Ierusalimov, A.P.


    The method of approximate solution of motion equation (ASME) was used to reconstruct the parameters for charged particles. It provides a good precision for momentum, angular and space parameters of particles in coordinate detectors. The application of the method for CBM, HADES and MPD/NICA setups is discussed

  5. A method of producing hydroxymethyfurfural


    The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose.......The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose....

  6. Variational linear algebraic equations method

    Moiseiwitsch, B.L.


    A modification of the linear algebraic equations method is described which ensures a variational bound on the phaseshifts for potentials having a definite sign at all points. The method is illustrated by the elastic scattering of s-wave electrons by the static field of atomic hydrogen. (author)

  7. The mGPC method:

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin


    We adapt concepts from matched filtering to propose a method for generating rapidly reconfigurable multiple beams. As a phase-only spatially filtering extension of the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically reconfigurable optical beam...... arrays with high light efficiency for optical manipulation, high-speed sorting and other parallel spatial light applications [1]....

  8. Skills Methods to Prevent Smoking.

    Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others


    Describes an evaluation of the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking with sixth-grade students from two schools. Skills conditions subjects learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention…

  9. Basic methods of isotope analysis

    Ochkin, A.V.; Rozenkevich, M.B.


    The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered [ru

  10. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.


    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate

  11. Aggregation Methods in International Comparisons

    B.M. Balk (Bert)


    textabstractThis paper reviews the progress that has been made over the past decade in understanding the nature of the various multilateral in- ternational comparison methods. Fifteen methods are discussed and subjected to a system of ten tests. In addition, attention is paid to recently developed

  12. Method of producing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy


    A method of preparing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines is provided. The method includes contacting oligoalkylenepolyamine with a reagent composition comprising (a) alkyl bromide and/or alkyl chloride; (b) a basic agent; and (c) iodide salt. The alkylation reaction may be carried out in a polar, aprotic organic solvent.

  13. The factorization method and supersymmetry

    Alves, N.A.; Drigo Filho, E.


    Applying the factorization method, we generalize the harmonic - oscillator and the Coulomb potentials, both in arbitrary dimensions. We also show that this method allows the determination of the superpotentials and the supersymmetric partners associated with each of those systems. (author) [pt

  14. Orthogonal polynomials in Stein's method

    Schoutens, W.


    Stein's method provides a way of finding approximations to the distribution, ¿ say, of a random variable, which at the same time gives estimates of the approximation error involved. In essence the method is based on a defining equation, or equivalently an operator, of the distribution ¿ and a

  15. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch


    to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...... is applied to nearly all types of measurements today....

  16. Iterative method for Amado's model

    Tomio, L.


    A recently proposed iterative method for solving scattering integral equations is applied to the spin doublet and spin quartet neutron-deuteron scattering in the Amado model. The method is tested numerically in the calculation of scattering lengths and phase-shifts and results are found better than those obtained by using the conventional Pade technique. (Author) [pt

  17. Personalization Methods for Internet Portals

    Barbara Dębska; Agnieszka Kubacka


    The article presents methods of acquiring and gathering data about users of internet portals, with particular emphasis on educational portals. Definitions, aims and tasks related to the process of personalization of e-learning portals are thoroughly discussed. So are knowledge acquisition techniques applied in personalization, especially artificial intelligence methods.

  18. Electrochemical method for transferring graphene


    The present application discloses a method for separating a graphene-support layer laminate from a conducting substrate-graphene-support layer laminate, using a gentle, controllable electrochemical method. In this way, substrates which are fragile, expensive or difficult to manufacture can be used...... - and even re-used - without damage or destruction of the substrate or the graphene....

  19. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer


    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  20. Algebraic Methods to Design Signals


    to date on designing signals using algebraic and combinatorial methods. Mathematical tools from algebraic number theory, representation theory and... combinatorial objects in designing signals for communication purposes. Sequences and arrays with desirable autocorrelation properties have many...multiple access methods in mobile radio communication systems. We continue our mathematical framework based on group algebras, character theory

  1. Methods in Logic Based Control

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg


    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  2. Methods of synthesizing thermoelectric materials

    Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei-Shu; Wang, Hengzhi; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Chen, Gang


    Methods for synthesis of thermoelectric materials are disclosed. In some embodiments, a method of fabricating a thermoelectric material includes generating a plurality of nanoparticles from a starting material comprising one or more chalcogens and one or more transition metals; and consolidating the nanoparticles under elevated pressure and temperature, wherein the nanoparticles are heated and cooled at a controlled rate.

  3. Inspection methods and their selection

    Maier, H.J.


    First those nondestructive testing methods, which are used in quality assurance, are to be treated, e.g. - ultrasonics - radiography - magnetic particle testing - dye penetrant testing - eddy currents, and their capabilities and limitations are shown. Second the selection of optimal testing methods under the aspect of defect recognition in different materials and components are shown. (orig./RW)

  4. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    Terrell, Steven R.


    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  5. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.


    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  6. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu


    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...


    Colella, Phillip


    We investigate Glimm's method, a method for constructing approximate solutions to systems of hyperbolic conservation laws in one space variable by sampling explicit wave solutions. It is extended to several space variables by operator splitting. We consider two functional problems. 1) We propose a highly accurate form of the sampling procedure, in one space variable, based on the van der Corput sampling sequence. We test the improved sampling procedure numerically in the case of inviscid compressible flow in one space dimension and find that it gives high resolution results both in the smooth parts of the solution, as well as the discontinuities. 2) We investigate the operator splitting procedure by means of which the multidimensional method is constructed. An 0(1) error stemming from the use of this procedure near shocks oblique to the spatial grid is analyzed numerically in the case of the equations for inviscid compressible flow in two space dimensions. We present a hybrid method which eliminates this error, consisting of Glimm's method, used in continuous parts of the flow, and the nonlinear Godunov's method, used in regions where large pressure jumps are generated. The resulting method is seen to be a substantial improvement over either of the component methods for multidimensional calculations.

  8. Monte Carlo Methods in Physics

    Santoso, B.


    Method of Monte Carlo integration is reviewed briefly and some of its applications in physics are explained. A numerical experiment on random generators used in the monte Carlo techniques is carried out to show the behavior of the randomness of various methods in generating them. To account for the weight function involved in the Monte Carlo, the metropolis method is used. From the results of the experiment, one can see that there is no regular patterns of the numbers generated, showing that the program generators are reasonably good, while the experimental results, shows a statistical distribution obeying statistical distribution law. Further some applications of the Monte Carlo methods in physics are given. The choice of physical problems are such that the models have available solutions either in exact or approximate values, in which comparisons can be mode, with the calculations using the Monte Carlo method. Comparison show that for the models to be considered, good agreement have been obtained

  9. Methods for computing color anaglyphs

    McAllister, David F.; Zhou, Ya; Sullivan, Sophia


    A new computation technique is presented for calculating pixel colors in anaglyph images. The method depends upon knowing the RGB spectral distributions of the display device and the transmission functions of the filters in the viewing glasses. It requires the solution of a nonlinear least-squares program for each pixel in a stereo pair and is based on minimizing color distances in the CIEL*a*b* uniform color space. The method is compared with several techniques for computing anaglyphs including approximation in CIE space using the Euclidean and Uniform metrics, the Photoshop method and its variants, and a method proposed by Peter Wimmer. We also discuss the methods of desaturation and gamma correction for reducing retinal rivalry.

  10. Approximation methods in probability theory

    Čekanavičius, Vydas


    This book presents a wide range of well-known and less common methods used for estimating the accuracy of probabilistic approximations, including the Esseen type inversion formulas, the Stein method as well as the methods of convolutions and triangle function. Emphasising the correct usage of the methods presented, each step required for the proofs is examined in detail. As a result, this textbook provides valuable tools for proving approximation theorems. While Approximation Methods in Probability Theory will appeal to everyone interested in limit theorems of probability theory, the book is particularly aimed at graduate students who have completed a standard intermediate course in probability theory. Furthermore, experienced researchers wanting to enlarge their toolkit will also find this book useful.

  11. Vortex methods and vortex statistics

    Chorin, A.J.


    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (''blobs'') and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ''blob'' methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena

  12. Scalable fast multipole methods for vortex element methods

    Hu, Qi; Gumerov, Nail A.; Yokota, Rio; Barba, Lorena A.; Duraiswami, Ramani


    work for a scalar heterogeneous FMM algorithm, we develop a new FMM-based vortex method capable of simulating general flows including turbulence on heterogeneous architectures, which distributes the work between multi-core CPUs and GPUs to best utilize

  13. Biostatistical methods [Methods in molecular biology, v. 184

    Looney, Steven W


    .... In the case of genetic effects in human populations, the authors describe sophisticated statistical methods to control the overall false-positive rate when many statistical tests are used in linking...

  14. Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990)

    Goheen, S.D.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.


    Information is provided on the techniques employed towards the chemical analysis of volatile, semi-volatile matter, pesticides and PCB's at the Hanford Reservation. Sample preparation methods are included

  15. Enhancing the (MSLDIP) image steganographic method (ESLDIP method)

    Seddik Saad, Al-hussien


    Message transmissions over the Internet still have data security problem. Therefore, secure and secret communication methods are needed for transmitting messages over the Internet. Cryptography scrambles the message so that it cannot be understood. However, it makes the message suspicious enough to attract eavesdropper's attention. Steganography hides the secret message within other innocuous-looking cover files (i.e. images, music and video files) so that it cannot be observed [1].The term steganography originates from the Greek root words "steganos'' and "graphein'' which literally mean "covered writing''. It is defined as the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio text and video files [3].Steganographic techniques allow one party to communicate information to another without a third party even knowing that the communication is occurring. The ways to deliver these "secret messages" vary greatly [3].Our proposed method called Enhanced SLDIP (ESLDIP). In which the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) of proposed ESLDIP method is higher than the previously proposed MSLDIP methods and the PSNR of the ESLDIP method is higher than the MSLDIP PSNR values', which means that the image quality of the ESLDIP method will be better than MSLDIP method and the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) also improved. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2, steganography has been discussed; lingo, carriers and types. In section 3, related works are introduced. In section 4, the proposed method will be discussed in details. In section 5, the simulation results are given and Section 6 concludes the paper.

  16. Detection method of internal leakage from valve using acoustic method

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Kitajima, Akira; Suzuki, Akio.


    The objective of this study is to estimate the feasibility of the acoustic method for the internal leakage from the valves in power plants. From the experimental results, it was suggested that the acoustic method for the monitoring of leakage was feasible. When the background levels are higher than the acoustic signals from leakage, we can detect the leakage analyzing the spectrum of the remainders which take the background noise from the acoustic signals. (author)

  17. Spectrometric kidney depth measurement method

    George, P.; Soussaline, F.; Raynaud, C.


    The method proposed uses the single posterior surface measurement of the kidney radioactivity distribution. The ratio C/P of the number of scattered photons to the number of primary photons, which is a function of the tissue depth penetrated, is calculated for a given region. The parameters on which the C/P value depends are determined from studies on phantoms. On the basis of these results the kidney depth was measured on a series of 13 patients and a correlation was established between the value thus calculated and that obtained by the profile method. The reproducibility of the method is satisfactory [fr

  18. User-Centered Agile Methods

    Beyer, Hugh


    With the introduction and popularization of Agile methods of software development, existing relationships and working agreements between user experience groups and developers are being disrupted. Agile methods introduce new concepts: the Product Owner, the Customer (but not the user), short iterations, User Stories. Where do UX professionals fit in this new world? Agile methods also bring a new mindset -- no big design, no specifications, minimal planning -- which conflict with the needs of UX design. This lecture discusses the key elements of Agile for the UX community and describes strategie

  19. Probabilistic methods in combinatorial analysis

    Sachkov, Vladimir N


    This 1997 work explores the role of probabilistic methods for solving combinatorial problems. These methods not only provide the means of efficiently using such notions as characteristic and generating functions, the moment method and so on but also let us use the powerful technique of limit theorems. The basic objects under investigation are nonnegative matrices, partitions and mappings of finite sets, with special emphasis on permutations and graphs, and equivalence classes specified on sequences of finite length consisting of elements of partially ordered sets; these specify the probabilist

  20. A Tutorial on Heuristic Methods

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Werra, D. de; Silver, E.


    In this paper we define a heuristic method as a procedure for solving a well-defined mathematical problem by an intuitive approach in which the structure of the problem can be interpreted and exploited intelligently to obtain a reasonable solution. Issues discussed include: (i) the measurement...... of the quality of a heuristic method, (ii) different types of heuristic procedures, (iii) the interactive role of human beings and (iv) factors that may influence the choice or testing of heuristic methods. A large number of references are included....

  1. Immunological methods for gentamicin determination

    Krugers Dagneauz, P.G.L.C.; Olthuis, F.M.F.G.


    For immunoassay, an antibody against the substance to the determined, the pure substance itself, and a labelled form or derivative of the substance are required. The principles and problems of the preparation of antibodies are discussed, some methods for the preparation of derivatives labelled with radioactive tracers or enzymes are reviewed, and homologous enzyme-immunological determination of gentamicin is discussed in detail. A comparison is mae of three radio-immunological determination methods, and the most suitable radio-immunological method is compared with two microbiological techniques. The results are found to be comparable. (Auth.)

  2. Lectures on the coupling method

    Lindvall, Torgny


    An important tool in probability theory and its applications, the coupling method is primarily used in estimates of total variation distances. The method also works well in establishing inequalities, and it has proven highly successful in the study of Markov and renewal process asymptotics. This text represents a detailed, comprehensive examination of the method and its broad variety of applications. Readers progress from simple to advanced topics, with end-of-discussion notes that reinforce the preceding material. Topics include renewal theory, Markov chains, Poisson approximation, ergodicity

  3. Methods for Human Dehydration Measurement

    Trenz, Florian; Weigel, Robert; Hagelauer, Amelie


    The aim of this article is to give a broad overview of current methods for the identification and quantification of the human dehydration level. Starting off from most common clinical setups, including vital parameters and general patients' appearance, more quantifiable results from chemical laboratory and electromagnetic measurement methods will be reviewed. Different analysis methods throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from direct current (DC) conductivity measurements up to neutron activation analysis (NAA), are discussed on the base of published results. Finally, promising technologies, which allow for an integration of a dehydration assessment system in a compact and portable way, will be spotted.

  4. Methods for separation of actinides

    Keller, C.


    Methods of actinoids separation are reviewed, including precipitation, sublimation, paper chromatography and electrophoresis. Compounds typically used for co-precipitation of actinoid ions are listed. Ion-exchange methods considered include cation and ion exchange. Factors are described, which affect the efficiency of separation of transuranium elements in the same degrees of oxidation: complex-forming agents, temperature, ion-exchange resin, rate of elution, the size of the column, the influence of salts. Extraction of actinoid ions upon formation of solvate complexes, inner complex compounds and metal salts is discussed. Combining the advantages of ion exchange and extraction, the method of extraction chromatography can be widely used for separation of actinoids

  5. Jet substructure with analytical methods

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [University of Manchester, Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Fregoso, Alessandro; Powling, Alexander [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Marzani, Simone [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)


    We consider the mass distribution of QCD jets after the application of jet-substructure methods, specifically the mass-drop tagger, pruning, trimming and their variants. In contrast to most current studies employing Monte Carlo methods, we carry out analytical calculations at the next-to-leading order level, which are sufficient to extract the dominant logarithmic behaviour for each technique, and compare our findings to exact fixed-order results. Our results should ultimately lead to a better understanding of these jet-substructure methods which in turn will influence the development of future substructure tools for LHC phenomenology. (orig.)

  6. Understanding Creativity Methods in Design

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim


    This paper contributes an analytical framework to improve understanding of the composition of recognized creativity methods used in design. Based on an extensive literature review, our framework synthesizes key concepts from design and particularly creativity research, and is further supported...... by significant experience with creativity methods in design. We propose that nine concepts are relevant for analyzing creativity methods in design: process structure, materials, tools, combination, metaphor, analogy, framing, divergence, and convergence. To test their relevance as components of an analytical...... are composed, how and why they work, and how they potentially may be tweaked or refined for enhanced deployment in design....

  7. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M


    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  8. Statistical methods for physical science

    Stanford, John L


    This volume of Methods of Experimental Physics provides an extensive introduction to probability and statistics in many areas of the physical sciences, with an emphasis on the emerging area of spatial statistics. The scope of topics covered is wide-ranging-the text discusses a variety of the most commonly used classical methods and addresses newer methods that are applicable or potentially important. The chapter authors motivate readers with their insightful discussions, augmenting their material withKey Features* Examines basic probability, including coverage of standard distributions, time s

  9. [Classification of local anesthesia methods].

    Petricas, A Zh; Medvedev, D V; Olkhovskaya, E B

    The traditional classification methods of dental local anesthesia must be modified. In this paper we proved that the vascular mechanism is leading component of spongy injection. It is necessary to take into account the high effectiveness and relative safety of spongy anesthesia, as well as versatility, ease of implementation and the growing prevalence in the world. The essence of the proposed modification is to distinguish the methods in diffusive (including surface anesthesia, infiltration and conductive anesthesia) and vascular-diffusive (including intraosseous, intraligamentary, intraseptal and intrapulpal anesthesia). For the last four methods the common term «spongy (intraosseous) anesthesia» may be used.

  10. Principal methods for biogas desulphurization

    Ortega Viera, Lianys; Fernández Santana, Elina; Muñoz, Susana Rodríguez; Bárcenas Pérez, Liuver


    At present the world is facing an energy crisis, where one of the factors contributing to it is the indiscriminate use of conventional fuels, therefore, alternatives for obtaining biofuels such as biogas are being sought. Biogas contains hydrogen sulphide, which has a high toxicity and corrosive properties, which limits their use. Methods for efluent gas desulphurization can be classified according to their physico-chemical principles as follows: absorption using inorganic and organic chemicals, physical adsorption, biotecnologichal methods and membrane filtration. In this paper an analysis of the methods used worldwide is presented as well as the results achieved from the Cuban experience. (author)

  11. Integral equation methods for electromagnetics

    Volakis, John


    This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo

  12. Statistical methods and materials characterisation

    Wallin, K.R.W.


    Statistics is a wide mathematical area, which covers a myriad of analysis and estimation options, some of which suit special cases better than others. A comprehensive coverage of the whole area of statistics would be an enormous effort and would also be outside the capabilities of this author. Therefore, this does not intend to be a textbook on statistical methods available for general data analysis and decision making. Instead it will highlight a certain special statistical case applicable to mechanical materials characterization. The methods presented here do not in any way rule out other statistical methods by which to analyze mechanical property material data. (orig.)

  13. User-centered agile method

    Deuff, Dominique


    Agile development methods began to emerge around 20 years ago. However, it was not until the early 2000s that they began to be widely used in industry. This growth was often due to the advent of Internet services requiring faster cycles of development in order to heighten the rate at which an ever-greater number of functionalities were made available. In parallel, user-centered design (UCD) methods were also becoming more and more widely used: hence, user-centered design and agile methods were bound to cross paths, at least in the telecoms industry! During this period, in the field of telec

  14. Efficient Methods for Fast Shading



    Full Text Available On devices without battery consuming and specialized hardware for rendering, it is important to improve the speed and quality so that these methods are suitable for real-time rendering. Furthermore such algorithms are needed on the coming multicore architectures. We show how the methods by Gouraud and Phong, the commonly most used methods for shading, can be improved and made faster for both software rendering as well as simple low energy consuming hardware implementations. Moreover, this paper summarizes the authors' achievements in increasing shading speed and performance and a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function is simplified for faster computing and hardware implementation.

  15. Methods for calculating nonconcave entropies

    Touchette, Hugo


    Five different methods which can be used to analytically calculate entropies that are nonconcave as functions of the energy in the thermodynamic limit are discussed and compared. The five methods are based on the following ideas and techniques: (i) microcanonical contraction, (ii) metastable branches of the free energy, (iii) generalized canonical ensembles with specific illustrations involving the so-called Gaussian and Betrag ensembles, (iv) the restricted canonical ensemble, and (v) the inverse Laplace transform. A simple long-range spin model having a nonconcave entropy is used to illustrate each method

  16. Introduction to precise numerical methods

    Aberth, Oliver


    Precise numerical analysis may be defined as the study of computer methods for solving mathematical problems either exactly or to prescribed accuracy. This book explains how precise numerical analysis is constructed. The book also provides exercises which illustrate points from the text and references for the methods presented. All disc-based content for this title is now available on the Web. · Clearer, simpler descriptions and explanations ofthe various numerical methods· Two new types of numerical problems; accurately solving partial differential equations with the included software and computing line integrals in the complex plane.

  17. Time delayed Ensemble Nudging Method

    An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry

    Optimal nudging method based on time delayed embedding theory has shows potentials on analyzing and data assimilation in previous literatures. To extend the application and promote the practical implementation, new nudging assimilation method based on the time delayed embedding space is presented and the connection with other standard assimilation methods are studied. Results shows the incorporating information from the time series of data can reduce the sufficient observation needed to preserve the quality of numerical prediction, making it a potential alternative in the field of data assimilation of large geophysical models.

  18. Machine learning methods for planning

    Minton, Steven


    Machine Learning Methods for Planning provides information pertinent to learning methods for planning and scheduling. This book covers a wide variety of learning methods and learning architectures, including analogical, case-based, decision-tree, explanation-based, and reinforcement learning.Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of planning and scheduling and describes some representative learning systems that have been developed for these tasks. This text then describes a learning apprentice for calendar management. Other chapters consider the problem of temporal credi

  19. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods

    Systat Software Asia-Pacific. Ltd., in Bangalore, where the technical work for the development of the statistica' software ... concepts that are relevant for the application of MCMC methods and ... joint distribution of the vector N of the numbers of.

  20. An improved selective sampling method

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Iida, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tamaki


    The coincidence methods which are currently used for the accurate activity standardisation of radio-nuclides, require dead time and resolving time corrections which tend to become increasingly uncertain as countrates exceed about 10 K. To reduce the dependence on such corrections, Muller, in 1981, proposed the selective sampling method using a fast multichannel analyser (50 ns ch -1 ) for measuring the countrates. It is, in many ways, more convenient and possibly potentially more reliable to replace the MCA with scalers and a circuit is described employing five scalers; two of them serving to measure the background correction. Results of comparisons using our new method and the coincidence method for measuring the activity of 60 Co sources yielded agree-ment within statistical uncertainties. (author)

  1. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    Chames, Patrick


    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  2. Graph modeling systems and methods

    Neergaard, Mike


    An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.

  3. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.


    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  4. Nonlinear programming analysis and methods

    Avriel, Mordecai


    This text provides an excellent bridge between principal theories and concepts and their practical implementation. Topics include convex programming, duality, generalized convexity, analysis of selected nonlinear programs, techniques for numerical solutions, and unconstrained optimization methods.

  5. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Jansen, Robert; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; Belman, Ziv-Vladimir; Hallac, Bassem; Zviely, Michael


    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  6. Improved method for methane generation


    A method for treatment of a material comprising lignocellulosic fibres is disclosed. More particularly, the treatment increases the accessibility of the lignocellulosic fibres for following microbial or biological processes....

  7. Ingenious mathematical problems and methods

    Graham, Louis A


    Collection of 100 of the best submissions to a math puzzle column features problems in engineering situations, logic, number theory, and geometry. Most solutions include details of several different methods.

  8. Method of dehalogenation using diamonds

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Ladner, Edward P.; Anderson, Richard R.


    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  9. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    Friese, K H


    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients.

  10. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D


    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  11. Modern methods of thyroid diagnosis

    Hehrmann, R


    An attempt is made to provide a systematic general view at the diagnostical methods and facilities which nowadays are applied in the case of thyroid diseases. The reasonable and accurate application of the various methods possible is of decisive importance for the thyroid diagnostics. This planned application requires exact knowledge of the case history and of the findings as well as knowledge of the preconditions, the advantages and disadvantages of and the possible errors in the methods applied. Proposals and guiding lines for a planned step-by-step application of methods of diagnosing thyroid diseases were published by the Section Thyroid Society for Endocrinology in Wiesbaden in December 1978. For step-by-step diagnostics of thyroid diseaeses, these publications may be of help.

  12. Biological Methods and Manual Development

    EPA scientists conduct research to develop and evaluate analytical methods for the identification, enumeration, evaluation of aquatic organisms exposed to environmental stressors and to correlate exposures with effects on chemical and biological indicators

  13. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Jansen, Robert; Gregoire, Claire; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Har-Tal, Yael Miriam; Eliahu, Shay; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; McWilliams, Paul; Zviely, Michael; Carden, Adam


    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  14. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Jansen, Robert; Gregoire, Claire; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Har-Tal, Yael Miriam; Eliahu, Shay; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Burke, Luke; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; Sade, Hagit; McWilliams, Paul; Zviely, Michael; Carden, Adam


    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  15. Evaluation methods for hospital facilities

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta


    according to focus areas and proposes which evaluation methods to use in different building phases of healthcare facilities. Hospital evaluations with experts and users are also considered; their subjective view on space, function, technology, usability and aesthetics. Results & solutions: This paper...... presents the different methods for evaluating buildings in use in a new model, the Evaluation Focus Flower, and proposes which evaluation methods are suitable for various aims and building phases, i.e. which is giving best input for the initial briefing process of new hospital facilities with ambition...... of creating buildings with enhanced usability. Additionally various evaluation methods used in hospital cases in Denmark and Norway are presented. Involvement of users is proposed, not just in defining requirements but also in co-creation/design and evaluation of solutions. The theories and preliminary...

  16. Linear Methods for Image Interpolation

    Pascal Getreuer


    We discuss linear methods for interpolation, including nearest neighbor, bilinear, bicubic, splines, and sinc interpolation. We focus on separable interpolation, so most of what is said applies to one-dimensional interpolation as well as N-dimensional separable interpolation.

  17. Chemometric methods in capillary electrophoresis

    Hanrahan, Grady; Gomez, Frank A


    ... 113 6 CHEMOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF CE AND CE- MS IN PHARMACEUTICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND FOOD ANALYSIS Javier Hernández-Borges, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Delgado, and Alejandro Cifuent...

  18. Phylogenetic reconstruction methods: an overview.

    De Bruyn, Alexandre; Martin, Darren P; Lefeuvre, Pierre


    Initially designed to infer evolutionary relationships based on morphological and physiological characters, phylogenetic reconstruction methods have greatly benefited from recent developments in molecular biology and sequencing technologies with a number of powerful methods having been developed specifically to infer phylogenies from macromolecular data. This chapter, while presenting an overview of basic concepts and methods used in phylogenetic reconstruction, is primarily intended as a simplified step-by-step guide to the construction of phylogenetic trees from nucleotide sequences using fairly up-to-date maximum likelihood methods implemented in freely available computer programs. While the analysis of chloroplast sequences from various Vanilla species is used as an illustrative example, the techniques covered here are relevant to the comparative analysis of homologous sequences datasets sampled from any group of organisms.

  19. The Modified Embedded Atom Method

    Baskes, M.I.


    Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideal for examining interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how parameters of MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examine the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show nonuniform deformation of the fiber.

  20. DDOT MXD+ method development report.


    Mixed-use development has become increasingly common across the country, including Washington, D.C. : However, a straightforward and empirically validated method for evaluating the traffic impacts of such : projects is still needed. The data presente...