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Sample records for methodology requires teamwork

  1. Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leggat Sandra G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork.

  2. Identifying Requirements for Effective Human-Automation Teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; John O' Hara; Heather D. Medema; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that poorly designed human-automation collaboration, such as poorly designed communication protocols, often leads to problems for the human operators, such as: lack of vigilance, complacency, and loss of skills. These problems often lead to suboptimal system performance. To address this situation, a considerable amount of research has been conducted to improve human-automation collaboration and to make automation function better as a “team player.” Much of this research is based on an understanding of what it means to be a good team player from the perspective of a human team. However, the research is often based on a simplified view of human teams and teamwork. In this study, we sought to better understand the capabilities and limitations of automation from the standpoint of human teams. We first examined human teams to identify the principles for effective teamwork. We next reviewed the research on integrating automation agents and human agents into mixed agent teams to identify the limitations of automation agents to conform to teamwork principles. This research resulted in insights that can lead to more effective human-automation collaboration by enabling a more realistic set of requirements to be developed based on the strengths and limitations of all agents.

  3. The NLC Software Requirements Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaee, Hamid

    2002-08-20

    We describe the software requirements and development methodology developed for the NLC control system. Given the longevity of that project, and the likely geographical distribution of the collaborating engineers, the planned requirements management process is somewhat more formal than the norm in high energy physics projects. The short term goals of the requirements process are to accurately estimate costs, to decompose the problem, and to determine likely technologies. The long term goal is to enable a smooth transition from high level functional requirements to specific subsystem and component requirements for individual programmers, and to support distributed development. The methodology covers both ends of that life cycle. It covers both the analytical and documentary tools for software engineering, and project management support. This paper introduces the methodology, which is fully described in [1].

  4. Group techniques as a methodological strategy in acquiring teamwork abilities by college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Torres Martín

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available From the frame of the European Higher Education Space an adaptation of teaching-learning process is being promoted by means of the pedagogical renewal, introducing into the class a major number of active or participative methodologies in order to provide students with a major autonomy in said process. This requires taking into account the incorporation of basic skills within university curriculum, especially “teamwork”. By means of group techniques students can acquire interpersonal and cognitive skills, as well as abilities that will enable them to face different group situations throughout their academic and professional career. These techniques are necessary not only as a methodological strategy in the classroom, but also as a reflection instrument for students to assess their behavior in group, with an aim to modify conduct strategies that make that relationship with others influences their learning process. Hence the importance of this ability to sensitize students positively for collective work. Thus using the research-action method in the academic classroom during one semester and making systematic intervention with different group techniques, we manage to present obtained results by means of an analysis of the qualitative data, where the selected instruments are group discussion and personal reflection.

  5. Organizing for teamwork in healthcare: an alternative to team training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenfält, Christofer; Odenrick, Per; Larsson, Per Anders

    2017-05-15

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how organizational design could support teamwork and to identify organizational design principles that promote successful teamwork. Design/methodology/approach Since traditional team training sessions take resources away from production, the alternative approach pursued here explores the promotion of teamwork by means of organizational design. A wide and pragmatic definition of teamwork is applied: a team is considered to be a group of people that are set to work together on a task, and teamwork is then what they do in relation to their task. The input - process - output model of teamwork provides structure to the investigation. Findings Six teamwork enablers from the healthcare team literature - cohesion, collaboration, communication, conflict resolution, coordination, and leadership - are discussed, and the organizational design measures required to implement them are identified. Three organizational principles are argued to facilitate the teamwork enablers: team stability, occasions for communication, and a participative and adaptive approach to leadership. Research limitations/implications The findings could be used as a foundation for intervention studies to improve team performance or as a framework for evaluation of existing organizations. Practical implications By implementing these organizational principles, it is possible to achieve many of the organizational traits associated with good teamwork. Thus, thoughtful organization for teamwork can be used as an alternative or complement to the traditional team training approach. Originality/value With regards to the vast literature on team training, this paper offers an alternative perspective on how to improve team performance in healthcare.

  6. Teamwork: The methodology for successfully drilling the Judy/Joanne development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    A non-integrated approach was used to manage development drilling of the Judy/Joanne field. Phillips Petroleum Company United Kingdom Limited (the Operator) elected to retain the role of project and operations coordinator. Others have felt it necessary to integrate the provision of drilling services to achieve operational effectiveness. The Operator approached the management of the operation on a more traditional tack but with the same goal. The management emphasis was on team building and ensuring each party's contribution was optimized. The non-integrated approach to service provision enabled the Operator to maximize the value of in-house experience, to select the preferred suppliers based on safety and operational performance, and to maintain the leading role required of the lease holder. An incentive contract with the drilling contractor rewarded and penalized performance. It provided a win/win arrangement. Contracts with the third party companies were awarded on the basis of best for purpose. The non-integrated approach has proven cost effective and an operational success

  7. A methodology to describe process control requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Ganni, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to describe process control requirements for helium refrigeration plants. The SSC requires a greater level of automation for its refrigeration plants than is common in the cryogenics industry, and traditional methods (e.g., written descriptions) used to describe process control requirements are not sufficient. The methodology presented in this paper employs tabular and graphic representations in addition to written descriptions. The resulting document constitutes a tool for efficient communication among the different people involved in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of the control system. The methodology is not limited to helium refrigeration plants, and can be applied to any process with similar requirements. The paper includes examples

  8. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  9. Teamwork during resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Peter; Halamek, Louis P

    2008-08-01

    Effective resuscitation requires the integration of several cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills. Because resuscitation is performed by teams of health care professionals, these individuals must be able to work together in a coordinated and efficient manner, making teamwork a critical skill for care of patients in distress. Despite the importance of teamwork in health care, little consensus exists as to what it is, how it can most effectively be learned, and how it should be assessed. This article reviews current knowledge on the measurement, training, and importance of teamwork in pediatric resuscitation.

  10. Requirements Analysis in the Value Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, Alison Marie

    2001-05-01

    The Value Methodology (VM) study brings together a multidisciplinary team of people who own the problem and have the expertise to identify and solve it. With the varied backgrounds and experiences the team brings to the study, come different perspectives on the problem and the requirements of the project. A requirements analysis step can be added to the Information and Function Analysis Phases of a VM study to validate whether the functions being performed are required, either regulatory or customer prescribed. This paper will provide insight to the level of rigor applied to a requirements analysis step and give some examples of tools and techniques utilized to ease the management of the requirements and functions those requirements support for highly complex problems.

  11. Teamwork in obstetric critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Segel, Sally

    2008-10-01

    Whether seeing a patient in the ambulatory clinic environment, performing a delivery or managing a critically ill patient, obstetric care is a team activity. Failures in teamwork and communication are among the leading causes of adverse obstetric events, accounting for over 70% of sentinel events according to the Joint Commission. Effective, efficient and safe care requires good teamwork. Although nurses, doctors and healthcare staff who work in critical care environments are extremely well trained and competent medically, they have not traditionally been trained in how to work well as part of a team. Given the complexity and acuity of critical care medicine, which often relies on more than one medical team, teamwork skills are essential. This chapter discusses the history and importance of teamwork in high-reliability fields, reviews key concepts and skills in teamwork, and discusses approaches to training and working in teams.

  12. Teamwork: Effectively Teaching an Employability Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, Linda; Roepen, Dean; Santarelli, Bruno; Marchioro, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on improvements to professional teaching practice within an undergraduate university business programme to more effectively teach an employability skill and enhance the student experience of teamwork. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase approach to teaching teamwork was…

  13. Teamwork Skills Assessment for Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…

  14. A large-scale mass casualty simulation to develop the non-technical skills medical students require for collaborative teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Christine; Roberts, Chris; Lim, Renee; Roper, Josephine; Skinner, Clare; Robertson, Jeremy; Gentilcore, Stacey; Osomanski, Adam

    2016-03-08

    There is little research on large-scale complex health care simulations designed to facilitate student learning of non-technical skills in a team-working environment. We evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of a novel natural disaster simulation that enabled medical students to demonstrate their achievement of the non-technical skills of collaboration, negotiation and communication. In a mixed methods approach, survey data were available from 117 students and a thematic analysis undertaken of both student qualitative comments and tutor observer participation data. Ninety three per cent of students found the activity engaging for their learning. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: the impact of fidelity on student learning, reflexivity on the importance of non-technical skills in clinical care, and opportunities for collaborative teamwork. Physical fidelity was sufficient for good levels of student engagement, as was sociological fidelity. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the simulation in allowing students to reflect upon and evidence their acquisition of skills in collaboration, negotiation and communication, as well as situational awareness and attending to their emotions. Students readily identified emerging learning opportunities though critical reflection. The scenarios challenged students to work together collaboratively to solve clinical problems, using a range of resources including interacting with clinical experts. A large class teaching activity, framed as a simulation of a natural disaster is an acceptable and effective activity for medical students to develop the non-technical skills of collaboration, negotiation and communication, which are essential to team working. The design could be of value in medical schools in disaster prone areas, including within low resource countries, and as a feasible intervention for learning the non-technical skills that are needed for patient safety.

  15. Teamwork and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrimmer, Dale

    2009-07-01

    Effective teamwork and communication is critical to the delivery of safe and reliable patient care. Communication breakdowns account for the overwhelming majority of sentinel events. Effective teamwork and communication can help prevent mistakes and decrease patient risk. The implementation of simple tools and behaviors can greatly enhance patient safety and improve perceptions of teamwork.

  16. Say "Yes and" to Students Learning Teamwork! Using Improv in the College Classroom to Build Teamwork Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watland, Kathleen Hanold; Santori, David

    2014-01-01

    Teamwork and the ability to work collaboratively on a team are important skills in almost every industry or profession. The use of student teams in college courses is increasing and most academic programs require teamwork as part of the students' academic learning experience. While teamwork and other experiential collaborative learning…

  17. Teaching teamwork in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Susan; Magrane, Diane; Friedman, Erica

    2009-08-01

    Teamwork has become a major focus in healthcare. In part, this is the result of the Institute of Medicine report entitled To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which details the high rate of preventable medical errors, many of which are the result of dysfunctional or nonexistent teamwork. It has been proposed that a healthcare system that supports effective teamwork can improve the quality of patient care and reduce workload issues that cause burnout among healthcare professionals. Few clear guidelines exist to help guide the implementation of all these recommendations in healthcare settings. In general, training programs designed to improve team skills are a new concept for medicine, particularly for physicians who are trained largely to be self-sufficient and individually responsible for their actions. Outside of healthcare, research has shown that teams working together in high-risk and high-intensity work environments make fewer mistakes than individuals. This evidence originates from commercial aviation, the military, firefighting, and rapid-response police activities. Commercial aviation, an industry in which mistakes can result in unacceptable loss, has been at the forefront of risk reduction through teamwork training. The importance of teamwork has been recognized by some in the healthcare industry who have begun to develop their own specialty-driven programs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current literature on teaching about teamwork in undergraduate medical education. We describe the science of teams, analyze the work in team training that has been done in other fields, and assess what work has been done in other fields about the importance of team training (ie, aviation, nonmedical education, and business). Additionally, it is vital to assess what work has already been done in medicine to advance the skills required for effective teamwork. Much of this work has been done in fields in which medical professionals deal with crisis

  18. Students’ Team Project Experiences and Their Attitudes Towards Teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Rudawska

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of team project experiences of students (presence and role of a leader; fairness in team projects; conditions supporting teamwork created by a university) on their attitudes towards teamwork, especially the perception of teamwork effectiveness and the preference of working in teams. Methodology: In the study the quantitative research was done among master degree Polish students of Management (105 questionnaires). The measures used f...

  19. Teamwork in adventure racing

    OpenAIRE

    Šavrňák, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Title: Teamwork in Adventure racing Goals: The main goal is to make up the chapter about an ideal teamwork in Adventure racing. And so, to help starting teams but also help experienced teams to learn about their lacks in cooperation and to shift teamwork level above. Method: We used the method of literature retrieval from books, articles and researches. Results: It is very hard task to define ideal teamwork, we would not find same two teams in the world and therefore each team suits something...

  20. Application and licensing requirements of the Framatome ANP RLBLOCA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.P.; Dunn, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Framatome ANP Realistic Large-Break LOCA methodology (FANP RLBLOCA) is an analysis approach approved by the US NRC for supporting the licensing basis of 3- and 4-loop Westinghouse PWRs and CE 2x4 PWRs. It was developed consistent with the NRC's Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology for performing best-estimate large-break LOCAs. The CSAU methodology consists of three key elements with the second and third element addressing uncertainty identification and application. Unique to the CSAU methodology is the use of engineering judgment and the Process Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) defined in the first element to lay the groundwork for achieving the ultimate goal of quantifying the total uncertainty in predicted measures of interest associated with the large-break LOCA. It is the PIRT that not only directs the methodology development, but also directs the methodology review. While the FANP RLBLOCA methodology was generically approved, a plant-specific application is customized in two ways addressing how the unique plant characterization 1) is translated to code input and 2) relates to the unique methodology licensing requirements. Related to the former, plants are required by 10 CFR 50.36 to define a technical specification limiting condition for operation based on the following criteria: 1. Installed instrumentation that is used in the control room to detect, and indicate, a significant abnormal degradation of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. 2. A process variable, design feature, or operating restriction that is an initial condition of a design basis accident or transient analysis that either assumes the failure of or presents a challenge to the integrity of a fission product barrier. 3. A structure, system, or component that is part of the primary success path and which functions or actuates to mitigate a design basis accident or transient that either assumes the failure of or presents a challenge to the integrity of a

  1. "We put teamwork back on the agenda again and again". The role of support systems in autonomous teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Rolfsen, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on teamwork by focusing on the influence support systems, like industrial relations, have on teamwork. Teamwork is conceptualized through three dimensions; technical, governmental and normative. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a case study approach in a single company with available data over a long period of time. Findings – Industrial relations conceptualized as local representation a...

  2. Collaborative Teamwork in Crossdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Renée-Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Polytechnique Montréal has integrated an approach of teamwork in its twelve engineering programs, in the bachelor's degree program since 2005. Students must take a compulsory 45 hours course on teamwork and are then accompanied with team coaching throughout the four years program, in all the engineering integration projects. These integration…

  3. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  4. Development and testing of the methodology for performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of implementing a set of materials control and accountability (MC ampersand A) performance requirements. These graded requirements set a uniform level of performance for similar materials at various facilities against the threat of an insider adversary stealing special nuclear material (SNM). These requirements are phrased in terms of detecting the theft of a goal quantity of SNM within a specified time period and with a probability greater than or equal to a special value and include defense-in-depth requirements. The DOE has conducted an extensive effort over the last 2 1/2 yr to develop a practical methodology to be used in evaluating facility performance against the performance requirements specified in DOE order 5633.3. The major participants in the development process have been the Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The process has included careful reviews of related evaluation systems, a review of the intent of the requirements in the order, and site visits to most of the major facilities in the DOE complex. As a result of this extensive effort to develop guidance for the MC ampersand A performance requirements, OSS was able to provide a practical method that will allow facilities to evaluate the performance of their safeguards systems against the performance requirements. In addition, the evaluations can be validated by the cognizant operations offices in a systematic manner

  5. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.

  6. Fire Support Requirements Methodology Study, Phase 2 Proceedings of the Fire Support Methodology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-18

    It was not immediatei- clear that the -approach- would- succeed in overcoming the deficiencies of present fire support methodologies which demand- an...support require analysis up to Level 6. They also felt that deficiencies in f technique were most serious at Levels 3, 4 and 5. It was accepted that...defined as: Tk2 = _Tkl ilk2 kl (2) Tkt = Tk,t-l - ’lMktMk,t-l + 𔃼kt ,t-2 I t > (3. where Mt refers to the-number of type k targets killed in time

  7. Teamwork in Distributed Agile Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gurram, Chaitanya; Bandi, Srinivas Goud

    2013-01-01

    Context: Distributed software development has become a most desired way of software development. Application of agile development methodologies in distributed environments has taken a new trend in developing software due to its benefits of improved communication and collaboration. Teamwork is an important concept that agile methodologies facilitate and is one of the potential determinants of team performance which was not focused in distributed agile software development. Objectives: This res...

  8. Importance of good teamwork in urgent care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Curtis

    2014-11-01

    High quality, safe care for patients depends on effective teamwork, and where multi-professional teams work together there is higher patient satisfaction, increased staff innovation, less stress and more communication ( West 2013 ). Conversely, lapses in teamwork and poor communication can result in adverse events ranging from retained foreign objects to perinatal events and medication errors ( Peter and Pronovost 2013 ), and even the death of patients ( Resuscitation Council UK 2011 ). Teamwork requires a set of skills and behaviours that, once learned by clinicians, can save lives ( Peter and Pronovost 2013 ). This article refers to a case study to explore the topic of teamwork in a tertiary care emergency setting.

  9. Teamwork: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xyrichis, Andreas; Ream, Emma

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of teamwork. Teamwork is seen as an important facilitator in delivering quality healthcare services internationally. However, research studies of teamwork in health care are criticized for lacking a basic conceptual understanding of what this concept represents. A universal definition for healthcare settings and professionals is missing from published literature. Walker and Avant's approach was used to guide this concept analysis. Literature searches used bibliographic databases (Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Proquest CSA), internet search engines (GoogleScholar), and hand searches. Literature published between 1976 and 2006 was reviewed but only material in English was included. Based on the analysis undertaken, teamwork is proposed as a dynamic process involving two or more healthcare professionals with complementary backgrounds and skills, sharing common health goals and exercising concerted physical and mental effort in assessing, planning, or evaluating patient care. This is accomplished through interdependent collaboration, open communication and shared decision-making, and generates value-added patient, organizational and staff outcomes. Praising the value of teamwork without a common understanding of what this concept represents endangers both research into this way of working and its effective utilization in practice. The proposed definition helps reconcile discrepancies between how this concept is understood by nurses and doctors, as well as allied health professionals. A common understanding can facilitate communication in educational, research and clinical settings and is imperative for improving clarity and validity of future research.

  10. Revised FAO methodology for crop-water requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Allen, R.; Pereira, L.

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1970s, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) developed a practical procedure to estimate crop-water requirements that has become a widely accepted standard, in particular for irrigation studies. Since its publication as FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, new concepts and advances in research have revealed shortcomings in the methodology and made necessary a review and revision. A consultation of experts organized by FAO recommended the adoption of the Penman-Monteith combination method as a new standard for reference evapotranspiration, and advised on procedures for calculation of the various parameters. By defining the reference crop as hypothetical with an assumed height of 0.12 m, a surface resistance of 70 s m -1 and an albedo of 0.23, closely resembling the evaporation of an extensive surface of actively growing and adequately watered green grass of uniform height, the FAO Penman-Monteith method was developed, overcoming previous deficiencies and providing values more consistent with actual crop-water-use data worldwide. Furthermore, recommendations have been developed for the use of the FAO Penman-Monteith method with limited climatic data, largely eliminating the need for any other reference evapotranspiration methods and creating a consistent and transparent basis for a globally valid standard for crop-water-requirement calculations. (author)

  11. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-01-01

    This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential c...

  12. Collegiality and teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Marie; Søgaard Sørensen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    of knowledge, the authors attempt to discover what factors are actually at play when a school introduces teamwork among teachers. The two co-operation logics appear to make use, for example, of two different types of democratic approaches that in turn influence the democratic domain in which students learn....

  13. Kollegialitet og teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Marie; Søgaard Sørensen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

     Kapitlet beskæftiger sig med teamwork som en af de sociale teknologier, der i dag, også indenfor undervisningssektoren, er med til at forandre medarbejderes, og altså her læreres, forståelse af deres arbejdsliv. Ud fra empiriske studier på erhvervsskoleområdet kontrasteres team-samarbejde med de...

  14. Teamwork methods for accountable care: relational coordination and TeamSTEPPS®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittell, Jody Hoffer; Beswick, Joanne; Goldmann, Don; Wallack, Stanley S

    2015-01-01

    To deliver greater value in the accountable care context, the Institute of Medicine argues for a culture of teamwork at multiple levels--across professional and organizational siloes and with patients and their families and communities. The logic of performance improvement is that data are needed to target interventions and to assess their impact. We argue that efforts to build teamwork will benefit from teamwork measures that provide diagnostic information regarding the current state and teamwork interventions that can respond to the opportunities identified in the current state. We identify teamwork measures and teamwork interventions that are validated and that can work across multiple levels of teamwork. We propose specific ways to combine them for optimal effectiveness. We review measures of teamwork documented by Valentine, Nembhard, and Edmondson and select those that they identified as satisfying the four criteria for psychometric validation and as being unbounded and therefore able to measure teamwork across multiple levels. We then consider teamwork interventions that are widely used in the U.S. health care context, are well validated based on their association with outcomes, and are capable of working at multiple levels of teamwork. We select the top candidate in each category and propose ways to combine them for optimal effectiveness. We find relational coordination is a validated multilevel teamwork measure and TeamSTEPPS® is a validated multilevel teamwork intervention and propose specific ways for the relational coordination measure to enhance the TeamSTEPPS intervention. Health care systems and change agents seeking to respond to the challenges of accountable care can use TeamSTEPPS as a validated multilevel teamwork intervention methodology, enhanced by relational coordination as a validated multilevel teamwork measure with diagnostic capacity to pinpoint opportunities for improving teamwork along specific dimensions (e.g., shared knowledge

  15. Teamwork in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, David C.; Shafto, Michael G.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is well known for its roles in the space program and in aeronautics. Because teamwork is essential for most NASA missions, NASA has experience in both research on teamwork and implementation of team projects. The purpose of this chapter is not to summarize research results on teamwork. This chapter will summarize our insight into teamwork as it applies to the large institutions and organizations with which we have been associated: University academic systems, Navy research laboratories, and NASA. These organizations represent a variety of systems in which teamwork is commonplace.

  16. Effective communication and teamwork promotes patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Heather

    2015-08-05

    Teamwork requires co-operation, co-ordination and communication between members of a team to achieve desired outcomes. In industries with a high degree of risk, such as health care, effective teamwork has been shown to achieve team goals successfully and efficiently, with fewer errors. This article introduces behaviours that support communication, co-operation and co-ordination in teams. The central role of communication in enabling co-operation and co-ordination is explored. A human factors perspective is used to examine tools to improve communication and identify barriers to effective team communication in health care.

  17. Students’ Team Project Experiences and Their Attitudes Towards Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Rudawska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of team project experiences of students (presence and role of a leader; fairness in team projects; conditions supporting teamwork created by a university on their attitudes towards teamwork, especially the perception of teamwork effectiveness and the preference of working in teams. Methodology: In the study the quantitative research was done among master degree Polish students of Management (105 questionnaires. The measures used for the study were developed specifcally for the study referring to the previous research in the feld. Findings: Results indicate that leaders in team projects and conditions supporting teamwork are connected with the students’ perception of teamwork effectiveness, while the fairness in team projects is connected with students’ preference of working collectively. Research implications: We conclude that in order to develop a positive attitude towards teamwork, the teamwork projects should be better supported by the instructors (especially supporting the emergence of leader(s and minimising the problem of free riders and the university should create a climate that facilitates teamworking, otherwise team projects might negatively influence students’ attitude towards collective work. Value: On the labour market the teamwork skills are one of the most important skills of employees, as the team-based organizational designs are becoming the norm in work organization. The study is contributing to the understanding of the relations between student experiences and their attitudes as well as the role played by high education in the development of these attitudes. Some previous research in Anglo-Saxon culture countries indicate that team project assignments realised by students during studies might even hinder their attitudes to teamwork and their willingness to work in teams in the future.

  18. The work is never ending: uncovering teamwork sustainability using realistic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykman, Mandus; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Hasson, Henna; Mazzocato, Pamela

    2017-03-20

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to uncover the mechanisms influencing the sustainability of behavior changes following the implementation of teamwork. Design/methodology/approach Realistic evaluation was combined with a framework (DCOM®) based on applied behavior analysis to study the sustainability of behavior changes two and a half years after the initial implementation of teamwork at an emergency department. The DCOM® framework was used to categorize the mechanisms of behavior change interventions (BCIs) into the four categories of direction, competence, opportunity, and motivation. Non-participant observation and interview data were used. Findings The teamwork behaviors were not sustained. A substantial fallback in managerial activities in combination with a complex context contributed to reduced direction, opportunity, and motivation. Reduced direction made staff members unclear about how and why they should work in teams. Deterioration of opportunity was evident from the lack of problem-solving resources resulting in accumulated barriers to teamwork. Motivation in terms of management support and feedback was reduced. Practical implications The implementation of complex organizational changes in complex healthcare contexts requires continuous adaption and managerial activities well beyond the initial implementation period. Originality/value By integrating the DCOM® framework with realistic evaluation, this study responds to the call for theoretically based research on behavioral mechanisms that can explain how BCIs interact with context and how this interaction influences sustainability.

  19. Teamwork management in a creative organization

    OpenAIRE

    Preikšaitytė, Agnė

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork Management in a Creative Organization Problem of Thesis - lack of researches investigating teamwork resolution, management specificity and interferences in cultural organizations. Aim – to analyze features of teamwork management in cultural organization. Tasks: 1. To define the concept of teamwork; 2. To disclose features of teamwork forming process; 3. To analyze features of teamwork management. 4. To examine factors of teamwork management in cultural organization; 5. To investigate...

  20. Sustaining Teamwork Behaviors Through Reinforcement of TeamSTEPPS Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Hoon; Khanuja, Harpal S; Blanding, Renee J; Sedgwick, Jeanne; Pressimone, Kathleen; Ficke, James R; Jones, Lynne C

    2017-10-30

    Teamwork training improves short-term teamwork behaviors. However, improvements are often not sustained. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which teamwork reinforcement activities for orthopedic surgery teams lead to sustained teamwork behaviors. Seven months after 104 staff from an orthopedic surgical unit were trained in Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety principles, 4 reinforcement activities were implemented regarding leadership and communication: lectures with videos on leadership skills for nursing staff; an online self-paced learning program on communication skills for nursing staff; a 1-page summary on leadership skills e-mailed to surgical staff; and a 1-hour perioperative grand rounds on Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety principles for anesthesia staff and new staff. Twenty-four orthopedic surgical teams were evaluated on teamwork behaviors during surgery by 2 observers before and after the reinforcement period using the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery tool. After reinforcement, leadership (P = 0.022) and communication (P = 0.044) behaviors improved compared with prereinforcement levels. Specifically, nursing staff improved in leadership (P = 0.016) and communication (P = 0.028) behaviors, surgical staff improved in leadership behaviors (P = 0.009), but anesthesia staff did not improve in any teamwork behaviors. Sustained improvement in teamwork behaviors requires reinforcement. Level III, prospective pre-post cohort study.

  1. A Qualitative Analysis of Narrative Preclerkship Assessment Data to Evaluate Teamwork Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Brigid M; O'Brien, Celia Laird; Cameron, Kenzie A; Green, Marianne M

    2018-04-16

    Construct: Students entering the health professions require competency in teamwork. Although many teamwork curricula and assessments exist, studies have not demonstrated robust longitudinal assessment of preclerkship students' teamwork skills and attitudes. Assessment portfolios may serve to fill this gap, but it is unknown how narrative comments within portfolios describe student teamwork behaviors. We performed a qualitative analysis of narrative data in 15 assessment portfolios. Student portfolios were randomly selected from 3 groups stratified by quantitative ratings of teamwork performance gathered from small-group and clinical preceptor assessment forms. Narrative data included peer and faculty feedback from these same forms. Data were coded for teamwork-related behaviors using a constant comparative approach combined with an identification of the valence of the coded statements as either "positive observation" or "suggestion for improvement." Eight codes related to teamwork emerged: attitude and demeanor, information facilitation, leadership, preparation and dependability, professionalism, team orientation, values team member contributions, and nonspecific teamwork comments. The frequency of codes and valence varied across the 3 performance groups, with students in the low-performing group receiving more suggestions for improvement across all teamwork codes. Narrative data from assessment portfolios included specific descriptions of teamwork behavior, with important contributions provided by both faculty and peers. A variety of teamwork domains were represented. Such feedback as collected in an assessment portfolio can be used for longitudinal assessment of preclerkship student teamwork skills and attitudes.

  2. Teamwork as a nursing competence at Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Henriques Camelo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim in this study was to identify how Intensive Care Unit nurses perceive professional competences in thecare team. Methodology. Qualitative multiple case study with an exploratory focus. The sample consisted of 24 nurses from Intensive Care Units (ICU at two large hospitals. To collect the information, direct observation and - structured, non-structuredand participant - interviews were used. Results. Ninety-six percent of the participants were women, 79% were less than 40 years old, and 63% possessed less than five years of professional experience in ICU. Data analysis revealed three study categories: teamwork as a nursing management tool, improving teamwork, and interpersonal communication for teamwork. Conclusion. At the ICU where the nurses work, a teamwork strategy is observed, which demands cooperation and participation by other disciplines.

  3. FIELD TESTING A BEHAVIORAL TEAMWORK ASSESSMENT TOOL WITH U.S. UNDERGRADUATE BUSINESS STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Charles J. Hobson; David Strupeck; Andrea Griffin; Jana Szostek; Rajan Selladurai; Anna S. Rominger

    2013-01-01

    Given the ubiquitous utilization of teams in U.S. workplaces, collegiate schools of business have responded by placing great emphasis on the assessment and development of teamwork skills. Employing a methodology first proposed by Hobson and Kesic (2002) for use in managerial training, this study involved the behavioral assessment of teamwork skills in a sample of 247 undergraduate business students. The evaluation tool consisted of 15 positive and 10 negative teamwork behaviors. A leaderless ...

  4. Teamwork, taxes, and training: A case for cooperation and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    Training to ensure compliance with the myriad of laws and regulations imposed by federal, state, and local governments is a trend that will continue well into the 1990s. The cost of this training increasingly takes away from the bottom line of many companies and adds additional costs to the products and services being developed and sold. This cost is passed on to the consumer. When the government or one of its contractors incurs additional costs, they are passed on to the taxpayer. As budgets shrink and requirements go up it makes sense to find a way to maintain high quality and cut costs. The Quality Training and Resource Center was established at Hanford by the US Department of Energy to do just that; cut costs and maintain quality. This paper will explore the methodology used to establish a model based on contractor cooperation, teamwork, and resource sharing to improve training while Towering costs

  5. Requirements engineering for trust management: Model, methodology, and reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgini, P.; Massacci, F.; Mylopoulos, J.; Zannone, N.

    2006-01-01

    A number of recent proposals aim to incorporate security engineering into mainstream software engineering. Yet, capturing trust and security requirements at an organizational level, as opposed to an IT system level, and mapping these into security and trust management policies is still an open

  6. An Event-Based Approach to Design a Teamwork Training Scenario and Assessment Tool in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngan; Watson, William D; Dominguez, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Simulation is a technique recommended for teaching and measuring teamwork, but few published methodologies are available on how best to design simulation for teamwork training in surgery and health care in general. The purpose of this article is to describe a general methodology, called event-based approach to training (EBAT), to guide the design of simulation for teamwork training and discuss its application to surgery. The EBAT methodology draws on the science of training by systematically introducing training exercise events that are linked to training requirements (i.e., competencies being trained and learning objectives) and performance assessment. The EBAT process involves: Of the 4 teamwork competencies endorsed by the Agency for Healthcare Research Quality and Department of Defense, "communication" was chosen to be the focus of our training efforts. A total of 5 learning objectives were defined based on 5 validated teamwork and communication techniques. Diagnostic laparoscopy was chosen as the clinical context to frame the training scenario, and 29 KSAs were defined based on review of published literature on patient safety and input from subject matter experts. Critical events included those that correspond to a specific phase in the normal flow of a surgical procedure as well as clinical events that may occur when performing the operation. Similar to the targeted KSAs, targeted responses to the critical events were developed based on existing literature and gathering input from content experts. Finally, a 29-item EBAT-derived checklist was created to assess communication performance. Like any instructional tool, simulation is only effective if it is designed and implemented appropriately. It is recognized that the effectiveness of simulation depends on whether (1) it is built upon a theoretical framework, (2) it uses preplanned structured exercises or events to allow learners the opportunity to exhibit the targeted KSAs, (3) it assesses performance, and (4

  7. Assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for a best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Un Chul; Jang, Jin Wook; Lim, Ho Gon; Jeong, Ik [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Suk Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS proposed by KEPCO(KREM) os using thermal-hydraulic best-estimate code and the topical report for the methodology is described that it meets the regulatory requirement of USNRC regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for the methodology is performed. The state of licensing procedure of other countries and best-estimate evaluation methodologies of Europe is also investigated, The applicability of models and propriety of procedure of uncertainty analysis of KREM are appraised and compliance with USNRC regulatory guide is assessed.

  8. Introducing the individual Teamwork Observation and Feedback Tool (iTOFT): Development and description of a new interprofessional teamwork measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistlethwaite, Jill; Dallest, Kathy; Moran, Monica; Dunston, Roger; Roberts, Chris; Eley, Diann; Bogossian, Fiona; Forman, Dawn; Bainbridge, Lesley; Drynan, Donna; Fyfe, Sue

    2016-07-01

    The individual Teamwork Observation and Feedback Tool (iTOFT) was devised by a consortium of seven universities in recognition of the need for a means of observing and giving feedback to individual learners undertaking an interprofessional teamwork task. It was developed through a literature review of the existing teamwork assessment tools, a discussion of accreditation standards for the health professions, Delphi consultation and field-testing with an emphasis on its feasibility and acceptability for formative assessment. There are two versions: the Basic tool is for use with students who have little clinical teamwork experience and lists 11 observable behaviours under two headings: 'shared decision making' and 'working in a team'. The Advanced version is for senior students and junior health professionals and has 10 observable behaviours under four headings: 'shared decision making', 'working in a team', 'leadership', and 'patient safety'. Both versions include a comprehensive scale and item descriptors. Further testing is required to focus on its validity and educational impact.

  9. Task demand, task management, and teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braarud, Per Oeivind; Brendryen, Haavar

    2001-03-15

    The current approach to mental workload assessment in process control was evaluated in 3 previous HAMMLAB studies, by analysing the relationship between workload related measures and performance. The results showed that subjective task complexity rating was related to team's control room performance, that mental effort (NASA-TLX) was weakly related to performance, and that overall activity level was unrelated to performance. The results support the argument that general cognitive measures, i.e., mental workload, are weakly related to performance in the process control domain. This implies that other workload concepts than general mental workload are needed for valid assessment of human reliability and for valid assessment of control room configurations. An assessment of task load in process control suggested that how effort is used to handle task demand is more important then the level of effort invested to solve the task. The report suggests two main workload related concepts with a potential as performance predictors in process control: task requirements, and the work style describing how effort is invested to solve the task. The task requirements are seen as composed of individual task demand and team demand. In a similar way work style are seen as composed of individual task management and teamwork style. A framework for the development of the concepts is suggested based on a literature review and experiences from HAMMLAB research. It is suggested that operational definitions of workload concepts should be based on observable control room behaviour, to assure a potential for developing performance-shaping factors. Finally an explorative analysis of teamwork measures and performance in one study indicated that teamwork concepts are related to performance. This lends support to the suggested development of team demand and teamwork style as elements of a framework for the analysis of workload in process control. (Author)

  10. Communication Patterns and Intellectual Teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galegher, Jolene

    1992-01-01

    Finds that both experienced scientists and college students found it difficult to carry out intellectual teamwork involving collaboratively authored documents without the interactivity and expressiveness permitted by face-to-face communication. (SR)

  11. Health care interprofessional education: encouraging technology, teamwork, and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    It is critical to prepare nurses for future practice to work in teams by engaging students in interprofessional education (IPE) that fosters positive attitudes toward teamwork. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of computer-supported IPE on students’ attitudes and perceptions toward health care teamwork and team performance. A hybrid approach to IPE was used to provide students with an educational experience that combined the benefits of traditional face-to-face communication methodology with a computer-mediated platform that focused on reflection and team building. A statistically significant difference was found in students’ perceptions of team performance after engaging in computer-supported IPE. No statistically significant difference in students’ pretest–posttest composite attitude toward teamwork scores was noted; however, there was a positive trend toward improved scores.

  12. Tool to assess teamwork performance in higher education Tool to assess teamwork performance in higher education Herramienta para evaluar el funcionamiento de los equipos de trabajo en entornos docentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Jaca García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this article, we present a tool for assessing the performance of teamwork activities. The results obtained from this tool can be used to guide teamwork learning and mentor students by giving them feedback on their work.Design/methodology/approach: The tool was based on a model of teamwork effectiveness from the literature. In this sense, analyzing a series of activities performed of by the same team can allow us to know whether the students involved in these activities are acquiring the ability to effectively engage in teamwork.Findings: The tool was used with 53 teams in a Bachelor’s Degree Programme inIndustrial Engineering. In this case, the results were used to analyze whether theproposed tool is suitable for assessing teamwork effectiveness in the university context.Practical implications: This tool will serve to provide feedback to students about the acquisition of their teamwork competency throughout the course of a Bachelor’s Degree.Social implications: Teamwork is a professional ability required by a great number of organizations, and universities should incorporate the development and assessment o fteamwork skills into their degree programmes.Originality/value: Developing this competence requires different social and personalskills, which are very difficult for students to acquire only by engaging in teamwork-building activities. The crucial step of providing feedbaPurpose: In this article, we present a tool for assessing the performance of teamwork activities. The results obtained from this tool can be used to guide teamwork learning and mentor students by giving them feedback on their work.Design/methodology/approach: The tool was based on a model of teamwork effectiveness from the literature. In this sense, analyzing a series of activities performed of by the same team can allow us to know whether the students involved in these activities are acquiring the ability to effectively engage in teamwork.Findings: The tool

  13. Factors Influencing Team Behaviors in Surgery: A Qualitative Study to Inform Teamwork Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveling, Emma-Louise; Stone, Juliana; Sundt, Thoralf; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Singer, Sara

    2018-02-07

    Surgical excellence demands teamwork. Poor team behaviors negatively affect team performance and are associated with adverse events and worse outcomes. Interventions to improve surgical teamwork focusing on frontline team members' nontechnical skills have proliferated but shown mixed results. Literature on teamwork in organizations suggests that team behaviors are also contingent on psycho-social, cultural and organizational factors. This study examines factors influencing surgical team behaviors in order to inform more contextually sensitive and effective approaches to optimizing surgical teamwork. Qualitative study of cardiac surgical teams in a large US teaching hospital included 34 semi-structured interviews. Thematic network analysis was used to examine perceptions of ideal teamwork and factors influencing team behaviors in the OR. Perceptions of ideal teamwork were largely shared, but team members held discrepant views of which team and leadership behaviors enhanced or undermined teamwork. Other factors impacting team behaviors related to: local organizational culture, including management of staff behavior; variable case demands and team members' technical competence; fitness of organizational structures and processes to support teamwork. These factors affected perceptions of what constituted optimal interpersonal and team behaviors in the OR. Team behaviors are contextually contingent and organizationally determined, and beliefs about optimal behaviors are not necessarily shared. Interventions to optimize surgical teamwork requires establishing consensus regarding best practice, ability to adapt as circumstances require, and organizational commitment to addressing contextual factors that impact teams. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Using a security requirements engineering methodology in practice: The compliance with the Italian data protection legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massacci, F.; Prest, M.; Zannone, N.

    2005-01-01

    Extending Requirements Engineering modelling and formal analysis methodologies to cope with Security Requirements has been a major effort in the past decade. Yet, only few works describe complex case studies that show the ability of the informal and formal approaches to cope with the level

  15. The extended teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study. Study plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.; Nihlwing, Christer; Helgar, Stein; Olsen, Asle; Kvilesjoe, Hans Oeyvind; Meyer, Geir; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Svengren, Haakan

    2005-09-01

    The report documents the study plan for the Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study, which is performed within the Extended Teamwork HRP research program. The purpose of the research program is to generate ideas on how teamwork in nuclear power plants may be affected by the introduction of new operational concepts. The Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study contributes with empirical knowledge on the effect of a new operational concept, implying increased automation levels, changed operator roles, redefined competence requirements to the operators, and new technologies to support co-operation, on teamwork. The Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study covered occurrences during the early transition phase, i.e., from the time the operators are introduced to the possible future operational environment, to the time they have completed the twelve scenarios comprised by the study. The study assessed how familiarity with operation in the possible future operational environment may affect the extent and quality of co-operation. The report accounts for the motivation for performing the exploratory study, and explains the research question. It describes the theoretical approach, which is based on Co-operation Theory, the human-centered automation approach, and theories on co-operation across distances, and introduces the concept extended teamwork. It also describes the method applied: it provides a detailed description of the possible future operational environment, including requirements with respect to autonomy and authority - both for humans and for automatic agents, and describes the technology applied to support co-operation in the control-room team. In addition, all measurement techniques applied in the study are accounted for (system logs, questionnaires, interviews, etc.). (Author)

  16. Teamwork and communication in the operating room: relationship to discrete outcomes and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurok, Michael; Sundt, Thoralf M; Frankel, Allan

    2011-03-01

    The literature defining and addressing teamwork and communication is abundant; however, few studies have analyzed the relationship between measures of teamwork and communication and quantifiable outcomes. The objectives of this review are: (1) to identify studies addressing teamwork and communication in the operating room in relation to discrete measures of outcome, (2) to create a classification of studies of the relationship between teamwork and communication and outcomes, (3) to assess the implications of these studies, (4) to explore the methodological challenges of teamwork and communication studies in the perioperative setting, and (5) to suggest future research directions.studies in the perioperative setting, and (5) to suggest future research directions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A hierarchical modeling methodology for the definition and selection of requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Stephane

    This dissertation describes the development of a requirements analysis methodology that takes into account the concept of operations and the hierarchical decomposition of aerospace systems. At the core of the methodology, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) is used to ensure the traceability between the qualitative and quantitative information present in the hierarchical model. The proposed methodology is implemented to the requirements definition of a hurricane tracker Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Three research objectives are identified in this work; (1) improve the requirements mapping process by matching the stakeholder expectations with the concept of operations, systems and available resources; (2) reduce the epistemic uncertainty surrounding the requirements and requirements mapping; and (3) improve the requirements down-selection process by taking into account the level of importance of the criteria and the available resources. Several challenges are associated with the identification and definition of requirements. The complexity of the system implies that a large number of requirements are needed to define the systems. These requirements are defined early in the conceptual design, where the level of knowledge is relatively low and the level of uncertainty is large. The proposed methodology intends to increase the level of knowledge and reduce the level of uncertainty by guiding the design team through a structured process. To address these challenges, a new methodology is created to flow-down the requirements from the stakeholder expectations to the systems alternatives. A taxonomy of requirements is created to classify the information gathered during the problem definition. Subsequently, the operational and systems functions and measures of effectiveness are integrated to a hierarchical model to allow the traceability of the information. Monte Carlo methods are used to evaluate the variations of the hierarchical model elements and consequently reduce the

  18. Practicality of intraoperative teamwork assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Minehart, Rebecca; Pian-Smith, May C M; Hemingway, Maureen W; Milosh-Zinkus, Tanya; Oriol-Morway, Danika; Petrusa, Emil

    2014-07-01

    High-quality teamwork among operating room (OR) professionals is a key to efficient and safe practice. Quantification of teamwork facilitates feedback, assessment, and improvement. Several valid and reliable instruments are available for assessing separate OR disciplines and teams. We sought to determine the most feasible approach for routine documentation of teamwork in in-situ OR simulations. We compared rater agreement, hypothetical training costs, and feasibility ratings from five clinicians and two nonclinicians with instruments for assessment of separate OR groups and teams. Five teams of anesthesia or surgery residents and OR nurses (RN) or surgical technicians were videotaped in simulations of an epigastric hernia repair where the patient develops malignant hyperthermia. Two anesthesiologists, one OR clinical RN specialist, one educational psychologist, one simulation specialist, and one general surgeon discussed and then independently completed Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, and Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery forms to rate nontechnical performance of anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, technicians, and the whole team. Intraclass correlations of agreement ranged from 0.17-0.85. Clinicians' agreements were not different from nonclinicians'. Published rater training was 4 h for Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills and Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, 2.5 h for Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, and 15.5 h for Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery. Estimated costs to train one rater to use all instruments ranged from $442 for a simulation specialist to $6006 for a general surgeon. Additional training is needed to achieve higher levels of agreement; however, costs may be prohibitive. The most cost-effective model for real-time OR teamwork assessment may be to use a simulation technician

  19. Content Validation and Evaluation of an Endovascular Teamwork Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, L; Bicknell, C; Patel, K; Vyas, R; Van Herzeele, I; Sevdalis, N; Rudarakanchana, N

    2016-07-01

    To modify, content validate, and evaluate a teamwork assessment tool for use in endovascular surgery. A multistage, multimethod study was conducted. Stage 1 included expert review and modification of the existing Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool. Stage 2 included identification of additional exemplar behaviours contributing to effective teamwork and enhanced patient safety in endovascular surgery (using real-time observation, focus groups, and semistructured interviews of multidisciplinary teams). Stage 3 included content validation of exemplar behaviours using expert consensus according to established psychometric recommendations and evaluation of structure, content, feasibility, and usability of the Endovascular Observational Teamwork Assessment Tool (Endo-OTAS) by an expert multidisciplinary panel. Stage 4 included final team expert review of exemplars. OTAS core team behaviours were maintained (communication, coordination, cooperation, leadership team monitoring). Of the 114 OTAS behavioural exemplars, 19 were modified, four removed, and 39 additional endovascular-specific behaviours identified. Content validation of these 153 exemplar behaviours showed that 113/153 (73.9%) reached the predetermined Item-Content Validity Index rating for teamwork and/or patient safety. After expert team review, 140/153 (91.5%) exemplars were deemed to warrant inclusion in the tool. More than 90% of the expert panel agreed that Endo-OTAS is an appropriate teamwork assessment tool with observable behaviours. Some concerns were noted about the time required to conduct observations and provide performance feedback. Endo-OTAS is a novel teamwork assessment tool, with evidence for content validity and relevance to endovascular teams. Endo-OTAS enables systematic objective assessment of the quality of team performance during endovascular procedures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Teaching Teamwork in Australian University Business Disciplines: Evidence from a Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, Linda; Girardi, Antonia; Whitsed, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Australian employers continue to indicate that the development of teamwork skills in graduates is as important as mastering technical skills required for a particular career. In Australia, the reporting on the teaching of teamwork skills has emanated across a range of disciplines including health and engineering, with less of a focus on business…

  1. Need for Rehabilitation Teamwork Training in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Eldar, Reuben; Marincek, Crt; Kullmann, Lajos

    2008-01-01

    Teamwork is the cornerstone of rehabilitation medicine. Rehabilitation workers in European countries are well educated in their own disciplines and attain appropriate professional knowledge; however, they lack educational opportunities for acquiring skills and attitudes necessary for effective teamwork, mainly communication, cooperation, and leadership. Consequently, teamwork is compromised and rehabilitation effectiveness reduced. Therefore, training in these components of professional compe...

  2. Bad Attitudes: Why Design Students Dislike Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Richard; Abbasi, Neda

    2016-01-01

    Positive experiences of teamwork in design contexts significantly improve students' satisfaction with teaching and their attitudes towards future teamwork. Thus, an understanding of the factors leading to negative and positive team experiences can inform strategies to support effective teamwork. This paper examines design students' perceptions and…

  3. Teamwork Assessment Tools in Modern Surgical Practice: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, George; Abboudi, Hamid; Khan, Muhammed Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Deficiencies in teamwork skills have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of adverse events during surgery. Consequently, several teamwork assessment tools have been developed to evaluate trainee nontechnical performance. This paper aims to provide an overview of these instruments and review the validity of each tool. Furthermore, the present paper aims to review the deficiencies surrounding training and propose several recommendations to address these issues. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify teamwork assessment tools using MEDLINE (1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (1974 to August 2015), and PsycINFO (1806 to August 2015) databases. Results. Eight assessment tools which encompass aspects of teamwork were identified. The Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) assessment was found to possess the highest level of validity from a variety of sources; reliability and acceptability have also been established for this tool. Conclusions. Deficits in current surgical training pathways have prompted several recommendations to meet the evolving requirements of surgeons. Recommendations from the current paper include integration of teamwork training and assessment into medical school curricula, standardised formal training of assessors to ensure accurate evaluation of nontechnical skill acquisition, and integration of concurrent technical and nontechnical skills training throughout training. PMID:26425732

  4. Enhance Teamwork Outcomes through Guanxi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    According to a recent article in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" (April 2011), team assignments are increasingly prevalent in business schools. Not only are they ubiquitous, they are critically important, as our university's strategic plan states, "collaboration and teamwork are the keys to creating successful leaders."…

  5. Teamwork, Leadership, and Continuous Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, Wouter Alexander; Glaudemans, Andor; Medema, Jitze; Dierckx, Rudi; Ahaus, Kees

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the enhanced TeamSTEPPS® curriculum as fundament to creating a “culture of continuous improvement” in nuclear medicine. This evidence-based and modular teamwork system is deployed in concordance with a novel medical leadership development program. It provides a

  6. A framework for characterizing usability requirements elicitation and analysis methodologies (UREAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.J.M.; Kusters, R.J.; Mannaert, H.

    2012-01-01

    Dedicated methodologies for the elicitation and analysis of usability requirements have been proposed in literature, usually developed by usability experts. The usability of these approaches by non-expert software engineers is not obvious. In this paper, the objective is to support developers and

  7. Role of care pathways in interprofessional teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaria, Minimol Kulakkottu

    2016-08-24

    Cohesive interprofessional teamwork is essential to successful healthcare services. Interprofessional teamwork is the means by which different healthcare professionals - with diverse knowledge, skills and talents - collaborate to achieve a common goal. Several interventions are available to improve teamwork in the healthcare setting. This article explores the role of care pathways in improving interprofessional teamwork. Care pathways enhance teamwork by promoting coordination, collaboration, communication and decision making to achieve optimal healthcare outcomes. They result in improved staff knowledge, communication, documentation and interprofessional relations. Care pathways also contribute to patient-centred care and increase patient satisfaction.

  8. New mission requirements methodologies for services provided by the Office of Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dwight P.; Hall, J. R.; Macoughtry, William; Spearing, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Space Communications, NASA Headquarters, has recently revised its methodology for receiving, accepting and responding to customer requests for use of that office's tracking and communications capabilities. This revision is the result of a process which has become over-burdened by the size of the currently active and proposed missions set, requirements reviews that focus on single missions rather than on mission sets, and negotiations most often not completed early enough to effect needed additions to capacity or capability prior to launch. The requirements-coverage methodology described is more responsive to project/program needs and provides integrated input into the NASA budget process early enough to effect change, and describes the mechanisms and tools in place to insure a value-added process which will benefit both NASA and its customers. Key features of the requirements methodology include the establishment of a mechanism for early identification of and systems trades with new customers, and delegates the review and approval of requirements documents to NASA centers in lieu of Headquarters, thus empowering the system design teams to establish and negotiate the detailed requirements with the user. A Mission Requirements Request (MRR) is introduced to facilitate early customer interaction. The expected result is that the time to achieve an approved set of implementation requirements which meet the customer's needs can be greatly reduced. Finally, by increasing the discipline in requirements management, through the use of base lining procedures, a tighter coupling between customer requirements and the budget is provided. A twice-yearly projection of customer requirements accommodation, designated as the Capacity Projection Plan (CPP), provides customer feedback allowing the entire mission set to be serviced.

  9. Can methodological requirements be fulfilled when studying concealed or unethical research objects? The case of astroturfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie BOULAY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific soundness is key in the development of research designs. Methodological choices bear the responsibility to demonstrate its obtainment. However, it is challenging to abide by these standards while dealing with hidden, masked or unethical objects. In this article, we share the various strategies employed to aim at a sound scientific process in spite of astroturfing’s characteristics and of the methodological orientations it dictates. Facing the dilemma between the importance of scientific value and the richness of inductive and exploratory approaches, we question the influence of positivist research standards in communication studies. We fear these requirements may limit their development.

  10. A study of deficiencies in teamwork skills among Jordan caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Araidah, Omar; Al Theeb, Nader; Bader, Mariam; Mandahawi, Nabeel

    2018-05-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the deficiencies in teamwork skills at Jordan hospitals as seen by team members. The study aims to identify training needs to improve teamwork-related soft skills of caregivers to enhance staff satisfaction and improve quality of care. Moreover, the paper provides a methodology to identify the training needs in any healthcare workplace by repeating the same questionnaire. Design/methodology/approach A self-administrated questionnaire was designed to study deficiencies in teamwork and team leadership at Jordan hospitals as seen by team members. Surveyed care providers included physicians, nursing and anesthesiologists operating in emergency departments, surgical operating rooms and intensive care units from various hospitals. Findings With a response rate of 78.8 percent, statistical analysis of collected data of opposing staff members revealed low levels of satisfaction (40.7-48 percent opposing), lack of awareness on the impact of teamwork on quality of care (15.6-22.1 percent opposing), low levels of involvement of top management (27.1-57.3 percent opposing), lack of training (52.5-69.8 percent opposing), lack of leadership skills (29.8-60 percent opposing), lack of communication (22.3-62.1 percent opposing), lack of employee involvement (37.6-50.8 percent opposing) and lack of collaboration among team members (28.6-50 percent opposing). Among the many, results illustrate the need for improving leadership skills of team leaders, improving communication and involving team members in decision making. Originality/value Several studies investigated relationships between teamwork skills and quality of care in many countries. To the authors' knowledge, no local study investigated the deficiencies of teamwork skills among Jordan caregivers and its impact on quality of care. The study provides the ground for management at Jordan hospitals and to healthcare academic departments to tailor training courses to improve teamwork

  11. Teaching nurses teamwork: Integrative review of competency-based team training in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Glenn; Bruce, Anne; Schreiber, Rita

    2017-12-20

    Widespread demands for high reliability healthcare teamwork have given rise to many educational initiatives aimed at building team competence. Most effort has focused on interprofessional team training however; Registered Nursing teams comprise the largest human resource delivering direct patient care in hospitals. Nurses also influence many other health team outcomes, yet little is known about the team training curricula they receive, and furthermore what specific factors help translate teamwork competency to nursing practice. The aim of this review is to critically analyse empirical published work reporting on teamwork education interventions in nursing, and identify key educational considerations enabling teamwork competency in this group. CINAHL, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, and ERIC databases were searched and detailed inclusion-exclusion criteria applied. Studies (n = 19) were selected and evaluated using established qualitative-quantitative appraisal tools and a systematic constant comparative approach. Nursing teamwork knowledge is rooted in High Reliability Teams theory and Crew or Crisis Resource Management sources. Constructivist pedagogy is used to teach, practice, and refine teamwork competency. Nursing teamwork assessment is complex; involving integrated yet individualized determinations of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Future initiatives need consider frontline leadership, supportive followership and skilled communication emphasis. Collective stakeholder support is required to translate teamwork competency into nursing practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multidisciplinary teamwork and communication training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Shad; Johnston, Lindsay C; Colacchio, Kathryn

    2011-04-01

    Every delivery is a multidisciplinary event, involving nursing, obstetricians, anesthesiologists, and pediatricians. Patients are often in labor across multiple provider shifts, necessitating numerous handoffs between teams. Each handoff provides an opportunity for errors. Although a traditional approach to improving patient outcomes has been to address individual knowledge and skills, it is now recognized that a significant number of complications result from team, rather than individual, failures. In 2004, a Sentinel Alert issued by the Joint Commission revealed that most cases of perinatal death and injury are caused by problems with an organization's culture and communication failures. It was recommended that hospitals implement teamwork training programs in an effort to improve outcomes. Instituting a multidisciplinary teamwork training program that uses simulation offers a risk-free environment to practice skills, including communication, role clarification, and mutual support. This experience should improve patient safety and outcomes, as well as enhance employee morale. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Teamwork Reasoning and Multi-Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  14. Reflective writing as a tool for assessing teamwork in bioscience: insights into student performance and understanding of teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Lynne

    2012-07-01

    To ensure a modern bioscience curriculum that responds to the current needs of stakeholders, there is a need to embed a range of generic capabilities that enables graduates to succeed in and contribute to a rapidly changing world, as well as building strong bioscience skills and knowledge. The curriculum must also prepare students for a rapidly evolving competitive work place and align with the needs of industry. This creates a challenge, how do we develop generic capabilities without losing discipline content. This report analyses teamwork projects embedded in an undergraduate Biotechnology degree designed to promote teamwork skills along with a deeper understanding of the underpinning biochemistry. Student reflective writing was used to capture students' understanding and experience of teamwork as well as provide insight into their metacognition. The analysis demonstrates that 73% of Year 3 and 93% of Year 4 students were capable of learning about teamwork through reflective writing. While the importance of frequent high quality communication was a common theme, evidence suggests that many students were unsophisticated in their use of communication software. The analysis also highlighted the depth of metacognition that underpins successful team function and the significant weaknesses in self-insight some students possess. These findings challenge assumptions regarding student capacity for leadership and the ability of some students to contribute to successful team outcomes. It is essential for the design of teamwork experiences to fully understand the competencies that underlie teamwork, the metacognitive processes required, and ensure that assessments are fair and measure individual academic performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A methodology to quantify the stochastic distribution of friction coefficient required for level walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon; Lesch, Mary F

    2008-11-01

    The required friction coefficient is defined as the minimum friction needed at the shoe and floor interface to support human locomotion. The available friction is the maximum friction coefficient that can be supported without a slip at the shoe and floor interface. A statistical model was recently introduced to estimate the probability of slip and fall incidents by comparing the available friction with the required friction, assuming that both the available and required friction coefficients have stochastic distributions. This paper presents a methodology to investigate the stochastic distributions of the required friction coefficient for level walking. In this experiment, a walkway with a layout of three force plates was specially designed in order to capture a large number of successful strikes without causing fatigue in participants. The required coefficient of friction data of one participant, who repeatedly walked on this walkway under four different walking conditions, is presented as an example of the readiness of the methodology examined in this paper. The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test indicated that the required friction coefficient generated from each foot and walking condition by this participant appears to fit the normal, log-normal or Weibull distributions with few exceptions. Among these three distributions, the normal distribution appears to fit all the data generated with this participant. The average of successful strikes for each walk achieved with three force plates in this experiment was 2.49, ranging from 2.14 to 2.95 for each walking condition. The methodology and layout of the experimental apparatus presented in this paper are suitable for being applied to a full-scale study.

  16. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  17. Creating a Coordinated Game Plan: Improving Teamwork between Law Enforcement and the California National Guard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brooks, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    .... Emergency responders at the local and state level have frequent interaction, but clear protocols, guidelines and exercises are required to create the same level of teamwork with military assets...

  18. Teamwork and the National Security Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willoughby, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    .... However, concern exists that only rewarding individual performance may adversely impact teamwork, collaboration, and information sharing, which could ultimately impact organizational performance...

  19. Teamwork Assessment Tools in Obstetric Emergencies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwochei, Desire N; Halpern, Stephen; Balki, Mrinalini

    2017-06-01

    Team-based training and simulation can improve patient safety, by improving communication, decision making, and performance of team members. Currently, there is no general consensus on whether or not a specific assessment tool is better adapted to evaluate teamwork in obstetric emergencies. The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to find the tools available to assess team effectiveness in obstetric emergencies. We searched Embase, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Google Scholar for prospective studies that evaluated nontechnical skills in multidisciplinary teams involving obstetric emergencies. The search included studies from 1944 until January 11, 2016. Data on reliability and validity measures were collected and used for interpretation. A descriptive analysis was performed on the data. Thirteen studies were included in the final qualitative synthesis. All the studies assessed teams in the context of obstetric simulation scenarios, but only six included anesthetists in the simulations. One study evaluated their teamwork tool using just validity measures, five using just reliability measures, and one used both. The most reliable tools identified were the Clinical Teamwork Scale, the Global Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance, and the Global Rating Scale of performance. However, they were still lacking in terms of quality and validity. More work needs to be conducted to establish the validity of teamwork tools for nontechnical skills, and the development of an ideal tool is warranted. Further studies are required to assess how outcomes, such as performance and patient safety, are influenced when using these tools.

  20. A dataset of human decision-making in teamwork management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Shen, Zhiqi; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril; Chen, Yiqiang; Fauvel, Simon; Lin, Jun; Cui, Lizhen; Pan, Zhengxiang; Yang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Today, most endeavours require teamwork by people with diverse skills and characteristics. In managing teamwork, decisions are often made under uncertainty and resource constraints. The strategies and the effectiveness of the strategies different people adopt to manage teamwork under different situations have not yet been fully explored, partially due to a lack of detailed large-scale data. In this paper, we describe a multi-faceted large-scale dataset to bridge this gap. It is derived from a game simulating complex project management processes. It presents the participants with different conditions in terms of team members' capabilities and task characteristics for them to exhibit their decision-making strategies. The dataset contains detailed data reflecting the decision situations, decision strategies, decision outcomes, and the emotional responses of 1,144 participants from diverse backgrounds. To our knowledge, this is the first dataset simultaneously covering these four facets of decision-making. With repeated measurements, the dataset may help establish baseline variability of decision-making in teamwork management, leading to more realistic decision theoretic models and more effective decision support approaches.

  1. Teamwork in the Terminal Area: Organizational Issues and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Bonny K.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic growth and technology advances in commercial aviation have turned the terminal area into a complex, multi-organization workplace which requires the smooth coordination of many operational teams. In addition to pilots, cabin crew, air traffic controllers, and dispatch (who nominally work together throughout a flight), surface operations additionally involve local, ground and ramp controllers, ramp agents, maintenance, dozens of service contractors, and any number of teams who are responsible for airport operations. Under abnormal or emergency conditions, even more teams become actively involved. In order to accommodate growth and to meet productivity and safety challenges, numerous changes are being made in surface operations. Unfortunately, it is often the case that changes in technologies, organizational roles, procedures, and training are developed and implemented in isolated and piecemeal fashion without regard to cross organizational impact. Thus, there is a need for evaluation methodologies which assure integrated system safety for all organizations. Such methodologies should aid the understanding of how organizations work together and how changes in one domain affects the next. In this study, we develop one approach toward addressing these organizational issues. Examples of surface operations in abnormal situations are examined in regard to their impact on personnel in the terminal area. Timelines are given for the responses to incidents, along with the necessary communication links, the specific roles that members of terminal teams have, and any overlapping responsibilities. Suggestions to improve cross-operational teamwork are given. Methods of graphic representation are explored, both in regards to human links and access to information. The outcome of such an approach should enhance the understanding which is critical for resolving organizational conflicts and maximizing system effectiveness.

  2. Design methodology for the physical protection upgrade rule requirements for fixed sites. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.J. Jr.; Allen, T.

    1980-06-01

    This Design Methodology document aids the licensee in understanding how the fixed site requirements of the Physical Protection Upgrade Rule affect the design of physical protection systems for fuel processing plants, fuel manufacturing plants, or other fixed site special nuclear material operations involving possession or use of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material. The document consists of three major elements: Logic Trees, Safeguards Jobs and Component Matrices, and Effectiveness Test Questionnaires. The work is based upon a previous study conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  3. Two Hours of Teamwork Training Improves Teamwork in Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrest Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahramus, Tara L; Penoyer, Daleen A; Waterval, Eugene M E; Sole, Mary L; Bowe, Eileen M

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork during cardiopulmonary arrest events is important for resuscitation. Teamwork improvement programs are usually lengthy. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-hour teamwork training program. A prospective, pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design assessed the teamwork training program targeted to resident physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Participants took part in a simulated cardiac arrest. After the simulation, participants and trained observers assessed perceptions of teamwork using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (ratings of 0 [low] to 4 [high]). A debriefing and 45 minutes of teamwork education followed. Participants then took part in a second simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Afterward, participants and observers assessed teamwork. Seventy-three team members participated-resident physicians (25%), registered nurses (32%), and respiratory therapists (41%). The physicians had significantly less experience on code teams (P teamwork scores were 2.57 to 2.72. Participants' mean (SD) scores on the TEAM tool for the first and second simulations were 3.2 (0.5) and 3.7 (0.4), respectively (P teamwork educational intervention resulted in improved perceptions of teamwork behaviors. Participants reported interactions with other disciplines, teamwork behavior education, and debriefing sessions were beneficial for enhancing the program.

  4. Teamwork and Communication Skills in Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer L; Whyte, Richard I; Gangadharan, Sidhu P; Kent, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    Teamwork and communication skills are essential for the safe practice of cardiothoracic surgery. In this article, we will summarize the literature on teamwork and the culture of safety, and discuss how surgeons may directly improve the outcomes of their patients by addressing these factors. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Moving toward Teamwork through Professional Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Meghan M.; Theilheimer, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study of three Head Start Centers analyzed surveys, interviews, and focus group data to determine how education coordinators, teachers, and teacher assistants believed professional development activities could support teamwork at their centers. The researchers sorted data related to teamwork into four categories: knowledge and…

  6. Improving teamwork abilities across cultural differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Mirjam Irene

    2009-01-01

    The Belbin method has been applied at the education in Arctic Technology in Greenland as a way of improving the student’s teamwork abilities. The feedback from the students is that Belbin is a meaningful and relevant tool and they are very engaged during the teamwork exercises. They get...

  7. Toward an Optimal Pedagogy for Teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Mark A; Williams, Jason; Aagaard, Eva M

    2017-10-01

    Teamwork and collaboration are increasingly listed as core competencies for undergraduate health professions education. Despite the clear mandate for teamwork training, the optimal method for providing that training is much less certain. In this Perspective, the authors propose a three-level classification of pedagogical approaches to teamwork training based on the presence of two key learning factors: interdependent work and explicit training in teamwork. In this classification framework, level 1-minimal team learning-is where learners work in small groups but neither of the key learning factors is present. Level 2-implicit team learning-engages learners in interdependent learning activities but does not include an explicit focus on teamwork. Level 3-explicit team learning-creates environments where teams work interdependently toward common goals and are given explicit instruction and practice in teamwork. The authors provide examples that demonstrate each level. They then propose that the third level of team learning, explicit team learning, represents a best practice approach in teaching teamwork, highlighting their experience with an explicit team learning course at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. Finally, they discuss several challenges to implementing explicit team-learning-based curricula: the lack of a common teamwork model on which to anchor such a curriculum; the question of whether the knowledge, skills, and attitudes acquired during training would be transferable to the authentic clinical environment; and effectively evaluating the impact of explicit team learning.

  8. Teamwork, Soft Skills, and Research Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Anaïs; Tozer, Wade C; Westoby, Mark

    2017-02-01

    We provide a list of soft skills that are important for collaboration and teamwork, based on our own experience and from an opinion survey of team leaders. Each skill can be learned to some extent. We also outline workable short courses for graduate schools to strengthen teamwork and collaboration skills among research students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Teamwork in skull base surgery: An avenue for improvement in patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Carrau, Ricardo L; Kelly, Daniel F; Prevedello, Daniel M; Kassam, Amin B

    2013-01-01

    During the past several decades, numerous centers have acquired significant expertise in the treatment of skull base pathologies. Favorable outcomes are not only due to meticulous surgical planning and execution, but they are also related to the collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines. We review the impact of teamwork on patient care, elaborate on the key processes for successful teamwork, and discuss its challenges. Pubmed and Medline databases were searched for publications from 1970 to 2012 using the following keywords: "teamwork", "multidisciplinary", "interdisciplinary", "surgery", "skull base", "neurosurgery", "tumor", and "outcome". Current literature testifies to the complexity of establishing and maintaining teamwork. To date, few reports on the impact of teamwork in the management of skull base pathologies have been published. This lack of literature is somewhat surprising given that most patients with skull base pathology receive care from multiple specialists. Common factors for success include a cohesive and well-integrated team structure with well-defined procedural organization. Although a multidisciplinary work force has clear advantages for improving today's quality of care and propelling research efforts for tomorrow's cure, teamwork is not intuitive and requires training, guidance, and executive support. Teamwork is recommended to improve quality over the full cycle of care and consequently patient outcomes. Increased recognition of the value of an integrated team approach for skull base pathologies will hopefully encourage centers, physicians, allied health caregivers, and scientists devoted to treating these patients and advancing the field of knowledge to invest the time, effort, and resources to optimize and organize their collective expertise.

  10. An exploration of emergency nurses' perceptions, attitudes and experience of teamwork in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Elise; Porter, Joanne E; Morphet, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Teamwork may assist with increased levels of efficiency and safety of patient care in the emergency department (ED), with emergency nurses playing an indispensable role in this process. A descriptive, exploratory approach was used, drawing on principles from phenomenology and symbolic interactionism. Convenience, purposive sampling was used in a major metropolitan ED. Semi structured interviews were conducted, audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Three major themes emerged from the data. The first theme 'when teamwork works' supported the notion that emergency nurses perceived teamwork as a positive and effective construct in four key areas; resuscitation, simulation training, patient outcomes and staff satisfaction. The second theme 'team support' revealed that back up behaviour and leadership were critical elements of team effectiveness within the study setting. The third theme 'no time for teamwork' centred around periods when teamwork practices failed due to various contributing factors including inadequate resources and skill mix. Outcomes of effective teamwork were valued by emergency nurses. Teamwork is about performance, and requires a certain skill set not necessarily naturally possessed among emergency nurses. Building a resilient team inclusive of strong leadership and communication skills is essential to being able to withstand the challenging demands of the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Learning to Collaborate by Collaborating: A Face-to-Face Collaborative Activity for Measuring and Learning Basics about Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, C.; Nussbaum, M.; Woywood, G.; Aravena, R.

    2009-01-01

    In today's fast-changing business environment, teams have emerged as a requirement for business success. However, in schools and universities, students are usually not taught teamwork skills. In this paper, we introduce learning to collaborate by collaborating, a process that enables collaboration and teamwork skills to be taught and measured…

  12. Health professionals' experience of teamwork education in acute hospital settings: a systematic review of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kylie; Jordan, Zoe; Stephenson, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    standardized critical appraisal tool the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) was used to assess the methodological quality of included papers. Data that included statements and text of interest was extracted from papers included in the study using the standardized data extraction tool from JBI-QARI. Qualitative research findings were pooled using JBI-QARI. This involved the aggregation and synthesis of findings to generate a set of statements that represented that aggregation. In total, 116 papers were selected for analysis of full text, 11 papers were selected for critical appraisal and seven papers were selected for data synthesis. This resulted in 44 findings. The findings were assigned to 16 categories based on identified similarities across the papers. The categories were integrated into six meta-syntheses. These were: Meta-synthesis One: It is important to recognize that organizational culture and expectations have an impact on health professionals' participation and experience of teamwork education. Meta-synthesis Two: Understanding how successful teams function is central to the development of teamwork education programs and the experience of participants. Meta-synthesis Three: A health professional's experience of teamwork education will be influenced by his/her starting point of learning. Meta-synthesis Four: Participants highly value teamwork education programs that are implemented by facilitators who create practical authentic learning opportunities and foster reflection and debriefing for participants. Meta-synthesis Five: High fidelity simulation used with specific communication strategies provides a powerful learning opportunity for health professions to practice teamwork skills. Meta-synthesis Six: Participants have increased confidence and are motivated to apply their newly learnt teamwork skills into their daily practice. The review identified qualitative evidence that can guide organizations and education

  13. New analytical methodology to reach the actinide determination accuracy ({+-} 2%) required by the OSMOSE program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer-Deslys, V.; Combaluzier, T.; Dalier, V.; Martin, J.C.; Viallesoubranne, C. [DRCP/SE2A/LAMM, CEA/VALRHO - Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Crozet, M. [LEHA, CEA/VALRHO - Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the analytical procedure optimized by LAMM (Laboratory for Analysis and Materials Methodology) in order to characterize the actinide-doped pellets used in the Osmose (Oscillation in Minerve of isotopes in eupraxis spectra) program (developed for transmutation reactor physics). Osmose aims at providing precise experimental data (absorption cross sections) for heavy nuclides (atomic mass from 232 to 245). This procedure requires the use of the analytical equipment and expertise of the LAMM: TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer), ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) QMS (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), SFMS (Sector Field Mass Spectrometer), AES (Atomic Emission Spectrometer), alpha spectrometry and photo-gravimetric analysis. These techniques have met all the specification requirements: extended uncertainties (k=2) below {+-} 2% on the uranium and dopant concentrations, the impurity concentration and the americium-241 concentration.

  14. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF SOUND INSULATION OF APARTMENTS’ ENCLOSING STRUCTURES TO MEET NOISE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: an important task in the design of internal enclosing structures of apartments is the establishment of their required soundproofing ability. At present, there is no reliable method for determining the required sound insulation and in this regard internal enclosures are designed without proper justification for noise protection. Research objectives: development of a technique for determining the required sound insulation of apartment’s internal enclosures to ensure an acceptable noise regime in the apartments’ rooms under the action of intra-apartment noise sources. Materials and methods: the methodology was developed on the basis of a statistical method for noise calculation in the apartments, treated as systems of acoustically coupled proportionate rooms, and with the help of a computer program that implements this method. Results: the technique makes it possible to generate, with the use of computer technologies, a targeted selection of internal enclosures of the apartment to meet their soundproofing requirements. Conclusions: the technique proposed in the article can be used at the design stage of apartments when determining the required soundproofing of partitions and doors. Using this technique, it is possible to harmonize the sound insulation ratio of individual elements among themselves and thereby guarantee a selection of internal structures for their acoustic and economic efficiency.

  15. Didactic content and teaching methodologies on required allopathic US family medicine clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiebert, L P; Aspy, C B

    1999-02-01

    Despite the increased prominence of family medicine clerkships in required third- and fourth-year clinical rotations in US allopathic medical schools, the content of these clerkships varies markedly among institutions, and there is little in the literature concerning the current or desired content of family medicine clerkships. This study explores the didactic content of a national sample of required family medicine clerkships to assess what and how this important aspect of clerkship curriculum is taught. Using an original survey instrument, we surveyed US medical schools through mailings and follow-up phone contacts. We categorized free-form responses using a coding dictionary specific to this study and computed descriptive statistics. Of 127 medical schools contacted, 105 (83%) responded. Among respondents, 86 (82%) had a required family medicine clerkship, 80% of them in the third year. Mean clerkship length was 5.3 weeks (median = 4 weeks), and the mean number of didactic sessions was about 2 per week. Almost 80% of clerkships had sessions in the broad area of family medicine, and prevention was the most frequent individual topic, taught in 32 (37%) of clerkships. Seventy-one percent of sessions used methodologies other than lectures. The mean time devoted to teaching 24 of the top 26 topics identified in the survey was between 1.2 and 3.1 hours/rotation, although case presentations and common problems each averaged more than 7 hours on clerkships teaching these topics. This survey provided more detailed information than previously available about the didactic content of required US allopathic family medicine clerkships. The survey also documented the lack of agreement among these clerkships on didactic content. Most didactic sessions used interactive rather than lecture format. The information from this first detailed survey provides family medicine clerkship directors with national comparisons of didactic content and methodology as a foundation for further

  16. Interprofessional Teamwork and Collaboration Between Community Health Workers and Healthcare Teams: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Catherine M; Bernhardt, Jean M; Lopez, Ruth Palan; Long-Middleton, Ellen R; Davis, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Community Health Workers (CHWs) serve as a means of improving outcomes for underserved populations. However, their relationship within health care teams is not well studied. The purpose of this integrative review was to examine published research reports that demonstrated positive health outcomes as a result of CHW intervention to identify interprofessional teamwork and collaboration between CHWs and health care teams. A total of 47 studies spanning 33 years were reviewed using an integrative literature review methodology for evidence to support the following assumptions of effective interprofessional teamwork between CHWs and health care teams: (1) shared understanding of roles, norms, values, and goals of the team; (2) egalitarianism; (3) cooperation; (4) interdependence; and(5) synergy. Of the 47 studies, 12 reported at least one assumption of effective interprofessional teamwork. Four studies demonstrated all 5 assumptions of interprofessional teamwork. Four studies identified in this integrative review serve as exemplars for effective interprofessional teamwork between CHWs and health care teams. Further study is needed to describe the nature of interprofessional teamwork and collaboration in relation to patient health outcomes.

  17. Teaching interprofessional teamwork skills to health professional students: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lanae; Onders, Robert; Hermansen-Kobulnicky, Carol J; Nguyen, Thanh-Nga; Myran, Leena; Linn, Becky; Hornecker, Jaime

    2018-03-01

    An expanding body of literature is examining interprofessional teamwork and its effect in healthcare. To produce capable healthcare professionals prepared to participate in interprofessional roles, teamwork training must begin early in health professional students' training. The focus of this scoping review was to explore interprofessional education (IPE) studies designed to teach and/or assess interprofessional teamwork skills to students from two or more different health professions, to find and describe effective pedagogy and assessment strategies. Using a scoping review methodology, 1,106 abstracts were reviewed by three teams of investigators. Eligibility criteria were inclusion of students in interprofessional teams, an intervention to improve interprofessional teamwork skills and assessment of outcomes related to teamwork. Thirty-three studies met the criteria for inclusion. The literature was varied in terms of study design, teaching methods and assessment measures for interprofessional teamwork. The lack of rigorous, comparable studies in this area makes recommending one teaching method or assessment measure over another difficult. Regardless of teaching method, it appears that most learning activities where interprofessional teams interact result in positive changes in student perceptions and attitudes towards IPE and practice. As health education programs seek to incorporate more interprofessional activities into their respective programs, it is important to review methods and measures that would best fit their individual program. This review highlights the importance of standardising the reporting of methods and outcomes for those who wish to incorporate the studied methods into their curricula.

  18. Interprofessional Teamwork and Collaboration Between Community Health Workers and Healthcare Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Jean M.; Lopez, Ruth Palan; Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Davis, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Community Health Workers (CHWs) serve as a means of improving outcomes for underserved populations. However, their relationship within health care teams is not well studied. The purpose of this integrative review was to examine published research reports that demonstrated positive health outcomes as a result of CHW intervention to identify interprofessional teamwork and collaboration between CHWs and health care teams. Methods: A total of 47 studies spanning 33 years were reviewed using an integrative literature review methodology for evidence to support the following assumptions of effective interprofessional teamwork between CHWs and health care teams: (1) shared understanding of roles, norms, values, and goals of the team; (2) egalitarianism; (3) cooperation; (4) interdependence; and(5) synergy. Results: Of the 47 studies, 12 reported at least one assumption of effective interprofessional teamwork. Four studies demonstrated all 5 assumptions of interprofessional teamwork. Conclusions: Four studies identified in this integrative review serve as exemplars for effective interprofessional teamwork between CHWs and health care teams. Further study is needed to describe the nature of interprofessional teamwork and collaboration in relation to patient health outcomes. PMID:28462254

  19. Perceptions of team workers in youth care of what makes teamwork effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljac-Samardzic, M; van Wijngaarden, J D H; van Wijk, K P; van Exel, N J A

    2011-05-01

    In youth care, little is known about what makes teamwork effective. What is known mostly reflects the view of managers in care organisations, as objective outcome measures are lacking. The objective of this article was to explore the views of youth care workers in different types of teams on the relative importance of characteristics of teamwork for its effectiveness. Q methodology was used. Fifty-one respondents rank-order 34 opinion statements regarding characteristics of teamwork. Individual Q sorts were analysed using by-person factor analysis. The resulting factors, which represented team workers' views of what is important for effective teamwork, were interpreted and described using composite rankings of the statements for each factor and corresponding team workers' explanations. We found three views of what makes teamwork effective. One view emphasised interaction between team members as most important for team effectiveness. A second view pointed to team characteristics that help sustain communication within teams as being most important. In the third view, the team characteristics that facilitate individuals to perform as a team member were put forward as most important for teamwork to be effective. In conclusion, different views exist on what makes a team effective in youth care. These views correspond with the different types of teams active in youth care as well as in other social care settings. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Assessing teamwork performance in obstetrics: A systematic search and review of validated tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Annemarie F; de Boer, Liza; Kienhorst, Dieneke; Truijens, Sophie E; van Runnard Heimel, Pieter J; Oei, S Guid

    2017-09-01

    Teamwork performance is an essential component for the clinical efficiency of multi-professional teams in obstetric care. As patient safety is related to teamwork performance, it has become an important learning goal in simulation-based education. In order to improve teamwork performance, reliable assessment tools are required. These can be used to provide feedback during training courses, or to compare learning effects between different types of training courses. The aim of the current study is to (1) identify the available assessment tools to evaluate obstetric teamwork performance in a simulated environment, and (2) evaluate their psychometric properties in order to identify the most valuable tool(s) to use. We performed a systematic search in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE to identify articles describing assessment tools for the evaluation of obstetric teamwork performance in a simulated environment. In order to evaluate the quality of the identified assessment tools the standards and grading rules have been applied as recommended by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Committee on Educational Outcomes. The included studies were also assessed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) levels of evidence. This search resulted in the inclusion of five articles describing the following six tools: Clinical Teamwork Scale, Human Factors Rating Scale, Global Rating Scale, Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance, Global Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance, and the Teamwork Measurement Tool. Based on the ACGME guidelines we assigned a Class 3, level C of evidence, to all tools. Regarding the OCEBM levels of evidence, a level 3b was assigned to two studies and a level 4 to four studies. The Clinical Teamwork Scale demonstrated the most comprehensive validation, and the Teamwork Measurement Tool demonstrated promising results, however it is recommended to further investigate its reliability. Copyright © 2017

  1. A Conceptual Methodology for Assessing Acquisition Requirements Robustness against Technology Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shuo-Ju

    2011-12-01

    -makers with the ability to assess or measure the robustness of program requirements against such uncertainties. A literature review of techniques for forecasting technology performance and development uncertainties and subsequent impacts on capability, budget, and schedule requirements resulted in the conclusion that an analysis process that coupled a probabilistic analysis technique such as Monte Carlo Simulations with quantitative and parametric models of technology performance impact and technology development time and cost requirements would allow the probabilities of meeting specific constraints of these requirements to be established. These probabilities of requirements success metrics can then be used as a quantitative and probabilistic measure of program requirements robustness against technology uncertainties. Combined with a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm optimization process and computer-based Decision Support System, critical information regarding requirements robustness against technology uncertainties can be captured and quantified for acquisition decision-makers. This results in a more informed and justifiable selection of program technologies during initial program definition as well as formulation of program development and risk management strategies. To meet the stated research objective, the ENhanced TEchnology Robustness Prediction and RISk Evaluation (ENTERPRISE) methodology was formulated to provide a structured and transparent process for integrating these enabling techniques to provide a probabilistic and quantitative assessment of acquisition program requirements robustness against technology performance and development uncertainties. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the ENTERPRISE method and test the research Hypotheses, an demonstration application of this method was performed on a notional program for acquiring the Carrier-based Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) using Unmanned Combat Aircraft Systems (UCAS) and their enabling

  2. Effective Teamwork Practical Lessons from Organizational Research

    CERN Document Server

    West, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Updated to reflect the latest research evidence, the third edition of Effective Teamwork provides business managers with the necessary guidance and tools to build and maintain effective teamwork strategies. A new edition of a bestselling book on teamwork from an acknowledged leader in the fieldOffers a unique integration of rigorous research with practical guidance to develop effective leadership teamsFeatures new chapters on virtual teams and top management teams, plus contemporary themes of ethics and valuesUtilizes research based on positive psychology techniques

  3. Practice development units: a study of teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M; Walsh, A

    In this report of a study using the Team Climate Inventory (TCI) tool, the researchers explain how the tool can be used in preparation for creating a practice development unit (PDU). The TCI provides a picture of the level and quality of teamwork in a unit using a series of Likert scales. The ward in this study was found to lack the necessary level of teamwork for successful PDU development and the researchers show how this information shaped trust plans. They recommend that units contemplating PDU accreditation should assess their level of teamwork prior to proceeding with bids.

  4. The Relationship between Teamwork and Organizational Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Işık

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significant relationships between communication, openness to innovation, participation-trust in teamwork and organizational trust, trust in management, trust in co-workers, and trust in workplace.

  5. Effects of team-building on communication and teamwork among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Y J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of team-building on communication and teamwork (i.e. teamwork skills and team effectiveness) among nursing students. Team-building is effective for improving communication and teamwork among the nursing organization. However, the effects of team-building are not well known especially in Korea. This study used a quasi-experimental design. The sample was composed of 195 junior-year nursing students in Korea. The experimental group (100 subjects) participated in team-building activities over a 100-day period, whereas no intervention was applied to the control group (95 subjects). Pretest was conducted in both groups, and post-test was conducted after the 100-day intervention. The pre-post change in mean communication competence score did not differ between the two groups. However, the mean scores for teamwork skills and team effectiveness differed significantly between the two groups after team-building activity. This study was not a double-blind test, and randomized sampling was not implemented. Caution should thus be used when interpreting the findings. Team-building activities were effective for improving the teamwork skills and team effectiveness among Korean nursing students. It is recommended that team-building activities should be included regularly as an integral educational approach in nursing education. The findings suggest that suggests that team-building for improving communication and teamwork should be designated as one of the required criteria for nursing college programme accreditation in many countries, including Korea. However team-building requires further testing to verify this across cultures. Nurses need to receive formal team-building training for improving communication and teamwork, and formal education should be included in their job training schedule. It is recommended that communication competence and teamwork be used as one of job performance evaluations in their workplace. © 2015

  6. The Impact of Video Gaming on Decision-Making and Teamworking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus-Wide Information Systems, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the considerable impact of video gaming on young players' decision-making and teamworking skills, and the belief that video games provide an invaluable "training camp" for business. Design/methodology/approach: An interview with John Beck, the author of the book Got Game: How a New Generation of Gamers Is Reshaping Business…

  7. Operating room teamwork among physicians and nurses: teamwork in the eye of the beholder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makary, Martin A; Sexton, J Bryan; Freischlag, Julie A; Holzmueller, Christine G; Millman, E Anne; Rowen, Lisa; Pronovost, Peter J

    2006-05-01

    Teamwork is an important component of patient safety. In fact, communication errors are the most common cause of sentinel events and wrong-site operations in the US. Although efforts to improve patient safety through improving teamwork are growing, there is no validated tool to scientifically measure teamwork in the surgical setting. Operating room personnel in 60 hospitals were surveyed using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Surgeons, anesthesiologists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and operating room nurses rated their own peers and each other using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = very low, 5 = very high). Overall response rate was 77.1% (2,135 of 2,769). Ratings of teamwork differed substantially by operating room caregiver type, with the greatest differences in ratings shown by physicians: surgeons (F[4, 2058] = 41.73, p teamwork exist in the operating room, with physicians rating the teamwork of others as good, but at the same time, nurses perceive teamwork as mediocre. Given the importance of communication and collaboration in patient safety, health care organizations should measure teamwork using a scientifically valid method. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire can be used to measure teamwork, identify disconnects between or within disciplines, and evaluate interventions aimed at improving patient safety.

  8. Profil Teamwork Skill sebagai Gambaran Kemampuan Kompetitif Mahasiswa

    OpenAIRE

    Chayati, Ichda; Purwanti, Sutriyati; Nugraheni, Mutiara

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: 1) to identify the profile of the Hospitality Engineering Education students’ teamwork skills, 2) to identify the profile of the Hospitality Engineering Students’ teamwork skills, 3) to describe the general overview of the students’ teamwork skills, 4) to identify the group of Bachelor program with the highest and the lowest teamwork skills, 5) to identify the group of the Associate program with the highest and the lowest teamwork skills. This study was a des...

  9. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42...

  10. A Teamwork Approach to Communications and Typewriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrier, Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Describes a teamwork approach in which business communications students handwrite letters to be prepared by typewriting students; the letters are then revised and graded by the respective teachers. Both sets of students benefit from this simulated office experience. (SK)

  11. Training for teamwork through in situ simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Asta; Poehlman, Jon; Bollenbacher, John; Riggan, Scott; Davis, Stan; Miller, Kristi; Ivester, Thomas; Kahwati, Leila

    2015-01-01

    In situ simulations allow healthcare teams to practice teamwork and communication as well as clinical management skills in a team's usual work setting with typically available resources and equipment. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate how to plan and conduct in situ simulation training sessions, with particular emphasis on how such training can be used to improve communication and teamwork. The video features an in situ simulation conducted at a labour and delivery unit in response to postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:26294962

  12. The potential improvement of team-working skills in Biomedical and Natural Science students using a problem-based learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    Forough L. Nowrouzian; Anne Farewell

    2013-01-01

    Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled. This development requires that students gain experience of team-work before they start their professional career. Students working in teams this may ...

  13. Family physicians' perspectives on interprofessional teamwork: Findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafran, Olga; Torti, Jacqueline M I; Kennett, Sandra L; Bell, Neil R

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe family physicians' perspectives of their role in the primary care team and factors that facilitate and hinder teamwork. A qualitative study was conducted employing individual interviews with 19 academic/community-based family physicians who were part of interprofessional primary care teams in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Professional responsibilities and roles of physicians within the team and the facilitators and barriers to teamwork were investigated. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed for emerging themes. The study findings revealed that family physicians consistently perceived themselves as having the leadership role on in the primary care team. Facilitators of teamwork included: communication; trust and respect; defined roles/responsibilities of team members; co-location; task shifting to other health professionals; and appropriate payment mechanisms. Barriers to teamwork included: undefined roles/responsibilities; lack of space; frequent staff turnover; network boundaries; and a culture of power and control. The findings suggest that moving family physicians toward more integrative and interdependent functioning within the primary care team will require overcoming the culture of traditional professional roles, addressing facilitators and barriers to teamwork, and providing training in teamwork.

  14. Teamwork Satisfaction: Exploring the Multilevel Interaction of Teamwork Interest and Group Extraversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kimberly A.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling is used to examine the impact of teamwork interest and group extraversion on group satisfaction. Participants included 206 undergraduates in 65 groups who were surveyed at the beginning and end of a requisite term-length group project for an upper-division university course. We hypothesized that teamwork interest and both…

  15. Assessing Teamwork in Undergraduate Education: A Measurement Tool to Evaluate Individual Teamwork Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Emily; Simper, Natalie; Leger, Andrew; Stephenson, Jenn

    2017-01-01

    Effective teamwork skills are essential for success in an increasingly team-based workplace. However, research suggests that there is often confusion concerning how teamwork is measured and assessed, making it difficult to develop these skills in undergraduate curricula. The goal of the present study was to develop a sustainable tool for assessing…

  16. Establishment of Requirements and Methodology for the Development and Implementation of GreyMatters, a Memory Clinic Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapuria, Archana; Evans, Matt; Curcin, Vasa; Austin, Tony; Lea, Nathan; Kalra, Dipak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to establish the requirements and methodology for the development process of GreyMatters, a memory clinic system, outlining the conceptual, practical, technical and ethical challenges, and the experiences of capturing clinical and research oriented data along with the implementation of the system. The methodology for development of the information system involved phases of requirements gathering, modeling and prototype creation, and 'bench testing' the prototype with experts. The standard Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) recommended approach for the specifications of software requirements was adopted. An electronic health record (EHR) standard, EN13606 was used, and clinical modelling was done through archetypes and the project complied with data protection and privacy legislation. The requirements for GreyMatters were established. Though the initial development was complex, the requirements, methodology and standards adopted made the construction, deployment, adoption and population of a memory clinic and research database feasible. The electronic patient data including the assessment scales provides a rich source of objective data for audits and research and to establish study feasibility and identify potential participants for the clinical trials. The establishment of requirements and methodology, addressing issues of data security and confidentiality, future data compatibility and interoperability and medico-legal aspects such as access controls and audit trails, led to a robust and useful system. The evaluation supports that the system is an acceptable tool for clinical, administrative, and research use and forms a useful part of the wider information architecture.

  17. Oil Well Blowout 3D computational modeling: review of methodology and environmental requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Mello Paiva; Alexandre Nunes Barreto; Jader Lugon Junior; Leticia Ferraço de Campos

    2016-01-01

    This literature review aims to present the different methodologies used in the three-dimensional modeling of the hydrocarbons dispersion originated from an oil well blowout. It presents the concepts of coastal environmental sensitivity and vulnerability, their importance for prioritizing the most vulnerable areas in case of contingency, and the relevant legislation. We also discuss some limitations about the methodology currently used in environmental studies of oil drift, which considers sim...

  18. Extended teamwork: team performance in highly automated nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) operation is in essence a teamwork task. The central control-room (CCR) operators are required to co-operate to achieve the operational goals, and they further depend on the assistance of the field operators and, at least in modern plants, on the assistance of the high-level automatic system. Future NPPs (e.g., advanced reactors) are foreseen to contain substantially higher automation levels, reduced staffing, and redefined roles of the remaining staff, as compared to the present situation. This paper suggests that in future plants, in which the autonomy and authority of the automatic system and of the field operators are increased, the transactions between the CCR operators and automatic system/field operators might most efficiently be conceptualized within the framework of co-operation, and thus teamwork. This framework has typically been restricted to conceptualizations of the transactions between the CCR operators, but in future settings, co-ordination, communication and mutual support between the CCR operators and the field operators/automatic system may be of increased importance for sustaining plant safety, as compared to the present situation. The paper further argues that human-system interfaces in future NPPs should be designed to support the activities of the extended team consisting of the CCR operators, the field operators, and the automatic system. The paper outlines an exploratory study aimed at generating ideas on how extended teamwork quality may be promoted. The study is currently foreseen to comprise two exemplary design solutions: a state-of-the art screen-based control-room (baseline condition) and a possible future control-room in which the activities of the field operators and the automatic system are explicitly represented on the human-system interface, where the authority and autonomy of these are increased, and the staffing level reduced, as compared to the baseline condition. The study will explore extended

  19. Extended teamwork: team performance in highly automated nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) operation is in essence a teamwork task. The central control-room (CCR) operators are required to co-operate to achieve the operational goals, and they further depend on the assistance of the field operators and, at least in modern plants, on the assistance of the high-level automatic system. Future NPPs (e.g., advanced reactors) are foreseen to contain substantially higher automation levels, reduced staffing, and redefined roles of the remaining staff, as compared to the present situation. This paper suggests that in future plants, in which the autonomy and authority of the automatic system and of the field operators are increased, the transactions between the CCR operators and automatic system/field operators might most efficiently be conceptualized within the framework of co-operation, and thus teamwork. This framework has typically been restricted to conceptualizations of the transactions between the CCR operators, but in future settings, co-ordination, communication and mutual support between the CCR operators and the field operators/automatic system may be of increased importance for sustaining plant safety, as compared to the present situation. The paper further argues that human-system interfaces in future NPPs should be designed to support the activities of the extended team consisting of the CCR operators, the field operators, and the automatic system. The paper outlines an exploratory study aimed at generating ideas on how extended teamwork quality may be promoted. The study is currently foreseen to comprise two exemplary design solutions: a state-of-the art screen-based control-room (baseline condition) and a possible future control-room in which the activities of the field operators and the automatic system are explicitly represented on the human-system interface, where the authority and autonomy of these are increased, and the staffing level reduced, as compared to the baseline condition. The study will explore extended

  20. "Teamwork in hospitals": a quasi-experimental study protocol applying a human factors approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangrud, Randi; Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Aase, Karina; Aaberg, Oddveig Reiersdal; Vifladt, Anne; Berg, Geir Vegard; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    Effective teamwork and sufficient communication are critical components essential to patient safety in today's specialized and complex healthcare services. Team training is important for an improved efficiency in inter-professional teamwork within hospitals, however the scientific rigor of studies must be strengthen and more research is required to compare studies across samples, settings and countries. The aims of the study are to translate and validate teamwork questionnaires and investigate healthcare personnel's perception of teamwork in hospitals (Part 1). Further to explore the impact of an inter-professional teamwork intervention in a surgical ward on structure, process and outcome (Part 2). To address the aims, a descriptive, and explorative design (Part 1), and a quasi-experimental interventional design will be applied (Part 2). The study will be carried out in five different hospitals (A-E) in three hospital trusts in Norway. Frontline healthcare personnel in Hospitals A and B, from both acute and non-acute departments, will be invited to respond to three Norwegian translated teamwork questionnaires (Part 1). An inter-professional teamwork intervention in line with the TeamSTEPPS recommend Model of Change will be implemented in a surgical ward at Hospital C. All physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses in the intervention ward and two control wards (Hospitals D and E) will be invited to to survey their perception of teamwork, team decision making, safety culture and attitude towards teamwork before intervention and after six and 12 months. Adult patients admitted to the intervention surgical unit will be invited to survey their perception of quality of care during their hospital stay before intervention and after six and 12 month. Moreover, anonymous patient registry data from local registers and data from patients' medical records will be collected (Part 2). This study will help to understand the impact of an inter-professional teamwork

  1. Nurses' perceptions of teamwork and workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Todd R; Michael Malone, D

    2018-01-22

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between nurses' perceptions and attitudes of teamwork and workplace bullying. A total of 128 nurses in two hospitals in the northeast USA completed three surveys: Attitudes about teamwork survey, Team characteristics survey, and Negative intention questionnaire. A majority of nurses believed that teamwork was an important vehicle for providing quality patient care. Two thirds of the nurses reported the presence of important variables such as leadership, trust and communication on their teams. Despite these positive perceptions, a third of the nurses reported being bullied and half observed others being bullied. A number of effective team skills were associated with fewer occurrences of workplace bullying. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Virtual teamwork - Panoptic or Interactive Work design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of virtual teamwork represents a dynamic response to globalization, the growth of communication technologies and dismantling of industrial based organizational hierarchies. These developments pose new challenges as the completion of the distributed tasks must be integrated across th...... the barriers of cultural differences, and with fewer face-to-face clues, Virtual teamwork involves demands regarding communication, trust and knowledge. The implications for future work design are immense, and still open for clarification and discussion.......The emergence of virtual teamwork represents a dynamic response to globalization, the growth of communication technologies and dismantling of industrial based organizational hierarchies. These developments pose new challenges as the completion of the distributed tasks must be integrated across...

  3. The Relationship between Teamwork and Organizational Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Isik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical  methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significant relationships between communication, openness to innovation, participation-trust in teamwork and organizational trust, trust in management, trust in co-workers, and trust in workplace.

  4. 'TeamUP': An approach to developing teamwork skills in undergraduate midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Carolyn Ruth

    2018-03-01

    to develop an effective model to enable educators to teach, develop and assess the development of midwifery students' teamwork skills DESIGN: an action research project involving participant interviews and academic feedback. a regional university PARTICIPANTS: midwifery students (n = 21) and new graduate midwives (n = 20) INTERVENTIONS: a whole of course program using a rubric, with five teamwork domains and behavioural descriptors, to provide a framework for teaching and assessment. Students self and peer assess. Lectures, tutorials and eight different groupwork assignments of increasing difficulty, spread over the three years of the undergraduate degree are incorporated into the TeamUP model. the assignments provide students with the opportunity to practice and develop their teamwork skills in a safe, supported environment. the social, emotional and practical behaviours required for effective teamwork can be taught and developed in undergraduate health students. students require a clear overview of the TeamUP model at the beginning of the degree. They need to be informed of the skills and behaviours that the TeamUP model is designed to help develop and why they are important. The success of the model depends upon the educator's commitment to supporting students to learn teamwork skills. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Personality, relationship conflict, and teamwork-related mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vîrgă, D.; Curseu, P.L.; Maricuţoiu, L.; Sava, S.A.; Macsinga, I.; Măgurean, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested

  6. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42 work units in a multi-site hospital system were examined. Results underscored the particular importance of teamwork on worker injuries as well as the importance of management commitment to safety as relating to teamwork. To improve worker safety, organizational leaders and unit managers should work to maintain environments wherein teamwork can thrive.

  7. Teamwork and Clinical Error Reporting among Nurses in Korean Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-In Hwang, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Teamwork was rated as moderate and was positively associated with nurses' error reporting performance. Hospital executives and nurse managers should make substantial efforts to enhance teamwork, which will contribute to encouraging the reporting of errors and improving patient safety.

  8. Improving teamwork: impact of structured interdisciplinary rounds on a hospitalist unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kevin J; Haviley, Corinne; Slade, Maureen E; Shah, Hiren M; Lee, Jungwha; Williams, Mark V

    2011-02-01

    Effective collaboration and teamwork is essential in providing safe and effective care. Research reveals deficiencies in teamwork on medical units involving hospitalists. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an intervention, Structured Inter-Disciplinary Rounds (SIDR), on nurses' ratings of collaboration and teamwork. The study was a controlled trial involving an intervention and control hospitalist unit. The intervention, SIDR, combined a structured format for communication with a forum for regular interdisciplinary meetings. We asked nurses to rate the quality of communication and collaboration with hospitalists using a 5-point ordinal scale. We also assessed teamwork and safety climate using a validated instrument. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the impact on length of stay (LOS) and cost using both a concurrent and historic control. A total of 49 of 58 (84%) nurses completed surveys. A larger percentage of nurses rated the quality of communication and collaboration with hospitalists as high or very high on the intervention unit compared to the control unit (80% vs. 54%; P = 0.05). Nurses also rated the teamwork and safety climate significantly higher on the intervention unit (P = 0.008 and P = 0.03 for teamwork and safety climate, respectively). Multivariable analyses demonstrated no difference in the adjusted LOS and an inconsistent effect on cost. SIDR had a positive effect on nurses' ratings of collaboration and teamwork on a hospitalist unit, yet no impact on LOS and cost. Further study is required to assess the impact of SIDR on patient safety measures. Copyright © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  9. Nurse-Physician Teamwork in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeigbe, David Oladipo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Teamwork gained momentum in the 1980s. Research studies in the military and aviation demonstrated that teamwork is essential to safety. There were limited studies dealing with the practice of teamwork between nurses and physicians in the Emergence Departments (EDs). Aims: Descriptive aim of the study was to examine differences between staff in the Interventional and Control Groups on perception of staff teamwork. The exploratory aim was to examine staff perception of job satisfac...

  10. Teamwork to Enhance Adapted Teaching and Formative Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnsrud, Halvor; Engh, Knut Roar

    2012-01-01

    This article has as its main focus the contextual factors connected with teachers' teamwork. Firstly, it deals with the question of how to create reflections among teachers on the topic of teamwork. Their written answers function as empirical data for researchers and also as contributions to the further professional development of teamwork. Secondly, the authors discuss the content of teamwork in the sense of how teachers as a community might support the individual teacher's work with both ad...

  11. Teamwork and Clinical Error Reporting among Nurses in Korean Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Jee-In Hwang, PhD; Jeonghoon Ahn, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine levels of teamwork and its relationships with clinical error reporting among Korean hospital nurses. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. We distributed a questionnaire to 674 nurses in two teaching hospitals in Korea. The questionnaire included items on teamwork and the reporting of clinical errors. We measured teamwork using the Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire, which has five subscales including team structure, leadership, situation monitori...

  12. Evaluation of the BPMN According to the Requirements of the Enterprise Architecture Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Řepa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates some characteristics of the Business Process Modelling Notation from the perspective of the business system modelling methodology. Firstly the enterprise architecture context of the business process management as well as the importance of standards are discussed. Then the Business System Modelling Methodology is introduced with special attention paid to the Business Process Meta-model as a basis for the evaluation of the BPMN features. Particular basic concepts from the Business Process Meta-model are mapped to the usable constructs of the BPMN and related issues are analysed. Finally the basic conclusions are made and the general context is discussed.

  13. An integrative framework for sensor-based measurement of teamwork in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael A; Dietz, Aaron S; Yang, Ting; Priebe, Carey E; Pronovost, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong link between teamwork and patient safety. Emerging evidence supports the efficacy of teamwork improvement interventions. However, the availability of reliable, valid, and practical measurement tools and strategies is commonly cited as a barrier to long-term sustainment and spread of these teamwork interventions. This article describes the potential value of sensor-based technology as a methodology to measure and evaluate teamwork in healthcare. The article summarizes the teamwork literature within healthcare, including team improvement interventions and measurement. Current applications of sensor-based measurement of teamwork are reviewed to assess the feasibility of employing this approach in healthcare. The article concludes with a discussion highlighting current application needs and gaps and relevant analytical techniques to overcome the challenges to implementation. Compelling studies exist documenting the feasibility of capturing a broad array of team input, process, and output variables with sensor-based methods. Implications of this research are summarized in a framework for development of multi-method team performance measurement systems. Sensor-based measurement within healthcare can unobtrusively capture information related to social networks, conversational patterns, physical activity, and an array of other meaningful information without having to directly observe or periodically survey clinicians. However, trust and privacy concerns present challenges that need to be overcome through engagement of end users in healthcare. Initial evidence exists to support the feasibility of sensor-based measurement to drive feedback and learning across individual, team, unit, and organizational levels. Future research is needed to refine methods, technologies, theory, and analytical strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  14. Validity and Reliability of the Teamwork Scale for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Leeann M.; Newman, Tarkington J.; Anderson-Butcher, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Teamwork Scale for Youth, an assessment designed to measure youths' perceptions of their teamwork competency. Methods: The Teamwork Scale for Youth was administered to a sample of 460 youths. Confirmatory factor analyses examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of the…

  15. Teaching Teamwork through Coteaching in the Business Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegl, Julie A.; Weaver, Kari D.

    2014-01-01

    Business educators recognize the importance of developing teamwork as an employability skill. However, current methods used to teach teamwork have been met with mixed results from both students and educators. This article integrates research on the importance of teamwork, team development processes, and coteaching through examining a case study…

  16. Teamwork to Enhance Adapted Teaching and Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsrud, Halvor; Engh, Roar

    2012-01-01

    This article has as its main focus the contextual factors connected with teachers' teamwork. Firstly, it deals with the question of how to create reflections among teachers on the topic of teamwork. Their written answers function as empirical data for researchers and also as contributions to the further professional development of teamwork.…

  17. Applying the Tropos Methodology for Analysing Web Services Requirements and Reasoning about Qualities of Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Giorgini, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The shift in software engineering from the design, implementation and management of isolated software elements towards a network of autonomous interoperable service is calling for a shift in the way software is designed. We propose the use of the agent-oriented methodology Tropos for the analysis of

  18. Experiences and shared meaning of teamwork and interprofessional collaboration among health care professionals in primary health care settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaleti, Carine; Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral; Peduzzi, Marina; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Soares, Cassia Baldini

    2017-11-01

    During the last decade, teamwork has been addressed under the rationale of interprofessional practice or collaboration, highlighted by the attributes of this practice such as: interdependence of professional actions, focus on user needs, negotiation between professionals, shared decision making, mutual respect and trust among professionals, and acknowledgment of the role and work of the different professional groups. Teamwork and interprofessional collaboration have been pointed out as astrategy for effective organization of health care services as the complexity of healthcare requires integration of knowledge and practices from differente professional groups. This integration has a qualitative dimension that can be identified through the experiences of health professionals and to the meaning they give to teamwork. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the best available evidence on the experiences of health professionals regarding teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in primary health care settings. The populations included were all officially regulated health professionals that work in primary health settings: dentistry, medicine, midwifery, nursing, nutrition, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physical education, physiotherapy, psychology, social work and speech therapy. In addition to these professionals, community health workers, nursing assistants, licensed practical nurses and other allied health workers were also included. The phenomena of interest were experiences of health professionals regarding teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in primary health care settings. The context was primary health care settings that included health care centers, health maintenance organizations, integrative medicine practices, integrative health care, family practices, primary care organizations and family medical clinics. National health surgery as a setting was excluded. The qualitative component of the review considered studies that

  19. How to integrate legal requirements into a requirements engineering methodology for the development of security and privacy patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compagna, L.; El Khoury, P.; Krausová, A.; Massacci, F.; Zannone, N.

    2009-01-01

    Laws set requirements that force organizations to assess the security and privacy of their IT systems and impose them to implement minimal precautionary security measures. Several IT solutions (e.g., Privacy Enhancing Technologies, Access Control Infrastructure, etc.) have been proposed to address

  20. Sustainable interprofessional teamwork needs a team-friendly healthcare system: Experiences from a collaborative Dutch programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke; van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia

    2017-03-01

    The significance of effective interprofessional teamwork to improve the quality of care has been widely recognised. Effective interprofessional teamwork calls on good collaboration between professionals and patients, coordination between professionals, and the development of teamwork over time. Effective development of teams also requires support from the wider organisational context. In a Dutch village, healthcare professionals work closely together, and mutual consultations as well as interprofessional meetings take place on a regular basis. The network was created as a precondition for sustainable interprofessional teamwork in elderly care. However, several external barriers were experienced regarding the supportive structure and cooperative attitude of the healthcare insurer and municipality. The aim of the article is to examine these experience-based issues regarding internal organisation, perspective, and definition of effective teamwork. Complicating factors refer to finding the right key figures, and the different perspectives on team development and team effectiveness. Our conclusion is that the organisation of healthcare insurance companies needs to implement fundamental changes to facilitate an interprofessional care approach. Furthermore, municipalities should work on their vision of the needs and benefits of a fruitful collaboration with interprofessional healthcare teams. The challenge for healthcare teams is to learn to speak the language of external partners. To support the development of interprofessional teams, external parties need to recognise and trust in a shared aim to provide quality of care in an efficient and effective way.

  1. Motivating medical students to learn teamwork skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Matti; Nieminen, Juha; Pyörälä, Eeva; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2010-01-01

    This study examined teaching teamwork skills to first-year medical students. Teamwork skills focused on verbal communication in PBL-tutorial sessions and in healthcare teams. The aim was to find out how to teach teamwork skills to first-year medical students and how to motivate them to learn these skills. Three consecutive classes of first-year medical students (N = 342) participated in teamwork skills module in the years 2006, 2007 and 2008. After the first year, the introduction to the topic was revised in order to be more motivating to medical students. After each module data were collected with a feedback questionnaire containing numerical and open questions. By analyzing the students' numerical answers and the content of students' open answers regarding the module, we examined how the revised introduction affected students' perceptions of the usefulness of the module. Medical students' feedback in the years 1 (n = 81), 2 (n = 99) and 3 (n = 95) showed that the students found the module in the second and third years significantly more useful than in the first year. These results support earlier findings that clearly stated clinical relevance motivates medical students. When introducing multidisciplinary subjects to medical students, it is important to think through the clinical relevance of the topic and how it is introduced to medical students.

  2. Impact of Instructional Design on Virtual Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Melody

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this participatory action research study was to answer the following research question: How does online instructional design impact students' virtual teamwork performance? Through the lens of social constructivism, a qualitative, in-depth multi-case study design was utilized to conduct document analyses, observations, and student…

  3. Developing and Assessing College Student Teamwork Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard L.; Jones, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    Some form of team-oriented work is employed in most, if not all, organizations today. It would seem, then, that an important role for higher education should involve developing critical teamwork skills among students so as to prepare them for success in life. This very point was highlighted in a 2009 poll conducted on behalf of the Association of…

  4. The Trouble with Teamwork: A Discursive Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Dean M.; Rossi, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Background: Teamwork sits comfortably within the vocabularies of most physical education teachers. It is used to both describe and prescribe student behaviour in a variety of physical and sport-related activities. Yet while supporters of sport and PE have readily employed the term, remarkably few pedagogues have taken the time to consider what…

  5. Elementary school teachers' attitudes to teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilijević Danijela N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research to date has shown that teacher teamwork results in higher motivation among students and higher quality knowledge, and also facilitates the sharing of professional experiences and stimulates teachers' creativity and their openness to change. Team forming and development depend on multiple factors, particularly on the individual and group traits of team members. This paper examines teachers' attitudes as an individual factor significant for their inclination for team teaching, and the aim of the study presented in the paper was to study teachers' attitudes to teamwork. The sample consisted of 240 teachers from fifteen elementary schools in Belgrade. Factor analysis has singled out three factors around which teachers' attitudes are grouped: a teaching; b team and individual development; and c professional challenge. The study has shown that overall, teachers have a positive attitude to teamwork because it is conducive to a stimulating environment for work and learning, and also provides an opportunity for teachers' personal and professional development. Significant differences in the perception of teamwork have been noted among lower-grade teachers depending on their years of service and the extent to which they have been engaged in team teaching.

  6. [Interdisciplinary teamwork in the OR: Identification and measurement of teamwork in the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passauer-Baierl, Stefanie; Baschnegger, Heiko; Bruns, Christiane; Weigl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Effective teamwork is one of the essentials in conducting successful and safe surgical procedures in the operating theatre (OT). The present paper aims to provide a selective review of various approaches describing effective interdisciplinary teamwork in the OT. Furthermore, it covers observational methods to assess OT teamwork with particular focus on Germany. Our definition of successful surgical teamwork is based on an already established classification system considering five criteria for effective and safe OT teams: coordination, communication, cooperation, leadership, and team monitoring. Well-defined and reliable measures are necessary to examine the quality of OT teamwork. Those methods should entail the special characteristics of the OT team. They should include all phases of the surgical procedure and incorporate all the professions involved (surgeons, surgical nurses, and anaesthetic staff). We conclude that research into methods for the assessment of OTs in Germany needs to be undertaken as a prerequisite to investigating the relationship between OT teamwork and its effects on patient safety and surgical quality. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Therapists' experiences and perceptions of teamwork in neurological rehabilitation: critical happenings in effective and ineffective teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddick, Kitty M; De Souza, Lorraine H

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports the second part of an exploratory study into occupational therapists' and physiotherapists' perceptions and experiences of teamwork in neurological rehabilitation: the factors that were thought to influence effective and ineffective teamwork, and the meaning behind effective and ineffective teamwork in neurological rehabilitation. The study was undertaken through semi-structured interviews of 10 therapists from three different neurological rehabilitation teams based in the United Kingdom, and used the critical incident technique. Through analysis of the data, several main themes emerged regarding the perceived critical happenings in effective and ineffective teamwork. These were: team events and characteristics, team members' characteristics, shared and collaborative working practices, communication, specific organizational structures, environmental, external, and patient and family-related factors. Effective and ineffective team-work was perceived to impact on a number of levels: having implications for the team, the patient, individual team members, and the neurological rehabilitation service. The study supported the perceived value of team work within neurological rehabilitation. It also indicated the extensive and variable factors that may influence the team-working process as well as the complex and diverse nature of the process.

  8. Site study plan for geochemical analytical requirements and methodologies: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan documents the analytical methodologies and procedures that will be used to analyze geochemically the rock and fluid samples collected during Site Characterization. Information relating to the quality aspects of these analyses is also provided, where available. Most of the proposed analytical procedures have been used previously on the program and are sufficiently sensitive to yield high-quality analyses. In a few cases improvements in analytical methodology (e.g., greater sensitivity, fewer interferences) are desired. Suggested improvements to these methodologies are discussed. In most cases these method-development activities have already been initiated. The primary source of rock and fluid samples for geochemical analysis during Site Characterization will be the drilling program, as described in various SRP Site Study Plans. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 28 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  9. [Burnout and teamwork in primary care teams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà Falgueras, Maite; Cruzate Muñoz, Carlota; Orfila Pernas, Francesc; Creixell Sureda, Joan; González López, María Pilar; Davins Miralles, Josep

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of burnout and the perception of teamwork in Primary Care teams from Barcelona. Multicenter cross-sectional. Primary Health Care Teams from Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut. All permanent employees or temporary professionals of all categories from 51 teams (N=2398). A total of 879 responses (36.7%) were obtained. The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire, with 3 dimensions, was sent by emotional exhaustion (AE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (RP). Burnout is considered present when two or more dimensions scored high marks. Perception of teamwork and evaluation of leaders was evaluated using an ad hoc questionnaire. The prevalence of burnout was17.2% (two or more dimensions affected), and 46.2% had at least one of the three dimensions with a high level. A high level of AE was found in 38.2%, of DP in 23.8%, and 7.7% had low RP. Almost half (49.2%) believe that teamwork is encouraged in their workplace. Social workers overall, have a higher average of dimensions affected at a high level, followed by administrative personnel, dentists, doctors and nurses (p<0.001). Permanent staff have a greater degree of emotional exhaustion (p<0.002). Those who rated their leaders worst and least rated teamwork had more emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and higher level of burnout in general (p<0.001). The level of burnout among professionals is considerable, with differences existing between occupational categories. Teamwork and appreciating their leaders protect from burnout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Context in Quality of Care: Improving Teamwork and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Daniel S; Sexton, John Bryan; Adair, Kathryn C; Kaplan, Heather C; Profit, Jochen

    2017-09-01

    Quality improvement in health care is an ongoing challenge. Consideration of the context of the health care system is of paramount importance. Staff resilience and teamwork climate are key aspects of context that drive quality. Teamwork climate is dynamic, with well-established tools available to improve teamwork for specific tasks or global applications. Similarly, burnout and resilience can be modified with interventions such as cultivating gratitude, positivity, and awe. A growing body of literature has shown that teamwork and burnout relate to quality of care, with improved teamwork and decreased burnout expected to produce improved patient quality and safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of improving teamwork on patient outcomes in surgery: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rosa; Marshall, Dominic C; Sykes, Mark C; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph

    2018-05-01

    The aviation industry pioneered formalised crew training in order to improve safety and reduce consequences of non-technical error. This formalised training has been successfully adapted and used to in the field of surgery to improve post-operative patient outcomes. The need to implement teamwork training as an integral part of a surgical programme is increasingly being recognised. We aim to systematically review the impact of surgical teamwork training on post-operative outcomes. Two independent researchers systematically searched MEDLINE and Embase in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies were screened and subjected to inclusion/exclusion criteria. Study characteristics and outcomes were reported and analysed. Our initial search identified 2720 articles. Following duplicate removal, title and abstract screening, 107 full text articles were analysed. Eight articles met our inclusion criteria. Overall, three articles supported a positive effect of good teamwork on post-operative patient outcomes. We identified key areas in study methodology that can be improved upon, including small cohort size, lack of unified training programme, and short training duration, should future studies be designed and implemented in this field. At present, there is insufficient evidence to support the hypothesis that teamwork training interventions improve patient outcomes. We believe that non-significant and conflicting results can be attributed to flaws in methodology and non-uniform training methods. With increasing amounts of evidence in this field, we predict a positive association between teamwork training and patient outcomes will come to light. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender and teamwork: an analysis of professors' perspectives and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey; Panther, Grace

    2018-05-01

    Teamwork is increasingly seen as an important component of engineering education programmes. Yet, prior research has shown that there are numerous ways in which teamwork is gendered, and can lead to negative experiences for women students. This article presents the first interview findings on professors' perspectives on gender and teamwork. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 engineering professors to determine what and how they thought about gender in engineering and engineering education. For this article, the parts of the interviews about teamwork are analysed. We conclude that professors need tools to help them facilitate gender-inclusive teamwork, and those tools must address the beliefs that they already hold about teamwork. The findings raise questions about the adoption of evidence-based instructional practices and suggest current teamwork practices may exacerbate gender inequalities in engineering.

  13. In teamwork, is the whole sum of the parts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda Arroyo-Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Teamwork is one of the most common educational strategies in Higher Education Institutions, documenting widely that cooperative learning has advantages in terms of individual performance, comprehensive knowledge, school performance and even in school adaptation. Even though it has its benefits, the general analysis concentrates on the product that is the result of teamwork, there is little systematic work about the process, that is, the way in which individual competences are intertwined to satisfy group criteria. A first step in this direction requires the specific identification of individual competence in each member of a team and to later observe how they are coordinated given a collective task. In this sense, a study was conducted with dyads of participants whom were identified as having compatible (same functional type or incompatible (different functional type which were exposed to a task that required the conjoint performance of both members of the dyad, the task could either correspond o not correspond with the competence primacy identified for such dyads members. Results are analyzed in terms of the correspondence between task complexity and competence primacy of dyad members. Conclusion are drawn as to the possible educational implications for work team organization.

  14. Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and

  15. A Use Case Methodology to Handle Conflicting Controller Requirements for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Uslar, Mathias; Tornelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a standards based requirements elicitation and analysis strategy tailored for smart grid control structure development. Control structures in electric power systems often span across several systems and stakeholders. Requirements elicitation for such control systems therefore...... requires coordination across many stakeholders and it is challenging to achieve a consistent design. To enable an iterative and distributed development we suggest a conflict management approach as a modular element of the design strategy, focusing on conflict identification and tracing. The idea...

  16. Teamwork dynamics analysis as a teaching resource in operations management courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Oltra Mestre

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Team working is a form to organize the work in numerosus production contexts and so an competence to be develop in students from several high educational courses. The objective of the work is to research on how to facilitate the teamworking competence development on operations management students. Action learning is use as methodology and student’s reflections are the base for making proposals which are mainly related with using process analysis as reference for the teams flow work analysis.

  17. Execution of a self-directed risk assessment methodology to address HIPAA data security requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Johnathan

    2003-05-01

    This paper analyzes the method and training of a self directed risk assessment methodology entitled OCTAVE (Operationally Critical Threat Asset and Vulnerability Evaluation) at over 170 DOD medical treatment facilities. It focuses specifically on how OCTAVE built interdisciplinary, inter-hierarchical consensus and enhanced local capabilities to perform Health Information Assurance. The Risk Assessment Methodology was developed by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University as part of the Defense Health Information Assurance Program (DHIAP). The basis for its success is the combination of analysis of organizational practices and technological vulnerabilities. Together, these areas address the core implications behind the HIPAA Security Rule and can be used to develop Organizational Protection Strategies and Technological Mitigation Plans. A key component of OCTAVE is the inter-disciplinary composition of the analysis team (Patient Administration, IT staff and Clinician). It is this unique composition of analysis team members, along with organizational and technical analysis of business practices, assets and threats, which enables facilities to create sound and effective security policies. The Risk Assessment is conducted in-house, and therefore the process, results and knowledge remain within the organization, helping to build consensus in an environment of differing organizational and disciplinary perspectives on Health Information Assurance.

  18. Oil Well Blowout 3D computational modeling: review of methodology and environmental requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Mello Paiva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to present the different methodologies used in the three-dimensional modeling of the hydrocarbons dispersion originated from an oil well blowout. It presents the concepts of coastal environmental sensitivity and vulnerability, their importance for prioritizing the most vulnerable areas in case of contingency, and the relevant legislation. We also discuss some limitations about the methodology currently used in environmental studies of oil drift, which considers simplification of the spill on the surface, even in the well blowout scenario. Efforts to better understand the oil and gas behavior in the water column and three-dimensional modeling of the trajectory gained strength after the Deepwater Horizon spill in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. The data collected and the observations made during the accident were widely used for adjustment of the models, incorporating various factors related to hydrodynamic forcing and weathering processes to which the hydrocarbons are subjected during subsurface leaks. The difficulties show to be even more challenging in the case of blowouts in deep waters, where the uncertainties are still larger. The studies addressed different variables to make adjustments of oil and gas dispersion models along the upward trajectory. Factors that exert strong influences include: speed of the subsurface currents;  gas separation from the main plume; hydrate formation, dissolution of oil and gas droplets; variations in droplet diameter; intrusion of the droplets at intermediate depths; biodegradation; and appropriate parametrization of the density, salinity and temperature profiles of water through the column.

  19. Mediation of agency in teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we examine the potentials of the construction gang as a frame for collegial handling of physical strain and pain in work. On a framework viewing social inclusion and a positive professional identity as dependent on the display of meaningful agency within the gang (team), we...... employ a methodological composition of questions to capture construction worker’ sense of agency in relation to handling physical strain and pain, and furthermore seek to understand expectations towards alternative forms of agency, than the forms usually employed. In this investigation we draw upon...... a questionnaire-study conducted among 519 construction workers from four professions. In conclusion we find that while the construction gang might pose a potential for developing a collegiate framework for handling physical pain and strain in ways that lead to less deterioration through work, this resource seems...

  20. The potential improvement of team-working skills in Biomedical and Natural Science students using a problem-based learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough L. Nowrouzian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled. This development requires that students gain experience of team-work before they start their professional career. Students working in teams this may increase productivity, confidence, innovative capacity and improvement of interpersonal skills. Problem-based learning (PBL is an instructional approach focusing on real analytical problems as a means of training an analytical scientist. PBL may have a positive impact on team-work skills that are important for undergraduates and postgraduates to enable effective collaborative work. This survey of the current literature explores the development of the team-work skills in Biomedical Science students using PBL.

  1. Achieving excellence on shift through teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.

    1988-01-01

    Anyone familiar with the nuclear industry realizes the importance of operators. Operators can achieve error-free plant operations, i.e., excellence on shift through teamwork. As a shift supervisor (senior reactor operator/shift technical advisor) the author went through the plant's first cycle of operations with no scrams and no equipment damaged by operator error, having since changed roles (and companies) to one of assessing plant operations. This change has provided the opportunity to see objectively the importance of operators working together and of the team building and teamwork that contribute to the shift's success. This paper uses examples to show the effectiveness of working together and outlines steps for building a group of operators into a team

  2. Teamwork Training Needs Analysis for Long-Duration Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.; Sierra, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    The success of future long-duration exploration missions (LDEMs) will be determined largely by the extent to which mission-critical personnel possess and effectively exercise essential teamwork competencies throughout the entire mission lifecycle (e.g., Galarza & Holland, 1999; Hysong, Galarza, & Holland, 2007; Noe, Dachner, Saxton, & Keeton, 2011). To ensure that such personnel develop and exercise these necessary teamwork competencies prior to and over the full course of future LDEMs, it is essential that a teamwork training curriculum be developed and put into place at NASA that is both 1) comprehensive, in that it targets all teamwork competencies critical for mission success and 2) structured around empirically-based best practices for enhancing teamwork training effectiveness. In response to this demand, the current teamwork-oriented training needs analysis (TNA) was initiated to 1) identify the teamwork training needs (i.e., essential teamwork-related competencies) of future LDEM crews, 2) identify critical gaps within NASA’s current and future teamwork training curriculum (i.e., gaps in the competencies targeted and in the training practices utilized) that threaten to impact the success of future LDEMs, and to 3) identify a broad set of practical nonprescriptive recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of NASA’s teamwork training curriculum in order to increase the probability of future LDEM success.

  3. Principles and guidelines for diversity in teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Crespin, G.; Garcia, L.R.; Jansma, R.; Lovato, L.; Randall, G.; Sanchez, A.

    1994-08-01

    As part of Sandia`s Corporate Diversity Program, a Diversity Action Team was assembled to study the impact of diversity on teamwork. We reviewed the available literature on successful teaming, both with homogeneous (more alike than different) and heterogeneous teams. Although many principles and guidelines for successful homogeneous teams also apply to diverse teams, we believe that a document concentrating on diverse teams will be useful both for Sandians and for the outside world.

  4. Development and Evaluation of the Teamwork Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Tetsuro; Matsuishi, Masakatu; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Takemata, Kazuya; Yamakawa, Taketo

    At the subject that aims to develop the student's teamwork competencies which is one of the most important ability as an engineer, the appraisal method was investigated. Almost all the team activities were evaluated, and correlations with that result and the peer evaluation, the self-evaluation and the team peer evaluation were examined. It was found that the correlation between the quality of the team activities and the team peer evaluation which is evaluated by other team members is highest.

  5. Teamwork on the field and at work

    OpenAIRE

    Paul F. Levy

    2005-01-01

    One way that people learn teamwork, informal mentoring, and other workplace skills is through participating in sports. Yet, many women of my generation did not get a chance to develop these talents since they had fewer opportunities to participate in organized athletics when they were young. I came to understand the importance of sports from my own experience: My passion—all the rest is a hobby—is coaching girls’ soccer, something I have done for the last 15 years.

  6. Security requirements engineering : the SI* modeling language and the Secure Tropos methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massacci, F.; Mylopoulos, J.; Zannone, N.; Ras, Z.W.; Tsay, L.-S.

    2010-01-01

    Security Requirements Engineering is an emerging field which lies at the crossroads of Security and Software Engineering. Much research has focused on this field in recent years, spurred by the realization that security must be dealt with in the earliest phases of the software development process as

  7. Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the ocean in the visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Howard R.

    1987-01-01

    The calibration requirements for ocean-viewing sensors are outlined, and the present methods of effecting such calibration are described in detail. For future instruments it is suggested that provision be made for the sensor to view solar irradiance in diffuse reflection and that the moon be used as a source of diffuse light for monitoring the sensor stability.

  8. Critical water requirements for food, methodology and policy consequences for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.

    2004-01-01

    Food security and increasing water scarcity have a dominant place on the food policy agenda. Food security requires sufficient water of adequate quality because water is a prerequisite for plant growth. Nowadays, agriculture accounts for 70% of the worldwide human fresh water use. The expected

  9. The NERV Methodology: Non-Functional Requirements Elicitation, Reasoning and Validation in Agile Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domah, Darshan

    2013-01-01

    Agile software development has become very popular around the world in recent years, with methods such as Scrum and Extreme Programming (XP). Literature suggests that functionality is the primary focus in Agile processes while non-functional requirements (NFR) are either ignored or ill-defined. However, for software to be of good quality both…

  10. The Surgical Safety Checklist and Teamwork Coaching Tools: a study of inter-rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lyen C; Conley, Dante; Lipsitz, Stu; Wright, Christopher C; Diller, Thomas W; Edmondson, Lizabeth; Berry, William R; Singer, Sara J

    2014-08-01

    To assess the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of two novel observation tools for measuring surgical safety checklist performance and teamwork. Data surgical safety checklists can promote adherence to standards of care and improve teamwork in the operating room. Their use has been associated with reductions in mortality and other postoperative complications. However, checklist effectiveness depends on how well they are performed. Authors from the Safe Surgery 2015 initiative developed a pair of novel observation tools through literature review, expert consultation and end-user testing. In one South Carolina hospital participating in the initiative, two observers jointly attended 50 surgical cases and independently rated surgical teams using both tools. We used descriptive statistics to measure checklist performance and teamwork at the hospital. We assessed IRR by measuring percent agreement, Cohen's κ, and weighted κ scores. The overall percent agreement and κ between the two observers was 93% and 0.74 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.79), respectively, for the Checklist Coaching Tool and 86% and 0.84 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.90) for the Surgical Teamwork Tool. Percent agreement for individual sections of both tools was 79% or higher. Additionally, κ scores for six of eight sections on the Checklist Coaching Tool and for two of five domains on the Surgical Teamwork Tool achieved the desired 0.7 threshold. However, teamwork scores were high and variation was limited. There were no significant changes in the percent agreement or κ scores between the first 10 and last 10 cases observed. Both tools demonstrated substantial IRR and required limited training to use. These instruments may be used to observe checklist performance and teamwork in the operating room. However, further refinement and calibration of observer expectations, particularly in rating teamwork, could improve the utility of the tools. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  11. Moving Toward Improved Teamwork in Cancer Care: The Role of Psychological Safety in Team Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anshu K; Fennell, Mary L; Chagpar, Anees B; Connolly, Hannah K; Nembhard, Ingrid M

    2016-11-01

    Effective communication is a requirement in the teamwork necessary for improved coordination to deliver patient-centered, value-based cancer care. Communication is particularly important when care providers are geographically distributed or work across organizations. We review organizational and teams research on communication to highlight psychological safety as a key determinant of high-quality communication within teams. We first present the concept of psychological safety, findings about its communication effects for teamwork, and factors that affect it. We focus on five factors applicable to cancer care delivery: familiarity, clinical hierarchy-related status differences, geographic dispersion, boundary spanning, and leader behavior. To illustrate how these factors facilitate or hinder psychologically safe communication and teamwork in cancer care, we review the case of a patient as she experiences the treatment-planning process for early-stage breast cancer in a community setting. Our analysis is summarized in a key principle: Teamwork in cancer care requires high-quality communication, which depends on psychological safety for all team members, clinicians and patients alike. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of psychological safety in clinical care and suggestions for future research.

  12. Do safety checklists improve teamwork and communication in the operating room? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Stephanie; Rout, Shantanu; Sevdalis, Nick; Moorthy, Krishna; Darzi, Ara; Vincent, Charles

    2013-12-01

    communication and this may be one mechanism through which patient outcomes are improved. Future research should aim to further elucidate the relationship between how safety checklists are used and team skills in the OR using more consistent methodological approaches and utilizing validated measures of teamwork such that best practice guidelines can be established.

  13. A direct methodology to establish design requirements for human–system interface (HSI) of automatic systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kim, Jonghyun

    2014-01-01

    rationalized and how each requirement addresses the issues related to automation is discussed. We also identify which requirements address which of the stated automation issues and at which operational process stage each requirement applies to. Finally, the strengths of the proposed methodology and its implication on the HSI design are discussed in comparison with the methodology used to produce the existing guidelines or guidance

  14. Interprofessional Teamwork Education: Moving Toward the Patient-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Kamran; Najarkolai, Atena Rahmati; Keshmiri, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Interprofessional Teamwork Education: Moving Toward the Patient-Centered Approach," found on pages 449-460, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until September 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Explain the recommended framework in teaching and implementing interprofessional competencies. Identify

  15. Teamwork in Multi-Agent Systems A Formal Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dunin-Keplicz, Barbara Maria

    2010-01-01

    What makes teamwork tick?. Cooperation matters, in daily life and in complex applications. After all, many tasks need more than a single agent to be effectively performed. Therefore, teamwork rules!. Teams are social groups of agents dedicated to the fulfilment of particular persistent tasks. In modern multiagent environments, heterogeneous teams often consist of autonomous software agents, various types of robots and human beings. Teamwork in Multi-agent Systems: A Formal Approach explains teamwork rules in terms of agents' attitudes and their complex interplay. It provides the first comprehe

  16. 470 Teamwork Effectiveness in the Financial Management Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-27

    Aug 27, 2015 ... Principles, theoretical concepts and factors affecting ... Keywords: Team, Teamwork, Effectiveness, Financial, Management,. Companies, Strategic ..... The response rates were higher from the Accounting, Client Service and.

  17. Integrating teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety - development of a conceptual framework based on a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Annalena; Manser, Tanja

    2016-07-19

    There is growing evidence that teamwork in hospitals is related to both patient outcomes and clinician occupational well-being. Furthermore, clinician well-being is associated with patient safety. Despite considerable research activity, few studies include all three concepts, and their interrelations have not yet been investigated systematically. To advance our understanding of these potentially complex interrelations we propose an integrative framework taking into account current evidence and research gaps identified in a systematic review. We conducted a literature search in six major databases (Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Psyndex, ScienceDirect, and Web of Knowledge). Inclusion criteria were: peer reviewed papers published between January 2000 and June 2015 investigating a statistical relationship between at least two of the three concepts; teamwork, patient safety, and clinician occupational well-being in hospital settings, including practicing nurses and physicians. We assessed methodological quality using a standardized rating system and qualitatively appraised and extracted relevant data, such as instruments, analyses and outcomes. The 98 studies included in this review were highly diverse regarding quality, methodology and outcomes. We found support for the existence of independent associations between teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety. However, we identified several conceptual and methodological limitations. The main barrier to advancing our understanding of the causal relationships between teamwork, clinician well-being and patient safety is the lack of an integrative, theory-based, and methodologically thorough approach investigating the three concepts simultaneously and longitudinally. Based on psychological theory and our findings, we developed an integrative framework that addresses these limitations and proposes mechanisms by which these concepts might be linked. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the

  18. Building high reliability teams: progress and some reflections on teamwork training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A

    2013-05-01

    The science of team training in healthcare has progressed dramatically in recent years. Methodologies have been refined and adapted for the unique and varied needs within healthcare, where once team training approaches were borrowed from other industries with little modification. Evidence continues to emerge and bolster the case that team training is an effective strategy for improving patient safety. Research is also elucidating the conditions under which teamwork training is most likely to have an impact, and what determines whether improvements achieved will be maintained over time. The articles in this special issue are a strong representation of the state of the science, the diversity of applications, and the growing sophistication of teamwork training research and practice in healthcare. In this article, we attempt to situate the findings in this issue within the broader context of healthcare team training, identify high level themes in the current state of the field, and discuss existing needs.

  19. Measuring teamwork and taskwork of community-based "teams" delivering life-saving health interventions in rural Zambia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Snetro-Plewman, Gail; Waltensperger, Karen Z; Hamer, Davidson H; Kambikambi, Chilobe; MacLeod, William; Filumba, Stephen; Sichamba, Bias; Marsh, David

    2013-06-27

    The use of teams is a well-known approach in a variety of settings, including health care, in both developed and developing countries. Team performance is comprised of teamwork and task work, and ascertaining whether a team is performing as expected to achieve the desired outcome has rarely been done in health care settings in resource-limited countries. Measuring teamwork requires identifying dimensions of teamwork or processes that comprise the teamwork construct, while taskwork requires identifying specific team functions. Since 2008 a community-based project in rural Zambia has teamed community health workers (CHWs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs), supported by Neighborhood Health Committees (NHCs), to provide essential newborn and continuous curative care for children 0-59 months. This paper describes the process of developing a measure of teamwork and taskwork for community-based health teams in rural Zambia. Six group discussions and pile-sorting sessions were conducted with three NHCs and three groups of CHW-TBA teams. Each session comprised six individuals. We selected 17 factors identified by participants as relevant for measuring teamwork in this rural setting. Participants endorsed seven functions as important to measure taskwork. To explain team performance, we assigned 20 factors into three sub-groups: personal, community-related and service-related. Community and culturally relevant processes, functions and factors were used to develop a tool for measuring teamwork and taskwork in this rural community and the tool was quite unique from tools used in developed countries.

  20. Teams, tribes and patient safety: overcoming barriers to effective teamwork in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Jennifer; Boyd, Matt; Cumin, David

    2014-03-01

    Modern healthcare is delivered by multidisciplinary, distributed healthcare teams who rely on effective teamwork and communication to ensure effective and safe patient care. However, we know that there is an unacceptable rate of unintended patient harm, and much of this is attributed to failures in communication between health professionals. The extensive literature on teams has identified shared mental models, mutual respect and trust and closed-loop communication as the underpinning conditions required for effective teams. However, a number of challenges exist in the healthcare environment. We explore these in a framework of educational, psychological and organisational challenges to the development of effective healthcare teams. Educational interventions can promote a better understanding of the principles of teamwork, help staff understand each other's roles and perspectives, and help develop specific communication strategies, but may not be sufficient on their own. Psychological barriers, such as professional silos and hierarchies, and organisational barriers such as geographically distributed teams, can increase the chance of communication failures with the potential for patient harm. We propose a seven-step plan to overcome the barriers to effective team communication that incorporates education, psychological and organisational strategies. Recent evidence suggests that improvement in teamwork in healthcare can lead to significant gains in patient safety, measured against efficiency of care, complication rate and mortality. Interventions to improve teamwork in healthcare may be the next major advance in patient outcomes.

  1. Medicine as It Should Be: Teaching Team and Teamwork during a Palliative Care Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Barbara A; Furman, Christian Davis; Lally, Andrew M; Leake, Kimberly; Pfeifer, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Interprofessional Education (IPE) is an important component of medical education. Rotations with palliative care interdisciplinary teams (IDTs) provide an optimal environment for IPE and teaching teamwork skills. Our objective was to assess the learning of senior medical students during a palliative care rotation. A constant comparison method based on grounded theory was used in this qualitative study. Senior medical students completed a semi-structured reflective writing exercise after a required one-week palliative care clerkship. Sixty randomly selected reflective writings were analyzed. The reflective writings were analyzed to evaluate the student's experiences. Dominant themes identified were related to teams and teamwork. Eight specific themes were identified: value of IDT for team members; value of IDT for patient/family; importance of each team member; reliance on other team members; roles of team members; how teams work; team communication; and interdisciplinary assessment and care planning. Students described exposure to novel experiences and planned to incorporate newly learned behaviors in their future practice. By participating in palliative care IDTs, medical students consistently learned about teamwork within healthcare. Additionally, they learned the importance of such teamwork to patients and the team itself. Rotations with palliative care IDTs have a significant role to play in IPE and preparing medical students to practice on teams.

  2. Sustainable interprofessional teamwork needs a team-friendly healthcare system : experiences from a collaborative Dutch programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marloes Amantia van Bokhoven; Jerôme Jean Jacques van Dongen; Anneke van Dijk-de Vries

    2017-01-01

    The significance of effective interprofessional teamwork to improve the quality of care has been widely recognised. Effective interprofessional teamwork calls on good collaboration between professionals and patients, coordination between professionals, and the development of teamwork over time.

  3. Undergraduate medical education for the 21st century: leadership and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Mark T; Pascoe, John M

    2004-01-01

    The health care delivery system is experiencing enormous flux. The knowledge and skills sets required of today's physicians include expertise in competency areas that have not been included in the traditional medical curricula. The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project was designed to develop innovative curricula that addressed the training necessary for medical students to gain skills required to provide high-quality, accessible, and affordable care in the modern health care environment. One of the nine UME-21 content areas, leadership and teamwork, has historically received relatively little attention in medical education. Each school participating in the UME-21 project submitted a final report that provided information for this descriptive summary of curricular innovations for teaching the concepts of leadership and teamwork to medical students. A classification lexicon for the curricular content and experiences in this content area was derived from these UME-21 project reports. Each school evaluated its curricular innovations independently using a variety of methods, largely descriptive and qualitative in nature. Eight UME-21 schools developed curricula addressing the content area of leadership and teamwork. The majority of these curricula used the clinical care teams in the clinical rotations to demonstrate the principles and importance of leadership and teamwork. Three of the schools implemented didactic sessions and workshops to explicitly address leadership and teamwork. One school used the gross anatomy dissection teams as the "laboratory" for demonstrating this content material. The evaluations of these curricular efforts showed them to be positively regarded by the medical students. Outcomes of measurable changes in competency in this area of expertise were not evaluated. There is little past experience in teaching leadership and teamwork in medical school. The UME-21 project supported the design and implementation of

  4. Team Members' Perceptions of Online Teamwork Learning Experiences and Building Teamwork Trust: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hung Wei; Yeh, Hsin-Te

    2013-01-01

    Teamwork factors can facilitate team members, committing themselves to the purposes of maximizing their own and others' contributions and successes. It is important for online instructors to comprehend students' expectations on learning collaboratively. The aims of this study were to investigate online collaborative learning experiences and to…

  5. Teamwork and problem solving in the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygard, F.I.; Dedon, J.M.; Fuld, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of teamwork and communications in the control room of a nuclear power plant has been the subject of significant attention during the 10 yr since the Three Mile Island accident. The ability to conduct effective problem solving, especially under unexpected conditions, requires that the control room crew be well trained in techniques that produce synergism and avoid ambiguous or conflicting interactions. This paper describes the foundations of a training program developed and conducted by Combustion Engineering to produce a winning team in the control room. The complete licensed operations staffs of three utilities, Florida Power ampersand Light, Louisiana Power ampersand Light, and Omaha Public Power District, have completed this program. Thus, the results of the experience of ∼150 licensed operators is reported

  6. Human-Robot Teamwork in USAR Environments: The TRADR Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, J. de; Hindriks, K.; Neerincx, M.A.; Kruijff-Korbayova, I.

    2015-01-01

    The TRADR project aims at developing methods and models for human-robot teamwork, enabling robots to operate in search and rescue environments alongside humans as teammates, rather than as tools. Through a user-centered cognitive engineering method, human-robot teamwork is analyzed, modeled,

  7. Exploring University Teacher Perceptions about Out-of-Class Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Esparza Barajas, Elizabeth; Medrano Vela, Cecilia Araceli; Zepeda Huerta, Jesús Helbert Karim

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the first stage of a larger joint research project undertaken by five universities in Mexico to explore university teachers' thinking about out-of-class teamwork. Data from interviews were analyzed using open and axial coding. Although results suggest a positive perception towards teamwork, the study unveiled important…

  8. Measuring Perceptions of Engagement in Teamwork in Youth Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Melissa; Jones, Kimberly Y.

    2014-01-01

    The literature regarding teamwork has supported the idea that the key to improving team performance is to understand team processes. Early work within the realm of teamwork focused on quantifiable measures of team performance, like number of products developed. The measure of a successful team hinged on whether or not the team accomplished the end…

  9. FY2015 Analysis of the Teamwork USA Program. Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Research and Evaluation (DRE) has completed an analysis of the performance of students who participated in the Teamwork USA Program, administered in FY2014 at three District schools. Teamwork USA hopes to improve student achievement at select Title I elementary schools via its Instrumental Music Program grant. This memorandum to…

  10. Teamwork in First Year Law Units: Can It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Tracey L.; Stickley, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    There is an abundance of literature on the importance of teamwork in undergraduate degrees; how to teach it, how to assess it and how to manage it. However, there is also much recorded about students' dislike of teamwork, especially where an early experience is unsatisfactory and builds resistance against such assessment. Accordingly, despite the…

  11. Context-Sensitive Sharedness Criteria for Teamwork (Extended Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Jonker, C.M.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Teamwork between humans and intelligent systems gains importance with the maturing of agent and robot technology. In the social sciences, sharedness of mental models is used to explain and understand teamwork. To use this concept for developing teams that include agents, we propose contextsensitive

  12. Teaching Teamwork to Public Relations Students: Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Schena, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The first purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which students in university capstone public relations classes who receive teamwork training demonstrate effective team behaviors, produce quality work, experience satisfaction in the teamwork process, and engender client satisfaction. The second purpose was to determine the…

  13. Team-based efforts to improve quality of care, the fundamental role of ethics, and the responsibility of health managers: monitoring and management strategies to enhance teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossaify, A; Hleihel, W; Lahoud, J-C

    2017-12-01

    Highlight the importance of teamwork in health care institutions by performing a review and discussion of the relevant literature. Review paper. A MEDLINE/Pubmed search was performed starting from 1990, and the terms 'team, teamwork, managers, healthcare, and cooperation' were searched in titles, abstracts, keywords, and conclusions; other terms 'patient safety, ethics, audits and quality of care' were specifically searched in abstracts and were used as additional filters criteria to select relevant articles. Thirty-three papers were found relevant; factors affecting the quality of care in health care institutions are multiple and varied, including issues related to individual profile, to administrative structure and to team-based effort. Issues affecting teamwork include mainly self-awareness, work environment, leadership, ethics, cooperation, communication, and competition. Moreover, quality improvement plans aiming to enhance and expand teams are essential in this context. Team monitoring and management are vital to achieve efficient teamwork with all the required qualities for a safer health system. In all cases, health managers' responsibility plays a fundamental role in creating and sustaining a teamwork atmosphere. Teamwork is known to improve outcomes in medicine, whether at the clinical, organizational, or scientific level. Teamwork in health care institutions must increasingly be encouraged, given that individual effort is often insufficient for optimal clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between intraoperative teamwork and management skills in patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Minehart, Rebecca D; Hemingway, Maureen W; Pian-Smith, May C M; Petrusa, Emil

    2015-11-01

    Optimal team performance in the operating room (OR) requires a combination of interactions among OR professionals and adherence to clinical guidelines. Theoretically, it is possible that OR teams could communicate very well but fail to follow acceptable standards of patient care and vice versa. OR simulations offer an ideal research environment to study this relationship. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between ratings of OR teamwork and communication with adherence to patient care guidelines in a simulated scenarios of malignant hyperthermia (MH). An interprofessional research team (2 anesthesiologists, 1 surgeon, an OR nurse, and a social scientist) reviewed videos of 5 intraoperative teams managing a simulated patient who manifested MH while undergoing general anesthesia for an epigastric herniorraphy in a high-fidelity, in situ OR. Participant teams consisted of 2 residents from anesthesiology, 1 from surgery, 1 OR nurse, and 1 certified surgical technician. Teamwork and communication were assessed with 4 published tools: Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS), Scrub Practitioners List of Intra-operative Non-Technical Skills (SPLINTS), Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS), and Objective Teamwork Assessment System (OTAS). We developed an evidence-based MH checklist to assess overall patient care. Interrater agreement for teamwork tools was moderate. Average rater agreement was 0.51 For ANTS, 0.67 for SPLINTS, 0.51 for NOTSS, and 0.70 for OTAS. Observer agreement for the MH checklist was high (0.88). Correlations between teamwork and MH checklist were not significant. Teams were different in percent of the MH actions taken (range, 50-91%; P = .006). In this pilot study, intraoperative teamwork and communication were not related to overall patient care management. Separating nontechnical and technical skills when teaching OR teamwork is artificial and may even be damaging, because such an approach could produce teams with

  15. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  16. Interprofessional and transdisciplinary teamwork in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyt, Andre

    2008-01-01

    The article focuses on the need for and the characteristics and positive consequences of interdisciplinary teamwork in health care. Interprofessional collaboration is an important element in total quality management. Factors that determine the success of team work are described, such as a management that promotes openness and an administrative organization that promotes interdisciplinary consultation. Other factors have to do with leadership, shared goals and values, meeting management and planning skills, communication, and also the (degree of) knowledge and the (quality of) perception of competences of other health care workers. The shared care plan is stressed as an important tool. In this, the joint planning of goals for intervention and care is essential. Health care workers with different professional knowledge and background have to harmonize their intervention plan according to the competences and goal settings of the other team members. The core of effective interprofessional teamwork is the presence of interprofessional competences such as these. A brief description of the components and performance criteria of the competence of interprofessional collaboration is given.

  17. Teamwork, communication, and anaesthetic assistance in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, J S; Flin, R; Mitchell, L

    2012-07-01

    Teamwork involves supporting others, solving conflicts, exchanging information, and co-ordinating activities. This article describes the results of interviews with anaesthetic assistants (n=22) and consultant anaesthetists (n=11), investigating the non-technical skills involved in the effective teamwork of the anaesthetic assistants in the operating theatre. Anaesthetic assistants most commonly saw themselves as either being part of a theatre team or an anaesthetic subgroup and most commonly described the senior theatre nurse as their team leader. Examples of supporting others included the following: checking equipment, providing equipment, being a second pair of eyes, providing emotional and decision support, and supporting trainee anaesthetists. Of the 19 anaesthetic assistants who were asked if they would speak up if they disagreed with a decision in theatre, only 14 said that they would voice their concerns, and the most common approach was to ask for the logic behind the decision. The WHO checklist was described as prompting some anaesthetists to describe their anaesthetic plan to the anaesthetic assistant, when previously the anaesthetist would have failed to communicate their intentions in time for equipment to be prepared. The prioritization of activities to achieve co-ordination and the anaesthetic assistants becoming familiar with the idiosyncrasies of their regular anaesthetists were also described by anaesthetic assistants.

  18. Introducing Teamwork Challenges in Simulation Using Game Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Todd P; Kwan, Karen Y; Liberman, Danica; Song, Eric; Dao, Eugene H; Chung, Dayun; Morton, Inge; Festekjian, Ara

    2015-08-01

    Poor teamwork and communication during resuscitations are linked to patient safety problems and poorer outcomes. We present a novel simulation-based educational intervention using game cards to introduce challenges in teamwork. This intervention uses sets of game cards that designate roles, limitations, or communication challenges designed to introduce common communication or teamwork problems. Game cards are designed to be applicable for any simulation-based scenario and are independent from patient physiology. In our example, participants were pediatric emergency medicine fellows undergoing simulation training for orientation. We describe the use of card sets in different scenarios with increasing teamwork challenge and difficulty. Both postscenario and summative debriefings were facilitated to allow participants to reflect on their performance and discover ways to apply their strategies to real resuscitations. In this article, we present our experience with the novel use of game cards to modify simulation scenarios to improve communication and teamwork skills.

  19. Nursing teamwork, staff characteristics, work schedules, and staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Beatrice J; Lee, Hyunhwa

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to explore whether and how staff characteristics, staffing, and scheduling variables are associated with the level of teamwork in nursing staff on acute care hospital patient units. This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 1,758 nursing staff members from two different hospitals on 38 patient care units who completed the Nursing Teamwork Survey in 2008. This study focused on nursing teams who are stationed on a particular patient care unit (as opposed to visitors to the units). The return rate was 56.9%. The sample was made up of 77.4% nurses (registered nurses and licensed practical nurses), 11.9% assistive personnel, and 7.9% unit secretaries. Teamwork varied by unit and service type, with the highest scores occurring in pediatrics and maternity and the lowest scores on the medical-surgical and emergency units. Staff with less than 6 months of experience, those working 8- or 10-hour shifts (as opposed to 12 hours or a combination of 8 and 12 hours), part-time staff (as opposed to full time), and those working on night shift had higher teamwork scores. The higher teamwork scores were also associated with no or little overtime. The higher perception of the adequacy of staffing and the fewer patients cared for on a previous shift, the higher the teamwork scores. There is a relationship between selected staff characteristics, aspects of work schedules, staffing, and teamwork. Nursing staff want to work where teamwork is high, and perceptions of good staffing lead to higher teamwork. Higher teamwork scores correlated with those who worked less overtime.

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Charantola Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach’s alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. RESULTS We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the “participation in the team” factor and the “team goals” factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. CONCLUSIONS The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork.

  1. Active Learning to Develop Motor Skills and Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lorena Aristizabal-Almanza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This action-research project was conducted to determine how the use of principles of active learning, specifically collaboration, had an effect on psychomotor performance and achievement in teamwork. The research setting included 20 students of first grade from a private school located in Bogota, Colombia. The students were selected through not randomized sampling based on criteria. The methodological process included observation, interviews, and a scale based on standardized tests to measure skills; the latter was applied before and after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using a triangulation of qualitative data, and through comparative analysis of the initial and final student profile for quantitative inputs. The results showed that, after the intervention with collaborative techniques based on action learning, students achieved a positive variation in their performance. Being part of a team positively affected the achievement of the objectives. Systematical reflection on their practices fostered their capacity to identify strengths and weaknesses to build knowledge in interaction with others. Knowledge construction was nurtured based in their previous experiences. Students showed more accountability and self-directed learning behaviors, according to their age. Overall the experience showed the importance of research and innovation in the classroom in order to provide meaningful data, so teachers and researchers can engage in providing learning experiences based in active learning.

  2. Teamwork in AAC: examining clinical perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batorowicz, Beata; Shepherd, Tracy A

    2011-03-01

    This study examines Prescription Review (PR), a model of teamwork practiced in Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) centres in Ontario, Canada. PR is a process in which teams make decisions about AAC system recommendations. For this study, 92 out of 141 professionals working on AAC teams completed questionnaires measuring the benefits of PR. Findings suggest that PR is beneficial in the areas of learning, providing quality services, team support, and decision making. Participants reported satisfaction with the quality of treatment plan, the PR results, and process. Perceptions of PR were related to size of the teams, participants' years of experience, and the range of experience on teams. This study supports PR and highlights the importance of healthy working relationships.

  3. Teamwork the key to good patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    In a year when, with the inception of the new Clinical Commissioning Groups, the way that healthcare is procured and delivered will see radical changes, this month's HefmA 2013 National Conference & Exhibition will have as its theme, 'Many Players, One Goal: The Patient'. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, among the wide-ranging estates and facilities topics set for discussion will be 'Getting the patient environment right'; 'Dementia Building for the Future'; 'Waterborne Infections; Lessons Learned'; 'Incorporating lean thinking into design', and the key challenges faced by the estates and facilities sector. The keynote address, touching on a wide range of issues common to all large organisations, will be given by one of the best known 'women in football', and will also reflect particularly on the importance of teamwork.

  4. What makes maternity teams effective and safe? Lessons from a series of research on teamwork, leadership and team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siassakos, Dimitrios; Fox, Robert; Bristowe, Katherine; Angouri, Jo; Hambly, Helen; Robson, Lauren; Draycott, Timothy J

    2013-11-01

    We describe lessons for safety from a synthesis of seven studies of teamwork, leadership and team training across a healthcare region. Two studies identified successes and challenges in a unit with embedded team training: a staff survey demonstrated a positive culture but a perceived need for greater senior presence; training improved actual emergency care, but wide variation in team performance remained. Analysis of multicenter simulation records showed that variation in patient safety and team efficiency correlated with their teamwork but not individual knowledge, skills or attitudes. Safe teams tended to declare the emergency earlier, hand over in a more structured way, and use closed-loop communication. Focused and directed communication was also associated with better patient-actor perception of care. Focus groups corroborated these findings, proposed that the capability and experience of the leader is more important than seniority, and identified teamwork and leadership issues that require further research. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Teamwork and clinical error reporting among nurses in Korean hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee-In; Ahn, Jeonghoon

    2015-03-01

    To examine levels of teamwork and its relationships with clinical error reporting among Korean hospital nurses. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. We distributed a questionnaire to 674 nurses in two teaching hospitals in Korea. The questionnaire included items on teamwork and the reporting of clinical errors. We measured teamwork using the Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire, which has five subscales including team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. Using logistic regression analysis, we determined the relationships between teamwork and error reporting. The response rate was 85.5%. The mean score of teamwork was 3.5 out of 5. At the subscale level, mutual support was rated highest, while leadership was rated lowest. Of the participating nurses, 522 responded that they had experienced at least one clinical error in the last 6 months. Among those, only 53.0% responded that they always or usually reported clinical errors to their managers and/or the patient safety department. Teamwork was significantly associated with better error reporting. Specifically, nurses with a higher team communication score were more likely to report clinical errors to their managers and the patient safety department (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence intervals [1.05, 3.14]). Teamwork was rated as moderate and was positively associated with nurses' error reporting performance. Hospital executives and nurse managers should make substantial efforts to enhance teamwork, which will contribute to encouraging the reporting of errors and improving patient safety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A Multifaceted Approach to Teamwork Assessment in an Undergraduate Business Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemery, Edward R.; Stickney, Lisa T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multifaceted, multilevel approach to teamwork learning and assessment. It includes teamwork knowledge, peer and self-appraisal of teamwork behavior, and individual and team performance on objective tests for teaching and assessing teamwork in an undergraduate business program. At the beginning of this semester-long process, students…

  7. Making Teamwork Work: Team Knowledge for Team Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guchait, Priyanko; Lei, Puiwa; Tews, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two types of team knowledge on team effectiveness. The study assessed the impact of taskwork knowledge and teamwork knowledge on team satisfaction and performance. A longitudinal study was conducted with 27 service-management teams involving 178 students in a real-life restaurant setting. Teamwork knowledge was found to impact both team outcomes. Furthermore, team learning behavior was found to mediate the relationships between teamwork knowledge and team outcomes. Educators and managers should therefore ensure these types of knowledge are developed in teams along with learning behavior for maximum effectiveness.

  8. Cooperation and teamwork in technology start-ups : reflected in some Italian, British, Dutch and German findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; Aaltio, I.; Guerra, G.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation and teamwork is often a challenge for technology start-ups. Cooperation is usually needed in order to combine the variety of expertise and it requires trust between partners. The idea of national locality is changing in European enterprises because of the new shared markets and

  9. The evaluation of a multifaceted intervention to promote "speaking up" and strengthen interprofessional teamwork climate perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Liane; Bain, Lorna

    2017-03-01

    Communication failure is a leading cause of error and is often due to inhibition of individuals to speak up in interprofessional healthcare environments. The present study sought to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted intervention designed to promote speaking up on teamwork climate in one clinical department of a large community hospital based in Canada. The multifaceted intervention included a role-playing simulation workshop, teamwork climate data feedback and facilitated discussion with the interprofessional team (discussion briefings), and other department-led initiatives to promote trust, teamwork, and speaking up among interprofessional team members. A quasi-experiment (pretest-posttest control group design, using two posttests several months apart) was used to evaluate the impact of the complete intervention on individual teamwork climate perceptions. The intervention was implemented with an intact interprofessional team (the Emergency Department-ED) in 2014. The intensive care unit (ICU) was used as the control unit. Survey response rates were the highest at time 1 (83/102 = 81% for the ED and 29/31 = 94% for the ICU) and the lowest at time 3 (38/105 = 36% for the ED and 14/30 = 47% for the ICU). The results obtained from paired and unpaired analyses suggest that this type of multifaceted approach can improve staff perceptions of teamwork climate. The teamwork climate score in the ED was significantly higher at follow-up (Mt2 = 3.42, SD = 0.66) compared to baseline (Mt1 = 3.13, SD = 0.72), (F(1, 34) = 12.2, p = .001, eta 2 p = .263), while baseline and follow-up scores were not significantly different between baseline and follow-up for the ICU group (Mt1 = 4.12, SD = 0.60; Mt2 = 4.15, SD = 0.56; F(1, 34) = 0.06, p = .806, eta 2 p = .002). Sustaining high levels of participation in interprofessional initiatives and engaging physicians remain challenging when interventions are used in context. Improving team

  10. Teamwork in the Automobile Industry Ð An Anglo-German Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Niels-Erik Wergin

    2003-01-01

    Teamwork in the automotive industry varies significantly from plant to plant. This article compares teamwork in four automobile plants in Germany and Britain, and addresses two questions: (1) Do different models of teamwork fit into a bi-polar model of teamwork, being either innovative or structural conservative? (2) Do current models of teamwork signify a development towards post-fordism, or are they merely part of a neo-fordist rationalisation of production? The following answers are sugges...

  11. Development of a self-assessment teamwork tool for use by medical and nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Christopher J.; Jorm, Christine; Shulruf, Boaz; Weller, Jennifer; Currie, Jane; Lim, Renee; Osomanski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Teamwork training is an essential component of health professional student education. A valid and reliable teamwork self-assessment tool could assist students to identify desirable teamwork behaviours with the potential to promote learning about effective teamwork. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-assessment teamwork tool for health professional students for use in the context of emergency response to a mass casualty. Methods The authors modified a previousl...

  12. AN ANALYSIS OF TEAMWORK IN THE INSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Stanić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is designed and contextualized as a meaningful whole which includes the triple helix model: a combination of science, the real sector and local government. The basis of this research is teamwork in insurance companies operating in eastern Croatia whose indicators reflect on other insurance companies in Croatia and beyond. The conclusions of the paper suggest that teamwork is omnipresent in insurance companies, and that it affects the efficiency in meeting their objectives. A survey was used to test and prove the hypotheses, indicating that especially during the economic crisis it is crucial to invest in human resources and encourage teamwork via key motivational factors. The conclusions of the paper show that teamwork contributes to the efficiency of the organization, dissemination of new ideas and greater synergy within the insurance company.

  13. Situational Awareness Support to Enhance Teamwork in Collaborative Working Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Whitworth, B.; de Moor, A.

    This chapter addresses awareness support to enhance teamwork in co-located collaborative environments. In particular, we focus on the concept of situational awareness which is essential for successful team collaboration. Mutual situational awareness leads to informal social interactions, development

  14. Teaching and Assessing Teamwork Skills in Engineering and Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Lingard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To be successful in today's workplace, engineering and computer science students must possess high levels of teamwork skills. Unfortunately, most engineering programs provide little or no specific instruction in this area. This paper outlines an assessment-driven approach toward teaching teamwork skills. Working with the Industrial Advisory Board for the College, a set of performance criteria for teamwork was developed. This set of criteria was used to build an assessment instrument to measure the extent to which students are able to achieve the necessary skills. This set of criteria provides a clear basis for the development of an approach toward teaching teamwork skills. Furthermore, the results from the assessment can be used to adjust the teaching techniques to address the particular skills where students show some weaknesses. Although this effort is in the early stages, the approach seems promising and will be improved over time.

  15. Teamwork and Collaboration for Prevention of Surgical Site Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, E Patchen

    2016-04-01

    The surgeon has been regarded as the "captain of the ship" in the operating room (OR) for many years, but cannot accomplish successful operative intervention without the rest of the team. Review of the pertinent English-language literature. Many reports demonstrate very different impressions of teamwork and communication in the OR held by different members of the surgical team. Objective measures of teamwork and communication demonstrate a reduction in complications including surgical site infections with improved teamwork and communication, with fewer distractions such as noise, and with effective use of checklists. Efforts to improve teamwork and communication and promote the effective use of checklists promote patient safety and improved outcomes for patients with reduction in surgical site infections.

  16. Command and Control Planning and Teamwork: Exploring the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterling, Bruce S; Lickteig, Carl W

    2000-01-01

    .... This paper examines how participant ratings of command and control planning and observer assessments of teamwork were related in a series of futuristic missions conducted by the Mounted Maneuver...

  17. Health science center faculty attitudes towards interprofessional education and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Jodie C; Gosselin, Kevin; Bentley, Regina

    2018-03-01

    The attitudes of faculty towards interprofessional education (IPE) and teamwork impact the education of health professions education (HPE) students. This paper reports on a study evaluating attitudes from health professions educators towards IPE and teamwork at one academic health science center (HSC) where modest IPE initiatives have commenced. Drawing from the results of a previous investigation, this study was conducted to examine current attitudes of the faculty responsible for the training of future healthcare professionals. Survey data were collected to evaluate attitudes from HSC faculty, dentistry, nursing, medicine, pharmacy and public health. In general, positive HSC faculty attitudes towards interprofessional learning, education, and teamwork were significantly predicted by those affiliated with the component of nursing. Faculty development aimed at changing attitudes and increasing understanding of IPE and teamwork are critical. Results of this study serve as an underpinning to leverage strengths and evaluate weakness in initiating IPE.

  18. A mixed-methods study of the causes and impact of poor teamwork between junior doctors and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connor, Paul; O'dea, Angela; Lydon, Sinéad; Offiah, Gozie; Scott, Jennifer; Flannery, Antoinette; Lang, Bronagh; Hoban, Anthony; Armstrong, Catherine; Byrne, Dara

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to collect and analyse examples of poor teamwork between junior doctors and nurses; identify the teamwork failures contributing to poor team function; and ascertain if particular teamwork failures are associated with higher levels of risk to patients. Critical Incident Technique interviews were carried out with junior doctors and nurses. Two teaching hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. Junior doctors (n = 28) and nurses (n = 8) provided descriptions of scenarios of poor teamwork. The interviews were coded against a theoretical framework of healthcare team function by three psychologists and were also rated for risk to patients by four doctors and three nurses. A total of 33 of the scenarios met the inclusion criteria for analysis. A total of 63.6% (21/33) of the scenarios were attributed to 'poor quality of collaboration', 42.4% (14/33) to 'poor leadership' and 48.5% (16/33) to a 'lack of coordination'. A total of 16 scenarios were classified as high risk and 17 scenarios were classified as medium risk. Significantly more of the high-risk scenarios were associated with a 'lack of a shared mental model' (62.5%, 10/16) and 'poor communication' (50.0%, 8/16) than the medium-risk scenarios (17.6%, 3/17 and 11.8%, 2/17, respectively). Poor teamwork between junior doctors and nurses is common and places patients at considerable risk. Addressing this problem requires a well-designed complex intervention to develop the team skills of doctors and nurses and foster a clinical environment in which teamwork is supported. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  19. Teamwork and Safety in the Maritime Industry: A SWOT Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vestad, Anne-Lise

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The past few decades the use of teams has increased, also in complex sociotechnical systems such as the maritime industry. Safety issues involve a wide range of elements, including human factors, and pose a number of challenges to organisations in the shipping industry. The primary aim of this study was to examine the Big Five of teamwork model and its ability to capture teamwork aspects of all kinds of teams, independent of team type, organisational level and domain. The collect...

  20. Infusing Technical Communication and Teamwork within the ECE Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    KEDROWICZ, By April; WATANABE, Sundy

    2006-01-01

    This paper highlights a unique approach to infusing formal training and practice in oral and written communication and teamwork development in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) at the University of Utah. Faculty and graduate (Ph.D.) students from the College of Humanities have teamed up with faculty from engineering to develop communication and teamwork instruction that is integrated into the existing engineering curriculum. These skills are used as a vehicle ...

  1. Teaching interprofessional teamwork in medical and nursing education in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The notions of interprofessional education and interprofessional teamwork have attained widespread acceptance, partly because lack of teamwork has been tentatively linked to adverse incidents in healthcare. By analyzing data from 32 educational institutions, this study identifies the status of in......), practical difficulties (e.g. finding time to bring students of various professions together) and possibly managerial issues (e.g. lack of strategic perspective and change management)....

  2. Personality, Relationship Conflict, and Teamwork-Related Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîrgă, Delia; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A.; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models. PMID:25372143

  3. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  4. Personality, relationship conflict, and teamwork-related mental models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Vîrgă

    Full Text Available This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models. Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models.

  5. Personality, relationship conflict, and teamwork-related mental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîrgă, Delia; Curşeu, Petru Lucian; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models.

  6. Nursing teamwork in a health system: A multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jennifer A; Westers, Judith B

    2018-01-16

    The aim of this study was to examine how the facets of teamwork exist among nurse-only teams in acute and continuing care settings. The health care 'team' conventionally describes the interdisciplinary team in both literature and practice. Nursing-specific teams are rarely considered in the literature. An examination of this specific professional cohort is important to understand how teamwork exists among those who provide the majority of patient care. This was a descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional study using the Nursing Teamwork Survey to measure teamwork of nursing-based teams among 1414 participants in multiple acute care environments across a large Midwestern health system. The characteristics of nursing teams were analysed. The results from the subscales within the teamwork model showed that nursing teams had a good understanding of the various roles and responsibilities. However, nurse team members held a more individualistic rather than collective team-oriented mindset. Increased teamwork has a positive effect on job satisfaction, staffing efficiencies, retention and care delivery. Nurse leaders can use the information provided in this study to target the aspects of highly functioning teams by improving team orientation, trust and backup behaviours. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Knowledge integration, teamwork and performance in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Mirjam; Lippenberger, Corinna; Becker, Sonja; Reichler, Lars; Müller, Christian; Zimmermann, Linda; Rundel, Manfred; Baumeister, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge integration is the process of building shared mental models. The integration of the diverse knowledge of the health professions in shared mental models is a precondition for effective teamwork and team performance. As it is known that different groups of health care professionals often tend to work in isolation, the authors compared the perceptions of knowledge integration. It can be expected that based on this isolation, knowledge integration is assessed differently. The purpose of this paper is to test these differences in the perception of knowledge integration between the professional groups and to identify to what extent knowledge integration predicts perceptions of teamwork and team performance and to determine if teamwork has a mediating effect. The study is a multi-center cross-sectional study with a descriptive-explorative design. Data were collected by means of a staff questionnaire for all health care professionals working in the rehabilitation clinics. The results showed that there are significant differences in knowledge integration within interprofessional health care teams. Furthermore, it could be shown that knowledge integration is significantly related to patient-centered teamwork as well as to team performance. Mediation analysis revealed partial mediation of the effect of knowledge integration on team performance through teamwork. PRACTICAL/IMPLICATIONS: In practice, the results of the study provide a valuable starting point for team development interventions. This is the first study that explored knowledge integration in medical rehabilitation teams and its relation to patient-centered teamwork and team performance.

  8. Assessment of teamwork during structured interdisciplinary rounds on medical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kevin J; Boudreau, Yvonne N; Creden, Amanda J; Slade, Maureen E; Williams, Mark V

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinary rounds (IDR) provide a means to assemble hospital team members and improve collaboration. Little is known about teamwork during IDR. To evaluate and characterize teamwork during IDR. Cross-sectional observational study. Six medical units which had implemented structured interdisciplinary rounds (SIDR). We adapted the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool, a behaviorally anchored rating scale shown to be reliable and valid in surgical settings. OTAS provides scores ranging from 0 to 6 (0 = problematic behavior; 6 = exemplary behavior) across 5 domains (communication, coordination, cooperation/backup behavior, leadership, and monitoring/situational awareness) and for prespecified subteams. Two researchers conducted direct observations using the adapted OTAS tool. We conducted 7-8 independent observations for each unit (total = 44) and 20 joint observations. Inter-rater reliability was excellent at the unit level (Spearman's rho = 0.75), and good across domains (rho = 0.53-0.68) and subteams (rho = 0.53-0.76) with the exception of the physician subteam, for which it was poor (rho = 0.35). Though teamwork scores were generally high, we found differences across units, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) 4.5 (3.9-4.9) for the lowest and 5.4 (5.3-5.5) for the highest performing unit (P teamwork during SIDR across units, domains, and most subteams. Variation in performance suggests a need to improve consistency of teamwork and emphasizes the importance of leadership. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  9. Teamwork skills in actual, in situ, and in-center pediatric emergencies: performance levels across settings and perceptions of comparative educational impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Thomaz Bittencourt; Kerrey, Benjamin T; Taylor, Regina G; FitzGerald, Michael; Geis, Gary L

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric emergencies require effective teamwork. These skills are developed and demonstrated in actual emergencies and in simulated environments, including simulation centers (in center) and the real care environment (in situ). Our aims were to compare teamwork performance across these settings and to identify perceived educational strengths and weaknesses between simulated settings. We hypothesized that teamwork performance in actual emergencies and in situ simulations would be higher than for in-center simulations. A retrospective, video-based assessment of teamwork was performed in an academic, pediatric level 1 trauma center, using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (range, 0-44) among emergency department providers (physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, paramedics, patient care assistants, and pharmacists). A survey-based, cross-sectional assessment was conducted to determine provider perceptions regarding simulation training. One hundred thirty-two videos, 44 from each setting, were reviewed. Mean total TEAM scores were similar and high in all settings (31.2 actual, 31.1 in situ, and 32.3 in-center, P = 0.39). Of 236 providers, 154 (65%) responded to the survey. For teamwork training, in situ simulation was considered more realistic (59% vs. 10%) and more effective (45% vs. 15%) than in-center simulation. In a video-based study in an academic pediatric institution, ratings of teamwork were relatively high among actual resuscitations and 2 simulation settings, substantiating the influence of simulation-based training on instilling a culture of communication and teamwork. On the basis of survey results, providers favored the in situ setting for teamwork training and suggested an expansion of our existing in situ program.

  10. Formatively Assessing Teamwork in Technology-Enabled Twenty-First Century Classrooms: Exploratory Findings of a Teamwork Awareness Programme in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Elizabeth; Hong, Helen; Tan, Jennifer Pei-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Teamwork, one of the core competencies for the twenty-first century learner, is a critical skill for work and learning. However, assessing teamwork is complex, in particular, developing a measure of teamwork that is domain-generic and applicable across a wide range of learners. This paper documents one such study that leverages technology to help…

  11. [Teamwork and negotiation with family in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Mendes, Maria Goreti; Rodrigues Araújo, Beatriz; Pereira Martins, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Analyze the negotiation and interaction process within nurses' practice with mothers of hospitalized children in pediatric unit from the teamwork perspective. A qualitative approach was used in this study, based on the Grounded Theory from the symbolic interaction perspective. The study included 12 nurses of the pediatric unit and 18 mothers who stayed in the hospital with their hospitalized children. The number of participants was defined according to data saturation. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were chosen as data collection techniques and it was analyzed using the program NVivo8. From the analysis performed, the central category identified was «weaknesses in the negotiation process», within the interactions between nurses and mothers. Nurses revealed difficulties in the communication process, they did not include roles definition with mothers in order to establish their participation in the care process and a power imbalance was also evidenced. Within the studied settings, an important lack of collaborative work with hospitalized children's mothers was observed. The weaknesses in the negotiation process and specifically the difficulties found in communication; the lack of roles and tasks clarification and the perceived power imbalance regarding relationships, prevent mothers involvement in their children care process, considered a basic component to achieve a greater mother implication, better results in terms of health and a lower impact of hospitalization in the children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Benefits of multidisciplinary teamwork in the management of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cath Taylor,1 Amanda Shewbridge,2 Jenny Harris,1 James S Green3,4 1Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, King’s College London, London UK; 2Breast Cancer Services, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 3Department of Urology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK; 4Department of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, UK Abstract: The widespread introduction of multidisciplinary team (MDT-work for breast cancer management has in part evolved due to the increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment decision-making. An MDT approach aims to bring together the range of specialists required to discuss and agree treatment recommendations and ongoing management for individual patients. MDTs are resource-intensive yet we lack strong (randomized controlled trial evidence of their effectiveness. Clinical consensus is generally favorable on the benefits of effective specialist MDT-work. Many studies have shown the benefits of receiving treatment from a specialist center, and evidence continues to accrue from comparative studies of clinical benefits of an MDT approach, including improved survival. Patients’ views of the MDT model of decision-making (and in particular its impact on involvement in decisions about their care have been under-researched. Barriers to effective teamwork and poor decision-making include excessive caseload, low attendance at meetings, lack of leadership, poor communication, role ambiguity, and failure to consider patients’ holistic needs. Breast cancer nurses have a key role in relation to assessing holistic needs, and their specialist contribution has also been associated with improved patient experience and quality of life. This paper examines the evidence for the benefits of MDT-work, in particular for breast cancer. Evidence is considered within a context of growing cancer incidence at a time of increased financial restraint, and it may now be important to

  13. MEGASTAR: The meaning of growth. An assessment of systems, technologies, and requirements. [methodology for display and analysis of energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A methodology for the display and analysis of postulated energy futures for the United States is presented. A systems approach methodology including the methodology of technology assessment is used to examine three energy scenarios--the Westinghouse Nuclear Electric Economy, the Ford Technical Fix Base Case and a MEGASTAR generated Alternate to the Ford Technical Fix Base Case. The three scenarios represent different paths of energy consumption from the present to the year 2000. Associated with these paths are various mixes of fuels, conversion, distribution, conservation and end-use technologies. MEGASTAR presents the estimated times and unit requirements to supply the fuels, conversion and distribution systems for the postulated end uses for the three scenarios and then estimates the aggregate manpower, materials, and capital requirements needed to develop the energy system described by the particular scenario.

  14. Jefferson Teamwork Observation Guide (JTOG): An Instrument to Observe Teamwork Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kevin J; Giordano, Carolyn; Speakman, Elizabeth; Smith, Kellie; Horowitz, June A

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming an integral part of the education of health professions students. However, teaching students to become successful members of interprofessional teams is complex, and it is important for students to learn the combinations of skills necessary for teams to function effectively. There are many instruments available to measure many features related to IPE. However, these instruments are often too cumbersome to use in an observational situation since they tend to be lengthy and contain many abstract characteristics that are difficult to identify. The Jefferson Teamwork Observation Guide (JTOG) is a short tool that was created for students early in their educational program to observe teams in action with a set of guidelines to help them focus their observation on behaviors indicative of good teamwork. The JTOG was developed over a 2-year period based on student and clinician feedback and the input of experts in IPE. While initially developed as a purely educational tool for prelicensure students, it is becoming clear that it is an easy-to-use instrument that assesses the behavior of clinicians in practice.

  15. Radiological error: analysis, standard setting, targeted instruction and teamworking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology does not have objective benchmarks for acceptable levels of missed diagnoses [1]. Until now, data collection of radiological discrepancies has been very time consuming. The culture within the specialty did not encourage it. However, public concern about patient safety is increasing. There have been recent innovations in compiling radiological interpretive discrepancy rates which may facilitate radiological standard setting. However standard setting alone will not optimise radiologists' performance or patient safety. We must use these new techniques in radiological discrepancy detection to stimulate greater knowledge sharing, targeted instruction and teamworking among radiologists. Not all radiological discrepancies are errors. Radiological discrepancy programmes must not be abused as an instrument for discrediting individual radiologists. Discrepancy rates must not be distorted as a weapon in turf battles. Radiological errors may be due to many causes and are often multifactorial. A systems approach to radiological error is required. Meaningful analysis of radiological discrepancies and errors is challenging. Valid standard setting will take time. Meanwhile, we need to develop top-up training, mentoring and rehabilitation programmes. (orig.)

  16. Factors influencing teamwork and collaboration within a tertiary medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shu Feng; Wan, Thomas Th; Chen, Yu-Chih

    2012-04-26

    To understand how work climate and related factors influence teamwork and collaboration in a large medical center. A survey of 3462 employees was conducted to generate responses to Sexton's Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to assess perceptions of work environment via a series of five-point, Likert-scaled questions. Path analysis was performed, using teamwork (TW) and collaboration (CO) as endogenous variables. The exogenous variables are effective communication (EC), safety culture (SC), job satisfaction (JS), work pressure (PR), and work climate (WC). The measurement instruments for the variables or summated subscales are presented. Reliability of each sub-scale are calculated. Alpha Cronbach coefficients are relatively strong: TW (0.81), CO (0.76), EC (0.70), SC (0.83), JS (0.91), WP (0.85), and WC (0.78). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed for each of these constructs. Path analysis enables to identify statistically significant predictors of two endogenous variables, teamwork and intra-organizational collaboration. Significant amounts of variance in perceived teamwork (R(2) = 0.59) and in collaboration (R(2) = 0.75) are accounted for by the predictor variables. In the initial model, safety culture is the most important predictor of perceived teamwork, with a β weight of 0.51, and work climate is the most significant predictor of collaboration, with a β weight of 0.84. After eliminating statistically insignificant causal paths and allowing correlated predictors1, the revised model shows that work climate is the only predictor positively influencing both teamwork (β = 0.26) and collaboration (β = 0.88). A relatively weak positive (β = 0.14) but statistically significant relationship exists between teamwork and collaboration when the effects of other predictors are simultaneously controlled. Hospital executives who are interested in improving collaboration should assess the work climate to ensure that employees are operating in a setting conducive

  17. Factors influencing teamwork and collaboration within a tertiary medical center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shu Feng; Wan, Thomas TH; Chen, Yu-Chih

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To understand how work climate and related factors influence teamwork and collaboration in a large medical center. METHODS: A survey of 3462 employees was conducted to generate responses to Sexton’s Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to assess perceptions of work environment via a series of five-point, Likert-scaled questions. Path analysis was performed, using teamwork (TW) and collaboration (CO) as endogenous variables. The exogenous variables are effective communication (EC), safety culture (SC), job satisfaction (JS), work pressure (PR), and work climate (WC). The measurement instruments for the variables or summated subscales are presented. Reliability of each sub-scale are calculated. Alpha Cronbach coefficients are relatively strong: TW (0.81), CO (0.76), EC (0.70), SC (0.83), JS (0.91), WP (0.85), and WC (0.78). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed for each of these constructs. RESULTS: Path analysis enables to identify statistically significant predictors of two endogenous variables, teamwork and intra-organizational collaboration. Significant amounts of variance in perceived teamwork (R2 = 0.59) and in collaboration (R2 = 0.75) are accounted for by the predictor variables. In the initial model, safety culture is the most important predictor of perceived teamwork, with a β weight of 0.51, and work climate is the most significant predictor of collaboration, with a β weight of 0.84. After eliminating statistically insignificant causal paths and allowing correlated predictors1, the revised model shows that work climate is the only predictor positively influencing both teamwork (β = 0.26) and collaboration (β = 0.88). A relatively weak positive (β = 0.14) but statistically significant relationship exists between teamwork and collaboration when the effects of other predictors are simultaneously controlled. CONCLUSION: Hospital executives who are interested in improving collaboration should assess the work climate to ensure that employees are

  18. Impact of teamwork on missed care in four Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rose; Rahman, Asheq; Courtney, Mary; Chalmers, Cheyne

    2017-01-01

    Investigate effects of teamwork on missed nursing care across a healthcare network in Australia. Missed care is universally used as an indicator of quality nursing care, however, little is known about mitigating effects of teamwork on these events. A descriptive exploratory study. Missed Care and Team Work surveys were completed by 334 nurses. Using Stata software, nursing staff demographic information and components of missed care and teamwork were compared across the healthcare network. Statistical tests were performed to identify predicting factors for missed care. The most commonly reported components of missed care were as follows: ambulation three times per day (43·3%), turning patient every two hours (29%) and mouth care (27·7%). The commonest reasons mentioned for missed care were as follows: inadequate labour resources (range 69·8-52·7%), followed by material resources (range 59·3-33·3%) and communication (range 39·3-27·2%). There were significant differences in missed care scores across units. Using the mean scores in regression correlation matrix, the negative relationship of missed care and teamwork was supported (r = -0·34, p teamwork alone accounted for about 9% of missed nursing care. Similar to previous international research findings, our results showed nursing teamwork significantly impacted on missed nursing care. Teamwork may be a mitigating factor to address missed care and future research is needed. These results may provide administrators, educators and clinicians with information to develop practices and policies to improve patient care internationally. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Teamwork: relevance and interdependence of interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, M; Besoaín-Saldaña, A; Aguirre, M; Leiva, J

    2017-04-27

    Determine the perception of university students regarding interprofessional and interdependent work between team members in their inclusion in primary care. Analytical cross-sectional study. The sampling had a probabilistic, stratified random type with 95% confidence and 5% margin of error. Seven-hundred and four students of Public Universities in Santiago (Chile) answered self-administered questionnaire. Ninety-seven point eight of students say that interprofessional work is important; 27.1% of them declare that their university did not seem to show that their study plans were important. The professionals listed as most important in teams are physicians and nurses. Spaces for development and institutional support are key elements to promote interprofessional work. If this competence can involve each academic unit in their different formative spaces there will be a significant contribution to said promotion. Teamwork is a pending task. Determinar la percepción de estudiantes universitarios respecto al trabajo interprofesional e interdependencia entre los miembros del equipo en su inserción en la atención primaria. Estudio de tipo analítico y transversal. El muestreo fue de tipo aleatorio, probabilístico estratificado con un 95% de confianza y un 5% de margen de error. Se utilizó un cuestionario auto-administrado en 704 estudiantes de Universidades del Estado en Santiago de Chile. Un 97,8% de los estudiantes opinan que el trabajo interprofesional es importante; un 27,1% de ellos declara que su universidad no le ha entregado importancia en sus planes de estudios. Los profesionales mencionados como más importantes en el equipo son los médicos y enfermeras. Espacios de desarrollo y respaldo institucional son elementos claves para promover el trabajo interprofesional. Que esta competencia logre involucrar a cada unidad académica en sus diferentes espacios formativos será un aporte significativo en aquello. Trabajo en equipo es una tarea pendiente.

  20. Measuring teamwork and taskwork of community-based “teams” delivering life-saving health interventions in rural Zambia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of teams is a well-known approach in a variety of settings, including health care, in both developed and developing countries. Team performance is comprised of teamwork and task work, and ascertaining whether a team is performing as expected to achieve the desired outcome has rarely been done in health care settings in resource-limited countries. Measuring teamwork requires identifying dimensions of teamwork or processes that comprise the teamwork construct, while taskwork requires identifying specific team functions. Since 2008 a community-based project in rural Zambia has teamed community health workers (CHWs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs), supported by Neighborhood Health Committees (NHCs), to provide essential newborn and continuous curative care for children 0–59 months. This paper describes the process of developing a measure of teamwork and taskwork for community-based health teams in rural Zambia. Methods Six group discussions and pile-sorting sessions were conducted with three NHCs and three groups of CHW-TBA teams. Each session comprised six individuals. Results We selected 17 factors identified by participants as relevant for measuring teamwork in this rural setting. Participants endorsed seven functions as important to measure taskwork. To explain team performance, we assigned 20 factors into three sub-groups: personal, community-related and service-related. Conclusion Community and culturally relevant processes, functions and factors were used to develop a tool for measuring teamwork and taskwork in this rural community and the tool was quite unique from tools used in developed countries. PMID:23802766

  1. A simulation-based curriculum to introduce key teamwork principles to entering medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arna; Slagle, Jason M; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D; Booker, Ray; Miller, Anne; France, Daniel J; Rawn, Lisa; Weinger, Matthew B

    2016-11-16

    Failures of teamwork and interpersonal communication have been cited as a major patient safety issue. Although healthcare is increasingly being provided in interdisciplinary teams, medical school curricula have traditionally not explicitly included the specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors required to function effectively as part of such teams. As part of a new "Foundations" core course for beginning medical students that provided a two-week introduction to the most important themes in modern healthcare, a multidisciplinary team, in collaboration with the Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment, was asked to create an experiential introduction to teamwork and interpersonal communication. We designed and implemented a novel, all-day course to teach second-week medical students basic teamwork and interpersonal principles and skills using immersive simulation methods. Students' anonymous comprehensive course evaluations were collected at the end of the day. Through four years of iterative refinement based on students' course evaluations, faculty reflection, and debriefing, the course changed and matured. Four hundred twenty evaluations were collected. Course evaluations were positive with almost all questions having means and medians greater than 5 out of 7 across all 4 years. Sequential year comparisons were of greatest interest for examining the effects of year-to-year curricular improvements. Differences were not detected among any of the course evaluation questions between 2007 and 2008 except that more students in 2008 felt that the course further developed their "Decision Making Abilities" (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.07-2.67). With extensive changes to the syllabus and debriefer selection/assignment, concomitant improvements were observed in these aspects between 2008 and 2009 (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.28-3.50). Substantive improvements in specific exercises also yielded significant improvements in the evaluations of those exercises. This

  2. Putting the "we" into teamwork: effects of priming personal or social identity on flight attendants' perceptions of teamwork and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jane; O'Hare, David; Henderson, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a manipulation derived from social categorization and social identity theory to promote greater cabin crew willingness to engage in intergroup communication and teamwork in airline operations. Failures of communication and teamwork between airline crew have been implicated in a number of airline crashes. Flight attendants based domestically (n = 254) or overseas (n = 230) received a manipulation designed to prime either their social identity or personal identity and then read a brief outline of an in-flight event before completing a teamwork questionnaire. Flight attendants who received a social identity prime indicated increased willingness to engage in coordinated team action compared with those who received a personal identity prime. Priming social identity can enhance attitudes toward teamwork and communication, potentially leading to increased willingness to engage in intergroup cooperation. Social categorization and social identity theories can be used to inform joint training program development for flight attendants and pilots to create increased willingness for group members to participate in effective communication and teamwork behaviors.

  3. Thriving Organizational Sustainability through Innovation: Incivility Climate and Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewan Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the association between team incivility climate and team members’ perceived support for innovation. To extend findings on the negative effects of incivility (which are low intensity deviant behaviors, such as rudeness in studies focusing on the individual level, the effects of organizational incivility are examined at the work team level. Drawing on the spiral model of incivility and the literature on teams, this study suggests that team incivility climate has a negative impact on perceived support for innovation through team members’ teamwork behaviors. Using data collected from 411 subordinates on 62 work teams, the hypothesized mediation model is tested. The results show a negative effect of team incivility climate on teamwork and a positive effect of teamwork on perceived support for innovation, supporting the hypothesized negative indirect effect. Research and practical implications for organizational sustainability are discussed.

  4. Leadership and Teamwork in Trauma and Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Menchine

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons’ Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders.  Methods: We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “leadership” and then either “trauma” or “resuscitation” as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1 how leadership affects patient care; 2 which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3 methods to train physicians to become better leaders. Results: We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs

  5. Leadership and Teamwork in Trauma and Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kelsey; Menchine, Michael; Burner, Elizabeth; Arora, Sanjay; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Yersin, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons’ Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. Methods We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “leadership” and then either “trauma” or “resuscitation” as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1) how leadership affects patient care; 2) which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3) methods to train physicians to become better leaders. Results We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS) is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs included didactic teaching

  6. Leadership and Teamwork in Trauma and Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kelsey; Menchine, Michael; Burner, Elizabeth; Arora, Sanjay; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Yersin, Bertrand

    2016-09-01

    Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons' Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. We searched the PubMed database using the keywords "leadership" and then either "trauma" or "resuscitation" as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1) how leadership affects patient care; 2) which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3) methods to train physicians to become better leaders. We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS) is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs included didactic teaching followed by simulations. Although programs

  7. Measuring teamwork and conflict among emergency medical technician personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D; Weaver, Sallie J; Rosen, Michael A; Todorova, Gergana; Weingart, Laurie R; Krackhardt, David; Lave, Judith R; Arnold, Robert M; Yealy, Donald M; Salas, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among emergency medical technician (EMT) partnerships. We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool (EMT-TEAMWORK). We performed a series of exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics. We received 687 completed surveys. The EFAs identified a nine-factor solution. We labeled these factors 1) Team Orientation, 2) Team Structure & Leadership, 3) Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring, 4) Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models, 5) Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior, 6) Process Conflict, 7) Strong Task Conflict, 8) Mild Task Conflict, and 9) Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short-form (30-item SF) and long-form (45-item LF) version. The CFAs determined that both the SF and the LF possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties, with a mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all nine factors (mean = 0.84; minimum = 0.78, maximum = 0.94). The mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF was 0.87 (minimum = 0.79, maximum = 0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all nine factors and the global score for the SF and LF. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, standard deviation [SD] 21.5, SF; 49.3, SD 19.8, LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7, SD 18.1, for both SF and LF). We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners.

  8. Assessing Interprofessional Teamwork in Inpatient Medical Oncology Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A Charlotta; Callaghan, Mary; Cooper, Abby L; Brandman, James; O'Leary, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Teamwork is important to providing safe and effective care for hospitalized patients with cancer; however, few studies have evaluated teamwork in this setting. We surveyed all nurses, residents, hospitalists, and oncology physicians in oncology units at a large urban teaching hospital from September to November 2012. Respondents rated teamwork using a validated instrument (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; scale, 0 to 100) and rated the quality of collaboration they had experienced with other professionals using a 5-point ordinal response scale (1, very low quality; 5, very high quality). Respondents also rated potential barriers to collaboration using a 4-point ordinal response scale (1, not at all a barrier; 4, major barrier). We compared ratings by professionals using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Overall, 129 (67%) of 193 eligible participants completed the survey. Teamwork scores differed across professional types, with nurses providing the lowest ratings (69.7) and residents providing the highest (81.9; ANOVA P = .01). Ratings of collaboration with nurses were high across all types of professionals. Ratings of collaboration with physicians varied significantly by professional type (P ≤ .02), with nurses giving lower ratings of collaboration with all physician types. Similarly, perceived barriers to collaboration differed by professional type, with nurses perceiving the biggest barrier to be negative attitudes regarding the importance of communication. Oncologists did not perceive any of the listed options as major barriers to collaboration. In inpatient oncology units, discrepancies exist between nurses' and physicians' ratings of teamwork and collaboration. Oncologists seem to be unaware that teamwork is suboptimal in this setting. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Interventions to improve teamwork and communications among healthcare staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, P; Rathbone, J; Catchpole, K

    2011-04-01

    Concern over the frequency of unintended harm to patients has focused attention on the importance of teamwork and communication in avoiding errors. This has led to experiments with teamwork training programmes for clinical staff, mostly based on aviation models. These are widely assumed to be effective in improving patient safety, but the extent to which this assumption is justified by evidence remains unclear. A systematic literature review on the effects of teamwork training for clinical staff was performed. Information was sought on outcomes including staff attitudes, teamwork skills, technical performance, efficiency and clinical outcomes. Of 1036 relevant abstracts identified, 14 articles were analysed in detail: four randomized trials and ten non-randomized studies. Overall study quality was poor, with particular problems over blinding, subjective measures and Hawthorne effects. Few studies reported on every outcome category. Most reported improved staff attitudes, and six of eight reported significantly better teamwork after training. Five of eight studies reported improved technical performance, improved efficiency or reduced errors. Three studies reported evidence of clinical benefit, but this was modest or of borderline significance in each case. Studies with a stronger intervention were more likely to report benefits than those providing less training. None of the randomized trials found evidence of technical or clinical benefit. The evidence for technical or clinical benefit from teamwork training in medicine is weak. There is some evidence of benefit from studies with more intensive training programmes, but better quality research and cost-benefit analysis are needed. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Exploring University Teacher Perceptions About Out-of-Class Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ruiz-Esparza Barajas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the first stage of a larger joint research project undertaken by five universities in Mexico to explore university teachers’ thinking about out-of-class teamwork. Data from interviews were analyzed using open and axial coding. Although results suggest a positive perception towards teamwork, the study unveiled important negative opinions. These opinions suggest the lack of success in promoting deep learning and in developing students’ socio-cognitive abilities. Findings were used to develop a survey to be applied to more teachers to gain a broader perspective and to corroborate results.

  11. Simulation: learning from mistakes while building communication and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehster, Christina R; Hall, Carla D

    2010-01-01

    Medical errors are one of the leading causes of death annually in the United States. Many of these errors are related to poor communication and/or lack of teamwork. Using simulation as a teaching modality provides a dual role in helping to reduce these errors. Thorough integration of clinical practice with teamwork and communication in a safe environment increases the likelihood of reducing the error rates in medicine. By allowing practitioners to make potential errors in a safe environment, such as simulation, these valuable lessons improve retention and will rarely be repeated.

  12. Quantum Teamwork for Unconditional Multiparty Communication with Gaussian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Adesso, Gerardo; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate the capability of continuous variable Gaussian states to communicate multipartite quantum information. A quantum teamwork protocol is presented according to which an arbitrary possibly entangled multimode state can be faithfully teleported between two teams each comprising many cooperative users. We prove that N-mode Gaussian weighted graph states exist for arbitrary N that enable unconditional quantum teamwork implementations for any arrangement of the teams. These perfect continuous variable maximally multipartite entangled resources are typical among pure Gaussian states and are unaffected by the entanglement frustration occurring in multiqubit states.

  13. Facilitating Teamwork in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W.; Block, Rebecca G.; Keyton, Joann

    2016-01-01

    A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms—closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust—of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented. PMID:27624944

  14. Facilitating Teamwork in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca H; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W; Block, Rebecca G; Keyton, Joann

    2016-11-01

    A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms-closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust-of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented.

  15. Barriers to Effective Teamwork Relating to Pediatric Resuscitations: Perceptions of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Joshua M; Chang, Todd P; Ziv, Nurit; Nager, Alan L

    2017-10-09

    In the pediatric emergency department (PED), resuscitations require medical teams form ad hoc, rarely communicating beforehand. Literature has shown that the medical community has deficiencies in communication and teamwork. However, we as medical providers do not know or understand the perceived barriers of our colleagues. Physicians may perceive a barrier that is different from nurses, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, or technicians. Perhaps we do not know in which area of teamwork and communication we are deficient. Only when we understand the perceptions of our fellow coworkers can we take steps toward improvement in quality resuscitations and therefore patient safety. The primary objectives of this study were to describe and understand the perceived barriers to effective communication and teamwork among different disciplines forming spontaneous resuscitation teams at a tertiary urban PED and to determine if providers of different disciplines perceived these barriers differently. This was a mixed-methods study conducted in a single, tertiary care freestanding children's hospital emergency department. Survey questions were iteratively developed to measure the construct of barriers and best practices within resuscitation teamwork, which was administered to staff among 5 selected roles: physicians, nurses, respiratory technicians, PED technicians, and PED pharmacists. It contained open-ended questions to provide statements on specific barriers or goals in effective teamwork, as well as a priority ranking on 25 different statements on teamwork extracted from the literature. From the participant data, 9 core themes related to resuscitation teamwork were coalesced using affinity diagramming by the authors. All statements from the survey were coded to the 9 core themes by 2 authors, with high reliability (κ = 0.93). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the prevalence of themes mentioned by survey participants. A χ test was used to determine differences

  16. Developing and managing embedded systems and products methods, techniques, tools, processes, and teamwork

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This Expert Guide gives you the knowledge, methods and techniques to develop and manage embedded systems successfully.  It shows that teamwork, development procedures, and program management require unique and wide ranging skills to develop a system, skills that most people can attain with persistence and effort. With this book you will: Understand the various business aspects of a project from budgets and schedules through contracts and market studiesUnderstand the place and timing for simulations, bench tests, and prototypes, and understand the differences between various formal metho

  17. Leadership, management and teamwork learning through an extra-curricular project for medical students: descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Maria Lucia da Silva Germano; Coelho, Izabel Cristina Meister; Paraizo, Mariana Martins; Paciornik, Ester Fogel

    2014-01-01

    Professionalism in medicine requires preparation for the globalized world. Our objective was to describe a project that introduces medical students to the community, hospital and laboratory activities, thereby allowing them to gain experience in people management, leadership and teamwork. Descriptive study of the process applied at a philanthropic medical school in Curitiba, Paraná. Inclusion of management and leadership practices as part of the medical degree program. The study groups consisted of fifteen students. After six months, any of the participants could be elected as a subcoordinator, with responsibility for managing tasks and representing the team in hospital departments and the community. The activities required increasing levels of responsibility. In medical schools, students' involvement in practical activities is often limited to observation. They are not required to take responsibilities or to interact with other students and stakeholders. However, they will become accountable, which thus has an adverse effect on all involved. The learning space described here aims to fill this gap by bringing students closer to the daily lives and experiences of healthcare professionals. Being a physician requires not only management and leadership, but also transferrable competencies, communication and critical thinking. These attributes can be acquired through experience of teamwork, under qualified supervision from teaching staff. Students are thus expected to develop skills to deal with and resolve conflicts, learn to share leadership, prepare others to help and replace them, adopt an approach based on mutual responsibility and discuss their performance.

  18. Gender and Teamwork: An Analysis of Professors' Perspectives and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey; Panther, Grace

    2018-01-01

    Teamwork is increasingly seen as an important component of engineering education programmes. Yet, prior research has shown that there are numerous ways in which teamwork is gendered, and can lead to negative experiences for women students. This article presents the first interview findings on professors' perspectives on gender and teamwork.…

  19. Development and Validation of Performance Assessment Tools for Interprofessional Communication and Teamwork (PACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chia-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medical errors caused by breakdowns in teamwork and interprofessional communication contribute to many deaths in the United States each year. Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS®) is an evidence-based teamwork system developed to improve communication and teamwork skills among health care…

  20. Achieving quality improvement in the nursing home: influence of nursing leadership on communication and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsmeier, Amy; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Leadership, communication, and teamwork are essential elements of organizational capacity and are linked to organizational performance. How those organizations actually achieve improved performance, however, is not clearly understood. In this comparative case study, nursing leadership who facilitated open communication and teamwork achieved improvement while nursing leadership who impeded open communication and teamwork did not.

  1. Measuring teamwork in health care settings: a review of survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Melissa A; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Edmondson, Amy C

    2015-04-01

    Teamwork in health care settings is widely recognized as an important factor in providing high-quality patient care. However, the behaviors that comprise effective teamwork, the organizational factors that support teamwork, and the relationship between teamwork and patient outcomes remain empirical questions in need of rigorous study. To identify and review survey instruments used to assess dimensions of teamwork so as to facilitate high-quality research on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of articles published before September 2012 to identify survey instruments used to measure teamwork and to assess their conceptual content, psychometric validity, and relationships to outcomes of interest. We searched the ISI Web of Knowledge database, and identified relevant articles using the search terms team, teamwork, or collaboration in combination with survey, scale, measure, or questionnaire. We found 39 surveys that measured teamwork. Surveys assessed different dimensions of teamwork. The most commonly assessed dimensions were communication, coordination, and respect. Of the 39 surveys, 10 met all of the criteria for psychometric validity, and 14 showed significant relationships to nonself-report outcomes. Evidence of psychometric validity is lacking for many teamwork survey instruments. However, several psychometrically valid instruments are available. Researchers aiming to advance research on teamwork in health care should consider using or adapting one of these instruments before creating a new one. Because instruments vary considerably in the behavioral processes and emergent states of teamwork that they capture, researchers must carefully evaluate the conceptual consistency between instrument, research question, and context.

  2. Processes and Outcomes in Student Teamwork. An Empirical Study in a Marketing Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Rafael; Lucia-Palacios, Laura; Martin, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of student teamwork is increasing in most university degrees. However, there is still a gap in the literature regarding the connection between teamwork processes and their outcomes. In this paper, the authors analyze these processes and how they relate to teamwork outcomes from the students' perspective. Data was gathered from 129…

  3. Assessing teamwork performance in obstetrics : a systematic search and review of validated tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Annemarie F.; de Boer, Liza; Kienhorst, Dieneke; Truijens, Sophie E.; van Runnard Heimel, Pieter J.; Oei, S. Guid

    2017-01-01

    Teamwork performance is an essential component for the clinical efficiency of multi-professional teams in obstetric care. As patient safety is related to teamwork performance, it has become an important learning goal in simulation-based education. In order to improve teamwork performance, reliable

  4. Teamwork in nursing: restricted to nursing professionals or an interprofessional collaboration?

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Geisa Colebrusco de; Peduzzi,Marina; Silva,Jaqueline Alcântara Marcelino da; Carvalho,Brígida Gimenez

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To understand the nursing professionals' conceptions of teamwork and their elements. METHOD A qualitative study conducted in an oncological hospital using a semi-structured interview with 21 nursing professionals. RESULTS Two conceptions emerged from the accounts: teamwork restricted to nursing professionals and teamwork with interprofessional collaboration with particular importance for interactive dimensions: communication, trust and professional bonds, mutual respect ...

  5. The future of education and training in dental technology: designing a dental curriculum that facilitates teamwork across the oral health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J; Henderson, A; Johnson, N

    2010-03-13

    Teamwork is essential for the provision of contemporary, high quality oral health care. Teamwork skills need to be taught and learnt and therefore ought to be one of the core competencies in all dental education programmes: dentistry, oral health therapy, dental technology and dental assisting. Currently, lack of opportunities for collaborative learning and practice within educational establishments, and in the practising professions, hamper the development of effective teamwork. For students across oral health care, learning 'together' requires positive action for teamwork skills to be developed. Interprofessional curricula need to be formally developed, based on evidence from the wider education literature that demonstrates how to maximise the engagements needed for teamwork in practice. Rigorous study of interprofessional education within dentistry and oral health is in its infancy. Anecdotal evidence indicates that dental technology students who experience an interprofessional curriculum are better prepared for collaborative practice. Formalised interprofessional education is posited as an effective strategy to improve interactions among oral health professionals leading to improved patient care. This paper reviews the extant literature and describes the approach currently being trialled at Griffith University.

  6. An Evaluation Framework for Selecting Collaboration Systems for Student Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yide; Li, Lei; Zheng, Guangzhi; Guo, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Collaboration technologies play an increasingly important role in student teamwork in universities. With the proliferation of collaboration systems on the market and the wide range of features they offer, choosing an appropriate system can be an overwhelming task for college students. In this paper, the authors present an empirical study that…

  7. Teamwork and Patient Care Teams in an Acute Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Andrea; Heale, Roberta; Hunt, Elena; Parent, Michele

    2015-06-01

    The literature suggests that effective teamwork among patient care teams can positively impact work environment, job satisfaction and quality of patient care. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived level of nursing teamwork by registered nurses, registered practical nurses, personal support workers and unit clerks working on patient care teams in one acute care hospital in northern Ontario, Canada, and to determine if a relationship exists between the staff scores on the Nursing Teamwork Survey (NTS) and participant perception of adequate staffing. Using a descriptive cross-sectional research design, 600 staff members were invited to complete the NTS and a 33% response rate was achieved (N=200). The participants from the critical care unit reported the highest scores on the NTS, whereas participants from the inpatient surgical (IPS) unit reported the lowest scores. Participants from the IPS unit also reported having less experience, being younger, having less satisfaction in their current position and having a higher intention to leave. A high rate of intention to leave in the next year was found among all participants. No statistically significant correlation was found between overall scores on the NTS and the perception of adequate staffing. Strategies to increase teamwork, such as staff education, among patient care teams may positively influence job satisfaction and patient care on patient care units. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  8. Conflict from Teamwork in Project-Based Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lim Ha; Chen, Ching-Huei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the conflict occurring during teamwork among college seniors in project-based collaborative learning in a capstone course. It found that conflict emerged with poor communication, task management, and work allocation; unequal treatments among classmates; egocentricity; a clash of values; and lack of responsibility and…

  9. Gender, Teamwork and Management: A Glimpse into the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many organisations and nations today are turning to teams to manage their operations and help them reach their goals and objectives in a competitively charged business environment as is experienced in the present global arena. However, as much as teamwork is fancied in the workplace today, team processing is not ...

  10. Teamwork and communication: an effective approach to patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujumdar, Sandhya; Santos, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Teamwork and communication failures are leading causes of patient safety incidents in health care. Though health care providers must work in teams, they are not well-trained in teamwork and communication skills. Health care faces the problems of differences in communication styles, communication failures and poor teamwork. There is enough evidence in the literature to show that communication failure is detrimental to patient safety. It is estimated that 80% of serious medical errors worldwide take place because of miscommunication between medical providers. NUH recognizes that effective communication and teamwork are essential in the delivery of high quality safe patient care, especially in a complex organization. NUH is a good example, where there is a rich mix of nationalities and races, in staff and in patients, and there is a rapidly expanding care environment. NUH had to overcome these challenges by adopting a multi-pronged approach. The trials and tribulations of NUH in this journey were worthwhile as the patient safety climate survey scores improved over the years.

  11. A picture tells 1000 words: learning teamwork in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martina; Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; Foley, Tony

    2013-04-01

    Teamwork and patient centredness are frequently articulated concepts in medical education, but are not always explicit in the curriculum. In Ireland, recent government policy emphasises the importance of a primary care team approach to health care. We report on an appraisal of a newly introduced community-based student attachment, which focused on teamwork. To review students' experience of teamwork following a community clinical placement by examining student assignments: essays, poetry, music and art. Year-2 graduate-entry students (n = 45) spent 2 weeks with a primary care team. Attachments comprised placements with members of the primary care team, emphasising team dynamics, at the end of which students submitted a representative piece of work, which captured their learning. Essays (n = 22) were analysed using a thematic content analysis. Artwork consisted of painting, collage, photography, poetry and original music (n = 23). These were analysed using Gardner's entry points. Three core themes emerged in both written and visual work: patient centredness; communication; and an improved appreciation of the skills of other health care professionals. Students identified optimal team communication occurring when patient outcomes were prioritised. Metaphors relating to puzzles, hands and inter-connectedness feature strongly. The poems and artwork had a high impact when they were presented to tutors. Primary care team placements focus student attention on teamwork and patient centredness. Student artwork shows potential as a tool to evaluate student learning in medical education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  12. Teamwork Evaluation by Middle Grade Students in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Paris S.; Thompson, MaryEllen; Strom, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Teamwork skills are considered essential in a work environment characterized by diversity and interdependence. Consequently, middle grade teachers arrange cooperative learning so students can acquire experience with solving problems in groups. Teachers also acknowledge that they are frustrated because appropriate instruments are lacking to track…

  13. Using Peer Assessment to Evaluate Teamwork from a Multidisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Lladó, Anna; Feliu, Lidia; Castro, Francesc; Fraguell, Rosa Maria; Arbat, Gerard; Pujol, Joan; Suñol, Joan Josep; Daunis-i-Estadella, Pepus

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses the use of peer evaluation as a tool for evaluating teamwork and students' perceptions of this type of evaluation. A study was conducted of six subjects included on five degree courses at the University of Girona. In all of these subjects, students carried out a team activity, evaluated the performance of the team and the…

  14. Job satisfaction and teamwork : the role of supervisor support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, M.A.; Patterson, M.G.; West, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The link between teamwork and job satisfaction was investigated in a sample of 48 manufacturing companies comprising 4708 employees. Two separate research questions were addressed. First, it was proposed that supervisor support would be a weaker source of job satisfaction in companies with higher

  15. Assessing the Language of Chat for Teamwork Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibani, Antonette; Koh, Elizabeth; Lai, Vivian; Shim, Kyong Jin

    2017-01-01

    In technology-enhanced language learning, many pedagogical activities involve students in online discussion such as synchronous chat, in order to help them practice their language skills. Besides developing the language competency of students, it is also crucial to nurture their teamwork competencies for today's global and complex environment.…

  16. Special Education Teachers' Attitudes and Perceptions of Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, D. Michael; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2010-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-four special education teachers serving school-based intervention teams completed the "Attitudes About Teamwork Survey", the "Team Characteristics Survey", and the "Team Process Perception Survey". Respondents' regard for the team process in planning and implementing supports for children with disabilities was generally…

  17. Teamwork: Education for Entrants to the Environment Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Barry; Thomas, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Numerous reports over recent years emphasise the importance of teamwork training in undergraduate programs in environment education at tertiary level. This paper describes a project undertaken by a team of final year undergraduate environment students from four faculties at RMIT University in Australia working on a multi-disciplinary environment…

  18. Integrating Couple Teamwork Conversations into Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dana; Antle, Becky; Johnson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes the importance of and challenges to addressing couple teamwork issues in the child welfare population. Although there is substantial evidence to support the importance of healthy adult relationships for child well-being and the prevention of child maltreatment, there are a number of barriers to addressing these couple…

  19. Project-Based Learning in Geotechnics: Cooperative versus Collaborative Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different…

  20. The Teamwork Sourcebook. EPIC Workplace Learning Project, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Mary Crabbe, Ed.; Cyr, Anne Reis; Smith, Elizabeth Amidon; Travis, Lisa; Wiseman, Tim

    Designed as a reference for teaching teamwork skills in the workplace, this manual presents teaching strategies and activities for beginning, intermediate, and advanced learners. Following an overview of the manual's purpose, definitions are provided of the three skill levels integrated into the activities, indicating that beginning activities…

  1. Economic analysis of solar industrial process heat systems: A methodology to determine annual required revenue and internal rate of return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, W. C.; Brown, K. C.

    1981-08-01

    An economic evaluation of solar industrial process heat systems, is developed to determine the annual required revenue and the internal rate of return. First, a format is provided to estimate the solar system's installed cost, annual operating and maintenance expenses, and net annual solar energy delivered to the industrial process. The annual required revenue and the price of solar is calculated. The economic attractiveness of the potential solar investment can be determined by comparing the price of solar energy with the price of fossilfuel, both expressed in levelized terms. This requires calcuation of the internal rate of return on the solar investment or, in certain cases, the growth rate of return.

  2. Measuring teamwork and conflict among Emergency Medical Technician personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D.; Weaver, Sallie J.; Rosen, Michael A.; Todorova, Gergana; Weingart, Laurie R.; Krackhardt, David; Lave, Judith R.; Arnold, Robert M.; Yealy, Donald M.; Salas, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) partnerships. Methods We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool. We performed a series of Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics. Results We received 687 completed surveys. The EFA analyses identified a 9-factor solution. We labeled these factors [1] Team Orientation, [2] Team Structure & Leadership, [3] Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring, [4] Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models, [5] Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior, [6] Process Conflict, [7] Strong Task Conflict, [8] Mild Task Conflict, and [9] Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short form (30-item SF) and long form (45-item LF) version. The CFA analyses determined that both the SF and LF versions possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties with a mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all 9-factors (mean=0.84; min=0.78, max=0.94). The mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF version was 0.87 (min=0.79, max=0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all 9 factors and the global score for the SF and LF versions. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, SD 21.5 SF; 49.3 SD 19.8 LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7 SD 18.1 for both SF and LF). Conclusions We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners. PMID:22128909

  3. There is no "i" in teamwork in the patient-centered medical home: defining teamwork competencies for academic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasure, Emily L; Jones, Ronald R; Meade, Lauren B; Sanger, Marla I; Thomas, Kris G; Tilden, Virginia P; Bowen, Judith L; Warm, Eric J

    2013-05-01

    Evidence suggests that teamwork is essential for safe, reliable practice. Creating health care teams able to function effectively in patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs), practices that organize care around the patient and demonstrate achievement of defined quality care standards, remains challenging. Preparing trainees for practice in interprofessional teams is particularly challenging in academic health centers where health professions curricula are largely siloed. Here, the authors review a well-delineated set of teamwork competencies that are important for high-functioning teams and suggest how these competencies might be useful for interprofessional team training and achievement of PCMH standards. The five competencies are (1) team leadership, the ability to coordinate team members' activities, ensure appropriate task distribution, evaluate effectiveness, and inspire high-level performance, (2) mutual performance monitoring, the ability to develop a shared understanding among team members regarding intentions, roles, and responsibilities so as to accurately monitor one another's performance for collective success, (3) backup behavior, the ability to anticipate the needs of other team members and shift responsibilities during times of variable workload, (4) adaptability, the capability of team members to adjust their strategy for completing tasks on the basis of feedback from the work environment, and (5) team orientation, the tendency to prioritize team goals over individual goals, encourage alternative perspectives, and show respect and regard for each team member. Relating each competency to a vignette from an academic primary care clinic, the authors describe potential strategies for improving teamwork learning and applying the teamwork competences to academic PCMH practices.

  4. Towards culture change in the operating theatre: embedding a complex educational intervention to improve teamwork climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan; Allard, Jon; Hobbs, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Changing teamwork climate in healthcare through a collective shift in attitudes and values may be a necessary precursor to establishing a positive teamwork culture, where innovations can be more readily embedded and sustained. A complex educational intervention was initiated across an entire UK Trust's surgical provision, and then sustained. Attitudes towards teamwork were measured longitudinally to examine if the intervention produced sustainable results. The research aimed to test whether sustaining a complex education intervention to improve teamwork would result in an incremental, longitudinal improvement in attitudes and values towards teamwork. The intervention's larger aim is to progress the historical default position of multi-professional work to authentic inter-professional teamwork, as a positive values climate translates in time into behavioural change defining a safety culture. Attitudes were measured at three points across all surgical team personnel over a period of 4 years, using a validated Safety Attitudes Questionnaire with a focus on the 'teamwork climate' domain. Pre- and post-intervention 'teamwork climate' scores were compared to give a longitudinal measure as a test of sustainability. Mean 'teamwork climate' scores improved incrementally and significantly following the series of educational interventions, showing that practitioners' valuing of teamwork activity can be improved and sustained. Longitudinal positive change in attitudes and values towards teamwork can be sustained, suggesting that a deliberate, designed complex intervention can shape a safety climate as a necessary prerequisite for the establishment of a sustainable safety culture.

  5. Development of a self-assessment teamwork tool for use by medical and nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher J; Jorm, Christine; Shulruf, Boaz; Weller, Jennifer; Currie, Jane; Lim, Renee; Osomanski, Adam

    2016-08-24

    Teamwork training is an essential component of health professional student education. A valid and reliable teamwork self-assessment tool could assist students to identify desirable teamwork behaviours with the potential to promote learning about effective teamwork. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-assessment teamwork tool for health professional students for use in the context of emergency response to a mass casualty. The authors modified a previously published teamwork instrument designed for experienced critical care teams for use with medical and nursing students involved in mass casualty simulations. The 17-item questionnaire was administered to students immediately following the simulations. These scores were used to explore the psychometric properties of the tool, using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. 202 (128 medical and 74 nursing) students completed the self-assessment teamwork tool for students. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 2 factors (5 items - Teamwork coordination and communication; 4 items - Information sharing and support) and these were justified with confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was 0.823 for Teamwork coordination and communication, and 0.812 for Information sharing and support. These data provide evidence to support the validity and reliability of the self-assessment teamwork tool for students This self-assessment tool could be of value to health professional students following team training activities to help them identify the attributes of effective teamwork.

  6. Implementing an interprofessional first-year teamwork project: some key reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Susan Maree

    2013-09-01

    Implementing an interprofessional teamwork project for first-year students presents pedagogical and practical challenges. While transferable skills and attributes are important, engagement of students with limited professional experience in teamwork depends on relevance to current learning needs. This report outlines principles learned from planning and implementing a teamwork project for an interprofessional health administration and service development course. Practising interprofessional teamwork as leaders and teachers, aligning with previous, current and future teamwork content and processes and responding to student feedback and achievement have been the key factors in shaping the project over three semesters. Face-to-face and online interprofessional teamwork learning has necessitated developing resources that support self-direction, using familiar technology and providing enabling physical environments. Implications for first-year interprofessional teamwork are that structured well-resourced processes, responsiveness and alignment of learning all improve student outcomes.

  7. The interplay between teamwork, clinicians' emotional exhaustion, and clinician-rated patient safety: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Annalena; Meier, Laurenz L; Manser, Tanja

    2016-04-19

    Effectively managing patient safety and clinicians' emotional exhaustion are important goals of healthcare organizations. Previous cross-sectional studies showed that teamwork is associated with both. However, causal relationships between all three constructs have not yet been investigated. Moreover, the role of different dimensions of teamwork in relation to emotional exhaustion and patient safety is unclear. The current study focused on the long-term development of teamwork, emotional exhaustion, and patient safety in interprofessional intensive care teams by exploring causal relationships between these constructs. A secondary objective was to disentangle the effects of interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral teamwork. We employed a longitudinal study design. Participants were 2100 nurses and physicians working in 55 intensive care units. They answered an online questionnaire on interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral aspects of teamwork, emotional exhaustion, and patient safety at three time points with a 3-month lag. Data were analyzed with cross-lagged structural equation modeling. We controlled for professional role. Analyses showed that emotional exhaustion had a lagged effect on interpersonal teamwork. Furthermore, interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral teamwork mutually influenced each other. Finally, cognitive-behavioral teamwork predicted clinician-rated patient safety. The current study shows that the interrelations between teamwork, clinician burnout, and clinician-rated patient safety unfold over time. Interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral teamwork play specific roles in a process leading from clinician emotional exhaustion to decreased clinician-rated patient safety. Emotionally exhausted clinicians are less able to engage in positive interpersonal teamwork, which might set in motion a vicious cycle: negative interpersonal team interactions negatively affect cognitive-behavioral teamwork and vice versa. Ultimately, ineffective cognitive

  8. The case for applying an early-lifecycle technology evaluation methodology to comparative evaluation of requirements engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.

    2003-01-01

    The premise of this paper is taht there is a useful analogy between evaluation of proposed problem solutions and evaluation of requirements engineering research itself. Both of these application areas face the challenges of evaluation early in the lifecycle, of the need to consider a wide variety of factors, and of the need to combine inputs from multiple stakeholders in making thse evaluation and subsequent decisions.

  9. SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT and M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RYAN GW

    2008-01-01

    In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized

  10. Improving nurse-physician teamwork through interprofessional bedside rounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Stanislav; Chon, Tony Y; Christopherson, Marie L; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Worden, Lindsey M; Ratelle, John T

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork between physicians and nurses has a positive association with patient satisfaction and outcomes, but perceptions of physician-nurse teamwork are often suboptimal. To improve nurse-physician teamwork in a general medicine inpatient teaching unit by increasing face-to-face communication through interprofessional bedside rounds. From July 2013 through October 2013, physicians (attendings and residents) and nurses from four general medicine teams in a single nursing unit participated in bedside rounding, which involved the inclusion of nurses in morning rounds with the medicine teams at the patients' bedside. Based on stakeholder analysis and feedback, a checklist for key patient care issues was created and utilized during bedside rounds. To assess the effect of bedside rounding on nurse-physician teamwork, a survey of selected items from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) was administered to participants before and after the implementation of bedside rounds. The number of pages to the general medicine teams was also measured as a marker of physician-nurse communication. Participation rate in bedside rounds across the four medicine teams was 58%. SAQ response rates for attendings, residents, and nurses were 36/36 (100%), 73/73 (100%), and 32/73 (44%) prior to implementation of bedside rounding and 36 attendings (100%), 72 residents (100%), and 14 (19%) nurses after the implementation of bedside rounding, respectively. Prior to bedside rounding, nurses provided lower teamwork ratings (percent agree) than residents and attendings on all SAQ items; but after the intervention, the difference remained significant only on SAQ item 2 ("In this clinical area, it is not difficult to speak up if I perceive a problem with patient care", 64% for nurses vs 79% for residents vs 94% for attendings, P=0.02). Also, resident responses improved on SAQ item 1 ("Nurse input is well received in this area", 62% vs 82%, P=0.01). Increasing face-to-face communication through

  11. Work in support of biosphere assessments for solid radioactive waste disposal. 1. performance assessments, requirements and methodology; criteria for radiological environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Loose, M.; Smith, G.M.; Watkins, B.M.

    2001-10-01

    The first part of this report is intended to assess how the recent Swedish regulatory developments and resulting criteria impose requirements on what should be included in a performance assessment (PA) for the SFR low and medium level waste repository and for a potential deep repository for high level waste. The second part of the report has been prepared by QuantiSci as an input to the development of SSI's PA review methodology. The aim of the third part is to provide research input to the development of radiological protection framework for the environment, for use in Sweden. This is achieved through a review of various approaches used in other fields

  12. Using Six Sigma and Lean methodologies to improve OR throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Catharine B

    2007-07-01

    Improving patient flow in the perioperative environment is challenging, but it has positive implications for both staff members and for the facility. One facility in vermont improved patient throughput by incorporating Six Sigma and Lean methodologies for patients undergoing elective procedures. The results of the project were significantly improved patient flow and increased teamwork and pride among perioperative staff members. (c) AORN, Inc, 2007.

  13. Research Methodologies Explored for a Paradigm Shift in University Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, I. M.; Blignaut, R. J.; Stoltz, D.

    2001-01-01

    Innovative teaching methods such as collaborative learning, teamwork, and mind maps were introduced to teach computer science and statistics courses at a South African university. Soft systems methodology was adapted and used to manage the research process of evaluating the effectiveness of the teaching methods. This research method provided proof…

  14. Team and teamwork in modern european HR management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usheva Mariana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues occurring in every contemporary organization is the issue of the efficiency of work and obtaining maximum results from work done. Most often when the issue of increasing the efficiency of work is laid the question of teams and teamwork in various projectя of the company comes to the foreground and frequently no proper differentiation is made between a “group of people” and a “team” and this brings to a large number of misunderstandings of managers and employees with regard to the designation and benefits of team organization of work. There are clear traceable differences between the perception of the concept of “team” and the implementation of teamwork by European and Bulgarian companies and it is good to make the differentiation between them with a view to the HR management.

  15. Interdisciplinary teamwork: is the influence of emotional intelligence fully appreciated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallin, Antoinette; Bamford, Anita

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss how emotional intelligence affects interdisciplinary team effectiveness. Some findings from a larger study on interdisciplinary teamworking are discussed. Teams are often evaluated for complementary skill mix and expertise that are integrated for specialist service delivery. Interactional skills and emotional intelligence also affect team behaviour and performance. An effective team needs both emotional intelligence and expertise, including technical, clinical, social and interactional skills, so that teamwork becomes greater or lesser than the whole, depending on how well individuals work together. Team diversity, individuality and personality differences, and interprofessional safety are analysed to raise awareness for nurse managers of the complexity of interdisciplinary working relationships. If nursing input into interdisciplinary work is to be maximized, nurse managers might consider the role of emotional intelligence in influencing team effectiveness, the quality of client care, staff retention and job satisfaction.

  16. [The importance of teamwork in emergency medicine training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, B; Carron, P-N

    2007-08-15

    The study of dynamics in relation to performing in small groups has increased pedagogic knowledge about teamwork. The successful management of patients with life-threatening pathologies depends highly from a succession of teams with a specific mission as: the call centre 144, Paramedics, the ED, the Operating Theatre and the Intensive care. To enable each team to operate successfully, it is essential to coordinate their qualifications and synergism. This can be efficiently attained by simulating real situations and by following protocols dedicated to teamwork. Emergency Medicine, which is on the brink of acquiring its proper curriculum, must adopt this concept to integrate knowledge and know-how, and the art of being and doing. At this stage, the Emergency Physician will have the competence which will enable him to be a real "team leader".

  17. AD HOC TEAMWORK BEHAVIORS FOR INFLUENCING A FLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Genter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc teamwork refers to the challenge of designing agents that can influence the behavior of a team, without prior coordination with its teammates. This paper considers influencing a flock of simple robotic agents to adopt a desired behavior within the context of ad hoc teamwork. Specifically, we examine how the ad hoc agents should behave in order to orient a flock towards a target heading as quickly as possible when given knowledge of, but no direct control over, the behavior of the flock. We introduce three algorithms which the ad hoc agents can use to influence the flock, and we examine the relative importance of coordinating the ad hoc agents versus planning farther ahead when given fixed computational resources. We present detailed experimental results for each of these algorithms, concluding that in this setting, inter-agent coordination and deeper lookahead planning are no more beneficial than short-term lookahead planning.

  18. MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEACHING – MSc COURSE ON TEAMWORK AND OPARATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlshøj, Jan; Dederichs, Anne

    2011-01-01

    focus on teamwork did not lead to a improvement of the team work in contrary. The team-structure was generally flat and decisions were mostly made in consensus. It is worthwhile to offer a multidisciplinary course and give engineering students experience in collaboration methods....... during the design phase; as well as a need of new work methods within the process. This calls for employees who are experienced in collaborating in interdisciplinary teams. To fulfill this demand a multidisciplinary course in “Advanced building design” has been developed at the Technical University...... of Denmark. The goal of the course is to provide training in teamwork at the final stage of the engineering education. The course has been carried out twice. It was held by a multidisciplinary team of professors in periods 2008/09, 2009/10 and 20010/2011. Teams of students were subject of a questionnaire...

  19. Peer and Self-Assessment of Teamwork Collaboration Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Peder

    2015-01-01

    The ability to collaborate in teams is a central learning objective in a course for students enrolled in the elective 6th semester Civil Engineering Program. Therefore, methods for project management and team collaboration were facilitated through a designated course. The teamwork collaboration...... competencies of each student are, however, very difficult to assess for external supervisors not being part of the team. As a consequence, a model for peer and self-assessment of this competence was included as a central part of the course assessment. Each team of 4 persons had a facilitated process of making...... an Agreement of Collaboration (AC) for the project, including listing of values, norms and rules defining their mutual understanding of good teamwork behavior. The AC was discussed with the supervisors and finally signed by each member of the team. At the completion of the project period each team member...

  20. Toward a definition of teamwork in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rosemarie; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Shapiro, Marc J; Salas, Eduardo

    2008-11-01

    The patient safety literature from the past decade emphasizes the importance of teamwork skills and human factors in preventing medical errors. Simulation has been used within aviation, the military, and now health care domains to effectively teach and assess teamwork skills. However, attempts to expand and generalize research and training principles have been limited due to a lack of a well-defined, well-researched taxonomy. As part of the 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on "The Science of Simulation in Healthcare," a subset of the group expertise and group assessment breakout sections identified evidence-based recommendations for an emergency medicine (EM) team taxonomy and performance model. This material was disseminated within the morning session and was discussed both during breakout sessions and via online messaging. Below we present a well-defined, well-described taxonomy that will help guide design, implementation, and assessment of simulation-based team training programs.

  1. A methodology to define the flow rate and pressure requirements for transfer of double-shell tank waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Liljegren, L.M.

    1993-04-01

    This document presents an analysis of the pressure drop and flow rate double-shell tank slurries. Experiments to requirements for transport of characterize the transport of double-shell tank slurries through piping networks and to resuspend materials that settle during pump outages are proposed. Reported values of physical properties of double-shell tank slurries were analyzed to evaluate the flow regimes that are likely to occur during transport. The results of these evaluations indicate that the slurry will be pseudohomogeneous during transport and that the slurry rheology is sufficiently non-Newtonian to affect both the pressure drop achieved during transport and the critical Reynolds number. The transport data collected in the non-Newtonian experiment will be used to determine whether a non-Newtonian correlation developed by Hanks (1978) adequately describes the experimental results

  2. A Typology of Interprofessional Teamwork in Acute Geriatric Care: A Study in 55 units in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piers, Ruth D; Versluys, Karen J J; Devoghel, Johan; Lambrecht, Sophie; Vyt, André; Van Den Noortgate, Nele J

    2017-09-01

    To explore the quality of interprofessional teamwork in acute geriatric care and to build a model of team types. Cross-sectional multicenter study. Acute geriatric units in Belgium. Team members of different professional backgrounds. Perceptions of interprofessional teamwork among team members of 55 acute geriatric units in Belgium were measured using a survey covering collaborative practice and experience, managerial coaching and open team culture, shared reflection and decision-making, patient files facilitating teamwork, members' belief in the power of teamwork, and members' comfort in reporting incidents. Cluster analysis was used to determine types of interprofessional teamwork. Professions and clusters were compared using analysis of variance. The overall response rate was 60%. Of the 890 respondents, 71% were nursing professionals, 20% other allied health professionals, 5% physicians, and 4% logistic and administrative staff. More than 70% of respondents scored highly on interprofessional teamwork competencies, consultation, experiences, meetings, management, and results. Fewer than 55% scored highly on items about shared reflection and decision-making, reporting incidents from a colleague, and patient files facilitating interprofessional teamwork. Nurses in this study rated shared reflection and decision-making lower than physicians on the same acute geriatric units (P teamwork in acute geriatric units is satisfactory, but shared reflection and decision-making needs improvement. Four types of interprofessional teamwork are identified and can be used to benchmark the teamwork of individual teams. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Multiprofessional teamwork in work-related medical rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Betje; Neuderth, Silke; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bethge, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews indicate the effectiveness of multimodal rehabilitation. In Germany this has been shown, in particular, for work-related medical rehabilitation. A recently published guideline on work-related medical rehabilitation supports the dissemination of these programmes. The feasibility of this guideline was examined in a multicentre study. This paper presents findings on the relevance of multiprofessional teamwork for the implementation of successful work-related medical rehabilitation. Focus groups were conducted with 7 inpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation teams and examined using qualitative content analysis. Multiprofessional teamwork emerged inductively as a meaningful theme. All teams described multiprofessional teamwork as a work-related medical rehabilitation success factor, referring to its relevance for holistic treatment of multifactorially impaired patients. Although similar indicators of successful multiprofessional teamwork were named, the teams realized multiprofessional teamwork differently. We found 3 team types, corresponding to multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary team models. These types and models constitute a continuum of collaborative practice, which seems to be affected by context-related factors. The significance of multiprofessional teamwork for successful multimodal rehabilitation was underlined. Indicators of ideal multiprofessional teamwork and contextual facilitators were specified. The contingency approach to teamwork, as well as the assumption of multiprofessional teamwork as a continuum of collaborative practice, is supported. Stronger consideration of multiprofessional teamwork in the work-related medical rehabilitation guideline is indicated.

  4. Interdisciplinary teamwork in hospitals: a review and practical recommendations for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kevin J; Sehgal, Niraj L; Terrell, Grace; Williams, Mark V

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of teamwork in hospitals, senior leadership from the American College of Physician Executives (ACPE), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), and the Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) established the High Performance Teams and the Hospital of the Future project. This collaborative learning effort aims to redesign care delivery to provide optimal value to hospitalized patients. With input from members of this initiative, we prepared this report which reviews the literature related to teamwork in hospitals. Teamwork is critically important to provide safe and effective hospital care. Hospitals with high teamwork ratings experience higher patient satisfaction, higher nurse retention, and lower hospital costs. Elements of effective teamwork have been defined and provide a framework for assessment and improvement efforts in hospitals. Measurement of teamwork is essential to understand baseline performance, and to demonstrate the utility of resources invested to enhance it and the subsequent impact on patient care. Interventions designed to improve teamwork in hospitals include localization of physicians, daily goals of care forms and checklists, teamwork training, and interdisciplinary rounds. Though additional research is needed to evaluate the impact on patient outcomes, these interventions consistently result in improved teamwork knowledge, ratings of teamwork climate, and better understanding of patients' plans of care. The optimal approach is implementation of a combination of interventions, with adaptations to fit unique clinical settings and local culture. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  5. A combined teamwork training and work standardisation intervention in operating theatres: controlled interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lauren; Pickering, Sharon P; Hadi, Mohammed; Robertson, Eleanor; New, Steve; Griffin, Damian; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; McCulloch, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Teamwork training and system standardisation have both been proposed to reduce error and harm in surgery. Since the approaches differ markedly, there is potential for synergy between them. Controlled interrupted time series with a 3 month intervention and observation phases before and after. Operating theatres conducting elective orthopaedic surgery in a single hospital system (UK Hospital Trust). Teamwork training based on crew resource management plus training and follow-up support in developing standardised operating procedures. Focus of subsequent standardisation efforts decided by theatre staff. Paired observers watched whole procedures together. We assessed non-technical skills using NOTECHS II, technical performance using glitch rate and compliance with WHO checklist using a simple quality tool. We measured complication and readmission rates and hospital stay using hospital administrative records. Before/after change was compared in the active and control groups using two-way ANOVA and regression models. 1121 patients were operated on before and 1100 after intervention. 44 operations were observed before and 50 afterwards. Non-technical skills (p=0.002) and WHO compliance (pteamwork and system improvement causes marked improvements in team behaviour and WHO performance, but not technical performance or outcome. These findings are consistent with the synergistic hypothesis, but larger controlled studies with a strong implementation strategy are required to test potential outcome effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Methodological requirements to test a possible in-group advantage in judging emotions across cultures: comment on Elfenbein and Ambady (2002) and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David

    2002-03-01

    H. A. Elfenbein and N. Ambady's (2002) conclusions concerning a possible in-group advantage in judging emotions across cultures are unwarranted. The author discusses 2 methodological requirements for studies to test adequately the in-group advantage hypothesis and an additional requirement in reviewing multiple judgment studies and examining variance in judgment effects across those studies. The few studies that Elfenbein and Ambady reported that support the in-group advantage hypothesis need to be examined for whether they meet the criteria discussed; if they do not, their data cannot be used to support any contention of cultural differences in judgments, let alone the in-group advantage hypothesis. Furthermore, the role of signal clarity needs to be explored in possibly moderating effects across studies; however, this was not done.

  7. Materiel management and radiology: building a teamwork relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M D; Cirino, J C

    1991-01-01

    Mr. Burke and Mr. Cirino explain how a teamwork relationship between radiology and materiel management can serve both well--radiology can continually strive to provide high quality diagnostic data and superior patient care, while materiel management can provide a continuous flow of supplies and services, keep inventory investment low, and develop a competent supplier base. Effective communication is the necessary element that will allow each to achieve its respective goals.

  8. Electronic health records and support for primary care teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Kevin; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Cross, Dori A.; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consensus that enhanced teamwork is necessary for efficient and effective primary care delivery is growing. We sought to identify how electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate and pose challenges to primary care teams as well as how practices are overcoming these challenges. Methods Practices in this qualitative study were selected from those recognized as patient-centered medical homes via the National Committee for Quality Assurance 2011 tool, which included a section on practice teamwork. We interviewed 63 respondents, ranging from physicians to front-desk staff, from 27 primary care practices ranging in size, type, geography, and population size. Results EHRs were found to facilitate communication and task delegation in primary care teams through instant messaging, task management software, and the ability to create evidence-based templates for symptom-specific data collection from patients by medical assistants and nurses (which can offload work from physicians). Areas where respondents felt that electronic medical record EHR functionalities were weakest and posed challenges to teamwork included the lack of integrated care manager software and care plans in EHRs, poor practice registry functionality and interoperability, and inadequate ease of tracking patient data in the EHR over time. Discussion Practices developed solutions for some of the challenges they faced when attempting to use EHRs to support teamwork but wanted more permanent vendor and policy solutions for other challenges. Conclusions EHR vendors in the United States need to work alongside practicing primary care teams to create more clinically useful EHRs that support dynamic care plans, integrated care management software, more functional and interoperable practice registries, and greater ease of data tracking over time. PMID:25627278

  9. Electronic health records and support for primary care teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Ann S; Draper, Kevin; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Cross, Dori A; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    2015-03-01

    Consensus that enhanced teamwork is necessary for efficient and effective primary care delivery is growing. We sought to identify how electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate and pose challenges to primary care teams as well as how practices are overcoming these challenges. Practices in this qualitative study were selected from those recognized as patient-centered medical homes via the National Committee for Quality Assurance 2011 tool, which included a section on practice teamwork. We interviewed 63 respondents, ranging from physicians to front-desk staff, from 27 primary care practices ranging in size, type, geography, and population size. EHRs were found to facilitate communication and task delegation in primary care teams through instant messaging, task management software, and the ability to create evidence-based templates for symptom-specific data collection from patients by medical assistants and nurses (which can offload work from physicians). Areas where respondents felt that electronic medical record EHR functionalities were weakest and posed challenges to teamwork included the lack of integrated care manager software and care plans in EHRs, poor practice registry functionality and interoperability, and inadequate ease of tracking patient data in the EHR over time. Practices developed solutions for some of the challenges they faced when attempting to use EHRs to support teamwork but wanted more permanent vendor and policy solutions for other challenges. EHR vendors in the United States need to work alongside practicing primary care teams to create more clinically useful EHRs that support dynamic care plans, integrated care management software, more functional and interoperable practice registries, and greater ease of data tracking over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  10. Teamwork and technology: Success factors for creating growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum industry faces many challenges moving toward the next century. How effectively these challenges are addressed and managed will determine whether or not the exploration and production business grows and prospers in the future. This presentation relates to success factors for growth creation. Themes discussed here are succeeding in a global energy market, evolution of relationships between oil and gas companies and service companies, the power of technology, and effectively combining teamwork and technology

  11. Interprofessional teamwork in the trauma setting: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 70 to 80% of healthcare errors are due to poor team communication and understanding. High-risk environments such as the trauma setting (which covers a broad spectrum of departments in acute services) are where the majority of these errors occur. Despite the emphasis on interprofessional collaborative practice and patient safety, interprofessional teamworking in the trauma setting has received little attention. This paper presents the findings of a scoping review designed to identify the extent and nature of this literature in this setting. The MEDLINE (via OVID, using keywords and MeSH in OVID), and PubMed (via NCBI using MeSH), and CINAHL databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2013 for results of interprofessional teamworking in the trauma setting. A hand search was conducted by reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles. In total, 24 published articles were identified for inclusion in the review. Studies could be categorized into three main areas, and within each area were a number of themes: 1) descriptions of the organization of trauma teams (themes included interaction between team members, and leadership); 2) descriptions of team composition and structure (themes included maintaining team stability and core team members); and 3) evaluation of team work interventions (themes included activities in practice and activities in the classroom setting). Descriptive studies highlighted the fluid nature of team processes, the shared mental models, and the need for teamwork and communication. Evaluative studies placed a greater emphasis on specialized roles and individual tasks and activities. This reflects a multiprofessional as opposed to an interprofessional model of teamwork. Some of the characteristics of high-performing interprofessional teams described in this review are also evident in effective teams in the community rehabilitation and intermediate care setting. These characteristics may well be pertinent to other settings

  12. The Effectiveness of Teamwork Training on Teamwork Behaviors and Team Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Desmond; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Eys, Mark A; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k) unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed.

  13. The Effectiveness of Teamwork Training on Teamwork Behaviors and Team Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Desmond; Ruissen, Geralyn R.; Eys, Mark A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k) unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed. PMID:28085922

  14. The Effectiveness of Teamwork Training on Teamwork Behaviors and Team Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond McEwan

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed.

  15. ANALYSIS OF A MODEL OF TEAMWORK BY HILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Petkovski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary management of the intellectual capital of an organization, as a major determinant for efficient and effective operation of the organization has access to the teamwork. Teamwork means quality leadership which is necessary for a successful team management. In the theory and the practice are given a number of models for teamwork and team leadership, however, in this case the subject of this paperwork will be the analyzing of the model of team leadership according to Hill. According to this model there are two functions of team leading established: leading functions in the team and leading functions out of the team. In the first part, which refers to the functions of leadership in the team, are set two major categories: team leader’s tasks and the built relationships and atmosphere in the team. In terms of the functions of the leader out of the team, the model focuses on two categories, namely: the functions of leadership out of the team, but within the organization and leading functions of the team outside the organization.

  16. Teamwork in a coronary care unit: facilitating and hindering aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethania Ferreira Goulart

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, within a multidisciplinary team, the facilitating and hindering aspects for teamwork in a coronary care unit. METHOD A descriptive study, with qualitative and quantitative data, was carried out in the coronary care unit of a public hospital. The study population consisted of professionals working in the unit for at least one year. Those who were on leave or who were not located were excluded. The critical incident technique was used for data collection, by means of semi-structured interviews. For data analysis, content analysis and the critical incident technique were applied. RESULTS Participants were 45 professionals: 29 nursing professionals; 11 physicians; 4 physical therapists; and 1 psychologist. A total of 49 situations (77.6% with negative references; 385 behaviors (54.2% with positive references; and 182 consequences emerged (71.9% with negative references. Positive references facilitate teamwork, whereas negative references hinder it. A collaborative/communicative interprofessional relationship was evidenced as a facilitator; whereas poor collaboration among agents/inadequate management was a hindering aspect. CONCLUSION Despite the prevalence of negative situations and consequences, the emphasis on positive behaviors reveals the efforts the agents make in order to overcome obstacles and carry out teamwork.

  17. Teams and teamwork at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    The recent reorganization and shift to managing total quality at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has placed an increasing emphasis on teams and teamwork in accomplishing day-to-day work activities and long-term projects. The purpose of this research was to review the nature of teams and teamwork at LaRC. Models of team performance and teamwork guided the gathering of information. Current and former team members served as participants; their collective experience reflected membership in over 200 teams at LaRC. The participants responded to a survey of open-ended questions which assessed various aspects of teams and teamwork. The participants also met in a workshop to clarify and elaborate on their responses. The work accomplished by the teams ranged from high-level managerial decision making (e.g., developing plans for LaRC reorganization) to creating scientific proposals (e.g., describing spaceflight projects to be designed, sold, and built). Teams typically had nine members who remained together for six months. Member turnover was around 20 percent; this turnover was attributed to heavy loads of other work assignments and little formal recognition and reward for team membership. Team members usually shared a common and valued goal, but there was not a clear standard (except delivery of a document) for knowing when the goal was achieved. However, members viewed their teams as successful. A major factor in team success was the setting of explicit a priori rules for communication. Task interdependencies between members were not complex (e.g., sharing of meeting notes and ideas about issues), except between members of scientific teams (i.e., reliance on the expertise of others). Thus, coordination of activities usually involved scheduling and attendance of team meetings. The team leader was designated by the team's sponsor. This leader usually shared power and responsibilities with other members, such that team members established their own operating

  18. Effect of interprofessional clinical education programme length on students' attitudes towards teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renschler, Lauren; Rhodes, Darson; Cox, Carol

    2016-05-01

    This article reports on a study involving a range of health professions students who participated in similar one-semester (short) or two-semester (long) interprofessional clinical education programmes that focused on clinical assessment of senior citizens living independently in the community. Students' attitudes towards teamwork skills and perceptions of their own teamwork skills both before and after the programmes were assessed using two validated scales. Osteopathic medical student participants reported no significant changes in attitudes towards interprofessional healthcare teamwork skills or their perceptions of their own interprofessional teamwork skills after either the one- or two-semester programmes. For athletic training, speech-language pathology, exercise sciences, public health, and nursing students, though, attitudes towards teamwork skills significantly improved (p teamwork attitude change, but with a significant difference between medical as compared to nursing, allied health, and public health students.

  19. Influence of Teamwork on Health Care Workers' Perceptions About Care Delivery and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Sherry; Stahlke, Sarah; Coatsworth-Puspoky, Robin

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the nature of teamwork in care facilities and its impact on the effectiveness of care delivery to older adults and job satisfaction among health care workers. A focused ethnography was conducted at two care facilities where older adults reside. Analysis of interviews with 22 participants revealed perceptions of teamwork and understandings about facilitators of and barriers to effective teamwork. Participants indicated that team relationships impacted care provided and job satisfaction. Participants also identified trust and reciprocity, communication, and sharing a common goal as critical factors in effective teamwork. In addition, participants identified the role of management as important in setting the tone for teamwork. Future research is needed to understand the complexity of supporting teamwork in residential settings given the challenges of culture, diversity, and individuals working multiple jobs. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(4), 37-44.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Leadership, management and teamwork learning through an extra-curricular project for medical students: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia da Silva Germano Jorge

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Professionalism in medicine requires preparation for the globalized world. Our objective was to describe a project that introduces medical students to the community, hospital and laboratory activities, thereby allowing them to gain experience in people management, leadership and teamwork.DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study of the process applied at a philanthropic medical school in Curitiba, Paraná.METHOD: Inclusion of management and leadership practices as part of the medical degree program.RESULTS: The study groups consisted of fifteen students. After six months, any of the participants could be elected as a subcoordinator, with responsibility for managing tasks and representing the team in hospital departments and the community. The activities required increasing levels of responsibility. In medical schools, students' involvement in practical activities is often limited to observation. They are not required to take responsibilities or to interact with other students and stakeholders. However, they will become accountable, which thus has an adverse effect on all involved. The learning space described here aims to fill this gap by bringing students closer to the daily lives and experiences of healthcare professionals.CONCLUSION: Being a physician requires not only management and leadership, but also transferrable competencies, communication and critical thinking. These attributes can be acquired through experience of teamwork, under qualified supervision from teaching staff. Students are thus expected to develop skills to deal with and resolve conflicts, learn to share leadership, prepare others to help and replace them, adopt an approach based on mutual responsibility and discuss their performance.

  1. Guide to good practices for teamwork training and diagnostic skills development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This guide provides assistance in the development, implementation, and improvement of training on teamwork and diagnostics. DOE and contractor representatives identified the need for teamwork and diagnostics training guidance. This need was based on the increasing emphasis of properly applying knowledge and skills to complete assigned tasks. Teamwork and diagnostic skills have become a focal point because of the impact they have on effective facility operation and safety.

  2. Teamwork of social pedagogues in terms of their experiences and attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Kajič, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, contemporary pedagogical approaches are based on teamwork. We speak of teamwork when a group is focused on a particular aim and the members of the group work together with a purpose of achieving the aim. In pedagogy, this means that at least two pedagogical workers at the same time are focused on the same students. In social pedagogy, teamwork is essential as well since social pedagogues can find employment in different areas, e.g. residential groups, educational institutions, s...

  3. Improving teamwork abilities across cultural differences:Belbin group role theory applied

    OpenAIRE

    Godskesen, Mirjam Irene

    2009-01-01

    The Belbin method has been applied at the education in Arctic Technology in Greenland as a way of improving the student s teamwork abilities. The feedback from the students is that Belbin is a meaningful and relevant tool and they are very engaged during the teamwork exercises. They get a theoretical approach to teamwork and a language in which they can talk about their own and each others strengths and weaknesses. There are indications that it has positive effect on their subsequ...

  4. Interprofessional Care and Teamwork in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Anne L; Aldrich, J Matthew; Gross, A Kendall; Barchas, Denise M; Thornton, Kevin C; Schell-Chaple, Hildy M; Gropper, Michael A; Lipshutz, Angela K M

    2018-03-07

    We describe the importance of interprofessional care in modern critical care medicine. This review highlights the essential roles played by specific members of the interprofessional care team, including patients and family members, and discusses quality improvement initiatives that require interprofessional collaboration for success. Studies were identified through MEDLINE search using a variety of search phrases related to interprofessional care, critical care provider types, and quality improvement initiatives. Additional articles were identified through a review of the reference lists of identified articles. Original articles, review articles, and systematic reviews were considered. Manuscripts were selected for inclusion based on expert opinion of well-designed or key studies and review articles. "Interprofessional care" refers to care provided by a team of healthcare professionals with overlapping expertise and an appreciation for the unique contribution of other team members as partners in achieving a common goal. A robust body of data supports improvement in patient-level outcomes when care is provided by an interprofessional team. Critical care nurses, advanced practice providers, pharmacists, respiratory care practitioners, rehabilitation specialists, dieticians, social workers, case managers, spiritual care providers, intensivists, and nonintensivist physicians each provide unique expertise and perspectives to patient care, and therefore play an important role in a team that must address the diverse needs of patients and families in the ICU. Engaging patients and families as partners in their healthcare is also critical. Many important ICU quality improvement initiatives require an interprofessional approach, including Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium, Early Exercise/Mobility, and Family Empowerment bundle implementation, interprofessional rounding practices, unit-based quality improvement initiatives, Patient and Family Advisory Councils

  5. The moderating effect of teamwork perceptions on the organizational politics--job satisfaction relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, M; Witt, L A

    2001-06-01

    By using regression analyses on data from 355 full-time employees of a customer-service organization in the eastern United States, the authors tested the hypothesis that perceptions of organizational politics are more strongly related to job dissatisfaction among individuals who perceive low levels of teamwork importance than among those who perceive high levels of teamwork importance. Hierarchical moderated regression analysis of the data revealed that the moderating effect of teamwork importance was most relevant at average-to-high levels of perceived politics. That finding supports the assertion that one way to address the negative impact of organizational politics is to try to ensure that employees value teamwork.

  6. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  7. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  8. Work in support of biosphere assessments for solid radioactive waste disposal. 1. performance assessments, requirements and methodology; criteria for radiological environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.J.; Loose, M.; Smith, G.M.; Watkins, B.M. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    The first part of this report is intended to assess how the recent Swedish regulatory developments and resulting criteria impose requirements on what should be included in a performance assessment (PA) for the SFR low and medium level waste repository and for a potential deep repository for high level waste. The second part of the report has been prepared by QuantiSci as an input to the development of SSI's PA review methodology. The aim of the third part is to provide research input to the development of radiological protection framework for the environment, for use in Sweden. This is achieved through a review of various approaches used in other fields.

  9. Methodologies on estimating the energy requirements for maintenance and determining the net energy contents of feed ingredients in swine: a review of recent work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongchao; Liu, Hu; Li, Yakui; Lv, Zhiqian; Liu, Ling; Lai, Changhua; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Fenglai; Li, Defa; Zhang, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    In the past two decades, a considerable amount of research has focused on the determination of the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of feed ingredients fed to swine. Compared with the DE and ME systems, the net energy (NE) system is assumed to be the most accurate estimate of the energy actually available to the animal. However, published data pertaining to the measured NE content of ingredients fed to growing pigs are limited. Therefore, the Feed Data Group at the Ministry of Agricultural Feed Industry Centre (MAFIC) located at China Agricultural University has evaluated the NE content of many ingredients using indirect calorimetry. The present review summarizes the NE research works conducted at MAFIC and compares these results with those from other research groups on methodological aspect. These research projects mainly focus on estimating the energy requirements for maintenance and its impact on the determination, prediction, and validation of the NE content of several ingredients fed to swine. The estimation of maintenance energy is affected by methodology, growth stage, and previous feeding level. The fasting heat production method and the curvilinear regression method were used in MAFIC to estimate the NE requirement for maintenance. The NE contents of different feedstuffs were determined using indirect calorimetry through standard experimental procedure in MAFIC. Previously generated NE equations can also be used to predict NE in situations where calorimeters are not available. Although popular, the caloric efficiency is not a generally accepted method to validate the energy content of individual feedstuffs. In the future, more accurate and dynamic NE prediction equations aiming at specific ingredients should be established, and more practical validation approaches need to be developed.

  10. The Teamwork Assessment Scale: A Novel Instrument to Assess Quality of Undergraduate Medical Students' Teamwork Using the Example of Simulation-based Ward-Rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Fischer, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based teamwork trainings are considered a powerful training method to advance teamwork, which becomes more relevant in medical education. The measurement of teamwork is of high importance and several instruments have been developed for various medical domains to meet this need. To our knowledge, no theoretically-based and easy-to-use measurement instrument has been published nor developed specifically for simulation-based teamwork trainings of medical students. Internist ward-rounds function as an important example of teamwork in medicine. The purpose of this study was to provide a validated, theoretically-based instrument that is easy-to-use. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if and when rater scores relate to performance. Based on a theoretical framework for teamwork behaviour, items regarding four teamwork components (Team Coordination, Team Cooperation, Information Exchange, Team Adjustment Behaviours) were developed. In study one, three ward-round scenarios, simulated by 69 students, were videotaped and rated independently by four trained raters. The instrument was tested for the embedded psychometric properties and factorial structure. In study two, the instrument was tested for construct validity with an external criterion with a second set of 100 students and four raters. In study one, the factorial structure matched the theoretical components but was unable to separate Information Exchange and Team Cooperation. The preliminary version showed adequate psychometric properties (Cronbach's α=.75). In study two, the instrument showed physician rater scores were more reliable in measurement than those of student raters. Furthermore, a close correlation between the scale and clinical performance as an external criteria was shown (r=.64) and the sufficient psychometric properties were replicated (Cronbach's α=.78). The validation allows for use of the simulated teamwork assessment scale in undergraduate medical ward-round trainings to reliably

  11. The Teamwork Assessment Scale: A Novel Instrument to Assess Quality of Undergraduate Medical Students' Teamwork Using the Example of Simulation-based Ward-Rounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiesewetter, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation-based teamwork trainings are considered a powerful training method to advance teamwork, which becomes more relevant in medical education. The measurement of teamwork is of high importance and several instruments have been developed for various medical domains to meet this need. To our knowledge, no theoretically-based and easy-to-use measurement instrument has been published nor developed specifically for simulation-based teamwork trainings of medical students. Internist ward-rounds function as an important example of teamwork in medicine.Purposes: The purpose of this study was to provide a validated, theoretically-based instrument that is easy-to-use. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if and when rater scores relate to performance.Methods: Based on a theoretical framework for teamwork behaviour, items regarding four teamwork components ( were developed. In study one, three ward-round scenarios, simulated by 69 students, were videotaped and rated independently by four trained raters. The instrument was tested for the embedded psychometric properties and factorial structure. In study two, the instrument was tested for construct validity with an external criterion with a second set of 100 students and four raters. Results: In study one, the factorial structure matched the theoretical components but was unable to separate Information Exchange and Team Cooperation. The preliminary version showed adequate psychometric properties (Cronbach’s α=.75. In study two, the instrument showed physician rater scores were more reliable in measurement than those of student raters. Furthermore, a close correlation between the scale and clinical performance as an external criteria was shown (r=.64 and the sufficient psychometric properties were replicated (Cronbach’s α=.78.Conclusions: The validation allows for use of the simulated teamwork assessment scale in undergraduate medical ward-round trainings to reliably measure

  12. [Teamwork in the operating theatre: the German Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS-D) and its first application in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passauer-Baierl, S; Chiapponi, C; Bruns, C J; Weigl, M

    2014-12-01

    The quality of surgical teamwork contributes to performance of the operating theatre team, service quality and patient safety in surgery. Observational tools are a feasible and reliable way to capture and evaluate teamwork in the operating theatre (OT). We introduce the German version of the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS-D) and present the first observational results from German OTs. Quality of surgical teamwork was assessed with observational teamwork assessment for surgery (OTAS-D). It evaluates five dimensions of OT teamwork: communication, coordination, cooperation/backup behaviour, leadership, and team monitoring/situation awareness. Each dimension is evaluated for each profession (surgical, nursing, and anaesthesia team) as well for each phase of the procedure (pre-, intra-, and post-operative). We observed n = 63 procedures, mainly in abdominal/general and orthopaedic surgery. Additionally, all OT team members scored their individual evaluation of the intra-operative teamwork (standardised 1-item questions). The OTAS-D evaluations showed meaningful results and differences for the OT professions as well as across the different phases of the procedures. Overall, a medium to good level of the OT teamwork was observed. There were no differences in regard to type of surgery (minimally invasive vs. open) or surgical specialties. With an increased coordination of the surgical team we observed a significantly increased cooperation of the nursing team (r = 0.36, p = 0.004). Concerning the OT staffs self-reports, the surgical and nursing teams reported higher scores for quality of surgical teamwork during the procedure than their anaesthesia team members. No significant relationships between observed quality of OT teamwork and self-reports were found. The German version of OTAS-D is a psychometrically robust method to capture the quality of teamwork in operating theatres. It enables the analyses of teamwork between the surgical

  13. A randomized trial comparing didactics, demonstration, and simulation for teaching teamwork to medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semler, Matthew W; Keriwala, Raj D; Clune, Jennifer K; Rice, Todd W; Pugh, Meredith E; Wheeler, Arthur P; Miller, Alison N; Banerjee, Arna; Terhune, Kyla; Bastarache, Julie A

    2015-04-01

    Effective teamwork is fundamental to the management of medical emergencies, and yet the best method to teach teamwork skills to trainees remains unknown. In a cohort of incoming internal medicine interns, we tested the hypothesis that expert demonstration of teamwork principles and participation in high-fidelity simulation would each result in objectively assessed teamwork behavior superior to traditional didactics. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial comparing three teamwork teaching modalities for incoming internal medicine interns. Participants in a single-day orientation at the Vanderbilt University Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment were randomized 1:1:1 to didactic, demonstration-based, or simulation-based instruction and then evaluated in their management of a simulated crisis by five independent, blinded observers using the Teamwork Behavioral Rater score. Clinical performance was assessed using the American Heart Association Advanced Cardiac Life Support algorithm and a novel "Recognize, Respond, Reassess" score. Participants randomized to didactics (n = 18), demonstration (n = 17), and simulation (n = 17) were similar at baseline. The primary outcome of average overall Teamwork Behavioral Rater score for those who received demonstration-based training was similar to simulation participation (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 4.10 ± 0.95, P = 0.917) and significantly higher than didactic instruction (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 3.10 ± 0.51, P = 0.045). Clinical performance scores were similar between the three groups and correlated only weakly with teamwork behavior (coefficient of determination [Rs(2)] = 0.267, P teamwork training by expert demonstration resulted in similar teamwork behavior to participation in high-fidelity simulation and was more effective than traditional didactics. Clinical performance was largely independent of teamwork behavior and did not differ between training modalities.

  14. Can collaboration within multidisciplinary teamwork be explained using Belbin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne; Karlshøj, Jan

    2013-01-01

    case study is performed within a project-oriented course offered for students within the civil engineering - and architectural engineering programme. The task of the course is to plan a high-rise office building in multidisciplinary student teams. The course was held by a multidisciplinary team...... of teachers for 13 multidisciplinary teams of students. Belbin’s theory on teamwork was introduced and the teams were formed according to the theory, in order to optimize the collaboration. Students were given a standard- and course specific questionnaire including the possibility for making individual notes...

  15. Consolidating staff augmentation contracts improves teamwork and reduces costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, J.; Sibilla, L.; Gregovich, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have traditionally used multiple contracting firms to provide temporary staff augmentation personnel primarily because of two perceptions: (1) managers believe they have greater access to a higher quality, readily available pool of applicants. (2) using multiple contractors inherently keeps costs down as a result of several competitors submitting resumes for the same position. This paper provides information, based on the experiences of a leading nuclear power plant, that disproves these perceptions. It explains why consolidating several contracts for professional and technical classifications (excluding craft labor and refueling personnel) and competitively bidding and awarding the contract to a single contracting firm promotes teamwork and reduces costs

  16. Design Support System for Open Distance Learning Student Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, A.; Pradipto, Y. D.

    2017-01-01

    Open distance learning students in doing team assignment, they seldom face to some problems such as student fell unfair in numbers of workload contribution, instructors also do not know which students do more work than others. So there are some questions ie: how to connect between instructor, team members, and working documents. Methods will be used are first, analyzing current condition and last by designing systems to connect between instructor, team members, and document. The expected result is support systems for open distance learning student teamwork.

  17. Teamwork in high-risk environments analogous to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1990-01-01

    Mountaineering expeditions combine a number of factors which make them potentially good analogs to the planetary exploration facet of long-duration space missions. A study of mountain climbing teams was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of the environment as a space analog and to specifically identify the factors and issues surrounding teamwork and 'successful' team performance in two mountaineering environments. This paper focuses on social/organizational factors, including team size and structure, leadership styles and authority structure which were found in the sample of 22 climb teams (122 individuals). The second major issue discussed is the construction of a valid performance measure in this high-risk environment.

  18. A Tool for Preventing Teamwork Failure: the TFP Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle; Rebollar, Rubeén; Lidón, Iván

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the process used to devise the Teamwork Failure Prevention Questionnaire (TFP Questionnaire), a tool that allows teams with problems in functioning to be detected early. The TFP Questionnaire was formulated in a project management course at the University of Zaragoza (Spain......). In this course, teams of five or six students have to manage a project for a real client. The questionnaire was then tested on students on this course and on a similar one at Aalborg University (Denmark). This article analyses the psychometric characteristics of the TFP Questionnaire and then presents...

  19. Validation of the self-assessment teamwork tool (SATT) in a cohort of nursing and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Lucinda; Shulruf, Boaz; Jorm, Christine; Currie, Jane; Gordon, Christopher J

    2018-02-09

    Poor teamwork has been implicated in medical error and teamwork training has been shown to improve patient care. Simulation is an effective educational method for teamwork training. Post-simulation reflection aims to promote learning and we have previously developed a self-assessment teamwork tool (SATT) for health students to measure teamwork performance. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a revised self-assessment teamwork tool. The tool was tested in 257 medical and nursing students after their participation in one of several mass casualty simulations. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the revised self-assessment teamwork tool was shown to have strong construct validity, high reliability, and the construct demonstrated invariance across groups (Medicine & Nursing). The modified SATT was shown to be a reliable and valid student self-assessment tool. The SATT is a quick and practical method of guiding students' reflection on important teamwork skills.

  20. Effects of distributed teamwork and time pressure on collaborative planning quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R. van der; Rasker, P.C.; Lijkwan, J.T.E.; Dreu, C.K.W. de

    2006-01-01

    Distributed teamwork is not without its difficulties. The detrimental aspects of geographical dispersion of team members on effective teamwork are often invoked to justify reluctance 'to go virtual', despite the fact that for some tasks, and under some conditions, distributed environments may be as

  1. The Impact of Environmental Design on Teamwork and Communication in Healthcare Facilities: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaveis, Arsalan; Hamilton, D Kirk; Pati, Debajyoti

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the current knowledge about the impact of healthcare facility design on teamwork and communication by exploring the relevant literature. Teamwork and communication are behavioral factors that are impacted by physical design. However, the effects of environmental factors on teamwork and communication have not been investigated extensively in healthcare design literature. There are no published systematic reviews on the current topic. Searches were conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar databases in addition to targeted design journals including Health Environmental Research & Design, Environment and Behavior, Environmental Psychology, and Applied Ergonomics. Inclusion criteria were (a) full-text English language articles related to teamwork and communication and (b) involving any healthcare built environment and space design published in peer-reviewed journals between 1984 and 2017. Studies were extracted using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the first phase, 26 of the 195 articles most relevant to teamwork and 19 studies of the 147 were identified and reviewed to understand the impact of communication in healthcare facilities. The literature regarding the impact of built environment on teamwork and communication were reviewed and explored in detail. Eighteen studies were selected and succinctly summarized as the final product of this review. Environmental design, which involves nurses, support staff, and physicians, is one of the critical factors that promotes the efficiency of teamwork and collaborative communication. Layout design, visibility, and accessibility levels are the most cited aspects of design which can affect the level of communication and teamwork in healthcare facilities.

  2. Animation Augmented Reality Book Model (AAR Book Model) to Enhance Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujitarom, Wannaporn; Piriyasurawong, Pallop

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to synthesize an Animation Augmented Reality Book Model (AAR Book Model) to enhance teamwork and to assess the AAR Book Model to enhance teamwork. Samples are five specialists that consist of one animation specialist, two communication and information technology specialists, and two teaching model design specialists, selected by…

  3. A Three-Stage Process of Improvisation for Teamwork: Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hains-Wesson, Rachael; Pollard, Vikki; Campbell, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This study examines street performing arts students' responses to using improvisation for teamwork during a first year, non-placement, work-integrated learning (WIL) experience. The aim of the study was to investigate: (1) students' perceptions of improvisation and (2) ways in which to design teamwork assessments that utilise improvisation. Data…

  4. Promoting Learning Skills through Teamwork Assessment and Self/Peer Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Tomayess

    2012-01-01

    In the education sector, teamwork assessment and self/peer evaluation are widely applied in higher education nationally and internationally. This assessment is designed to encourage students to promote and improve their skills in teamwork, communication (writing, interpersonal interaction and cultural awareness, and presenting), critical and…

  5. The perceived quality of interprofessional teamwork in an intensive care unit: A single centre intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bulcke, Bo; Vyt, Andre; Vanheule, Stijn; Hoste, Eric; Decruyenaere, Johan; Benoit, Dominique

    2016-05-01

    This article describes a study that evaluated the quality of teamwork in a surgical intensive care unit and assessed whether teamwork could be improved significantly through a tailor-made intervention. The quality of teamwork prior to and after the intervention was assessed using the Interprofessional Practice and Education Quality Scales (IPEQS) using the PROSE online diagnostics and documenting system, which assesses three domains of teamwork: organisational factors, care processes, and team members' attitudes and beliefs. Furthermore, team members evaluated strengths and weaknesses of the teamwork through open-ended questions. Information gathered by means of the open questions was used to design a tailor-made 12-week intervention consisting of (1) optimising the existing weekly interdisciplinary meetings with collaborative decision-making and clear communication of goal-oriented actions, including the psychosocial aspects of care; and (2) organising and supporting the effective exchange of information over time between all professions involved. It was found that the intervention had a significant impact on organisational factors and care processes related to interprofessional teamwork for the total group and within all subgroups, despite baseline differences between the subgroups in interprofessional teamwork. In conclusion, teamwork, and more particularly the organisational aspects of interprofessional collaboration and processes of care, can be improved by a tailor-made intervention that takes into account the professional needs of healthcare workers.

  6. Cultural impact on co-design teamwork in distributed bi- national teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, J.; Lu, Y.; Brombacher, A.C.; Ying, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is designed to study the impact of cultural difference on co-design teamwork. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of supporting and hindering cultural factors on codesign teamwork in distributed bi-national teams from Netherland and China. In order to achieve the research

  7. Integrasi Teamwork dan Kohesivitas Kelompok dalam Proses Pembelajaran Peserta Didik pada Pendidikan Jarak Jauh Online

    OpenAIRE

    Suyantiningsih, Suyantiningsih

    2009-01-01

    This article examines computer-supported collaborative learning. It focuses on thestudents in an online program where an orientation toward teamwork and thedevelopment of group cohesiveness affect overall student learning and the learningthat results specifically from team interactions (team-source learning). Someresearches indicate that both teamwork orientation and group cohesiveness predictstudent learning, with group cohesiveness mediating the relationship betweenteamwork orientation and ...

  8. Disentangling Teamwork Dynamics: All Work for One or One Teaches All

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Lindsey M.; Schroeter, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    teaching, teamwork, agribusiness, active learningvalue to course assignments. This research provides a base for discussion regarding the role of teamwork and the composition of the ideal team. This research will fill a gap in the literature on fitting student improvements to differences in the students themselves, which has broad implica-tions for motivating and educating students about food marketing and food distribution.

  9. An Examination of Learning Formats on Interdisciplinary Teamwork Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Carole K.; Reed, Evelyn

    2011-01-01

    Although interdisciplinary teamwork is a recommended practice and important for coordinated interdisciplinary programming in special education, there is limited research on pedagogical practices to prepare professionals to work together effectively. This study examined the effectiveness of a graduate interdisciplinary teamwork course taught…

  10. Introduction of Team Self-Regulation for Teamwork Promotion. A Case Study in Energy Engineering Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, María Jesús; Sáiz-Manzanares, María Consuelo; Alaoui, Fatima E. M.; Aguilar, Fernando; Meneses, Jesús; Montero, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The learning and development of teamwork skill is only possible if its achievement is a self-building process of the student. In turn, the teachers must become guides in the process of a learning which is not limited only to the topic of their own course, but which must be imbedded with a good dose of this skill. Promotion of teamwork is not…

  11. General and Special Education Teachers' Relations within Teamwork in Inclusive Education: Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic-Sestic, Marina; Radovanovic, Vesna; Milanovic-Dobrota, Biljana; Slavkovic, Sanela; Langovic-Milicvic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to establish the relation between general and special education teachers within teamwork and to define socio-demographic factors that affect teamwork. The sample encompassed 223 general and special education teacher of both genders, age 25 to 60, who are employed in regular elementary schools in Serbia. The…

  12. Interprofessional teamwork in stroke care: Is it visible or important to patients and carers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Gillian; Sims, Sarah; Greenwood, Nan; Jones, Fiona; Ross, Fiona; Harris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional teamwork is seen in healthcare policy and practice as a key strategy for providing safe, efficient and holistic healthcare and is an accepted part of evidence-based stroke care. The impact of interprofessional teamwork on patient and carer experience(s) of care is unknown, although some research suggests a relationship might exist. This study aimed to explore patient and carer perceptions of good and poor teamwork and its impact on experiences of care. Critical incident interviews were conducted with 50 patients and 33 carers in acute, inpatient rehabilitation and community phases of care within two UK stroke care pathways. An analytical framework, derived from a realist synthesis of 13 'mechanisms' (processes) of interprofessional teamwork, was used to identify positive and negative 'indicators' of teamwork. Participants identified several mechanisms of teamwork, but it was not a subject most talked about readily. This suggests that interprofessional teamwork is not a concept that is particularly important to stroke patients and carers; they do not readily perceive any impacts of teamwork on their experiences. These findings are a salient reminder that what might be expected by healthcare professionals to be important influences on experience may not be perceived to be so by patients and carers.

  13. Re-Viewing Student Teamwork: Preparation for the "Real World" or Bundles of Situated Social Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Christopher; Moerman, Lee; Gibbons, Belinda; Dean, Bonnie Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Research in Australian business education continues to emphasise the importance of students learning teamwork as an integral part of the undergraduate curriculum. However, entrenched conceptual and practical confusion as to what the term "teamwork" means and how it ought to be enacted remains a vexed issue capable of distorting and…

  14. The role of culture and teamwork inplant performance: A new approach to human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Today, great emphasis is being placed on the capability of control room crews to respond as a team when faced with abnormal and emergency situations. Some utilities are spending thousands of dollars on training programs aimed at improving the teamwork of their crews. While this is commendable, many of these companies may be disappointed in the long-term results of their efforts, particularly if they have a difficult time dealing with question No. 2. If teamwork is not a part of the pant or corporate culture, it is unlikely teamwork will be a part of the control room culture now or in the future. Plant teamwork is often a mirror of the teamwork at the top. The purpose of this paper is to address the role that culture and teamwork play in overall plant performance and to discuss what nuclear utilities can do to assess their present cultural strengths, which support plantwide teamwork, as well as their cultural weaknesses, which are barriers to teamwork

  15. Factors related to teamwork performance and stress of operating room nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Yukio; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate operating room nurses' perception of teamwork performance and their level of mental stress and to identify related factors. Little is known about the factors affecting teamwork and the mental stress of surgical nurses, although the performance of the surgical team is essential for patient safety. The questionnaire survey for operation room nurses consisted of simple questions about teamwork performance and mental stress. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors causing a sense of teamwork performance or mental stress. A large number of surgical nurses had a sense of teamwork performance, but 30-40% of operation room nurses were mentally stressed during surgery. Neither the patient nor the operation factors were related to the sense of teamwork performance in both types of nurses. Among scrub nurses, endoscopic and abdominal surgery, body mass index, blood loss and the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class were related to their mental stress. Conversely, circulating nurses were stressed about teamwork performance. The factors related to teamwork performance and mental stress during surgery differed between scrub and circulating nurses. Increased support for operation room nurses is necessary. The increased support leads to safer surgical procedures and better patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Quality management and perceptions of teamwork and safety climate in European hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, S.; Hammer, A.; Bartels, P.; Sunol, R.; Groene, O.; Thompson, C.A.; Arah, O.A.; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H.; Michel, P.; Wagner, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the associations of quality management systems with teamwork and safety climate, and to describe and compare differences in perceptions of teamwork climate and safety climate among clinical leaders and frontline clinicians. Method: We used a multi-method,

  17. I Never Knew Joe Paterno: An Essay on Teamwork and Love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of teamwork and describes Pennsylvania State University football coach Joe Paterno's cooperative teamwork methods. The five basic tenants of cooperation discussed include positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, social skills, and group processing. (SAH)

  18. Validation of a measurement tool for self-assessment of teamwork in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J; Shulruf, B; Torrie, J; Frengley, R; Boyd, M; Paul, A; Yee, B; Dzendrowskyj, P

    2013-09-01

    Teamwork is an important contributor to patient safety and a validated teamwork measurement tool could help healthcare teams identify areas for improvement and measure progress. We explored the psychometric properties of a teamwork measurement tool when used for self-assessment. We hypothesized that the tool had a valid factor structure and that scores from participants and external assessors would correlate. Forty intensive care teams (one doctor, three nurses) participated in four simulated emergencies, and each independently rated their team's performance at the end of each case using the teamwork measurement tool, without prior training in the use of the tool. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and compared factor structure between participants and external assessors (using previously reported data). Scores from participants and external assessors were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient. EFA demonstrated items loaded onto three distinct factors which were supported by the CFA. We found significant correlations between external and participant scores for overall teamwork scores and the three factors. Participants agreed with external assessors on the ranking of overall team performance but scored themselves significantly higher than external assessors. The teamwork measurement tool has a valid structure when used for self-assessment. Participant and external assessor scores correlated significantly, suggesting that participants could discriminate between different levels of performance, although leniency in self-assessed scores indicated the need for calibration. This tool could help structure reflection on teamwork and potentially facilitate self-directed, workplace-based improvement in teamwork.

  19. The Conceptions about Teamwork Questionnaire: Design, Reliability and Validity with Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fernandez, J. Reinaldo; Corcelles, Mariona; Cerrato-Lara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present the conceptions about teamwork questionnaire designed to evaluate the conceptions that secondary students have about teamwork. Participants were 309 students aged 15-16 from eight secondary schools, seven from Barcelona and one from Girona (Spain). The original 27-item questionnaire was reduced according to expert…

  20. Self and Others in Team-Based Learning: Acquiring Teamwork Skills for Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betta, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) was applied within a third-year unit of study about ethics and management with the aim of enhancing students' teamwork skills. A survey used to collect students' opinions about their experience with TBL provided insights about how TBL helped students to develop an appreciation for teamwork and team collaboration. The team…

  1. The diagnosis for teamwork in teaching in Physical Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Valdés Pedroso

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive and contextualized training at the level of the development levels of contemporary diversity, calls for a continuous revolution in the training of university professors, responsible for such a complex process. With this research we try to respond to the need of teachers to improve educational strategies and their professional performance. The objective of the same was to determine the level of development of teamwork in the professional performance of teachers of the University of Physical Culture and Sport Sciences (UCCFD "Manuel Fajardo". It began with a psycho pedagogical diagnosis of the teachers; surveys were applied to 15 teachers of the UCCFD of the subject of the exercise of the profession and 111 students of the first year of the career, using also the technique of IADOV to know the satisfaction of the teachers with respect to the work in team besides the triangulation by method. As a result, the need to search for strategies for the assimilation of teamwork skills was corroborated.

  2. Virtual teamwork in the context of technological and cultural transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit FernUniversität Hagen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Megatrends affect all individuals and organizations in our society. Mobility and flexibility are examples of megatrends that influence our everyday lives and also intensely alter the ways we work. The deployment of virtual teams meets the new chances emerging with these trends. Employees aspire to work virtually due to benefits, such as flexibility regarding the locations and hours for working. Organizations deploy virtual teams to remain competitive regarding new technological opportunities, employee retention and cost efficiency in an increasingly digital environment. Organizations can guide their change towards virtuality by building on the knowledge of practice as well as scientific insights regarding the deployment of virtual teams. In order to provide a holistic view on the structures and processes affected by such a change and thus provide guidance, a framework for analyzing and planning organizational change is adapted to virtual teamwork and presented in this paper. The framework shows that the deployment of virtual teams affects the whole organization. This comprehensive view on the implementation of virtual teamwork allows an integration of virtual teams and focusses on their performance. The adapted framework furthermore provides links for further in-depth research in this field.

  3. Reorganizing Complex Network to Improve Large-Scale Multiagent Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale multiagent teamwork has been popular in various domains. Similar to human society infrastructure, agents only coordinate with some of the others, with a peer-to-peer complex network structure. Their organization has been proven as a key factor to influence their performance. To expedite team performance, we have analyzed that there are three key factors. First, complex network effects may be able to promote team performance. Second, coordination interactions coming from their sources are always trying to be routed to capable agents. Although they could be transferred across the network via different paths, their sources and sinks depend on the intrinsic nature of the team which is irrelevant to the network connections. In addition, the agents involved in the same plan often form a subteam and communicate with each other more frequently. Therefore, if the interactions between agents can be statistically recorded, we are able to set up an integrated network adjustment algorithm by combining the three key factors. Based on our abstracted teamwork simulations and the coordination statistics, we implemented the adaptive reorganization algorithm. The experimental results briefly support our design that the reorganized network is more capable of coordinating heterogeneous agents.

  4. Teamwork in perioperative nursing. Understanding team development, effectiveness, evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, M J

    1991-03-01

    Teams are an essential part of perioperative nursing practice. Nurses who have a knowledge of teamwork and experience in working on teams have a greater understanding of the processes and problems involved as teams develop from new, immature teams to those that are mature and effective. This understanding will assist nurses in helping their teams achieve a higher level of productivity, and members will be more satisfied with team efforts. Team development progresses through several stages. Each stage has certain characteristics and desired outcomes. At each stage, team members and leaders have certain responsibilities. Team growth does not take place automatically and inevitably, but as a consequence of conscious and unconscious efforts of its leader and members to solve problems and satisfy needs. Building and maintaining a team is certainly work, but work that brings a great deal of satisfaction and feelings of pride in accomplishment. According to I Tenzer, RN, MS, teamwork "is not a panacea; it is a viable approach to developing a hospital's most valuable resource--people."

  5. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING, TEAMWORK, HOLISTIC VIEW AND ORAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisnert, Leif

    2014-01-01

    The dental program at the Malmö Dental School, the so called Malmö-model, is guided by four linked principles: self-directed learning, teamwork, a holistic view of patient care, and oral health (Fig.1). Self-assessment ability is a critical competence for healthcare professionals, necessary for the successful adaptation to the modern life-long learning environment. Educational research seems to point out two critical factors for the development of such skills, continuous practice of self-assessment and constructive feedback. The first study presented in this thesis assessed students' self-assessment ability by means of the Interactive Examination in a cohort of senior dental students, who had gone through an identical assessment procedure during their second year of studies. The results indicated that self-assessment ability was not directly relevant to subject knowledge. Upon graduation, there were a number of students (10%) with significant self-assessment difficulties. Early detection of students with weak self-assessment abilities appears possible to achieve. The aim of the second study, concerning teamwork and holistic view, was to investigate if highlighting teamwork between dental and dental hygienist students could improve the students' holistic view on patients, as well as their knowledge of, and insight into, each other's future professions. This project showed that by initiating teamwork between dental and dental hygienist students, it was possible to increase students' knowledge on dental hygienists competence, develop students' perceived holistic view on patients, and prepare students for teamwork. The third study explored findings clinicians used when diagnosing chronic periodontitis. A questionnaire was distributed to students, dental teachers and clinical supervisors in the Public Dental Services. Within all categories of clinicians, the majority of the clinicians used deepened pocket, bone loss on x-rays, and bleeding as findings. There were

  6. Do transactive memory and participative teamwork improve nurses' quality of work life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, Paul; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Colombat, Philippe; Gillet, Nicolas; El-Hage, Wissam; Camus, Vincent; Gaillard, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Improvement in nurses' quality of work life (QWL) has become a major issue in health care organizations. We hypothesized that the level of transactive memory (defined as the way groups collectively encode, store, and retrieve knowledge) and participative teamwork (an organizational model of care based on vocational training, a specific service's care project, and regular interdisciplinary staffing) positively affect nurses' QWL. This cross-sectional study enrolled 84 ward-based psychiatric nurses. We assessed transactive memory, participative teamwork, perceived organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and QWL using psychometrically reliable and valid scales. Participative teamwork and transactive memory were positively associated with nurses' QWL. Perceived organizational support and organizational justice fully mediated the relationship between participative teamwork and QWL, but not between transactive memory and QWL. Improved transactive memory could directly improve nurses' QWL. Improved participative teamwork could improve nurses' QWL through better perceived organizational support and perceived organizational justice.

  7. Enhancing teamwork among allied health students: evaluation of an interprofessional workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Sylvia; Mickan, Sharon; Marinac, Julie; Woodyatt, Gail

    2005-01-01

    This report outlines the teamwork learning outcomes of an interprofessional workshop conducted with a cohort of 81 graduate-entry students of occupational therapy, physiotherapy, speech pathology, and audiology. This four-hour workshop was based around a case scenario of a child with developmental coordination disorder. This report describes and evaluates the development of knowledge and skills of teamwork that were facilitated through this workshop. Students completed questionnaires before and after the workshop about their knowledge of teamwork, requisites for working together, the utility of the workshop, and learning outcomes. The evaluation indicated that the workshop was successful from the students' perspectives in confirming the importance of teamwork and the processes of communication and collaborative goal setting. Students refined their own professional roles and developed an appreciation of the contribution of other professions and parents. This recognition of the comparative value of different professional contributions in providing holistic patient care is one of the starting points for education about interprofessional teamwork.

  8. Teamwork in nursing: restricted to nursing professionals or an interprofessional collaboration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisa Colebrusco de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To understand the nursing professionals' conceptions of teamwork and their elements. METHOD A qualitative study conducted in an oncological hospital using a semi-structured interview with 21 nursing professionals. RESULTS Two conceptions emerged from the accounts: teamwork restricted to nursing professionals and teamwork with interprofessional collaboration with particular importance for interactive dimensions: communication, trust and professional bonds, mutual respect and recognition of the other's work, collaboration, and conflict, with this last subcategory considered as an obstacle to teamwork. CONCLUSION Nursing conceives teamwork as an interprofessional practice, which is a result of the quality of interaction among professionals from different areas and involves the recognition and handling of conflicts.

  9. Health professionals perceive teamwork with relatives as an obstacle in their daily work - a focus group interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Jannie; Broholm, Malene; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    Health professionals must often balance between different rationalities within the hospital organisation. Having adequate time with patients, shorter waiting time and the ability to greater professional autonomy have been shown to help provide a higher quality of care. Empathy and sympathy appear to be crucial components for the health professionals and their relationship to patients. The aim of this study was to explore health professionals' experiences of relatives to critically ill patients in order to identify aspects that may facilitate a better understanding of this teamwork. The study was descriptive and exploratory and had a qualitative design with a phenomenological/hermeneutic orientation for the interviews. Focus group was the chosen methodology. The study comprised 19 health professionals in four focus groups. Two themes emerged from the interviews: the hospital culture does not integrate relatives, and health professionals felt that relatives took their resources and saw them as an obstacle in their daily work. Health professionals felt divided between the system and the individual sphere, which makes it difficult for them to integrate relatives more and see them as participants in a natural teamwork for the benefit of the patient. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. An integrative review of facilitators and barriers influencing collaboration and teamwork between general practitioners and nurses working in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Susan; Peters, Kath; Bonney, Andrew; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    To identify facilitators and barriers influencing collaboration and teamwork between general practitioners and nurses working in general (family) practice. Internationally, a shortage of doctors entering and remaining in general practice and an increasing burden of chronic disease has diversified the nurse's role in this setting. Despite a well-established general practice nursing workforce, little attention has been paid to the ways doctors and nurses collaborate in this setting. Integrative literature review. CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Life, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute Library of Systematic Reviews and Trove (dissertation and theses) were searched for papers published between 2000 and May 2014. This review was informed by the approach of Whittemore and Knafl (2005). All included papers were assessed for methodological quality. Findings were extracted, critically examined and grouped into themes. Eleven papers met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis revealed three themes common to the facilitators of and barriers to collaboration and teamwork between GPs in general practice: (1) roles and responsibilities; (2) respect, trust and communication; and (3) hierarchy, education and liability. This integrative review has provided insight into issues around role definition, communication and organizational constraints which influence the way nurses and general practitioners collaborate in a team environment. Future research should investigate in more detail the ways doctors and nurses work together in general practice and the impact of collaboration on nursing leadership and staff retention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A student-led process to enhance the learning and teaching of teamwork skills in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasooriya, Chinthaka; Olupeliyawa, Asela; Iqbal, Maha; Lawley, Claire; Cohn, Amanda; Ma, David; Luu, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    The development of teamwork skills is a critical aspect of modern medical education. This paper reports on a project that aimed to identify student perceptions of teamwork-focused learning activities and generate student recommendations for the development of effective educational strategies. The project utilized a unique method, which drew on the skills of student research assistants (RAs) to explore the views of their peers. Using structured interview guides, the RAs interviewed their colleagues to clarify their perceptions of the effectiveness of current methods of teamwork teaching and to explore ideas for more effective methods. The RAs shared their deidentified findings with each other, identified preliminary themes, and developed a number of recommendations which were finalized through consultation with faculty. The key themes that emerged focused on the need to clarify the relevance of teamwork skills to clinical practice, reward individual contributions to group process, facilitate feedback and reflection on teamwork skills, and systematically utilize clinical experiences to support experiential learning of teamwork. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations for stage appropriate teamwork learning and assessment activities were developed. Key among these were recommendations to set up a peer-mentoring system for students, suggestions for more authentic teamwork assessment methods, and strategies to utilize the clinical learning environment in developing teamwork skills. The student-led research process enabled identification of issues that may not have been otherwise revealed by students, facilitated a better understanding of teamwork teaching and developed ownership of the curriculum among students. The project enabled the development of recommendations for designing learning, teaching, and assessment methods that were likely to be more effective from a student perspective.

  12. Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). Implementation guide for TOPS version 2.0, 10 August 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Albert A.; Jackson, Darryl J.

    1992-01-01

    As the nation redefines priorities to deal with a rapidly changing world order, both government and industry require new approaches for oversight of management systems, particularly for high technology products. Declining defense budgets will lead to significant reductions in government contract management personnel. Concurrently, defense contractors are reducing administrative and overhead staffing to control costs. These combined pressures require bold approaches for the oversight of management systems. In the Spring of 1991, the DPRO and TRW created a Process Action Team (PAT) to jointly prepare a Performance Based Management (PBM) system titled Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). The primary goal is implementation of a performance based management system based on objective data to review critical TRW processes with an emphasis on continuous improvement. The processes are: Finance and Business Systems, Engineering and Manufacturing Systems, Quality Assurance, and Software Systems. The team established a number of goals: delivery of quality products to contractual terms and conditions; ensure that TRW management systems meet government guidance and good business practices; use of objective data to measure critical processes; elimination of wasteful/duplicative reviews and audits; emphasis on teamwork--all efforts must be perceived to add value by both sides and decisions are made by consensus; and synergy and the creation of a strong working trust between TRW and the DPRO. TOPS permits the adjustment of oversight resources when conditions change or when TRW systems performance indicate either an increase or decrease in surveillance is appropriate. Monthly Contractor Performance Assessments (CPA) are derived from a summary of supporting system level and process-level ratings obtained from objective process-level data. Tiered, objective, data-driven metrics are highly successful in achieving a cooperative and effective method of measuring

  13. Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). Implementation guide for TOPS version 2.0, 10 August 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Albert A.; Jackson, Darryl J.

    As the nation redefines priorities to deal with a rapidly changing world order, both government and industry require new approaches for oversight of management systems, particularly for high technology products. Declining defense budgets will lead to significant reductions in government contract management personnel. Concurrently, defense contractors are reducing administrative and overhead staffing to control costs. These combined pressures require bold approaches for the oversight of management systems. In the Spring of 1991, the DPRO and TRW created a Process Action Team (PAT) to jointly prepare a Performance Based Management (PBM) system titled Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). The primary goal is implementation of a performance based management system based on objective data to review critical TRW processes with an emphasis on continuous improvement. The processes are: Finance and Business Systems, Engineering and Manufacturing Systems, Quality Assurance, and Software Systems. The team established a number of goals: delivery of quality products to contractual terms and conditions; ensure that TRW management systems meet government guidance and good business practices; use of objective data to measure critical processes; elimination of wasteful/duplicative reviews and audits; emphasis on teamwork--all efforts must be perceived to add value by both sides and decisions are made by consensus; and synergy and the creation of a strong working trust between TRW and the DPRO. TOPS permits the adjustment of oversight resources when conditions change or when TRW systems performance indicate either an increase or decrease in surveillance is appropriate. Monthly Contractor Performance Assessments (CPA) are derived from a summary of supporting system level and process-level ratings obtained from objective process-level data. Tiered, objective, data-driven metrics are highly successful in achieving a cooperative and effective method of measuring

  14. COSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruta Dana Duda Daianu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The team leader is the author of vision, mentor, guide, motivator, source of encouragement and supportive team. The leader helps team members to focus on the big picture of the project, to give the best of them, to follow the right path and stay united. Leader qualities must necessarily include its ability to work together, to be folded on the processes that describe functional and structural developments in embedded team. The issue of the leader development includes the necessity to concurrently form the skills of tem working. The working paper underlines that these two formative desiderate are compatible, correlative and complementary. So, in the study that we undertake we proposed to determine the degree of compatibility between the two demands of education, as follows: the training of leader capable to exercise also the specific activities of teamwork

  15. Students' reflections on shadowing interprofessional teamwork: a Norwegian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, M; Horntvedt, T

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the students' reflections on interprofessional teamwork during brief exposures to real-life experiences in hospitals or home-based rehabilitation service. Each of the 10 interprofessional groups, comprising three students, followed a rehabilitation team for a day. The composition of each student group correlated with the rehabilitation team. Data were collected from interviews with the student groups and subjected to a thematic analysis. The following four main themes were identified for which the students seemed to affect collaboration: sharing knowledge; team setting and position within the organisation; patient centred focus; and challenges in crossing professional borders when performing tasks. Each of these themes is presented and discussed in relation to the educational literature. In conclusion, the data suggest that a well organized, one-day observation-based learning experience helped to motivate students and helped to enable them to relate theory and practice.

  16. Operator/contractor teamwork is the key to performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, K.B.; Roberts, J.D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The contract strategies developed by the two major E and P companies operating in the North Sea emphasize teamwork between operator and contractors to achieve the common goal of maximizing project value. These strategies have had significant repercussions across the whole industry. This paper compares these strategies and concludes that although they are structurally different, they have the same fundamental objectives. It describes the evolution of what these operators consider to be their core business, with the resultant changing roles for both operator and contractor staff. Several examples of results achieved through implementing these changes are described, highlighting the need for a structured performance measurement system to quantify the success of these initiatives. Finally, the potential for even greater efficiency improvements through further industry-wide cooperation is emphasized

  17. A case study on collaboration within multidisciplinary teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne; Karlshøj, Jan; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Collaboration within the building process has always been difficult. Additionally the new demands on functionality such as energy and cost efficiency change the roles within the teams of engineers and architects, engaged in building design and generate a need of new work methods within the process...... and teamwork at the final stage of the engineering education. The course was held by a multidisciplinary team of teachers for 9 multidisciplinary teams of students. The team of teachers and the student teams had similar working conditions. These teams were subject of investigation on collaboration...... and transprofessionalism. 32 students and 7 teachers answered a questionnaire leading to the following findings. Collaboration was improving during the course. Other than in traditional building teams we could see that the students placed the role as a designer only in a few cases were perceived the team leader...

  18. Role of simulator training in developing teamwork and diagnostic skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimme, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the evolution of the control room team is necessary to understand team training needs. As control room responsibilities have increased and members have been added to the operating crews, teamwork and strong leadership has become crucial to the efficiency of these operating crews. In order to conduct effective team training in a simulated control room, it is essential that the fundamental principles of role definition and common team values are fully developed. The diagnostics model used to develop problem-solving skills must be adaptable to the dynamic environment of the control room. Once the fundamental principles of team building and a good diagnostics model are mastered, many training techniques using a simulator are available to perfect the development of team building and diagnostic skills

  19. Students' understanding of teamwork and professional roles after interprofessional simulation-a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxelmark, Lena; Nordahl Amorøe, Torben; Carlzon, Liisa; Rystedt, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how interprofessional simulation-based education (IPSE) can contribute to a change in students' understanding of teamwork and professional roles. A series of 1-day training sessions was arranged involving undergraduate nursing and medical students. Scenarios were designed for practicing teamwork principles and interprofessional communication skills by endorsing active participation by all team members. Four focus groups occurred 2-4 weeks after the training. Thematic analysis of the transcribed focus groups was applied, guided by questions on what changes in students' understanding of teamwork and professional roles were identified and how such changes had been achieved. The first question, aiming to identify changes in students' understanding of teamwork, resulted in three categories: realizing and embracing teamwork fundamentals, reconsidering professional roles, and achieving increased confidence. The second question, regarding how participation in IPSE could support the transformation of students' understanding of teamwork and of professional roles, embraced another three categories: feeling confident in the learning environment, embodying experiences, and obtaining an outside perspective. This study showed the potential of IPSE to transform students' understanding of others' professional roles and responsibilities. Students displayed extensive knowledge on fundamental teamwork principles and what these meant in the midst of participating in the scenarios. A critical prerequisite for the development of these new insights was to feel confident in the learning environment. The significance of how the environment was set up calls for further research on the design of IPSE in influencing role understanding and communicative skills in significant ways.

  20. Association Between Physician Teamwork and Health System Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, John M; Funk, Russell J; Garrison, Spencer A; Owen-Smith, Jason; Kaufman, Samuel A; Pagani, Francis D; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K

    2016-11-01

    Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) must often see multiple providers dispersed across many care locations. To test whether teamwork (assessed with the bipartite clustering coefficient) among these physicians is a determinant of surgical outcomes, we examined national Medicare data from patients undergoing CABG. Among Medicare beneficiaries who underwent CABG between 2008 and 2011, we mapped relationships between all physicians who treated them during their surgical episodes, including both surgeons and nonsurgeons. After aggregating across CABG episodes in a year to construct the physician social networks serving each health system, we then assessed the level of physician teamwork in these networks with the bipartite clustering coefficient. Finally, we fit a series of multivariable regression models to evaluate associations between a health system's teamwork level and its 60-day surgical outcomes. We observed substantial variation in the level of teamwork between health systems performing CABG (SD for the bipartite clustering coefficient was 0.09). Although health systems with high and low teamwork levels treated beneficiaries with comparable comorbidity scores, these health systems differed over several sociocultural and healthcare capacity factors (eg, physician staff size and surgical caseload). After controlling for these differences, health systems with higher teamwork levels had significantly lower 60-day rates of emergency department visit, readmission, and mortality. Health systems with physicians who tend to work together in tightly-knit groups during CABG episodes realize better surgical outcomes. As such, delivery system reforms focused on building teamwork may have positive effects on surgical care. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Interprofessional teamwork skills as predictors of clinical outcomes in a simulated healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrader, Sarah; Kern, Donna; Zoller, James; Blue, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Teaching interprofessional (IP) teamwork skills is a goal of interprofessional education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IP teamwork skills, attitudes and clinical outcomes in a simulated clinical setting. One hundred-twenty health professions students (medicine, pharmacy, physician assistant) worked in interprofessional teams to manage a "patient" in a health care simulation setting. Students completed the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) attitudinal survey instrument. Students' responses were averaged by team to create an IEPS attitudes score. Teamwork skills for each team were rated by trained observers using a checklist to calculate a teamwork score (TWS). Clinical outcome scores (COS) were determined by summation of completed clinical tasks performed by the team based on an expert developed checklist. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship of IEPS and TWS with COS. IEPS score was not a significant predictor of COS (p=0.054), but TWS was a significant predictor (pstudents' interprofessional teamwork skills are significant predictors of positive clinical outcomes. Interprofessional curricular models that produce effective teamwork skills can improve student performance in clinical environments and likely improve teamwork practice to positively affect patient care outcomes.

  2. A proposed methodology for computational fluid dynamics code verification, calibration, and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschliman, D. P.; Oberkampf, W. L.; Blottner, F. G.

    Verification, calibration, and validation (VCV) of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes is an essential element of the code development process. The exact manner in which code VCV activities are planned and conducted, however, is critically important. It is suggested that the way in which code validation, in particular, is often conducted--by comparison to published experimental data obtained for other purposes--is in general difficult and unsatisfactory, and that a different approach is required. This paper describes a proposed methodology for CFD code VCV that meets the technical requirements and is philosophically consistent with code development needs. The proposed methodology stresses teamwork and cooperation between code developers and experimentalists throughout the VCV process, and takes advantage of certain synergisms between CFD and experiment. A novel approach to uncertainty analysis is described which can both distinguish between and quantify various types of experimental error, and whose attributes are used to help define an appropriate experimental design for code VCV experiments. The methodology is demonstrated with an example of laminar, hypersonic, near perfect gas, 3-dimensional flow over a sliced sphere/cone of varying geometrical complexity.

  3. Repeated, Close Physician Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Teams Associated with Greater Teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Jordan; Funk, Russell J; Kaufman, Samuel R; Owen-Smith, Jason; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Pagani, Francis D; Hollingsworth, John M

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether observed patterns of physician interaction around shared patients are associated with higher levels of teamwork as perceived by physicians. Michigan Medicare beneficiaries who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures at 24 hospitals in the state between 2008 and 2011. We assessed hospital teamwork using the teamwork climate scale in the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. After aggregating across CABG discharges at these hospitals, we mapped the physician referral networks (including both surgeons and nonsurgeons) that served them and measured three network properties: (1) reinforcement, (2) clustering, and (3) density. We then used multilevel regression models to identify associations between network properties and teamwork at the hospitals on which the networks were anchored. In hospitals where physicians repeatedly cared for patients with the same colleagues, physicians perceived better teamwork (β-reinforcement = 3.28, p = .003). When physicians who worked together also had other colleagues in common, the reported teamwork was stronger (β clustering = 1.71, p = .001). Reported teamwork did not change when physicians worked with a higher proportion of other physicians at the hospital (β density = -0.58, p = .64). In networks with higher levels of reinforcement and clustering, physicians perceive stronger teamwork, perhaps because the strong ties between them create a shared understanding; however, sharing patients with more physicians overall (i.e., density) did not lead to stronger teamwork. Clinical and organizational leaders may consider designing the structure of clinical teams to increase interactions with known colleagues and repeated interactions between providers. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. Quality management and perceptions of teamwork and safety climate in European hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Solvejg; Hammer, Antje; Bartels, Paul; Suñol, Rosa; Groene, Oliver; Thompson, Caroline A; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Kutaj-Wasikowska, Halina; Michel, Philippe; Wagner, Cordula

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations of quality management systems with teamwork and safety climate, and to describe and compare differences in perceptions of teamwork climate and safety climate among clinical leaders and frontline clinicians. We used a multi-method, cross-sectional approach to collect survey data of quality management systems and perceived teamwork and safety climate. Our data analyses included descriptive and multilevel regression methods. Data on implementation of quality management system from seven European countries were evaluated including patient safety culture surveys from 3622 clinical leaders and 4903 frontline clinicians. Perceived teamwork and safety climate. Teamwork climate was reported as positive by 67% of clinical leaders and 43% of frontline clinicians. Safety climate was perceived as positive by 54% of clinical leaders and 32% of frontline clinicians. We found positive associations between implementation of quality management systems and teamwork and safety climate. Our findings, which should be placed in a broader clinical quality improvement context, point to the importance of quality management systems as a supportive structural feature for promoting teamwork and safety climate. To gain a deeper understanding of this association, further qualitative and quantitative studies using longitudinally collected data are recommended. The study also confirms that more clinical leaders than frontline clinicians have a positive perception of teamwork and safety climate. Such differences should be accounted for in daily clinical practice and when tailoring initiatives to improve teamwork and safety climate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  5. Relationship Between Operating Room Teamwork, Contextual Factors, and Safety Checklist Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Sara J; Molina, George; Li, Zhonghe; Jiang, Wei; Nurudeen, Suliat; Kite, Julia G; Edmondson, Lizabeth; Foster, Richard; Haynes, Alex B; Berry, William R

    2016-10-01

    Studies show that using surgical safety checklists (SSCs) reduces complications. Many believe SSCs accomplish this by enhancing teamwork, but evidence is limited. Our study sought to relate teamwork to checklist performance, understand how they relate, and determine conditions that affect this relationship. Using 2 validated tools for observing and coaching operating room teams, we evaluated the association between checklist performance with surgeon buy-in and 4 domains of surgical teamwork: clinical leadership, communication, coordination, and respect. Hospital staff in 10 South Carolina hospitals observed 207 procedures between April 2011 and January 2013. We calculated levels of checklist performance, buy-in, and measures of teamwork, and evaluated their relationship, controlling for patient and case characteristics. Few teams completed most or all SSC items. Teams more often completed items considered procedural "checks" than conversation "prompts." Surgeon buy-in, clinical leadership, communication, a summary measure of teamwork overall, and observers' teamwork ratings positively related to overall checklist completion (multivariable model estimates from 0.04, p < 0.05 for communication to 0.17, p < 0.01 for surgeon buy-in). All measures of teamwork and surgeon buy-in related positively to completing more conversation prompts; none related significantly to procedural checks (estimates from 0.10, p < 0.01 for communication to 0.27, p < 0.001 for surgeon buy-in). Patient age was significantly associated with completing the checklist and prompts (p < 0.05); only case duration was positively associated with performing more checks (p < 0.10). Surgeon buy-in and surgical teamwork characterized by shared clinical leadership, open communication, active coordination, and mutual respect were critical in prompting case-related conversations, but not in completing procedural checks. Findings highlight the importance of surgeon engagement and high-quality, consistent

  6. A Randomized Trial Comparing Didactics, Demonstration, and Simulation for Teaching Teamwork to Medical Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keriwala, Raj D.; Clune, Jennifer K.; Rice, Todd W.; Pugh, Meredith E.; Wheeler, Arthur P.; Miller, Alison N.; Banerjee, Arna; Terhune, Kyla; Bastarache, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Effective teamwork is fundamental to the management of medical emergencies, and yet the best method to teach teamwork skills to trainees remains unknown. Objectives: In a cohort of incoming internal medicine interns, we tested the hypothesis that expert demonstration of teamwork principles and participation in high-fidelity simulation would each result in objectively assessed teamwork behavior superior to traditional didactics. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial comparing three teamwork teaching modalities for incoming internal medicine interns. Participants in a single-day orientation at the Vanderbilt University Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment were randomized 1:1:1 to didactic, demonstration-based, or simulation-based instruction and then evaluated in their management of a simulated crisis by five independent, blinded observers using the Teamwork Behavioral Rater score. Clinical performance was assessed using the American Heart Association Advanced Cardiac Life Support algorithm and a novel “Recognize, Respond, Reassess” score. Measurements and Main Results: Participants randomized to didactics (n = 18), demonstration (n = 17), and simulation (n = 17) were similar at baseline. The primary outcome of average overall Teamwork Behavioral Rater score for those who received demonstration-based training was similar to simulation participation (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 4.10 ± 0.95, P = 0.917) and significantly higher than didactic instruction (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 3.10 ± 0.51, P = 0.045). Clinical performance scores were similar between the three groups and correlated only weakly with teamwork behavior (coefficient of determination [Rs2] = 0.267, P didactics. Clinical performance was largely independent of teamwork behavior and did not differ between training modalities. PMID:25730661

  7. The development of a rubric for peer assessment of individual teamwork skills in undergraduate midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Carolyn; Fahy, Kathleen; Parratt, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Poor teamwork is cited as one of the major root causes of adverse events in healthcare. Bullying, resulting in illness for staff, is an expression of poor teamwork skills. Despite this knowledge, poor teamwork persists in healthcare and teamwork skills are rarely the focus of teaching and assessment in undergraduate health courses. To develop and implement an assessment tool for use in facilitating midwifery students' learning of teamwork skills. This paper describes how the TeamUP rubric tool was developed. A review of the literature found no research reports on how to teach and assess health students' teamwork skills in standing teams. The literature, however, gives guidance about how university educators should evaluate individual students using peer assessment. The developmental processes of the rubric were grounded in the theoretical literature and feminist collaborative conversations. The rubric incorporates five domains of teamwork skills: Fostering a Team Climate; Project Planning; Facilitating Teams; Managing Conflict and Quality Individual Contribution. The process and outcomes of student and academic content validation are described. The TeamUP rubric is useful for articulating, teaching and assessing teamwork skills for health professional students. The TeamUP rubric is a robust, theoretically grounded model that defines and details effective teamwork skills and related behaviours. If these skills are mastered, we predict that graduates will be more effective in teams. Our assumption is that graduates, empowered by having these skills, are more likely to manage conflict effectively and less likely to engage in bullying behaviours. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana Charantola; Peduzzi, Marina; Sangaleti, Carine Teles; Silva, Dirceu da; Agreli, Heloise Fernandes; West, Michael A; Anderson, Neil R

    2016-08-22

    To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest) and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach's alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the "participation in the team" factor and the "team goals" factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork. Adaptar e validar a escala Team Climate Invetory, de medida do clima de trabalho em equipe, para o idioma português, no contexto da atenção primária à saúde no Brasil. Estudo metodológico com abordagem quantitativa de adaptação transcultural (tradução, retrotradução, síntese, comitê de especialistas e pré-teste) e validação com 497 trabalhadores de 72 equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família no município de Campinas, São Paulo. Verificou-se confiabilidade pelo alfa de Cronbach, validade de construto pela análise fatorial confirmatória pelo software SmartPLS e correlação com escala de satisfação no trabalho. Foi problematizado a sobreposição dos itens 9, 11 e 12 do fator participa

  9. A systematic review of teamwork in the intensive care unit: what do we know about teamwork, team tasks, and improvement strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Aaron S; Pronovost, Peter J; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro Alejandro; Wyskiel, Rhonda; Marsteller, Jill A; Thompson, David A; Rosen, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    Teamwork is essential for ensuring the quality and safety of health care delivery in the intensive care unit (ICU). This article addresses what we know about teamwork, team tasks, and team improvement strategies in the ICU to identify the strengths and limitations of the existing knowledge base to guide future research. A keyword search of the PubMed database was conducted in February 2013. Keyword combinations focused on 3 areas: (1) teamwork, (2) the ICU, and (3) training/quality improvement interventions. All studies that investigated teamwork, team tasks, or team interventions within the ICU (ie, intradepartment) were selected for inclusion. Teamwork has been investigated across an array of research contexts and task types. The terminology used to describe team factors varied considerably across studies. The most common team tasks involved strategy and goal formulation. Team training and structured protocols were the most widely implemented quality improvement strategies. Team research is burgeoning in the ICU, yet low-hanging fruit remains that can further advance the science of teams in the ICU if addressed. Constructs must be defined, and theoretical frameworks should be referenced. The functional characteristics of tasks should also be reported to help determine the extent to which study results might generalize to other contexts of work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Initiatives: The Escher Dilemma; Lowering the Bar or Helium Pole; Phillippe le Basquette (Fill the Basket); Concentration Point; Who Done It?/the Lie Game; A Missing Piece; Mindfulness Meditation; Untying Knots: Bending on Teamwork; Triangle Tag for Church Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Steve; Gass, Mike; Schoel, Jim; Murphy, Morgan; Murray, Mark; White, Will; Loggers, Otto; Renaker, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Describes nine group problem-solving and communication initiatives used in adventure- and experiential-education settings. Includes target group, group size, time and space requirements, activity level, props, instructions, and tips for post-activity group reflection and processing. Activities emphasize teamwork, communication skills, and a…

  11. Teamwork [Activities]: Corporate Connection; The Stomp Heard 'Round the World; Frantic Times; The Bird's Nest; It's a What? This Is Life...This Is a Distraction; The Turnstile; World Map; Turn Over a New Leaf; Simply Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Steve; Patton, Rob; Schusser, Eric; Harrington, Charlie; Crawford, Bartholomew; Frank, Laurie; Proudman, Bill; Evans, Faith; Dobkin, Craig H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes nine group activities used to build cooperation and teamwork in adventure-, challenge-, and experiential-education settings. Includes target group, group size, time and space requirements, activity level, props needed, instructions, ideas for post-activity group processing and reflection, and facilitator tips. Target groups include…

  12. The development and validation of an interprofessional scale to assess teamwork in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Ryoko; Yamano, Mayumi; Osako, Mitue; Misawa, Takeshi; Hirabayashi, Naotugu; Oshima, Nobuo; Sigeta, Masahiro; Reeves, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Currently, no evaluative scale exists to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in mental health settings across the globe. As a result, little is known about the detailed process of team development within this setting. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a global interprofessional scale that assesses teamwork in mental health settings using an international comparative study based in Japan and the United States. This report provides a description of this study and reports progress made to date. Specifically, it outlines work on literature reviews to identify evaluative teamwork tools as well as identify relevant teamwork models and theories. It also outlines plans for empirical work that will be undertaken in both Japan and the United States.

  13. Control Centre operations as the focus for building station teamwork - issues and resource impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.; Lane, L.; Davey, E.

    2006-01-01

    Effective teamwork among station work groups is essential for plant production and safety in all phases of plant operation. To achieve effective teamwork, all contributing work groups must have ongoing access to and share a common perspective on station work priorities, and recognize how their individual contributions fit with and support the contributions of other groups in support of the larger station goals. Achieving and maintaining this alignment in perspective across all workgroups can be a challenge in large organizations. This paper discusses the experience at Darlington in building and maintaining station teamwork among the station workgroups in support of day-to-day plant operations. The issues encountered and the resource impacts of specific teamwork supporting practices adopted are outlined. (author)

  14. Improving teamwork, trust and safety: an ethnographic study of an interprofessional initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Aled; Jones, Delyth

    2011-05-01

    This study explored the perceptions of staff in an interprofessional team based on a medical rehabilitation ward for older people, following the introduction of a service improvement programme designed to promote better teamworking. The study aimed to address a lack of in-depth qualitative research that could explain the day-to-day realities of interprofessional teamworking in healthcare. All members of the team participated, (e.g. nurses, doctors, physiotherapists, social worker, occupational therapists), and findings suggest that interprofessional teamworking improved over the 12-month period. Four themes emerged from the data offering insights into the development and effects of better interprofessional teamworking: the emergence of collegial trust within the team, the importance of team meetings and participative safety, the role of shared objectives in conflict management and the value of autonomy within the team. Reductions in staff sickness/absence levels and catastrophic/major patient safety incidents were also detected following the introduction of the service improvement programme.

  15. GPS system simulation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The following topics are presented: background; Global Positioning System (GPS) methodology overview; the graphical user interface (GUI); current models; application to space nuclear power/propulsion; and interfacing requirements. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  16. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  17. Clinical trial methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2011-01-01

    "Now viewed as its own scientific discipline, clinical trial methodology encompasses the methods required for the protection of participants in a clinical trial and the methods necessary to provide...

  18. Teamwork orientation and personal learning: The role of individual cultural values and value congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is a growing body of research that indicates that personal factors such as collectivist value orientation play an important role in individuals’ preference for teamwork, and an individual’s propensity to work in a team is seen as a contributing factor in one’s personal learning. Research purpose: The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, the article aims to explore whether individual-level cultural values of power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity interact with individual collectivist values to influence teamwork orientation. Secondly, the study aims to examine the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning further exploring the role of perceived value congruence in this relationship. Motivation for the study: While an extensive amount of research has been conducted on teamwork orientation, the question of how individual cultural values influence formation of teamwork orientation is still largely unanswered. This lack is especially evident with regard to how the influence of collectivism on the development of positive attitudes towards teamwork is promoted or inhibited by other values such as power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity. Moreover, the current evidence about the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning and the role of personal and contextual factors in such a relationship is still scarce. Research design, approach and method: The study used a cross-sectional survey, with data collected from 120 business students engaged in project teams at a Norwegian university. All the hypothesised relationships were assessed using partial least square structural equation modelling technique. Main findings: The findings indicate that the link between collectivism–teamwork orientation is stronger for team members who scored high on uncertainty avoidance values and the relationship was weaker for team members who endorsed high

  19. Teamwork assessment in internal medicine: a systematic review of validity evidence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havyer, Rachel D A; Wingo, Majken T; Comfere, Nneka I; Nelson, Darlene R; Halvorsen, Andrew J; McDonald, Furman S; Reed, Darcy A

    2014-06-01

    Valid teamwork assessment is imperative to determine physician competency and optimize patient outcomes. We systematically reviewed published instruments assessing teamwork in undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education in general internal medicine and all medical subspecialties. We searched MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-process, CINAHL and PsycINFO from January 1979 through October 2012, references of included articles, and abstracts from four professional meetings. Two content experts were queried for additional studies. Included studies described quantitative tools measuring teamwork among medical students, residents, fellows, and practicing physicians on single or multi-professional (interprofessional) teams. Instrument validity and study quality were extracted using established frameworks with existing validity evidence. Two authors independently abstracted 30 % of articles and agreement was calculated. Of 12,922 citations, 178 articles describing 73 unique teamwork assessment tools met inclusion criteria. Interrater agreement was intraclass correlation coefficient 0.73 (95 % CI 0.63-0.81). Studies involved practicing physicians (142, 80 %), residents/fellows (70, 39 %), and medical students (11, 6 %). The majority (152, 85 %) assessed interprofessional teams. Studies were conducted in inpatient (77, 43 %), outpatient (42, 24 %), simulation (37, 21 %), and classroom (13, 7 %) settings. Validity evidence for the 73 tools included content (54, 74 %), internal structure (51, 70 %), relationships to other variables (25, 34 %), and response process (12, 16 %). Attitudes and opinions were the most frequently assessed outcomes. Relationships between teamwork scores and patient outcomes were directly examined for 13 (18 %) of tools. Scores from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire and Team Climate Inventory have substantial validity evidence and have been associated with improved patient outcomes. Review is limited to quantitative assessments of teamwork in internal

  20. Expert validation of a teamwork assessment rubric: A modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parratt, Jenny A; Fahy, Kathleen M; Hutchinson, Marie; Lohmann, Gui; Hastie, Carolyn R; Chaseling, Marilyn; O'Brien, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork is a 'soft skill' employability competence desired by employers. Poor teamwork skills in healthcare have an impact on adverse outcomes. Teamwork skills are rarely the focus of teaching and assessment in undergraduate courses. The TeamUP Rubric is a tool used to teach and evaluate undergraduate students' teamwork skills. Students also use the rubric to give anonymised peer feedback during team-based academic assignments. The rubric's five domains focus on planning, environment, facilitation, conflict management and individual contribution; each domain is grounded in relevant theory. Students earn marks for their teamwork skills; validity of the assessment rubric is critical. To what extent do experts agree that the TeamUP Rubric is a valid assessment of 'teamwork skills'? Modified Delphi technique incorporating Feminist Collaborative Conversations. A heterogeneous panel of 35 professionals with recognised expertise in communications and/or teamwork. Three Delphi rounds using a survey that included the rubric were conducted either face-to-face, by telephone or online. Quantitative analysis yielded item content validity indices (I-CVI); minimum consensus was pre-set at 70%. An average of the I-CVI also yielded sub-scale (domain) (D-CVI/Ave) and scale content validity indices (S-CVI/Ave). After each Delphi round, qualitative data were analysed and interpreted; Feminist Collaborative Conversations by the research team aimed to clarify and confirm consensus about the wording of items on the rubric. Consensus (at 70%) was obtained for all but one behavioural descriptor of the rubric. We modified that descriptor to address expert concerns. The TeamUP Rubric (Version 4) can be considered to be well validated at that level of consensus. The final rubric reflects underpinning theory, with no areas of conceptual overlap between rubric domains. The final TeamUP Rubric arising from this study validly measures individual student teamwork skills and can be used with

  1. Norwegian nursing and medical students’ perception of interprofessional teamwork: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Ingunn; Hansen, Britt Sætre; Aase, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Originally published in BMC Medical education; http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6920/14/170/. Background: Little is known about the ways in which nursing and medical students perceive and understand their roles in interprofessional teamwork. A 2010 report by the World Health Organization highlights the importance of students’ understanding of teamwork in healthcare, and their ability to be effective team players. This study aims at describing nursing and medical students’ percept...

  2. “Systemic approach to teamwork - a model for team building”

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolova, Elena; Gogova Samonikov, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Today in the global economy the importance of teamwork in the workplace receives significant attention. Teamwork is not only important, it is essential, especially for the companies that are part of the international business - they produce at one continent at the moment, then a few days later deliver the goods to the customers to another. The focus of this paper is the analysis of the team building process, regardless of the purpose or the task the teams perform. The main objective is t...

  3. The Intensification of Work in Spain (2007-2011: Teamwork and Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teamwork

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyse the relationship between the intensification of work and organizational flexibility. Specifically, we focus on teamwork, considered as an emblematic organizational strategy of flexible and efficient organizations. The relationship between teamwork, intensity of work and stress is examined using data from Spain's National Survey on Working Conditions. Based on the results, we propose that analysis of the intensity of work be incorporated into social dialogue and the prevention of occupational risks.

  4. Collaborative testing: assessing teamwork and critical thinking behaviors in baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Carol M

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to foster teamwork and critical thinking behaviors in baccalaureate nursing students using a collaborative testing environment. Collaborative testing affords the nurse educator a unique opportunity to actively influence the development of critical thinking skills directly influencing the nursing student's ability to solve complex patient problems. Using a quasi-experimental approach exam scores from students in prior semesters were compared to students in several semesters using collaborative testing in one undergraduate course taught by the same faculty. In the experimental group collaborative testing was used in the two unit examinations, while the final examination remained individual. For collaborative testing the students were grouped by random assignment. They were not allowed the use of notes, textbooks, or other resource materials. Any student who wished to work alone was allowed do so and any student coming late (within 15 min of examination beginning) was required to work alone. Each student submitted individual examination answer forms, and groups were not required to reach consensus. Collaborative testing is one means to foster critical thinking by allowing students to solve complex patient problems within an examination environment. This better prepares them for national certification exams. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Are Neurodynamic Organizations A Fundamental Property of Teamwork?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald H. Stevens

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When performing a task it is important for teams to optimize their strategies and actions to maximize value and avoid the cost of surprise. The decisions teams make sometimes have unintended consequences and they must then reorganize their thinking, roles and/or configuration into corrective structures more appropriate for the situation. In this study we ask: What are the neurodynamic properties of these reorganizations and how do they relate to the moment-by-moment, and longer, performance-outcomes of teams?. We describe an information-organization approach for detecting and quantitating the fluctuating neurodynamic organizations in teams. Neurodynamic organization is the propensity of team members to enter into prolonged (minutes metastable neurodynamic relationships as they encounter and resolve disturbances to their normal rhythms. Team neurodynamic organizations were detected and modeled by transforming the physical units of each team member's EEG power levels into Shannon entropy-derived information units about the team's organization and synchronization. Entropy is a measure of the variability or uncertainty of information in a data stream. This physical unit to information unit transformation bridges micro level social coordination events with macro level expert observations of team behavior allowing multimodal comparisons across the neural, cognitive and behavioral time scales of teamwork. The measures included the entropy of each team member's data stream, the overall team entropy and the mutual information between dyad pairs of the team. Mutual information can be thought of as periods related to team member synchrony. Comparisons between individual entropy and mutual information levels for the dyad combinations of three-person teams provided quantitative estimates of the proportion of a person's neurodynamic organizations that represented periods of synchrony with other team members, which in aggregate provided measures of the overall

  6. Are Neurodynamic Organizations A Fundamental Property of Teamwork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ronald H.; Galloway, Trysha L.

    2017-01-01

    When performing a task it is important for teams to optimize their strategies and actions to maximize value and avoid the cost of surprise. The decisions teams make sometimes have unintended consequences and they must then reorganize their thinking, roles and/or configuration into corrective structures more appropriate for the situation. In this study we ask: What are the neurodynamic properties of these reorganizations and how do they relate to the moment-by-moment, and longer, performance-outcomes of teams?. We describe an information-organization approach for detecting and quantitating the fluctuating neurodynamic organizations in teams. Neurodynamic organization is the propensity of team members to enter into prolonged (minutes) metastable neurodynamic relationships as they encounter and resolve disturbances to their normal rhythms. Team neurodynamic organizations were detected and modeled by transforming the physical units of each team member's EEG power levels into Shannon entropy-derived information units about the team's organization and synchronization. Entropy is a measure of the variability or uncertainty of information in a data stream. This physical unit to information unit transformation bridges micro level social coordination events with macro level expert observations of team behavior allowing multimodal comparisons across the neural, cognitive and behavioral time scales of teamwork. The measures included the entropy of each team member's data stream, the overall team entropy and the mutual information between dyad pairs of the team. Mutual information can be thought of as periods related to team member synchrony. Comparisons between individual entropy and mutual information levels for the dyad combinations of three-person teams provided quantitative estimates of the proportion of a person's neurodynamic organizations that represented periods of synchrony with other team members, which in aggregate provided measures of the overall degree of

  7. Development of the assessment method for the idealized images of teams. Investigation on the teamwork in emergency response situation (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Since the occurrence of the Tohoku Pacific Earthquake and the nuclear disaster in 2011, the strengthening of emergency response training has been emphasized in Japanese electric industries. When disasters and accidents occur in a nuclear power plant, workers should collaborate with each other to mitigate possible hazards and to recovery from emergencies, as self-effort is not sufficient in these times. Effective teamwork is essential for the success of emergency response. However, the aspects of teamwork that are required in emergencies remain unclear. This study developed a questionnaire instrument to assess the idealized image of effective power plant operator teams in three different levels of emergencies. A pilot test of the instrument was conducted with 21 training instructors who are subject-matter experts in nuclear power plant operation. In the questionnaire, three hypothetical situations of differing emergency levels were presented: 'normal' (routine operation), 'abnormal' (trouble shooting and malfunction correction), 'emergency' (severe accident and disaster response). The idealized image of teams in each situation was also assessed in four aspects: 'decision-making', 'coordination', 'adaptation and adjustment', and 'command and control'. Questionnaire responses were summarized in a profile form to picture the idealized images, ant the profile scores in each situation were compared. Results suggested that, the idealized image of effective teams is different depending on the level of emergency. The Implications of results for training and future research directions are discussed. (author)

  8. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  9. Boundary spanning by nurse managers: effects of managers' characteristics and scope of responsibility on teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Raquel M; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Doran, Diane; Streiner, David; Ferguson-Paré, Mary; Duffield, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Increasing role complexity has intensified the work of managers in supporting healthcare teams. This study examined the influence of front-line managers' characteristics and scope of responsibility on teamwork. Scope of responsibility considers the breadth of the manager's role. A descriptive, correlational design was used to collect cross-sectional survey and administrative data in four acute care hospitals. A convenience sample of 754 staff completed the Relational Coordination Scale as a measure of teamwork that focuses on the quality of communication and relationships. Nurses (73.9%), allied health professionals (14.7%) and unregulated staff (11.7%) worked in 54 clinical areas, clustered under 30 front-line managers. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modelling. Leadership practices, clinical support roles and compressed operational hours had positive effects on teamwork. Numbers of non-direct report staff and areas assigned had negative effects on teamwork. Teamwork did not vary by span, managerial experience, worked hours, occupational diversity or proportion of full-time employees. Large, acute care teaching hospitals can enable managers to foster teamwork by enhancing managers' leadership practices, redesigning the flow or reporting structure for non-direct reports, optimizing managerial hours relative to operational hours, allocating clinical support roles, reducing number of areas assigned and, potentially, introducing co-manager models. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  10. The relationships between safety climate, teamwork, and intent to stay at work among Jordanian hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualrub, Raeda F; Gharaibeh, Huda F; Bashayreh, Alaa Eddin I

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationships among safety climate, teamwork, and intent to stay at work as perceived by Jordanian hospital nurses. A descriptive correlational design was used to investigate these relationships among a convenience sample of 381 hospital nurses. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire that included the Safety Climate and Teamwork Scale and the McCain's Intent to Stay Scale. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance, and hierarchical regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The findings showed (a) a strong positive correlation between safety climate and teamwork; and (b) moderate positive correlations between safety climate and intent to stay at work, and between teamwork and intent to stay at work. Moreover, the overall model of hierarchical regression showed that 45% of the variation in the level of intent to stay at work was explained by background variables, leadership styles, decision-making styles, and safety climate. The findings emphasized the positive effect of safety climate and teamwork on the level of nurses' intent to stay. Nurse administrators should design and implement strategies that create a culture of safety climate and teamwork in their organizations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Teamwork - general practitioners and practice nurses working together in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Mary P; Raymont, Antony

    2012-06-01

    Teamwork in primary health care has been encouraged in New Zealand and in the international literature. It may improve work satisfaction for staff, and satisfaction and outcomes for patients. Teamwork may be classified as being multi-, inter- or transdisciplinary and is likely to be influenced by the nature of the work and the organisational context. To describe and analyse teamwork between general practitioners and practice nurses in New Zealand. Data were drawn from a survey of general practices and from interviews with primary health care staff and management. Doctors and nurses in general practice in New Zealand see themselves as a team. Evidence suggests that the nature of the work and the business context most often leads to a multidisciplinary style of teamwork. Some providers have adopted a more intense teamwork approach, often when serving more disadvantaged populations or in caring for those with chronic illnesses. Concepts of teamwork differ. This article provides a classification of teams and suggests that most general practice teams are multidisciplinary. It is hoped that this will help personnel to communicate their expectations of a team and encourage progressive team development where it would be of value.

  12. The Impact of Visibility on Teamwork, Collaborative Communication, and Security in Emergency Departments: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaveis, Arsalan; Hamilton, D Kirk; Pati, Debajyoti; Shepley, Mardelle

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of visibility on teamwork, collaborative communication, and security issues in emergency departments (EDs). This research explored whether with high visibility in EDs, teamwork and collaborative communication can be improved while the security issues will be reduced. Visibility has been regarded as a critical design consideration and can be directly and considerably impacted by ED's physical design. Teamwork is one of the major related operational outcomes of visibility and involves nurses, support staff, and physicians. The collaborative communication in an ED is another important factor in the process of care delivery and affects efficiency and safety. Furthermore, security is a behavioral factor in ED designs, which includes all types of safety including staff safety, patient safety, and the safety of visitors and family members. This qualitative study investigated the impact of visibility on teamwork, collaborative communication, and security issues in the ED. One-on-one interviews and on-site observation sessions were conducted in a community hospital. Corresponding data analysis was implemented by using computer plan analysis, observation and interview content, and theme analyses. The findings of this exploratory study provided a framework to identify visibility as an influential factor in ED design. High levels of visibility impact productivity and efficiency of teamwork and communication and improve the chance of lowering security issues. The findings of this study also contribute to the general body of knowledge about the effect of physical design on teamwork, collaborative communication, and security.

  13. Improving non-technical skills (teamwork) in post-partum haemorrhage: A grouped randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Pippa M; Duffy, Shane P; Phillips, Dan

    2017-10-01

    To determine the effect of a decision support technology on teamwork and associated non-technical (NTS) and technical skills when teams manage post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) in the simulated environment. Multidisciplinary (MDT) maternity teams were taught how to manage post partum haemorrhage. They were randomised to the intervention: using a decision support mobile digital platform or a control group. Each team managed a post-partum simulation, which was recorded and reviewed by assessors. Primary outcome measures to assess teams NTS were the validated Global Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance (GAOTP) and Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS). Secondary outcome measures were the 'friends and family test', technical skills, and the System Usability Scale (SUS). Sample size estimation was calculated by using 80% power 5% significance two tailed test (p1=85% p2=40%) n=34. 38 teams from August 2014-February 2016, were recruited, technical issues with failure of recording equipment meant 4 teams were excluded from teamwork analysis (1 intervention 3 control). Teamwork improved across all domains with the intervention (using a decision support mobile digital platform) p teamwork by 25% using CTS and 22% using GAOTP. Fewer technical skills were missed with the intervention (pteamwork is often cited as the cause of failures in care and we report a usable technology that assists with and improves teamwork during an emergency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring Medical Housestaff Teamwork Performance Using Multiple Direct Observation Instruments: Comparing Apples and Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Saul N; Yaghi, Omar; Wetherell, Matthew; Sweeney, Megan

    2018-04-10

    To examine the composition and concordance of existing instruments used to assess medical teams' performance. A trained observer joined 20 internal medicine housestaff teams for morning work rounds at Tufts Medical Center, a 415-bed Boston teaching hospital, from October through December 2015. The observer rated each team's performance using 9 teamwork observation instruments that examined domains including team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. Observations recorded on paper forms were stored electronically. Scores were normalized from 1 (low) to 5 (high) to account for different rating scales. Overall mean scores were calculated and graphed; weighted scores adjusted for the number of items in each teamwork domain. Teamwork scores were analyzed using t-tests, pair-wise correlations, and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, and team performance was compared across instruments by domain. The 9 tools incorporated 5 major domains, with 5-35 items per instrument for a total of 161 items per observation session. In weighted and unweighted analyses, the overall teamwork performance score for a given team on a given day varied by instrument. While all of the tools identified the same low outlier, high performers on some instruments were low performers on others. Inconsistent scores for a given team across instruments persisted in domain-level analyses. There was substantial variation in the rating of individual teams assessed concurrently by a single observer using multiple instruments. Since existing teamwork observation tools do not yield concordant assessments, researchers should create better tools for measuring teamwork performance.

  15. Learning collaborative teamwork: an argument for incorporating the humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Pippa; Brajtman, Susan; Weaver, Lynda; Grassau, Pamela Anne; Varpio, Lara

    2014-11-01

    A holistic, collaborative interprofessional team approach, which includes patients and families as significant decision-making members, has been proposed to address the increasing burden being placed on the health-care system. This project hypothesized that learning activities related to the humanities during clinical placements could enhance interprofessional teamwork. Through an interprofessional team of faculty, clinical staff, students, and patient representatives, we developed and piloted the self-learning module, "interprofessional education for collaborative person-centred practice through the humanities". The module was designed to provide learners from different professions and educational levels with a clinical placement/residency experience that would enable them, through a lens of the humanities, to better understand interprofessional collaborative person-centred care without structured interprofessional placement activities. Learners reported the self-paced and self-directed module to be a satisfactory learning experience in all four areas of care at our institution, and certain attitudes and knowledge were significantly and positively affected. The module's evaluation resulted in a revised edition providing improved structure and instruction for students with no experience in self-directed learning. The module was recently adapted into an interactive bilingual (French and English) online e-learning module to facilitate its integration into the pre-licensure curriculum at colleges and universities.

  16. On teams, teamwork, and team performance: discoveries and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Eduardo; Cooke, Nancy J; Rosen, Michael A

    2008-06-01

    We highlight some of the key discoveries and developments in the area of team performance over the past 50 years, especially as reflected in the pages of Human Factors. Teams increasingly have become a way of life in many organizations, and research has kept up with the pace. We have characterized progress in the field in terms of eight discoveries and five challenges. Discoveries pertain to the importance of shared cognition, the measurement of shared cognition, advances in team training, the use of synthetic task environments for research, factors influencing team effectiveness, models of team effectiveness, a multidisciplinary perspective, and training and technological interventions designed to improve team effectiveness. Challenges that are faced in the coming decades include an increased emphasis on team cognition; reconfigurable, adaptive teams; multicultural influences; and the need for naturalistic study and better measurement. Work in human factors has contributed significantly to the science and practice of teams, teamwork, and team performance. Future work must keep pace with the increasing use of teams in organizations. The science of teams contributes to team effectiveness in the same way that the science of individual performance contributes to individual effectiveness.

  17. Understanding interdisciplinary health care teams: using simulation design processes from the Air Carrier Advanced Qualification Program to identify and train critical teamwork skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, William R; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M; Beaubien, Jeffrey M

    2010-09-01

    In the report "Five Years After 'To Err is Human' ", it was noted that "the combination of complexity, professional fragmentation, and a tradition of individualism, enhanced by a well-entrenched hierarchical authority structure and diffuse accountability, forms a daunting barrier to creating the habits and beliefs of common purpose, teamwork, and individual accountability for successful interdependence that a safe culture requires". Training physicians, nurses, and other professionals to work in teams is a concept that has been promoted by many patient safety experts. However the model of teamwork in healthcare is diffusely defined, no clear performance metrics have been established, and the use of simulation to train teams has been suboptimal. This paper reports on the first three years of work performed in the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) Tri-Corridor life science grant to apply concepts and processes of simulation design that were developed in the air carrier industry to understand and train healthcare teams. This work has been monitored by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAA) and is based on concepts designed in the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) from the air carrier industry, which trains and assesses teamwork skills in the same manner as technical skills. This grant has formed the foundation for the Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Research (CESR).

  18. Narrative in interprofessional education and practice: implications for professional identity, provider-patient communication and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2014-01-01

    Health and social care professionals increasingly use narrative approaches to focus on the patient and to communicate with each other. Both effective interprofessional education (IPE) and practice (IPP) require recognizing the various values and voices of different professions, how they relate to the patient's life story, and how they interact with each other at the level of the healthcare team. This article analyzes and integrates the literature on narrative to explore: self-narrative as an expression of one's professional identity; the co-creation of the patient's narrative by the professional and the patient; and the interprofessional multi-vocal narrative discourse as co-constructed by members of the healthcare team. Using a narrative approach to thinking about professional identity, provider-patient communication, and interprofessional teamwork expands our thinking about both IPE and IPP by providing new insights into the nature of professional practice based on relationships to oneself, the patient, and others on the team. How professionals define themselves, gather and present information from the patient, and communicate as members of a clinical team all have important dimensions that can be revealed by a narrative approach. Implications and conclusions for the further development of the narrative approach in IPE and IPP are offered.

  19. [Hospital-based acute care of emergency patients: the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräff, I; Lenkeit, S

    2014-10-01

    The care of emergency patients with life-threatening injuries or diseases presents a special challenge to the treatment team. Good interdisciplinary cooperation is essential for fast, priority-oriented, and efficient emergency room management. Particularly in complex situations, such as trauma room care, so-called human factors largely determine the safety and performance of the individual as well as the team. Approximately 70 % of all adverse events stem from human factors rather than from a lack of medical expertise. It has been shown that 70-80 % of such incidents are preventable through special training. Established course concepts based on so-called ABCDE schemes are a good basis for creating algorithms for targeted therapy, yet they are not sufficient for the training of team-specific issues. For this, special course concepts are required, such as crew resource management, which is provided through simulator-based training scenarios. This includes task management, teamwork, decision-making, and communication. The knowledge of what needs to be done in a team under the adverse and complex conditions of a medical emergency must be gained by training based on realistic and effective measures. Course concepts that are geared toward interdisciplinary and interprofessional team training optimize patient safety and care by supporting the nontechnical abilities of team members.

  20. Learning together in practice: an interprofessional education programme to appreciate teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth Susan; Thorpe, Lucy

    2010-03-01

    the paper reports on the first 100 students who completed ward-based interprofessional learning using the Leicester Model of Interprofessional Education. Pre-registration health and social care students were placed in small groups (n = 2-5) to learn together on a care of the elderly ward. The students cared for one in-patient to analyse the care package and the contributions of all members of the ward clinical team. At the end of the week the student team presented their patient case to the ward team offering solutions to problems in an interactive feedback session. a multi-method evaluation aimed to assess the impact of the learning. Tutors completed a post-course questionnaire. the results confirmed that the learning was worthwhile. Students learned about related policy, patient involvement in discharge, the roles and responsibilities of team members in care delivery, the importance of effective communication, the complexity of teamworking and team decisions on discharge. They highlighted the added benefit of learning interprofessionally. All tutors saw the value of the interprofessional learning and welcomed student feedback which could be used to improve patient care. Clinicians had to balance clinical work and teaching. interprofessional learning in clinical areas requires effective models which engage students and ward teams. The Leicester Model can be applied in hospital settings to establish student team learning that is experiential, reflective and contributes to improving the quality of patient care. Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  1. Radiological environmental monitoring program for Angra I: basis and methodology proposed for executing the requirements of the regulatory member and to assure the population safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Dezordi, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented, applyed to Angra-1, a methodology for implanting the monitoring program of the vicinity level radiation exposure to the installation. The method considers two kinds of radioactive effluents in the environment: gaseous (in the atmosphere) and liquid (in the marine aquatic environment). It is based on the generation and ordering of the important relation: radiation exposure pathway/radionuclide group. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Relationship of organizational culture, teamwork and job satisfaction in interprofessional teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Mirjam; Wirtz, Markus A; Bengel, Jürgen; Göritz, Anja S

    2015-06-23

    Team effectiveness is often explained on the basis of input-process-output (IPO) models. According to these models a relationship between organizational culture (input = I), interprofessional teamwork (process = P) and job satisfaction (output = O) is postulated. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between these three aspects using structural analysis. A multi-center cross-sectional study with a survey of 272 employees was conducted in fifteen rehabilitation clinics with different indication fields in Germany. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was carried out using AMOS software version 20.0 (maximum-likelihood method). Of 661 questionnaires sent out to members of the health care teams in the medical rehabilitation clinics, 275 were returned (41.6%). Three questionnaires were excluded (missing data greater than 30%), yielding a total of 272 employees that could be analyzed. The confirmatory models were supported by the data. The results showed that 35% of job satisfaction is predicted by a structural equation model that includes both organizational culture and teamwork. The comparison of this predictive IPO model (organizational culture (I), interprofessional teamwork (P), job satisfaction (O)) and the predictive IO model (organizational culture (I), job satisfaction (O)) showed that the effect of organizational culture is completely mediated by interprofessional teamwork. The global fit indices are a little better for the IO model (TLI: .967, CFI: .972, RMSEA .052) than for the IPO model (TLI: .934, CFI: .943, RMSEA: .61), but the prediction of job satisfaction is better in the IPO model (R(2) = 35%) than in the IO model (R(2) = 24%). Our study results underpin the importance of interprofessional teamwork in health care organizations. To enhance interprofessional teamwork, team interventions can be recommended and should be supported. Further studies investigating the organizational culture and its impact on interprofessional

  3. Study on team evaluation (6). Relationships among technical skill proficiency, leadership, and teamwork behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Ryo; Sasou, Kunihide

    2011-01-01

    To maintain and improve the efficiency and safety of operations in numerous industries, it is necessary to develop programs that enhance teamwork. This can be achieved through empirical investigations that identify influential factors contributing to teamwork. This study focused on technical skill proficiency and leadership as influential factors and examined the relationships among these factors and teamwork behaviors. A series of measurements was performed on 54 operations teams with the cooperation of the training center of thermal power plants. Teamwork behaviors in training under simulated abnormal conditions were evaluated through instructors' observation using a behavior checklist. Technical skill proficiency was measured by conducting a brief survey on instructors. Leadership was measured on the basis of followers' responses on questionnaire scales. Based on the scores of technical skill proficiency and leadership, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three types of teams: (a) F-type - the technical skills of followers are superior to those of leaders; (b) LF-type - both leaders and followers are proficient in technical skills; and (c) L-type - the technical skills of leaders are superior to those of followers. ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences in teamwork behavior for the three types of teams. The main results revealed that LF-type teams actively engaged in information gathering and that leaders played a central role in these activities. In addition, the followers of F-type teams freely exchanged their ideas and opinions regarding problems and actively discussed how to solve them. These findings suggest that teamwork behaviors can vary depending on technical skill proficiency and leadership in teams. Future research is needed to identify additional factors affecting teamwork that are not measured in this study. (author)

  4. Teamwork skills, shared mental models, and performance in simulated trauma teams: an independent group design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westli Heidi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-technical skills are seen as an important contributor to reducing adverse events and improving medical management in healthcare teams. Previous research on the effectiveness of teams has suggested that shared mental models facilitate coordination and team performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether demonstrated teamwork skills and behaviour indicating shared mental models would be associated with observed improved medical management in trauma team simulations. Methods Revised versions of the 'Anesthetists' Non-Technical Skills Behavioural marker system' and 'Anti-Air Teamwork Observation Measure' were field tested in moment-to-moment observation of 27 trauma team simulations in Norwegian hospitals. Independent subject matter experts rated medical management in the teams. An independent group design was used to explore differences in teamwork skills between higher-performing and lower-performing teams. Results Specific teamwork skills and behavioural markers were associated with indicators of good team performance. Higher and lower-performing teams differed in information exchange, supporting behaviour and communication, with higher performing teams showing more effective information exchange and communication, and less supporting behaviours. Behavioural markers of shared mental models predicted effective medical management better than teamwork skills. Conclusions The present study replicates and extends previous research by providing new empirical evidence of the significance of specific teamwork skills and a shared mental model for the effective medical management of trauma teams. In addition, the study underlines the generic nature of teamwork skills by demonstrating their transferability from different clinical simulations like the anaesthesia environment to trauma care, as well as the potential usefulness of behavioural frequency analysis in future research on non-technical skills.

  5. TeamSTEPPS for health care risk managers: Improving teamwork and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Marcia

    2016-07-01

    Ineffective communication among the health care team is a leading cause of errors in the patient care setting. Studies assessing training related to communication and teamwork in the clinical team are prevalent, however, teamwork training at the administrative level is lacking. This includes individuals in leadership positions such as health care risk managers. The purpose was to determine the impact of an educational intervention on the knowledge and attitudes related to communication and teamwork in the health care risk management population. The educational intervention was an adaptation of a national teamwork training program and incorporated didactic content as well as video vignettes and small group activities. Measurement of knowledge and attitudes were used to determine the impact of the education program. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed pre- and postcourse. Findings indicate that teamwork education tailored to the needs of the specific audience resulted in knowledge gained and improved attitudes toward the components of teamwork. The attitudes that most significantly improved were related to team structure and situation monitoring. There was no improvement in participants' attitudes toward leadership, mutual support, and communication. Team training has been shown to improve safety culture, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. Including risk managers in training on teamwork, communication, and collaboration can serve to foster a common language among clinicians and management. In addition, a measurement related to implementation in the health care setting may yield insight into the impact of training. Qualitative measurement may allow the researcher to delve deeper into how these health care facilities are using team training interventions. © 2016 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  6. Dimensions and intensity of inter-professional teamwork in primary care: evidence from five international jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Harris, Mark F; Scott, Cathie; Crabtree, Benjamin; Miller, William; Halma, Lisa M; Hogg, William E; Weenink, Jan-Willem; Advocat, Jenny R; Gunn, Jane; Russell, Grant

    2017-10-23

    Inter-professional teamwork in primary care settings offers potential benefits for responding to the increasing complexity of patients' needs. While it is a central element in many reforms to primary care delivery, implementing inter-professional teamwork has proven to be more challenging than anticipated. The objective of this study was to better understand the dimensions and intensity of teamwork and the developmental process involved in creating fully integrated teams. Secondary analyses of qualitative and quantitative data from completed studies conducted in Australia, Canada and USA. Case studies and matrices were used, along with face-to-face group retreats, using a Collaborative Reflexive Deliberative Approach. Four dimensions of teamwork were identified. The structural dimension relates to human resources and mechanisms implemented to create the foundations for teamwork. The operational dimension relates to the activities and programs conducted as part of the team's production of services. The relational dimension relates to the relationships and interactions occurring in the team. Finally, the functional dimension relates to definitions of roles and responsibilities aimed at coordinating the team's activities as well as to the shared vision, objectives and developmental activities aimed at ensuring the long-term cohesion of the team. There was a high degree of variation in the way the dimensions were addressed by reforms across the national contexts. The framework enables a clearer understanding of the incremental and iterative aspects that relate to higher achievement of teamwork. Future reforms of primary care need to address higher-level dimensions of teamwork to achieve its expected outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Fuel rod analysis to respond to high burnup and demanding loading requirements. Probabilistic methodology recovers design margins narrowed by degrading fuel thermal conductivity and progressing FGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, R; Heins, L; Sontheimer, F [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The proof that fuel rods will safely withstand all loads arising from inpile service conditions is generally achieved through the assessment of a number of design criteria by using a conservative analysis methodology in conjunction with design limits ``on the safe side``. The classical approach is the application of a fuel rod code to the Worst Case which is defined by the combination of most unfavorable conditions and assumptions with respect to the criterion under consideration. As it is evident that the deterministic construction of such Worst Cases imply an (unknown but) intuitively very high degree of conservatism, it is not surprising that this will develop to cause problems the more demanding fuel insertion conditions have to be anticipated (increased burnup, high efficiency loading schemes, etc.). A certain relief can be gained form cautious revisions of single design limits based on grown performance experience. But this increase of knowledge allows as well to change the established deterministic ``go/no-go`` conception into a better differentiating assessment methodology by which the quantification of the implied conservatism and the remaining design margins is possible: the Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM). Principles and elements of the PDM are described. An essential prerequisite is a best-estimate fuel rod code which incorporates the latest state of knowledge about potential performance limiting phenomena (e.g. burnup degradation of fuel oxide thermal conductivity) as Siemens/KWU`s CARO-E does. An example is given how input distributions for rod data and model parameters transfer into a frequency distribution of maximum rod internal pressure, and indications are given how this is to be interpreted in view of a probabilistically re-formulated design criterion. The PDM provides a realistic conservative assessment of design criteria and will thus recover design margins for increasingly aggravated loading conditions. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  8. Fuel rod analysis to respond to high burnup and demanding loading requirements. Probabilistic methodology recovers design margins narrowed by degrading fuel thermal conductivity and progressing FGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, R.; Heins, L.; Sontheimer, F.

    1997-01-01

    The proof that fuel rods will safely withstand all loads arising from inpile service conditions is generally achieved through the assessment of a number of design criteria by using a conservative analysis methodology in conjunction with design limits ''on the safe side''. The classical approach is the application of a fuel rod code to the Worst Case which is defined by the combination of most unfavorable conditions and assumptions with respect to the criterion under consideration. As it is evident that the deterministic construction of such Worst Cases imply an (unknown but) intuitively very high degree of conservatism, it is not surprising that this will develop to cause problems the more demanding fuel insertion conditions have to be anticipated (increased burnup, high efficiency loading schemes, etc.). A certain relief can be gained form cautious revisions of single design limits based on grown performance experience. But this increase of knowledge allows as well to change the established deterministic ''go/no-go'' conception into a better differentiating assessment methodology by which the quantification of the implied conservatism and the remaining design margins is possible: the Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM). Principles and elements of the PDM are described. An essential prerequisite is a best-estimate fuel rod code which incorporates the latest state of knowledge about potential performance limiting phenomena (e.g. burnup degradation of fuel oxide thermal conductivity) as Siemens/KWU's CARO-E does. An example is given how input distributions for rod data and model parameters transfer into a frequency distribution of maximum rod internal pressure, and indications are given how this is to be interpreted in view of a probabilistically re-formulated design criterion. The PDM provides a realistic conservative assessment of design criteria and will thus recover design margins for increasingly aggravated loading conditions. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Managing emergencies and abnormal situations in air traffic control (part II): teamwork strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakis, Stathis; Kontogiannis, Tom; Kirwan, Barry

    2010-07-01

    Team performance has been studied in many safety-critical organizations including aviation, nuclear power plant, offshore oil platforms and health organizations. This study looks into teamwork strategies that air traffic controllers employ to manage emergencies and abnormal situations. Two field studies were carried out in the form of observations of simulator training in emergency and unusual scenarios of novices and experienced controllers. Teamwork strategies covered aspects of team orientation and coordination, information exchange, change management and error handling. Several performance metrics were used to rate the efficiency of teamwork and test the construct validity of a prototype model of teamwork. This is a companion study to an earlier investigation of taskwork strategies in the same field (part I) and contributes to the development of a generic model for Taskwork and Teamwork strategies in Emergencies in Air traffic Management (T(2)EAM). Suggestions are made on how to use T(2)EAM to develop training programs, assess team performance and improve mishap investigations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of acute and chronic job demands on effective individual teamwork behaviour in medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Josette; van Erven, Pierre; de Jonge, Jan; Maas, Maaike; de Jong, Jos

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the combined effect of acute and chronic job demands on acute job strains experienced during medical emergencies, and its consequences for individual teamwork behaviour. Medical emergency personnel have to cope with high job demands, which may cause considerable work stress (i.e. job strains), particularly when both acute and chronic job demands are experienced to be high. This may interfere with effective individual teamwork behaviour. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2008, involving 48 members (doctors and nurses) of medical emergency teams working in the emergency department of a Dutch general hospital. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses. High acute job demands impeded effective teamwork behaviour, but only when they resulted in acute job strain. Acute emotional demands were more likely to result in acute job strain when chronic emotional job demands were also experienced as high. Although acute cognitive and physical strains were also detrimental, effective teamwork behaviour was particularly impeded by acute emotional strain. Acute job strains impair effective individual teamwork behaviour during medical emergencies, and there is urgent need to prevent or reduce a build-up of job strain from high acute and chronic demands, particularly of the emotional kind.

  11. A new tool to give hospitalists feedback to improve interprofessional teamwork and advance patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesluk, Benjamin J; Bernabeo, Elizabeth; Hess, Brian; Lynn, Lorna A; Reddy, Siddharta; Holmboe, Eric S

    2012-11-01

    Teamwork is a vital skill for health care professionals, but the fragmented systems within which they work frequently do not recognize or support good teamwork. The American Board of Internal Medicine has developed and is testing the Teamwork Effectiveness Assessment Module (TEAM), a tool for physicians to evaluate how they perform as part of an interprofessional patient care team. The assessment provides hospitalist physicians with feedback data drawn from their own work of caring for patients, in a way that is intended to support immediate, concrete change efforts to improve the quality of patient care. Our approach demonstrates the value of looking at teamwork in the real world of health care-that is, as it occurs in the actual contexts in which providers work together to care for patients. The assessment of individual physicians' teamwork competencies may play a role in the larger effort to bring disparate health professions together in a system that supports and rewards a team approach in hope of improving patient care.

  12. The role of teamwork and communication in the emergency department: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, Emily; Sheppard, Lorraine A

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a systematic review using international research to describe the role of teamwork and communication in the emergency department, and its relevance to physiotherapy practice in the emergency department. Searches were conducted of CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Cochrane, PEDro, Medline, Embase, Amed and PubMed. Selection criteria included full-text English language research papers related to teamwork and/or communication based directly in the emergency department, involvement of any profession in the emergency department, publication in peer-reviewed journals, and related to adult emergency services. Studies were appraised using a validated critical appraisal tool. Fourteen eligible studies, all of mid-range quality, were identified. They demonstrated high levels of staff satisfaction with teamwork training interventions and positive staff attitudes towards the importance of teamwork and communication. There is moderate evidence that the introduction of multidisciplinary teams to the ED may be successful in reducing access block, and physiotherapists may play a role in this. The need for teamwork and communication in the ED is paramount, and their roles are closely linked, with the common significant purposes of improving patient safety, reducing clinical errors, and reducing waiting times. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Norwegian nursing and medical students’ perception of interprofessional teamwork: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the ways in which nursing and medical students perceive and understand their roles in interprofessional teamwork. A 2010 report by the World Health Organization highlights the importance of students’ understanding of teamwork in healthcare, and their ability to be effective team players. This study aims at describing nursing and medical students’ perceptions of interprofessional teamwork, focusing on experiences and recommendations that can be used to guide future educational efforts. Methods The study uses a qualitative research design. Data were collected from four focus group interviews: two homogenous groups (one with medical students, one with nursing students) and two mixed groups (medical and nursing students). Results The results show that traditional patterns of professional role perception still prevail and strongly influence students’ professional attitudes about taking responsibility and sharing responsibility across disciplinary and professional boundaries. It was found that many students had experienced group cultures detrimental to team work. Focusing on clinical training, the study found a substantial variation in perception with regard to the different arenas for interprofessional teamwork, ranging from arenas with collaborative learning to arenas characterized by distrust, confrontation, disrespect and hierarchical structure. Conclusions This study underlines the importance of a stronger focus on interprofessional teamwork in health care education, particularly in clinical training. The study results suggest that the daily rounds and pre-visit “huddles,” or alternatively psychiatric wards, offer arenas suitable for interprofessional training, in keeping with the students’ assessments and criteria proposed in previous studies. PMID:25124090

  14. The Readiness of Students to Learn Interprofessional Teamwork in Antenatal Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Zakiyyatul Fuadah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indonesia as a developing country have a higher Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR. The prevention efforts is developing interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP in the level of health care. Collaboration attitudes should start from education level through interprofessional education training and simulation for student. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of interprofessional education training toward the readiness of students to learn interprofessional teamwork in antenatal care. Methods: Quasi-experimental design (pre test and post test without control with Time-Series Design. Participants used in this study were students of five semester in STIKes Karya Husada Kediri year of 2011/2012 and the number of samples are 60 students. Technique sampling using simple random. The data collected by used questionnaires Readiness Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS and checklist observations using Teamwork Score (TWS. Anova, Friedman test, and Kruskal Wallis was used to statistically analyzed the data. Results: Readiness to learn interprofessional teamwork indicates the value of p = 0.001 thats means there are significant differences between the readiness before and after training IPE. Delta test showed that p value > 0.05 so there is no difference between the three programs study on readiness to learn interprofessional teamwork in antenatal care. Discussion: Interprofessional education training using simulation methods can affect the readiness of nursing, midwifery and nutritionist students for learning interprofessional teamwork in antenatal care. Keywords: interprofessional education, readiness, training and simulations, pre clinics students, antenatal care.

  15. Norwegian nursing and medical students' perception of interprofessional teamwork: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aase, Ingunn; Hansen, Britt Sæthre; Aase, Karina

    2014-08-14

    Little is known about the ways in which nursing and medical students perceive and understand their roles in interprofessional teamwork. A 2010 report by the World Health Organization highlights the importance of students' understanding of teamwork in healthcare, and their ability to be effective team players. This study aims at describing nursing and medical students' perceptions of interprofessional teamwork, focusing on experiences and recommendations that can be used to guide future educational efforts. The study uses a qualitative research design. Data were collected from four focus group interviews: two homogenous groups (one with medical students, one with nursing students) and two mixed groups (medical and nursing students). The results show that traditional patterns of professional role perception still prevail and strongly influence students' professional attitudes about taking responsibility and sharing responsibility across disciplinary and professional boundaries. It was found that many students had experienced group cultures detrimental to team work. Focusing on clinical training, the study found a substantial variation in perception with regard to the different arenas for interprofessional teamwork, ranging from arenas with collaborative learning to arenas characterized by distrust, confrontation, disrespect and hierarchical structure. This study underlines the importance of a stronger focus on interprofessional teamwork in health care education, particularly in clinical training. The study results suggest that the daily rounds and pre-visit "huddles," or alternatively psychiatric wards, offer arenas suitable for interprofessional training, in keeping with the students' assessments and criteria proposed in previous studies.

  16. The influence of personality and ability on undergraduate teamwork and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jinny; Parent, David; Basu, Anuradha

    2013-12-01

    The ability to work effectively on a team is highly valued by employers, and collaboration among students can lead to intrinsic motivation, increased persistence, and greater transferability of skills. Moreover, innovation often arises from multidisciplinary teamwork. The influence of personality and ability on undergraduate teamwork and performance is not comprehensively understood. An investigation was undertaken to explore correlations between team outcomes, personality measures and ability in an undergraduate population. Team outcomes included various self-, peer- and instructor ratings of skills, performance, and experience. Personality measures and ability involved the Five-Factor Model personality traits and GPA. Personality, GPA, and teamwork survey data, as well as instructor evaluations were collected from upper division team project courses in engineering, business, political science, and industrial design at a large public university. Characteristics of a multidisciplinary student team project were briefly examined. Personality, in terms of extraversion scores, was positively correlated with instructors' assessment of team performance in terms of oral and written presentation scores, which is consistent with prior research. Other correlations to instructor-, students' self- and peer-ratings were revealed and merit further study. The findings in this study can be used to understand important influences on successful teamwork, teamwork instruction and intervention and to understand the design of effective curricula in this area moving forward. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-16) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  17. Valuing teamwork: Insights from newly-registered nurses working in specialist mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Mannix, Judy; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Jackson, Debra

    2011-12-01

    In this qualitative study, the experiences of a small cohort of registered nurses (RN) during the first 2 years of mental health employment were documented. A total of 13 semistructured interviews were completed from within a specialist mental health setting. Eleven issues were identified: (i) teamwork; (ii) experiential learning; (iii) self-development; (iv) confidence; (v) listening; (vi) rapport; (vii) keen observation; (viii) patience; (ix) empathy; (x) learning from colleagues; and (xi) maintaining a positive approach towards patients. The nurses focused on the here-and-now circumstances, rather than on future plans, or past preparation, and were able to elucidate the qualities and skills that they brought to their clinical work. Participants were most proud of achievements that bridged the personal and professional, such as self-development, working closely with patients to develop rapport, experiential learning, and teamwork. Findings highlight the importance of teamwork to newly-graduated RN entering the mental health environment. It is known that teamwork can convey a sense of belonging and help create an environment in which applied experiential clinical learning can occur. Therefore, it is important that efforts are made to facilitate team building and opportunities for teamwork when new graduates are transitioning into the mental health clinical practice environment. © 2011 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  18. Attitudes to teamwork and safety among Italian surgeons and operating room nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that surgical team members' attitudes about safety and teamwork in the operating theatre may play a role in patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess attitudes about teamwork and safety among Italian surgeons and operating room nurses. Fifty-five surgeons and 48 operating room nurses working in operating theatres at one hospital in Italy completed the Operating Room Management Attitudes Questionnaire (ORMAQ). Results showed several discrepancies in attitudes about teamwork and safety between surgeons and operating room nurses. Surgeons had more positive views on the quality of surgical leadership, communication, teamwork, and organizational climate in the theatre than operating room nurses. Operating room nurses reported that safety rules and procedures were more frequently disregarded than the surgeons. The results are only partially aligned with previous ORMAQ surveys of surgical teams in other countries. The differences emphasize the influence of national culture, as well as the particular healthcare system. This study shows discrepancies on many aspects in attitudes to teamwork and safety between surgeons and operating room nurses. The findings support implementation and use of team interventions and human factor training. Finally, attitude surveys provide a method for assessing safety culture in surgery, for evaluating the effectiveness of training initiatives, and for collecting data for a hospital's quality assurance programme.

  19. Improved scores for observed teamwork in the clinical environment following a multidisciplinary operating room simulation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Jennifer M; Cumin, David; Civil, Ian D; Torrie, Jane; Garden, Alexander; MacCormick, Andrew D; Gurusinghe, Nishanthi; Boyd, Matthew J; Frampton, Christopher; Cokorilo, Martina; Tranvik, Magnus; Carlsson, Lisa; Lee, Tracey; Ng, Wai Leap; Crossan, Michael; Merry, Alan F

    2016-08-05

    We ran a Multidisciplinary Operating Room Simulation (MORSim) course for 20 complete general surgical teams from two large metropolitan hospitals. Our goal was to improve teamwork and communication in the operating room (OR). We hypothesised that scores for teamwork and communication in the OR would improve back in the workplace following MORSim. We used an extended Behavioural Marker Risk Index (BMRI) to measure teamwork and communication, because a relationship has previously been documented between BMRI scores and surgical patient outcomes. Trained observers scored general surgical teams in the OR at the two study hospitals before and after MORSim, using the BMRI. Analysis of BMRI scores for the 224 general surgical cases before and 213 cases after MORSim showed BMRI scores improved by more than 20% (0.41 v 0.32, pteamwork score would translate into a clinically important reduction in complications and mortality in surgical patients. We demonstrated an improvement in scores for teamwork and communication in general surgical ORs following our intervention. These results support the use of simulation-based multidisciplinary team training for OR staff to promote better teamwork and communication, and potentially improve outcomes for general surgical patients.

  20. Qualitative evaluation of the implementation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool: a reflective tool to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork using Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Smith, Tony; Ariss, Steven; Enderby, Pamela M

    2015-07-01

    Reflective practice is used increasingly to enhance team functioning and service effectiveness; however, there is little evidence of its use in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool (IMT), an evidence-based change tool designed to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork through structured team reflection. The IMT incorporates three components: an evidence-based resource guide; a reflective implementation framework based on Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation methodology; and formative and summative evaluation components. The IMT was implemented with intermediate care teams supported by independent facilitators in England. Each intervention lasted 6 months and was evaluated over a 12-month period. Data sources include interviews, a focus group with facilitators, questionnaires completed by team members and documentary feedback from structured team reports. Data were analysed qualitatively using the Framework approach. The IMT was implemented with 10 teams, including 253 staff from more than 10 different disciplines. Team challenges included lack of clear vision; communication issues; limited career progression opportunities; inefficient resource use; need for role clarity and service development. The IMT successfully engaged staff in the change process, and resulted in teams developing creative strategies to address the issues identified. Participants valued dedicated time to focus on the processes of team functioning; however, some were uncomfortable with a focus on teamwork at the expense of delivering direct patient care. The IMT is a relatively low-cost, structured, reflective way to enhance team function. It empowers individuals to understand and value their own, and others' roles and responsibilities within the team; identify barriers to effective teamwork, and develop and implement appropriate solutions to these. To be successful, teams need protected time to take

  1. Teamwork training with nursing and medical students: does the method matter? Results of an interinstitutional, interdisciplinary collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobgood, Cherri; Sherwood, Gwen; Frush, Karen; Hollar, David; Maynard, Laura; Foster, Beverly; Sawning, Susan; Woodyard, Donald; Durham, Carol; Wright, Melanie; Taekman, Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    The authors conducted a randomised controlled trial of four pedagogical methods commonly used to deliver teamwork training and measured the effects of each method on the acquisition of student teamwork knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The authors recruited 203 senior nursing students and 235 fourth-year medical students (total N = 438) from two major universities for a 1-day interdisciplinary teamwork training course. All participants received a didactic lecture and then were randomly assigned to one of four educational methods didactic (control), audience response didactic, role play and human patient simulation. Student performance was assessed for teamwork attitudes, knowledge and skills using: (a) a 36-item teamwork attitudes instrument (CHIRP), (b) a 12-item teamwork knowledge test, (c) a 10-item standardised patient (SP) evaluation of student teamwork skills performance and (d) a 20-item modification of items from the Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale (MHPTS). All four cohorts demonstrated an improvement in attitudes (F(1,370) = 48.7, p = 0.001) and knowledge (F(1,353) = 87.3, p = 0.001) pre- to post-test. No educational modality appeared superior for attitude (F(3,370) = 0.325, p = 0.808) or knowledge (F(3,353) = 0.382, p = 0.766) acquisition. No modality demonstrated a significant change in teamwork skills (F(3,18) = 2.12, p = 0.134). Each of the four modalities demonstrated significantly improved teamwork knowledge and attitudes, but no modality was demonstrated to be superior. Institutions should feel free to utilise educational modalities, which are best supported by their resources to deliver interdisciplinary teamwork training.

  2. Interprofessional Simulations Promote Knowledge Retention and Enhance Perceptions of Teamwork Skills in a Surgical-Trauma-Burn Intensive Care Unit Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Katie L; Quatrara, Beth

    The current state of health care encompasses highly acute, complex patients, managed with ever-changing technology. The ability to function proficiently in critical care relies on knowledge, technical skills, and interprofessional teamwork. Integration of these factors can improve patient outcomes. Simulation provides "hands-on" practice and allows for the integration of teamwork into knowledge/skill training. However, simulation can require a significant investment of time, effort, and financial resources. The Institute of Medicine recommendations from 2015 include "strengthening the evidence base for interprofessional education (IPE)" and "linking IPE with changes in collaborative behavior." In one surgical-trauma-burn intensive care unit (STBICU), no IPE existed. The highly acute and diverse nature of the patients served by the unit highlights the importance of appropriate training. This is heightened during critical event situations where patients deteriorate rapidly and the team intervenes swiftly. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate knowledge retention and analyze changes in perceptions of teamwork among nurses and resident physicians in a STBICU setting after completion of an interprofessional critical event simulation and (2) provide insight for future interprofessional simulations (IPSs), including the ideal frequency of such training, associated cost, and potential effect on nursing turnover. A comparison-cohort pilot study was developed to evaluate knowledge retention and analyze changes in perceptions of teamwork. A 1-hour critical event IPS was held for nurses and resident physicians in a STBICU setting. A traumatic brain injury patient with elevated intracranial pressure, rapid deterioration, and cardiac arrest was utilized for the simulation scenario. The simulation required the team to use interventions to reduce elevated intracranial pressure and then perform cardiac resuscitation according to Advanced Cardiac Life Support guidelines. A

  3. NYU3T: teaching, technology, teamwork: a model for interprofessional education scalability and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Fulmer, Terry; Adams, Jennifer G; Lee, Sabrina; Triola, Marc M

    2012-09-01

    Interprofessional education is a critical precursor to effective teamwork and the collaboration of health care professionals in clinical settings. Numerous barriers have been identified that preclude scalable and sustainable interprofessional education (IPE) efforts. This article describes NYU3T: Teaching, Technology, Teamwork, a model that uses novel technologies such as Web-based learning, virtual patients, and high-fidelity simulation to overcome some of the common barriers and drive implementation of evidence-based teamwork curricula. It outlines the program's curricular components, implementation strategy, evaluation methods, and lessons learned from the first year of delivery and describes implications for future large-scale IPE initiatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Global engineering teams - a programme promoting teamwork in engineering design and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladiran, M. T.; Uziak, J.; Eisenberg, M.; Scheffer, C.

    2011-05-01

    Engineering graduates are expected to possess various competencies categorised into hard and soft skills. The hard skills are acquired through specific coursework, but the soft skills are often treated perfunctorily. Global Engineering Teams (GET) is a programme that promotes project-oriented tasks in virtual student teams working in collaboration with industry partners. Teamwork is a major success factor for GET as students always work in groups of varying sizes. A questionnaire-based survey of the 2008 cohort of GET students was conducted to assess teamwork, communication and conflict resolution among group members. The results confirmed that deliverables are readily achieved in teams and communication was open. A challenge of using virtual teams is the availability of high-speed Internet access. The GET programme shows that it is possible to deliver engineering design and manufacturing via industry/university collaboration. The programme also facilitates multidisciplinary teamwork at an international level.

  5. Meta-analysis of surgical safety checklist effects on teamwork, communication, morbidity, mortality, and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Vanessa E; Popejoy, Lori L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of surgical safety checklists on teamwork, communication, morbidity, mortality, and compliance with safety measures through meta-analysis. Four meta-analyses were conducted on 19 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The effect size of checklists on teamwork and communication was 1.180 (p = .003), on morbidity and mortality was 0.123 (p = .003) and 0.088 (p = .001), respectively, and on compliance with safety measures was 0.268 (p teamwork and communication, reduce morbidity and mortality, and improve compliance with safety measures. This meta-analysis is limited in its generalizability based on the limited number of studies and the inclusion of only published research. Future research is needed to examine possible moderating variables for the effects of surgical safety checklists.

  6. Interprofessional teamwork among students in simulated codes: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbee, Deborah D; Paige, John; Barrier, Kendra; Kozmenko, Valeriy; Kozmenko, Lyubov; Zamjahn, John; Bonanno, Laura; Cefalu, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using crisis resource management (CRM) principles and high-fidelity human patient simulation (HFHPS) for interprofessional (IP) team training of students from undergraduate nursing, nurse anesthesia, medical, and respiratory therapy. IP education using simulation-based training has the potential to transform education by improving teamwork and communication and breaking down silos in education. This one-year study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate students' acquisition and retention of teamwork and communication skills. A convenience sample consisted of 52 students in the fall semester, with 40 students returning in the spring. Mean scores increased after training, and skills were retained fairly well. Any loss was regained with repeat training in the spring. The results suggest that using CRM and HFHPS is an effective pedagogy for teaching communication and teamwork skills to IP student teams.

  7. Fostering successful interprofessional teamwork through an undergraduate student placement in a secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortugno, Mariella; Chandra, Smriti; Espin, Sherry; Gucciardi, Enza

    2013-07-01

    This exploratory case study examined an interprofessional placement of undergraduate students from nutrition, nursing, early childhood education, and child and youth care who collaborated to develop and deliver four healthy-living modules to secondary school students in Canada. An inductive thematic analysis was used to describe the teamwork that occurred between students. Data collected included focus groups with undergraduate students and preceptors, undergraduate students' reflections and secondary school students' evaluations of the modules delivered. Two major themes that emerged from all data sources were "team functioning" and "shift in perspectives". The undergraduate students identified several ways that facilitated their successful and positive teamwork with one another and also expressed how the placement experience improved their interprofessional skills. Findings from this study are discussed in relation to contact theory (Allport, 1954) and self-presentation theory (Goffman, 1963). This study suggests that providing undergraduate students with interprofessional placements in an educational setting can enhance interprofessional teamwork opportunities for students of various disciplines.

  8. Improving the Teaching of Teamwork Skills in Engineering and Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Lingard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important that engineering and computer science students learn teamwork skills as an integral part of their educational development. These skills are often not explicitly taught, but rather it is expected that students learn them on their own through participation in various team projects. Furthermore, the actual skills that students are expected to learn are usually not well articulated, or even understood. The approach outlined here attempts to address these problems by first establishing a process for defining what is meant by teamwork, by using this definition to assess the extent to which students are learning teamwork skills, and by using the assessment results to formulate approaches to improve student learning with respect to these skills. Specific attempts at the definition, assessment, and instruction improvement process are discussed.

  9. What's getting in the way of teamwork in our nuclear control rooms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear control room crews, like teams of any kind, develop their own unique personalities, or ways of getting things done. These personalities contain both good news and bad news when it comes to teamwork, and evolve from the beliefs and attitudes of the individual supervisors and operators. These beliefs and attitudes translate into behaviors that contribute to, or become barriers to, the teamwork so vital in today's modem nuclear control room. The writer, a consultant who has worked with control room crews at twelve US nuclear plants over the past five years in developing teamwork skills, describes his experiences, observations, and successes with the use of videotape to help operators change or modify their behavior to make them more effective as members of a control room team

  10. Evaluation of PCMH Model Adoption on Teamwork and Impact on Patient Access and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Niharika; Shaya, Fadia T; Gaitonde, Priyanka; Abiamiri, Andrea; Steffen, Ben; Sharp, David

    2017-04-01

    Each of the participating patient-centered medical home (PCMH) received coaching and participated in learning collaborative for improving teamwork. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of trainings on patient-centered teamwork. The Teamwork Perception Questionnaire (TPQ) was administered once in spring 2014 and then in fall 2015. The TPQ consists of 35 questions across 5 domains: mutual support, situation monitoring, communication, team structure, and leadership. Based on our objective we compared the frequencies of strongly agree/agree by domain. The difference was tested using chi-square test. We compared the scores on each domain (strongly agree/agree = 1; maximum score = 7) via Wilcoxon rank sum test. The response rate for this survey was n = 29 (80.6%) in spring 2014, and n = 31 (86.1%) in fall 2015. We found that the practice members significantly ( P safety.

  11. A systematic review of teamwork training interventions in medical student and resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Chayan; Boonyasai, Romsai T; Wright, Scott M; Kern, David E

    2008-06-01

    Teamwork is important for improving care across transitions between providers and for increasing patient safety. This review's objective was to assess the characteristics and efficacy of published curricula designed to teach teamwork to medical students and house staff. The authors searched MEDLINE, Education Resources Information Center, Excerpta Medica Database, PsychInfo, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Scopus for original data articles published in English between January 1980 and July 2006 that reported descriptions of teamwork training and evaluation results. Two reviewers independently abstracted information about curricular content (using Baker's framework of teamwork competencies), educational methods, evaluation design, outcomes measured, and results. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria. All curricula employed active learning methods; the majority (77%) included multidisciplinary training. Ten curricula (77%) used an uncontrolled pre/post design and 3 (23%) used controlled pre/post designs. Only 3 curricula (23%) reported outcomes beyond end of program, and only 1 (8%) >6 weeks after program completion. One program evaluated a clinical outcome (patient satisfaction), which was unchanged after the intervention. The median effect size was 0.40 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.29, 0.61) for knowledge, 0.38 (IQR 0.32, 0.41) for attitudes, 0.41 (IQR 0.35, 0.49) for skills and behavior. The relationship between the number of teamwork principles taught and effect size achieved a Spearman's correlation of .74 (p = .01) for overall effect size and .64 (p = .03) for median skills/behaviors effect size. Reported curricula employ some sound educational principles and appear to be modestly effective in the short term. Curricula may be more effective when they address more teamwork principles.

  12. Teammate Familiarity, Teamwork, and Risk of Workplace Injury in Emergency Medical Services Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ashley M; Patterson, P Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D; Gregory, Megan E; Sonesh, Shirley C; Landsittel, Douglas P; Krackhardt, David; Hostler, David; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Wang, Xiao; Vena, John E; Salas, Eduardo; Yealy, Donald M

    2017-07-01

    Increased teammate familiarity in emergency medical services (EMS) promotes development of positive teamwork and protects against workplace injury. Measures were collected using archival shift records, workplace injury data, and cross-sectional surveys from a nationally representative sample of 14 EMS agencies employing paramedics, prehospital nurses, and other EMS clinicians. One thousand EMS clinicians were selected at random to complete a teamwork survey for each of their recent partnerships and tested the hypothesized role of teamwork as a mediator in the relationship between teammate familiarity and injury with the PROCESS macro. We received 2566 completed surveys from 333 clinicians, of which 297 were retained. Mean participation was 40.5% (standard deviation [SD] = 20.5%) across EMS agencies. Survey respondents were primarily white (93.8%), male (67.3%), and ranged between 21-62 years of age (M = 37.4, SD = 9.7). Seventeen percent were prehospital nurses. Respondents worked a mean of 3 shifts with recent teammates in the 8 weeks preceding the survey (M = 3.06, SD = 4.4). We examined data at the team level, which suggest positive views of teamwork (M = 5.92, SD = 0.69). Our hypothesis that increased teammate familiarity protects against adverse safety outcomes through development of positive teamwork was not supported. Teamwork factor Partner Adaptability and Backup Behavior is a likely mediator (odds ratio = 1.03, P = .05). When dyad familiarity is high and there are high levels of backup behavior, the likelihood of injury is increased. The relationship between teammate familiarity and outcomes is complex. Teammate adaptation and backup behavior is a likely mediator of this relationship in EMS teams with greater familiarity. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Teamwork in primary care: perspectives of general practitioners and community nurses in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A team approach in primary care has proven benefits in achieving better outcomes, reducing health care costs, satisfying patient needs, ensuring continuity of care, increasing job satisfaction among health providers and using human health care resources more efficiently. However, some research indicates constraints in collaboration within primary health care (PHC) teams in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon of teamwork in Lithuania by exploring the experiences of teamwork by general practitioners (GPs) and community nurses (CNs) involved in PHC. Methods Six focus groups were formed with 29 GPs and 27 CNs from the Kaunas Region of Lithuania. Discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis of these data was then performed. Results The analysis of focus group data identified six thematic categories related to teamwork in PHC: the structure of a PHC team, synergy among PHC team members, descriptions of roles and responsibilities of team members, competencies of PHC team members, communications between PHC team members and the organisational background for teamwork. These findings provide the basis for a discussion of a thematic model of teamwork that embraces formal, individual and organisational factors. Conclusions The need for effective teamwork in PHC is an issue receiving broad consensus; however, the process of teambuilding is often taken for granted in the PHC sector in Lithuania. This study suggests that both formal and individual behavioural factors should be targeted when aiming to strengthen PHC teams. Furthermore, this study underscores the need to provide explicit formal descriptions of the roles and responsibilities of PHC team members in Lithuania, which would include establishing clear professional boundaries. The training of team members is an essential component of the teambuilding process, but not sufficient by itself. PMID:23945286

  14. Introducing the nurse practitioner into the surgical ward: an ethnographic study of interprofessional teamwork practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnström, Susanne; Jangland, Eva; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine

    2017-08-22

    The first nurse practitioners in surgical care were introduced into Swedish surgical wards in 2014. Internationally, organisations that have adopted nurse practitioners into care teams are reported to have maintained or improved the quality of care. However, close qualitative descriptions of teamwork practice may add to existing knowledge of interprofessional collaboration when introducing nurse practitioners into new clinical areas. The aim was to report on an empirical study describing how interprofessional teamwork practice was enacted by nurse practitioners when introduced into surgical ward teams. The study had a qualitative, ethnographic research design, drawing on a sociomaterial conceptual framework. The study was based on 170 hours of ward-based participant observations of interprofessional teamwork practice that included nurse practitioners. Data were gathered from 2014 to 2015 across four surgical sites in Sweden, including 60 interprofessional rounds. The data were analysed with an iterative reflexive procedure involving inductive and theory-led approaches. The study was approved by a Swedish regional ethics committee (Ref. No.: 2014/229-31). The interprofessional teamwork practice enacted by the nurse practitioners that emerged from the analysis comprised a combination of the following characteristic role components: clinical leader, bridging team colleague and ever-present tutor. These role components were enacted at all the sites and were prominent during interprofessional teamwork practice. The participant nurse practitioners utilised the interprofessional teamwork practice arrangements to enact a role that may be described in terms of a quality guarantee, thereby contributing to the overall quality and care flow offered by the entire surgical ward team. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. Association Between Physician Teamwork and Health System Outcomes Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, John M.; Funk, Russell J.; Garrison, Spencer A.; Owen-Smith, Jason; Kaufman, Samuel A.; Pagani, Francis D.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) must often see multiple providers dispersed across many care locations. To test whether “teamwork” (assessed with the bipartite clustering coefficient) among these physicians is a determinant of surgical outcomes, we examined national Medicare data from patients undergoing CABG. Methods and Results Among Medicare beneficiaries who underwent CABG between 2008 and 2011, we mapped relationships between all physicians who treated them during their surgical episodes, including both surgeons and nonsurgeons. After aggregating across CABG episodes in a year to construct the physician social networks serving each health system, we then assessed the level of physician teamwork in these networks with the bipartite clustering coefficient. Finally, we fit a series of multivariable regression models to evaluate associations between a health system’s teamwork level and its 60-day surgical outcomes. We observed substantial variation in the level of teamwork between health systems performing CABG (standard deviation for the bipartite clustering coefficient was 0.09). While health systems with high and low teamwork levels treated beneficiaries with comparable comorbidity scores, these health systems differed over several sociocultural and healthcare capacity factors (e.g., physician staff size, surgical caseload). After controlling for these differences, health systems with higher teamwork levels had significantly lower 60-day rates of emergency department visit, readmission, and mortality. Conclusions Health systems with physicians who tend to work together in tightly knit groups during CABG episodes realize better surgical outcomes. As such, delivery system reforms focused on building teamwork may have positive effects on surgical care. PMID:28263939

  16. Work systems, Quality of Working Life and Attitudes of Workers. An Empirical Study towards the effects of Team and non-Teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Steijn (Bram)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this article four different work systems are distinguished: the traditional Tayloristic system, ???lean??? teamwork, ???sociotechnical??? teamwork, and the professional work system. Using a survey design the association with several employee outcome variables is analysed. The results

  17. Student Groups as Learning Entities: The Effect of Group Diversity and Teamwork Quality on Groups' Cognitive Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curseu, Petru L.; Pluut, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative learning has important group-level benefits, yet most studies in higher education only focus on individual benefits of collaborative learning experiences. This study extends these insights by testing a model in which teamwork quality mediates the impact of several compositional differences (gender, nationality and teamwork expertise…

  18. Collaborative Online Teamwork: Exploring Students' Satisfaction and Attitudes with Google Hangouts as a Supplementary Communication Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxia; Huang, Xiaoxia

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences in student satisfaction and perceptions of online teamwork in two cohorts of an undergraduate educational technology course: one delivered fully asynchronously and the other incorporating synchronous Google Hangouts sessions in student online teamwork. Participants included 50 undergraduate students at a large…

  19. Teamwork in the NICU setting and its association with healthcare-associated infections in very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Jochen; Sharek, Paul J.; Kan, Peiyi; Rigdon, Joseph; Desai, Manisha; Nisbet, Courtney C.; Tawfik, Daniel S.; Thomas, Eric J.; Lee, Henry C.; Sexton, J. Bryan

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objective Teamwork may affect clinical care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting. The objective of this study was to assess teamwork climate across NICUs and to test scale level and item level associations with healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods Cross-sectional study of the association between HAI rates, defined as any bacterial or fungal infection during the birth hospitalization, among 6663 VLBW infants cared for in 44 NICUs between 2010 and 2012. NICU HAI rates were correlated with teamwork climate ratings obtained in 2011 from 2073 of 3294 eligible (response rate 63%) NICU health professionals. The relation between HAI rates and NICU teamwork climate was assessed using logistic regression models including NICU as a random effect. Results Across NICUs, 36 to 100% (mean 66%) of respondents reported good teamwork. HAI rates were significantly and independently associated with teamwork climate (OR [95% CI] 0.82 [0.73-0.92], p = 0.005), such that the odds of an infant contracting a HAI decreased by 18% with each 10% rise in NICU respondents reporting good teamwork. Conclusion Improving teamwork may be an important element in infection control efforts. PMID:28395366

  20. Effects of Collective Efficacy, Teamwork Attitudes, and Experience on Group Project Performance: Comparisons between 2 Food Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Poppy Lauretta; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between past teamwork and task-related experiences, attitude toward teamwork, collective efficacy, and task performance among undergraduates (N = 298) assigned to group projects (N = 48) in 2 different Food Science courses was examined. The results of survey data collected at the beginning and end of the projects showed that past…

  1. Work Demands-Burnout and Job Engagement-Job Satisfaction Relationships: Teamwork as a Mediator and Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Angeleska, Nada; Atanasovska, Aneta

    2015-03-15

    Few studies have examined teamwork as mediator and moderator of work demands-burnout and job engagement-job satisfaction relationships in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South-East Europe. To assess mediation and moderation effect of teamwork on the relationship between independent (work demands or job engagement) and dependent (burnout or job satisfaction) variables. Work demands, burnout, job engagement, and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey, respectively. Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used for assessment of teamwork. In order to examine role of teamwork as a mediating variable we fit series of regression models for burnout and job satisfaction. We also fit regression models predicting outcome (burnout or job satisfaction) from predictor (work demands or job engagement) and moderator (teamwork) variable. Teamwork was partial mediator of work demands-burnout relationship and full mediator of job engagement-job satisfaction relationship. We found that only job engagement-job satisfaction relationship was moderated by teamwork. Occupational health services should target detection of burnout in HCWs and implementation of organizational interventions in hospitals, taking into account findings that teamwork predicted reduced burnout and higher job satisfaction.

  2. Intra-Group Conflict and Teamwork Quality: The Moderating Role of Leadership Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru L. Curşeu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the extent to which task and relations oriented leadership moderate the impact of task and relationship conflict on teamwork quality. In a sample of 37 teams, the study shows that relationship oriented leadership is beneficial for dealing with relationship conflict, but it does not have the expected positive interaction effect with task conflict. The main practical implication of the results is that in order to mitigate the negative effects of intra-group conflict on teamwork quality the leadership style should fit the type of disagreement (task versus relational predominantly experienced by the teams.

  3. Landscaping: teamwork and integration into inter-individual coordination as a learning situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayen, Patrick; Olry, Paul

    2012-01-01

    One of the dimensions of work that is not well known in training is teamwork and the work of the team leader. The team leader is the personne who provides local supervision. Teachers and trainers, as well as business employers aknowledge the place and importance of teamwork and the role of the team leader. However, most consider themselves, insufficiently prepared to offer training in line with these elements. This paper thus aims to present the results of an analysis of group work in the field of landscaping conducted from the perspective of team work and team leader learning and training.

  4. Does training managers enhance the effects of implementing teamworking? A longitudinal, mixed methods field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Randall, R; Christensen, KB

    2010-01-01

    , transformational leadership and change management on the outcomes of team implementation. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to isolate the impact of manager training on the success of the teamwork intervention. The results identified some significant, but modest, incremental......The introduction of team-working often has positive effects on team members but places significant new demands on managers. Unfortunately, little research has examined whether the impact of the intervention may be enhanced by providing managers with training during the change process. To test...

  5. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque

    2002-01-01

    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  6. Practical requirements for software tools to assist in the validation and verification of hybrid expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.P.; Cadena, D.; Burgess, J.

    1992-01-01

    Any practical software development effort must remain focused on verification and validation of user requirements. Knowledge-based system development is no different in this regard. In industry today, most expert systems being produced are, in reality, hybrid software systems which, in addition to those components that provide the knowledge base and expert reasoning over the problem domain using various rule-based and object-oriented paradigms, incorporate significant bodies of code based on more traditional software techniques such as database management, graphical user interfaces, hypermedia, spreadsheets, as well as specially developed sequential code. Validation and verification of such hybrid systems must perforce integrate suitable methodologies from all such fields. This paper attempts to provide a broad overview of the practical requirements for methodologies and the concomitant groupware tools which would assist in such an enterprise. These methodologies and groupware tools would facilitate the teamwork efforts necessary to validate and verify all components of such hybrid systems by emphasizing cooperative recording of requirements and negotiated resolutions of any conflicts grounded in a solid understanding of the semantics of such a system

  7. Improved Clinical Performance and Teamwork of Pediatric Interprofessional Resuscitation Teams With a Simulation-Based Educational Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfoyle, Elaine; Koot, Deanna A; Annear, John C; Bhanji, Farhan; Cheng, Adam; Duff, Jonathan P; Grant, Vincent J; St George-Hyslop, Cecilia E; Delaloye, Nicole J; Kotsakis, Afrothite; McCoy, Carolyn D; Ramsay, Christa E; Weiss, Matthew J; Gottesman, Ronald D

    2017-02-01

    To measure the effect of a 1-day team training course for pediatric interprofessional resuscitation team members on adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines, team efficiency, and teamwork in a simulated clinical environment. Multicenter prospective interventional study. Four tertiary-care children's hospitals in Canada from June 2011 to January 2015. Interprofessional pediatric resuscitation teams including resident physicians, ICU nurse practitioners, registered nurses, and registered respiratory therapists (n = 300; 51 teams). A 1-day simulation-based team training course was delivered, involving an interactive lecture, group discussions, and four simulated resuscitation scenarios, each followed by a debriefing. The first scenario of the day (PRE) was conducted prior to any team training. The final scenario of the day (POST) was the same scenario, with a slightly modified patient history. All scenarios included standardized distractors designed to elicit and challenge specific teamwork behaviors. Primary outcome measure was change (before and after training) in adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines, as measured by the Clinical Performance Tool. Secondary outcome measures were as follows: 1) change in times to initiation of chest compressions and defibrillation and 2) teamwork performance, as measured by the Clinical Teamwork Scale. Correlation between Clinical Performance Tool and Clinical Teamwork Scale scores was also analyzed. Teams significantly improved Clinical Performance Tool scores (67.3-79.6%; p Teamwork Scale scores (56.0-71.8%; p Teamwork Scale (R = 0.281; p teamwork during simulated pediatric resuscitation. A positive correlation between clinical and teamwork performance suggests that effective teamwork improves clinical performance of resuscitation teams.

  8. Making an "Attitude Adjustment": Using a Simulation-Enhanced Interprofessional Education Strategy to Improve Attitudes Toward Teamwork and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ambrose Hon-Wai; Gang, Maureen; Szyld, Demian; Mahoney, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Health care providers must effectively function in highly skilled teams in a collaborative manner, but there are few interprofessional training strategies in place. Interprofessional education (IPE) using simulation technology has gained popularity to address this need because of its inherent ability to impact learners' cognitive frames and promote peer-to-peer dialog. Provider attitudes toward teamwork have been directly linked to the quality of patient care. Investigators implemented a simulation-enhanced IPE intervention to improve staff attitudes toward teamwork and interprofessional communication in the emergency department setting. The 3-hour course consisted of a didactic session highlighting teamwork and communication strategies, 2 simulation scenarios on septic shock and cardiac arrest, and structured debriefing directed at impacting participant attitudes to teamwork and communication. This was a survey-based observational study. We used the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire immediately before and after the session as a measurement of attitude change as well as the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture before the session and 1 year after the intervention for program impact at the behavior level. Seventy-two emergency department nurses and resident physicians participated in the course from July to September 2012. Of the 5 constructs in TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire, 4 had a significant improvement in scores-6.4%, 2.8%, 4.0%, and 4.0% for team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, and mutual support, respectively (P teamwork and communication showed a significant improvement-20.6%, 20.5%, and 23.9%, for frequency of event reporting, teamwork within hospital units, and hospital handoffs and transitions, respectively (P = 0.028, P = 0.035, and P = 0.024, respectively). A simulation-enhanced IPE curriculum was successful in improving participant attitudes toward teamwork and components of patient safety culture related to

  9. The Role of Teamwork in the Analysis of Big Data: A Study of Visual Analytics and Box Office Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Verica; Lu, Yafeng; McNeese, Nathan; Steptoe, Michael; Maciejewski, Ross; Cooke, Nancy

    2017-03-01

    Historically, domains such as business intelligence would require a single analyst to engage with data, develop a model, answer operational questions, and predict future behaviors. However, as the problems and domains become more complex, organizations are employing teams of analysts to explore and model data to generate knowledge. Furthermore, given the rapid increase in data collection, organizations are struggling to develop practices for intelligence analysis in the era of big data. Currently, a variety of machine learning and data mining techniques are available to model data and to generate insights and predictions, and developments in the field of visual analytics have focused on how to effectively link data mining algorithms with interactive visuals to enable analysts to explore, understand, and interact with data and data models. Although studies have explored the role of single analysts in the visual analytics pipeline, little work has explored the role of teamwork and visual analytics in the analysis of big data. In this article, we present an experiment integrating statistical models, visual analytics techniques, and user experiments to study the role of teamwork in predictive analytics. We frame our experiment around the analysis of social media data for box office prediction problems and compare the prediction performance of teams, groups, and individuals. Our results indicate that a team's performance is mediated by the team's characteristics such as openness of individual members to others' positions and the type of planning that goes into the team's analysis. These findings have important implications for how organizations should create teams in order to make effective use of information from their analytic models.

  10. Work Systems, Quality of Working Life and Attitudes of Workers: An Empirical Study towards the Effects of Team and Non-teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steijn, Bram

    2001-01-01

    Four types of work organization--Taylorism, lean teamwork, sociotechnical teamwork, and professional work systems--were studied in a survey of 835 Dutch workers. Taylorism had detrimental effects on well-being, autonomy, stress, job satisfaction, and work commitment. Either type of teamwork or substantial professional autonomy had positive…

  11. Teamwork education improves trauma team performance in undergraduate health professional students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Valerie O'Toole; Cuzzola, Ronald; Knox, Carolyn; Liotta, Cynthia; Cornfield, Charles S; Tarkowski, Robert D; Masters, Carolynn; McCarthy, Michael; Sturdivant, Suzanne; Carlson, Jestin N

    2015-01-01

    Effective trauma resuscitation requires efficient and coordinated care from a team of providers; however, providers are rarely instructed on how to be effective members of trauma teams. Team-based learning using Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) has been shown to improve team dynamics among practicing professionals, including physicians and nurses. The impact of TeamSTEPPS on students being trained in trauma management in an undergraduate health professional program is currently unknown. We sought to determine the impact of TeamSTEPPS on team dynamics among undergraduate students being trained in trauma resuscitation. We enrolled teams of undergraduate health professional students from four programs: nursing, physician assistant, radiologic science, and respiratory care. After completing an online training on trauma resuscitation principles, the participants completed a trauma resuscitation scenario. The participants then received teamwork training using TeamSTEPPS and completed a second trauma resuscitation scenario identical to the first. All resuscitations were recorded and scored offline by two blinded research assistants using both the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) and Trauma Team Performance Observation Tool (TPOT) scoring systems. Pre-test and post-test TEAM and TPOT scores were compared. We enrolled a total of 48 students in 12 teams. Team leadership, situational monitoring, and overall communication improved with TeamSTEPPS training (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.03, respectively), as assessed by the TPOT scoring system. TeamSTEPPS also improved the team's ability to prioritize tasks and work together to complete tasks in a rapid manner (P<0.01 and P=0.02, respectively) as measured by TEAM. Incorporating TeamSTEPPS into trauma team education leads to improved TEAM and TPOT scores among undergraduate health professionals.

  12. Teamwork education improves trauma team performance in undergraduate health professional students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie O’Toole Baker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Effective trauma resuscitation requires efficient and coordinated care from a team of providers; however, providers are rarely instructed on how to be effective members of trauma teams. Team-based learning using Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS has been shown to improve team dynamics among practicing professionals, including physicians and nurses. The impact of TeamSTEPPS on students being trained in trauma management in an undergraduate health professional program is currently unknown. We sought to determine the impact of TeamSTEPPS on team dynamics among undergraduate students being trained in trauma resuscitation. Methods: We enrolled teams of undergraduate health professional students from four programs: nursing, physician assistant, radiologic science, and respiratory care. After completing an online training on trauma resuscitation principles, the participants completed a trauma resuscitation scenario. The participants then received teamwork training using TeamSTEPPS and completed a second trauma resuscitation scenario identical to the first. All resuscitations were recorded and scored offline by two blinded research assistants using both the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM and Trauma Team Performance Observation Tool (TPOT scoring systems. Pre-test and post-test TEAM and TPOT scores were compared. Results: We enrolled a total of 48 students in 12 teams. Team leadership, situational monitoring, and overall communication improved with TeamSTEPPS training (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.03, respectively, as assessed by the TPOT scoring system. TeamSTEPPS also improved the team’s ability to prioritize tasks and work together to complete tasks in a rapid manner (P<0.01 and P=0.02, respectively as measured by TEAM. Conclusions: Incorporating TeamSTEPPS into trauma team education leads to improved TEAM and TPOT scores among undergraduate health professionals.

  13. The Thin Line. Teamwork--Misnomer or Innovation in Work Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargmann, Holger

    1999-01-01

    A longitudinal study of factors influencing success or failure of workplace innovations such as teamwork was carried out in two German firms. Success factors included having a team mentor; integrating training, supervision, and implementation of the innovation; and training trainers. (SK)

  14. The importance of employee participation and perceptions of changes in procedures in a teamworking intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Randall, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The powerful positive results of implementing teamwork are not always achieved. It has been suggested that attempts to implement theories regarding teamwork do not always lead to those theories being put into practice, and as a result positive outcomes are not always found. The participation of employees in the development and implementation of an intervention may help to ensure that changes take place. In this longitudinal study (N = 583) of teamwork implementation in Denmark we examined the links between pre-intervention working conditions and well-being, levels of participation in planning and implementation, employees’ reports of changes in procedures, and intervention outcomes. Pre-intervention levels of autonomy and job satisfaction predicted the degree of employee participation in the planning and implementation of the intervention. Pre-intervention well-being and social support were linked directly to the degree to which employees reported changes in existing work practices concerning teamwork. In addition, participation and changes in work procedures were significantly associated with post-intervention autonomy, social support and well-being. The results indicate that employee participation in intervention processes is crucial in what appears to be an important association with perceived changes in procedures and, therefore, in intervention outcomes. PMID:22745519

  15. Evaluating the Usage of Cloud-Based Collaboration Services through Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li; Hsu, Jeffrey; Stern, Mel

    2016-01-01

    With the proliferation of cloud computing for both organizational and educational use, cloud-based collaboration services are transforming how people work in teams. The authors investigated the determinants of the usage of cloud-based collaboration services including teamwork quality, computer self-efficacy, and prior experience, as well as its…

  16. The Virtual Table: A Framework for Online Teamwork, Collaboration, and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby, Lisa; Phelps, Kirstin; Jenkins, Dan

    2017-03-01

    This chapter reviews the complex relationship between technology and leadership, focusing on how technology affects the development and demonstration of skills in communication, teamwork, and collaboration. The chapter also proposes a framework for identifying and assessing key leadership competencies in the digital space. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  17. A Computer Supported Teamwork Project for People with a Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the use of computer supported teamwork (CSTW) in team-based organizations focuses on problems that visually impaired people have reading graphical user interface software via screen reader software. Describes a project that successfully used email for CSTW, and suggests issues needing further research. (LRW)

  18. The effects of crew resource management on teamwork and safety climate at Veterans Health Administration facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Miriam E; Welsh, Deborah E; Paull, Douglas E; Knowles, Regina S; DeLeeuw, Lori D; Hemphill, Robin R; Essen, Keith E; Sculli, Gary L

    2017-11-09

    Communication failure is a significant source of adverse events in health care and a leading root cause of sentinel events reported to the Joint Commission. The Veterans Health Administration National Center for Patient Safety established Clinical Team Training (CTT) as a comprehensive program to enhance patient safety and to improve communication and teamwork among health care professionals. CTT is based on techniques used in aviation's Crew Resource Management (CRM) training. The aviation industry has reached a significant safety record in large part related to the culture change generated by CRM and sustained by its recurrent implementation. This article focuses on the improvement of communication, teamwork, and patient safety by utilizing a standardized, CRM-based, interprofessional, immersive training in diverse clinical areas. The Teamwork and Safety Climate Questionnaire was used to evaluate safety climate before and after CTT. The scores for all of the 27 questions on the questionnaire showed an increase from baseline to 12 months, and 11 of those increases were statistically significant. A recurrent training is recommended to maintain the positive outcomes. CTT enhances patient safety and reduces risk of patient harm by improving teamwork and facilitating clear, concise, specific and timely communication among health care professionals. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  19. The Fundamentals and Fun of Electronic Teamwork for Students and Their Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and integrates best practices for online teamwork for students and instructors from current and classical literature as well as the author's own six years of online teaching experience (over 40 online courses). A qualitative reflection of six graduate and six undergraduate courses in management, human resource management and…

  20. Assessing Teamwork and Collaboration in High School Students: A Multimethod Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; MacCann, Carolyn; Zhuang, Xiaohua; Liu, Ou Lydia; Roberts, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Various policy papers assert that teamwork is an essential skill for the 21st-century workforce. However, outside of organizational psychology research with adult populations, there are few reliable assessments of this construct with suitable validity evidence for test scores. To redress this issue, self-report, situational judgment, and…

  1. Reflective Journals as a Research Tool: The Case of Student Teachers' Development of Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashan, Bilha; Holsblat, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The study explores the development of teamwork among a group of Israeli student teachers enrolled in a practicum, in order to help teacher educators to understand better the processes student teachers experience in becoming a collaborative team. The student teachers' reflective journals provide qualitative evidence of the stages in the development…

  2. Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation-Guided Huddles Improve Communication and Teamwork in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heather A; Ciurzynski, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Thousands of people die annually in hospitals because of poor communication and teamwork between health care team members. Standardized tools and strategies help increase the amount and quality of communication. Two structured communication methods include implementing huddles and the use of the situation, background, assessment, and recommendation (SBAR) communication framework. To improve communication among nurse practitioners and registered nurses within a pediatric emergency department, a performance-improvement project with the structured processes of a joint patient evaluation and huddle was implemented. Data were gathered from 32 nurses and 2 nurse practitioners using structured observation and pre- and post-implementation surveys. The following outcomes were measured: presence or absence of joint patient evaluation and SBAR-guided huddle, verbalization of treatment plan, communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction. Eighty-three percent of patient encounters included a joint evaluation. A huddle structured with SBAR was conducted 86% of the time. Registered nurses and nurse practitioners verbalized patients' treatment plans in 89% of cases and 97% of cases, respectively. Improved teamwork, communication, and nursing satisfaction scores were demonstrated among the nurse practitioners and registered nurses. This project showed the feasibility of a simple and inexpensive joint nurse practitioner-registered nurse patient evaluation followed by a structured huddle, which improved communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction scores. This performance-improvement project has the potential to enhance efficiency by reducing redundancy, as well as to improve patient safety through the use of structured communication techniques. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incorporating Interprofessional Teamwork and Communication into a Concept-Based Curriculum to Promote Transition to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekins, Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork and communication are essential concepts for new graduate registered nurses working as members of the interprofessional team. Studies have shown the efficacy of applying these interprofessional education concepts by allowing student nurses to round with health teams before graduation. The innovative practice of rounding significantly…

  4. Midwifery students experience of teamwork projects involving mark-related peer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Carolyn R; Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny A; Grace, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Lack of teamwork skills among health care professionals endangers patients and enables workplace bullying. Individual teamwork skills are increasingly being assessed in the undergraduate health courses but rarely defined, made explicit or taught. To remedy these deficiencies we introduced a longitudinal educational strategy across all three years of the Bachelor of Midwifery program. To report on students' experiences of engaging in team based assignments which involved mark-related peer feedback. Stories of midwifery students' experiences were collected from 17 participants across the three years of the degree. These were transcribed and analysed thematically and interpreted using feminist collaborative conversations. Most participants reported being in well-functioning teams and enjoyed the experience; they spoke of 'we' and said 'Everyone was on Board'. Students in poorly functioning teams spoke of 'I' and 'they'. These students complained about the poor performance of others but they didn't speak up because they 'didn't want to make waves' and they didn't have the skills to be able to confidently manage conflict. All participants agreed 'Peer-related marks cause mayhem'. Teamwork skills should be specifically taught and assessed. These skills take time to develop. Students, therefore, should be engaged in a teamwork assignment in each semester of the entire program. Peer feedback should be moderated by the teacher and not directly related to marks. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Virtual TeamSTEPPS(®) Simulations Produce Teamwork Attitude Changes Among Health Professions Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Linda I; Umoren, Rachel A; Scott, Patrician J; Carlton, Kay Hodson; Jones, James A; Truman, Barbara; Gossett, Evalyn J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the estimated 400,000 or more patient deaths per year in the United States are from preventable medical errors due to poor communication. Team training programs have been established to teach teamwork skills to health professions students. However, it is often challenging to provide this training at a physical site. A brief intervention using a virtual learning environment with TeamSTEPPS(®)-based scenarios is described. Using a pretest-posttest design, the effects on teamwork attitudes in 109 health professional students from two institutions and multiple disciplines were measured using the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes questionnaire. Participants showed significant attitude changes in the categories of leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication (p ⩽ .05), with significance in four of the six indicator attitudes in the communication section at the p ⩽ .001 level. These findings indicate the potential impact that virtual learning experiences may have on teamwork attitudes in learners across professions on multiple campuses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Group Formation Based on Learning Styles: Can It Improve Students' Teamwork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyprianidou, Maria; Demetriadis, Stavros; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos; Pombortsis, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This work explores the impact of teacher-led heterogeneous group formation on students' teamwork, based on students' learning styles. Fifty senior university students participated in a project-based course with two key organizational features: first, a web system (PEGASUS) was developed to help students identify their learning styles and…

  7. Teaching teamwork: an evaluation of an interprofessional training ward placement for health care students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphet, Julia; Hood, Kerry; Cant, Robyn; Baulch, Julie; Gilbee, Alana; Sandry, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of interprofessional teamwork training in the preprofessional health care curriculum is a major challenge for teaching faculties. Interprofessional clinical placements offer an opportunity for teamwork education, as students in various professions can work and learn together. In this sequential, mixed-method study, focus group and survey techniques were used to evaluate students' educational experiences after 2-week ward-based interprofessional clinical placements. Forty-five senior nursing, medicine, and other health care students cared for patients in hospital wards under professional supervision, with nursing-medicine student "teams" leading care. Thirty-six students attended nine exit focus groups. Five central themes that emerged about training were student autonomy and workload, understanding of other professional roles, communication and shared knowledge, interprofessional teamwork/collaboration, and the "inner circle", or being part of the unit team. The learning environment was described as positive. In a postplacement satisfaction survey (n=38), students likewise rated the educational experience highly. In practicing teamwork and collaboration, students were able to rehearse their future professional role. We suggest that interprofessional clinical placements be regarded as an essential learning experience for senior preprofessional students. More work is needed to fully understand the effect of this interactive program on students' clinical learning and preparation for practice.

  8. Concurrent validation of CHIRP, a new instrument for measuring healthcare student attitudes towards interdisciplinary teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, David; Hobgood, Cherri; Foster, Beverly; Aleman, Marco; Sawning, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Positive attitudes towards teamwork among health care professionals are critical to patient safety. The purpose of this study is to describe the development and concurrent validation of a new instrument to measure attitudes towards healthcare teamwork that is generalizable across various populations of healthcare students. The Collaborative Healthcare Interdisciplinary Planning (CHIRP) scale was validated against the Readiness for Inter-Professional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Analyses included student (n = 266) demographics, ANOVA, internal consistency, factor analysis, and Rasch analysis. The two instruments correlated at r = .582. The CHIRP showed a multifactorial structure having excellent internal consistency (alpha = .850), with 25 of the 36 scale items loading onto a single Teamwork Attitudes factor. The RIPLS likewise had strong internal consistency (alpha = .796) and a three-factor structure, supporting previous studies of the instrument. However, Rasch analyses showed 14 (38.9%) of the 36 CHIRP items, but only four (21.1%) of the 19 RIPLS items remaining within the satisfactory standardized OUTFIT zone of 2.0 standard deviation units. We propose the 14 fitting items as a new, validated teamwork attitudes scale.

  9. Student Registered Nurse Anesthetists' Atittudes toward and Perceptions of Teamwork in the Operating Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Student registered nurse anesthetists are an important part of an operating room team, yet little research has investigated how they perceive teamwork or approach team related issues specific to the operating room. This mixed methods study evaluated junior and senior student registered nurse anesthetists' attitudes toward and perceptions of…

  10. Enhancing teamwork using a creativity-focussed learning intervention for undergraduate nursing students - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, O M; Laird, E A; Reid, B B; Deeny, P G; McGarvey, H E

    2018-02-22

    A cohort of year two students (n = 181) was exposed to a transformational and experiential learning intervention in the form of team-led poster development workshops to enhance competence and interpersonal skills for working in teams. The aims of this study were to test the suitability of an amended TeamSTEPPS teamwork perceptions questionnaire (T-TPQ) for measuring the impact of the intervention on students' perceptions of team working, and to ascertain students' views about the experience. This was a two phase pilot study. Phase 1 was a repeated measures design to test the T-TPQ for evaluating the impact of the experiential intervention, and Phase 2 was a survey of students' views and opinions. Descriptive and statistical analysis of the data were performed. Our findings suggest that age and part-time employment mediate towards more positive teamwork perceptions. Teamwork perceptions increased from week 3 to week 9 of the experiential intervention, and students viewed the experience positively. This was the first time that the T-TPQ was tested for suitability for measuring the impact of an experiential learning intervention among nursing students. Despite limitations, our study indicates that the amended T-TPQ is sensitive to changes in teamwork perceptions in repeated measures design studies among nursing students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of a global scale to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Ryoko; Yamano, Mayumi; Osako, Mitue; Hirabayashi, Naotugu; Oshima, Nobuo; Sigeta, Masahiro; Reeves, Scott

    2017-12-01

    Few scales currently exist to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork through team members' perceptions of working together in mental health settings. The purpose of this study was to revise and validate an interprofessional scale to assess the quality of teamwork in inpatient psychiatric units and to use it multi-nationally. A literature review was undertaken to identify evaluative teamwork tools and develop an additional 12 items to ensure a broad global focus. Focus group discussions considered adaptation to different care systems using subjective judgements from 11 participants in a pre-test of items. Data quality, construct validity, reproducibility, and internal consistency were investigated in the survey using an international comparative design. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors with 21 items: 'patient/community centred care', 'collaborative communication', 'interprofessional conflict', 'role clarification', and 'environment'. High overall internal consistency, reproducibility, adequate face validity, and reasonable construct validity were shown in the USA and Japan. The revised Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool (CPAT) is a valid measure to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in psychiatry and identifies the best strategies to improve team performance. Furthermore, the revised scale will generate more rigorous evidence for collaborative practice in psychiatry internationally.

  12. Teamwork Benefits in Tertiary Education: Student Perceptions That Lead to Best Practice Assessment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Arabella; Volkov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the development of students' skills in the context of team-based learning. Academics have heeded the call to incorporate team learning activities into the curricula, yet little is known of student perception of teamwork and whether they view it as beneficial to them and…

  13. Teamwork in Relation to Quality of E-Learning: Business Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzan, Masa; Aleksic-Maslac, Karmela; Juric, Visnja

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes several models of teamwork used in business curricula at Zagreb School of Economics and Management (ZSEM) in Croatia. Since its foundation in 2002, ZSEM has been implementing best academic practices for quality assurance. This is done both in terms of integrating ICT in teaching and learning, as well as applying contemporary…

  14. Coaching Teamwork in the Classroom Using an Innovative Team-Coaching Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Gayle M; Lingham, Tony

    2018-04-19

    The importance of health professionals working in teams was first acknowledged by the Institute of Medicine more than 15 years ago. Since then, teaching students to function in teams continues to present challenges in nursing education. This article presents an innovative process, using faculty as coaches in the classroom, to enhance student learning through experiential teamwork.

  15. The importance of employee participation and perceptions of changes in procedures in a teamworking intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Randall, Raymond

    2012-04-01

    The powerful positive results of implementing teamwork are not always achieved. It has been suggested that attempts to implement theories regarding teamwork do not always lead to those theories being put into practice, and as a result positive outcomes are not always found. The participation of employees in the development and implementation of an intervention may help to ensure that changes take place. In this longitudinal study (N = 583) of teamwork implementation in Denmark we examined the links between pre-intervention working conditions and well-being, levels of participation in planning and implementation, employees' reports of changes in procedures, and intervention outcomes. Pre-intervention levels of autonomy and job satisfaction predicted the degree of employee participation in the planning and implementation of the intervention. Pre-intervention well-being and social support were linked directly to the degree to which employees reported changes in existing work practices concerning teamwork. In addition, participation and changes in work procedures were significantly associated with post-intervention autonomy, social support and well-being. The results indicate that employee participation in intervention processes is crucial in what appears to be an important association with perceived changes in procedures and, therefore, in intervention outcomes.

  16. Teacher Teams, Teamwork, and Empowerment: Exploring Associations and the Nexus to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Alan B.; Park, Sungmin; Singleton, Carole A.

    2007-01-01

    Research on team-based schools suggests the importance of teacher empowerment as a factor in the school revitalization and reform equation and as a critical element in redefining schools as collaborative workplaces. In this study, the authors inquire into potential associations between teamwork skills and teacher team empowerment. Research…

  17. Antecedents and consequences of teamwork quality in new product development projects : An emporical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dayan, M.; Benedetto, Di A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the quality of interactions among new product development team members, wherein functional diversity, team stability, and transactive memory system are antecedents of teamwork quality. Three measures of outcomes are used (team learning, speed to

  18. Learning-by-Doing Teamwork KSA: The Role of Strategic Management Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, Víctor; Martín-Cruz, Natalia; Pérez-Santana, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of strategic management simulations as a learning-by-doing tool so that university students can learn to work in a team, that is, they can enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) for effective teamwork. The authors have carried out an analysis of the effect of strategic…

  19. Assertive Communication and Teamwork: Results of an Intervention Program to the Supervisors of a Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Jesús H.

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effect of the implementation of the program "Manage your Talent" on assertive communication and teamwork competences. A quasi-experimental research design was used with pretest - intervention - post-test with control group. The sample included 28 supervisors from a private company, 13 in the experimental…

  20. Teaching MBA Students Teamwork and Team Leadership Skills: An Empirical Evaluation of a Classroom Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Charles J.; Strupeck, David; Griffin, Andrea; Szostek, Jana; Rominger, Anna S.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive educational program for teaching behavioral teamwork and team leadership skills was rigorously evaluated with 148 MBA students enrolled at an urban regional campus of a Midwestern public university. Major program components included (1) videotaped student teams in leaderless group discussion (LGD) exercises at the course beginning…