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Sample records for methodology oriented treatment

  1. Enterprise services and object-oriented methodologies

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    Milan Mišovič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the possibility of modifying the conventional, advanced object-oriented methodology for software development of enterprise information systems on an enterprise services platform. The presented solution is preceded with the draft of the formal description of the business process logic and its service solutions. In the design for the introduction of business services there is used the so-called native solution that is very close to the thinking of corporate management. Adjustment of the classic, advanced object-oriented methodology is oriented on its cardinal development phases INSEPTION and ELABORATION. In these two phases important descriptions of relevant information modeling results are formed for the following CONSTRUCTION phase and TRANSITION phase. Editing, however, is methodological, and meta-documented with an example of a transparent graphical description of business services and a logical architecture of the target software.In other words, it means that this contribution provides small software companies with valuable knowledge for the creation of their own development methodologies on a platform of enterprise services. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the formation of implementing development methodologies, which absorb current knowledge disciplines of Software and Information Engineering.

  2. Methodological foundations of target market enterprise orientation

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    N.V. Karpenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author determines the importance of target market orientation maintenance which content is based on marketing principles and envisages the interrelationship of market segmentation processes and positioning. Proposed methodological principles of segmentation implementation are the result of the authors own research, and the process of positioning is examined through the five-level system that contains three stages and two variants of organizational behavior.

  3. Methodological foundations of target market enterprise orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Karpenko, N.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the article the author determines the importance of target market orientation maintenance which content is based on marketing principles and envisages the interrelationship of market segmentation processes and positioning. Proposed methodological principles of segmentation implementation are the result of the authors own research, and the process of positioning is examined through the five-level system that contains three stages and two variants of organizational behavior.

  4. Methodological foundations of target market enterprise orientation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N.V. Karpenko

    2012-01-01

    In the article the author determines the importance of target market orientation maintenance which content is based on marketing principles and envisages the interrelationship of market segmentation...

  5. Research on object-oriented SOC design methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The growing complexity of System on Chip (SOC) requires a system level specification and design approach. High-level languages such as C+ +/SystemC can play multiple roles in system design as target languages. There are many practical problems in the application of object-oriented methods for this goal. Based on the analysis of traditional and system-level design methodology, a new object-oriented SOC design methodology with object-oriented design patterns is proposed, which emphasizes high-level design and verification. Aiming at the final goal of developing design patterns specific to SOC design, the reuse of design patterns in SOC systems and the capability of new SOC design patterns are discussed. With the illustration of some concrete examples of SOC design patterns, the application of object-oriented design methodology in the SOC design process is presented.

  6. Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations

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    Helena Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, case study research has undergone substantial methodological development. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines with different philosophical perspectives, resulting in a variety of definitions and approaches. For the researcher new to using case study, such variety can create a confusing platform for its application. In this article, we explore the evolution of case study research, discuss methodological variations, and summarize key elements with the aim of providing guidance on the available options for researchers wanting to use case study in their work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1701195

  7. REVISION AND REWRITING IN OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS: CONCEPTS AND METHODOLOGICAL ORIENTATIONS

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    Renilson José MENEGASSI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The text discuss how the concepts and the methodological orientations about text revision and rewriting processes, in teaching context, are conceived, presented and guide the Portuguese Language teacher’s work. To this end, the concepts of revision and rewriting are characterized in four Brazilian official documents, two from national scope and two from Paraná state. The information was organized from what the documents show about the teacher and student attitude face to the investigated concepts, which determine the methodological orientations to the text production work. The results show irregularities in these processes handling, highlighting one of the official documents, from national scope, as the one that presents more suitable methodological and conceptual orientations. It shows that the documents which guide the mother language teaching in the country are still not appropriately discussing the writing text production process, specifically the revision and rewriting, even in more recent documents.

  8. An Iterative Methodology for Teaching Object Oriented Concepts

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    Irit HADAR

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract thinking is a vital skill when learning computer science. Object technology and the concepts it is based upon make this skill even more crucial. However, previous research works show that students in top universities as well as experienced practitioners in industry encounter difficulties in thinking in abstract terms while practicing object oriented development. In this paper we suggest an iterative teaching methodology for supporting students in learning object oriented concepts. The suggested methodology is based on familiarizing students with modeling languages and tools at the early stages of their learning and iterating between model and code. We theoretically examine the contribution of modeling languages, in particular UML, to abstract thinking and consequently to the understanding of object oriented concepts and present some observations acquired during a trial execution of this methodology in a university course.

  9. Production systems design : a product oriented approach and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Production systems design is critical to achieving manufacturing performance and objectives. Although generic approaches to this design are available they may not be able to objectively address specific manufacturing configurations. Here it is argued that product oriented manufacturing (POM) organization offers advantages in relation to the function oriented one. Based on this, a methodology specially addressing POM systems design, and prototype of a Computer Aided Design Syste...

  10. Service-Oriented Simulation Framework: An Overview and Unifying Methodology

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    Wang, Wenguang; Zhu, Yifan; Li, Qun; 10.1177/0037549710391838

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing net-centric environment demands and enables modeling and simulation to combine efforts from numerous disciplines. Software techniques and methodology, in particular service-oriented architecture, provide such an opportunity. Service-oriented simulation has been an emerging paradigm following on from object- and process-oriented methods. However, the ad-hoc frameworks proposed so far generally focus on specific domains or systems and each has its pros and cons. They are capable of addressing different issues within service-oriented simulation from different viewpoints. It is increasingly important to describe and evaluate the progress of numerous frameworks. In this paper, we propose a novel three-dimensional reference model for a service-oriented simulation paradigm. The model can be used as a guideline or an analytic means to find the potential and possible future directions of the current simulation frameworks. In particular, the model inspects the crossover between the disciplines of modelin...

  11. An aspect-oriented methodology for designing secure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georg, Geri; Ray, Indrakshi; Anastasakis, Kyriakos; Bordbar, Behzad; Toahchoodee, Manachai; Houmb, Siv Hilde

    2009-01-01

    We propose a methodology, based on aspect-oriented modeling (AOM), for incorporating security mechanisms in an application. The functionality of the application is described using the primary model and the attacks are specified using aspects. The attack aspect is composed with the primary model to o

  12. An aspect-oriented methodology for designing secure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georg, Geri; Ray, Indrakshi; Anastasakis, Kyriakos; Bordbar, Behzad; Toahchoodee, Manachai; Houmb, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a methodology, based on aspect-oriented modeling (AOM), for incorporating security mechanisms in an application. The functionality of the application is described using the primary model and the attacks are specified using aspects. The attack aspect is composed with the primary model to o

  13. Developing Agent-Oriented Video Surveillance System through Agent-Oriented Methodology (AOM

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    Cheah Wai Shiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-oriented methodology (AOM is a comprehensive and unified agent methodology for agent-oriented software development. Although AOM is claimed to be able to cope with a complex system development, it is still not yet determined up to what extent this may be true. Therefore, it is vital to conduct an investigation to validate this methodology. This paper presents the adoption of AOM in developing an agent-oriented video surveillance system (VSS. An intruder handling scenario is designed and implemented through AOM. AOM provides an alternative method to engineer a distributed security system in a systematic manner. It presents the security system at a holistic view; provides a better conceptualization of agent-oriented security system and supports rapid prototyping as well as simulation of video surveillance system.

  14. AONBench: A Methodology for Benchmarking XML Based Service Oriented Applications

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    Abdul Waheed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Service Oriented Architectures (SOA and applications increasingly rely on network infrastructure instead of back-end servers. Cisco system Application Oriented Networking (AON initiative exemplifies this trend. Benchmarking such infrastructure and their services is expected to play an important role in the networking industry. We present AONBech specifications and methodology to benchmark networked XML application servers and appliances. AONBench is not a benchmarking tool. It is a specification and methodology for performance measurements, which leverages from existing XML microbenchmarks and uses HTTP for end-to-end communication. We implement AONBench specifications for end-to-end performance measurements through public domain HTTP load generation tool ApacheBench and Apache web server. We present three case studies of using AONBench for architecting real application oriented networking products.

  15. NPA4K development system using object-oriented methodology

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    Jeong, Kwang Seong; Hahn, Do Hee

    2000-11-01

    NPA4K consists of module programs with several components for various functions. Software components have to be developed systematically by compartment criteria and design method. In this paper, the understandings of a typical Object-Oriented Methodology , UML(Unified Modeling Language), the procedure for NPA4K program development and the architecture for long-term development of NPA4K are introduced.

  16. A Methodology to Evaluate Agent Oriented Software Engineering Techniques

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    Lin, Chia-En [University of North Texas; Kavi, Krishna M. [University of North Texas; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Daley, Kristopher M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Systems using software agents (or multi-agent systems, MAS) are becoming more popular within the development mainstream because, as the name suggests, an agent aims to handle tasks autonomously with intelligence. To benefit from autonomous control and reduced running costs, system functions are performed automatically. Agent-oriented considerations are being steadily accepted into the various software design paradigms. Agents may work alone, but most commonly, they cooperate toward achieving some application goal(s). MAS's are components in systems that are viewed as many individuals living in a society working together. From a SE perspective, solving a problem should encompass problem realization, requirements analysis, architecture design and implementation. These steps should be implemented within a life-cycle process including testing, verification, and reengineering to proving the built system is sound. In this paper, we explore the various applications of agent-based systems categorized into different application domains. A baseline is developed herein to help us focus on the core of agent concepts throughout the comparative study and to investigate both the object-oriented and agent-oriented techniques that are available for constructing agent-based systems. In each respect, we address the conceptual background associated with these methodologies and how available tools can be applied within specific domains.

  17. Directing Orientation towards Independent Study in a Histology Methodological Lesson

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    Melvis Taylín Zumeta Dubé

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching of medical sciences should be able to train students with an active and innovative way of thinking, which demands teachers with pedagogical and professional preparation. The present paper provides a design of an instructive methodological lesson, based on motivation and encouragement for developing creative thinking in students of medicine. Basically, the objective is to present basic elements of this form of methodological teaching work. Preparation of a methodological lesson requires a previous hard work of discussion and analysis, noting the objective and the methodological and conceptual problem.

  18. Methodological Support for Service-oriented Design with ISDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Dijkman, R.M.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    Currently, service-oriented computing is mainly technology-driven. Most developments focus on the technology that enables enterprises to describe, publish and compose application services, and to communicate with applications of other enterprises according to their service descriptions. In this

  19. Teaching Research Methodologies to Professionally Oriented Honors Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Julie; Mandel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of encouraging undergraduate students to pursue independent research have been well documented (Craney; Guterman; Hathaway et al.; Ishiyama; Kremer and Bringle; Volkwein and Carbone). Introducing students to research processes and protocols is always a challenge, particularly for students enrolled in professionally oriented,…

  20. Oriental Medical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

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    Hae-Yeon Lee

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spinal stenosis results from the progressive combined narrowing of the central spinal canal, the neurorecesses, and the neuroforaminal canals. In the absence of prior surgery, tumor, or infection, the spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposis posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins, or a combination of two or more of the above factors. Patients with spinal stenosis become symptomatic when pain, motor weakness, paresthesia, or other neurologic compromise causes distress. In one case, we administrated oriental medical treatment with acupuncture treatment and herb-medicine. Oriental medical treatment showed desirable effect on lumbar spinal stenosis.

  1. Advanced software development workstation: Object-oriented methodologies and applications for flight planning and mission operations

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    Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The work accomplished during the past nine months in order to help three different organizations involved in Flight Planning and in Mission Operations systems, to transition to Object-Oriented Technology, by adopting one of the currently most widely used Object-Oriented analysis and Design Methodology is summarized.

  2. Methodological Orientation of Research Articles Appearing in Higher Education Journals

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    Ritter, Sherri E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of…

  3. Towards a self-adaptive service-oriented methodology based on extended SOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza PARVIZI-MOSAED‡; Shahrouz MOAVEN; Jafar HABIBI; Ghazaleh BEIGI; Mahdieh NASER-SHARIAT

    2015-01-01

    We propose a self-adaptive process (SAP) that maintains the software architecture quality using the MAPE-K standard model. The proposed process can be plugged into various software development processes and service-oriented meth-odologies due to its explicitly defined inputs and outputs. To this aim, the proposed SAP is integrated with the service-oriented modeling and application (SOMA) methodology in a two-layered structure to create a novel methodology, named self-adaptive service-oriented architecture methodology (SASOAM), which provides a semi-automatic self-aware method by the composition of architectural tactics. Moreover, the maintenance activity of SOMA is improved using architectural and adaptive patterns, which results in controlling the software architecture quality. The improvement in the maintainability of SOMA is demonstrated by an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based evaluation method. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to a case study to represent the feasibility and practicality of SASOAM.

  4. Non-coplanar automatic beam orientation selection in cranial IMRT: a practical methodology

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    Llacer, Jorge [EC Engineering Consultants LLC, 130 Forest Hill Drive, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (United States); Li Sicong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Agazaryan, Nzhde; Solberg, Timothy D [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Promberger, Claus [BrainLAB AG, Kapellenstrasse 12, 85622 Feldkirchen (Germany)], E-mail: escalivat@jllacer.com, E-mail: sl1@unmc.edu, E-mail: NAgazaryan@mednet.ucla.edu, E-mail: claus.promberger@brainlab.com, E-mail: Timothy.Solberg@utsouthwestern.edu

    2009-03-07

    This paper proposes a method for automatic selection of beam orientations in non-coplanar cranial IMRT. Methods of computer vision, beam's eye view techniques and neural networks are used to define a new geometry-based methodology that leads to treatment plans for cranial lesions that are comparable in quality to those generated by experienced radiation physicists. The automatic beam selection (ABS) process can be carried out in clinically useful computation times, in 1 min or less for most cases. In the process of describing the ABS process, it is shown that the cranial beam orientation optimization problem is mathematically ill posed, with the expectation that a large number of solutions will lead to similar results. Nevertheless, there are better and worse solutions and we show that the proposed ABS process, by its design, has to lead to one of the better ones. We have carried out extensive tests with 14 patients with beam selection tasks ranging from the rather simple to quite complex. The ABS process has always yielded optimizations with results that are considered good for clinic use. Seven-beam coplanar optimizations for some of the patients have also been investigated. Comparisons with non-coplanar optimizations indicate in which cases the simpler coplanar plans can be used to advantage. Parameters used in the comparisons are dose-volume histograms, minimum and maximum PTV doses, equivalent uniform doses for the PTV and OARs, and treatment volume, conformity and normal tissue indices. It is felt that the current ABS methodology is ready for extensive clinical tests.

  5. A Methodology to Evaluate Object oriented Software Systems Using Change Requirement Traceability Based on Impact Analysis

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    Sunil T. D

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that software maintenance plays a major role and finds importance in software development life cycle. As object - oriented programming has become the standard, it is very important to understand the problems of maintaining object -oriented software systems. This paper aims at evaluating object - oriented software system through change requirement traceability – based impact analysis methodology for non functional requirements using functional requirements . The major issues have been related to change impact algorithms and inheritance of functionality.

  6. A performance-oriented power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization

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    Amr A. Adly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transformers are regarded as crucial components in power systems. Due to market globalization, power transformer manufacturers are facing an increasingly competitive environment that mandates the adoption of design strategies yielding better performance at lower costs. In this paper, a power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization is proposed. Using this methodology, which is tailored to be target performance design-oriented, quick rough estimation of transformer design specifics may be inferred. Testing of the suggested approach revealed significant qualitative and quantitative match with measured design and performance values. Details of the proposed methodology as well as sample design results are reported in the paper.

  7. A performance-oriented power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Amr A; Abd-El-Hafiz, Salwa K

    2015-05-01

    Transformers are regarded as crucial components in power systems. Due to market globalization, power transformer manufacturers are facing an increasingly competitive environment that mandates the adoption of design strategies yielding better performance at lower costs. In this paper, a power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization is proposed. Using this methodology, which is tailored to be target performance design-oriented, quick rough estimation of transformer design specifics may be inferred. Testing of the suggested approach revealed significant qualitative and quantitative match with measured design and performance values. Details of the proposed methodology as well as sample design results are reported in the paper.

  8. Surreptitious, Evolving and Participative Ontology Development: An End-User Oriented Ontology Development Methodology

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    Bachore, Zelalem

    2012-01-01

    Ontology not only is considered to be the backbone of the semantic web but also plays a significant role in distributed and heterogeneous information systems. However, ontology still faces limited application and adoption to date. One of the major problems is that prevailing engineering-oriented methodologies for building ontologies do not…

  9. Surreptitious, Evolving and Participative Ontology Development: An End-User Oriented Ontology Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachore, Zelalem

    2012-01-01

    Ontology not only is considered to be the backbone of the semantic web but also plays a significant role in distributed and heterogeneous information systems. However, ontology still faces limited application and adoption to date. One of the major problems is that prevailing engineering-oriented methodologies for building ontologies do not…

  10. Object-oriented analysis and design: a methodology for modeling the computer-based patient record.

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    Egyhazy, C J; Eyestone, S M; Martino, J; Hodgson, C L

    1998-08-01

    The article highlights the importance of an object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) methodology for the computer-based patient record (CPR) in the military environment. Many OOAD methodologies do not adequately scale up, allow for efficient reuse of their products, or accommodate legacy systems. A methodology that addresses these issues is formulated and used to demonstrate its applicability in a large-scale health care service system. During a period of 6 months, a team of object modelers and domain experts formulated an OOAD methodology tailored to the Department of Defense Military Health System and used it to produce components of an object model for simple order processing. This methodology and the lessons learned during its implementation are described. This approach is necessary to achieve broad interoperability among heterogeneous automated information systems.

  11. An NAFP Project: Use of Object Oriented Methodologies and Design Patterns to Refactor Software Design

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    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    In the early problem-solution era of software programming, functional decompositions were mainly used to design and implement software solutions. In functional decompositions, functions and data are introduced as two separate entities during the design phase, and are followed as such in the implementation phase. Functional decompositions make use of refactoring through optimizing the algorithms, grouping similar functionalities into common reusable functions, and using abstract representations of data where possible; all these are done during the implementation phase. This paper advocates the usage of object-oriented methodologies and design patterns as the centerpieces of refactoring software solutions. Refactoring software is a method of changing software design while explicitly preserving its external functionalities. The combined usage of object-oriented methodologies and design patterns to refactor should also benefit the overall software life cycle cost with improved software.

  12. Methodology for object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design: Software engineering

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    Schoeffler, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Successful application of software engineering methodologies requires an integrated analysis and design life-cycle in which the various phases flow smoothly 'seamlessly' from analysis through design to implementation. Furthermore, different analysis methodologies often lead to different structuring of the system so that the transition from analysis to design may be awkward depending on the design methodology to be used. This is especially important when object-oriented programming is to be used for implementation when the original specification and perhaps high-level design is non-object oriented. Two approaches to real-time systems analysis which can lead to an object-oriented design are contrasted: (1) modeling the system using structured analysis with real-time extensions which emphasizes data and control flows followed by the abstraction of objects where the operations or methods of the objects correspond to processes in the data flow diagrams and then design in terms of these objects; and (2) modeling the system from the beginning as a set of naturally occurring concurrent entities (objects) each having its own time-behavior defined by a set of states and state-transition rules and seamlessly transforming the analysis models into high-level design models. A new concept of a 'real-time systems-analysis object' is introduced and becomes the basic building block of a series of seamlessly-connected models which progress from the object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design system analysis logical models through the physical architectural models and the high-level design stages. The methodology is appropriate to the overall specification including hardware and software modules. In software modules, the systems analysis objects are transformed into software objects.

  13. A Transformation-oriented Methodology to Knowledge-based Conceptual Data Warehouse Design

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    Opim S. Sitompul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of artificial intelligence (AI technology in the form of knowledge-based systems within the context of database design have been extensively researched particularly to provide support within the conceptual design phase. However, a similar approach to the task of data warehouse design has yet to be seriously initiated. In this paper, we proposed a design methodology for conceptual data warehouse design called the transformation-oriented methodology, which transforms an Entity-Relationship (ER model into a multidimensional model based on a series of transformation and analysis rules. The transformation-oriented methodology translates the ER model into a specification language model and transformed it into an initial problem domain model. A set of synthesis and diagnosis rules will then gradually transform the problem domain model into the multidimensional model. A prototype KB tool called the DWDesigner has been developed to implement the aforementioned methodology. The multidimensional model produces by the DWDesigner as output is presented in a graphical form for better visualization. Testing has been conducted to a number of design problems, such as university, business and hospital domains and consistent results have been achieved.

  14. Methodology for Orientation and Fusion of Photogrammetric and Lidardatas for Multitemporal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomo-Jiménez, C.; Pérez-García, J. L.; Fernández-del Castillo, T.; Gómez-López, J. M.; Mozas-Calvache, A. T.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, data fusion is one of the trends in geomatics sciences, due to the necessity of merging data from different kind of sensors and periods of time. Also, to extrract the maximum information from data and useful multitemporal analysis, an exact geoconnection of all datasets in a common and stable reference system is essential. The results of the application of a methodology for an integrated orientation into a common reference system using data obtained by LiDAR systems, digital and historical photogrammetric flights dataset, used for proper analysis in multitemporal studies, are presented in this paper. In order to analyse the results of the presented methodology, several photogrammetric datasets have been used. This data corresponds with digital and analogic data. The most current flight (2010) combines data obtained with digital photogrammetric camera and LiDAR sensor which will be used as reference model for all subsequent photogrammetry flights. The philosophy of the methodology consists of orientating all photogrammetric flights to the DEM obtained by LiDAR data. All the models obtained from every photogrammetric block are comparable in terms of the geometric resolution of each one. For that reason, altimetric stable points are extracted automatically from the LiDAR points cloud to use these points such as altimetric control point in the different flights that must be oriented. Using LiDAR control points, we demonstrate the improvement in the results between initial orientation and final results. Also it is possible to improve the planimetric correspondence between different photogrammetric blocks using only altimetric control points iteratively.

  15. METHODOLOGY FOR ORIENTATION AND FUSION OF PHOTOGRAMMETRIC AND LIDARDATAS FOR MULTITEMPORAL STUDIES

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    C. Colomo-Jiménez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, data fusion is one of the trends in geomatics sciences, due to the necessity of merging data from different kind of sensors and periods of time. Also, to extrract the maximum information from data and useful multitemporal analysis, an exact geoconnection of all datasets in a common and stable reference system is essential. The results of the application of a methodology for an integrated orientation into a common reference system using data obtained by LiDAR systems, digital and historical photogrammetric flights dataset, used for proper analysis in multitemporal studies, are presented in this paper. In order to analyse the results of the presented methodology, several photogrammetric datasets have been used. This data corresponds with digital and analogic data. The most current flight (2010 combines data obtained with digital photogrammetric camera and LiDAR sensor which will be used as reference model for all subsequent photogrammetry flights. The philosophy of the methodology consists of orientating all photogrammetric flights to the DEM obtained by LiDAR data. All the models obtained from every photogrammetric block are comparable in terms of the geometric resolution of each one. For that reason, altimetric stable points are extracted automatically from the LiDAR points cloud to use these points such as altimetric control point in the different flights that must be oriented. Using LiDAR control points, we demonstrate the improvement in the results between initial orientation and final results. Also it is possible to improve the planimetric correspondence between different photogrammetric blocks using only altimetric control points iteratively.

  16. Climate for innovation, 12-step orientation, and tobacco cessation treatment.

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    Muilenburg, Jessica L; Laschober, Tanja C; Eby, Lillian T

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between (1) three indicators of climate for innovation (clinician skills, absence of program obstacles, policy-related incentives) and adoption extensiveness of both behavioral treatments for tobacco cessation (TC) and system-level support for TC in substance use disorder treatment programs, (2) a program's 12-step treatment orientation and adoption extensiveness, and (3) whether 12-step treatment orientation moderates the relationship between climate for innovation and adoption extensiveness. Data were obtained from a random sample of 1006 program administrators. Hierarchical regression results showed that both absence of program obstacles and policy-related incentives are positively related to adoption extensiveness. Twelve-step treatment orientation is neither related to adoption extensiveness nor a moderator of the relationship between climate for innovation and adoption extensiveness. Although the adoption of both behavioral treatments for TC and system-level support for TC is not extensive, we conclude that a 12-step treatment orientation neither hampers nor promotes adoption extensiveness.

  17. Model-driven methodology for rapid deployment of smart spaces based on resource-oriented architectures.

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    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R

    2012-01-01

    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  18. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

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    José R. Casar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT and Web of Things (WoT are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA. This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  19. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  20. Proposal of a Methodology for Implementing a Service-Oriented Architecture in Distributed Manufacturing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, I.; Garcia-Dominguez, A.; Aguayo, F.; Sevilla, L.; Marcos, M.

    2009-11-01

    As envisioned by Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS), Next Generation Manufacturing Systems (NGMS) will satisfy the needs of an increasingly fast-paced and demanding market by dynamically integrating systems from inside and outside the manufacturing firm itself into a so-called extended enterprise. However, organizing these systems to ensure the maximum flexibility and interoperability with those from other organizations is difficult. Additionally, a defect in the system would have a great impact: it would affect not only its owner, but also its partners. For these reasons, we argue that a service-oriented architecture (SOA) would be a good candidate. It should be designed following a methodology where services play a central role, instead of being an implementation detail. In order for the architecture to be reliable enough as a whole, the methodology will need to help find errors before they arise in a production environment. In this paper we propose using SOA-specific testing techniques, compare some of the existing methodologies and outline several extensions upon one of them to integrate testing techniques.

  1. Optimisation of beam-orientations in conformal radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowbottom, C.G

    1999-07-01

    Many synergistic advances have led to the beginnings of the routine use of conformal radiotherapy. These include advances in diagnostic imaging, in 3D treatment planning, in the technology for complex treatment delivery and in computer assessment of rival treatment plans. A conformal radiotherapy treatment plan more closely conforms the high-dose volume to the target volume, reducing the dose to normal healthy tissue. Traditionally, human planners have devised the treatment parameters used in radiotherapy treatment plans via a manually iterative process. Computer 'optimisation' algorithms have been shown to improve treatment plans as they can explore much more of the search space in a relatively short time. This thesis examines beam-orientation computer 'optimisation' in radiotherapy treatment planning and several new techniques were developed. Using these techniques a comparison was performed between treatment plans with 'standard', fixed beam-orientations and treatment plans with 'optimised' beam-orientations for patients with cancer of the prostate, oesophagus and brain. Plans were compared on the basis of dose-distributions and in some cases biological models for the probability of damage to the target volume and the major organs-at-risk (OARs) in each patient group. A cohort of patients was considered in each group to avoid bias from a specific patient geometry. In the case of the patient cohort with cancer of the prostate, a coplanar beam-orientation 'optimisation' scheme led to an average increase in the TCP of (5.7{+-}1.4)% compared to the standard plans after the dose to the isocentre had been scaled to produce a rectal NTCP of 1%. For the patient cohort with cancer of the oesophagus, the beam-orientation 'optimisation' scheme reduced the average lung NTCP by (0.7{+-}0.2)% at the expense of a modest increase in the average spinal cord NTCP of (0.1{+-}0.2)%. A non-coplanar beam-orientation &apos

  2. A real-time fault diagnosis methodology of complex systems using object-oriented Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Hanlin; Xie, Min

    2016-12-01

    Bayesian network (BN) is a commonly used tool in probabilistic reasoning of uncertainty in industrial processes, but it requires modeling of large and complex systems, in situations such as fault diagnosis and reliability evaluation. Motivated by reduction of the overall complexities of BNs for fault diagnosis, and the reporting of faults that immediately occur, a real-time fault diagnosis methodology of complex systems with repetitive structures is proposed using object-oriented Bayesian networks (OOBNs). The modeling methodology consists of two main phases: an off-line OOBN construction phase and an on-line fault diagnosis phase. In the off-line phase, sensor historical data and expert knowledge are collected and processed to determine the faults and symptoms, and OOBN-based fault diagnosis models are developed subsequently. In the on-line phase, operator experience and sensor real-time data are placed in the OOBNs to perform the fault diagnosis. According to engineering experience, the judgment rules are defined to obtain the fault diagnosis results.

  3. [Course-oriented single-case studies in clinical practice--methodology and examples for use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessle, R G

    1987-07-01

    Although the relevance of single-case methodology for clinical research is stressed frequently in the literature, clinicians do seldom use this approach. The present contribution is an attempt to stimulate and exemplify the realization of single-case designs clinical settings. In the first part of this paper single-case designs and strategies of statistical analysis for practical use are discussed. In the second part three empirical studies are reported: (1) An A/B-design for evaluation of a relaxation program for treatment of chronic headache; (2) an A/B/A/B-design to analyze the effect of cognitive-behavioral treatment in anxiety; and (3) an A/B/C/B/C-desing to test psychological treatment in rehabilitation of a schizophrenic patient.

  4. Contingency theoretic methodology for agent-based web-oriented manufacturing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrett, John R.; Burnell, Lisa J.; Priest, John W.

    2000-12-01

    The development of distributed, agent-based, web-oriented, N-tier Information Systems (IS) must be supported by a design methodology capable of responding to the convergence of shifts in business process design, organizational structure, computing, and telecommunications infrastructures. We introduce a contingency theoretic model for the use of open, ubiquitous software infrastructure in the design of flexible organizational IS. Our basic premise is that developers should change in the way they view the software design process from a view toward the solution of a problem to one of the dynamic creation of teams of software components. We postulate that developing effective, efficient, flexible, component-based distributed software requires reconceptualizing the current development model. The basic concepts of distributed software design are merged with the environment-causes-structure relationship from contingency theory; the task-uncertainty of organizational- information-processing relationships from information processing theory; and the concept of inter-process dependencies from coordination theory. Software processes are considered as employees, groups of processes as software teams, and distributed systems as software organizations. Design techniques already used in the design of flexible business processes and well researched in the domain of the organizational sciences are presented. Guidelines that can be utilized in the creation of component-based distributed software will be discussed.

  5. Engineering-Oriented Practical Training Methodology for Undergraduate and a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Zuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the education method which is different from traditional Chinese education methods for its accentuation of practical training is proposed. Compared with traditional engineering education methods, engineering-oriented practical training methodology is student-centered, contains various educational activities, requires interdisciplinary skills, values teamwork and have more objective evaluation methods. Based on the educational case of anti-skid control of railway train, a semi-physical simulation platform is introduced with details in design philosophy, system structure, operator interface and training process. The intention of creating the platform is to provide the students who use it with more hands-on experience since one of the key factors in transfer of learning is the diversion of practice. Based on the knowledge transfer theory, we encourage our students to do their work more independently and freely and the corresponding scores of their performance prove that the students who are better-rounded tend to perform well in the training courses we offered while those only with straight a scores may not outperform their classmates. Thus, the results indicate that this mode is effective in education and instructive to the reform of technological college education.

  6. Methodological criteria for the internal validity and utility of practice oriented research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Verschuren, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    For conducting practice oriented research different research strategies are available. In this paper a typology is developed for differentiating between practice oriented research strategies that are data based and participatory research strategies. The former category involves quantitative and

  7. Methodological criteria for the internal validity and utility of practice oriented research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Verschuren, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    For conducting practice oriented research different research strategies are available. In this paper a typology is developed for differentiating between practice oriented research strategies that are data based and participatory research strategies. The former category involves quantitative and qual

  8. A systematic methodology for controller tuning in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Jørgensen, S.B.; Sin, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are typically subject to continuous disturbances caused by influent variations which exhibits diurnal patterns as well as stochastic changes due to rain and storm water events. In order to achieve an efficient operation, the control system of the plant should be able...... to respond appropriately and reject these disturbances in the influent. A methodology is described here which systematically addresses the assessment of the plant and the influent dynamics, in order to propose a controller tuning that is best adapted to an existing or planned wastewater treatment plant...

  9. Agent-Oriented Methodology and Modeling Tools%面向主体的开发方法和可视化建模工具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季强

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an agent-oriented methodology and modeling tools based on MAGE. The methodology supports analysis, desing and implimentation of multi-agent systems. The modeling tools assist the developer in building multi-agent systems using the methodology through a set of visual model editors.

  10. Creativity, mental disorders and their treatment: recovery-oriented psychopharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro

    2013-09-01

    This paper discusses interrelations between creativity, mental disorders and their treatment. The psychology of creativity is very important for successful psychopharmacotherapy, but our knowledge about creativity is still insufficient. Even that which is known is not within the armamentarium of most practicing psychiatrists. In the first part of this article creativity and possible associations between creativity, mental health, and well-being are described. The second part deals with the intriguing relationship between creativity and mental disorders. The third part emphasizes the role of creativity in the treatment of mental disorders. This paper ends by underlining the importance of a creativity-enhancing oriented, and personal recovery-focused psychopharmacotherapy in helping psychiatric patients achieve fulfilled and purposeful lives.

  11. Orientation Uncertainty of Structures Measured in Cored Boreholes: Methodology and Case Study of Swedish Crystalline Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigsson, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Many engineering applications in fractured crystalline rocks use measured orientations of structures such as rock contact and fractures, and lineated objects such as foliation and rock stress, mapped in boreholes as their foundation. Despite that these measurements are afflicted with uncertainties, very few attempts to quantify their magnitudes and effects on the inferred orientations have been reported. Only relying on the specification of tool imprecision may considerably underestimate the actual uncertainty space. The present work identifies nine sources of uncertainties, develops inference models of their magnitudes, and points out possible implications for the inference on orientation models and thereby effects on downstream models. The uncertainty analysis in this work builds on a unique data set from site investigations, performed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB). During these investigations, more than 70 boreholes with a maximum depth of 1 km were drilled in crystalline rock with a cumulative length of more than 34 km including almost 200,000 single fracture intercepts. The work presented, hence, relies on orientation of fractures. However, the techniques to infer the magnitude of orientation uncertainty may be applied to all types of structures and lineated objects in boreholes. The uncertainties are not solely detrimental, but can be valuable, provided that the reason for their presence is properly understood and the magnitudes correctly inferred. The main findings of this work are as follows: (1) knowledge of the orientation uncertainty is crucial in order to be able to infer correct orientation model and parameters coupled to the fracture sets; (2) it is important to perform multiple measurements to be able to infer the actual uncertainty instead of relying on the theoretical uncertainty provided by the manufacturers; (3) it is important to use the most appropriate tool for the prevailing circumstances; and (4) the single most

  12. Adherence evaluation of endocrine treatment in breast cancer: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberguggenberger Anne S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current studies on adherence to endocrine therapy in breast cancer patients suffer from methodological limitations due to a lack of well-validated methods for assessing adherence. There is no gold standard for measuring adherence. The aim of our study was to compare four different approaches for evaluating adherence to anastrozole therapy for breast cancer with regard to concordance between methods. Methods Outpatients with early breast cancer treated with anastrozole completed the multi-method assessment of adherence. We implemented a self-report scale (the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire, physician- ratings, refill records and determination of anastrozole serum concentration. Results Comparison of the four approaches using Spearman rank correlation revealed poor concordance across all methods reflecting weak correlations of 0.2-0.4. Considering this data incomparability across methods, we still observed high adherence rates of 78%-98% across measures. Conclusion Our findings contribute to the growing body of knowledge on the impact that methodological aspects exert on the results of adherence measurement in breast cancer patients receiving endocrine treatment. Our findings suggest that the development and validation of instruments specific to patients receiving endocrine agents is imperative in order to arrive at a more accurate assessment and to subsequently obtain more precise estimates of adherence rates in this patient population.

  13. A user-centered, object-oriented methodology for developing Health Information Systems: a Clinical Information System (CIS) example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Georgios; Anastassopoulos, George C; Karakos, Alexandros S; Anagnostou, Emmanouil; Danielides, Vasileios

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to present our perspectives on healthcare analysis and design and the lessons learned from our experience with the development of a distributed, object-oriented Clinical Information System (CIS). In order to overcome known issues regarding development, implementation and finally acceptance of a CIS by the physicians we decided to develop a novel object-oriented methodology by integrating usability principles and techniques in a simplified version of a well established software engineering process (SEP), the Unified Process (UP). A multilayer architecture has been defined and implemented with the use of a vendor application framework. Our first experiences from a pilot implementation of our CIS are positive. This approach allowed us to gain a socio-technical understanding of the domain and enabled us to identify all the important factors that define both the structure and the behavior of a Health Information System.

  14. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  15. Assessing wildlife value orientations in China: an exploration of the concepts and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Xiangyou Shen; Harry Zinn; Alex Yasong Wang

    2007-01-01

    The wildlife value orientation (WVO) construct has been used to describe deeply-held beliefs about how humans should relate to wildlife. As part of a larger effort to test the usefulness of the WVO construct across cultures, we conducted pilot testing of the construct in China. Sixteen mixed-method interviews were conducted in five cities/towns in China. Participants...

  16. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  17. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  18. Recovery orientation of treatment, consumer empowerment, and satisfaction with services: a mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Blake; Young, M Scott; Teague, Gregory B; Winarski, James T; Moore, Kathleen A; Ochshorn, Ezra

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the recovery orientation of treatment and subjective experiences of consumer empowerment and satisfaction with services for individuals with severe and persistent mental illness. Instruments measuring perceptions of empowerment, recovery orientation of treatment, and satisfaction with services were administered to 45 participants enrolled in two demographically similar mental health treatment programs in Tampa, Florida - a community mental health center and an Assertive Community Treatment team. Analyses were conducted according to traditional mediation models. Empowerment was expected to mediate the relationship between the recovery orientation of treatment and consumer satisfaction with services. A recovery-based treatment orientation significantly predicted both consumer empowerment and satisfaction with services. Empowerment mediated the relationship between treatment orientation and consumer satisfaction. These preliminary findings highlight the impact of the recovery orientation of treatment on empowerment and satisfaction with services among individuals with severe and persistent mental illness.

  19. Semantic analysis according to Peep Koort--a substance-oriented research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivonen, Kerstin; Kasén, Anne; Eriksson, Katie

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the hermeneutic semantic analysis created by professor Peep Koort (1920-1977) and to discuss it as a methodology for research within caring science. The methodology is developed with a hermeneutic approach that differs from the traditions of semantic analysis in philosophy or linguistics. The research objects are core concepts and theoretical constructs (originally within the academic discipline of education science, later on within the academic discipline of caring science), focusing deeper understanding of essential meaning content when developing a discipline. The qualitative methodology of hermeneutic semantic analysis is described step by step as created by Koort, interpreted and developed by the authors. An etymological investigation and an analysis of synonymy between related concepts within a conceptual family guides the researcher to understand and discriminate conceptual dimensions of meaning content connected to the word studied, thus giving opportunities to summarise it in a theoretical definition, a discovery that can be tested in varying contexts. From a caring science perspective, we find the hermeneutic methodology of semantic analysis fruitful and suitable for researchers developing their understanding of core concepts and theoretical constructs connected to the development of the academic discipline.

  20. Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Mohr, Jonathan J.; Worthington, Roger L.; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is…

  1. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  2. A Trajectory-Oriented, Carriageway-Based Road Network Data Model, Part 2: Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; LIN Hui

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of a three-part series of papers which presents the principle and architecture of the CRNM, a trajectory-oriented, carriageway-based road network data model. The first part of the series has introduced a general background of building trajectory-oriented road network data models, including motivation, related works, and basic concepts. Based on it, this paper describs the CRNM in detail. At first, the notion of basic roadway entity is proposed and discussed. Secondly, carriageway is selected as the basic roadway entity after compared with other kinds of roadway, and approaches to representing other roadways with carriageways are introduced. At last, an overall architecture of the CRNM is proposed.

  3. Development of a User-Oriented Data Classification for Information System Design Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    SEMESTER) would define a set of tuples that represent occurrences of actual teaching events. 17 IINSTRUCTOR COURSE CED I TEACH agent object tim Figure 3:2...CONCLUSIONS A review of requirements analysis methodologies, supported by critical reviews by Couger [COU73] and Taggart and Tharp [TAG77], suggests that...TAG77] TAGGART, W. M., Jr. and M. 0. Tharp , "A Survey of Information Requirements Analysis Techniques." ACM Computing Surveys, 9:4, December 1977, 273-I

  4. Agent-oriented software engineering reflections on architectures, methodologies, languages, and frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Shehory, Onn

    2014-01-01

    With this book, Onn Shehory and Arnon Sturm, together with further contributors, introduce the reader to various facets of agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE). They provide a selected collection of state-of-the-art findings, which combines research from information systems, artificial intelligence, distributed systems and software engineering and covers essential development aspects of agent-based systems. The book chapters are organized into five parts. The first part introduces the AOSE domain in general, including introduction to agents and the peculiarities of software engineerin

  5. Quality assurance methodology for Varian RapidArc treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimia, Ileana; Cirino, Eileen T; Xiong, Li; Mower, Herbert W

    2010-09-01

    With the commercial introduction of the Varian RapidArc, a new modality for treatment planning and delivery, the need has arisen for consistent and efficient techniques for performing patient-specific quality assurance (QA) tests. In this paper we present our methodology for a RapidArc treatment plan QA procedure. For our measurements we used a 2D diode array (MapCHECK) embedded at 5 cm water equivalent depth in MapPHAN 5 phantom and an Exradin A16 ion chamber placed in six different positions in a cylindrical homogeneous phantom (QUASAR). We also checked the MUs for the RapidArc plans by using independent software (RadCalc). The agreement between Eclipse calculations and MapCHECK/MapPHAN5 measurements was evaluated using both absolute distance-to-agreement (DTA) and gamma index with 10% dose threshold (TH), 3% dose difference (DD), and 3 mm DTA. The average agreement was 94.4% for the DTA approach and 96.3% for the gamma index approach. In high-dose areas, the discrepancy between calculations and ion chamber measurements using the QUASAR phantom was within 4.5% for prostate cases. For the RadCalc calculations, we used the average SSD along the arc; however, for some patients the agreement for the MUs obtained with RadCalc versus Eclipse was inadequate (discrepancy > 5%). In these cases, the plan was divided into partial arc plans so that RadCalc could perform a better estimation of the MUs. The discrepancy was further reduced to within ~4% using this approach. Regardless of the variation in prescribed dose and location of the treated areas, we obtained very good results for all patients studied in this paper.

  6. Object-oriented modelling with unified modelling language 2.0 for simple software application based on agile methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    Unified modelling language (UML) 2.0 introduced in 2002 has been developing and influencing object-oriented software engineering and has become a standard and reference for information system analysis and design modelling. There are many concepts and theories to model the information system or software application with UML 2.0, which can make ambiguities and inconsistencies for a novice to learn to how to model the system with UML especially with UML 2.0. This article will discuss how to model the simple software application by using some of the diagrams of UML 2.0 and not by using the whole diagrams as suggested by agile methodology. Agile methodology is considered as convenient for novices because it can deliver the information technology environment to the end-user quickly and adaptively with minimal documentation. It also has the ability to deliver best performance software application according to the customer's needs. Agile methodology will make simple model with simple documentation, simple team and si...

  7. An ultrasonic methodology to non-destructively estimate the grain orientation in an anisotropic weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdelius Håkan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial step towards a non-destructive technique that estimates grain orientation in an anisotropic weld is presented in this paper. The purpose is to aid future forward simulations of ultrasonic NDT of this kind of weld to achieve a better result. A forward model that consists of a weld model, a transmitter model, a receiver model and a 2D ray tracing algorithm is introduced. An inversion based on a multi-objective genetic algorithm is also presented. Experiments are conducted for both P and SV waves in order to collect enough data used in the inversion. Calculation is conducted to fulfil the estimation with both the synthetic data and the experimental data. Concluding remarks are presented at the end of the paper.

  8. Regional energy 2050. A sustainability-oriented strategic backcasting methodology for local utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Nicolai

    2011-07-01

    A turnaround in the way we convert and consume energy is the key to successful climate change mitigation. Taking a micro-economic perspective, in order to put the necessary changes into practice corporations in the energy sector need not only have a long-term vision of the developments necessary up to the year 2050. They also have to understand the impacts these developments will have on the firm's competitiveness in short- and medium-term. Does this cause a dilemma? At least this challenge is not addressed in classical strategic management literature. The book at hand shows that sustainable development is about to become a central element of strategic management and corporate decision-making. However, classical trend-based strategy approaches do not address the systemic challenges that arise from the need for sustainable development, especially major emission reductions in the energy sector appropriately. A sustainability-oriented business strategy has to be based on a different understanding of the corporate targets, the strategic decision-making process and the role of the firm within its natural and societal environment. The author shows how corporations can engage in such a target-oriented strategy discussion by using strategic backcasting as a tool to describe their long-term targets and derive necessary measures. These corporate ''milestones'' need to be prepared and pro-actively realised within a corridor that is formed by external ''crossroad'' decisions on the different levels of energy and climate policy. A case study clarifies the presented strategic backcasting approach for local utilities. It also highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the method. (orig.)

  9. Therapist Ethnicity and Treatment Orientation Differences in Multicultural Counseling Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lauren K; Zane, Nolan; Hwang, Wei-Chin

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between therapist characteristics, therapeutic orientations, person-level and agency-level practices with cultural competency among 221 Los Angeles County community mental health clinicians. Results from an online survey indicated that compared to White therapists, ethnic minority therapists were more personally involved in communities of color, more likely to use a cultural framework in clinical practice, and perceived their agencies to be more culturally sensitive. Ethnic minority therapists also reported greater multicultural (MC) awareness and better MC counseling relationships with their clients than White therapists. Personal involvement in communities of color accounted for ethnic differences in MC awareness and MC counseling relationships. Compared to therapists with a strictly non-behavioral (psychodynamic or humanistic) orientation, therapists with an eclectic (or integrative) therapy orientation reported having a higher level of community knowledge. Therapists with an eclectic orientation reported greater MC awareness than therapists with a non-behavioral orientation, while both eclectic and behavioral (cognitive behavioral or behavior modification) therapists recounted better MC counseling relationships with their clients than therapists with a non-behavioral orientation. Community knowledge mediated eclectic vs. non-behavioral therapeutic orientation differences in MC awareness. Agency resources/linkages and outreach both moderated the relationship between therapeutic orientation and MC skills. Results suggest that if therapists become more personally involved with diverse populations, they will feel more culturally aware and feel like they have a better relationship with ethnic minority clients.

  10. BPLOM: BPM Level-Oriented Methodology for Incremental Business Process Modeling and Code Generation on Mobile Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Solis Martines

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The requirements engineering phase is the departure point for the development process of any kind of computer application, it determines the functionality needed in the working scenario of the program. Although this is a crucial point in application development, as incorrect requirement definition leads to costly error appearance in later stages of the development process, application domain experts’ implication remains minor. In order to correct this scenario, business process modeling notations were introduced to favor business expert implication in this phase, but notation complexity prevents this participation to reach its ideal state. Hence, we promote the definition of a level oriented business process methodology, which encourages the adaptation of the modeling notation to the modeling and technical knowledge shown by the expert. This approach reduces the complexity found by domain experts and enables them to model their processes completely with a level of technical detail directly proportional to their knowledge.

  11. Electrochemical treatment of deproteinated whey wastewater and optimization of treatment conditions with response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Güray; Perendeci, Altunay; Tanyolaç, Abdurrahman

    2008-08-30

    Electrochemical treatment of deproteinated whey wastewater produced during cheese manufacture was studied as an alternative treatment method for the first time in literature. Through the preliminary batch runs, appropriate electrode material was determined as iron due to high removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity. The electrochemical treatment conditions were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM), where applied voltage was kept in the range, electrolyte concentration was minimized, waste concentration and COD removal percent were maximized at 25 degrees C. Optimum conditions at 25 degrees C were estimated through RSM as 11.29 V applied voltage, 100% waste concentration (containing 40 g/L lactose) and 19.87 g/L electrolyte concentration to achieve 29.27% COD removal. However, highest COD removal through the set of runs was found as 53.32% within 8h. These results reveal the applicability of electrochemical treatment to the deproteinated whey wastewater as an alternative advanced wastewater treatment method.

  12. Methodology and planning for a microprocessor-oriented real time controller design automation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matelan, M.N.; Smith, R.J. II

    1976-11-04

    A methodology for reducing the complexity of designing dedicated real-time control systems is developed. It is shown that three areas are amenable to automation: the selection and configuration of hardware, the production of software, and the adaptation of a monitor to maintain real-time integrity of the entire system. The concept of hardware binding is introduced, and it is shown that delaying the point in the design cycle where hardware is functionally bound allows a new approach to machine independence. Concepts which allow expression of repetitive control situations are described, and a realization-independent language (CSDL), based on these concepts, is defined. Methods for automatically selecting a time-wise correct monitor are classified, and techniques for specifying the realization capabilities of digital processors are discussed. These concepts and techniques are brought together in a design automation system for the production of a complete controller design from a behavioral description. An example description is traced through the CSD System; a software listing and hardware configuration document for an actual microprocessor (the Intel 8080) is produced. This research provides a structured description of the control system design process, and allows a unified perspective in the realization of controllers for applications previously considered to be unrelated. The concepts developed define a new direction in the production of real-time control systems. 9 figures, 4 tables.

  13. A flexible hydrological modelling system developed using an object oriented methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinde, Trond

    1998-12-31

    The report presents a software system called Process Integrating Network (PINE). The capabilities, working principles, programming technical design and principles of use of the system are described as are some practical applications. PINE is a simulation tool for modelling of hydrological and hydrologically related phenomena. The system is based on object oriented programming principles and was specially designed to provide freedom in the choice of model structures and algorithms for process descriptions. It supports full freedom with regards to spatial distribution and temporal resolution. Geographical information systems (GIS) may be integrated with PINE in order to provide full spatial distribution in system parametrisation, process simulation and visualisation of simulation results. Simulation models are developed by linking components for process description together in a structure. The system can handle compound working media such as water with chemical or biological constituents. Non-hydrological routines may then be included to describe the responses of such constituents. Features such as extensibility and reuse of program components are emphasised in the program design. Separation between process topology, process descriptions and process data facilitates simple and consistent implementation of components for process description. Such components may be automatically prototyped and their response functions may be implemented without knowledge of other parts of the program system and without the need to program import or export routines or a user interface. Model extension is thus a rapid process that does not require extensive programming skills. Components for process descriptions may further be placed in separate program libraries, which can be included in the program as required. The program system can thus be very compact while it still has a large number of process algorithms available. The system can run on both PC and UNIX platforms. 106 figs., 20

  14. From concepts, theory, and evidence of heterogeneity of treatment effects to methodological approaches: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Richard J; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Subedi, Prasun; Althin, Rikard; Mullins, C Daniel

    2012-12-13

    Implicit in the growing interest in patient-centered outcomes research is a growing need for better evidence regarding how responses to a given intervention or treatment may vary across patients, referred to as heterogeneity of treatment effect (HTE). A variety of methods are available for exploring HTE, each associated with unique strengths and limitations. This paper reviews a selected set of methodological approaches to understanding HTE, focusing largely but not exclusively on their uses with randomized trial data. It is oriented for the "intermediate" outcomes researcher, who may already be familiar with some methods, but would value a systematic overview of both more and less familiar methods with attention to when and why they may be used. Drawing from the biomedical, statistical, epidemiological and econometrics literature, we describe the steps involved in choosing an HTE approach, focusing on whether the intent of the analysis is for exploratory, initial testing, or confirmatory testing purposes. We also map HTE methodological approaches to data considerations as well as the strengths and limitations of each approach. Methods reviewed include formal subgroup analysis, meta-analysis and meta-regression, various types of predictive risk modeling including classification and regression tree analysis, series of n-of-1 trials, latent growth and growth mixture models, quantile regression, and selected non-parametric methods. In addition to an overview of each HTE method, examples and references are provided for further reading.By guiding the selection of the methods and analysis, this review is meant to better enable outcomes researchers to understand and explore aspects of HTE in the context of patient-centered outcomes research.

  15. From concepts, theory, and evidence of heterogeneity of treatment effects to methodological approaches: a primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willke Richard J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Implicit in the growing interest in patient-centered outcomes research is a growing need for better evidence regarding how responses to a given intervention or treatment may vary across patients, referred to as heterogeneity of treatment effect (HTE. A variety of methods are available for exploring HTE, each associated with unique strengths and limitations. This paper reviews a selected set of methodological approaches to understanding HTE, focusing largely but not exclusively on their uses with randomized trial data. It is oriented for the “intermediate” outcomes researcher, who may already be familiar with some methods, but would value a systematic overview of both more and less familiar methods with attention to when and why they may be used. Drawing from the biomedical, statistical, epidemiological and econometrics literature, we describe the steps involved in choosing an HTE approach, focusing on whether the intent of the analysis is for exploratory, initial testing, or confirmatory testing purposes. We also map HTE methodological approaches to data considerations as well as the strengths and limitations of each approach. Methods reviewed include formal subgroup analysis, meta-analysis and meta-regression, various types of predictive risk modeling including classification and regression tree analysis, series of n-of-1 trials, latent growth and growth mixture models, quantile regression, and selected non-parametric methods. In addition to an overview of each HTE method, examples and references are provided for further reading. By guiding the selection of the methods and analysis, this review is meant to better enable outcomes researchers to understand and explore aspects of HTE in the context of patient-centered outcomes research.

  16. Agro-designing: sustainability-driven, vision-oriented, problem preventing and knowledge-based methodology for improving farming systems sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Znaor, Darko; Goewie, Eric

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT While classical research focuses to problem solving, design is a problem- prevention methodology, and is suitable for multi- and and interdisciplinary research teams with the vision of how to improve the agricultural sustainability. Since organic agriculture is based on the holistic approach and is also problem-prevention oriented in that it refrains from certain inputs and practices, design is an interesting methodology that could be applied more often in organic agriculture. ...

  17. Enzyme and methodology for the treatment of a biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Thompson, David N.; Schaller, Kastli D.; Apel, William A.

    2010-06-01

    An enzyme isolated from an extremophilic microbe, and a method for utilizing same is described, and wherein the enzyme displays optimum enzymatic activity at a temperature of greater than about 80.degree. C., and a pH of less than about 2, and further may be useful in methodology including pretreatment of a biomass so as to facilitate the production of an end product.

  18. Methodologies in the modeling of combined chemo-radiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, C.; Paganetti, H.

    2016-11-01

    The variety of treatment options for cancer patients has increased significantly in recent years. Not only do we combine radiation with surgery and chemotherapy, new therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy and targeted therapies are starting to play a bigger role. Physics has made significant contributions to radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery. In particular, treatment plan optimization using inverse planning techniques has improved dose conformity considerably. Furthermore, medical physics is often the driving force behind tumor control and normal tissue complication modeling. While treatment optimization and outcome modeling does focus mainly on the effects of radiation, treatment modalities such as chemotherapy are treated independently or are even neglected entirely. This review summarizes the published efforts to model combined modality treatments combining radiation and chemotherapy. These models will play an increasing role in optimizing cancer therapy not only from a radiation and drug dosage standpoint, but also in terms of spatial and temporal optimization of treatment schedules.

  19. Case Study of Oriental Medicine Treatment with acupotomy Therpy of the Tarsal tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Na-ra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : In order to estimate clinical effects of Oriental Medicine Treatment with acupotomy therapy of Tarsal tunnel Syndrome Methods : From 5th November, 2008 to 8th November, 2008, 1 male patient diagnosed as Tarsal tunnel syndrome(clinical diagnosed was treated with general oriental medicine therapy (acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, physical therapy, herbal medication and acupotomy. Results : The patient's Rt foot paresthesia, pain were remarkably improved. Conclusions : This study demonstrates that oriental medical treatment with acuputomy therapy has notable effect in improving symptoms of tarsal tunnel syndrome. as though we had not wide experience in this treatment, more research is needed.

  20. The Relationship between General Causality Orientation and Treatment Outcome among Marijuana-Dependent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Claire E.; Banes, Kelsey E.; Walker, Denise D.; Stephens, Robert S.; Roffman, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    General causality orientations are motivational styles that are indicative of a person’s belief about personal change and their motivation to change. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether causality orientations were associated with marijuana treatment outcomes in a sample of marijuana-dependent individuals. A total of 74 participants (66% male) were recruited from the Seattle, Washington area and randomly assigned to receive a combination of motivational enhancement and cognitive behavioral therapy or the combination treatment plus additional “check-up” sessions. Follow-up assessments evaluated frequency of use, use-related problems, and marijuana use disorder symptoms through 9 months. Causality orientations were relatively stable over time. Posttreatment Autonomy orientations were associated with lower frequency of use and Controlled orientations were associated with a reduction in use, problems, and marijuana use disorder symptoms. Autonomy and Controlled orientations were associated with readiness to change. Results suggest that both autonomous and controlled orientations have implications for response to treatment; perhaps for different reasons. Causality orientations may be a promising avenue of research to predict treatment response and outcome. PMID:26562679

  1. Identification of new treatments for epilepsy: issues in preclinical methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Buckmaster, Paul S.; Staley, Kevin J.; Moshé, Solomon L.; Perucca, Emilio; Engel, Jerome; Löscher, Wolfgang; Noebels, Jeffrey L.; Pitkänen, Asla; Stables, James; White, Steve H.; O’Brien, Terence J.; Simonato, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preclinical research has facilitated the discovery of valuable drugs for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy. Yet, despite these therapies, seizures are not adequately controlled in a third of all affected individuals, and comorbidities still impose a major burden on quality of life. The introduction of multiple new therapies into clinical use over the past two decades has done little to change this. There is an urgent demand to address the unmet clinical needs for: (a) new symptomatic anti-seizure treatments for drug-resistant seizures with improved efficacy/tolerability profiles, (b) disease modifying treatments that prevent or ameliorate the epileptogenic state, and (c) treatments for the common comorbidities that contribute to disability in people with epilepsy. New therapies also need to address the special needs of certain subpopulations, i.e. age- or gender-specific treatments. Preclinical development in these treatment areas is complex due to heterogeneity in presentation and etiology, and may need to be formulated with a specific seizure, epilepsy syndrome or comorbidity in mind. The aim of this report is to provide a framework that will help define future guidelines that improve and standardize the design, reporting, and validation of data across preclinical anti-epilepsy therapy development studies targeting drug-resistant seizures, epileptogenesis and comorbidities. PMID:22292566

  2. METHODOLOGY OF PRACTICE-ORIENTED RESEARCH ACTIVITIES OF STUDENTS DURING PEDAGOGICAL INTERNSHIP: BUILDING NATIONAL IDENTITY IN MULTICULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana L. Oskolova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop integrated practice-orientedresearch assignments for students – upcoming teachers for the period of teaching practice. Proposed investigation is based on formal requirements of national education including analysis of specific educational activities in ethnically and culturally diverse society.Methods. Axiological and anthropological approaches are used as the methodological basis of the study that reveal value and meaning of multicultural education and focus on development of multicultural personality of students in the learning process at the university. The work contains theoretical analysis of the Russian Federation State Program «Development of Education» for 2013–2020.Results. The characteristics of culturally sensitive and culturally insensitive teaching technology are given in the article. Pedagogical factors of building tolerant environment which enables friendly interaction of multicultural students are revealed. Technology of multicultural teaching aimed at humanistic positive transformation of students’ personality and educational environment embracing cultural diversity is suggested.Scientific novelty. The concept «practice-orientation of education» is offered to define as the ability to establish links between the teachers’ knowledge, skills and significant social and personal problems of students. In the context students’ research activity, practice-orientation is supposed to involve the study of working with students in a diversified environment taking into account their cognitive, ethno-cultural, linguistic differences, degree of tolerance towards peers and the level of intercultural competence.Practical significance. Basic algorithm of teacher’s work in a multicultural environment is proposed. The algorithm is based on the following uniting values: caring for others and compassion; striving for success by fair means; honesty and integrity; team spirit

  3. Heat Treatment of Die and Mould Oriented Concurrent Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiong; ZHANG Hong-bing; RUAN Xue-yu; LUO Zhong-hua; ZHANG Yan

    2006-01-01

    Many disadvantages exist in the traditional die design method which belongs to serial pattern. It is well known that heat treatment is highly important to the dies. A new idea of concurrent design for heat treatment process of die and mould was developed in order to overcome the existent shortcomings of heat treatment process. Heat treatment CAD/CAE was integrated with concurrent circumstance and the relevant model was built. These investigations can remarkably improve efficiency, reduce cost and ensure quality of R and D for products.

  4. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))

    2009-11-15

    the lineament scale (k{sub t} = 2) on the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology

  5. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments.

  6. A methodological pilot: parenting among women in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda; Farkas, Kathleen; Niazi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Mothers who abuse substances are likely to have insecure emotional attachment with their children, placing their children at risk for social-emotional and psychiatric conditions. Sobriety does not inevitably improve parenting. We tested recruitment methods, audiovisual (AV) recording procedures, the protocol for identifying child abuse risk, the coding of mother-child interactions, and retention of the sample for repeated measures as the first phase in examining mother-child relational quality of women in substance abuse treatment. This innovative study involved AV recordings to capture the in-vivo mother-child interactional behaviors that were later coded and analyzed for mean scores on the 64-item Parent-Child Relational Quality Assessment. Repeated measurement was planned during treatment and two months after discharge from treatment. The pilot involved a small sample (n = 11) of mother-child (<6 years) dyads. Highest and lowest ratings of interaction behaviors were identified. Mothers showed less enthusiasm and creativity but matched their child's emotional state. The children showed appropriate motor skill items and attachment behaviors. The dyad coding showed less mutual enjoyment between the mother and child. Eight of the participants could not be located for the second measurement despite multiple contact methods. AV recordings capture rich, descriptive information that can be coded for interactional quality analysis. Repeated measurement with this cohort was not feasible, thus needing to assess for additional/more frequent contacts to maintain the sample.

  7. Characteristics of women in jail and treatment orientations. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, T W; Kravitz, H M; Goldman, L B; Freeman, A

    2000-07-01

    Women who have been incarcerated are a high-risk group for criminal recidivism, and criminal justice statistics indicate that females are increasing in numbers more rapidly than the male detainee population. According to data from epidemiologic studies, incarcerated women are often young, single, mothers from ethnic minority backgrounds who have little education and poor work histories. Mental illness, drug abuse, and risky behaviors relating to contracting HIV/AIDS are common problems among female detainees. In this report, research into characteristics of women in jail and literature relating to treatment programs for incarcerated women are reviewed. Implications relating to treatment needs, program development, and further research are discussed. A case example and treatment intervention are presented based on this review.

  8. Case Study of Oriental Medicine Treatment with acupotomy Therapy of the Achilles Tendinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun-ha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : In order to estimate clinical effects of Oriental Medicine Treatment with acupotomy therapy of Achilles Tendinitis Methods : From 4th August, 2008 to 14th August, 2008, 1 female patient diagnosed as Chronic Achilles Tendinitis (clinical diagnosed was treated with general oriental medicine therapy(acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, physical therapy, herbal medication and acupotomy. Results : The patient's chief complaints- Lt. heel pain and stiffness, dorsi-flexion limitation, nodules in the achilles tendon- were notably improved. Conclusions : This study demonstrates that oriental medical treatment with acuputomy therapy has significant effect in improving symptoms of achilles tendinitis. as though we had not wide experience in this treatment, more research is needed.

  9. Stage-oriented comprehensive acupuncture treatment plus rehabilitation training for apoplectic hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Min; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yuefeng; Rao, Ping; Liu, Jian

    2008-06-01

    To study the effect of stage-oriented comprehensive acupuncture treatment plus rehabilitation training for the recovery of apoplectic hemiplegia. The 60 cases of acute apoplectic hemiplegia were divided randomly into the treatment and control groups with 30 in each. Based on the routine medication, acupuncture combined with modern rehabilitation techniques was applied for the treatment group, while only rehabilitation treatment for the control group. Before and three months after treatment, the evaluation was done on the motor function and daily life ability for both groups respectively with simplified Fugl-Meyer Evaluation and modified Barthel index. The therapeutic effect of treatment group was significantly superior to that of the control group (P hemiplegia, the effect of stage-oriented comprehensive acupuncture therapy combined with rehabilitation training is very good, helpful in raising the daily life ability of patients.

  10. A Clinical Study on The Effect of Oriental Treatment For Obesity in National Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Min-seop

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was to investigate the effect of Nationl Health Services for obesity patients by oriental medical treatment. Methods : We analyzed 46 obesity patient joined to Oriental Treatment for Obesity in Sunchang Medical Center with BCA(bocy component analysis, after we had treated them with our obesity program. We analyzed changes of BCA during before and after treatment, and analyzed items in BCA are weight(kg, amount of muscle(kg, amount of body fat(kg, body fat rate(% and BMI(body mass index. Results : 1. Weight, amount of muscle, amount of body fat, body fat rate and BMI were decreased in after treatment, but they didn't have statistical significance. 2. This studies suggest oriental treatment for obesity may be an effective overweigh group(BMI 25~30, because it had statistical significance(p<0.05. 3. It appears that oriental treatment for obesity have an effect in National Health Services

  11. Effect of ultrasound treatment conditions on Saccharomyces cerevisiae by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Zhou, Lizhen; Li, Bing; Xu, Zhenbo

    2017-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of different ultrasound treatment conditions on the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the application of response surface methodology (RSM). Ultrasound treatment were applied on different concentrations of S. cerevisiae cells with different pH, temperature, ultrasound power, irradiating time, and pulse duty ratio. Cell viability was determined by plate counting method. Response surface methodology was used to analysis the correlation among various factors. Limited with low ultrasound power, lower pH value slightly improved the ultrasound treatment efficiency. Also, higher nonlethal temperature and ultrasound power, longer irradiation time, and lower pulse duty ratio facilitated the inactivation of S. cerevisiae. Cell concentration has no effect on ultrasound efficiency. Ultrasound power played the most important role in the ultrasound irradiation process according to RSM analyses. Information derived from this study may aid in the control of the sublethal injury of S. cerevisiae during ultrasound treatment in food industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Children's Fears and Phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Morris, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the conceptual and methodological considerations in assessment and treatment of children's fears and phobias is presented. Areas discussed include the definitional problems in the field, analogue and clinical research, experimental research methods, and criteria for the evaluation of outcome in fear and phobia research. (Author/DWH)

  13. Psychotherapeutic Orientations: A Comparison of Conceptualizations, Interventions, and Treatment Plan Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopta, Stephen Mark; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Delineated patterns of conceptualization and intervention of four psychotherapeutic orientations (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, family systems, eclectic) and then determined how these patterns related to treatment plan costs. Conceptualization and intervention categories given more focus by the psychodynamic group correlated positively with…

  14. Young children and obesity : development and evaluation of familiy-oriented treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van E.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis: Young Children and Obesity – Development and Evaluation of Family-oriented Treatment, Esther van Hoek Introduction The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last decades. Childhood obesity is a multisystem disease with serious consequences such as hypertensio

  15. Young children and obesity : development and evaluation of familiy-oriented treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van E.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis: Young Children and Obesity – Development and Evaluation of Family-oriented Treatment, Esther van Hoek Introduction The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last decades. Childhood obesity is a multisystem disease with serious consequences such as hypertensio

  16. The effects of selected pre-treatments on germination of seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Halil Bariş

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of some pre-treatments implemented on seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), which has wide geographical variation along Turkey on germination percentage values were investigated. For this purpose, 13 different pre-treatments were implemented to seeds obtained from 17 different populations. According to the obtained results (except control seeds), pre-treatments leading to lowest germination percentage value (8.1%) in Oriental hornbeam seeds was PT10: Keeping seeds for 90 min in sulfuric acid, while highest germination percentage (86.58%) has been obtained with pre-treatment PT13: Implementation of 40% dose of Baikal EM1 + Biohoumous mixture to the seeds, while lowest germination percentage (40.50%) was observed on seeds collected from P7 (Bartin-Kozcağiz) population, highest germination percentage was observed in seeds obtained from P17 (Artvin-Hopa) population.

  17. The characteristic of unsaturated polyester resin wettability toward glass fiber orientation, density and surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saputra Asep H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wettability of composite is one of key to increase mechanical properties of composite that affected by structure of reinforcement and type of resin used. Therefore, this research focused on the effect of orientation, density and surface treatment on fiber to the characteristic of composite’s wettability, which is observed by contact angle and wetting time. The fiber used in this research is fiberglass, and the method for contact angle measurement is direct observation from the camera recorder and the data record will be processed and analyzed by using image processing method. The result for those variations can be obtained from the relation of variations toward contact angle and wetting time. According to result of research, fiber with orientation 45°/45° gives lower contact angle but longer wetting time than fiber with orientation 0°/90°. For orientation 45°/45°, the differences in wetting time is 15 second longer than orientation 0°/90°. In case of fiber density, the sheet with fiber density of 900 has 7 second faster for wetting time than sheet with fiber density of 1250. The surface treatment with NaOH 5% can accelerate the wetting time until 10 second.

  18. A Programming Environment Evaluation Methodology for Object-Oriented Systems. Ph.D Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1987-01-01

    The object-oriented design strategy as both a problem decomposition and system development paradigm has made impressive inroads into the various areas of the computing sciences. Substantial development productivity improvements have been demonstrated in areas ranging from artificial intelligence to user interface design. However, there has been very little progress in the formal characterization of these productivity improvements and in the identification of the underlying cognitive mechanisms. The development and validation of models and metrics of this sort require large amounts of systematically-gathered structural and productivity data. There has, however, been a notable lack of systematically-gathered information on these development environments. A large part of this problem is attributable to the lack of a systematic programming environment evaluation methodology that is appropriate to the evaluation of object-oriented systems.

  19. Nationalism Studies between Methodological Nationalism and Orientalism : An Alternative Approach Illustrated with the Case of El Greco in Toledo, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Methodological nationalism is still dominant in nationalism studies. When studying the construction of national identities, scholars generally limit their study to the borders of one nation-state, while only paying attention to members of that particular nation. Implicitly, foreign actors and influe

  20. Psychological Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Oriented Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Marques

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: In summary, the available studies support cognitive-behavioral psychological treatments as an efficacious intervention in borderline personality disorder. However, the existing scientific literature on this topic is still scarce and there is need for more studies, with higher methodological rigor, that should validate these results.

  1. Deployment evaluation methodology for the electrometallurgical treatment of DOE-EM spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, C.A.; Adams, J.P.; Ramer, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Part of the Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory may require some type of treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. The current focus for much of this spent nuclear fuel is the electrometallurgical treatment process under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Potential flowsheets for this treatment process are presented. Deployment of the process for the treatment of the spent nuclear fuel requires evaluation to determine the spent nuclear fuel program need for treatment and compatibility of the spent nuclear fuel with the process. The evaluation of need includes considerations of cost, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule to treat a proposed fuel. A siting evaluation methodology has been developed to account for these variables. A work breakdown structure is proposed to gather life-cycle cost information to allow evaluation of alternative siting strategies on a similar basis. The evaluation methodology, while created specifically for the electrometallurgical evaluation, has been written such that it could be applied to any potential treatment process that is a disposition option for spent nuclear fuel. Future work to complete the evaluation of the process for electrometallurgical treatment is discussed.

  2. Motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment: an application of Q-methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang X

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Xia Tang,1 Jiaxin Cai,1 Beibei Lin,1 Linjie Yao,2 Feiou Lin3 1School of Stomatology, 2Department of Pedodontics, 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Lu Cheng District, People’s Republic of China Background: Motivation is the impetus for patients to seek orthodontic treatment, affecting adherence, treatment outcomes, and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment, and classify the patients according to their motivations.Methods: This study used Q-methodology as the main tool. Q-samples were collected and categorized (35 items. Forty-two adult female patients were interviewed before treatment as the P-sample, and their responses were categorized into the Q-methodology grid. Participants were asked to rank-order a set of 35 statements (Q-sample from “agree most” to “disagree most” (Q-sorting. The finished Q-grids were analyzed using PQ method 2.35.Results: Four main factors were identified based on how adult female patients ranked statements: factor 1, patients who focus on their self-perception of their appearance; factor 2, patients who are concerned about the esthetics and function of their teeth; factor 3, patients who are easily influenced by others; factor 4, patients who want to improve their confidence and avoid negative thoughts caused by their teeth. The remaining patients who had other views did not match any of the above four groups.Conclusion: The motivations of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. This study found that most adult female patients fell into one of four typical factor groups. Our findings may improve the adherence of adult female patients by developing a more ideal treatment program. Keywords: adult female patients, orthodontic treatment, Q-methodology

  3. Methodology for assessment of low level laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation parameters in muscle inflammation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Several studies in human and animals show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing some types of pain, treating inflammation and wound healing. However, more scientific evidence is required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT since many aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation of injured tissue with laser remain unknown. Here, we present a methodology that can be used to evaluate the effect of different LLLT irradiation parameters on the treatment of muscle inflammation on animals, through the quantification of four cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6) in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We have used this methodology to assess the effect of LLLT parameters (wavelength, dose, power and type of illumination) in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats. Results obtained for laser dose evaluation with continuous illumination are presented.

  4. Sexual Orientation and Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Appro...

  5. CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, S. [Axpo AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Bieli, R. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, CH-5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland); Bergmann, U. C. [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, SE-721 63 Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

  6. [The National Research Program 1A: a community-oriented intervention study. Methodological considerations on various types of studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, F

    1980-11-01

    Intervention tricals can principally be classified into community or clinically oriented designs. The clinical approach of the randomized controlled trial (RCT) implies the individual randomization of a volunteer population into a study and a control group. In community-oriented trials, however, the study and control group are not composed of individuals, but rather of total population groups (e.g. communities, factories). The paper gives first an overview over the historial development of epidemiological methods as the basis for both study types. Shortcomings and advantages both of RCT's and of community trials are discussed, using the examples of the "diet-heart" hypothesis and of the National Research Program 1A design, respectively. The two study types uses as primary endpoints for the analysis changes in risk factor distribution, morbidity and/or mortality. A recent alternative is presented, too: advances in angiography allow direct measurements of changes in vessels with atherosclerotic disease. The different study types available complement one another in trying to understand the mechanisms involved in disease of multifactorial origin.

  7. Stage-oriented Comprehensive Acupuncture Treatment plus Rehabilitation Training for Apoplectic Hemiplegia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Min; Chen Xin; Chen Yuefeng; Rao Ping; Liu Jian; Wang Xinzhong

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of stage-oriented comprehensive acupuncture treatment plus rehabilitation training for the recovery of apoplectic hemiplegia.Methods:The 60 cases of acute apoplectic hemiplegia were divided randomly into the treatment and control groups with 30 in each.Based on the routine medication,acupuncture combined with modern rehabilitation techniques was applied for the treatment group,while only rehabilitation treatment for the control group.Before and three months after treatment,the evaluation was done on the motor function and daily life ability for both groups respectively with simplified Fugl-Meyer Evaluation and modified Barthel index.Results:The therapeutic effect of treatment group was significantly superior to that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusions:Based on Brunnstrom's theory of six-stage in the recovery of hemiplegia,the effect of stage-oriented comprehensive acupuncture therapy combined with rehabilitation training is very good,helpful in raising the daily life ability of patients.

  8. New Methodology in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael

    chose among different waste water treatments? Which ones are most beneficial in a holistic perspective? Here, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach as a decision supporting tool may help because its goal is to allow quantification and direct comparison of characteristics as diverse as energy...... EU research project "NEPTUNE" focusing on nutrient recycling, micro-pollutants and ecotoxicity removal, energy production, and reuse of sludge and of its resources, this paper will present the first results of the development of a new methodology for assessing advances in wastewater treatment...

  9. Product Service Systems and Non-Market Oriented Approach – Methodological and Ethical Considerations from a Design Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Jonas, Wolfgang; Munch, Juliane

    2008-01-01

    Macroscopic social and economic changes in the last few years are forcing business companies and public institutions to redefine their approach to social intervention, focusing on local and highly individualised solutions. This change is also calling for a new design approach. The challenge...... how this process was developed in a concrete case. Through this case the authors analyse the possibility to build something similar to a source code for initiatives based on social interaction and investigate the process of construction of such a code Furthermore, the author discuss differences...... and analogies between design intervention in a social context and in the normal business context. The question of codification suggests a methodological approach for supporting transferability both in the problem space (dealing with complexity) and in the solution space (dealing with contingency). The analysis...

  10. Case Study of Oriental Medicine Treatment with Acupotomy Therapy of the Peroneal Nerve Palsy through Ultrasound Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sungha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to estimate clinical effects of Oriental Medicine Treatment with acupotomy therapy of Peroneal nerve Palsy. Methods: From 10th June, 2010 to 19th June, 2010, 1 female patient diagnosed as Peroneal nerve Palsy(clinical diagnosed was treated with general oriental medicine therapy (acupuncture, pharmacopuncture,moxibustion, cupping, physical therapy, herbal medication and acupotomy. Results: The patient's left foot drop was remarkably improved. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that oriental medical treatment with acuputomy therapy has notable effect in improving symptoms of peroneal nerve palsy. as though we had not wide experience in this treatment, more research is needed.

  11. What Drives Juvenile Probation Officers? Relating Organizational Contexts, Status Characteristics, and Personal Convictions to Treatment and Punishment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Geoff; Kupchik, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Data from surveys of juvenile court probation officers in four states are analyzed to understand professional orientations toward two seemingly contrasting goals of contemporary juvenile justice systems: punishment and treatment. These self-reported juvenile probation officer orientations are considered in relation to three clusters of variables…

  12. The methodological quality of systematic reviews comparing temporomandibular joint disorder surgical and non-surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos Belmiro CE

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD are multifactor, complex clinical problems affecting approximately 60–70% of the general population, with considerable controversy about the most effective treatment. For example, reports claim success rates of 70% and 83% for non-surgical and surgical treatment, whereas other reports claim success rates of 40% to 70% for self-improvement without treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (1 identify systematic reviews comparing temporomandibular joint disorder surgical and non-surgical treatment, (2 evaluate their methodological quality, and (3 evaluate the evidence grade within the systematic reviews. Methods A search strategy was developed and implemented for MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, and Brazilian Dentistry Bibliography databases. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews (± meta-analysis comparing surgical and non-surgical TMJD treatment, published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, or German between the years 1966 and 2007(up to July. Exclusion criteria were: in vitro or animal studies; narrative reviews or editorials or editorial letters; and articles published in other languages. Two investigators independently selected and evaluated systematic reviews. Three different instruments (AMSTAR, OQAQ and CASP were used to evaluate methodological quality, and the results averaged. The GRADE instrument was used to evaluate the evidence grade within the reviews. Results The search strategy identified 211 reports; of which 2 were systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The first review met 23.5 ± 6.0% and the second met 77.5 ± 12.8% of the methodological quality criteria (mean ± sd. In these systematic reviews between 9 and 15% of the trials were graded as high quality, and 2 and 8% of the total number of patients were involved in these studies. Conclusion The results indicate that in spite of the widespread impact of TMJD, and the multitude of

  13. New Methodology in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael

    chose among different waste water treatments? Which ones are most beneficial in a holistic perspective? Here, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach as a decision supporting tool may help because its goal is to allow quantification and direct comparison of characteristics as diverse as energy......Reducing environmental problems related to wastewater effluents containing micro-pollutants requires resources in terms of energy, chemicals, infrastructure, installations for wastewater treatment, thus, involves advantages as well as disadvantages to the environment and society. But how does one...... EU research project "NEPTUNE" focusing on nutrient recycling, micro-pollutants and ecotoxicity removal, energy production, and reuse of sludge and of its resources, this paper will present the first results of the development of a new methodology for assessing advances in wastewater treatment...

  14. Region-oriented and staged treatment strategy in reconstruction of severe cervical contracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xusong Luo

    Full Text Available Severe cervical contracture after burns causes obvious impairment of neck movement and the aesthetic silhouette. Although various surgical techniques for treatment have been described, there is not a definitive strategy to guide treatment. Over the past 6 years, we have been utilizing a region-oriented and staged treatment strategy to guide reconstruction of severe cervical contracture. Satisfactory results have been achieved with this strategy.The first stage of treatment focuses on the anterior cervical region and submental region. Procedures include cicatrix resection, contracture release, division and elevation of the platysma to form two platysma flaps, and skin grafting. Three to six months later, the second stage treatment is performed, which localize to the mental region. This includes scar resection, correction of the lower lip eversion, and reconstruction with free (parascapular skin flap. Three subtypes of cervicomental angle that we proposed were measured as quantitative tool for evaluation of the reconstruction.24 patients who completed the treatment were reviewed. By the 3rd postoperative month, their CM angles changed significantly: the soft tissue CM angle was reduced from 135.0° ± 17.3° to 111.1° ± 11.3°, the osseous CM angle increased from 67.1° ± 9.0° to 90.5° ± 11.6° and the dynamic CM angle increased from 21.9° ± 8.7° to 67.4° ± 13.1°. 22 in 24 (91.7% of these patients gained notable improvement of cervical motion and aesthetic contour.Our results suggest that the region-oriented and staged treatment strategy can achieve satisfactory functional and aesthetic results, combining usage of both skin graft and skin flap while minimizing the donor site morbidity.

  15. Region-oriented and staged treatment strategy in reconstruction of severe cervical contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xusong; Liu, Fei; Wang, Xi; Yang, Qun; Wang, Shoubao; Zhou, Xianyu; Qian, Yunliang; Yang, Jun; Levin, Lawrence Scott

    2015-01-01

    Severe cervical contracture after burns causes obvious impairment of neck movement and the aesthetic silhouette. Although various surgical techniques for treatment have been described, there is not a definitive strategy to guide treatment. Over the past 6 years, we have been utilizing a region-oriented and staged treatment strategy to guide reconstruction of severe cervical contracture. Satisfactory results have been achieved with this strategy. The first stage of treatment focuses on the anterior cervical region and submental region. Procedures include cicatrix resection, contracture release, division and elevation of the platysma to form two platysma flaps, and skin grafting. Three to six months later, the second stage treatment is performed, which localize to the mental region. This includes scar resection, correction of the lower lip eversion, and reconstruction with free (para)scapular skin flap. Three subtypes of cervicomental angle that we proposed were measured as quantitative tool for evaluation of the reconstruction. 24 patients who completed the treatment were reviewed. By the 3rd postoperative month, their CM angles changed significantly: the soft tissue CM angle was reduced from 135.0° ± 17.3° to 111.1° ± 11.3°, the osseous CM angle increased from 67.1° ± 9.0° to 90.5° ± 11.6° and the dynamic CM angle increased from 21.9° ± 8.7° to 67.4° ± 13.1°. 22 in 24 (91.7%) of these patients gained notable improvement of cervical motion and aesthetic contour. Our results suggest that the region-oriented and staged treatment strategy can achieve satisfactory functional and aesthetic results, combining usage of both skin graft and skin flap while minimizing the donor site morbidity.

  16. Veteran satisfaction and treatment preferences in response to a posttraumatic stress disorder specialty clinic orientation group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Jeremiah A; Walter, Kristen H; Bartone, Anne S; Chard, Kathleen M

    2015-06-01

    To maximize accessibility to evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has widely disseminated cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy to VA clinicians. However, there is a lack of research on veteran preferences when presented with a range of psychotherapy and medication options. This study uses a mixed-method approach to explore veteran satisfaction with a VA PTSD specialty clinic pre-treatment orientation group, which provides education about available PTSD treatment options. This study also tested differences in treatment preference in response to the group. Participants were 183 US veterans. Most were White, male, and referred to the clinic by a VA provider. Results indicated high satisfaction with the group in providing an overview of services and helping to inform treatment choice. Most preferred psychotherapy plus medications (63.4%) or psychotherapy only (30.1%). Participants endorsed a significantly stronger preference for CPT versus other psychotherapies. PE was significantly preferred over nightmare resolution therapy and present-centered therapy, and both PE and cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy were preferred over virtual reality exposure therapy. Results suggest that by informing consumers about evidence-based treatments for PTSD, pre-treatment educational approaches may increase consumer demand for these treatment options.

  17. APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY OF RECONSTRUCTION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    2012-10-01

    WWTPs fail to perform proper treatment due to their being worn-out and obsolete. However a tougher legislation accelerates their reconstruction. Approaches to the WWTP reconstruction should demonstrate a strong economic and technological base. The author proposes a new algorithm for their reconstruction. A sensible combination of the principles of WWTP restructuring, development of new fine wastewater cleaning methods, and assimilation of new materials and chemical agents will help resolve the vital problem of waste water discharge into Russia's water bodies. This is the first methodology of reconstruction of WWTPs developed on the basis of the above concept and supported by practical implementation.

  18. Sexual orientation and substance abuse treatment utilization in the United States: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults 20 years and older, and represented a population that was 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. An estimated 2% of the target population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family histories of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of grain orientation and heat treatment on mechanical properties of pure W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Satoru; Ukita, Takashi; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Kimura, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    The effect of grain orientation, heat-treatment temperature and test temperature on the mechanical properties of tungsten (W), which vary depending on plastic working and fabrication process, was investigated by mechanical testing of tensile or bending. Heavily worked W samples (1.5-2.0 mm in the final thickness) exhibit degradation of fracture strength due to recrystallization embrittlement after heat-treatment at 1240 °C (temperature of diffusion bonding between W and a candidate material of the Fe base support structure). On the other hand, W samples with lower thickness reduction rates do not suffer degradation of fracture strength after heating up to around 1300 °C, and show somewhat higher fracture strength by heat-treatment below 1300 °C than the samples in the as-received state. The observed behavior is a reflection of recovery of dislocations introduced by plastic working. High temperature tensile testing of ITER grade W with an anisotropic grain structure and S-TUN with an equiaxed grain structure revealed that both W grades exhibit plastic elongation at temperatures higher than 200 °C with essentially the same temperature dependence of yield strength, which is relatively insensitive to grain orientation in the structure at 200-1300 °C.

  20. Shared decision-making in medical encounters regarding breast cancer treatment: the contribution of methodological triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durif-Bruckert, C; Roux, P; Morelle, M; Mignotte, H; Faure, C; Moumjid-Ferdjaoui, N

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study on shared decision-making in the doctor-patient encounter about surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer, conducted in a regional cancer centre in France, was to further the understanding of patient perceptions on shared decision-making. The study used methodological triangulation to collect data (both quantitative and qualitative) about patient preferences in the context of a clinical consultation in which surgeons followed a shared decision-making protocol. Data were analysed from a multi-disciplinary research perspective (social psychology and health economics). The triangulated data collection methods were questionnaires (n = 132), longitudinal interviews (n = 47) and observations of consultations (n = 26). Methodological triangulation revealed levels of divergence and complementarity between qualitative and quantitative results that suggest new perspectives on the three inter-related notions of decision-making, participation and information. Patients' responses revealed important differences between shared decision-making and participation per se. The authors note that subjecting patients to a normative behavioural model of shared decision-making in an era when paradigms of medical authority are shifting may undermine the patient's quest for what he or she believes is a more important right: a guarantee of the best care available.

  1. Application of the MIAS methodology in design of the data acquisition system for wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwikła, G.; Krenczyk, D.; Kampa, A.; Gołda, G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of MIAS (Manufacturing Information Acquisition System) methodology to develop customized data acquisition system supporting management of the Central Wastewater Treatment Plant (CWWTP) in Gliwice, Poland, being example of production systems leading continuous flow, automated production processes. Access to current data on the state of production system is a key to efficient management of a company, allowing fast reaction or even anticipation of future problems with equipment and reduction of waste. Overview of both analysis and synthesis of organisational solutions, data sources, data pre-processing and communication interfaces, realised according to proposed MIAS methodology, had been presented. The stage of analysis covered i.e.: organisational structure of the company, IT systems used in the company, specifics of technological processes, machines and equipment, structure of control systems, assignments of crew members, materials used in the technological processes. This paper also presents results of the stage of synthesis of technical and organisational solutions of MIAS for CWWTP, including proposed solutions covering MIAS architecture and connections with other IT systems, data sources in production system that are currently available and newly created, data preprocessing procedures, and necessary communication interfaces.

  2. The impact of recovery-oriented day clinic treatment on internalized stigma: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibitz, Ingrid; Provaznikova, Katarina; Lipp, Madeleine; Lakeman, Richard; Amering, Michaela

    2013-10-30

    Internalized stigma is a complicating feature in the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and considerably hinders the recovery process. The empowerment and recovery-oriented program of our day clinic might contribute to a reduction in internalized stigma. The aim of the study was to explore the influence of this day clinic program on internalized stigma and other subjectively important outcome measures such as quality of life and psychopathology. Data from two groups of patients had been collected twice, at baseline and after 5 weeks. The experimental group attended the day clinic treatment (N=40) and the control group waited for the day clinic treatment (N=40). The following significant differences between the two groups were found: Patients in day clinic treatment showed a reduction in internalized stigma while the control group showed a minimal increase (Cohen's d=0.446). The experimental group as compared with the control group also showed a greater improvement in the quality of life domain psychological health (Cohen's d=0.6) and in overall psychopathology (Cohen's d=0.452). Interestingly, changes in internalized stigma and psychological quality of life were not associated with changes in psychopathology. Results are encouraging but have to be confirmed in a randomized design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chlorocholine chloride and paclobutrazol treatments promote carbohydrate accumulation in bulbs of Lilium Oriental hybrids‘Sorbonne’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-ru ZHENG; Yun WU; Yi-ping XIA

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to test the hypothesis that the plant growth retardants chlorocholine chloride (CCC) and paclobutrazol (PBZ) could improve the carbohydrate accumulation in lily bulbs by enhancing photosynthetic capacity and changing endogenous hormones.Plants of Lilium Oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’ were treated with a foliar spray of CCC or PBZ (both at 300 mg/L) solution,at six weeks after planting (6 WAP).The morphological parameters,endogenous hormone contents (gibberellic acid (GA),abscisic acid (ABA),and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)),and carbohydrate contents were measured from 6 to 18 WAP,at 2-week intervals.The results showed that CCC increased the biomass of leaves and stems which might produce more photoassimilates available for transportation and utilization.However,PBZ treatment suppressed vegetative growth and favored photoassimilate transportation into bulbs.A slight delay of bud and anthesis formation was observed in both treated plants.CCC and PBZ treatments substantially enhanced the sucrose contents in leaves probably due to the increase of chlorophyll contents.Treatment with CCC or PBZ decreased GA but increased IAA contents in lily bulbs which might stimulate starch accumulation and formation of new scales.Our experiment suggested that CCC or PBZ treatment is an effective method to promote carbohydrate accumulation in lily bulbs.

  4. A consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Nopens, Ingmar

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this contribution is partly to build consensus on a consistent modelling methodology (CMM) of complex real processes in wastewater treatment by combining classical concepts with results from applied mathematics, and partly to apply it to the clarification-thickening process in the secondary settling tank. In the CMM, the real process should be approximated by a mathematical model (process model; ordinary or partial differential equation (ODE or PDE)), which in turn is approximated by a simulation model (numerical method) implemented on a computer. These steps have often not been carried out in a correct way. The secondary settling tank was chosen as a case since this is one of the most complex processes in a wastewater treatment plant and simulation models developed decades ago have no guarantee of satisfying fundamental mathematical and physical properties. Nevertheless, such methods are still used in commercial tools to date. This particularly becomes of interest as the state-of-the-art practice is moving towards plant-wide modelling. Then all submodels interact and errors propagate through the model and severely hamper any calibration effort and, hence, the predictive purpose of the model. The CMM is described by applying it first to a simple conversion process in the biological reactor yielding an ODE solver, and then to the solid-liquid separation in the secondary settling tank, yielding a PDE solver. Time has come to incorporate established mathematical techniques into environmental engineering, and wastewater treatment modelling in particular, and to use proven reliable and consistent simulation models.

  5. Optimization of metal working fluids treatment using calcium chloride by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA. Jamali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive use of metal working fluids degrades their chemical composition. They should be treated using a safe method. Chemical coagulation-flocculation process is one the treatment methods. Objective: The aim of this study was to optimize the coagulation-flocculation process using calcium chloride in metal working fluids treatment. Methods: This laboratory based study was performed in School of Health affiliated to Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Using calcium chloride and a six-compartment jar, the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process was assessed for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD and turbidity and amount of released oil. Central composite design (CCD and response surface methodology (RSM were applied to optimize the treatment operation parameters (pH and dosage of coagulant. Quadratic models were developed for calculation of the three responses (COD, turbidity, and released oil. Findings: The optimum condition for coagulation-flocculation process was seen after treatment with 4.2 g/L calcium chloride at pH 3.71 in which COD and turbidity removal efficiency were 93% and 96.9%, respectively and the amount of released oil was 31.8 ml. The level of desirability was 91.2%. The values of laboratory study were in good agreement with the values predicted by the model. Conclusion: Metal working fluids treatment with calcium chloride was efficient in the removal of pollution parameters. Dosage of calcium chloride was similar to the conventional coagulants such as Alum, but its efficiency was higher.

  6. Long-term results of endoscopic sinus surgery-oriented treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Hong; Zuo, Ke-Jun; Guo, Yu-Biao; Li, Zhi-Ping; Xu, Geng; Xu, Rui; Shi, Jian-Bo

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)-oriented multimodality treatment in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients with asthma and its impact on asthma. Prospective, nonrandomized cohort. Twenty-seven CRS patients with asthma who underwent FESS with postoperative topical corticosteroid spray were evaluated preoperatively; 25 of them were evaluated 1 year and 3 years postoperatively. CRS was evaluated by visual analogue scale, clinical control of CRS, and objective measurement endoscopy Lund-Kennedy scores. Asthma was assessed by subjective asthma control test and asthma control level, also by objective antiasthma medication use and pulmonary function tests. VAS scores of general symptoms (8.09 ± 0.87 preoperatively) were significantly improved at 1 year (2.94 ± 2.21) and 3 years (3.77 ± 2.16) postoperation (P = .000). No difference in these items was found between 1 year and 3 years (P = .463). Endoscopy Lund-Kennedy scores at 1 year (4.34 ± 3.09) and 3 years (5.80 ± 3.38) postoperatively were significantly better (9.33 ± 2.03 preoperatively, P = .000), and there was no difference between 1 year and 3 years of follow-up (P > .05). Significantly, asthma control level improved postoperatively (P = .025). However, antiasthma drug and pulmonary function showed no significant change postoperatively (P > .05). FESS-oriented multimodality treatment improves CRS with asthma significantly and persistently. Asthma control level improved. Antiasthma medication use and pulmonary function remained stable. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Optimization of Electrochemical Treatment Process Conditions for Distillery Effluent Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmathi, P; Elangovan, G; Begum, A Farjana

    2015-01-01

    Distillery industry is recognized as one of the most polluting industries in India with a large amount of annual effluent production. In this present study, the optimization of electrochemical treatment process variables was reported to treat the color and COD of distillery spent wash using Ti/Pt as an anode in a batch mode. Process variables such as pH, current density, electrolysis time, and electrolyte dose were selected as operation variables and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiency were considered as response variable for optimization using response surface methodology. Indirect electrochemical-oxidation process variables were optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD). The results showed that electrochemical treatment process effectively removed the COD (89.5%) and color (95.1%) of the distillery industry spent wash under the optimum conditions: pH of 4.12, current density of 25.02 mA/cm(2), electrolysis time of 103.27 min, and electrolyte (NaCl) concentration of 1.67 g/L, respectively.

  8. Innovative research methods for studying treatments for rare diseases: methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Thompson, Lauren; O'Keefe, Kelly; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2014-11-24

    To examine methods for generating evidence on health outcomes in patients with rare diseases. Methodological review of existing literature. PubMed, Embase, and Academic Search Premier searched for articles describing innovative approaches to randomized trial design and analysis methods and methods for conducting observational research in patients with rare diseases. We assessed information related to the proposed methods, the specific rare disease being studied, and outcomes from the application of the methods. We summarize methods with respect to their advantages in studying health outcomes in rare diseases and provide examples of their application. We identified 46 articles that proposed or described methods for studying patient health outcomes in rare diseases. Articles covered a wide range of rare diseases and most (72%) were published in 2008 or later. We identified 16 research strategies for studying rare disease. Innovative clinical trial methods minimize sample size requirements (n=4) and maximize the proportion of patients who receive active treatment (n=2), strategies crucial to studying small populations of patients with limited treatment choices. No studies describing unique methods for conducting observational studies in patients with rare diseases were identified. Though numerous studies apply unique clinical trial designs and considerations to assess patient health outcomes in rare diseases, less attention has been paid to innovative methods for studying rare diseases using observational data. © Gagne et al 2014.

  9. Process optimization via response surface methodology in the treatment of metal working industry wastewater with electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Senem Yazici; Okut, Yusuf; Ozak, Mert; Haktanir, Birsu; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan

    2017-02-01

    In this study, process parameters in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity removal from metal working industry (MWI) wastewater were optimized by electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum, iron and steel electrodes. The effects of process variables on COD and turbidity were investigated by developing a mathematical model using central composite design method, which is one of the response surface methodologies. Variance analysis was conducted to identify the interaction between process variables and model responses and the optimum conditions for the COD and turbidity removal. Second-order regression models were developed via the Statgraphics Centurion XVI.I software program to predict COD and turbidity removal efficiencies. Under the optimum conditions, removal efficiencies obtained from aluminum electrodes were found to be 76.72% for COD and 99.97% for turbidity, while the removal efficiencies obtained from iron electrodes were found to be 76.55% for COD and 99.9% for turbidity and the removal efficiencies obtained from steel electrodes were found to be 65.75% for COD and 99.25% for turbidity. Operational costs at optimum conditions were found to be 4.83, 1.91 and 2.91 €/m(3) for aluminum, iron and steel electrodes, respectively. Iron electrode was found to be more suitable for MWI wastewater treatment in terms of operational cost and treatment efficiency.

  10. Optimizing electrocoagulation process for the treatment of biodiesel wastewater using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orathai Chavalparit; Maneerat Ongwandee

    2009-01-01

    The production of biodiesel through a transesterification method produces a large amount of wastewater that contains high levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G).Currently,flotation is the conventional primary treatment for O&G removal prior to biological treatments.In this study,electrocoagulation (EC) was adopted to treat the biodiesel wastewater.The effects of initial pH,applied voltage,and reaction time on the EC process for the removal of COD,O&G,and suspended solids (SS) were investigated using one factor at a time experiments.Furthermore,the Box-Behnken design,an experimental design for response surface methodology (RSM),was used to create a set of 15 experimental runs needed for optimization of the operating conditions.Quadratic regression models with estimated coefficients were developed to describe the pollutant removals.The experimental results show that EC was effective at reducing COD,O&G,and SS by 55.43%,98.42%,and 96.59%,respectively,at the optimum conditions of pH 6.06,applied voltage 18.2 V,and reaction time 23.5 min.The experimental observations were in reasonable agreement with the modeled values.

  11. A new methodological approach for PET implementation in radiotherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Elena; Ferretti, Alice; Capirci, Carlo; Grassetto, Gaia; Gava, Marcello; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Virdis, Graziella; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Massaro, Arianna; Rubello, Domenico; Nibale, Otello

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a new methodological approach to using PET information in radiotherapy treatment planning has been discussed. Computed tomography (CT) represents the primary modality to plan personalized radiation treatment, because it provides the basic electron density map for correct dose calculation. If PET scanning is also performed it is typically coregistered with the CT study. This operation can be executed automatically by a hybrid PET/CT scanner or, if the PET and CT imaging sets have been acquired through different equipment, by a dedicated module of the radiotherapy treatment planning system. Both approaches have some disadvantages: in the first case, the bore of a PET/CT system generally used in clinical practice often does not allow the use of certain bulky devices for patient immobilization in radiotherapy, whereas in the second case the result could be affected by limitations in window/level visualization of two different image modalities, and the displayed PET volumes can appear not to be related to the actual uptake into the patient. To overcome these problems, at our centre a specific procedure has been studied and tested in 30 patients, allowing good results of precision in the target contouring to be obtained. The process consists of segmentation of the biological target volume by a dedicated PET/CT console and its export to a dedicated radiotherapy system, where an image registration between the CT images acquired by the PET/CT scanner and a large-bore CT is performed. The planning target volume is contoured only on the large-bore CT and is used for virtual simulation, to individuate permanent skin markers on the patient.

  12. Resources and nutrients oriented greywater treatment for non-potable reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Behrendt, Joachim; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluated the performance and suitability of a resources and nutrients oriented decentralized greywater treatment system which uses a submerged spiral wound module. This greywater treatment system is aimed at treating and recovering the resources present in the wastewater. The study revealed that the UF membrane filtration system was able to maintain a permeate flux between 6 and 10 L/m2/h. TOC can be reduced from the influent value of 161 to 28.6 mg/L in the permeate, meaning an average elimination rate of 83.4%. In addition, soluble nutrients such as ammonia and phosphorus can pass through the UF membrane and remain in the permeate. The total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the permeate were 16.7 and 6.7 mg/L respectively. The permeate was low in turbidity (below 1 NTU) and free of suspended solids and E. coli and had an excellent physical appearance. The permeate can be used in gardening and agriculture for irrigation and soil fertilization or alternatively for toilet flushing after disinfection. The retentate generated in this system can be treated with blackwater and kitchen waste in an anaerobic digester at a later stage for producing biogas or compost.

  13. Guidelines for reporting case studies on extracorporeal treatments in poisonings: methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Ouellet, Georges; Bouchard, Josée; Galvao, Tais; Kielstein, Jan T; Roberts, Darren M; Kanji, Salmaan; Mowry, James B; Calello, Diane P; Hoffman, Robert S; Gosselin, Sophie; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Dargan, Paul I; Decker, Brian Scott; Hoegberg, Lotte C; Maclaren, Robert; Megarbane, Bruno; Sowinski, Kevin M; Yates, Christopher; Mactier, Robert; Wiegand, Timothy; Ghannoum, Marc

    2014-01-01

    A literature review performed by the EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup highlighted deficiencies in the existing literature, especially the reporting of case studies. Although general reporting guidelines exist for case studies, there are none in the specific field of extracorporeal treatments in toxicology. Our goal was to construct and propose a checklist that systematically outlines the minimum essential items to be reported in a case study of poisoned patients undergoing extracorporeal treatments. Through a modified two-round Delphi technique, panelists (mostly chosen from the EXTRIP workgroup) were asked to vote on the pertinence of a set of items to identify those considered minimally essential for reporting complete and accurate case reports. Furthermore, independent raters validated the clarity of each selected items between each round of voting. All case reports containing data on extracorporeal treatments in poisoning published in Medline in 2011 were reviewed during the external validation rounds. Twenty-one panelists (20 from the EXTRIP workgroup and an invited expert on pharmacology reporting guidelines) participated in the modified Delphi technique. This group included journal editors and experts in nephrology, clinical toxicology, critical care medicine, emergency medicine, and clinical pharmacology. Three independent raters participated in the validation rounds. Panelists voted on a total of 144 items in the first round and 137 items in the second round, with response rates of 96.3% and 98.3%, respectively. Twenty case reports were evaluated at each validation round and the independent raters' response rate was 99.6% and 98.8% per validation round. The final checklist consists of 114 items considered essential for case study reporting. This methodology of alternate voting and external validation rounds was useful in developing the first reporting guideline for case studies in the field of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning

  14. Culture-sensitive adaptation and validation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases methodology for rheumatic disease in Latin American indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Granados, Ysabel; Silvestre, Adriana; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Valls, Evart; Quintana, Rosana; Figuera, Yemina; Santiago, Flor Julian; Goñi, Mario; González, Rosa; Santana, Natalia; Nieto, Romina; Brito, Irais; García, Imelda; Barrios, Maria Cecilia; Marcano, Manuel; Loyola-Sánchez, Adalberto; Stekman, Ivan; Jorfen, Marisa; Goycochea-Robles, Maria Victoria; Midauar, Fadua; Chacón, Rosa; Martin, Maria Celeste; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to validate a culturally sensitive adaptation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases (COPCORD) methodology in several Latin American indigenous populations. The COPCORD Spanish questionnaire was translated and back-translated into seven indigenous languages: Warao, Kariña and Chaima (Venezuela), Mixteco, Maya-Yucateco and Raramuri (Mexico) and Qom (Argentina). The questionnaire was administered to almost 100 subjects in each community with the assistance of bilingual translators. Individuals with pain, stiffness or swelling in any part of the body in the previous 7 days and/or at any point in life were evaluated by physicians to confirm a diagnosis according to criteria for rheumatic diseases. Overall, individuals did not understand the use of a 0-10 visual analog scale for pain intensity and severity grading and preferred a Likert scale comprising four items for pain intensity (no pain, minimal pain, strong pain, and intense pain). They were unable to discriminate between pain intensity and pain severity, so only pain intensity was included. For validation, 702 subjects (286 male, 416 female, mean age 42.7 ± 18.3 years) were interviewed in their own language. In the last 7 days, 198 (28.2 %) subjects reported having musculoskeletal pain, and 90 (45.4 %) of these had intense pain. Compared with the physician-confirmed diagnosis, the COPCORD questionnaire had 73.8 % sensitivity, 72.9 % specificity, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.7 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73. The COPCORD questionnaire is a valid screening tool for rheumatic diseases in indigenous Latin American populations.

  15. Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a methodological review using CONSORT guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motraghi, Terri E; Seim, Richard W; Meyer, Eric C; Morissette, Sandra B

    2014-03-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an extension of traditional exposure therapy and has been used to treat a variety of anxiety disorders. VRET utilizes a computer-generated virtual environment to present fear-relevant stimuli. Recent studies have evaluated the use of VRET for treatment of PTSD; however, a systematic evaluation of the methodological quality of these studies has yet to be conducted. This review aims to (a) identify treatment outcome studies examining the use of VRET for the treatment of PTSD and (b) appraise the methodological quality of each study using the 2010 Consolidating Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement and its 2008 extension for nonpharmacologic interventions. Two independent assessors conducted a database search (PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL, Google Scholar) of studies published between January 1990 and June 2013 that reported outcome data comparing VRET with another type of treatment or a control condition. Next, a CONSORT quality appraisal of each study was completed. The search yielded nine unique studies. The CONSORT appraisal revealed that the methodological quality of studies examining VRET as a treatment for PTSD was variable. Although preliminary findings suggest some positive results for VRET as a form of exposure treatment for PTSD, additional research using well-specified randomization procedures, assessor blinding, and monitoring of treatment adherence is warranted. Movement toward greater standardization of treatment manuals, virtual environments, and equipment would further facilitate interpretation and consolidation of this literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2014-09-01

    Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors.

  17. Energy audit in small wastewater treatment plants: methodology, energy consumption indicators, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Vaccari, M; Vitali, F

    2015-01-01

    Energy audits in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) reveal large differences in the energy consumption in the various stages, depending also on the indicators used in the audits. This work is aimed at formulating a suitable methodology to perform audits in WWTPs and identifying the most suitable key energy consumption indicators for comparison among different plants and benchmarking. Hydraulic-based stages, stages based on chemical oxygen demand, sludge-based stages and building stages were distinguished in WWTPs and analysed with different energy indicators. Detailed energy audits were carried out on five small WWTPs treating less than 10,000 population equivalent and using continuous data for 2 years. The plants have in common a low designed capacity utilization (52% on average) and equipment oversizing which leads to waste of energy in the absence of controls and inverters (a common situation in small plants). The study confirms that there are several opportunities for reducing energy consumption in small WWTPs: in addition to the pumping of influent wastewater and aeration, small plants demonstrate low energy efficiency in recirculation of settled sludge and in aerobic stabilization. Denitrification above 75% is ensured through intermittent aeration and without recirculation of mixed liquor. Automation in place of manual controls is mandatory in illumination and electrical heating.

  18. Effect of thermal post-treatment on some surface-related properties of oriented strandboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Henrique Soares Del Menezzi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A very promising method for improving the dimensional stability of oriented strandboard (OSB has been studied in Brazil since 2001. According to this method, the OSB is thermally treated under mild conditions using a hot-press, where it is reheated without high level of compression stress. The properties of the treated OSB panels are different from and enhanced compared to those untreated ones. It means that the treated OSB can be used in more severe uses, like concrete formwork. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of the proposed thermal treatment on nail-holding capability and on surface hardness of OSB. Samples from 42 commercials OSB were thermally treated according to two levels of temperature (190°C and 220°C and three heating times (12, 16 and 20 min using a single opening hot-press. For comparison, control panels were kept untreated. The following surface-related properties were evaluated: Janka hardness, nail-holding capability in a plane normal to the surface, in the edge of the panel, water absorption and thickness swelling (TS of edge sealed samples, and four surface roughness parameters. According to the Dunnett test, there were significant differences between treated and untreated panels for nail-holding, dimensional stability and surface roughness. The factorial ANOVA identified that the temperature was the main factor governing these properties while the duration of the treatment had lesser effect. It was concluded that the proposed thermal treatment improved significantly dimensional stability and did not affect adversely the nail-holding capability and surface roughness of the treated OSB

  19. Maximizing Health or Sufficient Capability in Economic Evaluation? A Methodological Experiment of Treatment for Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranitis, Ilias; Coast, Joanna; Day, Ed; Copello, Alex; Freemantle, Nick; Frew, Emma

    2016-11-17

    Conventional practice within the United Kingdom and beyond is to conduct economic evaluations with "health" as evaluative space and "health maximization" as the decision-making rule. However, there is increasing recognition that this evaluative framework may not always be appropriate, and this is particularly the case within public health and social care contexts. This article presents a methodological case study designed to explore the impact of changing the evaluative space within an economic evaluation from health to capability well-being and the decision-making rule from health maximization to the maximization of sufficient capability. Capability well-being is an evaluative space grounded on Amartya Sen's capability approach and assesses well-being based on individuals' ability to do and be the things they value in life. Sufficient capability is an egalitarian approach to decision making that aims to ensure everyone in society achieves a normatively sufficient level of capability well-being. The case study is treatment for drug addiction, and the cost-effectiveness of 2 psychological interventions relative to usual care is assessed using data from a pilot trial. Analyses are undertaken from a health care and a government perspective. For the purpose of the study, quality-adjusted life years (measured using the EQ-5D-5L) and years of full capability equivalent and years of sufficient capability equivalent (both measured using the ICECAP-A [ICEpop CAPability measure for Adults]) are estimated. The study concludes that different evaluative spaces and decision-making rules have the potential to offer opposing treatment recommendations. The implications for policy makers are discussed.

  20. Lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia: a clinical overview and applications with home-based technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Fred; Williams, David A; Collinge, William

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a persistent and disabling widespread pain condition often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive problems, sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, and headache. To date, the most thoroughly studied non-pharmacological approaches to managing FM are those with a focus on changing patient activities and beliefs that affect the illness. These interventions are intended to facilitate enduring improvement in pain and functional status. Lifestyle-oriented treatments include patient education, aerobic or other physical exercise, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). These interventions in FM can be delivered in medical or behavioral health care settings by trained professionals, through patient-oriented treatment manuals, or via remote-access technologies. Non-pharmacological treatments, in particular exercise and CBT, have yielded effect sizes and cost–benefit ratios comparable to medications. This paper describes lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for FM and highlights selected literature reviews of these interventions. In addition, behavioral and practical issues are addressed that may affect these non-pharmacological treatments, including patient expectations, participant burden, and treatment availability. Recommendations are made to facilitate these interventions and potentially improve outcomes. In particular, the increasing availability of convenient home-based mobile technologies to deliver these non-pharmacological treatments is described. PMID:23166446

  1. Using a life cycle assessment methodology for the analysis of two treatment systems of food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Baun, Anders

    2007-01-01

    are the parameters that have the greatest influence on the potential environmental impacts of the systems analyzed. In this study, we present a systematic methodology for the analysis of the operation of two modern wastewater treatment technologies: Biological removal of nitrogen and organic matter by activated......Feasibility evaluation of wastewater treatment plants’ designs & operation strategies is nowadays done in a plant-wide perspective. Environmental concerns regarding energy consumption and sludge disposal are the main drivers to consider pre/post-treatment units in these evaluations. Existing...... criteria involve sludge disposal strategies and electrical energy consumption. However, there is a need to develop a systematic methodology to quantify relevant environmental indicators; comprising information of the wastewater treatment system in a life cycle perspective. Also, to identify which...

  2. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of individually oriented Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) for severe agressive behavior in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Figge, M.A.; Changoe, K.; van Horn, J.E.; Hendriks, J.; Wissink, I.B.

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis, including six studies (13 effect sizes) and 164 adolescents, examined the effectiveness of individually oriented treatment (which means that the intervention contained at least an individual component, possibly in combination with group and/or family therapy) with CBT-elements

  3. APPLYING LCC METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN INVESTMENT OF PROJECTS OF THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Hurynovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is referring to the current problems of the evaluation of the effectiveness of an investment of new plans and of the modernization of existing sewage treatment plants including aspects of the optimization of costs of the sewage treatment. He shows the modernization of the sewage treatment plant the Evaluation of the life cycle as the adequate tool assisting choice of the best variant or the level. He is presenting characteristics of LCС methodology and examples of using to the technology assessment the sewage treatment.

  4. Towards better environmental performance of wastewater sludge treatment using endpoint approach in LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaseri, Isam; Zhou, Jianpeng

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to use the life cycle assessment method to measure the environmental performance of the sludge incineration process in a wastewater treatment plant and to propose an alternative that can reduce the environmental impact. To show the damages caused by the treatment processes, the study aimed to use an endpoint approach in evaluating impacts on human health, ecosystem quality, and resources due to the processes. A case study was taken at Bissell Point Wastewater Treatment Plant in Saint Louis, Missouri, U.S. The plant-specific data along with literature data from technical publications were used to build an inventory, and then analyzed the environmental burdens from sludge handling unit in the year 2011. The impact assessment method chosen was ReCipe 2008. The existing scenario (dewatering-multiple hearth incineration-ash to landfill) was evaluated and three alternative scenarios (fluid bed incineration and anaerobic digestion with and without land application) with energy recovery from heat or biogas were proposed and analyzed to find the one with the least environmental impact. The existing scenario shows that the most significant impacts are related to depletion in resources and damage to human health. These impacts mainly came from the operation phase (electricity and fuel consumption and emissions related to combustion). Alternatives showed better performance than the existing scenario. Using ReCipe endpoint methodology, and among the three alternatives tested, the anaerobic digestion had the best overall environmental performance. It is recommended to convert to fluid bed incineration if the concerns were more about human health or to anaerobic digestion if the concerns were more about depletion in resources. The endpoint approach may simplify the outcomes of this study as follows: if the plant is converted to fluid bed incineration, it could prevent an average of 43.2 DALYs in human life, save 0.059 species in the area from extinction

  5. Human resource management in the project-oriented organization: Employee well-being and ethical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work environm

  6. Human resource management in the project-oriented organization: Employee well-being and ethical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work

  7. 扩展面向对象编程(XOOP)的理论和方法%Theory and Methodology of Extended Object-Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斌

    2001-01-01

    针对使用继承的传统对象系统在映射真实世界的对象关系时遇到的各种困难,提出一种普遍的软件工程方法,即扩展的面向对象方法(XOO),它通过支持双向派生、归纳、更一般的多态机制等技术,来补足继承机制的不足,并进一步增强对象方法在描述对象关系方面的能力.作者强调了虚归纳是一种普遍的软件工程方法,它使得归纳与继承的高效结合成为可能,可以作为重用已有类库代码和与继承类层次结合的有效方法.文中还描述了XOOP的一个较为完整的实现——编程语言C**.%Some substantial difficulties can arise to traditional objectsystems when mapping the real world object relations. This paper presents XOO, as a universal software engineering methodology, to complement inheritance and overcome the difficulties. A special form of induction, called virtual induction, is a powerful mechanism for abstracting and reusing existing code and can be well blended with inheritance. A relatively thorough XOOP implementation, the programming language C**, is also discussed. A software technique (a programming language, an analysis or design method) is object-oriented if and only if it supports: (1) Data abstraction——providing some form of data abstraction and encapsulation (or information hiding), such as abstract data types or object classes; (2) Inheritance——providing the mechanism to derive new concrete abstractions out of the general abstractions (i.e., top-down feature propagation, including interface inheritance and implementation inheritance); (3) Behavior polymorphism——providing some form of dynamic binding based on inheritance, and this technique is of extended object-orientation if and only if it further supports: (4) Induction——the ability to build new general abstractions out of existing concrete ones by summing up their common features (i.e., bottom-up feature propagation, including interface

  8. Scientific-methodological approaches to designing risk-oriented model of control and surveillance activities in the sphere of consumer rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present scientific-methodological approaches to defining risk categories of economic entities which are subject to surveillance in the sphere of consumer rights protection. Risk is suggested to be assessed as a product of violations frequency comprising violations of separate provisions of the law on consumer rights protection detected in the course of scheduled and unscheduled inspections; a number of claims per one detected violation which were satisfied by courts in favor of consumers; each separate case of harm accepted by court in money terms (as a sum of physical and moral damage to health and damage to property; and coefficient of a potential impact scope which differentiates risks for economic entities belonging to micro-, small, medium-sized and large business. Our information sources are official statistic data obtained due to realization of state control in the sphere of consumer rights protection and court practice collected in all the RF regions over 2012–2016. It is shown that a share of economic entities with extremely high risk potential which can cause total material damage to consumers in sums greater than 10 million rubles per year amounts to about 0.15 % of the total number of economic entities (both juridical persons and private entrepreneurs; economic entities with high risk potential account for about 2 %. Such groups are made of companies involved in financial markets, share construction services, insurance and tourism. About 23 % of juridical persons and private entrepreneurs can be classified as having low risk potential and they can be excluded from scheduled inspections. Economic entities structure in general corresponds to world practices. It is shown that risk-oriented surveillance model development requires improvements in keeping registers of juridical persons and private entrepreneurs as such registers should contain comprehensive information; it is necessary for correct risk category (or hazard category

  9. Analyzing Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  10. First-line treatment of EGFR-mutated nonsmall cell lung cancer: critical review on study methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC has led to the development of targeted treatments, including the reversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib, and the irreversible ErbB family blocker afatinib. Several important activating EGFR mutations have now been identified, which correlate strongly with response to treatment with these agents. Multiple randomised controlled trials have confirmed the association between the presence of activating EGFR mutations and objective response to gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib, thus demonstrating their superiority over platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment for NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumours, and resulting in approval of these agents for use in this setting. It can be tempting to compare outcome data across multiple clinical trials and agents; however, substantial differences in methodology between studies, including investigator versus independent assessment and differences in patient eligibility, makes such comparisons fraught with difficulty. This critical review provides an overview of the evolution of the methodology used in eight phase III trials investigating first-line targeted treatment of NSCLC, identifies key differences in methodology and reporting, and critically assesses how these differences should be taken into account when interpreting the findings from such trials.

  11. Treatment of rabbit growth plate injuries with oriented ECM scaffold and autologous BMSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenchao; Xu, Ruijiang; Huang, Jiangxiang; Bao, Xing; Zhao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Tissue-engineered technology has provided a promising method for the repair of growth plate injuries using biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds and appropriate cells. The aim of this study was to fabricate oriented ECM scaffolds to imitate the material and structure of a natural growth plate and to investigate whether BMSCs in a scaffold could prevent the formation of bone bridges in an injured growth plate. We developed a natural, acellular and oriented scaffold derived from a growth plate. The oriented scaffold was fabricated using new freeze-drying technology and by cross-linking the microfilaments in the growth plate. From histological examination, the scaffold contained most of the ECM components including GAG and collagen II without cell DNA fragments, and SEM revealed that oriented scaffold had a uniform aperture in the transverse plane and columnar structure in length plane. Cytotoxicity testing with MTT showed no cytotoxic effect of the scaffold extracts on BMSCs. Autogenous BMSCs in oriented scaffolds promoted the regeneration of neogenetic growth plate when repairing an injured growth plate and prevent the formation of bone bridges to reduce the angular deformity and length discrepancy in the proximal tibia in rabbits. The well-characterized ECM-derived oriented growth plate scaffold shows potential for the repair of injured growth plates in young rabbits. PMID:28266598

  12. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior among Latino and Asian Americans: implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Ayala, George

    2010-09-01

    Research on the sexuality of Asians and Latinos in the United States has been sparse, and the studies that have been done suffer from a number of limitations. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003), this study examined self-identified sexual orientation and self-reported sexual behavior among Latinos (n = 2,554; age: M = 38.1, SE = 0.5) and Asians (n = 2,095; age: M = 41.5, SE = 0.8). This study also investigated implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress among sexual minorities identified in the sample. Results indicated heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior including differences in the adoption of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity by gender, ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic status. LGB sexual minorities reported higher levels of unfair treatment and psychological distress compared to their non-LGB-identified sexual minority counterparts, and unfair treatment was positively associated with psychological distress. Results highlight the need to consider multiple demographic factors in assessing sexuality, and also suggest that measures of both self-identified sexual orientation and sexual behavior should be collected. In addition, findings provide support for the deleterious influence of unfair treatment among Asians and Latinos in the United States.

  13. Light ion facility projects in Europe: methodological aspects for the calculation of the treatment cost per protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Pascal; Zucca, Luciano; Näslund, Ingemar; Auberger, Thomas; Combs, Stephanie E; François, Guy; Heeren, Germaine; Rochat, Joël; Perrier, Lionel

    2004-12-01

    In the framework of the European Network for Research in Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT), the health economics group develops a methodology for assessing important investment and operating costs of this innovative treatment against its expected benefits. The main task is to estimate the cost per treated patient. The cost analysis is restricted to the therapeutic phase from the hospital point of view. An original methodology for cost assessment per treatment protocol is developed based on standard costs. Costs related to direct medical activity are based on the production process analysis, whereas indirect and non direct medical costs are allocated to each protocol using relevant cost-drivers. The resulting cost model will take into account the specificities of each therapeutic protocol as well as the particularities of each of the European projects.

  14. Lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia: a clinical overview and applications with home-based technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedberg F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fred Friedberg,1 David A Williams,2 William Collinge31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 3Collinge and Associates, Kittery, Maine, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a persistent and disabling widespread pain condition often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive problems, sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, and headache. To date, the most thoroughly studied non-pharmacological approaches to managing FM are those with a focus on changing patient activities and beliefs that affect the illness. These interventions are intended to facilitate enduring improvement in pain and functional status. Lifestyle-oriented treatments include patient education, aerobic or other physical exercise, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. These interventions in FM can be delivered in medical or behavioral health care settings by trained professionals, through patient-oriented treatment manuals, or via remote-access technologies. Non-pharmacological treatments, in particular exercise and CBT, have yielded effect sizes and cost–benefit ratios comparable to medications. This paper describes lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for FM and highlights selected literature reviews of these interventions. In addition, behavioral and practical issues are addressed that may affect these non-pharmacological treatments, including patient expectations, participant burden, and treatment availability. Recommendations are made to facilitate these interventions and potentially improve outcomes. In particular, the increasing availability of convenient home-based mobile technologies to deliver these non-pharmacological treatments is described.Keywords: cognitive-behavior therapy, exercise, education, mobile technology

  15. Habit Reversal Treatment of Tic Disorders: A Methodological Critique of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James E.; Chong, Ivy M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most commonly reported and successful behavioral interventions for tic disorders is habit reversal (HR). Several narrative literature reviews have adequately summarized the outcomes of these studies. The purpose of this article was to review studies that used HR to treat tics in terms of their methodological characteristics and rigor.…

  16. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawayama Toru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low

  17. Object-oriented Systems Analysis and COAD′s Methodology for City Traffic Simulation%城市交通仿真面向对象的系统分析及COAD方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁爱玲

    2001-01-01

    介绍了面向对象方法论(OOM)及COAD注记体系,通过仿真 实例讨论了COAD对象交互图、COAD类图、决策表等关键技术在构造系统概念模型时的优点, 对于COAD方法中的对象、结构、属性和服务的认定方面提出了一套系统的分析方法和解决思 路。%The object-oriented methodology(OOM) and COAD′s object-orient ed methodology was introduced. On the basis of simulation instance, the key tech niques of the COAD′s object model components, scenarios decision tables are pre sent, which have some advantage of making concept model of system structure. Ab out object, structure, attribute and cognizance of service in COAD′s object-or iented methodology, the systematic analysis and solving method are put forward.

  18. Single case methodology in neurobehavioural rehabilitation: preliminary findings on biofeedback in the treatment of challenging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian; Findlay, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    The use of single-case methodology (SCM) in brain injury rehabilitation is described and contrasted with other methodologies. SCM is optimal when attempting to meet highly individual presentations or to trial innovative solutions. Portable biofeedback is a potentially effective means of helping persons with brain injury to recognise and regulate emotional states. Emotional dysregulation, associated with disinhibition on tests of executive function, is hypothesised to underpin aggressive challenging behaviour and may be amenable to feedback on heart rate variability, a marker for stress. Two case studies of a novel biofeedback intervention, emWave2, to address aggression directed towards the self and towards others are presented. Data from two A-B designs were analysed using the non-overlap all pairs (NAP) statistical method. Clinical significance of outcome is reported in both cases but only Case 2 reached statistical significance. The discussion highlights limitations of the methodology. Results are discussed in relation to the device helping participants differentiate the physiological state associated with stress. The future application of wearable physiological sensing and feedback systems is explored.

  19. Impact of harmful algal blooms on several Lake Erie drinking water treatment facilities; methodology considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The propagation of cyanbacterial cells and their toxins were investigated at seven drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) on Lake Erie were investigated with regards to harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxin concentrations, water quality variations in treatment plant influents, and pr...

  20. Physiotherapy after stroke: to what extent is task-oriented practice a part of conventional treatment after hospital discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askim, Torunn; Indredavik, Bent; Engen, Astrid; Roos, Kerstin; Aas, Tone; Mørkved, Siv

    2013-07-01

    Research has shown that motor training after stroke should be task-oriented. It is still unknown whether the task-oriented approach is implemented into clinical practice. The purpose of the present study was to survey to which extent task-specific training was a part of conventional physiotherapy practice given to stroke patients after discharge from hospital. This cross-sectional survey was a sub-study of a randomized controlled trial. Physiotherapists treating patients included in the trial were asked to register their choice of treatment according to 11 predefined activity categories during the second week after discharge from hospital. Nineteen physiotherapists treating 46 patients suffering from mild-to-moderate stroke were included. The activities chosen in most patients were sit-to-stand (60.9%), balance in standing position (65.2%), walking on even ground (78.3%), and stair climbing (56.5%). Only two patients (4.3%) practiced transfers or balance related to activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing, dressing, and toileting. This study shows that conventional physiotherapy practice for a selected group of Norwegian stroke patients was mainly based on a task-oriented approach, although with very little emphasis on training in relation to ADL. Future research is needed to ensure that evidence-based treatment is given to all stroke patients.

  1. Content and Methodological Formation Model of a Younger Pupil Value-Oriented Attitude to Reality Based on Historical and Social Science Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Ranija R.; Shamigulova, Oksana ?.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important functions of historical and pedagogical education in modern educational the system is connected with a pupil's character features development, a value apprehension of social events and a formation of a value-oriented attitude to reality. The main aim of the present article is to describe and analyze the results of a…

  2. Treatment programs for severe night-time fears: a methodological note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, A G; Ollendick, T H

    1989-06-01

    A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to examine the efficacy of a treatment package consisting of relaxation, reinforcement, and cognitive self-instruction in the reduction of severe night-time fears in six children. Although the disruptive bedtime behaviors of five of the six children were reduced, the multiple baseline analysis revealed that changes were not solely due to treatment. For children with extended baselines, improvement preceded treatment. The implications of these findings for the treatment of fear of the dark and multicomponent treatment programs are discussed.

  3. Towards recovery-oriented psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder: Quality of life outcomes, stage-sensitive treatments, and mindfulness mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Greg; Leitan, Nuwan D; Thomas, Neil; Michalak, Erin E; Johnson, Sheri L; Jones, Steven; Perich, Tania; Berk, Lesley; Berk, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Current adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder (BD) aim to impact illness course via information sharing/skill development. This focus on clinical outcomes contrasts with the emergent recovery paradigm, which prioritises adaptation to serious mental illness and movement towards personally meaningful goals. The aim of this review is to encourage innovation in the psychological management of BD by considering three recovery-oriented trends in the literature. First, the importance of quality of life as a target of recovery-oriented clinical work is considered. Second, the recent staging approach to BD is described, and we outline implications for psychosocial interventions tailored to stage. Finally, we review evidence suggesting that mindfulness-based psychosocial interventions have potential across early, middle and late stages of BD. It is concluded that the humanistic emphasis of the recovery paradigm provides a timely stimulus for development of a next generation of psychosocial treatments for people with BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Methodological quality of systematic reviews referenced in clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of opioid use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew; Rankin, Justin; Beaman, Jason; Murray, Kelly; Sinnett, Philip; Riddle, Ross; Haskins, Jordan; Vassar, Matt

    2017-01-01

    With efforts to combat opioid use disorder, there is an increased interest in clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for opioid use disorder treatments. No literature exists examining the quality of systematic reviews used in opioid use disorder CPGs. This study aims to describe the methodological quality and reporting clarity of systematic reviews (SRs) used to create CPGs for opioid use disorder. From June to July 2016 guideline clearinghouses and medical literature databases were searched for relevant CPGs used in the treatment of opioid use disorder. Included CPGs must have been recognized by a national organization. SRs from the reference section of each CPG was scored by using AMSTAR (a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews) tool and PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) checklist. Seventeen CPGs from 2006-2016 were included in the review. From these, 57 unique SRs were extracted. SRS comprised 0.28% to 17.92% of all references found in the CPGs. All SRs obtained moderate or high methodological quality score on the AMSTAR tool. All reviews met at least 70% of PRISMA criteria. In PRISMA, underperforming areas included accurate title labeling, protocol registration, and risk of bias. Underperforming areas in AMSTAR included conflicts of interest, funding, and publication bias. A positive correlation was found between AMSTAR and PRISMA scores (r = .79). Although the SRs in the CPGs were of good quality, there are still areas for improvement. Systematic reviewers should consult PRISMA and AMSTAR when conducting and reporting reviews. It is important for CPG developers to consider methodological quality as a factor when developing CPG recommendations, recognizing that the quality of systematic reviews underpinning guidelines does not necessarily correspond to the quality of the guideline itself.

  5. Albumin (BSA) Adsorption over Graphene in Aqueous Environment: Influence of Orientation, Adsorption Protocol, and Solvent Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, J G; Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Vellosillo, Perceval; Serena, P A; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-02-23

    We report 150 ns explicit solvent MD simulations of the adsorption on graphene of albumin (BSA) in two orientations and using two different adsorption protocols, i.e., free and forced adsorption. Our results show that free adsorption occurs with little structural rearrangements. Even taking adsorption to an extreme, by forcing it with a 5 nN downward force applied during the initial 20 ns, we show that along a particular orientation BSA is able to preserve the structural properties of the majority of its binding sites. Furthermore, in all the cases considered in this work, the ibuprofen binding site has shown a strong resilience to structural changes. Finally, we compare these results with implicit solvent simulations and find that the latter predicts an extreme protein unfolding upon adsorption. The origin of this discrepancy is attributed to a poor description of the water entropic forces at interfaces in the implicit solvent methods.

  6. Data Centric Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Fadi E.

    2012-01-01

    Data centric applications, an important effort of software development in large organizations, have been mostly adopting a software methodology, such as a waterfall or Rational Unified Process, as the framework for its development. These methodologies could work on structural, procedural, or object oriented based applications, but fails to capture…

  7. Treatment of Sexual-Orientation Obsessions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Monnica T.; Crozier, Marjorie; Powers, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Presented is a case report of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) therapy administered to a 51-year-old, White, heterosexual male with sexual-orientation obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The patient had been previously treated with pharmacotherapy, resulting in inadequate symptom reduction and unwanted side effects. OCD symptoms included anxiety about the possibility of becoming gay, mental reassurance, and avoidance of other men, which resulted in depressive symptoms and...

  8. Controlling preferred orientation and electrical conductivity of zinc oxide thin films by post growth annealing treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J., E-mail: J.Kennedy@gns.cri.nz [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Murmu, P.P.; Leveneur, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Markwitz, A. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Futter, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Annealing dependent microstructural evolution and change in conductivity of ZnO films. • Preferential growth along (0 0 2) and (1 0 0) planes in air and vacuum annealed films. • Resistivity varied between 10{sup 6} and 10{sup −2} Ω cm depending on annealing conditions. • Hydrogen interstitials, and hydrogen-oxygen vacancy complexes affect the conductivity. • Narrow ZnO bandgap assigned to band tail effect related to intrinsic defects states. - Abstract: We report the microstructural evolution of the preferred orientation and electrical conductivity of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films prepared by ion beam sputtering. Elastic recoil detection analysis results showed 0.6 at% H in as-deposited film which decreased to 0.35 at% in air annealed film due to H diffusion. XRD results showed that the preferred orientation can be tuned by selecting annealing conditions. Vacuum annealed films exhibited (1 0 0) orientation, whereas air annealed film showed (0 0 2) orientation. The annealing conditions caused a dramatic increase in the resistivity of air annealed films (∼10{sup 6} Ω cm), whereas vacuum annealed films showed lower resistivity (∼10{sup −2} Ω cm). High resistivity in air annealed film is attributed to the lack of hydrogen interstitials and hydrogen-oxygen vacancy complexes. Raman results supported the XRD results which demonstrated that annealing assisted in recovery of the crystalline disorder in as-deposited films. Air annealed film exhibited the highest optical transmission (89.7%) in the UV–vis region compared to as-deposited and vacuum annealed films (∼85%). Optical bandgap was found to vary between 3.11 eV and 3.18 eV in as-deposited and annealed films, respectively. The bandgap narrowing is associated with the intrinsic defects which introduced defect states resulting in band tail in ZnO films.

  9. Analysis of the tenderisation of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) meat by ultrasonic treatment using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaqin; Yu, Hiaxia; Dong, Kaicheng; Yang, Shuibing; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Shiguo

    2014-10-01

    Due to its unique structure, jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) meat is sensitive to heat treatment, which makes the traditional squid products taste tough and hard. This study aimed to tenderise jumbo squid meat through ultrasonic treatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to predict the tenderising effect of various treatment conditions. According to the results of RSM, the optimal conditions appeared to be a power of 186.9 W, a frequency of 25.6 kHz, and a time of 30.8 min, and the predicted values of flexibility and firmness under these optimal conditions were 2.40 mm and 435.1 g, respectively. Protein degradation and a broken muscle fibre structure were observed through histological assay and SDS-PAGE, which suggests a satisfactory tenderisation effect.

  10. Current state of methodological and decisions for radiation treatment of blood, its components and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents currently used blood transfusion media — components and blood products, therapeutic effects, reactions and complications of blood transfusion, use of radiation treatment for blood transfusion fluids. There had been discussed in detail the practice of radiation processing of blood components and for the prevention of reaction "graft versus host" and studies of plasma radiation treatment for its infectious safety. There was presented the current state of techniques and technical solutions of radiation treatment of transfusion-transmissible environments. There were also considered an alternative to radiation treatment of blood.

  11. A family-oriented treatment program for youths with ketamine abuse and their caregivers: a pilot study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Lu, Shing-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Wang, Yao-Hsing; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Ching

    2015-01-01

    The abuse of ketamine by youths has grown into a serious public health issue. However, a reliable and efficient treatment has still not been found for youths who abuse ketamine. This pilot study investigated the effects of a family-oriented treatment program for ketamine-using youths and their caregivers. To carry out this study, 42 youths with ketamine use (mean age 16.6±1.1 years) who were referred to take part in a 10-week treatment program based on motivational enhancement principles were selected, as were their principal caregivers (mean age 46.4±7.1 years), who were similarly referred to take part in a 10-week training program for parenting skills. The study had the youths complete the Chinese Craving Beliefs Questionnaire, the Adolescents' Behavior problem Scale, and the Family APGAR both immediately before and after the program. Likewise, the youths' caregivers completed the Family APGAR, the 12-item version of the Chinese Health Questionnaire, and the Parenting Stress Index. Of the 42 youth-caregiver pairs that took part in this study, 37 (88%) completed the 10-week program and both sets of assessments. After the treatment, the participating youths' substance cravings declined (t=3.88, Pfamily function, as perceived by the participating caregivers, significantly increased (t=2.22, P=0.033). The improvement in caregivers' perceptions of family function were positively related to the improvement of the caregivers' health status (r=-0.36, P=0.022). According to its results, this pilot study submits that family-oriented treatment programs may be considered a potentially effective treatment option for youths who abuse ketamine. Additional studies with larger sample sizes, as well as longer follow-up periods, are necessary to verify whether this type of treatment also prevents youths using ketamine from relapsing.

  12. Empirical Comparison of Two Psychological Therapies: Self Psychology and Cognitive Orientation in the Treatment of Anorexia and Bulimia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, Eytan; Latzer, Yael; Kreitler, Shulamit; Berry, Elliot M.

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the applicability of self psychological treatment (SPT) and cognitive orientation treatment (COT) to the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. Thirty-three patients participated in this study. The bulimic patients (n = 25) were randomly assigned either to SPT, COT, or control/nutritional counseling only (C/NC). The anorexic patients (n = 8) were randomly assigned to either SPT or COT. Patients were administered a battery of outcome measures assessing eating disorders symptomatology, attitudes toward food, self structure, and general psychiatric symptoms. After SPT, significant improvement was observed. After COT, slight but nonsignificant improvement was observed. After C/NC, almost no changes could be detected.(The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:115–128) PMID:10079459

  13. Methodology for commissioning a brachytherapy treatment planning system in the era of 3D planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Claire

    2010-12-01

    To describe the steps undertaken to commission a 3D high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment planning system (TPS). Emphasis was placed on validating previously published recommendations, in addition to checking 3D parameters such as treatment optimization and dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Commissioning was performed of the brachytherapy module of the Nucletron Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning system (version 3.2). Commissioning test results were compared to an independent external beam TPS (Varian Eclipse v 8.6) and the previously commissioned Nucletron Plato (v 14.3.7) brachytherapy treatment planning system, with point doses also independently verified using the brachytherapy module in RadCalc (v 6.0) independent point dose calculation software. Tests were divided into eight categories: (i) Image import accuracy, (ii) Reconstruction accuracy, (iii) Source configuration data check, (iv) Dose calculation accuracy, (v) Treatment optimization validation, (vi) DVH reproducibility, (vii) Treatment export check and (viii) Printout consistency. Point dose agreement between Oncentra, Plato and RadCalc was better than 5% with source data and dose calculation protocols following the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) guidelines. Testing of image accuracy (import and reconstruction), along with validation of automated treatment optimization and DVH analysis generated a more comprehensive set of testing procedures than previously listed in published recommendations.

  14. Early Adverse Events and Attrition in SSRI Treatment: A Suicide Assessment Methodology Study (SAMS) Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Diane; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Kurian, Benji; Zisook, Sidney; Kornstein, Susan G.; Friedman, Edward S.; Miyahara, Sachiko; Leuchter, Andrew F.; Fava, Maurizio; Rush, John

    2011-01-01

    Adverse events during selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment are frequent and may lead to premature treatment discontinuation. If attrition is associated with early worsening of side effects or the frequency, intensity, or burden of side effects, interventions to maximize retention could be focused on patients with these events. Outpatient participants (n=265) with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder entered an 8-week trial with an SSRI. At baseline and week 2, specific side effects were evaluated with the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Events – Systematic Inquiry, and at week 2 the Frequency, Intensity, and Burden of Side Effects Rating globally assessed side effects. Attrition was defined by those participants who left treatment after week 2 but before week 8. No specific week 2 side effect, either treatment emergent or with worsening intensity, was independently associated with attrition. Global ratings of side effect frequency, intensity, or burden at week 2 were also not associated with subsequent attrition. Neither global ratings nor specific side effects at week 2 were related to patient attrition during SSRI treatment. Other factors appear to contribute to patient decisions about continuing with treatment. PMID:20473060

  15. The effect of heat treatment and orientation on the mechanical behavior of extruded Mg-Al-Zn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, K.Y.; Kim, K.H. [Materials Technology Dept., Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, KyungNam (Korea); Kang, M.C. [Central R and D Center, Seungwoo Metal Co., KyungNam (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    The effect of elevated temperature deformation, artificial aging, prestrain prior to aging, and crystal orientation on the strength and ductility of extruded AZ31 alloy has been investigated. The room temperature strength of AZ31 increased in proportion to the amount of elevated temperature deformation while the ductility drastically decreased even though the deformation is carried out at 400 C. The ductility initially decreased with the amount of the hot deformation, and then saturated after 40%RA. The reason for the saturation in elongation is due to the formation of fine grains by dynamic recrystallization occurred during hot swaging process. Prestrain did not increase the hardness of AZ31 during aging at 150 C. AZ31 alloy aged without prestrain after solution treatment showed peak hardness after 6 hours. However, the hardness of AZ31 with prestrain prior to aging by 18.4%RA did not show remarkable increase and gradually decreased with aging time. The elevated temperature strength of AZ31 was significantly influenced by the orientation of the specimen. UTS and YS were highest at longitudinal direction (0 ) and lowest at 45 to extrusion axis at all temperatures. The ductility of AZ31 was highest at 45 - orientation at all temperatures, which is considered due to the redistribution of basal planes occurring during extrusion process. (orig.)

  16. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...... framework to manage the multi-criteria WWTP design/retrofit problem for domestic wastewater treatment. The design space (i.e. alternative treatment technologies) is represented in a superstructure, which is coupled with a database containing data for both performance and economics of the novel alternative...

  17. [Methodology and didactics of training children and adolescents in topical treatment of atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseti, J; Dimopulos, U; Hübscher, W

    1998-11-01

    There are increasing numbers of education programmes for children and young people with atopic dermatitis. These also include directions for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. However, the methods to be followed and the treatment to be applied are usually not clearly defined or explained. Presented are the key aspects of the local treatment of atopic dermatitis to be taught to children. The introduction of a basic therapeutic concept helps sort out which are the best preparations to use, some with and others without active ingredients. The interactions between basic care, active ingredients and skin conditions are explained in such a way that children can understand them.

  18. Optimizing Oily Wastewater Treatment Via Wet Peroxide Oxidation Using Response Surface Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Xiuqing; Wang, Xiaoyin [Wuhan Textile Univ., Wuhan (China)

    2014-02-15

    The process of petroleum involves in a large amount of oily wastewater that contains high levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and toxic compounds. So they must be treated before their discharge into the receptor medium. In this paper, wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) was adopted to treat the oily wastewater. Central composite design, an experimental design for response surface methodology (RSM), was used to create a set of 31 experimental runs needed for optimizing of the operating conditions. Quadratic regression models with estimated coefficients were developed to describe the COD removals. The experimental results show that WPO could effectively reduce COD by 96.8% at the optimum conditions of temperature 290 .deg. C, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} excess (HE) 0.8, the initial concentration of oily wastewater 3855 mg/L and reaction time 9 min. RSM could be effectively adopted to optimize the operating multifactors in complex WPO process.

  19. Effect of post-treatment on photocatalytic oxidation activity of (111 oriented NaNbO3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of post-treatment on photocatalytic oxidation activity of (111 oriented NaNbO3 film prepared by pulse laser deposition. Some impurities such as Na2Nb4O11 and bigger particles appear in the treated samples. The activity of rhodamine B degradation with N2 purge increases with the amount of ⋅OH, the sample treated under H2/Ar(7% being the highest activity, followed by under air and untreated one; the opposite trend is observed when the system was without N2 purge.

  20. Deployment Evaluation Methodology for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of DOE-EM Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramer, Ronald James; Adams, James Paul; Rynearson, Michael Ardel; Dahl, Christian Adam

    1999-03-01

    The Department of Energy - Environmental Management (DOE-EM) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is charged with the disposition of legacy Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The NSNFP, conducted by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co. (LMITCO) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is evaluating final disposition of SNF in the DOE complex. While direct repository disposal of the SNF is the preferred disposition option, some DOE SNF may need treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. Evaluations of treatment needs and options have been previously prepared, and further evaluations are ongoing activities in the DOE-EM NSNFP. The treatments may range from electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) and chemical dissolution to engineering controls. As a planning basis, a need is assumed for a treatment process, either as a primary or backup technology, that is compatible with, and cost-effective for, this portion of the DOE-EM inventory. The current planning option for treating this SNF, pending completion of development work and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis, is the EMT process under development by Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W). A decision on the deployment of the EMT is pending completion of an engineering scale demonstration currently in progress at ANL-W. Treatment options and treatment locations will depend on fuel type and location of the fuel. One of the first steps associated with selecting one or more sites for treating SNF in the DOE complex is to determine the cost of each option. An economic analysis will assist in determining which fuel treatment alternative attains the optimum disposition of SNF at the lowest possible cost to the government and the public. One of the major issues associated with SNF treatment is final disposition of treatment products and associated waste streams. During conventional SNF treatment, various chemicals are added that may increase the product

  1. The application of Bandura's self-efficacy theory to abstinence-oriented alcoholism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnick, S; Heather, N

    1982-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977b) to the process of abstinence treatment and the phenomenon of relapse. By distinguishing between the particular efficacy and outcome expectations created in treatment it is possible to clarify some of the problems encountered between clinicians and alcoholics. Bandura's theory also explains why some treatment methods might be more effective than others. Analysis of relapse suggests that while some of the expectations created in treatment might serve to promote abstinence, others might unwittingly precipitate relapse. The understanding of abstinence treatment could be enhanced by the testing of hypotheses which emerge from this analysis.

  2. Definition of an object oriented library for the dynamic simulation of advanced energy systems: methodologies, tools and application to combined ICE-ORC power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vaja, Iacopo

    2009-01-01

    The present Thesis covers part of the work that has been carried out during the three year Ph.D. course in Industrial Engineering at the University of Parma. Scope of the work is developing theoretical methodologies and a full library of dynamic models that can represent the components that usually appear in energy conversion systems. The proposed library should endorse the possibility to create any desire arrangement of the studied systems, to overcome the lack of testing facilities in or...

  3. Assessing a Methodological Proposal for the Design, Creation and Evaluation of Learning Objects Oriented to Educators with Diverse Educational and Technological Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Maldonado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodological proposal for the design, creation and evaluation of Learning Objects (LOs. This study arises from the compilation and analysis of several LO design methodologies currently used in Ibero-America. This proposal, which has been named DICREVOA, defines five different phases: analysis, design (instructional and multimedia, implementation (LO and metadata, evaluation (from the perspective of both the producer and the consumer of the LO, and publishing. The methodology focuses not only on the teaching inexperienced, but also on those having a basic understanding of the technological and educational aspects related to LO design; therefore, the study emphasizes LO design activities centered around the Kolb cycle and the use of the ExeLearning tool in order to implement the LO core. Additionally, DICREVOA was used in a case study, which demonstrates how it provides a feasible mechanism for LO design and implementation withindifferent contexts. Finally, DICREVOA, the case study to which it was applied, and the results obtained are presented.

  4. Development of a High Performance PES Ultrafiltration Hollow Fiber Membrane for Oily Wastewater Treatment Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Adila Aluwi Shakir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to optimize the spinning process used for fabricating hollow fiber membranes using the response surface methodology (RSM. The spinning factors considered for the experimental design are the dope extrusion rate (DER, air gap length (AGL, coagulation bath temperature (CBT, bore fluid ratio (BFR, and post-treatment time (PT whilst the response investigated is rejection. The optimal spinning conditions promising the high rejection performance of polyethersulfone (PES ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes for oily wastewater treatment are at the dope extrusion rate of 2.13 cm3/min, air gap length of 0 cm, coagulation bath temperature of 30 °C, and bore fluid ratio (NMP/H2O of 0.01/99.99 wt %. This study will ultimately enable the membrane fabricators to produce high-performance membranes that contribute towards the availability of a more sustainable water supply system.

  5. Using a life cycle assessment methodology for the analysis of two treatment systems of food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Baun, Anders

    2007-01-01

    sludge (Scenario 1), and anaerobic removal of organic matter by a continuous stirred tank reactor (Scenario 2). Both technologies were applied to wastewater coming from a fish meals industry and a pet food industry discharging about 250 to 260 thousand cubic meters of wastewater per year. The methodology...... comprises three major steps: (i) Data gathering regarding wastewater characteristics and discharge, (ii) Simulation of the wastewater treatment plant’s operation by dedicated process engineering models in Matlab/Simulink, (iii) Classification and calculation of life cycle inventory data: removal...... boundaries were limited from the influent entering the wastewater treatment plant until the disposal of the effluents generated, i.e. wastewater, sludge, and biogas (for Scenario 2). Main differences between Scenario 1 & Scenario 2 were: (i) Effluent quality was 65% better when pet food wastewater was fed...

  6. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  7. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...

  8. Methodologies for investigating natural medicines for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Sun; Kung, Sidney; Grewal, Thomas; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a prominent condition in Western countries. In this review we describe the characteristics and current treatments of NAFLD and discuss opportunities for developing new therapeutic management approaches, with a particular emphasis on development of animal studies and in vitro assays for identification of components of natural product medicines. The main manifestation of NAFLD is hepatic lipid accumulation in the form of lipid droplets (LDs), known as hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). Current treatments for NAFLD generally aim to reduce triglyceride (TG) accumulation, often utilizing thiazolidinedines (TZDs) and fibrates, which are known to lower TG levels in hyperlipidemia, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Both of these compounds act through activation of nuclear receptors of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) family, thereby activating genes involved in triglyceride metabolism. Thus treatment using natural PPAR α and PPAR γ ligands, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has also been considered. Alternatively, natural medicines for the treatment of NAFLD have a long and successful history of controlling disease without prominent side effects. However, active compounds in natural medicine responsible for lowering hepatic TG levels are yet poorly characterized. This points to the need for medium-high throughput screening assays to identify active components within natural herbs. As outlined in this review, the quantification of the size and number of lipid droplets could provide an opportunity to screen compound libraries derived from natural medicine for their potential to reduce NAFLD.

  9. High-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment: diversifying from end-of the pipe treatment to resource oriented conversation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Decades of developments and implementations in the field of high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment have put the technology at a competitive level. With respect to sustainability and cost-effectiveness, anaerobic treatment has a much better score than many alternatives. Particularly, the energy con

  10. METHODOLOGICAL EVALUATION ON CLINICAL RESEARCH LITERATURE OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT OF FACIAL PARALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁繁荣; 李瑛

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To try to give an objective evaluation on the clinical research situation about acupuncturetreatment of facial paralysis in the past 50 years and try to provide a possible evidence for clinical practice. Methods:All papers are searched and assessed according to the international standards and clinical epidemiology. Results:There is no systematic review (SR) on acupuncture treatment of facial palsy in a total of 1021 articles enlisted in thepresent paper. Comparing with the quantity of the descriptive studies and expert opinions (constituting 84.84% ), thatof the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) is smaller (constituting 15. 16%), be-sides, the quality of RCTs and CCTs is unsatisfactory. Conclusion: At present, the quantity and quality of studies withRCTs about acupuncture treatment of facial paralysis can't meet the need of clinical practice, and in order to improvethe therapeutic effect, a higher quality of RCTs and SR is required.

  11. Human Computer Interactions in Next-Generation of Aircraft Smart Navigation Management Systems: Task Analysis and Architecture under an Agent-Oriented Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Canino-Rodríguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The limited efficiency of current air traffic systems will require a next-generation of Smart Air Traffic System (SATS that relies on current technological advances. This challenge means a transition toward a new navigation and air-traffic procedures paradigm, where pilots and air traffic controllers perform and coordinate their activities according to new roles and technological supports. The design of new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI for performing these activities is a key element of SATS. However efforts for developing such tools need to be inspired on a parallel characterization of hypothetical air traffic scenarios compatible with current ones. This paper is focused on airborne HCI into SATS where cockpit inputs came from aircraft navigation systems, surrounding traffic situation, controllers’ indications, etc. So the HCI is intended to enhance situation awareness and decision-making through pilot cockpit. This work approach considers SATS as a system distributed on a large-scale with uncertainty in a dynamic environment. Therefore, a multi-agent systems based approach is well suited for modeling such an environment. We demonstrate that current methodologies for designing multi-agent systems are a useful tool to characterize HCI. We specifically illustrate how the selected methodological approach provides enough guidelines to obtain a cockpit HCI design that complies with future SATS specifications.

  12. Human computer interactions in next-generation of aircraft smart navigation management systems: task analysis and architecture under an agent-oriented methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino-Rodríguez, José M; García-Herrero, Jesús; Besada-Portas, Juan; Ravelo-García, Antonio G; Travieso-González, Carlos; Alonso-Hernández, Jesús B

    2015-03-04

    The limited efficiency of current air traffic systems will require a next-generation of Smart Air Traffic System (SATS) that relies on current technological advances. This challenge means a transition toward a new navigation and air-traffic procedures paradigm, where pilots and air traffic controllers perform and coordinate their activities according to new roles and technological supports. The design of new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) for performing these activities is a key element of SATS. However efforts for developing such tools need to be inspired on a parallel characterization of hypothetical air traffic scenarios compatible with current ones. This paper is focused on airborne HCI into SATS where cockpit inputs came from aircraft navigation systems, surrounding traffic situation, controllers' indications, etc. So the HCI is intended to enhance situation awareness and decision-making through pilot cockpit. This work approach considers SATS as a system distributed on a large-scale with uncertainty in a dynamic environment. Therefore, a multi-agent systems based approach is well suited for modeling such an environment. We demonstrate that current methodologies for designing multi-agent systems are a useful tool to characterize HCI. We specifically illustrate how the selected methodological approach provides enough guidelines to obtain a cockpit HCI design that complies with future SATS specifications.

  13. Estimation of waste water treatment plant methane emissions: methodology and results from a short campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Yver-Kwok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes different methods to estimate methane emissions at different scales. These methods are applied to a waste water treatment plant (WWTP located in Valence, France. We show that Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR measurements as well as Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS can be used to measure emissions from the process to the regional scale. To estimate the total emissions, we investigate a tracer release method (using C2H2 and the Radon tracer method (using 222Rn. For process-scale emissions, both tracer release and chamber techniques were used. We show that the tracer release method is suitable to quantify facility- and some process-scale emissions, while the Radon tracer method encompasses not only the treatment station but also a large area around. Thus the Radon tracer method is more representative of the regional emissions around the city. Uncertainties for each method are described. Applying the methods to CH4 emissions, we find that the main source of emissions of the plant was not identified with certainty during this short campaign, although the primary source of emissions is likely to be from solid sludge. Overall, the waste water treatment plant represents a small part (3% of the methane emissions of the city of Valence and its surroundings,which is in agreement with the national inventories.

  14. Determination of Specific Losses in the Limbs of an Epstein Frame Using a Three Epstein Frame Methodology Applied to Grain Oriented Electrical Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Guillaume; Penin, Rémi; Lecointe, Jean-Philippe; Brudny, Jean-François; Belgrand, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    An experimental method to characterize the magnetic properties of Grain Oriented Electrical Steel in the rolling direction is proposed in this paper. It relies on the use of three 25 cm Epstein frames combined to generate three test-frames of different lengths. This enables the identification of the effective specific losses of the electrical steel when magnetization is applied along the rolling direction. As a consequence, it evidences the deviation of the loss figures obtained using the standardised Epstein test. The difference in losses is explained by the fact that the described method gives “only” the losses attached to the straight parts. The concept of the magnetic path length as defined by the standard is discussed. PMID:27271637

  15. The Evolving Treatment of Gender, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation in Marital and Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Leigh A.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews similarities in criticism of the treatment of women, minorities, and homosexuals by marital and family therapists. Examines the impact these critiques have had on the field and explores areas in which work is still needed. Contains 132 references. (JBJ)

  16. Data-Driven Implementation and Adaptation of New Teaching Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kristen L.; Picione, John; Holme, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an action research approach toward an implementation of a new teaching methodology (specifically active learning) in a preparatory college chemistry classroom. The initial implementation involved the use of process-orientated guided inquiry (POGIL) activities. The treatment classes with either all POGIL activities during…

  17. A family-oriented treatment program for youths with ketamine abuse and their caregivers: a pilot study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang LJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Liang-Jen Wang,1 Shing-Fang Lu,1 Wen-Jiun Chou,1 Mian-Yoon Chong,2 Yao-Hsing Wang,1 Yu-Lian Hsieh,1 Yi-Hsuan Lee,1 Ching Chen2 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Objective: The abuse of ketamine by youths has grown into a serious public health issue. However, a reliable and efficient treatment has still not been found for youths who abuse ketamine. This pilot study investigated the effects of a family-oriented treatment program for ketamine-using youths and their caregivers.Methods: To carry out this study, 42 youths with ketamine use (mean age 16.6±1.1 years who were referred to take part in a 10-week treatment program based on motivational enhancement principles were selected, as were their principal caregivers (mean age 46.4±7.1 years, who were similarly referred to take part in a 10-week training program for parenting skills. The study had the youths complete the Chinese Craving Beliefs Questionnaire, the Adolescents’ Behavior problem Scale, and the Family APGAR both immediately before and after the program. Likewise, the youths’ caregivers completed the Family APGAR, the 12-item version of the Chinese Health Questionnaire, and the Parenting Stress Index.Results: Of the 42 youth–caregiver pairs that took part in this study, 37 (88% completed the 10-week program and both sets of assessments. After the treatment, the participating youths’ substance cravings declined (t=3.88, P<0.001, while family function, as perceived by the participating caregivers, significantly increased (t=2.22, P=0.033. The improvement in caregivers’ perceptions of family function were positively related to the improvement of the caregivers’ health status (r=-0.36, P=0.022.Conclusion: According to its results, this pilot study submits that family-oriented treatment programs may be considered a potentially effective

  18. UNA METODOLOGÍA PARA EL DISEÑO DE UN CURRÍCULO ORIENTADOA LAS COMPETENCIAS A METHODOLOGY FOR COMPETENCY ORIENTED CURRICULA DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Schmal S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda el desafío del diseño de un currículo orientado al logro de competencias. Para ello, se analizó el estado del arte mediante una revisión del concepto de competencia y de los modelos curriculares en este ámbito. De esta revisión no se ha encontrado un método formal que permita construir un currículo orientado a las competencias. Para cubrir esta brecha el presente trabajo propone una metodología cuyo punto de partida es asociar a cada competencia un modulo o una asignatura, asociación que puede ser modificada por restricciones de tiempo y recursos a través de un proceso de refinamientos sucesivos. La metodología propone las siguientes etapas a partir de un perfil profesional específico dado por sus competencias y capacidades asociadas: a identificación de los módulos; b secuenciación de los módulos; c estructuración de los módulos; d revisión de los módulos; e revisión del currículo; y f construcción del syllabus. Bajo esta metodología los módulos que conforman el currículo apuntan a integrar los conocimientos y las habilidades requeridas para el logro de las competencias, antes que a fraccionarlos por disciplina.This article deals with the challenge of designing a competency-based curriculum. For this a revision of the concept of competence was analyzed along with the existing curricula models based on competence. A formal method wasn't found which would have allowed in constructing a competency-based curriculum. In order to solve, this article proposes the methodology with which a first stage is started associating each competence with one module or assignment which perhaps at a later stage could be modified for time and resource restrictions through successive refinement process. Starting from a specific professional profile defined by its competences and associate capacities the methodology proposes: a identification of modules; b module sequencing; c structuring of module; d revision of

  19. Wastewater Treatment Costs and Outlays in Organic Petrochemicals: Standards Versus Taxes With Methodology Suggestions for Marginal Cost Pricing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Russell G.; Singleton, F. D., Jr.

    1986-04-01

    With the methodology recommended by Baumol and Oates, comparable estimates of wastewater treatment costs and industry outlays are developed for effluent standard and effluent tax instruments for pollution abatement in five hypothetical organic petrochemicals (olefins) plants. The computational method uses a nonlinear simulation model for wastewater treatment to estimate the system state inputs for linear programming cost estimation, following a practice developed in a National Science Foundation (Research Applied to National Needs) study at the University of Houston and used to estimate Houston Ship Channel pollution abatement costs for the National Commission on Water Quality. Focusing on best practical and best available technology standards, with effluent taxes adjusted to give nearly equal pollution discharges, shows that average daily treatment costs (and the confidence intervals for treatment cost) would always be less for the effluent tax than for the effluent standard approach. However, industry's total outlay for these treatment costs, plus effluent taxes, would always be greater for the effluent tax approach than the total treatment costs would be for the effluent standard approach. Thus the practical necessity of showing smaller outlays as a prerequisite for a policy change toward efficiency dictates the need to link the economics at the microlevel with that at the macrolevel. Aggregation of the plants into a programming modeling basis for individual sectors and for the economy would provide a sound basis for effective policy reform, because the opportunity costs of the salient regulatory policies would be captured. Then, the government's policymakers would have the informational insights necessary to legislate more efficient environmental policies in light of the wealth distribution effects.

  20. Impairment-oriented training (IOT)--scientific concept and evidence-based treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, T

    2004-01-01

    Everyday activities can be affected by many different body dysfunctions (impairments). A multi-modal analysis of electric brain activity revealed that movement-related brain activity is differentially altered in patients with different impairments, i.e. paresis, somatosensory deficits, and apraxia. Each body dysfunction has its own characteristics in terms of the resulting sensorimotor control deficits. The Impairment-oriented Training concept intends to characterise the resulting sensorimotor control deficits for each impairment. Based on such analyses two specific training techniques have been developed for stroke patients with mild and severe arm paresis: (1.) The Arm Ability training for mild arm paresis trains different sensorimotor abilities such as dexterity, speed of isolated hand and finger movements, steadiness, aiming, or tracking under visual guidance. Improvement of these motor abilities leads to improved motor performance in every day life circumstances. (2.) The Arm BASI S training for severe arm paresis intends to restore more basic motor control, i.e. the full range of active non-segmented motion of all limb segments, both postural activities and dynamic motion control, interjoint-coordination, and adequate motor control when external forces are applied. Clinical trials with representative study populations supported both techniques' clinical efficacy.

  1. Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis A. Zorpas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700–3100 t y−1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The cocomposting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32% by the application of Fenton and another 10–28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final cocomposted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  2. Methodologies for pre-validation of biofilters and wetlands for stormwater treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefeng Zhang

    Full Text Available Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD systems are frequently used as part of a stormwater harvesting treatment trains (e.g. biofilters (bio-retentions and rain-gardens and wetlands. However, validation frameworks for such systems do not exist, limiting their adoption for end-uses such as drinking water. The first stage in the validation framework is pre-validation, which prepares information for further validation monitoring.A pre-validation roadmap, consisting of five steps, is suggested in this paper. Detailed methods for investigating target micropollutants in stormwater, and determining challenge conditions for biofilters and wetlands, are provided.A literature review was undertaken to identify and quantify micropollutants in stormwater. MUSIC V5.1 was utilized to simulate the behaviour of the systems based on 30-year rainfall data in three distinct climate zones; outputs were evaluated to identify the threshold of operational variables, including length of dry periods (LDPs and volume of water treated per event.The paper highlights that a number of micropollutants were found in stormwater at levels above various worldwide drinking water guidelines (eight pesticides, benzene, benzo(apyrene, pentachlorophenol, di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate and a total of polychlorinated biphenyls. The 95th percentile LDPs was exponentially related to system design area while the 5th percentile length of dry periods remained within short durations (i.e. 2-8 hours. 95th percentile volume of water treated per event was exponentially related to system design area as a percentage of an impervious catchment area.The out-comings of this study show that pre-validation could be completed through a roadmap consisting of a series of steps; this will help in the validation of stormwater treatment systems.

  3. Treatment of wastewater effluents from paper-recycling plants by coagulation process and optimization of treatment conditions with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Noushin; Younesi, Habibollah; Bahramifar, Nader

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a coagulation process was used to treat paper-recycling wastewater with alum coupled with poly aluminum chloride (PACl) as coagulants. The effect of each four factors, viz. the dosages of alum and PACl, pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD), on the treatment efficiency was investigated. The influence of these four parameters was described using response surface methodology under central composite design. The efficiency of reducing turbidity, COD and the sludge volume index (SVI) were considered the responses. The optimum conditions for high treatment efficiency of paper-recycling wastewater under experimental conditions were reached with numerical optimization of coagulant doses and pH, with 1,550 mg/l alum and 1,314 mg/l PACl and 9.5, respectively, where the values for reduction of 80.02 % in COD, 83.23 % in turbidity, and 140 ml/g in SVI were obtained.

  4. Curriculum Reform of Vocal Music Course Based on the Action-oriented Methodology%基于行动导向的《声乐》课程改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晓芬

    2014-01-01

    广州工商学院《声乐》课程坚持以声乐表演岗位能力培养为重点,着眼学生可持续发展的设计理念,重点对《声乐》课程教学如何实现基于工作过程导向的教学改革进行了探索与实践。%The Vocal Music course in Guangzhou College of Technology and Business has put a huge emphasis on the vocal music performing ability of the students. Focusing on the concept of the students’ sustainable development, the Vocal Music course has been exploring and practicing the teaching reform based on the work process-oriented methodology.

  5. Control-oriented modeling and real-time control for the ozone dosing process of drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Shihua; Zhou, Xingpeng

    2013-03-01

    Ozonation is one of the most important steps during drinking water treatment. To improve the efficiency of ozonation and to stabilize the quality of the treated water, control-oriented modeling and a real-time control method for the ozone dosing process are developed in this study. Compared with existing ozonation models developed by bench-scale and pilot-scale batch experiments, the model reported herein is control-oriented and based on plant-scale batch experiments. A real-time control strategy for maintaining a constant ozone exposure is attempted to meet primary disinfection requirements. An internal model control scheme is proposed to maintain a constant ozone exposure by adjusting the ozone dosage. The proposed real-time control method can cope with changing water quality, water flow rate, and process operational conditions. Both simulations and experimental studies have been carried out and implemented for the ozone dosing process control system, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of this real-time control method.

  6. Case study of Oriental Medicine Treatment with Mae-sun therapy of the spinal cord injury due to lumbar burst fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon Gi-sun; Park Jung-ah; Noh Ju-hwan; Kim Cheol-hong

    2010-01-01

    Objective : Traumatic lumbar burst fracture causes significant spinal cord injury. This report is intended to estimate the efficacy using oriental treatment on a patient with lumbar burst fracture and spinal cord injury. Methods : From 21th December, 2009 to 5th February, 2010, 1 female inpatient diagnosed with lumbar burst fracture and spinal cord injury was treated with general oriental medicine therapy : mae-sun therapy ; acupuncture ; moxibustion ; pharmacopuncture ; physical therapy a...

  7. Clinical Study of Lumbar Spine Stenosis Treated by Using Acupotomy Combined with Oriental Medical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Dong-il

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of acupotomy in patients with degenerative lumbar spine stenosis. Methods: A total of 437 patients who had been diagnosed as having lumbar spine stenosis and who had been admitted to Daejeon Oriental hospital from June 1, 2008, to September 31, 2012, were included in this study. The patients underwent acupotomy once, twice or three times on the lumbar spine, according to their symptoms. Then, the patients were asked to complete the verbal numeric rating scale (VNRS and the oswestry disability index (ODI before and after acupotomy and underwent a global assessment. The resulting data were analyzed. Results: The gender ratio of the participants was 1:1.54, and the mean age was 65 ± 10.0 yr. The number of patients over the age of 65 yr was less than that of the patients under the age of 65 yr in the ratio of 1:1.3. The average disease period was 30.17 ± 56.63 months. The verbal numeric rating scale (VNRS significantly decreased from 10 to an average of 7.10 ± 2.50 after one acupotomy, 6.30 ± 2.60 after two acupotomies, and 5.50 ± 2.50 after three acupotomies. The ODI was significantly decrease from 20.60 ± 8.70 to 17.80 ± 8.60 after once acupotomy, 17.10 ± 8.50 after two acupotomies, and 16.70 ± 8.60 after three acupotomies. High scores were also observed on the global assessment. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that acupotomy is effective to relieve pain and to improve quality of life in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.

  8. Nutrition and physical activity programs for obesity treatment (PRONAF study: methodological approach of the project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapico Augusto G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, scientific consensus exists on the multifactorial etiopatogenia of obesity. Both professionals and researchers agree that treatment must also have a multifactorial approach, including diet, physical activity, pharmacology and/or surgical treatment. These two last ones should be reserved for those cases of morbid obesities or in case of failure of the previous ones. The aim of the PRONAF study is to determine what type of exercise combined with caloric restriction is the most appropriate to be included in overweigth and obesity intervention programs, and the aim of this paper is to describe the design and the evaluation methods used to carry out the PRONAF study. Methods/design One-hundred nineteen overweight (46 males and 120 obese (61 males subjects aged 18–50 years were randomly assigned to a strength training group, an endurance training group, a combined strength + endurance training group or a diet and physical activity recommendations group. The intervention period was 22 weeks (in all cases 3 times/wk of training for 22 weeks and 2 weeks for pre and post evaluation. All subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (25-30% less energy intake than the daily energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry. 29–34% of the total energy intake came from fat, 14–20% from protein, and 50–55% from carbohydrates. The mayor outcome variables assesed were, biochemical and inflamatory markers, body composition, energy balance, physical fitness, nutritional habits, genetic profile and quality of life. 180 (75.3% subjects finished the study, with a dropout rate of 24.7%. Dropout reasons included: personal reasons 17 (28.8%, low adherence to exercise 3 (5.1%, low adherence to diet 6 (10.2%, job change 6 (10.2%, and lost interest 27 (45.8%. Discussion Feasibility of the study has been proven, with a low dropout rate which corresponds to the estimated sample size. Transfer of knowledge is foreseen as a spin-off, in order

  9. Nutrition and physical activity programs for obesity treatment (PRONAF study): methodological approach of the project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapico, Augusto G; Benito, Pedro J; González-Gross, Marcela; Peinado, Ana B; Morencos, Esther; Romero, Blanca; Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Cupeiro, Rocio; Szendrei, Barbara; Butragueño, Javier; Bermejo, Maite; Alvarez-Sánchez, María; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Bermejo, Laura M; Fernandez-Fernandez, Ceila; Calderón, Francisco J

    2012-12-21

    At present, scientific consensus exists on the multifactorial etiopatogenia of obesity. Both professionals and researchers agree that treatment must also have a multifactorial approach, including diet, physical activity, pharmacology and/or surgical treatment. These two last ones should be reserved for those cases of morbid obesities or in case of failure of the previous ones. The aim of the PRONAF study is to determine what type of exercise combined with caloric restriction is the most appropriate to be included in overweigth and obesity intervention programs, and the aim of this paper is to describe the design and the evaluation methods used to carry out the PRONAF study. One-hundred nineteen overweight (46 males) and 120 obese (61 males) subjects aged 18-50 years were randomly assigned to a strength training group, an endurance training group, a combined strength + endurance training group or a diet and physical activity recommendations group. The intervention period was 22 weeks (in all cases 3 times/wk of training for 22 weeks and 2 weeks for pre and post evaluation). All subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (25-30% less energy intake than the daily energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry). 29-34% of the total energy intake came from fat, 14-20% from protein, and 50-55% from carbohydrates. The mayor outcome variables assesed were, biochemical and inflamatory markers, body composition, energy balance, physical fitness, nutritional habits, genetic profile and quality of life. 180 (75.3%) subjects finished the study, with a dropout rate of 24.7%. Dropout reasons included: personal reasons 17 (28.8%), low adherence to exercise 3 (5.1%), low adherence to diet 6 (10.2%), job change 6 (10.2%), and lost interest 27 (45.8%). Feasibility of the study has been proven, with a low dropout rate which corresponds to the estimated sample size. Transfer of knowledge is foreseen as a spin-off, in order that overweight and obese subjects can benefit from the results. The

  10. Clinical and ethical orientations in case of accidental ingestion of foreign body during dental treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonan Ferreira da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The passage of foreign bodies through the oropharynx during dental treatment is an accident that can be avoided in most cases,especially when the dentist adopts preventive measures such as using rubber dam or tying certain objects with dental floss. Objective:To emphasize the importance of avoiding the accident of ingesting foreign bodies during dental treatment and to guide the dentist on how to proceed,clinically and ethically, if the accident occurs.Case report:A minor female patient, unaccompanied,accidentally ingested a bur used for finishing a composite resin restoration during a dental treatment performed in the public service, due to a defect in the high-speed handpiece.The patient and their parents were informed of the accident,and the object was monitored radiographically until its elimination by natural means,with no reports of discomfort.Conclusion:It is the responsibility of the dentist to know and follow the necessary measures to avoid or solve complications from ingesting foreign bodies, since patient’s health and integrity must be protected. In addition, the dentist will also avoid possible ethical and legal demands when fulfilling his responsibilities as a health care professional.

  11. Influence of heat treatment on fracture and magnetic properties of radially oriented Sm2Co17 permanent magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jian-jun; QU Xuan-hui; ZHANG Shen-gen; A. FARID; TAO Si-wu; DU Xue-li

    2007-01-01

    The quenching, fracture and aging treatment of radially oriented Sm2Co17 ring magnets were investigated. The results indicate that the ring magnets have obvious anisotropy of thermal expansion, which easily leads to the splits of the magnets during quenching. The fracture is brittle cleavage fracture. The difference (Δa) of the expansion coefficient reaches the maximum value at 800-850 ℃. So, various quenching processes at different steps are adopted in order to reduce the splits. When the magnets are aged, 1-5 phase precipitates from the 2-17 matrix phase and forms a cellular microstructure with 2-17 phase. BHmax and JHc reach the maximum value 226 kJ/m3 and 2 170 kA/m after being aged at 850 ℃ for 4 h and 8 h, respectively. The aging treatment at 850 ℃ has little influence on remanence(Br), which can always keep a high value (≥1.0 T). Through appropriate heat treatment, the ring magnets have uniform cellular microstructure and excellent magnetic properties: Br≥1.0T, JHc≥2 100 kA/m, BHmax≥220 kJ/m3.

  12. The role of clinical experience, diagnosis, and theoretical orientation in the treatment of posttraumatic and dissociative disorders: A vignette and survey investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Krüger, Christa; Brand, Bethany L; Şar, Vedat; Ewing, Jan; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Stavropoulos, Pam; Middleton, Warwick

    2017-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the merits of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus a phased approach when prominent dissociative symptoms are present. The first aim of this study was to examine the degree to which diagnosing dissociation in two traumatized patients' vignettes influenced clinicians' preference for phase-oriented treatment and whether clinicians' treatment experience contributed to their treatment preference. The second aim was to assess the extent to which participants had observed traumatized patients worsen when treated with exposure therapy or phase-oriented therapy and whether the theoretical orientation and treatment experience of the clinician were related to the observed deterioration. In the tradition of expert and practitioner surveys, 263 clinicians completed a survey of their diagnoses and treatment preferences for two vignettes and their treatment experience, theoretical orientation, and observations of patients' deterioration. When a marked degree of dissociation was noted in the PTSD vignette, respondents favored phased approaches regardless of the diagnosis given. Reports of having observed patient deterioration during both exposure and phased therapy were predicted by years of experience. Psychodynamic therapists reported more observations of worsening during exposure therapy than cognitive behavior therapy therapists. Clinical experience treating PTSD may heighten awareness of negative therapeutic effects, potentially because experienced clinicians have a lower threshold for detecting such effects and because they are referred more challenging cases.

  13. [Current prevention and treatment strategies for osteoporosis. Fracture-oriented, effective, low side effects and inexpensive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, R; Bartl, C

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is still an underdiagnosed and insufficiently therapied widespread disease in Germany. Of the estimated 7 million osteoporosis patients only 1.5 million receive a guideline conform diagnosis and even less receive appropriate treatment. Some 90 % of patients are provided with analgesics but only 10 % receive an effective therapy, although efficacious, well-tested and affordable medications are available. In addition, approximately one half of the patients terminate treatment after only 1 year although according to the results of recent studies the duration of therapy should be at least 3-5 years. In view of the increasing average life expectancy, a consistent management for prevention of fractures associated with osteoporosis is always most important for society, even if only for reasons of costs. Achievement of this target depends on four circumstances: clarification of the origin of osteoporosis and fractures (bone consciousness), prophylaxis of bone loss and fractures (primary prevention), consistent guideline conform diagnostics and therapy (secondary and tertiary prevention) and cooperation of all disciplines in medicine (bone is everybody's business). This article describes the current state of diagnostics (bone density measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry, FRAX®), prophylaxis of fractures (screening program) and therapy (use of economic and effective medications with low side effects). Novel medications are already undergoing clinical testing and a "healing" of bone reduction with restoration of the normal bone structure is to be expected.

  14. Do personality traits predict outcome of psychodynamically oriented psychosomatic inpatient treatment beyond initial symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Christiane; Klein, Susanne; Leweke, Frank; Leichsenring, Falk

    2015-03-01

    Whether personality characteristics have an impact on treatment outcome is an important question in psychotherapy research. One of the most common approaches for the description of personality is the five-factor model of personality. Only few studies investigated whether patient personality as measured with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Costa & McCrae [1992b]. Revised NEO-PI-R and NEO-FFI. Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Recources) predicts outcome. Results were inconsistent. Studies reporting personality to be predictive of outcome did not control for baseline symptoms, while studies controlling initial symptoms could not support these findings. We hypothesized that after taking into account baseline symptoms, the NEO-FFI would not predict outcome and tested this in a large sample of inpatients at a psychosomatic clinic. Naturalistic, non-controlled study using patients' data for multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of outcome. Data of 254 inpatients suffering primarily from depressive, anxiety, stress, and somatoform disorders were analysed. Personality was assessed at the beginning of therapy. For psychotherapy outcome, changes in anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS), overall psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R Global Severity Index [GSI]), and interpersonal problems (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems; IIP) were measured. The treatment resulted in significant decreases on all outcome measures corresponding to moderate to large effect sizes (HADS: d = 1.03; GSI: d = 0.90; IIP: d = 0.38). Consistent with our hypothesis, none of the personality domains predicted outcome when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Personality assessment at baseline does not seem to have an added value in the prediction of inpatient psychotherapy outcome beyond initial symptoms. Clinical implications Personality dimensions overlap with symptomatic distress. Rather than serve as predictors of

  15. Metodologia para gerenciar projetos de pesquisa e desenvolvimento com foco em produtos: uma proposta Management methodology for product-oriented R&D projects: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Azevedo Pinheiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As atividades de pesquisa e desenvolvimento (P&D realizadas nos institutos públicos de pesquisa (IPPs têm como característica uma gestão arraigada nas premissas acadêmicas, que priorizam a geração e difusão do conhecimento. Em contrapartida, a necessidade de competitividade tecnológica no mercado e a pressão pela participação, como instrumentos da política pública do esforço nacional rumo à inovação, têm pressionado os IPPs para a busca por resultados mais concretos. Esse fato acarreta a geração de grandes lacunas nos processos relacionados à gestão, induzindo a uma constante necessidade de aperfeiçoamento gerencial, no sentido de criar e melhorar ferramentas que contribuam para adequá-la à nova realidade. Este artigo propõe uma metodologia de gestão de projetos de P&D, que se baseia no direcionamento dos projetos de pesquisa para a obtenção de produtos, e considera suas características multidisciplinares e interdisciplinares e a incerteza inerentes a esse processo. Essa metodologia foi desenvolvida no Instituto de Tecnologia de Fármacos da Fiocruz e é proposta como um modelo original para instituições semelhantes.The Research and Development (R&D activities carried out at public research institutes have a strongly rooted academic-like management which focuses on knowledge improvement. On the other hand, the need for technological competitiveness and contribution in the national effort towards innovation has lead Brazilian organizations to search for more concrete results: products. This fact accounts for huge gaps in management-related processes and a constant need for managerial improvements in order to generate and perfect tools suitable to a new reality. This article proposes a R&D project management methodology focused on research projects that aim at new technological products taking into consideration the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary aspects and the uncertainty inherent to this process. It

  16. [Sexual abuse of boys. Examples of a group-oriented treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneland, M; Hanstad, A M

    1996-11-30

    Although the sexual abuse of boys is much less written and talked about than the sexual abuse of girls, it is thought that one of three victims of abuse is a boy. This article sums up the symptoms and reactions seen in male victims. Whereas women usually react with depression and guilt, men react more with anger. Psychosomatic symptoms are often seen, as well as sexual problems such as homophobia or exaggerated masculinisation. As many as 30-50% of male rapist and child molesters have been molested as children. This makes it important to establish a therapeutic dialogue with these men about what they have been through, so as to avoid the development of such behaviour if possible. Experience from the treatment of male adults who were sexually abused in childhood is described, and placed in relation to the existing literature on the subject.

  17. Mental Illness Discrimination in Mental Health Treatment Programs: Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Lynn C; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y; Stromwall, Layne K

    2016-04-01

    People with mental illnesses (PWMI) who are of color and/or lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) experience mental health disparities, including within mental health treatment programs (MHTPs). Informed by a critical framework with attention to intersectionality and microaggressions, this qualitative study asked 20 PWMI and family members who also are of color and/or LGB whether they had experienced mental illness discrimination in MHTPs, a possible factor in disparities. We also asked participants about aspects of MHTPs that supported recovery. Participants reported that they were ignored/not listened to, not viewed as complex individuals, experienced condescension/lack of respect and violations of privacy or other rights, and were presumed to lack intelligence. In addition, identifying mental illness discrimination was complex due to intersections of identities. Despite these perceptions of discrimination, participants described supportive aspects of MHTPs. Implications for practice and research are offered.

  18. Methodological approach to determine minor, considerable, and major treatment effects in the early benefit assessment of new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipka, Guido; Wieseler, Beate; Kaiser, Thomas; Thomas, Stefanie; Bender, Ralf; Windeler, Jürgen; Lange, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of 2011, the early benefit assessment of new drugs was introduced in Germany with the Act on the Reform of the Market for Medicinal Products (AMNOG). The Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) generally commissions the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) with this type of assessment, which examines whether a new drug shows an added benefit (a positive patient-relevant treatment effect) over the current standard therapy. IQWiG is required to assess the extent of added benefit on the basis of a dossier submitted by the pharmaceutical company responsible. In this context, IQWiG was faced with the task of developing a transparent and plausible approach for operationalizing how to determine the extent of added benefit. In the case of an added benefit, the law specifies three main extent categories (minor, considerable, major). To restrict value judgements to a minimum in the first stage of the assessment process, an explicit and abstract operationalization was needed. The present paper is limited to the situation of binary data (analysis of 2 × 2 tables), using the relative risk as an effect measure. For the treatment effect to be classified as a minor, considerable, or major added benefit, the methodological approach stipulates that the (two-sided) 95% confidence interval of the effect must exceed a specified distance to the zero effect. In summary, we assume that our approach provides a robust, transparent, and thus predictable foundation to determine minor, considerable, and major treatment effects on binary outcomes in the early benefit assessment of new drugs in Germany. After a decision on the added benefit of a new drug by G-BA, the classification of added benefit is used to inform pricing negotiations between the umbrella organization of statutory health insurance and the pharmaceutical companies.

  19. A treatment-oriented typology of self-identified hypersexuality referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, James M; Klein, Carolin; Lykins, Amy; Rullo, Jordan E; Thaler, Lea; Walling, Bobbi R

    2013-07-01

    Men and women have been seeking professional assistance to help control hypersexual urges and behaviors since the nineteenth century. Despite that the literature emphasizes that cases of hypersexuality are highly diverse with regard to clinical presentation and comorbid features, the major models for understanding and treating hypersexuality employ a "one size fits all" approach. That is, rather than identify which problematic behaviors might respond best to which interventions, existing approaches presume or assert without evidence that all cases of hypersexuality (however termed or defined) represent the same underlying problem and merit the same approach to intervention. The present article instead provides a typology of hypersexuality referrals that links individual clinical profiles or symptom clusters to individual treatment suggestions. Case vignettes are provided to illustrate the most common profiles of hypersexuality referral that presented to a large, hospital-based sexual behaviors clinic, including: (1) Paraphilic Hypersexuality, (2) Avoidant Masturbation, (3) Chronic Adultery, (4) Sexual Guilt, (5) the Designated Patient, and (6) better accounted for as a symptom of another condition.

  20. Methodology for the Construction of a Rule-Based Knowledge Base Enabling the Selection of Appropriate Bronze Heat Treatment Parameters Using Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górny Z.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Decisions regarding appropriate methods for the heat treatment of bronzes affect the final properties obtained in these materials. This study gives an example of the construction of a knowledge base with application of the rough set theory. Using relevant inference mechanisms, knowledge stored in the rule-based database allows the selection of appropriate heat treatment parameters to achieve the required properties of bronze. The paper presents the methodology and the results of exploratory research. It also discloses the methodology used in the creation of a knowledge base.

  1. No crisis but methodological separatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erola, Jani; Reimer, David; Räsänen, Pekka;

    2015-01-01

    This article compares methodological trends in nationally and internationally oriented sociology using data from the articles of three Nordic sociological journals: one international (Acta Sociologica), one Finnish (Sosiologia), and one Danish (Dansk Sociologi). The data consists of 943 articles ...

  2. Experimental Design of Photo-Fenton Reactions for the Treatment of Car Wash Wastewater Effluents by Response Surface Methodological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha A. Tony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a treatment process for practical and economic disposal of car wash wastewater has become an urgent environmental concern. Photo-Fenton’s process as one of the advanced oxidation processes is a potentially useful oxidation process in treating such wastewater. Lab-scale experiments with UV source, coupled with Fenton’s reagent, showed that hydrocarbon oil is degradable through such a process. The feasibility of photo-Fenton’s process to treat wastewater from a car wash is investigated in the present study. A factorial design based on the response surface methodology was applied to optimize the photo-Fenton oxidation process conditions using chemical oxygen demand (COD reduction as the target parameter to optimize. The reagent (Fe2+ and H2O2 concentration and pH are used as the controlling factors to be optimized. Maximal COD reduction (91.7% was achieved when wastewater samples were treated at pH 3.5 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and iron in amounts of 403.9 and 48.4 mg/L, respectively.

  3. Evolution of the methodological quality of controlled clinical trials for myofascial trigger point treatments for the period 1978-2015: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Rahel; Clijsen, Ron; Leoni, Diego; Soldini, Emiliano; Castellini, Greta; Redaelli, Valentina; Barbero, Marco

    2017-08-01

    The methodological quality of controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of physiotherapeutic treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points (MTrP) has not been investigated yet. To detect the methodological quality of CCTs for physiotherapy treatments of MTrPs and demonstrating the possible increase over time. Systematic review. A systematic search was conducted in two databases, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Medicine Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online (MEDLINE), using the same keywords and selection procedure corresponding to pre-defined inclusion criteria. The methodological quality, assessed by the 11-item PEDro scale, served as outcome measure. The CCTs had to compare at least two interventions, where one intervention had to lay within the scope of physiotherapy. Participants had to be diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome or trigger points (active or latent). A total of n = 230 studies was analysed. The cervico-thoracic region was the most frequently treated body part (n = 143). Electrophysical agent applications was the most frequent intervention. The average methodological quality reached 5.5 on the PEDro scale. A total of n = 6 studies scored the value of 9. The average PEDro score increased by 0.7 points per decade between 1978 and 2015. The average PEDro score of CCTs for MTrP treatments does not reach the cut-off of 6 proposed for moderate to high methodological quality. Nevertheless, a promising trend towards an increase of the average methodological quality of CCTs for MTrPs was recorded. More high-quality CCT studies with thorough research procedures are recommended to enhance methodological quality. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Methodology for the Randomised Injecting Opioid Treatment Trial (RIOTT: evaluating injectable methadone and injectable heroin treatment versus optimised oral methadone treatment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byford Sarah

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whilst unsupervised injectable methadone and diamorphine treatment has been part of the British treatment system for decades, the numbers receiving injectable opioid treatment (IOT has been steadily diminishing in recent years. In contrast, there has been a recent expansion of supervised injectable diamorphine programs under trial conditions in a number of European and North American cities, although the evidence regarding the safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness of this treatment approach remains equivocal. Recent British clinical guidance indicates that IOT should be a second-line treatment for those patients in high-quality oral methadone treatment who continue to regularly inject heroin, and that treatment be initiated in newly-developed supervised injecting clinics. The Randomised Injectable Opioid Treatment Trial (RIOTT is a multisite, prospective open-label randomised controlled trial (RCT examining the role of treatment with injected opioids (methadone and heroin for the management of heroin dependence in patients not responding to conventional substitution treatment. Specifically, the study examines whether efforts should be made to optimise methadone treatment for such patients (e.g. regular attendance, supervised dosing, high oral doses, access to psychosocial services, or whether such patients should be treated with injected methadone or heroin. Eligible patients (in oral substitution treatment and injecting illicit heroin on a regular basis are randomised to one of three conditions: (1 optimized oral methadone treatment (Control group; (2 injected methadone treatment; or (3 injected heroin treatment (with access to oral methadone doses. Subjects are followed up for 6-months, with between-group comparisons on an intention-to-treat basis across a range of outcome measures. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients who discontinue regular illicit heroin use (operationalised as providing >50% urine drug screens

  5. Danish orientalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zerlang, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Orientalism became an important current in nineteenth-century Danish culture, but although it was contemporaneous with the orientalism of the leading European nations - Great Britain, France, Germany...

  6. Integration of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) into a College Orientation Program: Depression and Alcohol Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Baruch, David E.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to…

  7. Emphaty oriented 'creative' teaching and learning methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding learners’ minds has become one of the major issues of some methodologists in education system. The entire matter is learning. It seems obvious to me it is necessary to explain what learning is in terms of knowledge, in the widest sense. We should also try to find out what kind of cogni

  8. Emphaty oriented 'creative' teaching and learning methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding learners’ minds has become one of the major issues of some methodologists in education system. The entire matter is learning. It seems obvious to me it is necessary to explain what learning is in terms of knowledge, in the widest sense. We should also try to find out what kind of

  9. Methodology of adjustment point in the post treatment of gaseous effluents; Metodologia del punto de ajuste en el post tratamiento de efluentes gaseosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizuet G, J.; Molina, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jvg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The methodology to determine the adjustment points of the monitoring system of gaseous discharges is based on the stipulations of the 10CFR20, which are expressed in terms of limit concentrations for the outstanding radionuclides, and of dose limits for the individuals members of the public. Besides the points of liberation properly said, like they are the chimneys of the reactor buildings and of turbine, the points of adjustment of the monitoring instrumentation that watches in real time the discharge of the Treatment system of output gases, to the HVAC of the waste building; they also undergo to the same methodology, with the approaches previously described. (Author)

  10. Development of a methodology to determine optimized therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I for the treatment of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, F.; Moura, M.B.; Pereira, A.C., E-mail: faraujo@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Medicna Nuclear (IMEN), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Lucena, E.A. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, R.C.; Rebelo, A.M.O. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2008-07-01

    Several methods can be used to determine the activity of {sup 131}I to be administered for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. However, some of them do not take into consideration the dose absorbed by the thyroid, while others do not consider all the parameters necessary for dose calculation. The relationship between the dose absorbed by the thyroid and the activity administered depends basically on three parameters: mass of the organ, iodine uptake and effective half-life of iodine in the thyroid. Such parameters should be individually determined for each patient in order to optimize the administered activity. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for individualized treatment with {sup 131}I in patients with hyperthyroidism of the Grave's Disease. A neck-thyroid phantom developed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD, containing a known amount of {sup 131}I, was used to calibrate a scintillation camera and a uptake probe available at the Nuclear Medicine Center of the University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro and Instituto de Medicina Nuclear - IMEN, of Goiania. The optimization of the counting geometry was carried out by the determination of the characteristic curves of the view angle of the collimator-detector assembly. The view angle of the collimator-detector assembly presented values compatible with the size of the organ for distances of 25 cm (uptake probe) and 45.8 cm (scintillation camera). The calibration factors (in cpm/kBq) and the associated uncertainty related to these distances were (39.3 ± 0.78), (58.1 ± 2.38) to uptake probe SCT-13004 e 13002, respectively and 4.3 ± 0.17 to scintillation camera. The time period between 14 and 30 hours of the retention curve allows the calculation of the activity between those two points. It is concluded that the use of diagnose equipment available at the hospital (scintillation camera and uptake probe) has shown to be a suitable procedure in terms of effectiveness, simplicity and cost

  11. Development of a methodology to determine optimized therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I for the treatment of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francisco de; Santas, Bernardo Maranhao; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: faraujo@ird.gov.br; Melo, Rossana Corbo de; Rebelo, Ana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2007-07-01

    Several methods can be used to determine the activity of {sup 131}I to be administered for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. However, some of them do not take into consideration the dose absorbed by the thyroid, while others do not consider all the parameters necessary for dose calculation. The relationship between the dose absorbed by the thyroid and the activity administered depends basically on three parameters: mass of the organ, iodine uptake and effective half-life of iodine in the thyroid. Such parameters should be individually determined for each patient in order to optimize the administered activity. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology to evaluate therapeutic doses through the determination of biokinetic parameters and the activity of {sup 131}I deposited in the thyroid of patients submitted to the treatment of hyperthyroidism with {sup 131}I. A neck-thyroid phantom developed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD, containing a known amount of {sup 131}I, was used to calibrate a scintillation camera and a uptake probe available at the Nuclear Medicine Center of the University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro. The optimization of the counting geometry was carried out by the determination of the characteristic curves of the view angle of the collimator-detector assembly. The calculation of the calibration factor of the scintillation camera allows the determination of activities in the thyroid of patients in pre-established time periods through a 48-hours uptake curve. The view angle of the collimator-detector assembly presented values compatible with the size of the organ for distances of 25 cm (uptake probe) and 45.8 cm (scintillation camera). The calibration factors (in cpm/kBq) and the associated uncertainty related to these distances were 39.3 {+-} 0.8 and 4.3 {+-} 0.2 respectively. The time period between 14 and 30 hours of the retention curve allows the calculation of the activity between those two points. It is concluded that the use

  12. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  13. Results of psychodynamically oriented trauma-focused inpatient treatment for women with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachsse, Ulrich; Vogel, Christina; Leichsenring, Falk

    2006-01-01

    In a naturalistic outcome study, the authors evaluated the results of a specific psychodynamically oriented trauma-focused inpatient treatment for women with complex posttraumatic stress disorder and concomitant borderline personality disorder, self-mutilating behavior, and depression. At admission, the frequency of self-mutilating behavior and the amount of inpatient treatment (an average of 68 days annually) of the sample was high, characterizing this patient group as "previously therapy resistant." Treatment outcome was assessed both at the end of treatment and in a 1-year follow-up. In comparison with a treatment-as-usual control group, the treatment program brought about significant and stable improvements both in trauma-specific symptoms (e.g. dissociation, intrusion, avoidance) and in general psychiatric symptoms (e.g., general symptom distress, frequency of self-mutilating behavior, number of hospitalizations). The frequency of inpatient treatments (hospitalizations) decreased dramatically (< 10 days annually; effect size: d = 2.88).

  14. Influence of gender, sexual orientation, and need on treatment utilization for substance use and mental disorders: Findings from the California Quality of Life Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mays Vickie M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has shown a higher prevalence of substance use and mental disorders among sexual minorities, however, the influence of sexual orientation on treatment seeking has not been widely studied. We use a model of help-seeking for vulnerable populations to investigate factors related to treatment for alcohol or drug use disorders and mental health disorders, focusing on the contributions of gender, sexual orientation, and need. Methods Survey data were obtained from a population-based probability sample of California residents that oversampled for sexual minorities. Logistic regression was used to model the enabling, predisposing, and need-related factors associated with past-year mental health or substance abuse treatment utilization among adults aged 18–64 (N = 2,074. Results Compared with individuals without a diagnosed disorder, those with any disorder were more likely to receive treatment. After controlling for both presence of disorder and other factors, lesbians and bisexual women were most likely to receive treatment and heterosexual men were the least likely. Moreover, a considerable proportion of sexual orientation minorities without any diagnosable disorder, particularly lesbians and bisexual women, also reported receiving treatment. Conclusion The study highlights the need to better understand the factors beyond meeting diagnostic criteria that underlie treatment utilization among sexual minorities. Future research should also aim to ascertain the effects of treatment provided to sexual minorities with and without diagnosable disorders, including the possibility that the provision of such treatment may reduce the likelihood of their progression to greater severity of distress, disorders, or impairments in functioning.

  15. Tuning of deep level emission in highly oriented electrodeposited ZnO nanorods by post growth annealing treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simimol, A. [Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Surface Engineering Division CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut 673601 (India); Manikandanath, N. T.; Chowdhury, Prasanta; Barshilia, Harish C., E-mail: harish@nal.res.in [Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Surface Engineering Division CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Anappara, Aji A. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut 673601 (India)

    2014-08-21

    Highly dense and c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite facets were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80 °C). The as-grown samples were then annealed at various temperatures (T{sub A} = 100–500 °C) in different environments (e.g., zinc, oxygen, air, and vacuum) to understand their photoluminescence (PL) behavior in the ultra-violet (UV) and the visible regions. The PL results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO nanorods consisted of oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}), zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}), and oxygen interstitial (O{sub i}) defects and these can be reduced significantly by annealing in different environments at optimal annealing temperatures. However, the intensity of deep level emission increased for T{sub A} greater than the optimized values for the respective environments due to the introduction of various defect centers. For example, for T{sub A} ≥ 450 °C in the oxygen and air environments, the density of O{sub i} defects increased, whereas, the green emission associated with V{sub O} is dominant in the vacuum annealed (T{sub A} = 500 °C) ZnO nanorods. The UV peak red shifted after the post-growth annealing treatments in all the environments and the vacuum annealed sample exhibited highest UV peak intensity. The observations from the PL data are supported by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present study gives new insight into the origin of different defects that exist in the electrodeposited ZnO nanorods and how these defects can be precisely controlled in order to get the desired emissions for the opto-electronic applications.

  16. Assessing New Employee Orientation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Jose M.; Yancey, George B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the importance of new employee orientation (NEO) programs, the quality of typical NEOs, and how to improve NEOs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides a viewpoint of the importance of new employee orientation programs, the quality of typical NEOs, and how to improve NEOs. Findings: Although western…

  17. A situational analysis methodology to inform comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programming, applied in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Naidoo, Evasen; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Raphela, Elsie; Barnhart, Scott; Lippman, Sheri A

    2017-09-01

    Successful HIV prevention programming requires engaging communities in the planning process and responding to the social environmental factors that shape health and behaviour in a specific local context. We conducted two community-based situational analyses to inform a large, comprehensive HIV prevention programme in two rural districts of North West Province South Africa in 2012. The methodology includes: initial partnership building, goal setting and background research; 1 week of field work; in-field and subsequent data analysis; and community dissemination and programmatic incorporation of results. We describe the methodology and a case study of the approach in rural South Africa; assess if the methodology generated data with sufficient saturation, breadth and utility for programming purposes; and evaluate if this process successfully engaged the community. Between the two sites, 87 men and 105 women consented to in-depth interviews; 17 focus groups were conducted; and 13 health facilities and 7 NGOs were assessed. The methodology succeeded in quickly collecting high-quality data relevant to tailoring a comprehensive HIV programme and created a strong foundation for community engagement and integration with local health services. This methodology can be an accessible tool in guiding community engagement and tailoring future combination HIV prevention and care programmes.

  18. Assessing the Effectiveness of Empiric Aantibiotic Treatments: The Use of an Antibiogram Based Methodology in the Case of Selected Public Hospitals in Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kofi Besa Adorka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotics prescribed in the presumptuous treatment of infections may be ineffective if causative pathogens acquire resistance to prescribed antibiotics. In the absence of patient follow ups for treatment outcome assessments, healthcare providers may be unaware of the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments they provide. In the empiric treatment of infections particularly, such situations may compromise appropriate selection of antibiotics. The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of antibiotics prescribed in the empiric treatment of infections using a methodology based on information derived from antibiograms.Method: Culture sensitivity test results and relevant data on antibiotic treatment among inpatients from  selected  hospitals  were  used  to  construct  an  antibiogram  and  also determine  pathogen associations with infections and antibiotics most frequently prescribed in their empiric treatment. Parameters describing levels of antibiotic activities against pathogens associated with given infections were defined and used to evaluate the effectiveness of prescribed antibiotics. Clinical validity of results was assessed by comparing results of a simultaneous treatment outcome evaluation of antibiotic treatments of selected infections carried out.Results: The methodology was used to successfully evaluate the effectiveness of commonly prescribed antibiotics. Ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, two of the antibiotics most prescribed in the empiric treatment of infections, were predicted to be grossly ineffective in treating staphylococcal and Gram-negative bacilli (GNB infections for which they were observed to be prescribed.Conclusion: Polymicrobial causes of infections attributable mainly to gram-positive cocci and gram-negative  bacilli  were  established  as  an  etiological  feature  of  most  infections.  Multiple antibiotic treatments were shown, in effect, to be more effective than single use of the

  19. Community-oriented family-based intervention superior to standard treatment in improving depression, hopelessness and functioning among adolescents with any psychosis-risk symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granö, Niklas; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Ranta, Klaus; Lindgren, Maija; Roine, Mikko; Therman, Sebastian

    2016-03-30

    The aim of the present study was to compare change in functioning, affective symptoms and level of psychosis-risk symptoms in symptomatic adolescents who were treated either in an early intervention programme based on a need-adapted Family- and Community-orientated integrative Treatment Model (FCTM) or in standard adolescent psychiatric treatment (Treatment As Usual, TAU). 28 pairs were matched by length of follow-up, gender, age, and baseline functioning. At one year after the start of treatment, the matched groups were compared on change in functioning (GAF-M), five psychosis-risk dimensions of the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS), and self-reported anxiety, depression, and hopelessness symptoms (BAI, BDI-II, BHS). FCTM was more effective in improving functioning (20% vs. 6% improvement on GAF-M), as well as self-reported depression (53% vs. 14% improvement on BDI-II) and hopelessness (41% vs. 3% improvement on BHS). However, for psychosis-risk symptoms and anxiety symptoms, effectiveness differences between treatment models did not reach statistical significance. To conclude, in the present study, we found greater improvement in functioning and self-reported depression and hopelessness among adolescents who received a need-adapted Family- and Community-orientated integrative Treatment than among those who were treated in standard adolescent psychiatry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 42 CFR 413.220 - Methodology for calculating the per-treatment base rate under the ESRD prospective payment system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.220 Methodology for calculating the per... factor to account for the most recent estimate of increases in the prices of an appropriate market...

  1. Comparison of the ESTRO formalism for monitor unit calculation with a Clarkson based algorithm of a treatment planning system and a traditional "full-scatter" methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotta, Martin; Aquilina, Dorothy; Bhikha, Tilluck; Georg, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    The ESTRO formalism for monitor unit (MU) calculations was evaluated and implemented to replace a previous methodology based on dosimetric data measured in a full-scatter phantom. This traditional method relies on data normalised at the depth of dose maximum (Zm), as well as on the utilisation of the BJR 25 table for the conversion of rectangular fields into equivalent square fields. The treatment planning system (TPS) was subsequently updated to reflect the new beam data normalised at a depth ZR of 10 cm. Comparisons were then carried out between the ESTRO formalism, the Clarkson-based dose calculation algorithm on the TPS (with beam data normalised at Zm and ZR), and the traditional "full-scatter" methodology. All methodologies, except for the "full-scatter" methodology, separated head-scatter from phantom-scatter effects and none of the methodologies; except for the ESTRO formalism, utilised wedge depth dose information for calculations. The accuracy of MU calculations was verified against measurements in a homogeneous phantom for square and rectangular open and wedged fields, as well as blocked open and wedged fields, at 5, 10, and 20 cm depths, under fixed SSD and isocentric geometries for 6 and 10 MV. Overall, the ESTRO Formalism showed the most accurate performance, with the root mean square (RMS) error with respect to measurements remaining below 1% even for the most complex beam set-ups investigated. The RMS error for the TPS deteriorated with the introduction of a wedge, with a worse RMS error for the beam data normalised at Zm (4% at 6 MV and 1.6% at 10 MV) than at ZR (1.-9% at 6 MV and 1.1% at 10 MV). The further addition of blocking had only a marginal impact on the accuracy of this methodology. The "full-scatter" methodology showed a loss in accuracy for calculations involving either wedges or blocking, and performed worst for blocked wedged fields (RMS errors of 7.1% at 6 MV and 5% at 10 MV). The origins of these discrepancies were quantified and the

  2. Case study of Oriental Medicine Treatment with Mae-sun therapy of the spinal cord injury due to lumbar burst fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Gi-sun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Traumatic lumbar burst fracture causes significant spinal cord injury. This report is intended to estimate the efficacy using oriental treatment on a patient with lumbar burst fracture and spinal cord injury. Methods : From 21th December, 2009 to 5th February, 2010, 1 female inpatient diagnosed with lumbar burst fracture and spinal cord injury was treated with general oriental medicine therapy : mae-sun therapy ; acupuncture ; moxibustion ; pharmacopuncture ; physical therapy and herbal medication. TUG, SCIMⅡ and VAS were used for evaluation of gait disturbance and pain in both feet. Measurement of self voiding amount and remaining amount through CIC was used for evaluation of neurogenic vesical dysfunction. Results : The patient showed a certain degree of improvement in gait disturbance, pain in both feet and neurogenic vesical dysfunction through above evaluation methods. Conclusion : Oriental treatments such as mae-sun therapy, acupuncture and moxibustion therapy, pharmacopuncture therapy and herbal medication can be effective for spinal cord injury due to traumatic lumbar burst fracture.

  3. Behavioral treatment of drooling: a methodological critique of the literature with clinical guidelines and suggestions for future research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, J.J. van der; Didden, R.; Jongerius, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Many children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities suffer from the consequences of chronic drooling. Behavioral treatment for drooling should be considered before other, more intrusive treatments such as medication and surgery are implemented. However, empirical studies on behavior

  4. Methodological advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebreton, J.-D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of population dynamics has long depended on methodological progress. Among many striking examples, continuous time models for populations structured in age (Sharpe & Lotka, 1911 were made possible by progress in the mathematics of integral equations. Therefore the relationship between population ecology and mathematical and statistical modelling in the broad sense raises a challenge in interdisciplinary research. After the impetus given in particular by Seber (1982, the regular biennial EURING conferences became a major vehicle to achieve this goal. It is thus not surprising that EURING 2003 included a session entitled “Methodological advances”. Even if at risk of heterogeneity in the topics covered and of overlap with other sessions, such a session was a logical way of ensuring that recent and exciting new developments were made available for discussion, further development by biometricians and use by population biologists. The topics covered included several to which full sessions were devoted at EURING 2000 (Anderson, 2001 such as: individual covariates, Bayesian methods, and multi–state models. Some other topics (heterogeneity models, exploited populations and integrated modelling had been addressed by contributed talks or posters. Their presence among “methodological advances”, as well as in other sessions of EURING 2003, was intended as a response to their rapid development and potential relevance to biological questions. We briefly review all talks here, including those not published in the proceedings. In the plenary talk, Pradel et al. (in prep. developed GOF tests for multi–state models. Until recently, the only goodness–of–fit procedures for multistate models were ad hoc, and non optimal, involving use of standard tests for single state models (Lebreton & Pradel, 2002. Pradel et al. (2003 proposed a general approach based in particular on mixtures of multinomial distributions. Pradel et al. (in prep. showed

  5. A Functional HAZOP Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Netta; Lind, Morten; Jensen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    A HAZOP methodology is presented where a functional plant model assists in a goal oriented decomposition of the plant purpose into the means of achieving the purpose. This approach leads to nodes with simple functions from which the selection of process and deviation variables follow directly....... The functional HAZOP methodology lends itself directly for implementation into a computer aided reasoning tool to perform root cause and consequence analysis. Such a tool can facilitate finding causes and/or consequences far away from the site of the deviation. A functional HAZOP assistant is proposed...... and investigated in a HAZOP study of an industrial scale Indirect Vapor Recompression Distillation pilot Plant (IVaRDiP) at DTU-Chemical and Biochemical Engineering. The study shows that the functional HAZOP methodology provides a very efficient paradigm for facilitating HAZOP studies and for enabling reasoning...

  6. Triple bottom line assessment of raw water treatment: methodology and application to a case study in the municipality of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, G; Azrague, Kamal; Bell, Stig; Eikebrokk, Bjørnar

    2015-01-01

    There could be several options a water treatment plant (WTP) can select from, if an improvement in treated water quality (WQ) is desired. This paper outlines a methodology to test a variety of approaches to accomplish pre-set goals as regards WQ, while adopting a triple bottom line approach. This approach, in a nutshell, takes into consideration economic, environmental and social aspects in decision-making. The methodology has been applied to the Stangasen WTP in the town of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway. Among the seven alternative approaches compared were the use, as coagulant, of five different dosages of granulated aluminium sulphate, liquid aluminium sulphate (48%) and liquid ferric chloride (40%). Using the set of weighting factors obtained from experts, it was determined that increasing the dosage of granulated aluminium sulphate by 20% over the current one would be the most sustainable option from a triple bottom line point of view.

  7. Relationship of race-, sexual orientation-, and HIV-related discrimination with adherence to HIV treatment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarts, Jessica M; Bogart, Laura M; Tabak, Melanie A; Armelie, Aaron P; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2008-10-01

    Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) must be close to perfect in order to maintain suppression of HIV viral load, and to prevent the development of drug resistant strains of HIV. People living with HIV (PLWH) often report low levels of adherence. One variable that has been linked to poor adherence is perceived discrimination; however, research has generally not considered the possible unique effects of different types of discrimination on adherence. The present pilot study aimed to examine the association of three types of discrimination (due to HIV+ status, race, or sexual orientation) with adherence among 57 PLWH. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to demonstrate the relationships between each type of discrimination and self-reported adherence. Racial discrimination significantly predicted lower adherence levels, whereas sexual orientation- and HIV-related discrimination did not. Results underscore the importance of addressing discrimination issues, specifically racial, when designing interventions to improve adherence to HAART.

  8. Future-Oriented LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Borup, Mads; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2017-01-01

    LCA is often applied for decision-making that concerns actions reaching near or far into the future. However, traditional life cycle assessment methodology must be adjusted for the prospective and change-oriented purposes, but no standardised way of doing this has emerged yet. In this chapter some...... challenges are described and some learnings are derived. Many of the future-oriented LCAs published so far perform relatively short-term prediction of simple comparisons. But for more long-term time horizons foresight methods can be of help. Scenarios established by qualified experts about future...... technological and economic developments are indispensable in future technology assessments. The uncertainties in future-oriented LCAs are to a large extent qualitative and it is important to emphasise that LCA of future technologies will provide a set of answers and not ‘the’ answer....

  9. A comparison of the efficacy of doramectin, closantel and levamisole in the treatment of the 'oriental eye fluke', Philophthalmus gralli, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercially reared ostriches at Msengi farm situated in the Chinhoyi area of Mashonaland West province in Zimbabwe were found to be infected with the 'oriental eye fluke', Philopthalmus gralli, in 2001. This was the 1st record of the fluke in Zimbabwe. Trials were conducted to identify a suitable drug for the treatment of this fluke. A total of 12 ostriches confirmed to be infected with the fluke through clinical examination of the eyes and identification of the fluke were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, with each group receiving a different treatment protocol. The 3 drugs used were doramectin, levamisole and closantel. Each of the drugs was used in combination with chloramphenicol as an eye ointment. Levamisole was administered topically into the eye whereas doramectin and closantel were administered parenterally as an intramuscular injection. The results indicated a positive response in levamisole-treated birds but there were no noticeable responses to doramectin and closantel treatments.

  10. A comparison of the efficacy of doramectin, closantel and levamisole in the treatment of the 'oriental eye fluke', Philophthalmus gralli, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Chimbwanda, M; Matekwe, N; Matenga, E

    2008-06-01

    Commercially reared ostriches at Msengi farm situated in the Chinhoyi area of Mashonaland West province in Zimbabwe were found to be infected with the 'oriental eye fluke', Philopthalmus gralli, in 2001. This was the ist record of the fluke in Zimbabwe. Trials were conducted to identify a suitable drug for the treatment of this fluke. A total of 12 ostriches confirmed to be infected with the fluke through clinical examination of the eyes and identification of the fluke were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, with each group receiving a different treatment protocol. The 3 drugs used were doramectin, levamisole and closantel. Each of the drugs was used in combination with chloramphenicol as an eye ointment. Levamisole was administered topically into the eye whereas doramectin and closantel were administered parenterally as an intramuscular injection. The results indicated a positive response in levamisole-treated birds but there were no noticeable responses to doramectin and closantel treatments.

  11. Behavioral Treatment of Drooling: A Methodological Critique of the Literature with Clinical Guidelines and Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Jan J. W.; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    Many children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities suffer from the consequences of chronic drooling. Behavioral treatment for drooling should be considered before other, more intrusive treatments such as medication and surgery are implemented. However, empirical studies on behavioral procedures are scarce. This article reviews 19…

  12. Tourism Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  13. Predictors of survival in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction: A patient-oriented decision approach for palliative treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Jeurnink; E.W. Steyerberg; F.P. Vleggaar; C.H.J. van Eijck; J.E. van Hooft; M.P. Schwartz; E.J. Kuipers; P.D. Siersema

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gastrojejunostomy and stentplacement are the most commonly used treatments for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). The preference for either treatment largely depends on the expected survival. Our objective was to investigate predictors of survival in patients with malignant GOO

  14. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  15. Data demonstrating the effects of build orientation and heat treatment on fatigue behavior of selective laser melted 17–4 PH stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Yadollahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Axial fully-reversed strain-controlled (R=−1 fatigue experiments were performed to obtain data demonstrating the effects of building orientation (i.e. vertical versus horizontal and heat treatment on the fatigue behavior of 17–4 PH stainless steel (SS fabricated via Selective Laser Melting (SLM (Yadollahi et al., submitted for publication [1]. This data article provides detailed experimental data including cyclic stress-strain responses, variations of peak stresses during cyclic deformation, and fractography of post-mortem specimens for SLM 17–4 PH SS.

  16. Data demonstrating the effects of build orientation and heat treatment on fatigue behavior of selective laser melted 17-4 PH stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Aref; Simsiriwong, Jutima; Thompson, Scott M; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-06-01

    Axial fully-reversed strain-controlled ([Formula: see text]) fatigue experiments were performed to obtain data demonstrating the effects of building orientation (i.e. vertical versus horizontal) and heat treatment on the fatigue behavior of 17-4 PH stainless steel (SS) fabricated via Selective Laser Melting (SLM) (Yadollahi et al., submitted for publication [1]). This data article provides detailed experimental data including cyclic stress-strain responses, variations of peak stresses during cyclic deformation, and fractography of post-mortem specimens for SLM 17-4 PH SS.

  17. Treatment of Multiple Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disc Disease using Electro-acupuncture and Oriental Herbal Medicine in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Kim, N. S. Kim, K. C. Lee, H. B. Lee and M. S. Kim*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old male Pekingese dog was admitted to the veterinary medical center, Chonbuk National University for evaluation of severe hind limbs ataxia, atrophy and paresis. Diagnosis based on physical examination, neurological assessment and computed tomogram (CT indicated multiple thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease (IVDD throughout the thoracic and cranial lumbar spine. Traditional veterinary medicine (TVM based diagnosis was kidney yang deficiency syndrome. Initial high dose prednisolone therapy (1.5 mg/kg PO, twice daily did not show any significant improvement. The dog was then treated with electroacupuncture (EA and oriental herbal medicine for 6 months, which significantly improved mobility, proprioception and spinal posture of the patient.

  18. Some implications of the Hartree product treatment of the quantum nuclei in the ab initio Nuclear-electronic orbital methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Gharabaghi, Masumeh

    2016-01-01

    In this letter the conceptual and computational implications of the Hartree product type nuclear wavefunction introduced recently within context of the ab initio non-Born-Oppenheimer Nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) methodology are considered. It is demonstrated that this wavefunction may imply a pseudo-adiabatic separation of the nuclei and electrons and each nucleus is conceived as a quantum oscillator while a non-Coulombic effective Hamiltonian is deduced for electrons. Using variational principle this Hamiltonian is used to derive a modified set of single-component Hartree-Fock equations which are equivalent to the multi-component version derived previously within context of the NEO and, easy to be implemented computationally.

  19. Some implications of the Hartree product treatment of the quantum nuclei in the ab initio nuclear-electronic orbital methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Masumeh; Shahbazian, Shant

    2016-12-01

    In this letter the conceptual and computational implications of the Hartree product type nuclear wavefunction introduced recently within the context of the ab initio non-Born-Oppenheimer Nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) methodology are considered. It is demonstrated that this wavefunction may imply a pseudo-adiabatic separation of the nuclei and electrons and each nucleus is conceived as a quantum oscillator while a non-Coulombic effective Hamiltonian is deduced for electrons. Using the variational principle this Hamiltonian is employed to derive a modified set of single-component Hartree-Fock equations which are equivalent to the multi-component version derived previously within the context of the NEO and, easy to be implemented computationally.

  20. Methodological aspects of "West-East” system studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Zaharenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to methodological approach to studying the East. Russian orientalism can successfully develop basing on the its national culture and active cooperation with the world orientalism.

  1. Orientation and the Young Orienteer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S. E.; Martland, J. R.

    Orientation within orienteering is dependent on the use of two basic strategies; that is, either a compass or Magnetic-North-based strategy, which relies on the use of one set of information; or the use of a map and landmark-based strategy which relies on the use of at least two sets of information. Walsh and found that, when given the choice, young children use the compass-based strategy when following complex potentially disorientating routes.The efficacy of these two basic orientation strategies was investigated within three different orienteering environments: (1) a familiar known environment; (2) a familiar unknown environment and (3) an unfamiliar unknown environment.Subjects, age range from 9 to 10think aloud particularly the introduction of basic skills to young performers. They support the argument that is essential to introduce the map and compass simultaneously and that relocation and orientation skills should be coached concurrently.

  2. A Methodology of Analysis for Monitoring Treatment Progression with 19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) in a Single-Subject Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigbaum, Genomary; Wigton, Nancy L

    2015-09-01

    19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) is a modality using 19-electrodes with real-time normative database z-scores, suggesting effective clinical outcomes in fewer sessions than traditional neurofeedback. Thus, monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome is necessary. The area of focus in this study was a methodology of quantitative analysis for monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome with 19ZNF. This methodology is noted as the Sites-of-Interest, which included repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA) and t-tests for z-scores; it was conducted on 10 cases in a single subject design. To avoid selection bias, the 10 sample cases were randomly selected from a pool of 17 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Available client outcome measures (including self-report) are briefly discussed. The results showed 90% of the pre-post comparisons moved in the targeted direction (z = 0) and of those, 96% (80% Bonferroni corrected) of the t-tests and 96% (91% Bonferroni corrected) of the rANOVAs were statistically significant; thus indicating a progression towards the mean in 15 or fewer 19ZNF sessions. All cases showed and reported improvement in all outcome measures (including quantitative electroencephalography assessment) at case termination.

  3. Design and methodology of a randomized clinical trial of home-based telemental health treatment for U.S. military personnel and veterans with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Pruitt, Larry D; O'Brien, Karen; Stanfill, Katherine; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A; Johnson, Kristine; Wagner, Amy; Thomas, Elissa; Gahm, Gregory A

    2014-05-01

    Home-based telemental health (TMH) treatments have the potential to address current and future health needs of military service members, veterans, and their families, especially for those who live in rural or underserved areas. The use of home-based TMH treatments to address the behavioral health care needs of U.S. military healthcare beneficiaries is not presently considered standard of care in the Military Health System. The feasibility, safety, and clinical efficacy of home-based TMH treatments must be established before broad dissemination of home-based treatment programs can be implemented. This paper describes the design, methodology, and protocol of a clinical trial that compares in-office to home-based Behavioral Activation for Depression (BATD) treatment delivered via web-based video technology for service members and veterans with depression. This grant funded three-year randomized clinical trial is being conducted at the National Center for Telehealth and Technology at Joint-base Lewis-McChord and at the Portland VA Medical Center. Best practice recommendations regarding the implementation of in-home telehealth in the military setting as well as the cultural and contextual factors of providing in-home care to active duty and veteran military populations are also discussed.

  4. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of candidate treatments for cognitive impairment in depression and methodological challenges in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K. W.; Ott, C. V.; Petersen, Jeff Zarp

    2016-01-01

    potential pro-cognitive effects of candidate treatments in MDD. Two independent authors reviewed the studies and assessed their risk of bias with the Cochrane Collaboration׳s Risk of Bias tool. Twenty-eight eligible studies (24 biological and four psychological or behavioural studies) were identified...... to reduced depression severity), and/or insufficient details on how the allocation sequence was generated or how blinding was maintained. Several promising treatments were identified, including vortioxetine, erythropoietin, transcranial direct current stimulation and cognitive remediation. However, several...

  5. Patient views on determinants of compliance with tuberculosis treatment in the eastern cape, South Africa: an application of q-methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane Murray; van Exel, Job; Møller, Valerie; Finkenflügel, Harry

    2010-09-01

    : Tuberculosis (TB) constitutes one-quarter of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. In the Eastern Cape, South Africa, TB is a public health problem of epidemic proportion. Poor compliance and frequent interruption to treatment are associated with increased transmission rates, morbidity, and costs to TB control programs. This study explored determinants of (non-)compliance from the patients' perspective. : Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (33 treatment compliers and 34 treatment non-compliers) and 14 community health workers from local community clinics and the hospital in the township of Grahamstown, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Q-methodology was used. Patients rank ordered 32 opinion statements describing determinants of treatment compliance from the TB adherence model. By-person factor analysis was used to explore patterns in the rankings of statements by compliers and non-compliers. These patterns were interpreted and described as patient views on determinants of compliance with treatment. Patients and community health workers selected the top five determinants of compliance and non-compliance. : Compliers believed that completing treatment would cure them of TB. Economic prospects were crucial for compliance. Compliers felt that the support of the government disability grant helped with compliance. Non-compliers believed that stigmatization had the greatest impact on non-compliance, together with the burden of disease, the arrangements involved with receiving treatment, restrictions accompanying treatment, and the association of TB with HIV/AIDS infection. : Stigmatization makes TB a 'social disease'. Individual motivation and self-efficacy appear to have a considerable effect on compliance, but, for non-compliers, the general lack of job prospects and being able to provide for themselves or their family also makes TB very much an 'economic disease'.

  6. Co-Treatment of EFF and 1-MCP for Enhancing the Shelf-Life and Aroma Volatile Compounds of Oriental Sweet Melons (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiao-hang; TENG Lu-hua; LÜ De-qing; QI Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other melon types, oriental sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) is quite a different species with a shorter shelf-life due to its typical climacteric behavior and thin pericarp. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the effects of co-treatment of enhanced freshness formulation (EFF) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on physiological changes and the content of aroma volatile compounds introduced by them of two oriental sweet melon cultivars (Yumeiren and Tianbao) during storage. The melons were stored in incubators with temperature of 15°C and a relative humidity of 85%for 24 d during which fruit quality and related physiological index were measured. Compared to the control, both treatments delayed fruit weight loss rate and kept the fruit ifrmness, water content and soluble solids content. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities showed lfuctuations in treated melons, while lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (P<0.01) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) decreased compared to control. During the early stage of storage, alcohols and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds, and esters gradually increased during storage. Of all the esters, acetic esters were the main components, followed by oxalic acid esters and other esters. The total content of aroma volatile compounds, esters, alcohols and aldehydes of co-treated melons were all higher than those of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In addition, the aroma volatile peak of co-treated melons occurred later than that of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In summary, co-treatment of EFF and 1-MCP was more beneifcial than 1-MCP treatment to delay ripening and senescence, maintain fruit quality, enhance shelf-life and improve levels of aroma volatile compounds.

  7. resource allocation methodology for internet heterogeneous traffic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    RESOURCE ALLOCATION METHODOLOGY FOR INTERNET. HETEROGENEOUS ... control, III this case, involves determining the optimum network resources - in terms ..... Oriented Network Simulator) Designer” a business. Unit of Cadence ...

  8. The New Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years there's been a rapidly growing interest in“lightweight” methodologies. Alternatively characterized as an antidote to bureaucracy or a license to hack they've stirred up interest all over the software landscape. In this essay I explore the reasons for lightweight methods, focusing not so much on their weight but on their adaptive nature and their people-first orientation . I also give a summary and references to the processes in this school and consider the factors that should influence your choice of whether to go down this newly trodden path.

  9. Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  10. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque

    2002-01-01

    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  11. Studying the effects of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of alcoholism: rationale, methodology, and current research with psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Michael P

    2013-03-01

    Recent developments in the study of classic hallucinogens, combined with a re-appraisal of the older literature, have led to a renewal of interest in possible therapeutic applications for these drugs, notably their application in the treatment of addictions. This article will first provide a brief review of the research literature providing direct and indirect support for the possible therapeutic effects of classic hallucinogens such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of addictions. Having provided a rationale for clinical investigation in this area, we discuss design issues in clinical trials using classic hallucinogens, some of which are unique to this class of drug. We then discuss the current status of this field of research and design considerations in future randomized trials.

  12. Different methodological approaches to the assessment of in vivo efficacy of three artemisinin-based combination antimalarial treatments for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongo Issaka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of different methods for assessing the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination antimalarial treatments (ACTs will result in different estimates being reported, with implications for changes in treatment policy. Methods Data from different in vivo studies of ACT treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria were combined in a single database. Efficacy at day 28 corrected by PCR genotyping was estimated using four methods. In the first two methods, failure rates were calculated as proportions with either (1a reinfections excluded from the analysis (standard WHO per-protocol analysis or (1b reinfections considered as treatment successes. In the second two methods, failure rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit formula using either (2a WHO (2001 definitions of failure, or (2b failure defined using parasitological criteria only. Results Data analysed represented 2926 patients from 17 studies in nine African countries. Three ACTs were studied: artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ, N = 1702, artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP, N = 706 and artemether-lumefantrine (AL, N = 518. Using method (1a, the day 28 failure rates ranged from 0% to 39.3% for AS+AQ treatment, from 1.0% to 33.3% for AS+SP treatment and from 0% to 3.3% for AL treatment. The median [range] difference in point estimates between method 1a (reference and the others were: (i method 1b = 1.3% [0 to24.8], (ii method 2a = 1.1% [0 to21.5], and (iii method 2b = 0% [-38 to19.3]. The standard per-protocol method (1a tended to overestimate the risk of failure when compared to alternative methods using the same endpoint definitions (methods 1b and 2a. It either overestimated or underestimated the risk when endpoints based on parasitological rather than clinical criteria were applied. The standard method was also associated with a 34% reduction in the number of patients evaluated compared to the number of patients enrolled. Only 2% of the sample size

  13. Diversity-oriented peptide stapling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thu Phuong; Larsen, Christian Ørnbøl; Røndbjerg, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    as a powerful method for peptide stapling. However, to date CuAAC stapling has not provided a simple method for obtaining peptides that are easily diversified further. In the present study, we report a new diversity-oriented peptide stapling (DOPS) methodology based on CuAAC chemistry. Stapling of peptides...

  14. Adsorption characteristics of ammonium exchange by zeolite and the optimal application in the tertiary treatment of coking wastewater using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui; Zheng, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Jing; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Natural zeolite is a favorable NH(4)(+)-ion exchanger in the tertiary wastewater treatment. In this study, a natural Chinese zeolite was anatomized using the mercury injection method, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron micrographs. The kinetic process of ammonium adsorption onto the zeolite was best described by the pseudo second order model; the adsorption equilibrium data fitted better to the Freundlich isotherm; and the exchange between ammonium and alkali/alkaline earth cations was in the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > K(+) > Mg(2+). Finally, the zeolite powder was applied for the tertiary treatment of coking wastewater, which still contained high concentration of ammonium after the secondary treatment by a sequencing batch reactor. The Box-Behnken design was used to design the experimental protocol, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization of adsorption factors. The RSM analysis showed the optimal adsorption factors as particle size, 0.03 mm; initial dosage of zeolite powder, 50.0 g/L; and contact time, 24 h. The highest ammonium removal rate was 75.0% predicted by the RMS. Considering settleability of the zeolite powder, the particle size of 0.25 mm was recommended in practice with a little loss of the ammonium removal: 70.9% as the RMS predicted.

  15. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  16. Orienteering club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  17. A family-oriented treatment program for youths with ketamine abuse and their caregivers: a pilot study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wang LJ; Lu SF; Chou WJ; Chong MY; Wang YH; Hsieh YL; Lee YH; Chen C

    2015-01-01

    Liang-Jen Wang,1 Shing-Fang Lu,1 Wen-Jiun Chou,1 Mian-Yoon Chong,2 Yao-Hsing Wang,1 Yu-Lian Hsieh,1 Yi-Hsuan Lee,1 Ching Chen2 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Objective: The abuse of ketamine by youths has grown into a serious public health issue. However, a reliable and efficient treatment has still not been found for youths who abuse ketamine. ...

  18. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Sexual Orientation KidsHealth > For Parents > Sexual Orientation Print A ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the ...

  19. Application of Gamma Irradiation and Its Convergent Treatments on Several Varieties of Oriental Hybrid Lily to Control Leaf Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to seek more eco-friend, economic and safer quarantine method than current methyl bromide fumigation, the convergent treatment with 200 Gy of gamma irradiation and several chemicals such as nano-siver particles (NSS, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC was tried on the cuttings of lily in the packing of catonnage box for export. With 6 independent experiments of gamma irradiation on the three lily cultivars, cvs. Siberia, Le reve and Sorbonne, incidence and severity of lily leaf blight was investigated on leaves and petals at 8-d after infection. 200 Gy of gamma irradiation decreased at 13-25% of severity on the leaf of Sorbonne, but it increased at 2-5% of severity on the leaf of Siberia and Le reve. Chemical substitutes such as NSS and NaDCC were not effective to control of lily blight on cuttings. By 200 Gy of gamma irradiation treatment, chlorophyll contents were statistically significantly decreased at 12-d after irradiation and the longevities vaselife of fully open flower of Siberia and Sorbonne were increased at 0.4 to 1.2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the gamma irradiated cuttings were severely dried compared to the non-irradiated control. On the other hands, the symptoms of phyto-toxicity of high dose gamma irradiation at 1 or 2 kGy on cv. Siberia were to be blight at the tip of bloom, bent necks of flower, and delayed the process of flowering.

  20. An Object Oriented Approach to Semidefinite Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Yuzhen; Watson, Layne; Collins, Emmanuel

    1998-01-01

    An object-oriented design and implementation of a primal-dual algorithm for solving the semidefinite programming problem is presented. The advantages of applying the object-oriented methodology to numerical computations, in particular to an interior point algorithm for semidefinite programming, or for solving other types of linear matrix inequalities are discussed. One object-oriented design of the primal-dual algorithm and its implementation using C++ is presented. The performance of the ...

  1. Multifractal methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Salat, Hadrien; Arcaute, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Various methods have been developed independently to study the multifractality of measures in many different contexts. Although they all convey the same intuitive idea of giving a "dimension" to sets where a quantity scales similarly within a space, they are not necessarily equivalent on a more rigorous level. This review article aims at unifying the multifractal methodology by presenting the multifractal theoretical framework and principal practical methods, namely the moment method, the histogram method, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) and modulus maxima wavelet transform (MMWT), with a comparative and interpretative eye.

  2. Prospective comparison of two flow cytometry methodologies for monitoring minimal residual disease in a multicenter treatment protocol of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Drorit; Rosenthal, Eti; Steinberg, David; Kodman, Yona; Safanaiev, Marina; Amariglio, Ninette; Avigad, Smadar; Stark, Batia; Izraeli, Shai

    2010-11-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) is a powerful prognostic indicator in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Multiparametric flow cytometry (FC) is a rapid and sensitive methodology for detection of MRD, applicable for most patients and is being incorporated in multicenter treatment protocols. The influence of different techniques and of individual interpretation of data on the interlaboratory variability in FC-MRD determinations has not been described. We compared FC-MRD of identical bone marrow samples processed as either Ficoll separated mononuclear cells or lyse and wash nucleated cells (NC) in two central laboratories of a national multicenter childhood ALL study. A total of 290 samples at diagnosis and 494 follow-up samples (Day-15 n = 261; Day-33 n = 233) were analyzed. A group of 52 paired list mode data (LMD) of D-15 and D-33 samples was blindly reanalyzed by both laboratories. Pearson correlations for all samples of D-15 (n = 261) and D-33 (n = 233) were 0.875 and 0.82, respectively (P < 0.001), being lower for T-ALL 0.716 and 0.719, respectively. Quantitative concordance defined as less than 0.5 log difference in MRD measured by the two methodologies was 80.8% at D-15 but only in 57.9% at D-33. Reanalysis of LMD revealed that data interpretation explained half of the discordance. FC-MRD analysis of childhood ALL is a robust method during the earliest phases of induction therapy in a multicentric setting. Standardization of data analysis could improve about half of the discordance between different technical approaches. © 2010 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Une bonne dizaine de clubs étaient représentés samedi dernier à La Faucille pour participer à la  2e manche de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club du CERN. Les 120 coureurs ont pu découvrir des parcours classés "technique". Ceux du Haut-Jura familiarisés à ce type de terrain ont pu sortir leur épingle du jeu et se sont octroyé la victoire sur 4 des 5 circuits. Samedi 21 septembre, la montagne du Haut-Jura était encore plébiscitée puisque les coureurs étaient attendus à Saint Cergue sur la carte des Pralies. Pour les résultats complets de La Faucille et les informations sur la prochaine étape, consultez le site du club http://cern.ch/club-orientation.

  4. Orientation Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  6. Effect of Low-Pressure Nitrogen DC Plasma Treatment on the Surface Properties of Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene, Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) and Polyvinyl Chloride Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hamideh, Mortazavi; Mahmood, Ghoranneviss; Soheil, Pilehvar; Sina, Esmaeili; Shamim, Zargham; S. Ebrahim, Hashemi; Hamzeh, Jodat

    2013-04-01

    In this study, commercial biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films were treated with nitrogen plasma over different exposure times in a Pyrex tube surrounded by a DC variable magnetic field. The chemical changes that appeared on the surface of the samples were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy after treatment for 2 min, 4 min and 6 min in a nitrogen plasma chamber. Effects of the plasma treatment on the surface topographies and contact angles of the untreated and plasma treated films were also analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a contact angle measuring system. The results show that the plasma treated films become more hydrophilic with an enhanced wettability due to the formation of some new polar groups on the surface of the treated films. Moreover, at higher exposure times, the total surface energy in all treated films increased while a reduction in contact angle occurred. The behavior of surface roughness in each sample was completely different at higher exposure times.

  7. Research Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S; Philomination, P

    2006-01-01

    In this manuscript various components of research are listed and briefly discussed. The topics considered in this write-up cover a part of the research methodology paper of Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) course and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) course. The manuscript is intended for students and research scholars of science subjects such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, statistics, biology and computer science. Various stages of research are discussed in detail. Special care has been taken to motivate the young researchers to take up challenging problems. Ten assignment works are given. For the benefit of young researchers a short interview with three eminent scientists is included at the end of the manuscript.

  8. Biological treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor: Statistical modeling using optimization using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinatizadeh A.A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interactive effects of initial chemical oxygen demand (CODin, biomass concentration and aeration time on the performance of a lab-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR treating a synthetic dairy wastewater were investigated. The experiments were conducted based on a central composite design (CCD and analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM. The region of exploration for treatment of the synthetic dairy wastewater was taken as the area enclosed by the influent comical oxygen demand (CODin (1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/l, biomass concentration (3000, 5000 and 7000 mg VSS/l and aeration time (2, 8 and 18 h boundaries. Two dependent parameters were measured or calculated as response. These parameters were total COD removal efficiency and sludge volume index (SVI. The maximum COD removal efficiencies (99.5% were obtained at CODin, biomass concentration and aeration time of 5000 mg COD/l, 7000 mg VSS/l and 18 h, respectively. The present study provides valuable information about interrelations of quality and process parameters at different values of the operating variables.

  9. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Modeling of Postweld Heat Treatment Process in a Pressure Vessel Steel ASTM A516 Grade 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasura, Prachya

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the application of the response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) experiment in mathematical model and optimizes postweld heat treatment (PWHT). The material of study is a pressure vessel steel ASTM A516 grade 70 that is used for gas metal arc welding. PWHT parameters examined in this study included PWHT temperatures and time. The resulting materials were examined using CCD experiment and the RSM to determine the resulting material tensile strength test, observed with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that using a full quadratic model with the proposed mathematical model is YTS = -285.521 + 15.706X1 + 2.514X2 - 0.004X1(2) - 0.001X2(2) - 0.029X1X2. Tensile strength parameters of PWHT were optimized PWHT time of 5.00 hr and PWHT temperature of 645.75°C. The results show that the PWHT time is the dominant mechanism used to modify the tensile strength compared to the PWHT temperatures. This phenomenon could be explained by the fact that pearlite can contribute to higher tensile strength. Pearlite has an intensity, which results in increased material tensile strength. The research described here can be used as material data on PWHT parameters for an ASTM A516 grade 70 weld.

  10. Improvement of oleuropein extractability by optimising steam blanching process as pre-treatment of olive leaf extraction via response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Katsoyannos, Evangelos; Chatzilazarou, Arhontoula; Konteles, Spyros J

    2012-07-15

    Impact of steam, hot water blanching and UV-C irradiation as pre-treatments on extraction of oleuropein and related biophenols from olive leaves (OLs), was investigated. Moreover, particle size effect of olive leaves and steam blanching duration were selected as independent variables to optimise steam blanching process in terms of oleuropein content (OC) and antioxidant activity (AC) of ethanolic extracts, by using response surface methodology. Optimum conditions for OC and AC were 10 min steam blanching of 20-11 and 3-1mm olive leaf fraction, respectively. Depending on the extraction procedure, at optimum conditions of steaming the results indicate that steam blanching of OL prior to extraction can significantly increase oleuropein yield from 25 to 35 times compared to non-steam blanched sample, whereas the antioxidant activity increased from 4 to 13 times. No significant UV-C effect was observed in OC and AC, while hot water blanched samples showed significantly higher oleuropein yields and antioxidant activity compared to untreated samples.

  11. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  12. Club Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  13. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Course d’orientation C’est sous un magnifique soleil que s’est tenue la 7e épreuve de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. Les organisateurs avaient concocté des parcours assez techniques sur le site de La Faucille. Sur le parcours technique long, beau podium avec la victoire de Domenico Lepori (double médaillés aux championnats du monde en 2010 en vétéran) du club Care Vevey en 1:00:23, juste devant Jürg Niggli du club O’Jura en 1:00:56 puis Beat Mueller du club Lausanne-Jorat en 1:04:28. Sur le parcours technique moyen, Franck Longchampt s’est octroyé la première place, sur le parcours technique court, le jeune Julien Vuitton, qui n’a pas tout à fait 11 ans, a remporté son circuit. Coté parcours facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov a une fois de plus gagn&eacut...

  14. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d’orientation Face aux Championnats de France des Clubs à Poitiers, et à une météo hivernale (vent glaciale et pluie), il ne restait qu’une cinquantaine d’orienteurs pour participer à l’épreuve organisée le samedi 25 mai à Grange-Malval. Les participants ont tout de même bien apprécié les 5 circuits proposés par le Satus Genève. Les résultats sont disponibles sur notre site http://cern.ch/club-orientation. En plus des résultats, vous pourrez noter des informations sur la nouvelle école de CO encadrée par B. Barge, Prof. EPS à Ferney-Voltaire pour les jeunes à partir de 6 ans. La prochaine étape de la coupe genevoise se déroulera samedi 1er juin à Morez (39). Epreuve organisée par le club O’Jura&nb...

  15. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    Course d’orientation : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Et c’est reparti pour une nouvelle saison! Pour cette coupe de printemps 2010, le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose le calendrier suivant: – samedi 20 mars : Cossonay (Vd) – samedi 10 avril : Echallens (Vd) – samedi 17 avril : Trélex (Vd) – samedi 24 avril : Genolier (Vd) – samedi 1 mai : Vulbens/Valleiry (74) – samedi 8 mai : Bois de la Rippe (Vd) – samedi 29 mai : Sauvabellin (Vd) : relais – samedi 5 juin: St Cergue (Vd) : grande finale Les courses populaires ont lieu en général le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Pour cela, divers types de parcours sont &agr...

  16. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Nouvelle saison nouveau programme Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses populaires comptant pour la coupe Genevoise de printemps: samedi 28 mars: Vernand Dessus samedi 18 avril: Pougny/Challex samedi 25 avril: Chancy/Valleiry samedi 2 mai: Mauvernay samedi 9 mai: Longchaumois samedi 16 mai: Genolier samedi 30 mai: Prevondavaux samedi 6 juin: Biere-Ballens samedi 13 juin: Haut-Jura samedi 20 juin: Bonmont - Finale Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Les inscriptions se font sur place le jour de l’épreuve. Si vous êtes débutant, vous pouvez profiter d’une initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Le club propose aussi...

  17. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Orienteering Club

    2016-01-01

    Course d'orientation Calendrier des courses d’orientation Coupe genevoise d’automne 2016 Samedi 3 septembre : La Faucille (01) Samedi 10 septembre : Prémanon (39) Samedi 17 septembre : Saint-Cergue (VD) Samedi 24 septembre : Jorat / Corcelles (VD) Samedi 1 octobre: Bière - Ballens (VD) -relais Vendredi 14 octobre : Parc Mon Repos (GE) - nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Terrasse de Genève (74) Samedi 29 octobre : Bonmont (VD) Samedi 5 novembre : Pomier (74) – one-man-relay - Finale   Courses ouvertes à toutes et à tous, sportifs, familles, débutants ou confirmés, du CERN ou d’ailleurs. Cinq circuits disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4&am...

  18. COURSE ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  19. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2017-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2017 Club d'orientation - Julien,  jeune membre du club. Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires, qui se dérouleront des deux côtés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 1 avril : Pougny/Challex (01) Samedi 8 avril: Ballens (VD) Samedi 22 avril: Apples (VD) Samedi 29 avril: Mont Mussy (01) Samedi 6 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 13 mai: Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 20 mai: Prévondavaux (VD) Samedi 10 juin: Chancy/Valleiry (74) Samedi 17 juin: Trélex - Finale (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de...

  20. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  1. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Course orientation Les courses d’orientation comptant pour la coupe genevoise de printemps s’enchainent dans la région franco-suisse. Samedi dernier, une bonne centaine de coureurs se sont retrouvés au Mont Mourex où le club du CERN avait préparé la sixième épreuve. A l’issue de la course, les participants confirmaient l’exigence des circuits, à savoir la condition physique et le côté technique du traçage. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Darrell High du Care Vevey en 1:22:38 devançant Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 1:25:25 et Alison High également du Care Vevey en 1:28:51. Le circuit technique moyen a été remporté par Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN et le circuit technique court par Claire-Lise Rouiller, CO CERN. Les trois pr...

  2. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation C’est au pied du Salève, proche du Golf de Bosset, que le club d’orientation du CERN (CO CERN) a organisé samedi 19 septembre une nouvelle épreuve comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise d’automne. La zone « des Terrasses de Genève » avait été cartographiée et mise en service l’année dernière. Les participants ont pu apprécier un terrain ludique avec beaucoup de microreliefs, de points d’eau et de gros rochers, le tout au milieu d’une forêt assez claire et agréable à courir. Sur le parcours technique long, le résultat a été très serré puisque Pierrick Merino du club d’Annecy a gagné avec seulement 9 secondes d’avance sur Gaëtan Vuitton (CO CERN) qui confiait avoir perdu beaucoup du te...

  3. Ductal branch-oriented pancreatic resection for an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in the uncinate process that caused recurrent acute pancreatitis: a case report of successful treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toshiyuki; Maruyama, Takashi; Kobayashi, Akitoshi; Shimizu, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Hajime; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Akinari; Ohta, Takumi; Sato, Yayoi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Aikawa, Mizuho; Otsuka, Ryota; Yanagihara, Akitoshi

    2013-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis reportedly occurs in about 15 % of cases of branch duct (BD)-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), with two-thirds of BD-IPMNs being located in the head or uncinate process of the pancreas. However, the surgical indications and optimal treatment methods for BD-IPMNs have not been established. A 59-year-old Japanese male with epigastralgia was admitted to our hospital. A multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scan disclosed grade I acute pancreatitis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography disclosed a 1.5-cm BD-IPMN in the uncinate process. Two months after discharge, the epigastralgia recurred, and MDCT again revealed grade I pancreatitis. Due to the repeated episodes of pancreatitis, we performed ductal branch-oriented pancreatic resection. To detect the inferior branch of the Wirsung duct and avoid the development of a pancreatic fistula, we injected indigo carmine into the tumor which confirmed ligation of the inferior branch. Histopathologically, the tumor proved to be an adenoma. The postoperative course was uneventful in both the short- and long-term follow-up and, to date, there has been no recurrence of pancreatitis, or diabetes mellitus during the 6 years since pancreatectomy. This procedure is one of the methods that can be used for the successful resection of a BD-IPMN in the uncinate process that caused recurrent acute pancreatitis.

  4. Is adjunctive treatment with medication of liver-soothing-oriented method beneficial for depression after cerebrovascular accident?: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Feng; Liang, Wei-Xiong; Liu, Jia-Ci; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Du, Wen-Yi; Li, Zi-Ping; Wang, Qi; Cao, Ye; Wang, Lu; Meng, Chang-Rong; Wang, Ke-Zhu; Wang, Ning-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Adjunctive treatment with medication of liver-soothing-oriented method (MLSM) is one of the most commonly used approaches for subjects with depression after cerebrovascular accident (DCVA) in China. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the outcome of MLSM treatment in subjects with DCVA using relevant published literature. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Chinese databases of China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang, Sinomed, and VIP were used to collect all publications until March 2016. Randomized controlled trials comparing treatments with and without MLSM for subjects with DCVA were included. The quality of each publication was assessed based on the recent Handbook (5.1 version) for Cochrane Reviewers. Cochrane Collaboration's software RevMan 5.3 software was applied for data analysis. Thirty studies, including 2599 cases, were identified and collected. Adjunctive treatment with MLSM noticeably enhanced total effective rates (odds ratio 3.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.92-4.85, I = 0%, P = 0.96) in comparison to non-MLSM conventional pharmacotherapy. Compared to non-MLSM treatment, the changes of Hamilton Depression Scale in adjunctive treatment with MLSM, respectively, decreased and showed beneficial effects after 3 weeks (weighted mean difference [WMD] -4.83; 95% CI -6.82 to -2.83; I = 86%, P < 0.001), 4 weeks (WMD -4.20; 95% CI -5.06 to -3.33; I = 78%, P < 0.001), 6 weeks (WMD -3.36; 95% CI -4.05 to -2.68; I = 54%, P = 0.02), 8 weeks (WMD -4.83; 95% CI -5.62 to -4.04; I = 73%, P < 0.001), and 12 weeks (WMD -2.88; 95% CI -4.09 to -1.67; I = 58%, P = 0.09). As for changes in inflammatory cytokine levels, adjunctive treatment with MLSM was associated with a significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and interleukin-1β levels in comparison to non-MLSM treatment. Moreover, there were positive effects on score changes for National Institute of Health Stroke Scale

  5. A pilot double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy of trace elements in the treatment of endometriosis-related pain: study design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberweis D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Didier Oberweis,1 Patrick Madelenat,2 Michelle Nisolle,3 Etienne Demanet4 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, CHU de Charleroi, Hôpital André Vésale, Montigny-le-Tilleul, Belgium; 2Private Consultation, Paris, France; 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, CHR Citadelle, Liège, 4Clinical Research Unit, Charleroi, Belgium Abstract: Endometriosis is one of the most common benign gynecological disorders, affecting almost 10%–15% of all women of reproductive age and >30% of infertile women. The pathology is associated with various distressing symptoms, particularly pelvic pain, which adversely affect patients' quality of life. It is an estrogen-dependent disease. There is evidence both in animals and in humans that metal ions can activate the estrogen receptors. They are defined as a variety of xenoestrogens, called metalloestrogens, which could act as endocrine disruptors. Therefore, it could be considered to act on this gynecological disorder using food supplements containing trace elements (ie, nutripuncture. The assumption is that they could modulate estrogen receptors and thus influence the tropism and the survival of cells involved in endometriosis. By a modulation of the antioxidant system, they might also interact with various parameters influencing tissue biochemistry. The objective of this article is to describe and discuss the design and methodology of an ongoing double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study aiming to evaluate the efficacy of metal trace elements on the reduction of pain and improvement of quality of life, in patients with a revised American Fertility Society Score Stages II–IV endometriosis, combined or not with adenomyosis, during a treatment period of 4 months. Trace elements or placebo is proposed in the absence of any other treatment or as an add-on to current therapies, such as sexual hormones, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and surgery. A placebo run-in period of one menstrual cycle or

  6. Orienteering club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation

    2011-01-01

    Reprise fin août Le Club d’orientation, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une nouvelle série de courses pour cet automne. Le calendrier à retenir est le suivant : Samedi 27 août : Granges Malval (GE) – type classique Samedi 10 septembre : Lamoura (39) – type classique Samedi 17 septembre : La Dôle (F/VD) – type classique Samedi 24 septembre : Monteret (VD) – relais Samedi 8 octobre : Saint Cergue (VD) – type classique Vendredi 14 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) – nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Grand Jorat (VD) – type classique Samedi 22 octobre : Pomier (74) – type classique Samedi 5 novembre : Echallens (VD) – type classique Samedi 12 novembre : CERN (GE) - sprint - Finale Généralement cinq circuits sont disponibles : ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapt&eacu...

  7. Orienting hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  8. Reflections on the methodology of research on technology-oriented rural education informatization%技术取向的农村教育信息化研究的方法论反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振生; 王吉

    2013-01-01

    审视农村教育信息化研究的轨迹,可以看到研究者的焦点在“信息化”和“农村教育”之间有所偏重,单单关注“信息化”的技术取向研究范式渐渐暴露出一些问题,而问题的消解方略则蕴含着农村教育信息化研究的方向。本土化的研究视野、扎根式的研究方式和内生性的推动策略是农村教育信息化未来发展的重要课题。%By reviewing research on rural education informatization , we can find that researchers have a different focus on informatization and rural education .Some problems exist in the research paradigm that only focuses on technology-oriented informatization .The solution to the problems consists in the direction of rural education informatization research .Important projects of the future development of research on rural education informatization include localized research perspective , root-taking means of research , and internal promotional strategy .

  9. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  10. A mathematical theory of shape and neuro-fuzzy methodology-based diagnostic analysis: a comparative study on early detection and treatment planning of brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Subrata; Majumder, D Dutta

    2017-08-01

    hidden layer of 10 neurons and 2 output neurons. Of the 16-sample database, 10 datasets for training, 3 datasets for validation, and 3 datasets for testing were used in the ANN classification system. From the SSM (µ) confusion matrix, the number of output datasets of true positive, false positive, true negative and false negative was 6, 0, 10, and 0, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were each equal to 100%. The method of diagnosing brain cancer presented in this study is a successful model to assist doctors in the screening and treatment of brain cancer patients. The presented FES successfully identified the presence of brain cancer in CT and MR images using the extracted shape-based features and the use of NFS for the identification of brain cancer in the early stages. From the analysis and diagnosis of the disease, the doctors can decide the stage of cancer and take the necessary steps for more accurate treatment. Here, we have presented an investigation and comparison study of the shape-based feature extraction method with the use of NFS for classifying brain tumors as showing normal or abnormal patterns. The results have proved that the shape-based features with the use of NFS can achieve a satisfactory performance with 100% accuracy. We intend to extend this methodology for the early detection of cancer in other regions such as the prostate region and human cervix.

  11. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid, E-mail: m.ghoreishian.1985@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badii, Khashayar [Department of Environmental Researches, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouzi, Mohammad [Graduate Program of Biomedical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Malek, Kaveh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The potential of immobilized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanophotocatalysts for the removal of reactive dye was investigated. • Optimum decolorization conditions have been determined. • The immobilized nanophotocatalysts decolorized azo dyes completely from a textile effluent within 60 min. • Photocatalytic decolorization rates obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate. - Abstract: In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO{sub 2} nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R{sup 2} = 0.9996, Adjusted R{sup 2} = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  12. Impact of searching clinical trial registries in systematic reviews of pharmaceutical treatments: methodological systematic review and reanalysis of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudard, Marie; Yavchitz, Amélie; Ravaud, Philippe; Perrodeau, Elodie; Boutron, Isabelle

    2017-02-17

    Objective To evaluate the impact of searching clinical trial registries in systematic reviews.Design Methodological systematic review and reanalyses of meta-analyses.Data sources Medline was searched to identify systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing pharmaceutical treatments published between June 2014 and January 2015. For all systematic reviews that did not report a trial registry search but reported the information to perform it, the World Health Organization International Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP search portal) was searched for completed or terminated RCTs not originally included in the systematic review.Data extraction For each systematic review, two researchers independently extracted the outcomes analysed, the number of patients included, and the treatment effect estimated. For each RCT identified, two researchers independently determined whether the results were available (ie, posted, published, or available on the sponsor website) and extracted the data. When additional data were retrieved, we reanalysed meta-analyses and calculated the weight of the additional RCTs and the change in summary statistics by comparison with the original meta-analysis.Results Among 223 selected systematic reviews, 116 (52%) did not report a search of trial registries; 21 of these did not report the information to perform the search (key words, search date). A search was performed for 95 systematic reviews; for 54 (57%), no additional RCTs were found and for 41 (43%) 122 additional RCTs were identified. The search allowed for increasing the number of patients by more than 10% in 19 systematic reviews, 20% in 10, 30% in seven, and 50% in four. Moreover, 63 RCTs had results available; the results for 45 could be included in a meta-analysis. 14 systematic reviews including 45 RCTs were reanalysed. The weight of the additional RCTs in the recalculated meta-analyses ranged from 0% to 58% and was greater than 10% in five of 14 systematic

  13. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2011-01-01

    Coupe genevoise, suite Résultats de la course de Saint-Cergue, sur la carte Les Pralies, samedi 17 septembre. Nouvelle victoire du finlandais Ville Keskisaari, du club COLJ sur le parcours technique long avec une belle avance sur le deuxième concurrent Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN. David Cuenin a remporté le parcours technique moyen, Franck Lonchampt du club O’Jura a, lui aussi, remporté à nouveau le parcours technique court, tout comme Julien Vuitton du club CO CERN sur le facile moyen. Pour finir, Stéphane Clément devance Victor Dannecker sur le parcours facile court. Les résultats complets sont disponibles sur le site du club du CERN http://cern.ch/club-orientation. Un abonnement est pris sur le secteur de Saint-Cergue, puisque le club organise les deux prochaines étapes de la coupe genevoise dans le Haut-Jura suisse. Tout d’abord le samedi 24 septembre, un relais inter-club se courr...

  14. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  De La Rippe à Sauvabellin, la coupe genevoise continue ! Le rendez-vous était donné samedi 8 mai aux amateurs de course d’orientation dans les bois de La Rippe (Canton de Vaud). Cette 6e épreuve était organisée par le Club Satus Grutli de Genève. Il est dommage que les participants n’aient pas été aussi nombreux que lors des dernières courses, les Championnats de France des clubs à Dijon ayant certainement retenus plus d’un compétiteur. La première place est revenue à : – Technique long : Berni Wehrle – Technique moyen : Jean-Bernard Zosso – Technique court : Berni Wehrle – Facile moyen : Peter Troscanyi – Facile court : Claire Droz. Il ne restera plus que deux épreuves ...

  15. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Course d'orientation Ces deux dernières semaines, le club a organisé la troisième puis la quatrième étape de la coupe de printemps, une dans la forêt de Collogny/Moissey près de Vulbens, l’autre vers le parcours vita de Trélex. Les résultats sont: Facile court Vulbens : 1er Léo Lonchampt, O’Jura (16:04), 2e Timothée Bazin (23:07), 3e Francesco Pieri (26:57) Trélex : 1er Noora Maurent (23:11), 2e Sarah Stuber, COLJ (26:51), 3e T. Bazin (28:17) Facile moyen Vulbens : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, CO CERN (25:36), 2e Didier Descourvières (28:03), 3e Konstantinos Haider, CO CERN (36:53) Trélex : 1er V. Kuznetsov, COLJ (38:01), 2e K. Haider, CO CERN (43:15), 3e ex aequo Olivia Nguyen et Sven Vietmeier (58:11) Technique court Vulbens : 1er Benoit Bazin (41:21), 2e Colas Gintzburger (55:12), 3e Nathan Freydoz (55:48) Trélex : 1...

  16. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  17. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

  18. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  19. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

  20. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2012-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne   La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 10 novembre avec une course sprint à Prévessins. C’était la 12e épreuve de la saison. En stage dans la région, Tanya Ryabkina, championne d’Europe en titre et médaillée de bronze en moyenne distance lors des championnats du monde à La Givrine cet été, a fait l’honneur de sa présence et termine 2e à 8 secondes de Trygve Buanes, norvégien du club de Bergen. A l’issue de cette dernière épreuve, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 8 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Jurg Niggli (O&rsqu...

  1. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée ce samedi 2 novembre avec une course au score dans le bois Tollot (GE). Les concurrents disposaient d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises différemment placées selon le circuit choisi. Juerg Niggli (club O’Jura) a remporté le parcours technique long. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O’Jura), 2e Jirden Lennart, 3e Daria Niggli. Circuit technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ), 2e N...

  2. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Vers les dernières courses de printemps Une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés sur le site de la Roche Fendue prés de Morez pour gouter à un des 5 parcours proposés par le club du O’Jura. Le terrain était gras mais que peut-on trouver d’autre avec cette météo! Les vainqueurs de chaque circuit sont : Alina Niggli (O’Jura) facile court, Natalja Niggli (O’Jura) facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ) technique court, Yves Rousselot (Balise 25) technique moyen et pour finir François Gonon (O’Jura) avec une victoire haut la main sur le technique long. Il ne reste plus que deux épreuves pour la coupe genevoise de printemps : à savoir samedi 8 juin, course de type longue distance organisée par le club de Lausanne Jorat (COLJ) dans le bois de Seyte sur Mutrux/Concise, inscription de 12h &...

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Le coup d’envoi de la coupe genevoise a été donné samedi 31 août dans les bois de Combe Froide à Prémanon. Plus de 150 coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les parcours facile court, facile moyen et technique court ont été remportés par des coureurs du club O’Jura - Ulysse Dannecker, Léo Lonchampt, Franck Lonchampt, le technique moyen par Pekka Marti du club Ol Biel Seeland et le technique long par Térence Risse du CA Rosé – également membre de l’équipe nationale suisse des moins de 20 ans. Pour le club du CERN, les meilleures résultats ont été obtenus pas Emese Szunyog sur technique court et Marie Vuitton sur technique moyen avec une 4e place. La prochaine course aura lieu samedi 14 septembre à La Faucille. Le club propose aussi...

  4. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2013-01-01

    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

  6. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise La série des courses de printemps s’est achevée samedi dernier dans les bois de Bonmont (Vaud) avec une épreuve «one-man-relay» organisée par le club. Le vainqueur du parcours technique  long, Yann Locatelli (Club de Chambéry Savoie) a réalisé les deux boucles comportant 24 balises avec presque 6 minutes d’avance sur le second concurrent Domenico Lepori (Club CARE Vevey). Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps, en comptabilisant les 6 meilleurs résultats sur les 10 épreuves. Le podium officiel était donné par le président du club, L. Jirden, qui profitait de l’occasion pour remercier tous les participants et également tous les...

  8. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Samedi 20 avril, les organisateurs du Club de CO du CERN ont accueilli au Mont Mourex 70 participants qui n’ont pas hésité à venir malgré la forte bise. Berni Wehrle du CO CERN s’est octroyé la première place en 1:04:49 sur le parcours technique long devant Pyry Kettunen du Saynso Juankoski en 1:06:52, la 3e place revenant à Bruno Barge, CO CERN, à 7 secondes. Les autres parcours ont été remportés par : Technique moyen : 1er Jacques Moisset, Chamonix (47:44), 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon (57:16), 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN (59:28). Technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ (51:53), 2e Pierrick Collet, CO CERN (1:12:52), 3e Dominique Balay, CO CERN (1:16:04). Pour les parcours facile moyen et facile court, Ralf Nardini et Léa Nicolas, tous deux du CO CERN, terminaient respectivement premier. Voi...

  9. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation C’est sous un beau soleil samedi 4 octobre que s’est déroulée la 6e étape de la Coupe genevoise d’automne organisée par le club. Plus d’une centaine de concurrents provenant de 7 clubs de CO avaient fait le déplacement pour courir sur un des cinq parcours proposés dans les bois de Trélex-Génolier (VD). Le podium est le suivant : Technique long (5,9 km, 19 postes) : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura (1:00:02); 2e Berni Wehrle, CO CERN (1:06:44); 3e Konrad Ehrbar, COLJ (1:07:08) Technique moyen (4,8 km, 18 postes) : 1er Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN (54:25); 2e J.B. Zosso, CO CERN (1:01:19); 3e Jeremy Wichoud, COLJ (1:06:21) Technique court (3,8 km, 14 postes) : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN (36:19); 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ (48:47); 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura (50:38) Facile moyen (3,2 km, 11 postes) : 1ère Alina Niggli, O&...

  10. Advances in oriental document analysis and recognition techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, rapid progress has been made in computer processing of oriental languages, and the research developments in this area have resulted in tremendous changes in handwriting processing, printed oriental character recognition, document analysis and recognition, automatic input methodologies for oriental languages, etc. Advances in computer processing of oriental languages can also be seen in multimedia computing and the World Wide Web. Many of the results in those domains are presented in this book.

  11. Some issues on object-oriented re-engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Signore, Oreste; Loffredo, Mario

    1992-01-01

    Software re-engineering and object orientation are two areas of growing interest in the last years. However, while many researchers have focused their interest in the object-oriented design methodologies, a little attention has been paid to the re-engineering towards an object-oriented environment. In this paper, after a brief discussion of the re-engineering issues, we examine the motivations towards object-oriented re-engineering (extendibility, robustness and reusability of the code) and t...

  12. Object-oriented re-engineering: a comprehensive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Signore, Oreste; Loffredo, Mario

    1993-01-01

    Software re-engineering and object orientation are two areas of growing interest in the last years. However, while many researchers have focused their interest in the object-oriented design methodologies, a little attention has been paid to the re-engineering towards an object-oriented environment. In this paper, after a brief discussion of the re-engineering issues, we examine the motivations towards object-oriented re-engineering (extendibility, robustness and reusability of the code) and t...

  13. [Family oriented nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquin Salvador; Lima-Serrano, Marta; Sáez-Bueno, Africa

    2009-01-01

    Nursing has experienced an important methodological development, in which it gives priority to the individual, although at a socioeconomic level a marked interest is seen in the health care of the family unit and the NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association), NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) and NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) nursing guidelines, using diagnoses, criteria of results and interventions orientated towards this aim. We consider to the family as an opened system consisted of human elements, with a common history, which they form a functional unit been ruled by own procedure. In this paper we look at those aspects that must be taken into account in nursing assessment of families from a systemic perspective, including some tools for data collection and analysis of information. In addition, we identify specific areas of intervention. We believe that the family must be studied from a nursing care point of view with its own characteristics as opposed to those possessed individually by each of its members. We also believe that, when assessment is centred on the Henderson unaided activities study or the Gordon functional health patterns, they are not useful in assessing the family unit. This work offers an assessment method centred on the family unit, which helps to identify the nursing diagnoses applicable to it. Our proposal, which has been successfully used by nursing students over the last few years, hopes to contribute to quality clinical practice with a tool orientated towards the family.

  14. Electrodynamics and Time Orientability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mark J.

    2017-06-01

    On spacetimes that are not time orientable we construct a U(1) bundle to measure the twisting of the time axis. This single assumption, and simple construction, gives rise to Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the Lorentz force law and the Einstein-Maxwell equations for electromagnetism coupled to General relativity. The derivations follow the Kaluza Klein theory, but with the constraints required for connections on a U(1) bundle rather than five spacetime dimensions. The non time orientability is seen to justify and constrain Kaluza Klein theories exactly as required to unify gravitation with electromagnetism. Unlike any other schemes, apparent net electric charges arise naturally because the direction of the electric field reverses along a time reversing path. The boundary of a time reversing region can therefore have a net electric flux and appear exactly as a region containing an electric charge. The treatment is purely classical, but motivated by links between acausal structures and quantum theory.

  15. Market orientation in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuian, S N; Abdul-Gader, A

    1997-01-01

    Using the more recent methodological developments in the assessment of the unidemensionality, reliability, and validity, the authors developed and examined a scale of market orientation for the hospital industry. The scale is based on a clear definition of the content of the construct of market orientation in the hospital industry. To this end, a national random sample of 237 hospital administrators was used. In addition to the support for the reliability and validity, the scale promises parsimony, pragmatism, and wide-ranging applicability.

  16. Critical appraisal of scientific posters comparing anemia treatments for cancer patients: applying ISPOR Task Force guidelines on methodological quality of retrospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarteau, Nadia; Moeremans, Karen; Annemans, Lieven

    2007-08-01

    Two independent reviewers used the methodological criteria published by the ISPOR Task Force on Retrospective Data to assess the quality of four posters presenting the results of retrospective database studies on the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, or darbepoetin alfa) for treating patients with cancer. A third reviewer consolidated the results. Overall, from the information reported in the four posters, their methodological quality ranged from poor to very poor; only a few of the criteria were satisfactorily addressed. The quality of the data sources and the research design received very poor scores. Key elements such as selection bias were not considered. These findings caution against the use of posters without appropriate assessment of their methodological quality. The ISPOR guidelines for the evaluation of retrospective analyses are a useful tool for assessing the quality of scientific posters.

  17. Application of Agent Methodology in Healthcare Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Abdalla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study to describe the features and the phases of the two agent methodologies. The Gaia methodology for agent oriented analysis and design, Tropos is a detailed agent oriented software engineering methodology to explore each methodology's ability to present solutions for small problems. Also we provide an attempt to discover whether the methodology is in fact understandable and usable. In addition we were collecting and taking notes of the advantages and weaknesses of these methodologies during the study analysis for each methodology and the relationships among their models. The Guardian Angle: Patient-Centered Health Information System (GA: PCHIS is the personal system to help track, manage, and interpret the subject's health history, and give advice to both patient and provider is used as the case study throughout the paper.

  18. Beginning C# Object-Oriented Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Beginning C# Object-Oriented Programming brings you into the modern world of development as you master the fundamentals of programming with C# and learn to develop efficient, reusable, elegant code through the object-oriented programming (OOP) methodology. Take your skills out of the 20th century and into this one with Dan Clark's accessible, quick-paced guide to C# and object-oriented programming, completely updated for .NET 4.0 and C# 4.0. As you develop techniques and best practices for coding in C#, one of the world's most popular contemporary languages, you'll experience modeling a "real

  19. Clickable Polymeric Coating for Oriented Peptide Immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Laura; Gori, Alessandro; Cretich, Marina; Finetti, Chiara; Zilio, Caterina; Chiari, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    A new methodology for the fabrication of an high-performance peptide microarray is reported, combining the higher sensitivity of a layered Si-SiO2 substrate with the oriented immobilization of peptides using a N,N-dimethylacrylamide-based polymeric coating that contains alkyne monomers as functional groups. This clickable polymer allows the oriented attachment of azido-modified peptides via a copper-mediated azide/alkyne cycloaddition. A similar coating that does not contain the alkyne functionality has been used as comparison, to demonstrate the importance of a proper orientation for facilitating the probe recognition and interaction with the target antibody.

  20. Differing antidepressant maintenance methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    The principle evidence that antidepressant medication (ADM) is an effective maintenance treatment for adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) is from placebo substitution trials. These trials enter responders from ADM efficacy trials into randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled (RDBPC) effectiveness trials to measure the rate of MDD relapse over time. However, other randomized maintenance trial methodologies merit consideration and comparison. A systematic review of ADM randomized maintenance trials included research reports from multiple databases. Relapse rate was the main effectiveness outcome assessed. Five ADM randomized maintenance methodologies for MDD responders are described and compared for outcome. These effectiveness trials include: placebo-substitution, ADM/placebo extension, ADM extension, ADM vs. psychotherapy, and treatment as usual. The placebo-substitution trials for those abruptly switched to placebo resulted in unusually high (46%) rates of relapse over 6-12months, twice the continuing ADM rate. These trials were characterized by selective screening, high attrition, an anxious anticipation of a switch to placebo, and a risk of drug withdrawal symptoms. Selectively screened ADM efficacy responders who entered into 4-12month extension trials experienced relapse rates averaging ~10% with a low attrition rate. Non-industry sponsored randomized trials of adults with multiple prior MDD episodes who were treated with ADM maintenance for 1-2years experienced relapse rates averaging 40%. Placebo substitution trial methodology represents only one approach to assess ADM maintenance. Antidepressant maintenance research for adults with MDD should be evaluated for industry sponsorship, attrition, the impact of the switch to placebo, and major relapse differences in MDD subpopulations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.

  2. Benefits of the Person-Oriented Perspective for Program Evaluation: Analyzing the Differential Treatment Effects of the Vienna E-Lecturing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapka, Dominik; Wagner, Petra; Schober, Barbara; Gradinger, Petra; Spiel, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Background: In program evaluation interventions are usually examined for global effects but not always for differential effects. The reasoning behind the focus on global effects is that most of the concepts applied in data analyses, and most of the hypotheses being assessed, are variable-oriented. Consequently, existing differential effects will…

  3. 茵陈蒿汤加味配合西药治疗犬传染性肝炎的试验研究%The treatment of canine infectious hepatitis using Yinchenhao Tang Oriental Wormwood Decoction with western medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温伟; 张加力; 樊扬

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of three methods in the treatment of infectious ca-nine hepatitis., In order to improve the cure rate of infectious canine hepatitis. Methods: the pet hospital diagnosed as infectious canine hepatitis disease in 60 dogs, the dogs were randomly divided into 4 groups, respectively by means of Yinchenhao Tang Oriental Wormwood Decoction with western medicine, with Yinchenhao Tang Oriental Wormwood Decoction, alone in the treatment of West-ern medicine, and control group.Results: Yinchenhao Tang Oriental Wormwood Decoction with western medicine group, the cure rate was 86.67%; Yinchenhao Tang Oriental Wormwood Decoction group, the cure rate was 73.33%; the western medicine group, the cure rate was 66.67%; control group, the cure rate was 0.Conclusion: Yinchenhao Tang Oriental Wormwood Decoction is higher than the other two methods with the efficacy of Western medicine in the treatment of infectious canine hepatitis, provides a feasible method for the clinical treatment of the disease.%为了观察3种治疗方法治疗犬传染性肝炎的疗效并进行对比,选出较好的治疗方案,以提高犬传染性肝炎的治愈率。本研究选宠物医院确诊为犬传染性肝炎的病犬60只,将患犬随机分4组,分别采用茵陈篙汤加味配合西药、单用茵陈篙汤加味、单用西药的治疗方法,并设对照组。结果显示,茵陈篙汤加味配合西药组的治愈率86.67%;茵陈篙汤加味组治愈率73.33%;西药组治愈率66.67%;对照组治愈率为0。试验表明,采用茵陈篙汤加味配合西药治疗犬传染性肝炎的疗效高于其他两种方法,为临床治疗该病提供了确实可行的治疗方法。

  4. Thinking in Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Bjorn Tore

    1997-01-01

    A think-aloud technique, in which 20 orienteers verbalized their exact thoughts during orienteering, was used to examine the phenomenon of cognition during orienteering. Results indicate that orienteering is experienced as a task to be accomplished, a physical movement, and a dynamic process, and that thinking involves attuning perceptions to…

  5. Orientalism: thirty years on. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Prado-Fonts

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This dossier contains a series of articles inspired by Edward Said's concept of Orientalism. Together, the articles in the dossier show the importance of Said's contribution and defend the need to continue working to make it even more important and valid, both in the academic context and in terms of the social diffusion it deserves. With a common thematic thread -the perception of the other (Orient from our perspective (Occident- these articles shun the conception of East Asia as an independent "discipline" and treat it, on the contrary, as an object of study that must be tackled with methodological rigour from specific disciplines: history, thought, anthropology and literature. This should facilitate, on one hand, the possibility of putting forward arguments and observations that enrich already existing debates in each discipline by shedding new light on them and, on the other, social diffusion of these ideas on East Asia beyond limited circles.

  6. The Ideological Orientations of Canadian University Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaie, M. Reza; Brym, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the ideological orientations of Canadian university professors based on a unique 2000 study of a representative sample of Canadian academics (n=3,318). After summarizing methodological problems with extant research on this subject, and tentatively comparing the political views of Canadian and American academics, the paper…

  7. Orientation selective deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Lauri J.; Slopsema, Julia P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Shatillo, Artem; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Utecht, Lynn; Adriany, Gregor; Mangia, Silvia; Sierra, Alejandra; Low, Walter C.; Gröhn, Olli; Michaeli, Shalom

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS. Approach. This concept, which involves orienting the electric field along an axonal pathway, was tested in the corpus callosum of the rat brain by freely controlling the direction of the electric field on a plane using a three-electrode bundle, and monitoring the response of the neurons using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Computational models were developed to further analyze axonal excitability for varied electric field orientation. Main results. Our results demonstrated that the strongest fMRI response was observed when the electric field was oriented parallel to the axons, while almost no response was detected with the perpendicular orientation of the electric field relative to the primary fiber tract. These results were confirmed by computational models of the experimental paradigm quantifying the activation of radially distributed axons while varying the primary direction of the electric field. Significance. The described strategies identify a new course for selective neuromodulation paradigms in DBS based on axonal fiber orientation.

  8. Methodology for Optimization-OrientedComputer Simulation and Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    MethodologyforOptimization-OrientedComputerSimulationandAnimationLiShuliang(SchoolofEconomicsandManagement,SouthwestJiaotongU...

  9. Relational and Object-Oriented Methodology in Data Bases Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Pompiliu CRISTESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Database programming languages integrate concepts of databases and programming languages to provide both implementation tools for data-intensive applications and high-level user interfaces to databases. Frequently, database programs contain a large amount of application knowledge which is hidden in the procedural code and thus difficult to maintain with changing data and user views. This paper presents a first attempt to improve the situation by supporting the integrated definition and management of data and rules based on a setoriented and predicative approach. The use of database technology for integrated fact and rule base management is shown to have some important advantages in terms of fact and rule integrity, question-answering, and explanation of results.

  10. International orientation on methodologies for modelling developments in road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurings, M.C.B. & Commandeur, J.J.F.

    2007-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the models developed in countries other than the Netherlands to evaluate past developments in road traffic safety and to obtain estimates of these developments in the future. These models include classical linear regression and loglinear models as applied in Great Br

  11. Product Family Design Methodology Using Object-Oriented Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The serious competition environment of global marke t requests the enterprise to change traditional product development strategy and a dopt new theory in order to meet diverse customer needs while maintaining near m ass production efficiency, which is the main philosophy of mass customization. P roduct family design is research focus at present and also is the core technolog y of DFMC (design for mass customization). Firstly, this paper explores the fund amental issues of product family, such as concepts o...

  12. Formalizing the ISDF Software Development Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Liviu DESPA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at depicting the ISDF software development methodology by emphasizing quality management and software development lifecycle. The ISDF methodology was built especially for innovative software development projects. The ISDF methodology was developed empirically by trial and error in the process of implementing multiple innovative projects. The research process began by analysing key concepts like innovation and software development and by settling the important dilemma of what makes a web application innovative. Innovation in software development is presented from the end-user, project owner and project manager’s point of view. The main components of a software development methodology are identified. Thus a software development methodology should account for people, roles, skills, teams, tools, techniques, processes, activities, standards, quality measuring tools, and team values. Current software development models are presented and briefly analysed. The need for a dedicated innovation oriented software development methodology is emphasized by highlighting shortcomings of current software development methodologies when tackling innovation. The ISDF methodology is presented in the context of developing an actual application. The ALHPA application is used as a case study for emphasizing the characteristics of the ISDF methodology. The development life cycle of the ISDF methodology includes research, planning, prototyping, design, development, testing, setup and maintenance. Artefacts generated by the ISDF methodology are presented. Quality is managed in the ISDF methodology by assessing compliance, usability, reliability, repeatability, availability and security. In order to properly asses each quality component a dedicated indicator is built. A template for interpreting each indicator is provided. Conclusions are formulated and new related research topics are submitted for debate.

  13. Using Types and Inheritance in Object-Oriented Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Daniel C.; O'Brien, Patrick D.

    If the object-oriented style of programming hopes to live up to its potential as an improved methodology for software programming, a clear understanding of how to use types and inheritance is essential. Our experiences with using object-oriented languages and teaching object-oriented techniques to other programmers have shown that effective use of types and inheritance may be problematic. There are no concrete guidelines to assist programmers, and the existing aphorisms often create interpretation problems for novice object-oriented programmers. In this paper we look at how types, subtyping, and inheritance are used in object-oriented languages. We discuss the different ways that types and type hierarchies can be used to structure programs. We illustrate appropriate use of these concepts through examples and develop guidelines to assist programmers in using the object-oriented methodology effectively.

  14. Second malignancies following breast cancer treatment: a case-control study based on the Peridose methodology. Allegro project (task 5.4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchia, Roberto; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Rondi, Elena; Bossi-Zanetti, Isa; Meaglia, Ilaria; Luraschi, Rosa; Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Rotmensz, Nicole; Botteri, Edoardo; Fodor, Cristiana; Cecconi, Agnese; Morra, Anna; Lazzari, Roberta; Ferrari, Annamaria; Cattani, Federica; Galimberti, Viviana; Luini, Alberto; Veronesi, Paolo; Zurrida, Stefano; Magrini, Stefano; Doerr, Wolfgang; Humble, Nicole; Trott, Klaus R; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Smyth, Vere; Veronesi, Umberto

    2012-11-01

    To calculate peripheral radiation dose to the second primary site in patients who have developed a second malignancy after breast cancer radiotherapy (index cases) and to compare it with dose in the analogous anatomical site in radiotherapy-treated breast cancer patients who did not experience a second malignancy (controls). To evaluate the feasibility of Peridose-software peripheral dose calculation in retrospective case-control studies. MATERIAL AND STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study on 12,630 patients who underwent adjuvant breast radiotherapy was performed. Minimum 5-year follow-up was required. Each index case was matched with 5 controls by 1) year of birth, 2) year of radiotherapy and 3) follow-up duration. Peridose-software was used to calculate peripheral dose. 195 second cancers were registered (19% [corrected] of all patients treated with adjuvant irradiation). Several methodological limitations of the Peridose calculation were encountered including impossibility to calculate the peripheral dose in the patients treated with intraoperative or external electron beam radiotherapy, in case of second tumors located at cases were eligible for dose calculation. Calculated doses at the second cancer site in index cases and in an analogous site in controls ranged between 7.5 and 145 cGy. The mean index-control dose difference was -3.15 cGy (range, -15.8 cGy and +2.7 cGy). The calculated peripheral doses were low and the index-control differences were small. However, the small number of eligible patients precludes a reliable analysis of a potential dose-response relationship. Large patient series followed for a long period and further improvement in the methodology of the peripheral dose calculation are necessary in order to overcome the methodological challenges of the study.

  15. View Creation for Queriesin Object Oriented Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh Narang; K.D. Sharma

    1999-01-01

    A view in object oriented databasescorresponds to virtual schema with restructured generalization anddecomposition hierarchies. Numbers of view creation methodologies havebeen proposed. A major drawback of existing methodologies is that theydo not maintain the closure property. That is, the result of a querydoes not have the same semantics as embodied in the object oriented datamodel. Therefore, this paper presents a view creation methodology thatderives a class in response to a user's query, integrates derived classin global schema (i.e., considers the problem of classes moving in classhierarchy) and selects the required classes from global schema to createthe view for user's query. Novel idea of view creation includes: (a) anobject algebra for class derivation and customization (where the derivedclasses in terms of object instances and procedure/methods are studied),(b) maintenance of closure property, and (c) classification algorithmwhich provides mechanism to deal with the problem of a class moving in aclass hierarchy.

  16. Methodologies used for the multiscale characterization of fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, K.E.S.; Gravesen, P.; Rosenbom, A. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Sanchez, F.; Molinelli, L. [CH2M-Hill Espana S.A., Parque Empresarial San Fernando Edificio Berlin, Madrid (Spain); Tsakiroglou, C.D. [Inst. of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes - Foundation for Research and Technology, Patras (Greece)

    2002-07-01

    The role of fractures as hydraulic highways for the spreading of pollutants in aquifers has been recognised during the last decade, and the need for the introduction of high quality fracture properties to hydraulic models has accordingly become more evident. The majority of fracture models need accurate input data concerning the orientation, the size distribution, the fracture density and the opening diameter (aperture) of fractures. In the present study a new integrated methodology is developed to characterise fractures and calculate properties that are used as input parameters in hydraulic models. The methodology is based on field-scale measurements of fractured outcrops, lab-scale treatment of fractured core samples, and SEM image analysis of 2-D sections of resin-impregnated single fractures. The most significant fracture characteristics are identified, classified and quantified at several different scales, so that information useful for the calculation of the hydraulic properties of fractured media is obtained. The methodology of characterization is demonstrated with its application to two contaminated fractured sites of very different geological settings. One is a fractured clayey till in Denmark and the other one is a fractured granite in Spain. (orig.)

  17. Culture Orientation and Sociometry of the Classroom: A Possible Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Juanita Ross; Hajnal, Vivian

    Findings of a study that examined the relationship between classroom orientation and sociometric patterns within the classroom are presented in this paper. Methodology involved observation of 12 classrooms in Ontario and administration of two survey instruments to 20 fourth-year students. Classroom orientations were categorized as cooperative,…

  18. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influen......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation.......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal...... influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents...

  19. High Performance Object-Oriented Scientific Programming in Fortran 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Charles D.; Decyk, Viktor K.; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.

    1997-01-01

    We illustrate how Fortran 90 supports object-oriented concepts by example of plasma particle computations on the IBM SP. Our experience shows that Fortran 90 and object-oriented methodology give high performance while providing a bridge from Fortran 77 legacy codes to modern programming principles. All of our object-oriented Fortran 90 codes execute more quickly thatn the equeivalent C++ versions, yet the abstraction modelling capabilities used for scentific programming are comparably powereful.

  20. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer......This study sheds light on the role that the competitive environment plays in determining how elements of market orientation and elements of entrepreneurial orientation interact to influence business success. We develop a model in which we postulate that market orientation, entrepreneurial...... orientations. Also, these moderating effects are stronger for firms operating in highly competitive environments. For the innovativeness component of entrepreneurship, however, the positive relationship between innovativeness and ROA decreases as the competitive environment becomes more hostile....

  1. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  2. Choosing between Methodologies: An Inquiry into English Learning Processes in a Taiwanese Indigenous School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Traditional, cognitive-oriented theories of English language acquisition tend to employ experimental modes of inquiry and neglect social, cultural and historical contexts. In this paper, I review the theoretical debate over methodology by examining ontological, epistemological and methodological controversies around cognitive-oriented theories. I…

  3. Manipulating Human-oriented Dictionaries with very simple tools

    CERN Document Server

    Gaschler, J; Lafourcade, Mathieu; Gaschler, J

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for building and manipulating human-oriented dictionaries. This methodology has been applied in the construction of a French-English-Malay dictionary which has been obtained by "crossing" semi-automatically two bilingual dictionaries. We use only Microsoft Word, a specialized language for writing transcriptors and a small but powerful dictionary tool.

  4. [Radiotherapy phase I trials' methodology: Features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, R; Vallard, A; Langrand-Escure, J; Guy, J-B; Ben Mrad, M; Yaoxiong, X; Diao, P; Méry, B; Pigne, G; Rancoule, C; Magné, N

    2016-12-01

    In clinical research, biostatistical methods allow the rigorous analysis of data collection and should be defined from the trial design to obtain the appropriate experimental approach. Thus, if the main purpose of phase I is to determine the dose to use during phase II, methodology should be finely adjusted to experimental treatment(s). Today, the methodology for chemotherapy and targeted therapy is well known. For radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy phase I trials, the primary endpoint must reflect both effectiveness and potential treatment toxicities. Methodology should probably be complex to limit failures in the following phases. However, there are very few data about methodology design in the literature. The present study focuses on these particular trials and their characteristics. It should help to raise existing methodological patterns shortcomings in order to propose new and better-suited designs. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. MRI of oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, N.A., E-mail: ahmad77chinar@gmail.co [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India); Robbani, I.; Kosar, T. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India)

    2011-02-15

    Oriental cholangiohepatitis (OCH) also called recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is characterized by intrahepatic duct calculi, strictures, and recurrent infections. In turn cholangitis can result in multiple hepatic abscesses, further biliary strictures, and in severe cases, progressive hepatic parenchymal destruction, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and conventional T1-weighted (T1 W) and T2-weighted (T2 W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been described in patients with OCH. MRCP findings include duct dilation, strictures, and calculi. MRCP can help to localize the diseased ducts and determine the severity of involvement. T1 and T2 W sequences reveal the parenchymal changes of atrophy, abscess formation, and portal hypertension in addition to calculi. Post-treatment changes are also well depicted using MRI. Comprehensive, non-invasive assessment is achieved by using conventional MRI and MRCP in OCH providing a roadmap for endoscopic or surgical management.

  6. A Critical Evaluation of the Methodological Obstacles to Translating Cell-Based Research Into an Effective Treatment for People With Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, Stephen; Karimi, Leila; Buultjens, Melissa; Morris, Meg E

    2016-10-01

    The remarkable scientific and technological advances in the field of cell research have not been translated into viable restorative therapies for brain disorders. In this article, we examine the best available evidence for the clinical efficacy of reconstructive intracerebral transplantation in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), with the aim of identifying methodological obstacles to the translation process. The major stumbling block is the fact that the potential contributions of people with neural grafts and the effects of the physical and social environment in which they recover have not been adequately investigated and applied to advancing the clinical stages of the research program. We suggest that the biopsychosocial model along with emerging evidence of targeted rehabilitation can provide a useful framework for conducting research and evaluation that will ensure the best possible outcomes following intracerebral transplantation for PD.

  7. THE AGILE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charul Deewan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technologies are numerous and Software is the one whichis most widely used. Some companies have their owncustomized methodology for developing their software but themajority speaks about two kinds of methodologies: Traditionaland Agile methodologies. In this paper, we will discuss someof the aspects of what Agile methodology is, how it can beused to get the best result from a project, how do we get it towork in an organization.

  8. Language Policy and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Antony J.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  9. They Call it Orienteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Mark

    1977-01-01

    Through the use of personal anecdotes, the author details his initial experience with orienteering, a sport rapidly increasing in popularity that teaches people not to get lost in the woods. Sources of information about orienteering are provided. (BT)

  10. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  11. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientation moderates the positive relationships between the competitiveness element of entrepreneurial orientation and market share and return on assets (ROA): the positive relationships between competitiveness and market share and competitiveness and ROA become stronger the greater the firms' customer...

  12. Queering canons. Methodological heteronormativities and queer inquietudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirus Rinaldi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a series of epistemological and methodological reflections on the use of qualitative research methods in the study of non-normative sexualities. Particular emphasis will be highlighting the needs to reconsider queerly sociological oriented methods and methodology, paying attention to researcher’s ambiguous role, her body and emotions in the permanent reflexive research process and in encounters with the (co-researched. Normal 0 21 false false false ES-AR X-NONE X-NONE Tensorial Orientation Scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Azzopardi, George; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Orientation scores are representations of images built using filters that only select on orientation (and not on the magnitude of the frequency). Importantly, they allow (easy) reconstruction, making them ideal for use in a filtering pipeline. Traditionally a specific set of orientations has to be c

  13. Proper orientation of cacti

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Julio; Havet, Frédéric; Linhares Sales, Claudia; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    International audience; An orientation of a graph G is proper if two adjacent vertices have different in-degrees. The proper-orientation number − → χ (G) of a graph G is the minimum maximum in-degree of a proper orientation of G. In [1], the authors ask whether the proper orientation number of a planar graph is bounded. We prove that every cactus admits a proper orientation with maximum in-degree at most 7. We also prove that the bound 7 is tight by showing a cactus having no proper orientati...

  14. The optimization of treatment and management of schizophrenia in Europe (OPTiMiSE) trial : rationale for its methodology and a review of the effectiveness of switching antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leucht, Stefan; Winter-van Rossum, Inge; Heres, Stephan; Arango, Celso; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Glenthøj, Birte; Leboyer, Marion; Leweke, F Markus; Lewis, Shôn; McGuire, Phillip; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Rujescu, Dan; Kapur, Shitij; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most of the 13 542 trials contained in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register just tested the general efficacy of pharmacological or psychosocial interventions. Studies on the subsequent treatment steps, which are essential to guide clinicians, are largely missing. This knowledge ga

  15. A Needs Assessment for Health Care Professionals in the Detection, Intervention and Interdisciplinary Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa Using Focus Group Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Anne; Kovacich, Joann

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of bulimia nervosa has increased significantly in the second half of the twentieth century and its occurrence is more than twice that of anorexia nervosa. Due to its complex nature, successful treatment requires an interdisciplinary approach with nutritional, psychological, medical, pharmacological and dental therapies. Despite…

  16. Preliminary results, methodological considerations and recruitment difficulties of a randomised clinical trial comparing two treatment regimens for patients with headache and neck pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertogh, W. de; Vaes, P.; Devroey, D.; Louis, P.; Carpay, H.; Truijen, S.; Duquet, W.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Headache is a highly prevalent disorder. Irrespective of the headache diagnosis it is often accompanied with neck pain and -stiffness. Due to this common combination of headache and neck pain, physical treatments of the cervical spine are often considered. The additional value of these t

  17. Orientalism and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Jouhki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article Orientalism, a special hegemonic discourse about "the Orient" by Europeans is discussed by focusing on how it is manifested in a "Western" view of India. Orientalism as a discourse about the Orient is a concept first coined by Edward Said in his book Orientalism (1978 and contains a long history of European way of relating to the Orient as a counterpart of European/Western culture. In this article Orientalist discourses about India by hegemonically Western (and particularly Anglo-Saxon sources are portrayed and the so-called Indo-Orientalist essentialism defining Indianness from the outside analyzed. Moreover, a Indo-Orientalism as an imported ideology to be used in Indian nationalist discourses to emphasize a dichotomy between India and "the West" is discussed.

  18. Mixed Methods Research as Third Methodological Movement:

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mohammadpour; Rasoul Sadeghi; Mehdi Rezaei

    2010-01-01

    AbstractMixed Method Research is considered as the latest methodological orientation in social and behavioralsciences and sociology which has been developed following a long period of intra-paradigm controversiesbetween quantitative and qualitative approaches. Based on pragmatist perspective, the mixed methodresearch, while emphasizing on paradigm convergence, seeks to combine both quantitative and qualitativemethodologies in a single study which takes three forms containing of concurrent, se...

  19. Ultra wideband antennas design, methodologies, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Galvan-Tejada, Giselle M; Jardón Aguilar, Hildeberto

    2015-01-01

    Ultra Wideband Antennas: Design, Methodologies, and Performance presents the current state of the art of ultra wideband (UWB) antennas, from theory specific for these radiators to guidelines for the design of omnidirectional and directional UWB antennas. Offering a comprehensive overview of the latest UWB antenna research and development, this book:Discusses the developed theory for UWB antennas in frequency and time domainsDelivers a brief exposition of numerical methods for electromagnetics oriented to antennasDescribes solid-planar equivalen

  1. Neural Networks Methodology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyfus, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    Neural networks represent a powerful data processing technique that has reached maturity and broad application. When clearly understood and appropriately used, they are a mandatory component in the toolbox of any engineer who wants make the best use of the available data, in order to build models, make predictions, mine data, recognize shapes or signals, etc. Ranging from theoretical foundations to real-life applications, this book is intended to provide engineers and researchers with clear methodologies for taking advantage of neural networks in industrial, financial or banking applications, many instances of which are presented in the book. For the benefit of readers wishing to gain deeper knowledge of the topics, the book features appendices that provide theoretical details for greater insight, and algorithmic details for efficient programming and implementation. The chapters have been written by experts ands seemlessly edited to present a coherent and comprehensive, yet not redundant, practically-oriented...

  2. Modeling Virtual Organization Architecture with the Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Picard, Willy

    While Enterprise Architecture Modeling (EAM) methodologies become more and more popular, an EAM methodology tailored to the needs of virtual organizations (VO) is still to be developed. Among the most popular EAM methodologies, TOGAF has been chosen as the basis for a new EAM methodology taking into account characteristics of VOs presented in this paper. In this new methodology, referred as Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology (VOBM), concepts developed within the ECOLEAD project, e.g. the concept of Virtual Breeding Environment (VBE) or the VO creation schema, serve as fundamental elements for development of VOBM. VOBM is a generic methodology that should be adapted to a given VBE. VOBM defines the structure of VBE and VO architectures in a service-oriented environment, as well as an architecture development method for virtual organizations (ADM4VO). Finally, a preliminary set of tools and methods for VOBM is given in this paper.

  3. Modeling Virtual Organization Architecture with the Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    While Enterprise Architecture Modeling (EAM) methodologies become more and more popular, an EAM methodology tailored to the needs of virtual organizations (VO) is still to be developed. Among the most popular EAM methodologies, TOGAF has been chosen as the basis for a new EAM methodology taking into account characteristics of VOs presented in this paper. In this new methodology, referred as Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology (VOBM), concepts developed within the ECOLEAD project, e.g. the concept of Virtual Breeding Environment (VBE) or the VO creation schema, serve as fundamental elements for development of VOBM. VOBM is a generic methodology that should be adapted to a given VBE. VOBM defines the structure of VBE and VO architectures in a service-oriented environment, as well as an architecture development method for virtual organizations (ADM4VO). Finally, a preliminary set of tools and methods for VOBM is given in this paper.

  4. Design and methodology of the phase 3 trials for the clinical development of strontium ranelate in the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, P J; Reginster, J Y

    2003-01-01

    The phase 3 program for strontium ranelate, a new oral agent in the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, was aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the daily oral dose of 2 g. This program was conducted in 12 countries, involved 75 centers, and was structured in 3 studies: FIRST (Fracture International Run-in for Strontium ranelate Trial), SOTI (Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention study) and TROPOS (TReatment Of Peripheral OSteoporosis). FIRST, a run-in open study, was designed to start the normalization of the calcium and vitamin D status of the patients, check all entry criteria, and ensure inclusion of a sufficient number of well-motivated patients in either one of the two therapeutic intervention protocols, SOTI or TROPOS: FIRST included 9,196 patients. SOTI and TROPOS were prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trials comparing, in two parallel groups, the daily oral dose of 2 g of strontium ranelate with placebo, the patients of both groups receiving calcium and vitamin D according to their own deficiencies. The main objective of SOTI and TROPOS was to demonstrate a reduction in the incidence of postmenopausal women experiencing a new osteoporotic fracture (vertebral fracture in SOTI and nonvertebral fracture in TROPOS) over a 3-year treatment period, the total duration of the studies being 5 years. SOTI included 1,649 women with at least one osteoporotic vertebral fracture at inclusion and a lumbar BMD TROPOS included 5,091 women with a femoral neck BMD treatment. Its aim is to demonstrate the effect of strontium ranelate on the axial and appendicular skeleton as well as its tolerability in osteoporotic patients with replete calcium and vitamin D stores.

  5. Object-oriented system building for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludgate, G.A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)

    1989-04-01

    The concepts and terminology of object-oriented system development are presented assuming the reader is familiar with the Structured Analysis and Structured Design (SA/SD) methodology. An improvement to SA/SD, known as Object Oriented Analysis/Object Oriented Design (OOA/OOD) is described and the steps in such an undertaking explained. Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is briefly introduced before SA/SD and OOA/OOD are compared. A recommendation to the SSC Central Design Group concludes the paper.

  6. γH2AX/53BP1 foci as a potential pre-treatment marker of HNSCC tumors radiosensitivity - preliminary methodological study and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Martin; Horakova, Zuzana; Svobodova, Marketa; Masarik, Michal; Kopecna, Olga; Gumulec, Jaromir; Raudenska, Martina; Depes, Daniel; Bacikova, Alena; Falkova, Iva; Binkova, Hana

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve patients' post-treatment quality of life, a shift from surgery to non-surgical (chemo)radio-treatment is recognized in head and neck oncology. However, about half of HNSCC tumors are resistant to irradiation and an efficient marker of individual tumor radiosensitivity is still missing. We analyzed whether various parameters of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair determined in vitro can predict, prior to clinical treatment initiation, the radiosensitivity of tumors. We compared formation and decrease of γH2AX/53BP1 foci in 48 h after irradiating tumor cell primocultures with 2 Gy of γ-rays. To better understand complex tumor behavior, three different cell type primocultures - CD90-, CD90+, and a mixed culture of these cells - were isolated from 1 clinically radioresistant, 2 radiosensitive, and 4 undetermined HPV-HNSCC tumors and followed separately. While DSB repair was delayed and the number of persisting DSBs increased in the radiosensitive tumors, the results for the radioresistant tumor were similar to cultured normal human skin fibroblasts. Hence, DSB repair kinetics/efficiency may correlate with clinical response to radiotherapy for a subset of HNSCC tumors but the size (and therefore practical relevance) of this subset remains to be determined. The same is true for contribution of different cell type primocultures to tumor radioresistance.

  7. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  8. Scenario development methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, J. [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City, Herts (United Kingdom); Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Engineering Geology; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are (a) Event tree analysis, (b) Influence diagrams and (c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs.

  9. LANGUAGE POLICY AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony J. Liddicoat

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit recommendations about the methods to be used in classroom practice, or indirectly, through the conceptualisation of language leaming which underlies the policy. It can be argued that all language policies have the potential to influence teaching methodologies indirectly and that those policies which have explicit recommendations about methodology are actually functioning of two levels. This allows for the possibility of conflict between the direct and indirect dimensions of the policy which results from an inconsistency between the explicitly recommended methodology and the underlying conceptualisation of language teaching and learning which informs the policy.

  10. Towards a Methodology for the Design of Multimedia Public Access Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of information systems methodologies that can contribute to interface design for public access systems covers: the systems life cycle; advantages of adopting information systems methodologies; soft systems methodologies; task-oriented approaches to user interface design; holistic design, the Star model, and prototyping; the…

  11. Towards a Methodology for the Design of Multimedia Public Access Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of information systems methodologies that can contribute to interface design for public access systems covers: the systems life cycle; advantages of adopting information systems methodologies; soft systems methodologies; task-oriented approaches to user interface design; holistic design, the Star model, and prototyping; the…

  12. Open verification methodology cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Glasser, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Functional verification is an art as much as a science. It requires not only creativity and cunning, but also a clear methodology to approach the problem. The Open Verification Methodology (OVM) is a leading-edge methodology for verifying designs at multiple levels of abstraction. It brings together ideas from electrical, systems, and software engineering to provide a complete methodology for verifying large scale System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. OVM defines an approach for developing testbench architectures so they are modular, configurable, and reusable. This book is designed to help both novic

  13. A Case Report of Intra-articular Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture combining with oriental medical treatment for Acute Traumatic Partial Tear of Meniscus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Hoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This case was report of intra-articular bee venom pharmacopuncture injection on the patient with Acute Traumatic Partial tear of meniscus. We used intra-articular bee venom pharmacopuncture injection to Acute Traumatic Partial tear of meniscus diagnosed by symptoms and MR imaging. Be under treatment if necessary we prescribed herbal medication and physiotherapy. The state of patient was measured by Visual Analog Scale(VAS and Walking time and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities(WOMAC Index score. After several times of treatments, noticeable reduction of pain was measured and increased time of walking on floor and decreased WOMAC score. This results suggest that intra-articular bee venom pharmacopuncture injection are effective to treatments of Acute Traumatic Partial tear of meniscus.

  14. Virtual Orienteering Game For Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Sainio, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Orienteering is a relatively famous sports activity in Nordic countries. Today technology provides attractive means for transition from traditional orienteering to virtual orienteering. Virtual orienteering can be thought as orienteering without using a traditional printed map and compass. On the other hand smartphones contain technology for implementing virtual orienteering. There are different smartphone platforms and types, making application development challenging because several cod...

  15. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa; Servais, Per

    Entrepreneurial orientation is a multidimensional construct that determines the strategic posture of a firm. In this study we investigate a sample of six manufacturing firms which are located both in a remote area and in a transition economy. Through interpreting the construct of entrepreneurial...... orientation as an attitude held by principals we investigate how entrepreneurial orientation affected the behaviour of these firms, specifically in terms of their internationalisation. Despite the fact that all firms have identical roots we find that entrepreneurial orientation held by their principals affect...

  16. Measurement of Cue-Induced Craving in Human Methamphetamine- Dependent Subjects;New Methodological Hopes for Reliable Assessment of Treatment Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Methamphetamine (MA is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug with crucial impacts on individuals on various levels. Exposure to methamphetamine-associated cues in laboratory can elicit measureable craving and autonomic reactivity in most individuals with methamphetamine dependence and the cue reactivity can model how craving would result in continued drug seeking behaviors and relapse in real environments but study on this notion is still limited. In this brief article, the authors review studies on cue-induced craving in human methamphetamine- dependent subjects in a laboratory-based approach. Craving for methamphetamine is elicited by a variety of methods in laboratory such as paraphernalia, verbal and visual cues and imaginary scripts. In this article, we review the studies applying different cues as main methods of craving incubation in laboratory settings. The brief reviewed literature provides strong evidence that craving for methamphetamine in laboratory conditions is significantly evoked by different cues. Cue-induced craving has important treatment and clinical implications for psychotherapists and clinicians when we consider the role of induced craving in evoking intense desire or urge to use methamphetamine after or during a period of successful craving prevention program. Elicited craving for methamphetamine in laboratory conditions is significantly influenced by methamphetamine-associated cues and results in rapid craving response toward methamphetamine use. This notion can be used as a main core for laboratory-based assessment of treatment efficacy for methamphetamine-dependent patients. In addition, the laboratory settings for studying craving can bridge the gap between somehow-non-reliable preclinical animal model studies and budget demanding randomized clinical trials.

  17. Creativity in phenomenological methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Pia; Martinsen, Bente; Norlyk, Annelise

    2014-01-01

    on the methodologies of van Manen, Dahlberg, Lindseth & Norberg, the aim of this paper is to argue that the increased focus on creativity and arts in research methodology is valuable to gain a deeper insight into lived experiences. We illustrate this point through examples from empirical nursing studies, and discuss...

  18. The Methodology of Magpies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  19. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  20. The Methodology of Magpies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  1. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works...

  2. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works as a b...

  3. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  4. Rapid Dialogue Prototyping Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Sojka, P.; Rajman, M.; Kopecek, I.; Melichar, M.; Pala, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about the automated production of dialogue models. The goal is to propose and validate a methodology that allows the production of finalized dialogue models (i.e. dialogue models specific for given applications) in a few hours. The solution we propose for such a methodology, called the

  5. Eye-Tracking as a Tool in Process-Oriented Reading Test Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Oddny Judith; Uppstad, Per Henning

    2011-01-01

    The present paper addresses the continuous need for methodological reflection on how to validate inferences made on the basis of test scores. Validation is a process that requires many lines of evidence. In this article we discuss the potential of eye tracking methodology in process-oriented reading test validation. Methodological considerations…

  6. Comparison between methodologies of wastewater pre-treatment for uranium determination by ICP-OES; Comparacao entre metodologias de pre-tratamento para a determinacao de uranio em efluentes por ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rose L. de; Gennari, Roseli F. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Caracterizacao Quimica

    2000-07-01

    In the Nuclear Materials Laboratory (LABMAT) of CTMSP - CEA, the wastewater generated is treated before of its liberation for the fluvial bed, which depends, between other factors, of the total uranium concentration. This work presents the comparison between methodologies of wastewater samples pre-treatment for uranium determination with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The previous treatment of the samples must be done due the high fluoride content (approximately 10000 mg/ml), responsible for the increment in the noise (background) and damages on the nebulization system (base quartz). It was decided to treat the samples instead of using a resistant torch, which means analytical sensibility losses, or boric acid addition, which would avoid the quartz attack, forming a short stability complex. The procedures of sam pl pre-treatment used HNO{sub 3} H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} with the final solution in HNO{sub 3} 5% (v/v). The obtained results showed that the procedure based on the H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} and H Cl O{sub 4} addition is the most appropriate due its good analytical sensibility, matrix elimination efficiency and not to cause significant analito losses. (author)

  7. Object-oriented framework for distributed simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Julia; Carson, John A.; Colley, Martin; Standeven, John; Callaghan, Victor

    1999-06-01

    The benefits of object-oriented technology are widely recognized in software engineering. This paper describes the use of the object-oriented paradigm to create distributed simulations. The University of Essex Robotics and Intelligent Machines group has been carrying out research into distributed vehicle simulation since 1992. Part of this research has focused on the development of simulation systems to assist in the design of robotic vehicles. This paper describes the evolution of these systems, from an early toolkit used for teaching robotics to recent work on using simulation as a design tool in the creation of a new generation of unmanned underwater vehicles. It outlines experiences gained in using PVM, and ongoing research into the use of the emerging High Level Architecture as the basis for these frameworks. The paper concludes with the perceived benefits of adopting object-oriented methodologies as the basis for simulation frameworks.

  8. Object-oriented programming for the biosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechert, W; Joksch, B; Wittig, R; Hartbrich, A; Höner, T; Möllney, M

    1995-10-01

    The development of software systems for the biosciences is always closely connected to experimental practice. Programs must be able to handle the inherent complexity and heterogeneous structure of biological systems in combination with the measuring equipment. Moreover, a high degree of flexibility is required to treat rapidly changing experimental conditions. Object-oriented methodology seems to be well suited for this purpose. It enables an evolutionary approach to software development that still maintains a high degree of modularity. This paper presents experience with object-oriented technology gathered during several years of programming in the fields of bioprocess development and metabolic engineering. It concentrates on the aspects of experimental support, data analysis, interaction and visualization. Several examples are presented and discussed in the general context of the experimental cycle of knowledge acquisition, thus pointing out the benefits and problems of object-oriented technology in the specific application field of the biosciences. Finally, some strategies for future development are described.

  9. Proposal of a modified, treatment-oriented classification of odontoid fractures%齿状突骨折的改良临床分型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grauer JN; Shafi B; Hilibrand AS; Harrop JS; Kwon BK; Beiner JM; Albert TJ; Fehlings MG; Vaccaro AR

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The classification scheme of odontoid fractures described by Anderson and D′Alonzo is the one most commonly used. However, uncertainty exists in the distinction between Type Ⅱ and “shallow” Type Ⅲ fractures.Moreover, fractures at the base of the odontoid (Anderson and D′Alonzo Type Ⅱ) include a spectrum of injury patterns. PURPOSE: To modify the Anderson and D′Alonzo classification of odontoid fractures based on current clinical treatment options.

  10. 寓言和东方故事在神经症患者临床治疗中的应用%Clinical application of the Fable and Oriental Story in the treatment of neurosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical effects of Fable and Oriental Story combined with normal medication in the treatment of neurosis patients. Methods:Sixty neurosis patients were randomly divided into the observation group and control group(30 cases each group) . The control group were treated with normal medication, and the observation group were additionally treated with Fable and Oriental Story based on normal medication therapy for 10 weeks. Each factor score of the test results assessed by Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90) before and after the treatment between two groups were compared. Results:After 10 weeks of therapy,the differences of the phobic anxiety and psychoticism scores between two groups were not statistically significant(P>0. 05),the decreasing degree of the rest factors scores of SCL-90 in observation group were higher than those in control group(P0. 05),但观察组SCL-90其余各项因子评分降低程度均高于对照组(P<0. 05~P<0. 01). 观察组每天使用抗焦虑、抗抑郁药物剂量均明显低于对照组(P<0. 01). 观察组总体不良反应发生率为10. 00%,显著低于对照组的46. 67%(P<0. 01). 结论:寓言和东方故事配合药物治疗神经症的效果较好.

  11. 1例抑郁症与强迫症共病患者的精神动力导向治疗%Psychodynamic Oriented Treatment of a Patient with Deep Depression and Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪璋; 刘国华

    2011-01-01

    目的:报告1例抑郁症与强迫症共病患者的精神动力导向的治疗过程.方法:采用精神动力导向的治疗方法,每周1次晤谈,共45次.结果:患者的强迫观念、抑郁症状及社会功能有所好转,对症状的无意识意义有所领悟.结论:患者童年期共生性、过分溺爱的母子关系和敌对性的父子关系,令其陷入乱伦和弑父的强烈罪疚和洗刷罪恶的强迫重复中.%Objective: To introduce the psychodynamic oriented treatment process of a patient with deep depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder.Methods: A psychodynamic oriented treatment of fifty minutes once a week was given to a patient with deep depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder, totally of 45 sessions.Results: His obsessive beliefs,depressive symptoms and social function were all somewhat better.He also understood some of the unconscious symbols of his symptoms.Conclusion: The early symbiotic and over-spoiled relationship with his mother, as well as the hostile relationship with his father, have made him involve in the strong guilt of incest and parricide and compulsive repetitions to wash it out.

  12. Incidence estimate and guideline-oriented treatment for post-stroke spasticity: an analysis based on German statutory health insurance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egen-Lappe V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Veronika Egen-Lappe, Ingrid Köster, Ingrid SchubertPMV Research Group, Department of Child and Adolescence Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyBackground: Spasticity after stroke has been internationally recognized as an important health problem causing impairment of mobility, deformity, and pain. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of first-ever and recurrent stroke and of subsequent spastic and flaccid paresis. Factors influencing the development of spasticity were analyzed. A further major aim was to provide a "real-life" assessment of the treatment of spasticity in Germany and to discuss this in view of the treatment recommended by German and international clinical guidelines.Methods: The database used in this study comprised a cohort of 242,090 insurants from a large statutory health insurance fund in the federal state of Hesse, Germany. A first hospital discharge diagnosis in 2009 with any of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10 codes I60–I64 was used to identify patients with acute stroke (hemorrhage and ischemic. These patients were followed up six months after stroke to monitor whether they developed spastic or flaccid paresis (hospital or ambulatory care diagnoses ICD-10 code G81–G83 [excluding G82.6/G83.4/G83.8]. For patients with spastic paresis after stroke the spasticity treatment was analyzed for a six-month period (physiotherapy, oral muscle relaxants, intrathecal baclofen, and botulinum toxin.Results: Standardized to the population of Germany, 3.7 per 1000 persons suffered a stroke in 2009 (raw 5.2/1000. Of all surviving patients, 10.2% developed spasticity within 6 months. Cox regression revealed no significant influence of patient age, gender, morbidity (diabetes, hypertensive diseases, ischemic heart diseases or type of stroke on development of spasticity. 97% of surviving patients with spasticity received physiotherapy (inpatient care 89

  13. A motivated action theory account of goal orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShon, Richard P; Gillespie, Jennifer Z

    2005-11-01

    Rapid organizational change is increasing the pressure on employees to continually update their skills and adapt their behavior to new organizational realities. Goal orientation is a promising motivational construct that may explain why some individuals adapt to change better. Unfortunately, the current goal orientation literature is in a state of conceptual and methodological disarray. This presentation reviews the goal orientation literature and identifies numerous conceptual ambiguities, including definitional inconsistencies, dimensional inconsistencies, and inconsistencies in the conceptualization of stability. These conceptual ambiguities result in a confusing array of goal orientation measures and manipulations and ultimately an incoherent empirical database. A dynamic self-regulation model of goal orientation, termed motivated action theory, is presented to integrate the various conceptual perspectives and to provide guidelines for future goal orientation research.

  14. Metodología para la localización de un parque de tratamiento y disposición final de residuos sólidos de tipo regional desde una perspectiva multidimensional Methodology for the location of a treatment and solid waste disposal regional park, from a multidimensional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elizabeth Valencia Londoño

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El manejo y disposición final de los residuos sólidos en el oriente antioqueño siempre ha sido una preocupación desde CORNARE y los entes territoriales.El artículo presenta los hallazgos de una investigación realizado por el grupo proyecto Ciudad de la facultad de Artes Integradas de la Universidad de San Buenaventura, cofinanciado por CORNARE, cuyo objetivo es presentar la metodología elaborada para la determinación de las áreas potenciales para el asentamiento de un parque de tratamiento y disposición final de residuos sólidos de tipo regional, teniendo como soporte la descripción, caracterización y análisis del ambiente (abiótico, biótico y socioeconómico en la subregión Valles de San Nicolás. Dicha propuesta se basa en un análisis matricial combinado con una herramienta SIG, que permitió evaluar diferentes sitios desde su viabilidad, ambiental, social, económica y física y entregar tanto a las Administraciones municipales como a la Corporación una estrategia metodológica que, incorporando lo planteado en el decreto 838, permita una toma de decisiones territoriales acertadas.The issue of handling and disposal of solid waste in eastern Antioquia has always been a topic of special concern and attention from CORNARE and local authorities. This article presents the findings of a project conducted by Universidad de San Buenaventura, School of Arts, City Project Group, founded by CORNARE, which aims to present the methodology developed for the identification of potential areas for the settlement of a park of Treatment and Disposal of Solid Waste Regional Type, having as support the description, characterization and analysis of (abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic environment in Valles de San Nicolás region. This proposal is based on a matrix analysis tool combined with GIS, which allowed us to evaluate different sites from its environmental, social, economic, and physical feasibility, and deliver to both local governments

  15. Does treatment of intestinal helminth infections influence malaria? Background and methodology of a longitudinal study of clinical, parasitological and immunological parameters in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia (ImmunoSPIN Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Inge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that helminth infections are thought to have strong immunomodulatory activity, the question whether helminth infections might affect responses to malaria antigens needs to be addressed. Different cross-sectional studies using diverse methodologies have reported that helminth infections might either exacerbate or reduce the severity of malaria attacks. The same discrepancies have been reported for parasitemia. Methods/Design To determine the effect of geohelminth infections and their treatment on malaria infection and disease outcome, as well as on immunological parameters, the area of Nangapanda on Flores Island, Indonesia, where malaria and helminth parasites are co-endemic was selected for a longitudinal study. Here a Double-blind randomized trial will be performed, incorporating repeated treatment with albendazole (400 mg or placebo at three monthly intervals. Household characteristic data, anthropometry, the presence of intestinal helminth and Plasmodium spp infections, and the incidence of malaria episodes are recorded. In vitro cultures of whole blood, stimulated with a number of antigens, mitogens and toll like receptor ligands provide relevant immunological parameters at baseline and following 1 and 2 years of treatment rounds. The primary outcome of the study is the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection. The secondary outcome will be incidence and severity of malaria episodes detected via both passive and active follow-up. The tertiary outcome is the inflammatory cytokine profile in response to parasite antigens. The project also facilitates the transfer of state of the art methodologies and technologies, molecular diagnosis of parasitic diseases, immunology and epidemiology from Europe to Indonesia. Discussion The study will provide data on the effect of helminth infections on malaria. It will also give information on anthelminthic treatment efficacy and effectiveness and could help

  16. Re-engineering towards object-oriented environments: the TROOP project

    OpenAIRE

    Signore, Oreste; Loffredo, Mario

    1993-01-01

    Software re-engineering and object orientation are two areas of growing interest in the last years. However, while many researchers have focused their interest in the object-oriented design methodologies, a little attention has been paid to the re-engineering towards an object-oriented environment. In this paper we examine the motivations towards object-oriented re-engineering (extendibility, robustness and reusability of the code) and the related problems, due to the difficulty of moving fro...

  17. Using an innovative mixed method methodology to investigate the appropriateness of a quantitative instrument in an African context: Antiretroviral treatment and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, Minrie; Chepuka, Lignet M; Chilemba, Winnie; Chimwaza, Angela F; Kululanga, Lucy I; Kgositau, Mabedi; Manyedi, Eva; Shaibu, Sheila; Wright, Susan C D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between quality of life (QoL) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) has mainly been studied using quantitative scales often not appropriate for use in other contexts and without taking peoples' lived experiences into consideration. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of HIV and AIDS yet there is paucity in research done on QoL. This research report is intended to give an account of the use of a mixed method convergent parallel design as a novice approach to evaluate an instrument's context specificity, appropriateness and usefulness in another context for which it was designed. Data were collected through a qualitative exploration of the experiences of QoL of people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in Africa since being on ART, as well as the quantitative measurements obtained from the HIV/AIDS-targeted quality of life (HAT-QoL) instrument. This study was conducted in three African countries. Permission and ethical approval to conduct the study were obtained. Purposive voluntary sampling was used to recruit PLHA through mediators working in community-based HIV/AIDS organisations and health clinics. Interviews were analysed through open coding and the quantitative data through descriptive statistics and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A much wider range and richness of experiences were expressed than measured by the HAT-QoL instrument. Although an effective instrument for use in the USA, it was found not to be sensitive, appropriate and useful in an African context in its present form. The recommendations focus on adapting the instrument using the data from the in-depth interviews or to develop a context-sensitive instrument that could measure QoL of PLHA in Africa.

  18. Risk assessment of triclosan released from sewage treatment plants in European rivers using a combination of risk quotient methodology and Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidi, Vasiliki S; Matsoukas, Christos; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2017-12-15

    Ιn this study a probabilistic risk assessment was applied to investigate the environmental risks for the European aquatic environment associated with triclosan (TCS) occurrence in treated wastewater. The concentrations of TCS in effluents of European Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) were recorded through literature review, while toxicity data was collected for three groups of aquatic organisms (algae, Daphnia magna and fish). The ratio of Measured Environmental Concentration (MEC) and Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC), expressed as a Risk Quotient (RQ), was calculated for risk characterization, while Monte Carlo simulation was applied to quantify the associated uncertainty. TCS monitoring data was available for 349 STPs located in 15 out of the 50 European countries. Its mean concentrations in STPs effluents ranged between 2.2ngL(-1) and 47,800ngL(-1). Higher TCS concentrations were observed in primarily treated wastewater; whereas no differences among countries or among secondary and tertiary effluents on the basis of the whole set of collected data were found. The 95th percentile of RQ for TCS was higher than 1 (in algae) for rivers with dilution factors (DFs) equal to or lower than 100, when the maximum concentration values were used, whereas the 95th percentile of RQ exceeded 1 for rivers with DFs up to 10, in cases where the calculations were based on mean concentration values. The probability that RQ exceeds 1 in rivers (for algae) ranged from 0.2% (DF=1000) to 45% (DF=2), when calculations are based on mean concentration values. The corresponding probabilities in rivers with DFs equal to 2 for Daphnia magna and fish were 0.7% and 0.4%, respectively. We propose that TCS monitoring should be intensified, especially on smaller rivers, to verify the findings of this study for possible environmental risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual Orientation and Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Saray

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Is there a choice in sexual orientation? [Wilkerson, William S. (2009: “Is It a Choice? Sexual Orientation as Interpretation”. In: Journal of Social Philosophy 40. No. 1, p. 97–116] argues that sexual desires require interpretation in order to be fully constituted, and therefore sexual orientation is at least partially constituted by choice. [Díaz-León, Esa (2017: “Sexual Orientation as Interpretation? Sexual Desires, Concepts, and Choice”; In: Journal of Social Ontology] critically assesses Wilkerson’s argument, concluding that we still lack a good argument for the claim that choice plays a role in sexual orientation. Here I examine Díaz-León’s response to Wilkerson. I introduce what I call the conceptual act theory of sexual orientation, and argue that even if interpretation were not necessary to constitute sexual desires, it is a necessary element to constitute what we call sexual orientation. However, I conclude that even if we agree that interpretation is involved in sexual orientation, it does not follow that there is a choice involved.

  20. Edward Said and "Orientalism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the nearly 30 years since Edward Said published the hugely influential Orientalism, his indictment of racism and imperialism in Western scholarship on the Orient has had its share of plaudits and condemnations. Now Robert Irwin, the Middle East editor of The Times Literary Supplement, has reignited the controversy with his broadside against the…

  1. Orientalism/Occidentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.; Ong, C.E.

    2017-01-01

    Orientalism and Occidentalism are interrelated concepts. Orientalism is defined in three keys ways: (i) as a study of “the Orient”; (ii) as a cultural and aesthetic concern with “the Orient”; and (iii) as a critical approach to understanding the construction of “the Orient” by European and American

  2. Teaching Orienteering. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Carol; Cory-Wright, Jean; Renfrew, Tom

    The educational value provided by orienteering's blend of navigational and physical skills has given it a permanent place in the primary and secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom. This book is a reference to orienteering for teachers, leaders, and coaches. It provides a "how to" approach to introducing and developing the…

  3. Orienteering in Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elston F.

    One of the recent developments in camping is "orienteering", a program using a map and compass. Orienteering can be dovetailed into an overall camping program and used to "point up" the entire program, or it can be confined to a single simple game. The arrangement depends on the situation. The minimum age of the participants should be about 9 or…

  4. Decision Making In Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Katia

    1997-01-01

    Eight psychometric instruments were administered to 10 elite male Portuguese orienteers. The cognitive process involved in decision making did not differ between the best orienteers and the others. This group of athletes had a high capacity for work realization and a strong need to be in control of interpersonal situations. (Author/SV)

  5. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...

  6. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  7. Sexual orientation and social exclusion in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This work explores the role of discrimination in shaping individuals’ lives and opportunities, with specific respect to sexual orientation. The role of sexual orientation in explaining earning differences has been increasingly emphasized in empirical literature on discrimination mainly as a result of the growing availability of data sources on gays and lesbian populations. Available evidence predominantly converges on the one hand on the identification of discrimination treatments for gay...

  8. P13.10SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME: OUTCOME AND ANALYSIS OF PROGNOSTIC FACTORS ESPECIALLY ORIENTED TO THE EXTENT OF SURGICAL RESECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Somma, L.; Iacoangeli, M.; Alvaro, L.; Di Rienzo, A.; Liverotti, V.; Della Costanza, M.; Brunozzi, D.; Polonara, G.; Scarpelli, M.; Scerrati, M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prognosis of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) remains poor despite recent therapeutic advances. The surgical treatment of GBM (supported by functional imaging, neuronavigation and electrophysiological monitoring) remains a fundamental step. The methylation of the enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransefrase (MGMT) seems to improve the effectiveness of alkylating agents on this tumour, but other factors can influence the survival. An evaluation of all prognostic factors is essential to individuate subgroups of patients for a better selection of different treatment modalities. Our study confirms the prognostic values of both new recognized factors (MGMT presence, IDH1, news schedule of TM2 etc.) and the well-recognized prognostic factors particularly to the extent of surgical removal with the help of new technologies and in the era where people is asking more and more a better quality of life. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 172 operated patients (115 males and 57 females), 55 of which located in eloquent areas, between March 2008 and December 2012. For each patient age, sex, preoperative clinical evaluation (Karnofsky score, KPS), tumour location, extent of surgical removal, genetic and epigenetic profile (MGMT, IDH1,etc) and postoperative treatments were recorded. We used Kaplan Meier method for the univariate analysis and the Cox regression for the multivariate one. Surgical strategy was always planned for a total tumour resection, when allowed by the intrinsic characteristics of the tumour using the so called “extracapsular “ technique. RESULTS: Overall median survival time after surgery was 10 months. At univariate analysis the gross total removal (p70 (p<0,0001) and radiotherapy (p<0,0001) improve survivals. Deep structures involved or multifocal lesions (p<0,0001) resulted as negative factors in term of the quod vitam prognosis, whereas lesions arising in insula, deep structures or in primary motor cortex worse the quod valitudinem

  9. Agile vs Traditional Methodologies in Developing Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Tumbas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available After the review of principles and concepts of structural and object-oriented development of information systems, the work points to the elements of agile approaches and gives short description of some selected agile methodologies. After these reviews, their comparision according to criteria is done. The first criterion reviews the volume of methodology in which project management is used in developing information systems The second criterion shows if the processes, defined by methodology, cover appropriate phase of the life cycle. The last criterion shows if methodology iniciates the use of skills and tools in the life cycle phases of developing information systems. Finally, the work compares, according to the key elements of development, traditional (structural and object methodologies with agile methodologies.

  10. How to Treat a Signal? Current Basis for RET-Genotype-Oriented Choice of Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Hugo; Torres, Joana; Rodrigues, Fernando; Couto, Joana P.; Vinagre, João; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The significance of RET in thyroid cancer comes from solid evidence that, when inherited, an RET activating mutation primes C-cells to transform into medullary carcinomas. Moreover, environmental exposure to radiation also induces rearranged transforming RET “isoforms” that are found in papillary thyroid cancer. The RET gene codes for a tyrosine kinase receptor that targets a diverse set of intracellular signaling pathways. The nature of RET point mutations predicts differences in the mechanisms by which the receptor becomes activated and correlates with different forms of clinical presentation, age of onset, and biological aggressiveness. A number of RET-targeting Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) are currently undergoing clinical trials to evaluate their effectiveness in the treatment of thyroid cancer, and it is conceivable that the RET genotype may also influence response to these compounds. The question that now emerges is whether, in the future, the rational for treatment of refractory thyroid cancer will be based on the management of an abnormal RET signal. In this paper we address the RET-targeting TKIs and review studies about the signaling properties of distinct RET mutants as a means to predict response and design combinatorial therapies for the soon to be available TKIs. PMID:21765992

  11. ENACTED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS BASED ON AGILE AND AGENT METHODOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    DR. NACHAMAI. M; M. Senthil Vadivu; VINITA TAPASKAR

    2011-01-01

    Software Engineering gives the procedures and practices to be followed in the software development and acts as a backbone for computer science engineering techniques. This paper deals with current trends in software engineering methodologies, Agile and Agent Oriented software development process. Agile Methodology is to meet the needs of dynamic changing requirements of the customers. This model is iterative and incremental and accepts the changes in requirements at any stage of development. ...

  12. Basic methodological preconditions for high quality research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers basic methodological preconditions for the qualitative oriented research, in other words, the approaches which in the study of social phenomena rely on theoretical and methodological as well as epistemological premises of a new scientific paradigm. The paper draws special attention to the discussion of criteria of verifiability in qualitative research, which are significantly different from the criteria of positivist approaches. Interpretative research paradigms in social studies have a long history and numerous sources and the very concept of "interpretative shift" consists of a number of different research approaches unified under the name of qualitative methodology. The aim of the paper is not to prove that traditional and new paradigms and quantitative and qualitative research approaches based on them are incompatible in the process of discovering pedagogical reality. The intention is to demonstrate that the complexity of social phenomena requires a complex methodology meaning a complementary use of methods and techniques from both research approaches. The study of qualitative methodological approaches and their application in research, discovery and change of pedagogical reality are particularly important because they may provide new insights into pedagogical reality and a new view of old problems. .

  13. Research Methodology in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help...... researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL....

  14. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...... Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers....

  15. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....

  16. Towards a new orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froulund Jensen, Janet; Overgaard, Dorthe; Bestle, Morten H

    2017-01-01

    narrative of recovery was 'toward a trajectory of new orientation'. This narrative contained the chronological narratives of being 'at death's door', 'still not out of the woods' and 'on the road to recovery'. The road to recovery was described as downhill, steady-state or progressive. New orientation...... was obtained in steady-state or progressive recovery. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a contemporary understanding of the process of intensive care recovery. Recovery evolves through narratives of mortal danger, risk of relapse and moving forward towards a new orientation in life. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL...

  17. Developing a market orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallums, A

    1994-03-01

    Developing a market-orientated organization is a complex task. An organization's market orientation is reflected in its ability to fulfil its customer's needs. The organization must look outside itself and adopt a flexible response to changing needs. This paper will examine what is meant by the term marketing and why it is necessary for an organization to incorporate the marketing concept. Analysis of the organization's culture and its relevance to the development of market orientation will also be considered. Reference will be made to health care where appropriate.

  18. The effects of paradigmatic orientations of education research and discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, John Lawrence

    This essay presents an examination of contemporary disputes over methodological and epistemological foundations underlying inquiry within the field of education research; investigating the obstacles to communication and understanding found in scholarly exchanges occurring across competing paradigmatic orientations. Terminological challenges to cross-paradigmatic communication are examined, identifying three specific terminological difficulties, referred to as homonym, contextual, and onti-stemic problems. Nicholas Burbules' model of dialogue, based upon characteristics of convergence, divergence, inclusive and critical traits, is adopted and applied to a sample of cross-paradigmatic exchanges found in recent educational research journals. Examination of those exchanges reveals certain strategies associated with cross-paradigmatic communication. These strategies, labeled as trivialization, caricaturization, and re-direction, are shown to be detrimental to the mutual understanding of the interlocutors. The model is then extended to address examples of paradigmatic orientations within methodological and epistemological contexts in order to consider the relationship between the various orientations represented in the literature of interest. Methodological and epistemological orientations are shown to be loosely coupled, with unexpected shifts in paradigmatic values found among researchers' methodological and epistemological commitments. Finally, the nature of the relationship between competing paradigmatic orientations is examined, with particular attention given to four types of incommensurability (ontological, linguistic, epistemological, and values incommensurability). I conclude that, though difficult, cross-paradigmatic communication is necessary in order to provide a multi-paradigmatic perspective that takes us beyond the fractured picture of educational phenomena available from current research approaches.

  19. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reconcile their teen's sexual orientation with their religious or personal beliefs. Sadly, some react with anger, hostility, or rejection. But many parents find that they just need time to adjust ...

  20. Implementing Strategic Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  1. Cultural Orientation and Interdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on ‘Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft’, including the introduction of the concept of ’cultural orientation’ as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion...... of the object of literary studies as a way of defining the disciplinarity or identity of literary studies. Finally I summarize some of the characteristics of culturally orientated literary studies....

  2. Alternative methodology for Scott-Knott test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lopes Bhering

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The test proposed by Scott Knott (1974, a procedure of means grouping, is an effective alternative to performprocedures of multiple comparisons without ambiguity. This study aimed to propose a modification related to the partitioningand means grouping in the said procedure, to obtain results without ambiguity among treatments, organized in morehomogeneous groups. In the proposed methodology, treatments that did not participate in the initial group are joined for a newanalysis, which allows for a better group distribution. In a comparative study, four experiments were simulated in a randomizedcomplete block design. The first consisted of 10 and the other 3 of 100 treatments. All experiments were performed in threereplications at a significance level of 0.05 for the means grouping test. Only in the third experiment of those of 100 treatmentsthe groups formed by Scott-Knott did not differ from the methodology proposed here. The proposed methodology is consideredeffective, aiming at the identification of elite cultivar groups for recommendation.

  3. Action research methodology in clinical pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2016-01-01

    study? What learning and/or changes took place? What challenges/pitfalls had to be overcome? What were the influence/consequences for the involved parts? When to use If you want to implement new services and want to involve staff and others in the process, an AR methodology is very suitable. The basic......Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process...... is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented...

  4. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  5. Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safaa M. Raghab; Ahmed M. Abd El Meguid; Hala A. Hegazi

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper presents the results of the analyses of leachate treatment from the solid waste landfill located in Borg El Arab landfill in Alexandria using an aerobic treatment process which was applied...

  6. Problem-Oriented Researches in Literary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. A. Razi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Being familiar with research methodology causes an increase in the effectivity and efficiency in research. One of the most valuable subjects in research methodology is to discuss about principles and skill of "Problem-oriented" researches that seems to be less known in literary studies.Propagation of problem-oriented researches in the field of Persian language and literature needs serious considerations to its principles and regulations, changing the viewpoint of literary researches, reconsideration in the curriculum of higher education centers, and finally revision in methods and procedure of doing a research plan in this field.Emphasing the necessity of the further consideration of problem-oriented in literary studies, in this article the characteristics and features of this type of research is discussed. Also the methods and skills of problem-finding in the field of literature are described and types of literary problem are introduced. Moreover the different steps that must be followed by a researcher in order to solve the literary problems are stated.

  7. Object-oriented reasoning in cognitive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniak, Janusz

    2000-06-01

    The intelligence agent architecture widely employs methods of logic of belief. The goal of the paper is to find a correct and effective inference mechanism that can substantially improve resolution based traditional methods. The semantics of the mechanism is based on Minsky's frames. Each agent is modeled by Minsky's frames with their slots representing what agent believes in. Inference process is realized by daemons filling the frames slots. The filling in this context means setting unknown slot values. The order of reasoning is established by a directed acyclic graph and driven by the topological sorting as a reasoning strategy. The inference algorithm analysis shows that the new method works in polynomial time. Therefore it is more efficient than NP, resolution based traditional methods. The correctness of object oriented implementation of the algorithm is established by considering the inference process in terms of abstract relational systems and their isomorphisms. Finally an implementation methodology of agents and their inference process in object oriented language is presented. All the considered concepts and methodology are illustrated in object oriented solution to `three wisemen problem' implemented in Smalltalk.

  8. Using a Person-Oriented Approach in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisely, Mitchell R; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the person-oriented approach, describe empirical examples of its use, and discuss how the approach may be used in nursing research. The person-oriented approach consists of theoretical and methodological components and provides a way to explore the heterogeneity of populations related to phenomena of interest. For analytic purposes, the person-oriented approach views the person as a holistic unit rather than a sum of his or her characteristics, and thus, it provides an alternative or complementary approach to the more traditional, variable-oriented approaches most commonly used to study health phenomena. Although the person-oriented approach has not been used extensively in nursing research, it offers promise for nursing scholars who study complex problems within heterogeneous populations and who seek to develop targeted interventions to more effectively promote desired health outcomes.

  9. Give a Man a Fish and You Feed Him for a Day. Teach a Man to Fish and You Feed Him for a Lifetime.——Exploration and Application of Action Oriented Methodology on Common English Course in Higher Vocational Schools%授之以鱼不如授之以渔——行动导向教学法在高职公共英语课程中的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余莉; 蒋玉芳; 胡蕊

    2012-01-01

    行动导向教学法通过对学生行动的导向,让学生参与教学,提高学生的学习兴趣,培养学生的团体协作意识,增强学生与人沟通的社会能力,发展创新思维,形成关键能力。十堰职业技术学院公共英语课程经过两年多的探索和实践,在课程中灵活运用行动导向教学法,取得了一定成效。高职公共英语课程通过应用行动导向教学法,可以与专业课程有效衔接,服务于所教系部,为学生学习专业知识和技能奠定基础,同时为学生未来的职业活动提升个人素养。%Action oriented methodology allows the students to participate in teaching in order to enhance students' interest in learning, develop students' sense of teamwork, enhance social competence ability to communicate with others, develop inno vative thinking, and form the key capabilities for students. After more than two years of studies and application of action ori ented methodology, common English course in Shiyan Technical Institute has improved a lot. This teaching method can ef fectively connect major courses with common courses, practice students' skills, as well as enhance the students' personal qualities in future professional activities.

  10. Intelligent CAD Methodology Research of Adaptive Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weibo; LI Jun; YAN Jianrong

    2006-01-01

    The key to carry out ICAD technology is to establish the knowledge-based and wide rang of domains-covered product model. This paper put out a knowledge-based methodology of adaptive modeling. It is under the Ontology mind, using the Object-Oriented technology and being a knowledge-based model framework. It involves the diverse domains in product design and realizes the multi-domain modeling, embedding the relative information including standards, regulars and expert experience. To test the feasibility of the methodology, the research bonds of the automotive diaphragm spring clutch design and an adaptive clutch design model is established, using the knowledge-based modeling language-AML.

  11. Changing methodologies in TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Spiro, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Covering core topics from vocabulary and grammar to teaching, writing speaking and listening, this textbook shows you how to link research to practice in TESOL methodology. It emphasises how current understandings have impacted on the language classroom worldwide and investigates the meaning of 'methods' and 'methodology' and the importance of these for the teacher: as well as the underlying assumptions and beliefs teachers bring to bear in their practice. By introducing you to language teaching approaches, you will explore the way these are influenced by developments in our understanding of l

  12. Methodology for research I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    The conduct of research requires a systematic approach involving diligent planning and its execution as planned. It comprises various essential predefined components such as aims, population, conduct/technique, outcome and statistical considerations. These need to be objective, reliable and in a repeatable format. Hence, the understanding of the basic aspects of methodology is essential for any researcher. This is a narrative review and focuses on various aspects of the methodology for conduct of a clinical research. The relevant keywords were used for literature search from various databases and from bibliographies of the articles.

  13. Computational Representation of White Matter Fiber Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelino R. Ferreira da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new methodology based on directional data clustering to represent white matter fiber orientations in magnetic resonance analyses for high angular resolution diffusion imaging. A probabilistic methodology is proposed for estimating intravoxel principal fiber directions, based on clustering directional data arising from orientation distribution function (ODF profiles. ODF reconstructions are used to estimate intravoxel fiber directions using mixtures of von Mises-Fisher distributions. The method focuses on clustering data on the unit sphere, where complexity arises from representing ODF profiles as directional data. The proposed method is validated on synthetic simulations, as well as on a real data experiment. Based on experiments, we show that by clustering profile data using mixtures of von Mises-Fisher distributions it is possible to estimate multiple fiber configurations in a more robust manner than currently used approaches, without recourse to regularization or sharpening procedures. The method holds promise to support robust tractographic methodologies and to build realistic models of white matter tracts in the human brain.

  14. Using GRADE methodology for the development of public health guidelines for the prevention and treatment of HIV and other STIs among men who have sex with men and transgender people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl Elie A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO Department of HIV/AIDS led the development of public health guidelines for delivering an evidence-based, essential package of interventions for the prevention and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender people in the health sector in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to review the methodological challenges faced and solutions applied during the development of the guidelines. Methods The development of the guidelines followed the WHO guideline development process, which utilizes the GRADE approach. We identified, categorized and labeled the challenges identified in the guidelines development process and described the solutions through an interactive process of in-person and electronic communication. Results We describe how we dealt with the following challenges: (1 heterogeneous and complex interventions; (2 paucity of trial data; (3 selecting outcomes of interest; (4 using indirect evidence; (5 integrating values and preferences; (6 considering resource use; (7 addressing social and legal barriers; (8 wording of recommendations; and (9 developing global guidelines. Conclusion We were able to successfully apply the GRADE approach for developing recommendations for public health interventions. Applying the general principles of the approach while carefully considering specific challenges can enhance both the process and the outcome of guideline development.

  15. A New Design Methodology for Composing Complex Digital Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Chu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous growth in the use of multimedia applications on portable devices makes the mobile computer systems have an increasing complexity. The functionalities of the used SOC chips and silicon intelligent properties in these portable devices are become complicated and hard to design. Traditional digital circuit designs adopt register transfer level with timing control methodologies, which focus on the datapath composition, timing control of registers, and the functions of combinational circuits. However, the huge amount of control and synchronous signals of the above components are difficult to design and debug. The timing costs of design and verification are increased dramatically. This paper proposed a new design methodology of digital system, called data-oriented methodology, to deal with the above problems, by using Bluespec SystemVerilog HDL and the corresponding tools. Instead of conventional timing-control mechanism, the data-oriented methodology adopts simple handshaking protocol, blocking transferring, and explicitly register/FIFO declaration for communicating between adjacent modules. The designs of FDCT/IDCT and pipelined MIPS-like CPU are adopted to compare the design costs of conventional timing-control and data-oriented methodologies. The chip performance and FPGA proven of these two designs are discussed

  16. Network-oriented or user-oriented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirro, S.

    1986-12-01

    Optimized communications satellite services are identified, with emphasis on the benefits of large, multiuser spacecraft and the complementary nature of satellite system relative to fiber optics. Consideration is given to DBS, data transfer and collection, fixed-point and mobile communications networks. The costs of the space and ground segments are explored, along with the associated tariff structure and techniques for predicting the associated income. It is assumed that the satellite systems backup ground-based systems and also provide new digital services. A methodology is presented for optimizing satellite systems in terms of the ground-based capabilities and costs, the projected traffic, and the iterative space segment costs.

  17. ABOUT METHODOLOGICAL TRAINING OF TEACHER-MUSICIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bodina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the need for reinterpretation of the content and functions of methodological training of teacher-musicians in the higher school; the above problem being raised as the result of the massive penetration of information technologies, intensification of knowledge updates, rejection of narrow specializations, and propagation of the postmodern culture. The author focuses on modernization of methodology training of teachermusicians with the emphasis on general features of the modern musical environment affecting students’ personality. The proper methodology training of the future teacher-musicians, based on the culture-adequate knowledge and accompanied by the actual project activity forms, is capable to counteract the influence of the second-rate common musical tastes and negative world perception. In conclusion, the author highlights the need for intensification of the ontological and personal worldview orientation of methodology training and further development of professional tools. The paper is addressed to the higher school teachers and students, music school teachers, and additional education teachers.

  18. Rater methodology for stroboscopy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Focht, Kendrea L; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal endoscopy with stroboscopy (LES) remains the clinical gold standard for assessing vocal fold function. LES is used to evaluate the efficacy of voice treatments in research studies and clinical practice. LES as a voice treatment outcome tool is only as good as the clinician interpreting the recordings. Research using LES as a treatment outcome measure should be evaluated based on rater methodology and reliability. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the rater-related methodology from studies that use stroboscopic findings as voice treatment outcome measures. Systematic literature review. Computerized journal databases were searched for relevant articles using terms: stroboscopy and treatment. Eligible articles were categorized and evaluated for the use of rater-related methodology, reporting of number of raters, types of raters, blinding, and rater reliability. Of the 738 articles reviewed, 80 articles met inclusion criteria. More than one-third of the studies included in the review did not report the number of raters who participated in the study. Eleven studies reported results of rater reliability analysis with only two studies reporting good inter- and intrarater reliability. The comparability and use of results from treatment studies that use LES are limited by a lack of rigor in rater methodology and variable, mostly poor, inter- and intrarater reliability. To improve our ability to evaluate and use the findings from voice treatment studies that use LES features as outcome measures, greater consistency of reporting rater methodology characteristics across studies and improved rater reliability is needed. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The methodological cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Economics understands action as having the connotation of here and now, the proof being that it excessively uses, for explicative purposes, two limitations of sense: space is seen as the place with a private destination (through the cognitive dissonance of methodological individualism, and time is seen as the short term (through the dystopia of rational markets.

  20. Video: Modalities and Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we set out to explore what we describe as the use of video in various modalities. For us, modality is a synthesizing construct that draws together and differentiates between the notion of "video" both as a method and as a methodology. It encompasses the use of the term video as both product and process, and as a data collection…

  1. Methodological Advances in Dea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cherchye (Laurens); G.T. Post (Thierry)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe survey the methodological advances in DEA over the last 25 years and discuss the necessary conditions for a sound empirical application. We hope this survey will contribute to the further dissemination of DEA, the knowledge of its relative strengths and weaknesses, and the tools

  2. ConceptModeller: a Problem-Oriented Visual SDK for Globally Distributed Enterprise Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zykov, Sergey V.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes problem-oriented approach to software development. The approach is a part of the original integrated methodology of enterprise Internet-based software design and implementation. All aspects of software development, from theory to implementation, are covered.

  3. Mechatronic Developement of New Products Oriented to the Available Technological Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genovevo Morejón Vizcaíno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technological innovation methodology denominated "Mechatronic development of new products oriented to the available technological capacity". It is shown as a study case of the development of hydromotors with radial pistons.

  4. Dynamics of cell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel A.

    2007-09-01

    Many physiological processes depend on the response of biological cells to mechanical forces generated by the contractile activity of the cell or by external stresses. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitivity of cells and the elasticity of the matrix, we predict the dynamics and orientation of cells in both the absence and presence of applied stresses. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the cellular forces in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency.

  5. Minimum Entropy Orientations

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, Jean; Joret, Gwenaël

    2008-01-01

    We study graph orientations that minimize the entropy of the in-degree sequence. The problem of finding such an orientation is an interesting special case of the minimum entropy set cover problem previously studied by Halperin and Karp [Theoret. Comput. Sci., 2005] and by the current authors [Algorithmica, to appear]. We prove that the minimum entropy orientation problem is NP-hard even if the graph is planar, and that there exists a simple linear-time algorithm that returns an approximate solution with an additive error guarantee of 1 bit. This improves on the only previously known algorithm which has an additive error guarantee of log_2 e bits (approx. 1.4427 bits).

  6. Oriental Medical Treatment of chronic Acalculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic acalculous cholecystitis gets possession of about 12 to 13 percent of patients with chronic cholecystitis. Pathologically it is characterised by chronic inflammation and thickening of the gallbladder wall but doesn't come across stones. Clinical symptoms are vague and include abdominal discomfort and distension, nausea, flatulence and intolerance of fatty foods. A patient on chronic acalculous cholecystitis diagnosed from his clinical symtoms and abdominal ultrasonogram was treated by Geonbihwan, acupuncture and herbal acupuncture. Satisfactory symptomatic improvement was achieved and findings of abdominal ultrasonogram came also normal.

  7. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  8. Impacts of Learning Orientation on Product Innovation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisir, Fethi; Gumussoy, Cigdem Altin; Guzelsoy, Ezgi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to examine the effect of learning orientation (commitment to learning, shared vision, open-mindedness) on the product innovation performance (product innovation efficacy and efficiency) of companies in Turkey. Design/methodology/approach: A structural equation-modeling approach was applied to identify the variables…

  9. Object-Oriented Scientific Programming with Fortran 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, C.

    1998-01-01

    Fortran 90 is a modern language that introduces many important new features beneficial for scientific programming. We discuss our experiences in plasma particle simulation and unstructured adaptive mesh refinement on supercomputers, illustrating the features of Fortran 90 that support the object-oriented methodology.

  10. Orientation and Alignment Echoes

    CERN Document Server

    Karras, G; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Hartmann, J -M; Faucher, O; Gershnabel, E; Prior, Y; Averbukh, I Sh

    2015-01-01

    We present what is probably the simplest classical system featuring the echo phenomenon - a collection of randomly oriented free rotors with dispersed rotational velocities. Following excitation by a pair of time-delayed impulsive kicks, the mean orientation/alignment of the ensemble exhibits multiple echoes and fractional echoes. We elucidate the mechanism of the echo formation by kick-induced filamentation of phase space, and provide the first experimental demonstration of classical alignment echoes in a thermal gas of CO_2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

  11. 响应面分析人参果酒酿造中果胶酶对色泽的影响%Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Pectinase Treatment for Improved Clarification of Pepino Juice and Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏凤贤; 张百刚; 苟亚峰; 陶隽; 桑亚兰; 张芬琴

    2011-01-01

    Pepino puree was treated with pectinase and centrifuged and the supernatant(fruit juice) was fermented for 10 days to make pepino fruit wine.Response surface methodology was used to optimize four pectinase treatment conditions such as pectinase dosage,time,temperature and pH for achieving the best colorization of pepino juice and fruit wine.On the basis of one-factor-at-a-time experiments,a three-level quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite design was used to set up regression models that describe the effects of these treatment conditions on the absorbance at 680 nm of pepino juice and fruit wine.Hydrolysis temperature and time had a significant effect on the absorbance at 680 nm of pepino juice(P0.05),and pectinase dosage significantly affected the absorbance at 680 nm of pepino juice(P0.05),but neither of them was significantly affected by pH(P0.05).The optimal pectinase treatment conditions determined by ridge analysis for pepino juice and fruit wine were pH 4.6 and 4.0,treatment temperature 32 ℃ and 30 ℃,treatment time 63 min and 55 min,and pectinase dosage 0.3 g/kg and 0.316 g/kg,respectively.The multiple regression analysis indicated the established regression models could fit the relationship between various pectinase treatment conditions and the absorbance at 680 nm of pepino juice and fruit wine very well.%通过单因素与响应面设计分析果胶酶用量及酶解时间、酶解温度和果浆的pH值对人参果果酒酿造中色泽的影响,建立相应的回归模型。结果表明,果胶酶酶解温度、酶解时间对人参果果酒发酵前护色作用影响显著(P〈0.05),果胶酶用量对人参果果酒澄清作用影响显著(P〈0.05),而pH值对二者影响均不显著(P〉0.05)。通过岭脊分析确定人参果果酒的最佳护色工艺参数为pH4.6、酶解温度32℃、酶解时间63min、果胶酶用量0.3g/kg;人参果果酒最佳澄清条件:果酒pH4.0、酶解温度30℃、酶解时间55min

  12. 角膜屈光手术后继发性圆锥角膜的RGP矫正疗效观察%Corneal Refractive Surgery after Secondary the Contig-oriented Correction Effect of the Treatment of Keratoconus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈月兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨和分析角膜屈光手术后继发性圆锥角膜的RGP矫正疗效。方法:对我院近两年来接收治疗的111例因眼角膜屈光手术后发生圆锥角膜的患者进行随机抽取,从中选取了84例患者(164眼)作为研究对象,根据研究要求,分为实验组和对照组,每组42例患者(84眼)。让实验组患者进行角膜屈光手术后佩戴硬性透气性角膜接触镜(RG P )进行矫正。而对照组患者进行角膜屈光手术后佩戴普通软性角膜接触镜进行矫正。18个月后,观察两组患者的角膜前后表面曲率和角膜地图的改变情况。结果:经过18个月的矫正,实验组患者在佩戴硬性透气性角膜接触镜(RGP)矫正后的角膜前表面的最陡平均曲率明显下降,并且患者的角膜地形图SRI、SAI、散光都明显减少,PVA提高了很多。而对照组患者在佩戴普通软性角膜接触镜矫正后的角膜地形图无明显改善。结论:在临床上,角膜屈光手术是一种非常常见的眼科手术,通常情况下,在患者手术后都需要进行RGP的矫正,通过RGP的矫正能对患者角膜屈光手术后的圆锥角膜有明显的改善,并且能保持患者角膜的前后表面最平平均曲率,是目前最有效矫正角膜屈光手术的方法。%Objective :To study and analysis of secondary keratoconus after corneal refractive surgery contig-oriented correction effect .Methods :111 cases in our hospital for almost two years to receive treatment for corneal refractive sur-gery after keratoconus patients were randomly chosen ,selected from the 84 patients (164 eyes) as the research object , according to the requirements ,divided into the experimental group and the control group ,each group of 42 patients (84 eyes) .Let the experimental group after corneal refractive surgery patients wearing hard permeability corneal con-tact lens (contig-oriented) to correct .While the control group after

  13. Problematization methodology: answers from lessons obtained through practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusi Aparecida Navas Berbel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text consists in a theoretical-practical reflection elaborated from questions that emerge from the practicing of Problematization Methodology, in touch with people that practice or wish to practice it when get to know its proposal. The first part of the text brings a brief report about the already accomplished journey, accompanied by other productions. At the second part are presented some questions registered from experi¬ences with teachers interested in the Methodology. The answers to the questions are not definitive affirmations, but possible suggestions extracted from the practice of this Methodology in different situations, elaborated as possible lessons, after about twenty years of experience, theoreticalpractical elaboration and reelaboration with and about the Problematization Methodology. The greatest objective is to make possible a bigger comprehension and assurance for those who either wants to try the Methodology with the Maguerez´Arch in their reality of teaching, researching or studies orientation, overcome possible difficul¬ties that they face on this way. The bibliography that accompanies the text is one more contribution to the reader that wishes to get informed about the foundations and some experiences already realized with this meth¬odological orientation. Keeps here the register of the reflection continuity needs about the Methodology, for it is meaningful the way already crossed on its exploration.

  14. Orientals and Orientalists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reade, Julian

    2004-01-01

    Reviews three books on archaeology. "Possessors and Possessed: Museums, Archaeology, and the Visualization of History in the Late Ottoman Empire," by Wendy M. K. Shaw; "Orientalism and Visual Culture: Imagining Mesapotamia in Nineteenth-Century Europe," by Frederick N. Bohrer; "Empires of the Plain...

  15. An orientable search coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, P. J.; Poblocki, M.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a design for a low cost orientable search coil that can be used to investigate the variation of magnetic flux with angle. This experiment is one of the required practical activities in the current A level physics specification for the AQA examination board in the UK. We demonstrate its performance and suggest other suitable investigations that can be undertaken.

  16. Control Oriented System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The research goals for this grant were to obtain algorithms for control oriented system identification is to construct dynamical models of systems...and measured information. Algorithms for this type of nonlinear system identification have been given that produce models suitable for gain scheduled

  17. A cast orientation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanhoe, J R; Mahanna, G K

    1994-12-01

    This article describes a technique that allows multiple master casts to be precisely oriented to the same path of insertion and withdrawal. This technique is useful in situations where multiple fixed prosthodontic preparations require surveyed restorations and a single master cast is not available.

  18. Managing Entrepreneurial Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Doorn (Sebastiaan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, we evaluate the roles senior management teams and individual middle managers play in realizing the performance benefits of entrepreneurial orientations. We investigate the role of senior management teams by focusing on a sample of 9.000 firms in the Netherlands. The

  19. Orientals and Orientalists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reade, Julian

    2004-01-01

    Reviews three books on archaeology. "Possessors and Possessed: Museums, Archaeology, and the Visualization of History in the Late Ottoman Empire," by Wendy M. K. Shaw; "Orientalism and Visual Culture: Imagining Mesapotamia in Nineteenth-Century Europe," by Frederick N. Bohrer; "Empires of the Plain...

  20. Geography and Orienteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    Orienteering is a rapidly growing sport, developed in Sweden, which has great possibilities for education in geography. It can be conceived as an organizing device for outdoor work and as a basis for developing map skills and for map construction. (Author)

  1. Social Workers’ Orientation Toward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwet, Renske J.M. van der; Beneken genaamd Kolmer, Deirdre; Schalk, René

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers’ orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the

  2. Identification and Modelling of the In-Plane Reinforcement Orientation Variations in a CFRP Laminate Produced by Manual Lay-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Yves; Crouzeix, Laurent; Douchin, Bernard; Collombet, Francis; Grunevald, Yves-Henri

    2017-08-01

    Reinforcement angle orientation has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of composite materials. This work presents a methodology to introduce variable reinforcement angles into finite element (FE) models of composite structures. The study of reinforcement orientation variations uses meta-models to identify and control a continuous variation across the composite ply. First, the reinforcement angle is measured through image analysis techniques of the composite plies during the lay-up phase. Image analysis results show that variations in the mean ply orientations are between -0.5 and 0.5° with standard deviations ranging between 0.34 and 0.41°. An automatic post-treatment of the images determines the global and local angle variations yielding good agreements visually and numerically between the analysed images and the identified parameters. A composite plate analysed at the end of the cooling phase is presented as a case of study. Here, the variation in residual strains induced by the variability in the reinforcement orientation are up to 28% of the strain field of the homogeneous FE model. The proposed methodology has shown its capabilities to introduce material and geometrical variability into FE analysis of layered composite structures.

  3. Methodology, Meditation, and Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balveer Singh Sikh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nondualistic nature of mindfulness is a complex and challenging task particularly when most clinical psychology draws from Western methodologies and methods. In this article, we argue that the integration of philosophical hermeneutics with Eastern philosophy and practices may provide a methodology and methods to research mindfulness practice. Mindfulness hermeneutics brings together the nondualistically aligned Western philosophies of Heidegger and Gadamer and selected Eastern philosophies and practices in an effort to bridge the gap between these differing worldviews. Based on the following: (1 fusion of horizons, (2 being in a hermeneutic circle, (3 understanding as intrinsic to awareness, and (4 the ongoing practice of meditation, a mindfulness hermeneutic approach was used to illuminate deeper understandings of mindfulness practice in ways that are congruent with its underpinning philosophies.

  4. METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF OUTSOURCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanskaya D. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing is investigated from a position of finding steady and unique competitive advantages of a public corporation due to attraction of carriers of unique intellectual and uses social capitals of the specialized companies within the institutional theory. Key researchers and events in the history of outsourcing are marked out, the existing approaches to definition of the concept of outsourcing, advantage and risks from application of technology of outsourcing are considered. It is established that differences of outsourcing, sub-contraction and cooperation are not in the nature of the functional relations, and in the depth of considered economic terms and phenomena. The methodology of outsourcing is considered as a part of methodology of cooperation of enterprise innovative structures of being formed sector of knowledge economy

  5. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    As part of learning at the Nordic Workshop of Evidence-based Medicine, we have read with interest the practice guidelines for central venous access, published in your Journal in 2012.1 We appraised the quality of this guideline using the checklist developed by The Evidence-Based Medicine Working ...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....... Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...

  6. Tobacco documents research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  7. Synthesised model of market orientation-business performance relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nwokah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of market orientation on the performance of the organisation. While much empirical works have centered on market orientation, the generalisability of its impact on performance of the Food and Beverages organisations in the Nigeria context has been under-researched. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study adopted a triangulation methodology (quantitative and qualitative approach. Data was collected from key informants using a research instrument. Returned instruments were analyzed using nonparametric correlation through the use of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 10. Findings: The study validated the earlier instruments but did not find any strong association between market orientation and business performance in the Nigerian context using the food and beverages organisations for the study. The reasons underlying the weak relationship between market orientation and business performance of the Food and Beverages organisations is government policies, new product development, diversification, innovation and devaluation of the Nigerian currency. One important finding of this study is that market orientation leads to business performance through some moderating variables. Implications: The study recommends that Nigerian Government should ensure a stable economy and make economic policies that will enhance existing business development in the country. Also, organisations should have performance measurement systems to detect the impact of investment on market orientation with the aim of knowing how the organisation works. Originality/Value: This study significantly refines the body of knowledge concerning the impact of market orientation on the performance of the organisation, and thereby offers a model of market orientation and business performance in the Nigerian context for marketing scholars and practitioners. This model will, no doubt, contribute to the body of

  8. What is a problem?: On problem-oriented interdisciplinarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jan C

    2011-06-01

    Among others, the term "problem" plays a major role in the various attempts to characterize interdisciplinarity or transdisciplinarity, as used synonymously in this paper. Interdisciplinarity (ID) is regarded as "problem solving among science, technology and society" and as "problem orientation beyond disciplinary constraints" (cf. Frodeman et al.: The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010). The point of departure of this paper is that the discourse and practice of ID have problems with the "problem". The objective here is to shed some light on the vague notion of "problem" in order to advocate a specific type of interdisciplinarity: problem-oriented interdisciplinarity. The outline is as follows: Taking an ex negativo approach, I will show what problem-oriented ID does not mean. Using references to well-established distinctions in philosophy of science, I will show three other types of ID that should not be placed under the umbrella term "problem-oriented ID": object-oriented ID ("ontology"), theory-oriented ID (epistemology), and method-oriented ID (methodology). Different philosophical thought traditions can be related to these distinguishable meanings. I will then clarify the notion of "problem" by looking at three systematic elements: an undesired (initial) state, a desired (goal) state, and the barriers in getting from the one to the other. These three elements include three related kinds of knowledge: systems, target, and transformation knowledge. This paper elaborates further methodological and epistemological elements of problem-oriented ID. It concludes by stressing that problem-oriented ID is the most needed as well as the most challenging type of ID.

  9. Land evaluation methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews non-computerised and computerised land evaluation methods or methodologies, and realises the difficulties to incorporate biophysical and socioeconomic factors from different levels. Therefore, this paper theorises an alternative land evaluation approach, which is tested and elaborated in an agricultural community in the North of Chile. The basis of the approach relies on holistic thinking and attempts to evaluate the potential for improving assumed unsustainable goat manage...

  10. Pipeline ADC Design Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Demand for high-performance analog-to-digital converter (ADC) integrated circuits (ICs) with optimal combined specifications of resolution, sampling rate and power consumption becomes dominant due to emerging applications in wireless communications, broad band transceivers, digital-intermediate frequency (IF) receivers and countless of digital devices. This research is dedicated to develop a pipeline ADC design methodology with minimum power dissipation, while keeping relatively high speed an...

  11. Albert Einstein's Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses Einstein's methodology. 1. Einstein characterized his work as a theory of principle and reasoned that beyond kinematics, the 1905 heuristic relativity principle could offer new connections between non-kinematical concepts. 2. Einstein's creativity and inventiveness and process of thinking; invention or discovery. 3. Einstein considered his best friend Michele Besso as a sounding board and his class-mate from the Polytechnic Marcel Grossman, as his active partner. Yet, Ein...

  12. Pipeline ADC Design Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Demand for high-performance analog-to-digital converter (ADC) integrated circuits (ICs) with optimal combined specifications of resolution, sampling rate and power consumption becomes dominant due to emerging applications in wireless communications, broad band transceivers, digital-intermediate frequency (IF) receivers and countless of digital devices. This research is dedicated to develop a pipeline ADC design methodology with minimum power dissipation, while keeping relatively high speed an...

  13. Exploring the Development of a Protean Career Orientation: Values and Image Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Leisa D.; Domberger, Shelley R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the development of a protean career orientation. In doing so, the paper also aims to assess how work experience, parents and peer networks co-influence the development of a protean career orientation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses semi-structured interviews with young adults and…

  14. Organization of Individual Work of Students under Competence-Oriented Approach to Education in Higher School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ualiyeva, Nazym T.; Murzalinova, Alma Z.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to identify the essence, content and specifics of organization of individual work of higher school students under competence-oriented approach. The research methodology is related to the choice of competence-oriented approach to ensure transformation of individual work into individual activity in…

  15. Developing Practice Oriented Undergraduate Courses in a Quality Framework. A Case Study: Bachelor of Event Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Paul A.; Wrathall, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon the stakeholder, scholarly, academic and jurisdictional influences on course development for a vocationally oriented bachelor's degree. Design/methodology/approach: This paper takes the form of a case study. Findings: Vocationally oriented bachelor's courses can be developed, especially when…

  16. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  17. Is it necessary to discuss person-oriented research in community psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Bogat, G

    2009-03-01

    A brief overview of the person orientation is provided. It is then argued that research in community psychology, similar to every other field in psychology, has mainly focused on variables, not individuals. Suggestions are provided for how the person orientation can be applied to understanding settings and environments as well as the theoretical and methodological contributions community psychologists can make to further person oriented methods.

  18. Does treatment of intestinal helminth infections influence malaria? Background and methodology of a longitudinal study of clinical, parasitological and immunological parameters in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia (ImmunoSPIN Study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Lell, B.; Ariawan, I.; Uh, H.W.; Wibowo, H.; Djuardi, Y.; Wahyuni, S.; Sutanto, I.; May, L.; Luty, A.J.F.; Verweij, J.J.; Sartono, E.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Supali, T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Given that helminth infections are thought to have strong immunomodulatory activity, the question whether helminth infections might affect responses to malaria antigens needs to be addressed. Different cross-sectional studies using diverse methodologies have reported that helminth infect

  19. Market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation in a learning organization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yangping

    2014-01-01

    In this globe of brutal competition, market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation as two types of market-based learning constitute positional advantage to an organization, because this corporate cultural competitiveness is unique, rare, valuable, and inimitable. This dissertation focuses on the change management of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation in a business unit with approximately 150 employees of a multinational company. It is structured in an evolving way with an...

  20. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....