WorldWideScience

Sample records for methodology epistemological reflection

  1. The Case of Value Based Communication—Epistemological and Methodological Reflections from a System Theoretical Perspective

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    Victoria von Groddeck

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reflect the epistemological and methodological aspects of an empirical research study which analyzes the phenomenon of increased value communication within business organizations from a system theoretical perspective in the tradition of Niklas LUHMANN. Drawing on the theoretical term of observation it shows how a research perspective can be developed which opens up the scope for an empirical analysis of communication practices. This analysis focuses on the reconstruction of these practices by first understanding how these practices stabilize themselves and second by contrasting different practices to educe an understanding of different forms of observation of the relevant phenomenon and of the functions of these forms. Thus, this approach combines system theoretical epistemology, analytical research strategies, such as form and functional analysis, and qualitative research methods, such as narrative interviews, participant observation and document analysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003177

  2. Lean and Agile: An Epistemological Reflection

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    Browaeys, Marie-Joelle; Fisser, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to contribute to the discussion of treating the concepts of lean and agile in isolation or combination by presenting an alternative view from complexity thinking on these concepts, considering an epistemological approach to this topic. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts an epistemological approach, using…

  3. Artifact-based reflective interviews for identifying pragmatic epistemological resources

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    Shubert, Christopher Walden

    Physics Education Research studies the science of teaching and learning physics. The process of student learning is complex, and the factors that affect it are numerous. Describing students' understanding of physics knowledge and reasoning is the basis for much productive research; however, such research fails to account for certain types of student learning difficulties. In this dissertation, I explore one source of student difficulty: personal epistemology, students' ideas about knowledge and knowing. Epistemology traditionally answers three questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge created? And, how do we know what we know? An individual's responses to these questions can affect learning in terms of how they approach tasks involving the construction and application of knowledge. The key issue addressed in this dissertation is the effect of methodological choices on the validity and reliability of claims concerning personal epistemology. My central concern is contextual validity, how what is said about one's epistemology is not identical to how one behaves epistemologically. In response to these issues, I present here a new methodology for research on student epistemology: video artifact-based reflective interview protocols. These protocols begin with video taping students in their natural classroom activities, and then asking the participants epistemological questions immediately after watching selected scenes from their activity, contextually anchoring them in their actual learning experience. The data from these interviews is viewed in the framework of Epistemological Resource Theory, a framework of small bits of knowledge whose coordination in a given context is used to describe personal epistemology. I claim that the privileged data from these interviews allows detailed epistemological resources to be identified, and that these resources can provide greater insight into how student epistemologies are applied in learning activities. This research

  4. Constructive Analysis : A Study in Epistemological Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    , and develops a framework for a kind of analysis that is more in keeping with recent psychological research on categorization. Finally, it is shown that this kind of analysis can be applied to the concept of justification in a manner that furthers the epistemological goal of providing intellectual guidance.......The present study is concerned the viability of the primary method in contemporary philosophy, i.e., conceptual analysis. Starting out by tracing the roots of this methodology to Platonic philosophy, the study questions whether such a methodology makes sense when divorced from Platonic philosophy...

  5. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

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    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  6. Feminist approaches to social science: epistemological and methodological tenets.

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    Campbell, R; Wasco, S M

    2000-12-01

    This paper is a primer for community psychologists on feminist research. Much like the field of community psychology, feminist scholarship is defined by its values and process. Informed by the political ideologies of the 1970s women's movement (liberal, radical, socialist feminism, and womanism), feminist scholars reinterpreted classic concepts in philosophy of science to create feminist epistemologies and methodologies. Feminist epistemologies, such as feminist empiricism, standpoint theory, and postmodernism, recognize women's lived experiences as legitimate sources of knowledge. Feminist methodologies attempt to eradicate sexist bias in research and find ways to capture women's voices that are consistent with feminist ideals. Practically, the process of feminist research is characterized by four primary features: (1) expanding methodologies to include both quantitative and qualitative methods, (2) connecting women for group-level data collection, (3) reducing the hierarchical relationship between researchers and their participants to facilitate trust and disclosure, and (4) recognizing and reflecting upon the emotionality of women's lives. Recommendations for how community psychologists can integrate feminist scholarship into their practice are discussed.

  7. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  8. Narrative inquiry: Locating Aboriginal epistemology in a relational methodology.

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    Barton, Sylvia S

    2004-03-01

    This methodology utilizes narrative analysis and the elicitation of life stories as understood through dimensions of interaction, continuity, and situation. It is congruent with Aboriginal epistemology formulated by oral narratives through representation, connection, storytelling and art. Needed for culturally competent scholarship is an experience of research whereby inquiry into epiphanies, ritual, routines, metaphors and everyday experience creates a process of reflexive thinking for multiple ways of knowing. Based on the sharing of perspectives, narrative inquiry allows for experimentation into creating new forms of knowledge by contextualizing diabetes from the experience of a researcher overlapped with experiences of participants--a reflective practice in itself. The aim of this paper is to present narrative inquiry as a relational methodology and to analyse critically its appropriateness as an innovative research approach for exploring Aboriginal people's experience living with diabetes. Narrative inquiry represents an alternative culture of research for nursing science to generate understanding and explanation of Aboriginal people's 'diabetic self' stories, and to coax open a window for co-constructing a narrative about diabetes as a chronic illness. The ability to adapt a methodology for use in a cultural context, preserve the perspectives of Aboriginal peoples, maintain the holistic nature of social problems, and value co-participation in respectful ways are strengths of an inquiry partial to a responsive and embodied scholarship.

  9. Beyond (methodological) Nationalism and Epistemological Behaviouralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Carney, Stephen

    ’ by moving beyond these binaries and invoking the complex interrelations between diverse aspects of life.One strategy lies in problem-based project work where the underlying causes of social, cultural and political marginality are viewed as co-constructed. That general orientation is extended in the Global...... globalisation and new forms of localisation.Whilst many approaches to globalization attempt to explore interconnection and the mutual construction of social life, they nevertheless prioritize particular ways of looking at the world. Moving beyond these, the Roskilde University initiatives aim to center issues...... of interdependence and epistemological diversity. Here, students are encouraged not only to consider the ways in which a European/ rational / scientific ‘world’ view can lead to personal understanding and societal freedoms but how the production of dominant ideologies contributes to global inequality, social...

  10. Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Assumptions: Qualitative versus Quantitative

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    Ahmed, Abdelhamid

    2008-01-01

    The review to follow is a comparative analysis of two studies conducted in the field of TESOL in Education published in "TESOL QUARTERLY." The aspects to be compared are as follows. First, a brief description of each study will be presented. Second, the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions underlying each study…

  11. Reflection in Education: A Kantian Epistemology

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    Procee, Henk

    2006-01-01

    As even its defenders admit, reflection in education suffers from a lack of conceptual clarity. In this essay, Henk Procee provides a philosophical analysis of the central concepts in this domain. In the current literature, these concepts are usually taken from the pragmatic school of John Dewey and from critical social theory associated with…

  12. Reflection in education: a Kantian epistemology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procee, H.

    As even its defenders admit, reflection in education suffers from a lack of conceptual clarity. In this essay, Henk Procee provides a philosophical analysis of the central concepts in this domain. In the current literature, these concepts are usually taken from the pragmatic school of John Dewey and

  13. On the Science of Consciousness: Epistemological Reflections and Clinical Implications.

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    Facco, Enrico; Lucangeli, Daniela; Tressoldi, Patrizio

    Consciousness has been one of the most important and tantalizing issues ever since the origin of philosophy and medicine. The concept of consciousness and the so-called "hard problem" (i.e., the mind-brain relationship) are highly complex topics that have yet to be elucidated, involving the realms of both science and philosophy with profound epistemological implications. In the lively debate on the foundations of the science of consciousness there are several potential biases of an essentially philosophical nature, such as those related to the paradigm and axioms adopted, and the ostensible logical contradiction between monism and dualism. Their origin dates back largely to Descartes' thinking and the birth of the new sciences as a compromise with the Inquisition, but they have been handed down through the Enlightenment and Positivism. A proper investigation of consciousness and the world of subjectivity demands a careful reflection on the paradigm of scientific medicine to identify possible flaws and overcome the limits of the mechanistic-reductionist approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reflective Methodology: The Beginning Teacher

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    Templeton, Ronald K.; Siefert, Thomas E.

    1970-01-01

    Offers a variety of specific techniques which will help the beginning teacher to implement reflective methodology and create an inquiry-centered classroom atmosphere, at the same time meeting the many more pressing demands of first-year teaching. (JES)

  15. Methodological and epistemological problems in the sociological study of foreign immigration

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    Ramón Llopis Goig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and to analyze the main technical and methodological difficulties faced by the sociological research on immigration carried out in Spain during the last years. More concretely, what is sought is to figure out the epistemological assumptions which support the social research practices that generate the mentioned techno-methodological problems. For that, firstly, we study some problems generated in the sociological study of immigration as a consequence of the prevalence, in the field of the practices of social research, of a neopositivist methodology, what we have called «public opinion syndrome». Secondly, we examine the difficulties derived from the necessity of considering «empirical reflexivity» methodologically. And thirdly, we present the derived difficulties of the implicit assumption of a «methodological nationalism». These analyses are supplemented with several reflections leading to the establishment of guidelines for the design and the implementation of future research

  16. Taking a Distributed Perspective: Epistemological and Methodological Tradeoffs in Operationalizing the Leader-Plus Aspect

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    Spillane, James P.; Camburn, Eric M.; Pustejovsky, James; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Lewis, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is concerned with the epistemological and methodological challenges involved in studying the distribution of leadership across people within the school--the leader-plus aspect of a distributed perspective, which it aims to investigate. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examines the entailments of the distributed…

  17. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...

  18. Team Dynamics. Essays in the Sociology and Social Psychology of Sport Including Methodological and Epistemological Issues.

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    Lenk, Hans

    This document contains nine essays on the sociology and social psychology of team dynamics, including methodological and epistemological issues involved in such study. Essay titles are: (1) Conflict and Achievement in Top Athletic Teams--Sociometric Structures of Racing Eight Oar Crews; (2) Top Performance Despite Internal Conflict--An Antithesis…

  19. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More than Qualitative Methods

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    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with…

  20. College physics students' epistemological self-reflection and its relationship to conceptual learning

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    May, David B.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2002-12-01

    Students should develop self-reflection skills and appropriate views about knowledge and learning, both for their own sake and because these skills and views may be related to improvements in conceptual understanding. We explored the latter issue in the context of an introductory physics course for first-year engineering honors students. As part of the course, students submitted weekly reports, in which they reflected on how they learned specific physics content. The reports by 12 students were analyzed for the quality of reflection and some of the epistemological beliefs they exhibited. Students' conceptual learning gains were measured with standard survey instruments. We found that students with high conceptual gains tend to show reflection on learning that is more articulate and epistemologically sophisticated than students with lower conceptual gains. Some implications for instruction are suggested.

  1. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

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    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  2. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More Than Qualitative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with this premise, I address four themes in this commentary. First, I criticize the ubiquitous and uncritical use of the term health disparities in U.S. public health. Next, I advocate for the increased use of qualitative methodologies-namely, photovoice and critical ethnography-that, pursuant to critical approaches, prioritize dismantling social-structural inequities as a prerequisite to health equity. Thereafter, I discuss epistemological stance and its influence on all aspects of the research process. Finally, I highlight my critical discourse analysis HIV prevention research based on individual interviews and focus groups with Black men, as an example of a critical health equity research approach.

  3. The epistemology of mathematical and statistical modeling: a quiet methodological revolution.

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    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2010-01-01

    A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways the modeling revolution obviated the NHST argument. I begin with a history of NHST and modeling and their relation to one another. Next, I define and illustrate principles involved in developing and evaluating mathematical models. Following, I discuss the difference between using statistical procedures within a rule-based framework and building mathematical models from a scientific epistemology. Only the former is treated carefully in most psychology graduate training. The pedagogical implications of this imbalance and the revised pedagogy required to account for the modeling revolution are described. To conclude, I discuss how attention to modeling implies shifting statistical practice in certain progressive ways. The epistemological basis of statistics has moved away from being a set of procedures, applied mechanistically, and moved toward building and evaluating statistical and scientific models. Copyrigiht 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Promoting Elementary Students' Epistemology of Science through Computer-Supported Knowledge-Building Discourse and Epistemic Reflection

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    Lin, Feng; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the role of computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection in promoting elementary-school students' scientific epistemology and science learning. The participants were 39 Grade 5 students who were collectively pursuing ideas and inquiry for knowledge advance using Knowledge Forum (KF) while studying a…

  5. Methodological Reflections on Working with Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides methodological reflections on an evolutionary and participatory software development process for designing interactive systems with children of very young age. The approach was put into practice for the design of a software environment for self-directed project management...

  6. Methodological and Epistemological Criticism on Experimental Accounting Research Published in Brazil

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    Paulo Frederico Homero Junior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I analyze 17 experimental studies published in Brazilian accounting journals between 2006 and 2015, in order to develop both critical and methodological criticism on these articles. First, we discuss the methodological characteristics of the experiments and the main validity threats they face, analyzing how the selected articles deal with these threats. Overall, this analysis shows a lack of consideration of the validity of the constructs used, difficulty to develop internally valid experiments and inability to express confidence in the applicability of the results to contexts other than the experimental. Then, I compare the positivist theoretical perspective these articles have in common with constructionist conceptions of the social sciences and criticize them, based on these notions. I maintain that these articles are characterized by a behaviorist approach, a reified notion of subjectivity, disregard of the cultural and historical specificities and axiological commitment to submission, instead of the emancipation of the people in relation to management control. The paper contributes to the Brazilian accounting literature in two ways: raising awareness on the challenges faced in conducting appropriate experimental designs and showing how the experimental accounting research can be problematic from an epistemological point of view, aiming to promote an interparadigmatic debate to arouse greater awareness on the subject and more robust consideration of such issues by future researchers.

  7. Promoting elementary students' epistemology of science through computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the role of computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection in promoting elementary-school students' scientific epistemology and science learning. The participants were 39 Grade 5 students who were collectively pursuing ideas and inquiry for knowledge advance using Knowledge Forum (KF) while studying a unit on electricity; they also reflected on the epistemic nature of their discourse. A comparison class of 22 students, taught by the same teacher, studied the same unit using the school's established scientific investigation method. We hypothesised that engaging students in idea-driven and theory-building discourse, as well as scaffolding them to reflect on the epistemic nature of their discourse, would help them understand their own scientific collaborative discourse as a theory-building process, and therefore understand scientific inquiry as an idea-driven and theory-building process. As hypothesised, we found that students engaged in knowledge-building discourse and reflection outperformed comparison students in scientific epistemology and science learning, and that students' understanding of collaborative discourse predicted their post-test scientific epistemology and science learning. To further understand the epistemic change process among knowledge-building students, we analysed their KF discourse to understand whether and how their epistemic practice had changed after epistemic reflection. The implications on ways of promoting epistemic change are discussed.

  8. Intuitions in Epistemology: Towards a Naturalistic Alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative is then ske......The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative...... is then sketched that explores the positive implications of aforementioned problems for the demarcation of the respective roles of intuitions and empirical investigation within three epistemological domains, viz., the evaluation of epistemological hypotheses, the amelioration of epistemic practices...

  9. For a reasoned development of experimental methods in information and communication sciences Some epistemological findings of methodological pluralism

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    Didier COURBET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available If multidisciplinarity is necessary, first, for studying the widest possible set of communication phenomena (organizational, in groups, interpersonal, media, computer-mediated communication... and, secondly, for grasping the complexity of the different moments of the same phenomenon of communication (production, content, reception, circulation ..., methodological pluralism is also important. However, French research in communication sciences leaves in the shade a number of phenomena and moments of communication that could be better understood thanks to the experimental method. We will underline that the epistemological issues related to rational use of the experimental method in communication sciences are not negligible: it allows the study of objects that cannot be investigated with other methods and offers the opportunity to build knowledge by the refutation of hypotheses and theoretical propositions. We will clarify some epistemological misunderstandings concerning this method. First, it is actually a method of studying complex systems and communication processes. Secondly, its use is not incompatible with constructivism.

  10. Intuitions in Epistemology: Towards a Naturalistic Alternative

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    Kristoffer Ahlstrom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative is then sketched that explores the positive implications of aforementioned problems for the demarcation of the respective roles of intuitions and empirical investigation within three epistemological domains, viz., the evaluation of epistemological hypotheses, the amelioration of epistemic practices, and the construction of a theory of epistemic value.

  11. The Non-Theoretical View on Educational Theory: Scientific, Epistemological and Methodological Assumptions

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    Penalva, José

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the underlying problems of one particular perspective in educational theory that has recently gained momentum: the Wilfred Carr approach, which puts forward the premise that there is no theory in educational research and, consequently, it is a form of practice. The article highlights the scientific, epistemological and…

  12. Contribution of the Epistemology of the Known Subject to the Qualitative Study of Poverty Situations, Identity, and Social Representations

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    Irene Vasilachis de Gialdino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I intend to describe the path of empirically grounded epistemological reflection that has led me from the epistemology of the knowing subject to the epistemology of the known subject, characterizing identity from the latter perspective. Also, based on the assumptions of the epistemology of the known subject, I develop a qualitative methodology to account for poverty situations and for identity construction processes in the written press. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070364

  13. How are learning physics and student beliefs about learning physics connected? Measuring epistemological self-reflection in an introductory course and investigating its relationship to conceptual learning

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    May, David B.

    2002-11-01

    To explore students' epistemological beliefs in a variety of conceptual domains in physics, and in a specific and novel context of measurement, this Dissertation makes use of Weekly Reports, a class assignment in which students reflect in writing on what they learn each week and how they learn it. Reports were assigned to students in the introductory physics course for honors engineering majors at The Ohio State University in two successive years. The Weekly Reports of several students from the first year were analyzed for the kinds of epistemological beliefs exhibited therein, called epistemological self-reflection, and a coding scheme was developed for categorizing and quantifying this reflection. The connection between epistemological self-reflection and conceptual learning in physics seen in a pilot study was replicated in a larger study, in which the coded reflections from the Weekly Reports of thirty students were correlated with their conceptual learning gains. Although the total amount of epistemological self-reflection was not found to be related to conceptual gain, different kinds of epistemological self-reflection were. Describing learning physics concepts in terms of logical reasoning and making personal connections were positively correlated with gains; describing learning from authority figures or by observing phenomena without making inferences were negatively correlated. Linear regression equations were determined in order to quantify the effects on conceptual gain of specific ways of describing learning. In an experimental test of this model, the regression equations and the Weekly Report coding scheme developed from the first year's data were used to predict the conceptual gains of thirty students from the second year. The prediction was unsuccessful, possibly because these students were not given as much feedback on their reflections as were the first-year students. These results show that epistemological beliefs are important factors affecting

  14. Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around the Renaissance: How Science and Technique Work?

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    Raffaele Pisano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is divided into two parts, this being the first one. The second is entitled ‘Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around Renaissance: Machines, Machineries and Perpetual Motion’ and will be published in Acta Baltica Historiae et Philosophiae Scientiarum in 2015. Based on our recent studies, we provide here a historical and epistemological feature on the role played by machines and machineries. Ours is an epistemological thesis based on a series of historical examples to show that the relations between theoretical science and the construction of machines cannot be taken for granted, a priori. Our analysis is mainly based on the culture of machines around 15th and 17th centuries, namely the epoch of Late Renaissance and Early Modern Age. For this is the period of scientific revolution and this age offers abundant interesting material for researches into the relations of theoretical science/construction of machines as well. However, to prove our epistemological thesis, we will also exploit examples of machines built in other historical periods. Particularly, a discussion concerning the relationship between science theory and the development of science art crafts produced by non-recognized scientists in a certain historical time is presented. The main questions are: when and why did the tension between science (physics, mathematics and geometry give rise to a new scientific approach to applied discipline such as studies on machines and machineries? What kind of science was used (if at all for projecting machines and machineries? Was science at the time a necessary precondition to build a machine? In the first part we will focus on the difference between Aristotelian-Euclidean and Archimedean approaches and we will outline the heritage of these two different approaches in late medieval and Renaissance science. In the second part, we will apply our reconstructions to some historical and epistemological

  15. Exploring the Philosophical Underpinnings of Research: Relating Ontology and Epistemology to the Methodology and Methods of the Scientific, Interpretive, and Critical Research Paradigms

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    Scotland, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the philosophical underpinnings of three major educational research paradigms: scientific, interpretive, and critical. The aim was to outline and explore the interrelationships between each paradigm's ontology, epistemology, methodology and methods. This paper reveals and then discusses some of the underlying assumptions of…

  16. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

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    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  17. A Chinese View on the Cultural Conditionality of Logic and Epistemology: Zhang Dongsun’s Intercultural Methodology

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    Jana Rošker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the fact that comprehension, analysis and transmission of reality are based on diversely structured socio-political contexts as well as on different categorical and essential postulates, offers a prospect of enrichment. Thus, this article presents an analysis and interpretation of one of the first Chinese theoreticians, working in the field of intercultural methodology. Although Zhang Dongsun (1886–1973 can be considered as one of the leading Chinese philosophers of the 20th Century, his criticism of Sinicized Marxist ideologies marked him as a political dissident and he was consequently consigned to oblivion for several decades; only recently has his work been rediscovered by a number of younger Chinese theorists, who have shown a growing interest in his ideas. Although he is still relatively unknown in the West, Zhang definitely deserves to be recognized for his contributions to Chinese and comparative philosophy. The present article focuses on his extraordinary ability to introduce Western thought in a way which was compatible with the specific methodology of traditional Chinese thought. According to such presumptions, culture is viewed as an entity composed of a number of specific discourses and relations. The article shows how the interweaving and interdependence of these discourses form different cultural backgrounds, which manifest themselves in the specific, culturally determined structures of language and logic. It also explains the role of traditional elements in his cultural epistemology.

  18. Plato's Critique of Rhetoric in the "Gorgias" (447a-466a): Epistemology, Methodology, and the Lyotardian Differend.

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    McComiskey, Bruce

    The uncritical acceptance of Plato's treatment of sophistic doctrines (specifically in Plato's dialogue the "Gorgias") in the university has resulted in an impoverished contemporary view of sophistic rhetoric. Since Socrates' foundational epistemology allows for the knowledge of immutable truth and Gorgias' relativistic epistemology does…

  19. Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around the Renaissance: Machines, Machineries and Perpetual Motion

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    Raffaele Pisano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second part of our recent paper ‘Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around the Renaissance: How Science and Technique Work’ (Pisano & Bussotti 2014a. In the first paper—which discussed some aspects of the relations between science and technology from Antiquity to the Renaissance—we highlighted the differences between the Aristotelian/Euclidean tradition and the Archimedean tradition. We also pointed out the way in which the two traditions were perceived around the Renaissance. The Archimedean tradition is connected with machines: its relationship with science and construction of machines should be made clear. It is enough to think that Archimedes mainly dealt with three machines: lever, pulley and screw (and a correlated principle of mechanical advantage. As underlined in the first part, our thesis is that many machines were constructed by people who ignored theory, even though, in other cases, the knowledge of the Archimedean tradition was a precious help in order to build machines. Hence, an a priori idea as to the relations between the Archimedean tradition and construction of machines cannot exist. In this second part we offer some examples of functioning machines constructed by people who ignored any physical theory, whereas, in other cases, the ignorance of some principles—such as the impossibility of a perpetuum mobile—induced the attempt to construct impossible machines. What is very interesting is that these machines did not function, of course, as a perpetuum mobile, but anyway had their functioning and were useful for certain aims, although they were constructed on an idea which is completely wrong from a theoretical point of view. We mainly focus on the Renaissance and early modern period, but we also provide examples of machines built before and after this period. We have followed a chronological order in both parts, starting from the analysis of the situation in

  20. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...

  1. Epistemology as Education: Know Thyself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Tubbs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In his Introduction to this Special Edition of Education Sciences, Andrew Stables points out that often, epistemological questions in education have been pursued in isolation from ethics and other social concerns. In part, this problem has been addressed by ‘local’ epistemologies—feminist, queer, post-colonial, postmodern and others—which try to establish how different knowledge can look when not grounded in presuppositions of consciousness, or rationality, or gender, colour, etc., all of which exclude and suppress that which they deem to be ‘other’. However, perhaps it is not just these local knowledges that are excluded from epistemological work in education. Perhaps, remarkably, epistemological questions pursued in education are habitually carried out in isolation from education, as if education were nothing in its own right. This ‘otherness’ of education to philosophy in general, and to epistemology in particular, contributes to the latter often seeming to be nugatory with regard to the inequalities borne within modern social and political relations. With this is mind, the following contribution reflects not so much on the relation of epistemology and education, or on epistemology in education, but rather on epistemology as education. Primarily this concerns the question of how epistemology, the science of knowledge, can have knowledge of itself and of the educational significance carried in trying to do so. This challenge of epistemology as education commends epistemology to heed the Delphic maxim: know thyself. It is to these efforts that the following essay is directed.

  2. Essence of cryptocurrency as methodological prerequisite of its accounting reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Petruk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research deals with the issue of reflection in accounting cryptocurrencies and the ways of solving it through determining the economic essence of such currencies. The purpose of the research is the analysis such economic phenomenon as cryptocurrency and formation of appropriate methodological approaches to its accounting reflection, that requires the identification of the object, the study of the methods of its assessment, the clarification of reflection on the appropriate accounts, the determination of place in reporting. The author generalizes the existed achievements of domestic and foreign researchers about the issues of accounting cryptocurrencies, differentiates between the concept of «cryptocurrency» and «electronic money», and proves that according to a set of features cryptocurrencies do not meet the requirements of the definition of «money», that is why, cryptocurrencies cannot be reflected into the enterprise balance sheet under article «Funds and their equivalents». Using the functional approach to the definition of cryptocurrency as the accounting object and the methods of comparison and analogy, the paper substantiates the order of its reflection as a variety of financial investments applying the special methods of accounting, such as assessment, accounts, and reporting.

  3. reflections on methodology and interdisciplinarity in the postmodern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    action with nature, and renewed energy for trying to fathom these multiple ... soning strategies, but it is exactly in such a comprehensive epistemology within ..... God of the Bible, but only to a remote, intelligent designer (Ducé 1998:57).

  4. Integrating the Self and the Spirit: Strategies for Aligning Qualitative Research Teaching with Indigenous Methods, Methodologies, and Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Knudson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many universities internationally now make concerted efforts to promote curriculum development and classroom and campus cultures that recognize diversity in student viewpoints and life experiences. Increasingly, these efforts have involved promoting recognition and inclusion of indigenous knowledges in the university setting. If adopted in the classroom, the promotion of indigenous perspectives suggests exciting possibilities for teaching qualitative research critically. Existing educational resources, however, offer little guidance on achieving this through undergraduate qualitative methods teaching. Using examples of Canadian undergraduate teaching initiatives, I suggest that by integrating indigenous methods, perspectives, and epistemology, particularly through student opportunities for community-engaged learning and exposure to participatory action research, teaching qualitative research can promote critical recognition of multiple ways of knowing. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150347

  5. [On the epistemological approaches to medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    The doctrine of correct reasoning was developed in the Western World as logic. This is an activity of the intellect that apparently began with Zeno of Elea, being formalized by Aristotle, and which received its name from the Stoic philosopher Chrysippus. It corresponds to the structure or anatomy of thought. Logic empiricism introduced systematic use of the logistic language into epistemology. The latter discipline designates the philosophy of science, i.e., the critical foundation of its principles, hypotheses, methods, and results. Strictly speaking, it does not constitute an analysis of the scientific method, which is rather the object of methodology, nor anticipation or synthesis of scientific results. It can be considered that, concerning science, epistemology constitutes the second step with a primary activity. In other words, it is a reflection on science, considering the latter as an element to be respected and not as a domain to be ruled. Dr. Hermann Boerhaave was the first physician to challenge problems of an epistemologic character in a coherent and systematic manner (XVIII Century). Others followed him in this direction during the subsequent centuries. In the light of Popper's critical rationalism, construction of a medical instrument, conception of a therapeutic procedure, development of a useful model in biology or medicine could also be considered as epistemologic problems. The corresponding examples that follow are worthwhile mentioning: Riva-Rocci's sphygmomanometer; metabolic therapeutics for ischemic heart disease, and elaboration of theoretical models. In turn, epistemology suggests that assessment of a fact, perceivable by the senses, is generally more difficult that elaboration of a hypothesis.

  6. Software Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    in-vitro decision to incubate a startup, Lexumo [7], which is developing a commercial Software as a Service ( SaaS ) vulnerability assessment...LTS Label Transition System MUSE Mining and Understanding Software Enclaves RTEMS Real-Time Executive for Multi-processor Systems SaaS Software ...as a Service SSA Static Single Assignment SWE Software Epistemology UD/DU Def-Use/Use-Def Chains (Dataflow Graph)

  7. Leadership Epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    Bogenschneider, B

    2016-01-01

    The study of leadership is characterized by an expanding set of definitions of the term leadership. Some scholars even set out to know leadership by the identification of traits or behaviors of good leaders. However, the scientific study of leadership requires the identification of a causal theory of leadership. The scientific belief in causation as the common epistemology is the necessary link between the various disciplines interested in leadership (e.g., organizational psychology, statisti...

  8. Design Resarch Epistemologies I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a stance on the following issues: project title and author, the research question, the methods applied, the theories consulted (or the state-of-the-art theory horizon), and the epistemology of the PhD research itself. Seen this way one could argue that each PhD student was asked two fundamental questions...... years now the PhD research has been organized within the Architecture and Design PhD Lab (ADPL). Now the time has come to put the pen to paper and actually reflect across a wide range of very diverse types of architecture and design research projects. Secondly, the aim is to show this research...... and in particular its epistemological basis to the external world. By this is partly meant the rest of the research environment at the Department of Architecture, Design and Media Technology. But obviously also to the many research networks and professional contacts that collaborate with the Department. Amongst...

  9. The appropriation of new media and the interrelation with social change in Uasin Gishu, Kenya - methodological and epistemological challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica; Nielsen, Poul Erik

    The aim of this paper is to theoretically and empirically discuss methodological challenges related to studying the interrelations between the appropriations of new media and socio-cultural changes in the Global South. Empirically the paper takes its point of departure in three sub-projects within...

  10. Evil as a Subject of Sociological Cognition: Methodological Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temyr Khagurov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the question of opportunities and boundaries of scientific research of the evil is considered. It is emphasized that the notion “evil” is widely used in politics and journalism for the description of the most vital issues of the present, for instance, international terrorism. It induces social scientists to the methodological reflection of scientific and philosophical attempts of conceptualization, description and analysis of a complex of the phenomena and processes determined by the term “evil.” A brief review of such attempts in science and philosophy of the 20th century is carried out. Despite the marginal status of the notions of Good and Evil in modern scientific discourse, the main scientific and philosophical concepts of human and society recognized in the 20th century admit the possibility of using these notions. Despite the fact that the idea of Evil is difficult to interpret as a concept term, which is the major obstacle to a scientific application of this, it is inappropriate to name it as unidentified. Such interpretation seems relevant to both social phenomena and anthropological ones. It is noted that the essential postulates of the modern scientific perception of “The Evil” analysis in sociology have been obtained in the writings of Karl Marx, Émile Durkheim, Karl Popper, Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche. Those were Marx and Nietzsche who stated the polar vision of the phenomenology of Evil on the socio-philosophical level. Herewith, the survey of the conceptualizations and approaches to this problem is not limited with the abovementioned scientists, but involves the ideas and researches of a quite wide range of sociologists, philosophers and psychologists of the 20th century. Thus, the contents of the article, i.e. the overview of concepts and ideas, cannot be considered as the extensive one as the theme and the reference sources analyzed are boundless. This issue is to be regarded just as an

  11. The Implications of Feyerabend's Epistemological Approach for Educational Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadikolaei, Elham Shirvani; Sajjadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Epistemology is defined as theory of knowledge and the ways of achieving it. Epistemology is research questions of the possibility of knowledge and the riddle of knowledge. Epistemology and methodology despite being interconnected are inseparable and are not reducible from each other. In addition, their relationship is direct, meaning that…

  12. Perestroika ten years after: Reflections on methodological diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanow, D.; Schwartz-Shea, P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the primary concerns driving Perestroika was the hegemony of quantitative methods in American political science research, curricula, journals, and positions, to the exclusion of qualitative and interpretive approaches. In this article, we assess the contemporary methodological diversity of

  13. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  14. Patho-Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse

    Inspired by Michel Foucault and the French philosopher of medicine, Georges Canguilhem, the epistemological potential of disease is explored. The primary purpose of the dissertation is to expound upon and argue for this ‘patho-epistemological’ strategy, to elaborate and develop it as a methodology......, and not least to apply it as a method. This is done by investigating the self-care practices of type 2 diabetics, as well as the educational practices that, in this respect, become a catalyst for understanding contemporary health and lifestyle norms. Particularly the experimental practices of the diabetics...

  15. A Return to Methodological Commitment: Reflections on Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Vera; Estefan, Andrew; Clandinin, D. Jean

    2013-01-01

    In the 25 years since narrative inquiry emerged as a social science research methodology, it has been rapidly taken up in the social sciences. In what is sometimes called a "narrative revolution," researchers with diverse understandings have co-opted the concept of narrative inquiry and used narrative inquiry or narrative research to…

  16. Using Digital Archives in Quantitative Discourse Studies: Methodological Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobie Van Krieken

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This methodological essay discusses the possibilities of using digital archives in quantitative discourse studies. I illustrate these possibilities by discussing a study in which the digital archive Delpher was used to build a relatively large corpus of newspaper narratives (N=300 in order to test hypotheses about the historical development of linguistic features associated with objective and subjective reporting. The large amount of data collected in digital archives like Delpher facilitates the construction of corpora for such hypothesis-driven studies. However, the collection of newspaper articles on Delpher in fact constitutes only a small, non-random and continuously changing selection of all available data. Due to these characteristics, the use of Delpher jeopardizes two core values of quantitative empirical research: the generalizability and the replicability of findings. Although these issues cannot be easily overcome, I argue that digital archives have the potential to broaden the methodological scope of discourse studies and increase the overall significance of the field.

  17. Doing synchronous online focus groups with young people: methodological reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Fiona E; Morris, Marianne; Rumsey, Nichola

    2007-04-01

    Although online focus groups are emerging as a worthwhile methodological approach for qualitative researchers, reporting has been constrained in several ways. The majority of studies report asynchronous groups, whereas others employ synchronous exchanges, the efficacy of which with young people has seldom been explored. Considering the popularity of the Internet as a communication tool for young people, this missed opportunity is surprising. Based on a series of synchronous online focus groups with young people, the authors explore why this approach might be an effective way of engaging young people with appearance-related concerns in research. In this article, they discuss the process of hosting and moderating synchronous online focus groups, highlighting some of the ethical, pragmatic, and personal challenges that might face researchers using this method. Through a reflexive approach, they intend to inform and encourage qualitative researchers to consider alternative ways of engaging young people in research.

  18. Changes in the reflectance of ex situ leaves: A methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Flavio Jorge; Inoe, Mario Takao

    1992-04-01

    The main aspects of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and detached leaves are presented. An experiment with Eucalipto and Araucaria detached leaves is described, including the description of the methodologies utilized in the collection and storage of the reflectance.

  19. Methodological and Pedagogical Potential of Reflection in Development of Contemporary Didactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupina, Valentina A.; Pleshakova, Anastasiia Yu.; Konovalova, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    Applicability of the issue under research is preconditioned by the need of practical pedagogics to expand methodological and methodical tools of contemporary didactics. The purpose of the article is to detect the methodological core of reflection as a form of thinking and to provide insight thereunto on the basis of systematic attributes of the…

  20. Knowing in Your Gut and in Your Head: Doing Theater and My Underlying Epistemology of Communication. Playwright and Director Reflections on "Ties That Bind."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven S.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the author's experience in writing and directing a staged reading of "Ties That Bind" at the 2002 Academy of Management Meetings in Denver as an all-academy symposium. Presents an epistemology that includes knowing in your gut and knowing in your head. Hopes to facilitate a move within the audience from being a feeling but passive…

  1. Teaching Research Methodology Using a Project-Based Three Course Sequence Critical Reflections on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, Kay H.; Jackson, Kanata A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a reflective analysis of teaching research methodology through a three course sequence using a project-based approach. The authors reflect critically on their experiences in teaching research methods courses in an undergraduate business management program. The introduction of a range of specific techniques including student…

  2. On Folk Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerken, Mikkel

    that are associated with biases. In developing this account, Mikkel Gerken presents work in cognitive psychology and pragmatics, while also contributing to epistemology. For example, Gerken develops positive epistemic norms of action and assertion and moreover, critically assesses contextualism, knowledge...... a role as data for epistemological theorizing. Rather, critical epistemological theorizing is required to interpret empirical findings. Consequently, On Folk Epistemology helps to lay the foundation for an emerging sub-field that intersects philosophy and the cognitive sciences: The empirical study...

  3. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  4. Virginia Woolf's Literary Aesthetics: The Epistemological Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Bartkuvienė, Linara

    2012-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the epistemological aspect of Virginia Woolf‘s literary aethetics. The research problem of the thesis is an attempt at the conceptualization of the nature of knowledge in Woolf‘s writing and Bertrand Russell‘s philosophy. Methodologically and theoretically, the semantic relationship between Woolf‘s aesthetics and Russell‘s epistemology is closely examined within the framework of the history of ideas. The thesis arrives at the conclusion that Woolf‘s understanding of real...

  5. Looking Inward: Philosophical and Methodological Perspectives on Phenomenological Self-Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Natalie M

    2018-07-01

    Engaging in early and ongoing self-reflection during interpretive phenomenological research is critical for ensuring trustworthiness or rigor. However, the lack of guidelines and clarity about the role of self-reflection in this methodology creates both theoretical and procedural confusion. The purpose of this article is to describe key philosophical underpinnings, characteristics, and hallmarks of the process of self-reflection in interpretive phenomenological investigation and to provide a list of guidelines that facilitate this process. Excerpts from an interpretive phenomenological study are used to illustrate characteristics of quality self-reflection. The guidelines are intended to be particularly beneficial for novice researchers who may find self-reflective writing to be daunting and unclear. Facilitating use of self-reflection may strengthen both the interpretive phenomenological body of work as well as that of all qualitative research.

  6. Ethical Dilemmas in Qualitative Research Methodology: Researcher's Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngozwana, Nomazulu

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the ethical dilemmas that are specific to qualitative research methodology. These dilemmas concern the issues of withdrawal from the study, anonymity and confidentiality, which are discussed. Each aspect examines how it was dealt with using the researcher's reflections. The research was positioned within an interpretive…

  7. Reflections on Using Pinhole Photography as a Pedagogical and Methodological Tool with Adolescents in Wild Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Teresa; Potter, Tom; Potter, Stephanie; Jickling, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This paper shares our experiences using pinhole photography with adolescents as both a pedagogical tool to support and deepen adolescent experiences in wild nature, and as a visual methodological tool to elucidate their experiences. Reflecting on a journey that explored the nature-based experiences of two adolescents on a family canoe trip in…

  8. Knowledge production in education: Post-structuralism as epistemological potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirley Lizott Tedeschi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the epistemological and methodological potentialities of Poststructuralism in education research. With a theoretical-bibliographic character, the research takes as main references Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derrida’s contributions in order to problematize the modern metanarratives and the processes of knowledge production in this area. By problematizing modern metanarratives and pointing out the historical, contextual character, inherent in the process of knowledge production, this epistemological perspective has triggered a number of concerns, doubts and discontinuities that have reverberated in investigative processes in that area. Being open to this epistemological field may both contribute to the deconstruction of the conceptual apparatus of modernity, which has strongly marked the education research, and bring other epistemological and methodological possibilities for knowledge production in that area. In this sense, the potentiality of this epistemological and methodological perspective for research in education is the multiplicity of possibilities that it provides.

  9. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  10. FORMULASI BARU EPISTEMOLOGI FIQH PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Noor Harisudin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Though the world has changed, factually, our fiqh marginalizes women and not critical of social inequality among women. The social system is no longer a patriarchal, but it’s more based on gender equality. Therefore, the existence of more moderat and friendly fiqh for women should be realized. Fiqh should be designed with epistemology based on the mashlahah of women. This article proposes a new formulation towards epistemology of women fiqh and/ or new ushul fiqh which are really friendly towards women. This article recommends that the formation of Islamic law which is tends to neglect women is a sine qua none. Reform must be arranged through the epistemological realm, methodology, and product of women fiqh. All the three go hand in hand with its main core to potitioning the women in equal place. Thus, product of women fiqh that is better suited to the changing places and times will become a true.Copyright (c 2016 by Al-Ihkam. All right reservedDOI: 10.19105/al-ihkam.v10i2.735

  11. The Challenges of Participant Photography: A Critical Reflection on Methodology and Ethics in Two Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Linda; Nash, Meredith

    2017-05-01

    Photovoice and photo-elicitation are two common methods of participant photography used in health research. Although participatory photography has many benefits, this critical reflection provides fellow researchers with insights into the methodological and ethical challenges faced when using such methods. In this article, we critically reflect on two studies that used participatory photography in different cultural contexts. The first study used photo-elicitation to investigate mothers' experiences of infant settling in central Vietnam. The second study used photovoice to explore pregnant embodiment in Australia. Following a discussion of the literature and a detailed overview of the two studies, we examine the methodological challenges in using participant photography before, during and after each study. This is followed by a discussion of ethical concerns that arose in relation to the burden of participation, confidentiality, consent, and the photographing of families and children. To conclude, we highlight implications for using participatory photography in other settings.

  12. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  13. Diverse Ways to Fore-Ground Methodological Insights about Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Mazzei, Lisa A.; Ceglowski, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Texts and articles that put epistemological theories and methodologies to work in the context of qualitative research can stimulate scholarship in various ways such as through methodological innovations, transferability of theories and methods, interdisciplinarity, and transformative reflections across traditions and frameworks. Such…

  14. Public understanding of science and the perception of nanotechnology: the roles of interest in science, methodological knowledge, epistemological beliefs, and beliefs about science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retzbach, Andrea; Marschall, Joachim; Rahnke, Marion; Otto, Lukas; Maier, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report data from an online questionnaire study with 587 respondents, representative for the adult U.S. population in terms of age, gender, and level of education. The aim of this study was to assess how interest in science and knowledge as well as beliefs about science are associated with risk and benefit perceptions of nanotechnology. The findings suggest that the U.S. public is still rather unfamiliar with nanotechnology. Those who have some knowledge mainly have gotten it from TV and the Internet. The content of current media reports is perceived as fairly positive. Knowledge of scientific methods is unrelated to benefit and risk perceptions, at least when other predictors are controlled. In contrast, positive beliefs about science (e.g., its impact on economy or health) and more sophisticated epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge are moderately linked to more positive perceptions of nanotechnology. The only exception is the perception of scientific uncertainty: This is associated with less positive evaluations. Finally, higher engagement with science is associated with higher risk perceptions. These findings show that laypersons who are engaged with science and who are aware of the inherent uncertainty of scientific evidence might perceive nanotechnology in a somewhat more differentiated way, contrary to how it is portrayed in the media today.

  15. When Historiography Met Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Stoffel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Bordoni, Stefano. When historiography met epistemology: Sophisticated histories and philosophies of science in French-speaking countries in the second half of the nineteenth century. Reviewed by Jean-François Stoffel.

  16. Formative science and indicial science: epistemological proposal for information science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Alvarenga de Araújo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological reflections on the Information Science as scientific field that if structure in the context of modern science, in theoretical and methodological terms and technologies of the information in applied terms. Such configuration made possible the sprouting of this science; however we consider that the same one will not guarantee to this science the full development as field of consistent and modern knowledge. Modern Science, while scientific practical vision and meets depleted and the information technologies are only auto-regulated mechanisms that function according to principles of automatisms. To leave of these considerations we propols the concept of Formative Science (Bachelard, 1996 and the Indiciario Paradigm (1991 with epistemological basis for the Information Science. The concept of formative science if a base on the principles of tree states of the scientific spirit and the psychological condition of the scientific progress and the indiciario paradigm it considers the intuição (empirical and rational as methodological base to make it scientific.

  17. A Methodological Approach for Assessing Amplified Reflection Distributed Denial of Service on the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Gondim, João José; de Oliveira Albuquerque, Robson; Clayton Alves Nascimento, Anderson; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2016-11-04

    Concerns about security on Internet of Things (IoT) cover data privacy and integrity, access control, and availability. IoT abuse in distributed denial of service attacks is a major issue, as typical IoT devices' limited computing, communications, and power resources are prioritized in implementing functionality rather than security features. Incidents involving attacks have been reported, but without clear characterization and evaluation of threats and impacts. The main purpose of this work is to methodically assess the possible impacts of a specific class-amplified reflection distributed denial of service attacks (AR-DDoS)-against IoT. The novel approach used to empirically examine the threat represented by running the attack over a controlled environment, with IoT devices, considered the perspective of an attacker. The methodology used in tests includes that perspective, and actively prospects vulnerabilities in computer systems. This methodology defines standardized procedures for tool-independent vulnerability assessment based on strategy, and the decision flows during execution of penetration tests (pentests). After validation in different scenarios, the methodology was applied in amplified reflection distributed denial of service (AR-DDoS) attack threat assessment. Results show that, according to attack intensity, AR-DDoS saturates reflector infrastructure. Therefore, concerns about AR-DDoS are founded, but expected impact on abused IoT infrastructure and devices will be possibly as hard as on final victims.

  18. A Methodological Approach for Assessing Amplified Reflection Distributed Denial of Service on the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José Costa Gondim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about security on Internet of Things (IoT cover data privacy and integrity, access control, and availability. IoT abuse in distributed denial of service attacks is a major issue, as typical IoT devices’ limited computing, communications, and power resources are prioritized in implementing functionality rather than security features. Incidents involving attacks have been reported, but without clear characterization and evaluation of threats and impacts. The main purpose of this work is to methodically assess the possible impacts of a specific class–amplified reflection distributed denial of service attacks (AR-DDoS–against IoT. The novel approach used to empirically examine the threat represented by running the attack over a controlled environment, with IoT devices, considered the perspective of an attacker. The methodology used in tests includes that perspective, and actively prospects vulnerabilities in computer systems. This methodology defines standardized procedures for tool-independent vulnerability assessment based on strategy, and the decision flows during execution of penetration tests (pentests. After validation in different scenarios, the methodology was applied in amplified reflection distributed denial of service (AR-DDoS attack threat assessment. Results show that, according to attack intensity, AR-DDoS saturates reflector infrastructure. Therefore, concerns about AR-DDoS are founded, but expected impact on abused IoT infrastructure and devices will be possibly as hard as on final victims.

  19. Practical theology as ‘healing of memories’: Critical reflections on a specific methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A. Nell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available When developing new perspectives and paradigms for practical theology in South Africa, we obviously have to take our South African context seriously. We live in a post-conflict society in which gigantic sociocultural shifts have taken place since 1994. Many institutions and groups endeavour to address the conflict, injustices and pain of the past, including the Institute for the Healing of Memories (IHOM. The Institute makes use of a specific methodology in their workshops. Having participated in these workshops in congregational contexts as well as in the training of theological students, in this article I investigated the methodology of the Institute as a framework for new perspectives on practical theology in South Africa. Making use of Victor Turner’s theoretical construct of ‘social drama’ as one way of looking at the methodology of the IHOM, I reflected critically on the challenges that it poses to practical theology by making use of a ‘rhetorical frame’ and trying to delineate some constructive proposals for further reflections on practical theological paradigms and perspectives.

  20. A Methodological Approach for Assessing Amplified Reflection Distributed Denial of Service on the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Gondim, João José; de Oliveira Albuquerque, Robson; Clayton Alves Nascimento, Anderson; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about security on Internet of Things (IoT) cover data privacy and integrity, access control, and availability. IoT abuse in distributed denial of service attacks is a major issue, as typical IoT devices’ limited computing, communications, and power resources are prioritized in implementing functionality rather than security features. Incidents involving attacks have been reported, but without clear characterization and evaluation of threats and impacts. The main purpose of this work is to methodically assess the possible impacts of a specific class–amplified reflection distributed denial of service attacks (AR-DDoS)–against IoT. The novel approach used to empirically examine the threat represented by running the attack over a controlled environment, with IoT devices, considered the perspective of an attacker. The methodology used in tests includes that perspective, and actively prospects vulnerabilities in computer systems. This methodology defines standardized procedures for tool-independent vulnerability assessment based on strategy, and the decision flows during execution of penetration tests (pentests). After validation in different scenarios, the methodology was applied in amplified reflection distributed denial of service (AR-DDoS) attack threat assessment. Results show that, according to attack intensity, AR-DDoS saturates reflector infrastructure. Therefore, concerns about AR-DDoS are founded, but expected impact on abused IoT infrastructure and devices will be possibly as hard as on final victims. PMID:27827931

  1. Urgensi Tauhid dalam Membangun Epistemologi Islam

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    Bambang Irawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The reform efforts undertaken by contemporary Muslim thinkers have so far not been able to alter significantly the presence of Muslim which seems in the shadow of western progress in the context of science. This condition is due to the effect of undermining of Western thought through their epistemology packaging. Of course, we cannot blame the West as they have their own paradigm which is different with the Islamic paradigm in developing knowledge. Accordingly, the questions arise: why Muslim scholars are not working hard to build an epistemology that carries the message of monotheism; why they are hurry to accept the truth of Western epistemology without a fundamental review on revelation, so they become loyal followers of Western theories and concepts. Thus, the greatest challenge for Muslim scientists today is how to find a comprehensive formulation of the various theories of knowledge that can be accepted by all people, so that Islamic science is not only free from the shadow of imperialism of Western epistemology, but is able to reflect in a concrete concept of Islam as ‘rahmatan lil ‘alamin’. This paper seeks to reorient the meaning of monotheism in the development epistemology of science which is featured with theocentric-humanism, that is, in addition to spiritual oriented (tawhid it is also able to accommodate the interests of human beings (amal.Dalam konteks ilmu pengetahuan, upaya reformasi yang dilakukan oleh pemikir Muslim kontemporer sejauh ini belum mampu mengubah secara signifikan bayang-bayang kemajuan Barat. Kondisi ini disebabkan oleh efek pemikiran Barat yang dikemas dalam epistemologi mereka. Tentu saja, kita tidak bisa menyalahkan Barat karena mereka memiliki paradigma dan tolok ukur sendiri yang berbeda dengan paradigma Islam dalam mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan. Dengan demikian, pertanyaan yang muncul, mengapa sarjana Muslim tidak bekerja keras untuk membangun sebuah epistemologi yang membawa pesan tauhid, mengapa

  2. Against the Grain and Over the Line: Reflections on Comparative Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Freidenreich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article distills theoretical arguments that I advance in Foreigners and Their Food, arguments relevant to a wide range of religious studies scholars. In addition, it makes the case for comparison as a method that sheds light not only on specific comparands and the class of data to which they belong but also on the very boundaries which the comparison transgresses. Through a comparison of Latin Christian and Shiʿi Islamic discourse about the impurity of religious foreigners, I illustrate methods by which religious authorities develop and transmit conceptions of foreigners. I then analyze this case study using Oliver Freiberger’s “Elements of a Comparative Methodology” while assessing the strengths and limitations of Freiberger’s methodical framework. I offer personal reflections on the process of conducting comparative scholarship, advice for those embarking on this demanding yet rewarding approach to the study of religion, and desiderata for further reflection on comparative methodology.

  3. Epistemological risk aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardashkin I.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers risk in the context of the main characteristics of non-classical epistemology. It states that non-classical epistemology is characterized by transformation, according to which the major priority of cognitive activity shifts the focus from the present to the past. In this situation a subject is keen not on what he or she has learnt but on what can be learnt. Truth being a crucial criterion of scientific knowledge is becoming of less priority, while risk is becoming more and more significant and acts as one of the major epistemology measurements. Risk is gaining the status of epistemological phenomenon, which shows a growing degree of uncertainty as a cognitive process background and the necessity for a subject to learn the world (make decisions under the conditions of uncertainty degree strengthening. The author states that risk is a comprehensive notion and it obtains a base value for all other aspects of its application, specifically, in the role of epistemological phenomenon.

  4. Shift in power during an interview situation: methodological reflections inspired by Foucault and Bourdieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aléx, Lena; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents methodological reflections on power sharing and shifts of power in various interview situations. Narratives are said to be shaped by our attempts to position ourselves within social and cultural circumstances. In an interview situation, power can be seen as something that is created and that shifts between the interviewer and the interviewed. Reflexivity is involved when we as interviewers attempt to look at a situation or a concept from various perspectives. A modified form of discourse analysis inspired by subject positioning was used to reflect on power relations in four different interview situations. The analyses indicate that reflection on the power relations can lead to other forms of understanding of the interviewee. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that power relations are created within an interview situation and therefore it is important to be aware of dominant perspectives. Researchers and nurses face the challenge of constantly raising their level of consciousness about power relationships, and discursive reflexivity is one way of doing this. Thus, reflexivity is an important part of the qualitative research process.

  5. Epistemological or Political?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    in a consolidated field. It is argued that if we envisage a consolidated field of IDS, there is a need to develop common ground which calls for scholars of ID to be more explicit about the meanings they ascribe to ID than we see today when the sliding between the epistemological and political dimensions...... of the field may go unnoticed. It is suggested that whereas ambiguity may be unwanted in the epistemological dimension, it may be quite useful in the political dimension. A systematic comparison of opposite positions offers a common frame of reference for a more productive dialogue between different positions...

  6. Portraiture: a methodology through which success and positivity can be explored and reflected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Vicki; Jones, Bronwyn; Hendricks, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    To present an overview of portraiture. Nursing is increasingly embracing more arts-based approaches as research methodologies. Portraiture has an underlying philosophy and process that enables the illumination of real people in real settings through the 'painting' of their stories. It is a complex methodology in which the researcher attempts to illuminate meaning of personal stories and events presented as narrative. Interview data were collected from nine participants from three nursing settings. Nurses were invited to participate in an interview or conversation designed to elicit data to address the research questions; the aim was to gain insight into the nurses' common shared meanings and shared contemplations of their feelings about resilience. Criteria for inclusion in this study required that all nurse participants were English speaking, registered with the Nurses and Midwives Board of Western Australia and that each had over five years' experience in the Western Australian healthcare environment. This was to enable reflection on significant and ongoing changes within the workplace as a possible source of resilient behaviours. This is a methodological paper. Portraiture blends aesthetics and empiricism while drawing on features of narrative, case study, phenomenology and ethnography. The portraits stand as individual vignettes revealing recognisable themes and enabling patterns of experience to emerge from each topic being studied. Each portrait requires the researcher to constantly reflect on the participant's experiences by incorporating ethnographic observations, interview responses, impressionistic records, the interpretation of context, and the researcher's experiences and insights. It is a methodology that concentrates on success and positivity to immerse the reader in carefully painted and perceptive stories of success and positivity in times of adversity. This paper describes some of the hallmarks of the portraiture method, one of which is to portray

  7. The action and the psychosocial approach of the intervention in social contexts: can we move from the fashion to the theoretical, epistemological, and methodological precision?.

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Gómez, Juan David; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2012-01-01

    The following article, derived from research, poses the question about a growing issue in Colombia: the increase in projects of psychosocial intervention in diverse social sectors, particularly with victims of the armed conflict, social violence, violence of gender and family, etc., as well as population in a situation of extreme poverty, forced displacement and victims of natural disasters. In relation to this logic of intervention and action, the academic reflection tends to be scarce, uncl...

  8. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Methodological Reflections on the Use of Asynchronous Online Focus Groups in Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams PhD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is increasingly used as a tool in qualitative research. In particular, asynchronous online focus groups are used when factors such as cost, time, or access to participants can make conducting face-to-face research difficult. In this article we consider key methodological issues involved in using asynchronous online focus groups to explore experiences of health and illness. The written nature of Internet communication, the lack of physical presence, and the asynchronous, longitudinal aspects enable participants who might not normally contribute to research studies to reflect on their personal stories before disclosing them to the researcher. Implications for study design, recruitment strategies, and ethics should be considered when deciding whether to use this method.

  10. Applying a learning design methodology in the flipped classroom approach – empowering teachers to reflect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Kofoed, Lise; Purwins, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    One of the recent developments in teaching that heavily relies on current technology is the “flipped classroom” approach. In a flipped classroom the traditional lecture and homework sessions are inverted. Students are provided with online material in order to gain necessary knowledge before class......, while class time is devoted to clarifications and application of this knowledge. The hypothesis is that there could be deep and creative discussions when teacher and students physically meet. This paper discusses how the learning design methodology can be applied to represent, share and guide educators...... and values of different stakeholders (i.e. institutions, educators, learners, and external agents), which influence the design and success of flipped classrooms. Moreover, it looks at the teaching cycle from a flipped instruction model perspective and adjusts it to cater for the reflection loops educators...

  11. Epistemology and Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2010-01-01

    Offers an exploration of the relationships between epistemology and probability in the work of Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrodinger; in quantum mechanics; and in modern physics. This book considers the implications of these relationships and of quantum theory for our understanding of the nature of thinking and knowledge in general

  12. Purifying Impure Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    A notorious objection to robust virtue epistemology—the view that an agent knows a proposition if and only if her cognitive success is because of her intellectual virtues—is that it fails to eliminate knowledge-undermining luck. Modest virtue epistemologists agree with robust virtue epistemologis...

  13. [Reflections on qualitative research. Interview of Luisa Saiani with Luigina Mortari].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortari, Luigina; Saiani, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Reflections on qualitative research. Interview of Luisa Saiani to Luigina Mortari. Luigina Mortari, an internationally known expert of epistemology and qualitative research, was interviewed to explore her thoughts on issues relevant for qualitative research: when a research question can be considered relevant; key methodological elements; ethical issues.

  14. Can there be a physics of financial markets? Methodological reflections on econophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Tobias A.; Sornette, Didier

    2016-12-01

    We address the question whether there can be a physical science of financial markets. In particular, we examine the argument that, given the reflexivity of financial markets (i.e., the feedback mechanism between expectations and prices), there is a fundamental difference between social and physical systems, which demands a new scientific method. By providing a selective history of the mutual cross-fertilization between physics and economics, we reflect on the methodological differences of how models and theories get constructed in these fields. We argue that the novel conception of financial markets as complex adaptive systems is one of the most important contributions of econophysics and show that this field of research provides the methods, concepts, and tools to scientifically account for reflexivity. We conclude by arguing that a new science of economic and financial systems should not only be physics-based, but needs to integrate findings from other scientific fields, so that a truly multi-disciplinary complex systems science of financial markets can be built.

  15. Methodologic approach for the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namaste, Sorrel Ml; Aaron, Grant J; Varadhan, Ravi; Peerson, Janet M; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2017-07-01

    Background: The Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project is a multiagency and multicountry collaboration that was formed to improve micronutrient assessment and to better characterize anemia. Objectives: The aims of the project were to 1 ) identify factors associated with inflammation, 2 ) assess the relations between inflammation, malaria infection, and biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and compare adjustment approaches, and 3 ) assess risk factors for anemia in preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA). Design: The BRINDA database inclusion criteria included surveys that 1 ) were conducted after 2004, 2 ) had target groups of PSC, WRA, or both, and 3 ) used a similar laboratory methodology for the measurement of ≥1 biomarker of iron [ferritin or soluble transferrin receptor or vitamin A status (retinol-binding protein or retinol)] and ≥1 biomarker of inflammation (α-1-acid glycoprotein or C-reactive protein). Individual data sets were standardized and merged into a BRINDA database comprising 16 nationally and regionally representative surveys from 14 countries. Collectively, the database covered all 6 WHO geographic regions and contained ∼30,000 PSC and 27,000 WRA. Data were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. Results: The methods that were used to standardize the BRINDA database and the analytic approaches used to address the project's research questions are presented in this article. Three approaches to adjust micronutrient biomarker concentrations in the presence of inflammation and malaria infection are presented, along with an anemia conceptual framework that guided the BRINDA project's anemia analyses. Conclusions: The BRINDA project refines approaches to interpret iron and vitamin A biomarker values in settings of inflammation and malaria infection and suggests the use of a new regression approach as well as proposes an anemia framework to

  16. Construção de políticas de informação: aspectos epistemológicos e metodológicos | Constructing information policies: epistemological and methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Fabian Ferreira Higino

    2008-09-01

    envision associates answering local demands for information access with creating adequate local conditions to participating in “information society” with enough space guaranteed for the manifestation of cultural identity and lesser risk of subscription to subalternity. Keywords information policy, information regime, political epistemology, multiculturalism, counter-hegemony.

  17. Diffraction or Reflection? Sketching the Contours of Two Methodologies in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalek, Vivienne; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, an interest is emerging in a growing body of work on what has become known as "diffractive methodologies" drawing attention to ontological aspects of research. Diffractive methodologies have largely been developed in response to a dissatisfaction with practices of "reflexivity", which are seen to be grounded in…

  18. Non-invasive identification of organic materials in historical stringed musical instruments by reflection infrared spectroscopy: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Claudia; Daveri, Alessia; Vagnini, Manuela; Malagodi, Marco

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of historical musical instruments is becoming more relevant and the interest is increasingly moving toward the non-invasive reflection FTIR spectroscopy, especially for the analysis of varnishes. In this work, a specific infrared reflectance spectral library of organic compounds was created with the aim of identifying musical instrument materials in a totally non-invasive way. The analyses were carried out on pure organic compounds, as bulk samples and laboratory wooden models, to evaluate the diagnostic reflection mid-infrared (MIR) bands of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and resins by comparing reflection spectra before and after the KK correction. This methodological approach was applied to real case studies represented by four Stradivari violins and a Neapolitan mandolin.

  19. Queering canons. Methodological heteronormativities and queer inquietudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirus Rinaldi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a series of epistemological and methodological reflections on the use of qualitative research methods in the study of non-normative sexualities. Particular emphasis will be highlighting the needs to reconsider queerly sociological oriented methods and methodology, paying attention to researcher’s ambiguous role, her body and emotions in the permanent reflexive research process and in encounters with the (co-researched. Normal 0 21 false false false ES-AR X-NONE X-NONE EPISTEMOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MODERN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONAL PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S. Tokovenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is finding the reasonability of using bio-evolutionary paradigm for researching ratio morphic cognitive activity. Methodology. Methodological grounds consist of the original principles and conceptual apparatus of evolutionary epistemology. Scientific novelty. The article identifies opportunities for using of biological and evolutionary paradigm to study the peculiarities of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds and their influence on the formation and development of human knowledge. Conclusions. The article concludes that together with the idea of hyper cycles (feedback loop with mutual transmission of information in cognitive process the concept of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds, as well as attempts to examine cognitive processes based on the scientific criteria (empirical verification, explanatory power and ability to predict should be certainly considered as a positive contribution to the development of evolutionary epistemology into modern epistemological research. However, it is also indicated the fact of narrowing the heuristic possibilities of this epistemological direction because of excessive metaphor of bio-evolutionary paradigm. Further development of evolutionary epistemological research is considered in shifting the emphasis from biological and evolutionary towards cultural and evolutionary paradigm.

  1. Combination of interventions can change students’ epistemological beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin S. Kalman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on the hypothesis that students’ epistemological beliefs could become more expertlike with a combination of appropriate instructional activities: (i preclass reading with metacognitive reflection, and (ii in-class active learning that produces cognitive dissonance. This hypothesis was tested through a five-year study involving close to 1000 students at two institutions, in four physics courses. Using an experimental design, data from student interviews, writing product assessments, and the Discipline-Focused Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (DFEBQ we demonstrate that the beliefs of novice science learners became more expertlike on 2 of the 4 DFEBQ factors. We conclude that a combination of an activity that gets students to examine textual material metacognitively (Reflective Writing with one or more types of in-class active learning interventions can promote positive change in students’ epistemological beliefs.

  2. EPISTEMOLOGI IDEOLOGI KEAMANAN PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Adiwibowo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isu keamanan pangan memberikan dampak yang signifi kan pada kehidupan sosial ekonomi dunia. Hal ini ditandai dengan penyebaran bahaya virus, mikroba patogen dan residu pestisida yang menyebabkan gangguan kesehatan bahkan kematian.Untuk melindungi negara dari bahaya virus, mikroba patogen dan residu pestisida, maka negara maju menerapkan standar sebagai hambatan perdagangan agar produk yang terkontaminasi dan berbahaya tersebut tidak dapat masuk ke negaranya. Epistemologi Islam menjabarkan keamanan pangan dalam Al Quran sebagaimana tertulis dalam Qs Al-Baqoroh (2: 168 “makanlah yang halal lagi baik.” Makanan yang halal adalah hak Allah yang menghalalkan. Makanan yang baik adalah makanan yang memberikan ketenangan dan tidak menimbulkan bahaya. Hal ini sejalan dengan ideologi Pancasila dan konstitusi sebagai dasar fi losofi pembentukan peraturan perundang-undangan Indonesia.

  3. Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitbol, Michel

    The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  4. The epistemology of neo-Gettier epistemology | Lockie | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disagreement in analytic epistemology. The paper recommends that we seek to develop theories of knowledge rather than analyses, and defends the position that such theories will precisely not be analyses. South African Journal of Philosophy ...

  5. Personal epistemological growth in a college chemistry laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen-Rocha, Linda S.

    The nature of this study was to explore changes in beliefs and lay a foundation for focusing on more specific features of reasoning related to personal epistemological and NOS beliefs in light of specific science laboratory instructional pedagogical practices (e.g., pre- and post-laboratory activities, laboratory work) for future research. This research employed a mixed methodology, foregrounding qualitative data. The total population consisted of 56 students enrolled in several sections of a general chemistry laboratory course, with the qualitative analysis focusing on the in-depth interviews. A quantitative NOS and epistemological beliefs measure was administered pre- and post-instruction. These measures were triangulated with pre-post interviews to assure the rigor of the descriptions generated. Although little quantitative change in NOS was observed from the pre-post NSKS assessment a more noticeable qualitative change was reflected by the participants during their final interviews. The NSKS results: the mean gain scores for the overall score and all dimensions, except for amoral were found to be significant at p ≤ .05. However there was a more moderate change in the populations' broader epistemological beliefs (EBAPS) which was supported during the final interviews. The EBAPS results: the mean gain scores for the overall score and all dimensions, except for the source of ability to learn were found to be significant at p ≤ .05. The participants' identified the laboratory work as the most effective instructional feature followed by the post-laboratory activities. The pre-laboratory was identified as being the least effective feature. The participants suggested the laboratory work offered real-life experiences, group discussions, and teamwork which added understanding and meaning to their learning. The post-laboratory was viewed as necessary in tying all the information together and being able to see the bigger picture. What one cannot infer at this point is

  6. Ethics and Epistemology in Big Data Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Mason, Paul H; Kerridge, Ian; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-12-01

    Biomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using "big data." The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to "real-world" patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and technical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithms, and data analysis techniques. While such advances will likely go some way towards resolving technical and methodological issues, we believe that the epistemological issues raised by big data research have important ethical implications and raise questions about the very possibility of big data research achieving its goals.

  7. Epistemology of tourism: theoretical schools and critical proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Panosso Netto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is present, discuss and problematize the issue of epistemology applied to tourism. The paper discusses the problems in the construction of knowledge of tourism, and theoretical schools, and a proposed critical epistemology. Progress in the scientific production of knowledge in tourism, referring to epistemology, despite its growth in recent years, remains an issue that can be considered neglected or very complex due to the need for a strong philosophical reflection, with little application in practical life, by the claim of achieving scientific rigor of analytic epistemology. The procedure is a critical review of the term epistemology to discriminate the scientistic position of the term and the other schools recognize influencing this trend (analytical and those opposed to it (such as historical, to no effect misrepresent its meaning in the humanities and social sciences, but particularly in tourism. The proposal relates to the development of reflective critical foundations, based on critical theory, as a build option to transform the reality and knowledge of tourism.

  8. Shifting Positionalities: Empirical Reflections on a Queer/Trans of Colour Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Haritaworn

    2008-01-01

    How can we study 'Queer', or indeed, should we? Drawing on fieldwork with people raised in interracial families in Britain and Germany, and reflecting on my own coming out as transgendered/genderqueer during the research, I reflect on the role of difference, similarity, and change in the production of queer knowledges. My entry point is a queer diasporic one. Queers of colour, I argue, have a particular stake in queering racialised heterosexualities; yet differences within diasporic spaces cl...

  9. RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Calgaro Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.

  10. Two Kinds of Social Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Finn

    2013-01-01

    ” for their emerging position. Still, substantial disagreement remains between the two identically named programmes with regard to the proper philosophical approach to knowledge as a social phenomenon; in this article, I try to pinpoint the locus of this disagreement. However, Fuller has also been engaged in minor......Steve Fuller’s programme of Social Epistemology was initiated some 25 years ago with the launching of a journal and the publication of a monograph with those very words as their title. Since then, the programme has evolved in a constant critical dialogue with other players in the fields...... of epistemology and science studies. Fuller’s main confrontation has been with analytic epistemology which, in its classical form, adopts a contrary position on most key issues. However, analytic epistemologists have gradually moved in the direction of Fuller’s views and even adopted the term “social epistemology...

  11. Methodological Reflections on the Use of Systematic Reviews in Early Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Lynn

    2018-01-01

    This article sets out to look critically at the use of systematic reviews in the cross-disciplinary field of early childhood and international development. Systematic reviews--a specialist methodology involving the secondary analysis of existing knowledge on a particular topic--is prevalently used to address complex questions in social and…

  12. "Beyond the commodity metaphor," revisited: Some methodological reflections on place attachment research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2014-01-01

    The year 1992 was a watershed for research on place attachment. Not only was the landmark book Place Attachment (Altman & Low, 1992) published, in that same year some colleagues and I published "Beyond the Commodity Metaphor" in the journal Leisure Sciences (Williams et al., 1992). Our paper was not intended as a methodological contribution to place...

  13. Analysing Everyday Online Political Talk in China: Theoretical and Methodological Reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Scott; Graham, Todd; Sun, Yu; Yang Wang, Wilfred; Luo, Xiantian; Carson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical and methodological challenges of collecting and analysing everyday online political talk in China, and our approach to defining and coding such talk. In so doing, the article is designed to encourage further research in this area, taking forward a new agenda for

  14. What Are Naturally Occurring School Lotteries and How Do We Identify Them? Reflections on Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterman, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    This post is one in a series highlighting MDRC's methodological work. In the past decade, rapid growth in the number of charter schools and school district choice systems has provided education researchers with exciting opportunities to use naturally occurring pockets of randomization to rigorously study the effects of policy-relevant education…

  15. Will Pedagogy Become a Science? Reflections on the Methodology of V. V. Kraevsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a modern take on the creative legacy of V.V. Kraevsky, his interpretation of the nature and function of methodological research in pedagogy, and insight into the mission of pedagogical science in society and the relationships between pedagogical theory and practice. It shows the prospects for using Kraevsky's ideas to solve the…

  16. Application of an environmental remediation methodology: theory vs. practice reflections and two Belgian case studies - 59184

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blommaert, W.; Mannaerts, K.; Pepin, S.; Dehandschutter, B.

    2012-01-01

    Like in many countries, polluted industrial sites also exist in Belgium. Although the contamination is purely chemical in most cases, they may also contain a radioactive component. For chemically contaminated sites, extensive regulations and methodologies were already developed and applied by the different regional authorities. However and essentially because radioactivity is a federal competence, there was also a necessity for developing a legal federal framework (including an ER-methodology [1]) for remediation of radioactive contaminated sites. Most of the so-called radioactive contaminated sites are exhibiting a mixed contamination (chemical and radiological), and hence the development of such methodology had to be in line with the existing (regional) ones concerning chemical contamination. Each authority having their own responsibilities with regard to the type of contamination, this makes it more complicated and time-consuming finding the best solution satisfying all involved parties. To overcome these difficulties the legal framework and methodology - including the necessary involvement of the stakeholders and delineation of each party's responsibilities - has to be transparent, clear and unambiguous. Once the methodology is developed as such and approved, the application of it is expected to be more or less easy, logic and straightforward. But is this really true? The aim of this document is to investigate as well the impact of factors such as the type of radioactive contamination - levels of contamination, related to NORM activity or not, homogeneous or heterogeneous, the differences in licensing procedures,.. - on the application of the developed methodology and what could be the consequences in the long run on the remediation process. Two existing case studies in Belgium will be presented ([2]). The first case deals with a historical radium contaminated site, the second one with a phosphate processing facility still in operation, both with (very) low

  17. Examining value creation in a community of learning practice: Methodological reflections on story-telling and story-reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filitsa Dingyloudi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant research on communities in various shapes and settings, examination of what community members gained from their participation remains a thorny issue. For this purpose, we adopted and refined the value creation framework developed by Wenger, Trayner and De Laat (2011 to divulge experienced values by community members through “scaffolded narratives” and categorization of the values reported through their stories. However, in doing so two methodological issues emerged – in particular in relation to “values”. This paper reports on our methodological reflection on the challenging process of capturing community members’ value creation within a community of learning practice. More specifically, we reflect on the following questions: (1 To what extent can the values that the participants originally intended to report be identified as such by the researchers/analysts’ without bias due to the researchers/analysts’ own perspectives? and (2 To what extent does a theoretically-driven pre-defined typology of values confine or enrich the range of possible values that can be identified? What adds to this challenging research endeavour is the concept of value in theoretical terms and its associated typologies. Hence, these methodological questions need to be discussed in order to comprehend both the phenomenon of value (creation per se as well as how it is examined – as close to the participants’ reality as possible – since value creation is the driving force for the sustainability of a community.

  18. Analysis of Transaction Costs in Logistics and the Methodologies for Their Information Reflection for Automotive Companies

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    Ol’ga Evgen’evna Kovrizhnykh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transaction costs emerge in different types of logistics activities and influence the material flow and the accompanying financial and information flows; due to this fact, the information support and assessment are important tasks for the enterprise. The paper analyzes transaction costs in logistics for automotive manufacturers; according to the analysis, the level of these costs in any functional area of “logistics supply” ranges from 1.5 to 20%. These are only the official figures of transaction costs of enterprises that do not take into consideration implicit costs. Despite the growing interest in transaction costs in logistics in the latest fifteen years, this topic is covered rather poorly in Russian literature; the definition of “transaction costs” is unclear, there is no technique of their information reflection and assessment. We have developed the methods for information reflection of transaction costs that can be used by automotive enterprises. Each enterprise will have an opportunity to choose the most suitable technique for information reflection of transaction costs or to compare the level of transaction costs when using different techniques. Application of techniques for information reflection of transaction costs allows the enterprises to increase profits by optimizing and reducing costs and using their assets more effectively, to identify possible ways to improve cost parameters of their performance, to improve their efficiency and productivity; to cut out unnecessary or duplicate activities, to optimize the number of staff involved in a particular activity

  19. Against Mixed Epistemology

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    Joe Milburn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2015v19n2p183 We can call any reductive account of knowledge that appeals to both safety and ability conditions a mixed account of knowledge. Examples of mixed accounts of knowledge include Pritchard’s (2012 Anti-Luck Virtue Epistemology, Kelp’s (2013 Safe-Apt account of knowledge, and Turri’s (2011 Ample belief account of knowledge. Mixed accounts of knowledge are motivated by well-known counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge. It is thought that by combining both safety and ability conditions we can give an extensionally adequate reductive account of knowledge. In this paper I argue that the putative counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge fail to motivate mixed accounts of knowledge. In particular, I argue that if the putative counterexamples are problematic for safety accounts they are problematic for ability accounts and vice-versa. The reason for this, I argue, is that the safety condition and ability condition should be understood as alternative expressions of the same intuition — that knowledge must come from a reliable source.

  20. Development and Application of Urban Landslide Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Reflecting Social and Economic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An urban landslide vulnerability assessment methodology is proposed with major focus on considering urban social and economic aspects. The proposed methodology was developed based on the landslide susceptibility maps that Korean Forest Service utilizes to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R (flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a regional scale, and then urban vulnerability is assessed by two categories: physical and socioeconomic aspect. The physical vulnerability is related to buildings that can be impacted by a landslide event. This study considered two popular building structure types, reinforced-concrete frame and nonreinforced-concrete frame, to assess the physical vulnerability. The socioeconomic vulnerability is considered a function of the resistant levels of the vulnerable people, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology, physical and socioeconomic vulnerability levels are analyzed for Seoul, Korea, using the suggested approach. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  1. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

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    Emil Dinga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  2. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  3. Teaching and learning in the science classroom: The interplay between teachers' epistemological moves and students' practical epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidar, Malena; Lundqvist, Eva; Östman, Leif

    2006-01-01

    The practical epistemology used by students and the epistemological moves delivered by teachers in conversations with students are analyzed in order to understand how teaching activities interplay with the how and the what of students' learning. The purpose is to develop an approach for analyzing the process of privileging in students' meaning making and how individual and situational aspects of classroom discourse interact in this process. Here we especially focus on the experiences of students and the encounter with the teacher. The analyses also demonstrate that a study of teaching and learning activities can shed light on which role epistemology has for students' meaning making, for teaching and for the interplay between these activities. The methodological approach used is an elaboration a sociocultural perspective on learning, pragmatism, and the work of Wittgenstein. The empirical material consists of recordings made in science classes in two Swedish compulsory schools.

  4. Personal robots, appearance and the Good: A methodological reflection on roboethics.

    OpenAIRE

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The development of pet robots, toy robots, and sex robots suggests a near-future scenario of habitual living with ‘personal’ robots. How should we evaluate their potential impact on the quality of our lives and existence? In this paper, I argue for an approach to ethics of personal robots that advocates a methodological turn from robots to humans, from mind to interaction, from intelligent thinking to social-emotional being, from reality to appearance, from right to good, from external criter...

  5. Conducting research among smuggled migrants in the Netherlands and Austria: methodological reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bilger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research among smuggled migrants raises methodological as well as ethical questions. In this article the implications of field work among this specific group of people are thoroughly discussed. Also migrants who have been smuggled have a past, a travel experience and some have a confrontation with immigration officers which can have a concrete impact on the story provided to the researcher and as such on the data collection. Besides, once the story is told, the researcher is responsable for how best to deal with this often secret information.

  6. Methodological Reflections on the Contribution of Qualitative Research to the Evaluation of Clinical Ethics Support Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäscher, Sebastian; Salloch, Sabine; Ritter, Peter; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2017-05-01

    This article describes a process of developing, implementing and evaluating a clinical ethics support service intervention with the goal of building up a context-sensitive structure of minimal clinical-ethics in an oncology department without prior clinical ethics structure. Scholars from different disciplines have called for an improvement in the evaluation of clinical ethics support services (CESS) for different reasons over several decades. However, while a lot has been said about the concepts and methodological challenges of evaluating CESS up to the present time, relatively few empirical studies have been carried out. The aim of this article is twofold. On the one hand, it describes a process of development, modifying and evaluating a CESS intervention as part of the ETHICO research project, using the approach of qualitative-formative evaluation. On the other hand, it provides a methodological analysis which specifies the contribution of qualitative empirical methods to the (formative) evaluation of CESS. We conclude with a consideration of the strengths and limitations of qualitative evaluation research with regards to the evaluation and development of context sensitive CESS. We further discuss our own approach in contrast to rather traditional consult or committee models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  8. Counting Zero: Rethinking Feminist Epistemologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns feminist engagements with epistemologies. Feminist epistemologies have revealed and challenged the exclusions and denigrations at work in knowledge production processes. And yet, the emphasis on the partiality of knowledge and the non-innocence of any subject position also cast doubt on the possibility of feminist political communities. In view of this, it has been argued that the very parameter of epistemology poses limitations for feminism, for it leads to either political paralysis or prescriptive politics that in fact undoes the political of politics. From a different perspective, decolonial feminists argue for radical epistemic disobedience and delinking the move beyond the confines of Western systems of knowledge and its extractive knowledge economy. Nevertheless, the oppositional logic informs both feminist epistemologies and its critiques, which I argue is symptomatic of the epistemic habits of academic feminism. This article ends with a preliminary reconsideration of the question of origin through the figure of zero. It asks whether it might be possible to conceive of feminist epistemologies as performing the task of counting zero – accounting for origin, wholeness, and universality – that takes into account specificities without forfeiting coalition and claims to knowledge.

  9. Poetic reflection through digital storytelling – a methodology to foster professional health worker identity in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Jamissen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of digital storytelling research there is a focus on personal narratives, multimedia and the creative process in developing identity and voice. The project introduced in this paper has identified contexts in higher education where digital storytelling may be used as a promising tool to support students’ learning, assisting them to combine theory and practical experience in their field of study. Students in the health professions need to develop a professional identity based on both social and technical competencies. Technical competencies concord with what students expect to be taught in a university college. The development of social competence and professional identity, however, requires a different approach, involving students reflecting on their experiences from working in health institutions. We suggest that a particular mode of reflection, a poetic mode, exemplified by digital storytelling, may serve as a tool for students in this process of learning from practice. Three characteristics of digital storytelling are discussed: the narrative approach, multimodality and creativity, all in search of defining characteristics of a personal professional story. A model is described through a three cycle development project, illustrated by the terms pioneers and pathfinders for the first two cohorts of students and digital storytellers for the changes planned for the third cohort in the light of our experiences.

  10. Exploring epistemological beliefs of bilingual Filipino preservice teachers in the Filipino and English languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the author investigated the epistemological beliefs of 864 bilingual Filipino preservice teachers using Filipino and English versions of the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire (M. Schommer, 1998). The author conducted confirmatory factor analyses to determine the dimensions and structure of the epistemological beliefs. The results revealed two factors: Simple Learning and Structured Learning. The same factors were found using the Filipino and English versions of the questionnaire. The author discusses the results in terms of how they contribute to the growing evidence regarding the possible problems with particular multidimensional theories and quantitative measures of epistemological beliefs. The results also indicate how the specific epistemological beliefs of the Filipino preservice teachers may reflect features of the Philippine educational system and its tensions regarding pedagogy.

  11. Media Memories in Focus Group Discussions - Methodological Reflections Instancing the Global Media Generations Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Hug

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medienereignisse wie auch die Einführung und Verbreitung neuer Medientechnologien und Formate bringen mannigfaltige Wege des „Eintretens von Medien ins Leben“ mit sich. Im Projekt Globale Mediengenerationen (GMG wurden Medienerinnerungen aus der Kindheit im Kontext von Gruppendiskussionen am Beispiel dreier Generationen aus verschiedenen Ländern aller Kontinente untersucht. Dabei wurden medienbezogene Wissensbestände von drei Alterskohorten globaler Generationen analysiert. Der Artikel diskutiert methodologische Aspekte des Projekts und komplexe und selektive Prozesse des Erinnerns vergangener Ereignisse. Er untersucht Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede des GMG-Ansatzes mit dem dokumentarischen Ansatz von Ralf Bohnsack, die beide in der Wissenssoziologie von Karl Mannheim verwurzelt sind. Darüber hinaus wird Medialität als basale methodologische Kategorie in Erwägung gezogen, nicht nur im Hinblick auf die Klärung begrifflicher Grundlagen, sondern auch als inhärente Dimension von Forschungsprozessen. Media events in general and the introduction and divulgence of new media technologies and formats in particular implicate various (new ways of “media entering life.” In the Global Media Generations (GMG research project, articulation of individuals’ memories of childhood experiences with the media was afforded by context of focus groups of three generations in different countries of six continents. In this project media related knowledge segments of different age cohorts have been analyzed and interpreted. The article deals with methodological questions of the project and complex processes of ‘remembering’ past events. It explores commonalities and differences of the GMG approach with Ralf Bohnsack’s documentary approach, both rooted in the sociology of knowledge of Karl Mannheim. Furthermore, mediality is taken into consideration as a basic methodological category, which means that it is perceived not only as subject matter to

  12. Critical reflections on realist review: insights from customizing the methodology to the needs of participatory research assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagosh, Justin; Pluye, Pierre; Wong, Geoff; Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon; Bush, Paula L; Herbert, Carol P; Green, Lawrence W; Greenhalgh, Trish; Macaulay, Ann C

    2014-06-01

    Realist review has increased in popularity as a methodology for complex intervention assessment. Our experience suggests that the process of designing a realist review requires its customization to areas under investigation. To elaborate on this idea, we first describe the logic underpinning realist review and then present critical reflections on our application experience, organized in seven areas. These are the following: (1) the challenge of identifying middle range theory; (2) addressing heterogeneity and lack of conceptual clarity; (3) the challenge of appraising the quality of complex evidence; (4) the relevance of capturing unintended outcomes; (5) understanding the process of context, mechanism, and outcome (CMO) configuring; (6) incorporating middle-range theory in the CMO configuration process; and (7) using middle range theory to advance the conceptualization of outcomes - both visible and seemingly 'hidden'. One conclusion from our experience is that the degree of heterogeneity of the evidence base will determine whether theory can drive the development of review protocols from the outset, or will follow only after an intense period of data immersion. We hope that presenting a critical reflection on customizing realist review will convey how the methodology can be tailored to the often complex and idiosyncratic features of health research, leading to innovative evidence syntheses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Epistemology of Qualitative Research

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    Howard S. Becker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses questions that are relevant to the epistemology of qualitative research. In order to do so, the presumed dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research is discussed and challenged. According to the author, the similarities between these methods are more relevant than its differences. Both methods strive to describe the social reality and thus have the same epistemological basis, even though they emphasize different questions. To shed light in such dichotomy, the author explores the origins of epistemology as a discipline and its philosophical character. Finally, the particularities and advantages of qualitative research are discussed, especially ethnography and field research, through an analysis of some of its main aspects for observing social reality: its focus on the point of view of the actor; the observation of the everyday world and the full and thick description. 

  14. Epistemologies, deafness, learning, and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Donald F

    2010-01-01

    The study of Deaf epistemologies is in a nascent stage relative to, e.g., the study of feminist or African American epistemologies. It has only recently begun attracting the widespread attention it deserves. The present article addresses Deaf epistemologies as they relate to the sometimes conflicting trends in American society and education. In a relatively short period, the education of deaf students has gone from an independent enterprise under the aegis of special education to heavy influence by No Child Left Behind legislation that applies to virtually all American students. American education at one and the same time embraces and celebrates diversity, imposes uniform, rigid learning standards for all children, and mandates that all children be tested in the same way. An oxymoron exists of individualized educational planning and one-size-fits-all curricula and assessment of academic achievement. Implications for teaching and learning of deaf students are explored.

  15. How to count and assess different energies, in particular renewable energies: methodological reflections and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled the meaning of the concepts of primary energy and of final energy, as well as their relationships which are conventionally adopted at the international level, the author shows that these concepts are not suitable to the assessment of economic and energetic efficiency of energy systems, notably those comprising several transformations of an energy into another. He also shows that the methodology developed by the Academy of Technologies in its 'Vecteurs' report is perfectly adapted. This is illustrated by two examples: the main uses of biomass, and the use of peak productions of wind energy which is essentially intermittent. With this method, it is possible to identify the main factors which must be quantified when assessing the technical-economic relevance of such or such choice, notably thermodynamic efficiencies of each step, capitals to be invested and expectable load factors, or impact in terms of CO 2 emissions. Appendices proposes energetic statistics for France (energy assessment, consumption of primary energy), an assessment of methanization, and an analysis of wind energy production in Europe while taking its intermittency into account, for the production of hydrogen

  16. On the epistemology of postmodern spirituality

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    Dudley A. Schreiber

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available At first glance, the postmodern spiritual �scene� appears �sociologically messy, experiential, multifaceted, ecological, provisional and collective� (Petrolle 2007 and of uncertain epistemic provenance. Here, I ask: can Roland Benedikter�s (2005 conception of postmodern dialectic and spiritual turn, help us understand postmodern spirituality and can it assist in a construction of a postmodern epistemology of spirituality? The current argument constitutes a meta-theoretical exploration of:� Deconstruction and neo-essentialism as representing the significant dialectic in philosophical postmodernism. Deconstruction is presented as an apophatic moment in Western thought about �knowing� and �being� whilst postmodern neo-essentialism, though contextualised by antirealism and ambiguity, palpably suggests itself. � Postmodern trends which derive from the dialectic. � How these epistemic trends influence methodology in the study of spirituality. � How a trans-traditional (anthropological spirituality might incorporate insights about transformation from a complex of epistemologies in which, theories of �self� abound.In the conclusion an attempt is made to describe how postmodern spirituality expresses itself in society.�

  17. Dewey on extended cognition and epistemology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaesen, K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a surge of attempts to draw out the epistemological consequences of views according to which cognition is deeply embedded, embodied and/or extended (e-cog). The principal machinery used for doing so is that of analytic epistemology. Here I argue that Dewey's pragmatic epistemology may be

  18. Toward an Epistemology of the Hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend; Tanggaard, Lene

    2010-01-01

    epistemology of the eye' has been at work, which has had significant practical implications, not least in educational contexts. One way to characterize John Dewey's pragmatism is to see it as an attempt to replace the epistemology of the eye with an epistemology of the hand. This article develops...

  19. Perbandingan Konsepsi Epistemologi Empirisisme Ibnu Taymiyyah dan John Locke

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    Rido Kurnianto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the epistemological empiricism conception of Ibn Taimiyyah and John Locke based on the comparative analysis to obtain the complete description of epistemological empiricism thought of both, as well as its implications and consequences for the development of science and religious thought. To obtain the detailed answer about the two figures thought, it would be revealed the similarities and differences of epistemological empiricism of each by showing the elements that became the focus of both studies. Furthermore, from those, it will be sought the strange and weaknesses, and possible relevance of the two thought to find a new alternative as a reflective systematic model for the development of science and religious thought in the present and future. Comparing the empirical thought of both figures above is important to do, due to the empirical tradition in the two mens’ world have a very extreme differences. In the west, Empiricism had contributed significantly to the epistemological assets or legacy and had led to the development of science and technology. In contrast, empiricism in the east, was suspected as a harmful tradition to the Islamic ideology. It was considered as the seed that gave birth to atheism. Based on the two thinkers empiricism, will appear the strategic idea that can be synthesized to developed modern science as well as Islamic thought. Bot of epistemology thought can be combine to reconstruct the Islamic epistemology which is more open and more mature, because in that context will emerge the theories of knowledge without eliminating the metaphysical and ethical authority. In the context of combination, the natural tendency of foundation of Islamic teaching should be the bases of policy as descript by Ibnu Taimiyyah, that human nature becomes the foundation of the human responsibility in the end after and imposition of responsibility or duty, are the necessities to obey Allah order and to leave the Allah

  20. Scientific Instruments and Epistemology Engines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 529-540 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : material culture of science * scientific instruments * epistemology engines * experimental systems Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. Decolonizing Scoping Review Methodologies for Literature With, for, and by Indigenous Peoples and the African Diaspora: Dialoguing With the Tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lori A; Jackson, Randy; Worthington, Catherine; Wilson, Ciann L; Tharao, Wangari; Greenspan, Nicole R; Masching, Renee; Pierre-Pierre, Valérie; Mbulaheni, Tola; Amirault, Marni; Brownlee, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    This article summarizes our deepened understanding of decolonizing research with, for, and by Indigenous peoples and peoples of African descent that emerged from conducting a scoping review of the methodological literature and reflecting on our review process. Although our review identified decolonizing methodologies as a promising approach, we questioned if our scoping review process engaged in decolonizing knowing. To unpack the epistemological tensions between decolonizing knowing and Western ways of doing scoping reviews, we engaged in individual and collective reflective processes- dialoguing with the tensions-moving from individual immersion in the literature to transformative dialogues among the team. In reflecting upon our tensions with the scoping review process, themes that emerged included (a) ontological/epistemological disjunctures, (b) tensions with concepts and language, and (c) relationships with the literature and beyond. This reflexive process provides valuable insight into ways in which review methods might be made a decolonizing research experience.

  2. From normative towards positive epistemology: Problem of scientific fact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author provides a sketch of a twist from normative towards descriptive epistemology as a result of transformation of contemporary philosophy during the main occurrence known as Linguistic Turn. Best illustrations for epistemic twist are given in theories of Karl Popper, Ludwik Fleck and Thomas Kuhn. These three theories determined deconstruction of traditional philosophy of science and traditional picture of science and its practice. At the same time U isti mah, by the same twist towards descriptive and historical epistemology some core problems of epistemology and methodology are actualized in very sharper form. This concerns mainly of the problems of scientific statements and procedures of establishing of their objectivity and truthfulness. For in all three theories, of Popper, Fleck and Kuhn, empirical statements are functions/dependent of: theoretical framework, of though style or of paradigm, problem of truthfulness ad objective justification shows itself within Minhausen trilema. Task of positive epistemology is not to prescribe some procedure, but to provide reconstruction of real procedures given in practice of scientific communities. That means to show how they resolve problem of epistemic foundation of their theories and how they provide justified reasons to defend their theories as truthful and objective. .

  3. The research and practice of integrating conservation and development: Self-reflections by researchers on methodologies, objectives and influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Pasgaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the application of mixed-method and participatory approaches to conservation and development research. Both approaches were applied in a research project on the relationship between ecosystem governance and the wellbeing of local communities adjacent to a protected area in Laos. By encouraging four of the involved field researchers to reflect upon and expose their practical approaches as scientific experts (in terms of methodologies, objectives, reliability of results and research influence, this article aims to improve our learning from research practice and to promote reflexivity in research. The reflexive study presented here emphasizes the social and political context or real world situation against which research outputs can and should be evaluated, and retrospectively sheds light on the barriers to reach research objectives. In essence, the article addresses the relation between science and policy, and underlines the political undercurrent of conservation and development research in facilitating institutional change. The article outlines the very role of researchers in developing conservation policies, and provides a foundation for institutions and individual researchers to promote critical and constructive self-reflections in scientific practices.

  4. Jacques Lacan and Feminist Epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    This book outlines a compelling new agenda for feminist theories of identity and social relations. Using Lacanian psychoanalysis with feminist epistemology, the author sets out a groundbreaking psychoanalytic social theory. Campbell's work offers answers to the important contemporary question of how feminism can change the formation of gendered subjectivities and social relations. Drawing on the work of third wave feminists, the book shows how feminism can provide new political models of know...

  5. Evolutionary epistemology a multiparadigm program

    CERN Document Server

    Pinxten, Rik

    1987-01-01

    This volume has its already distant origin in an inter­national conference on Evolutionary Epistemology the editors organized at the University of Ghent in November 1984. This conference aimed to follow up the endeavor started at the ERISS (Epistemologically Relevant Internalist Sociology of Science) conference organized by Don Campbell and Alex Rosen­ berg at Cazenovia Lake, New York, in June 1981, whilst in­ jecting the gist of certain current continental intellectual developments into a debate whose focus, we thought, was in danger of being narrowed too much, considering the still underdeveloped state of affairs in the field. Broadly speaking, evolutionary epistemology today con­ sists of two interrelated, yet qualitatively distinct inves­ tigative efforts. Both are drawing on Darwinian concepts, which may explain why many people have failed to discriminate them. One is the study of the evolution of the cognitive apparatus of living organisms, which is first and foremost the province of biologists and...

  6. A Case for Flexible Epistemology and Metamethodology in Religious Fundamentalism Research

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    Carter J. Haynes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available After reviewing a representative sample of current and historical research in religious fundamentalism, the author addresses the epistemological presuppositions supporting both quantitative and qualitative methodologies and argues for epistemological flexibility and metamethodology, both of which support and are supported by metatheoretical thinking. Habermas’ concept of the scientistic self-understanding of the sciences is used to point up the limitations of positivist epistemology, especially in the context of fundamentalism research. A metamethodological approach, supported by epistemological flexibility, makes dialogical engagement between researchers and those they research possible, and an example of how this would look in an actual research design is provided. The article concludes with a theoretical statement and graphic representation of a model for dialogical engagement between Western scholars and non-Western religious fundamentalists. Such engagement, the author argues, is necessary before any real progress on the “problem” of radicalized fundamentalism can be made.

  7. Anthropology and Epidemiology: learning epistemological lessons through a collaborative venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology has a long and tumultuous history. Based on empirical examples, this paper describes a number of epistemological lessons we have learned through our experience of cross-disciplinary collaboration. Although critical of both mainstream epidemiology and medical anthropology, our analysis focuses on the implications of addressing each discipline’s main epistemological differences, while addressing the goal of adopting a broader social approach to health improvement. We believe it is important to push the boundaries of research collaborations from the more standard forms of “multidisciplinarity,” to the adoption of theoretically imbued “interdisciplinarity.” The more we challenge epistemological limitations and modify ways of knowing, the more we will be able to provide in-depth explanations for the emergence of disease-patterns and thus, to problem-solve. In our experience, both institutional support and the adoption of a relativistic attitude are necessary conditions for sustained theoretical interdisciplinarity. Until researchers acknowledge that methodology is merely a human-designed tool to interpret reality, unnecessary methodological hyper-specialization will continue to alienate one field of knowledge from the other. PMID:18833344

  8. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    OpenAIRE

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-01-01

    This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This...

  9. From Concepts to Predicates within Constructivist Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    Constructivism is a philosophical approach that appears in a variety of guises, some of them pedagogical, some epistemological and some in complex combinations. This article is based on constructivist epistemology. More specifically, constructivist epistemology provides a ground for conceptual an...... analysis of humans’ concept constructions, conceptions and concept learning processes. It will focus on conceptual specification and logical description of a flow from concepts to predicates....

  10. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This problem being the background of epistemology philosophy appears that by Emund Husserl developed through the phenomenology, Habermas through hermeneutics, and Ferdinand Gonseth through critical theory.

  11. Ontological and epistemological foundations of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilachis, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry. I begin by following the path that leads from the Epistemology of the Knowing Subject to the Epistemology of the Known Subject, proposed as a new and non exclusive way of knowing. I pass on to describe the p...

  12. Epistemology and Science Education: A Study of Epistemological Views of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Alexandros; Koulaidis, Vasilis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the epistemological views of science teachers for the following epistemological issues: scientific method, demarcation of scientific knowledge, change of scientific knowledge and the status of scientific knowledge. Teachers' views for each one of these epistemological questions were investigated during…

  13. Deep Reflection on My Pedagogical Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzawa, Gilbert S.

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective essay contains my reflection on the deep concept of ambiguity (uncertainty) and a concomitant epistemological theory that all of our human knowledge is ultimately self-referential in nature. This new epistemological perspective is subsequently utilized as a platform for gaining insights into my experiences in conjunction with…

  14. Research in psychopathology: epistemologic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Bovet, P

    1995-01-01

    Etiologic research in psychiatry relies on an objectivist epistemology positing that human cognition is specified by the "reality" of the outer world, which consists of a totality of mind-independent objects. Truth is considered as some sort of correspondence relation between words and external...... (connectionism), and developmental psychology (developmental biodynamics) converge in viewing living organisms as self-organizing systems. In this perspective, the organism is not specified by the outer world, but enacts its environment by selecting relevant domains of significance that constitute its world...

  15. Applying a learning design methodology in the flipped classroom approach – empowering teachers to reflect and design for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Triantafyllou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the recent developments in teaching that heavily relies on current technology is the “flipped classroom” approach. In a flipped classroom the traditional lecture and homework sessions are inverted. Students are provided with online material in order to gain necessary knowledge before class, while class time is devoted to clarifications and application of this knowledge. The hypothesis is that there could be deep and creative discussions when teacher and students physically meet. This paper discusses how the learning design methodology can be applied to represent, share and guide educators through flipped classroom designs. In order to discuss the opportunities arising by this approach, the different components of the Learning Design – Conceptual Map (LD-CM are presented and examined in the context of the flipped classroom. It is shown that viewing the flipped classroom through the lens of learning design can promote the use of theories and methods to evaluate its effect on the achievement of learning objectives, and that it may draw attention to the employment of methods to gather learner responses. Moreover, a learning design approach can enforce the detailed description of activities, tools and resources used in specific flipped classroom models, and it can make educators more aware of the decisions that have to be taken and people who have to be involved when designing a flipped classroom. By using the LD-CM, this paper also draws attention to the importance of characteristics and values of different stakeholders (i.e. institutions, educators, learners, and external agents, which influence the design and success of flipped classrooms. Moreover, it looks at the teaching cycle from a flipped instruction model perspective and adjusts it to cater for the reflection loops educators are involved when designing, implementing and re-designing a flipped classroom. Finally, it highlights the effect of learning design on the guidance

  16. Contemporary investigative practices. The challenges of his new epistemological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Herrera Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    point where we can talk about the “social desirability” of multi-method research”. The thematic focuses of this volume of the Revista Scientific. they clearly show its different sections, among them: the transformation of teaching practices; innovative experiences to improve the educational and teaching-learning processes within the classroom framework; virtual learning environments, information and communication technologies and the one related to environmental education. Towards there lead the questions that cross the diverse articles as testimony of the scientific results that each author proposes. In their epistemological approaches, a journey through different methodologies, methods and techniques is appreciated. It is traveled from quantitative, qualitative or methodological completions; respecting, as previously mentioned, the nature of the object of the research carried out. Finally, the importance of the themes of this issue of the Journal lies in the reflection on the different edges of the formative processes, in various contexts and levels of teaching. It also resides in the look at the logics in use, committed to different methodologies; which must be judged according to the success achieved in the investigations.

  17. Personal Epistemology of Urban Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearrow, Melissa; Sanchez, William

    2008-01-01

    Personal epistemology, originating from social construction theory, provides a framework for researchers to understand how individuals view their world. The Attitudes About Reality (AAR) scale is one survey method that qualitatively assesses personal epistemology along the logical positivist and social constructionist continuum; however, the…

  18. Applied Epistemology and Understanding in Information Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorichanaz, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Applied epistemology allows information studies to benefit from developments in philosophy. In information studies, epistemic concepts are rarely considered in detail. This paper offers a review of several epistemic concepts, focusing on understanding, as a call for further work in applied epistemology in information studies. Method:…

  19. Epistemological Development in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Epistemological development is an important factor in facilitating learner identity and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative action research study explored undergraduate social work students' epistemological beliefs about knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and implications for social work education. Data collection…

  20. Virtue Epistemology and the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallister, James

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a brief overview of virtue epistemology; it thereafter considers some possible ramifications of this branch of the theory of knowledge for the philosophy of education. The main features of three different manifestations of virtue epistemology are first explained. Importantly, it is then maintained that developments…

  1. Bringing together two schools of social epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Finn; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2018-01-01

    Synthese was the first academic outlet to take notice of the phenomenon of social epistemology, by dedicating a special volume to the theme back in 1987. Since then social epistemology has grown into a major interdisciplinary effort in the borderland between philosophy and social science. Today, ...

  2. Ontological and Epistemological Foundations of Qualitative Research

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    Irene Vasilachis de Gialdino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry. I begin by following the path that leads from the Epistemology of the Knowing Subject to the Epistemology of the Known Subject, proposed as a new and non exclusive way of knowing. I pass on to describe the primary and secondary characteristics of qualitative research, expressing the need for an ontological rupture. Finally, cognitive interaction and cooperative knowledge construction are considered as two fundamental features in the process of qualitative research grounded on the Epistemology of the Known Subject. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902307

  3. On the Epistemological Crisis in Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2008-01-01

    There is an epistemological crisis in genomics. At issue is what constitutes scientific knowledge in genomic science, or systems biology in general. Does this crisis require a new perspective on knowledge heretofore absent from science or is it merely a matter of interpreting new scientific developments in an existing epistemological framework? This paper discusses the manner in which the experimental method, as developed and understood over recent centuries, leads naturally to a scientific epistemology grounded in an experimental-mathematical duality. It places genomics into this epistemological framework and examines the current situation in genomics. Meaning and the constitution of scientific knowledge are key concerns for genomics, and the nature of the epistemological crisis in genomics depends on how these are understood. PMID:19440447

  4. Feminism and psychology: critiques of methods and epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H; Riger, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Starting in the 1960s, many of the critiques of psychological science offered by feminist psychologists focused on its methods and epistemology. This article evaluates the current state of psychological science in relation to this feminist critique. The analysis relies on sources that include the PsycINFO database, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010), and popular psychology methods textbooks. After situating the feminist critique within the late-20th-century shift of science from positivism to postpositivism, the inquiry examines feminists' claims of androcentric bias in (a) the underrepresentation of women as researchers and research participants and (b) researchers' practices in comparing women and men and describing their research findings. In most of these matters, psychology manifests considerable change in directions advocated by feminists. However, change is less apparent in relation to some feminists' criticisms of psychology's reliance on laboratory experimentation and quantitative methods. In fact, the analyses documented the rarity in high-citation journals of qualitative research that does not include quantification. Finally, the analysis frames feminist methodological critiques by a consideration of feminist epistemologies that challenge psychology's dominant postpositivism. Scrutiny of methods textbooks and journal content suggests that within psychological science, especially as practiced in the United States, these alternative epistemologies have not yet gained substantial influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Feminist Methodologies and Engineering Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces feminist methodologies in the context of engineering education research. It builds upon other recent methodology articles in engineering education journals and presents feminist research methodologies as a concrete engineering education setting in which to explore the connections between epistemology, methodology and theory.…

  6. Conflicting Epistemologies and Inference in Coupled Human and Natural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Last year, I presented a model that projects per capita water consumption based on changes in price, population, building codes, and water stress salience. This model applied methods from hydrological science and engineering to relationships both within and beyond their traditional scope. Epistemologically, the development of mathematical models of natural or engineered systems is objectivist while research examining relationships between observations, perceptions and action is commonly constructivist or subjectivist. Drawing on multiple epistemologies is common in, and perhaps central to, the growing fields of coupled human and natural systems, and socio-hydrology. Critically, these philosophical perspectives vary in their view of the nature of the system as mechanistic, adaptive or constructed, and the split between aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Interdisciplinary research is commonly cited as a way to address the critical and domain crossing challenge of sustainability as synthesis across perspectives can offer a more comprehensive view of system dynamics. However, combining methods and concepts from multiple ontologies and epistemologies can introduce contradictions into the logic of inference. These contractions challenge the evaluation of research products and the implications for practical application of research findings are not fully understood. Reflections on the evaluation, application, and generalization of the water consumption model described above are used to ground these broader questions and offer thoughts on the way forward.

  7. Design Research: Aesthetic Epistemology and Explanatory Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murphy

    Full Text Available The article explores the “what” and the “how” of design research. It discusses the epistemological assumptions of design and design research—the conception of true knowledge that underpins the quest to advance design knowledge through research. The article also examines the media and methods of doing design research—that is, the “how” of such research. As it developed over the past century, the design field has drawn extensively on three pivotal but often tacitly deployed epistemologies: the Platonic-Aristotelian, the pragmatic, and the postmodern. Platonic epistemology is latent in many commonplace design instruction texts. Pragmatic epistemology underscores the industrial-arts ethos of design. Postmodern epistemologies dominate in university programs—especially graduate and Ph.D. programs. The article considers how these competing epistemologies understand the role of imagination in the act of creation. The article then considers the role of explanation in the carrying out of research in creative design and arts fields. It addresses whether, and to what degree, design research ought to rely on explanatory words as its principal medium of research, or whether it is valid to substitute artifactual creation for intellectual explanation in the research process. Key words: Epistemology, Design, Imagination, Knowledge, Explanation, Practice-based research

  8. Epistemological anarchism of Paul Karl Feyerabend and medical education

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    Andréia Patrícia Gomes

    Full Text Available The thoughts of the philosopher Paul Karl Feyerabend brought important contributions to the debate on Science in the 20th century. Most recently his views about non-existence of a single method for doing science have been employed to rethink science education and propose the use of multiple methods for effective teaching-learning process. This article employs the theoretical framework of the author expressed in the book Against Method, 1977, about the epistemological anarchism and the methodological pluralism and uses it in the contemporary discussion of medical education.

  9. Gender and Criminological Thought: Perspectives From a Feminist Epistemology

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    Cássius Guimarães Chai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to analyze, from a feminist epistemological framework and approach, the role of Criminology in the production and reproduction of power relationship, studying how women were perceived in their different schools of criminological thought, understanding that the adoption of gender as a category of analysis contributes to the production of a wider knowledge in this science, unveiling the invisibility of women's relationships towards to crime and to the Penal System. The methodology consists of a literature reviewing that crosses several disciplines, such as history, sociology, criminology and feminist theories.

  10. The Epistemology of Moral Bioenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Parker

    2016-07-01

    Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e.g. beliefs) and that which manipulates other, non-representational states (e.g. motivations). Either way, I argue, the enhanced moral psychology will fail to conform to epistemic norms, and the only way to resolve this failure and allow the moral bioenhancement to be effective in addressing the targeted moral issues is to make the moral bioenhancement covert. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Clinical Psychology and Research: epistemological notes

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    Emanuela Coppola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a reflection on the relationship between clinical psychology and research, highlighting the constant epistemological crossing the two practices, empirical and professional. The paper warns against the pitfalls of reductionism that, in both cases, may impact the effectiveness of therapeutic results. In fact, both in clinical practice and is in psychological research, the mere application of techniques contradicts the specificity of the object of study (the mind which, rather, requires the constant attention to a complexity of variables and contextual elements essential for the understanding the psychic. Qualitative research has been a prolific space for dialogue and joint trials between research and clinical practice that has rehabilitated scientific dignity of affective and subjective for a long time confined to the ephemeral world of poetry and literature. It must therefore be a further extension of the convergence not only of qualitative and quantitative methods but also of training modules for researchers and practitioners are able to stimulate, in daily practice, confidence in the utility of scientific monitoring and detection of inter-subjective variables in research devices.

  12. Influence of Person Epistemology on Research Design: Implications for Research Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Viren

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining whether a specific research methodology was dominant within a cohort of master's level engineering management students and, if so, whether this preference was directed by their personal epistemology, rather than the dictates of their research questions. Secondary data were used to determine the dominant research…

  13. College Students' Scientific Epistemological Views and Thinking Patterns in Socioscientific Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiang-Yao; Lin, Chuan-Shun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to test the nature of the assumption that there are relationships between scientific epistemological views (SEVs) and reasoning processes in socioscientific decision making. A mixed methodology that combines both qualitative and quantitative approaches of data collection and analysis was adopted not only to verify the assumption…

  14. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  15. Epistemology, software engineering and formal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1994-01-01

    One of the most basic questions anyone can ask is, 'How do I know that what I think I know is true?' The study of this question is called epistemology. Traditionally, epistemology has been considered to be of legitimate interest only to philosophers, theologians, and three year old children who respond to every statement by asking, 'Why?' Software engineers need to be interested in the subject, however, because a lack of sufficient understanding of epistemology contributes to many of the current problems in the field.

  16. Epistemological problems of human sciences and education

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    Darwin Reyes Solís

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El campo de la epistemología es un mundo de conflictos, en ese sentido es mejor plantearse el problema epistemológico desde la visión de un sector de diferencias y luchas constantes, de un mundo de diversidad en el que las posiciones llegan a ser extremas, posiciones que van desde la negación de la epistemología como ideología científica, hasta afirmaciones de la epistemología como la posibilidad de un marco referencial único para el conocimiento humano validado como científico.

  17. Financial accounting: an epistemological research note

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    Eduardo Schiehll

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research note is the result of the authors' reflections on epistemological issues in respect to the financial accounting field. From an epistemological perspective, this document attempts to trace the philosophical, historical, sociological, and discursive research perspectives that have guided academic research in the field of financial accounting. In order to do so, this document explores the distinctions and connections between accounting theory and accounting practice, which we believe is the first step towards understanding accounting as a scientific discipline. We analyze the theories underpinning financial accounting research, discussing its purposes, historic evolution, and scientific methods used. This document also discuss the sociological and discursive contexts of financial accounting in order to demonstrate that, like every other social science, accounting research is based upon assumptions about the nature of it players, or social networks. This document does not have the pretension to cover or close the discussion about all the pitfalls of this complex topic. In this sense, we try to document our analysis and draw some arguments in order to offer evidence for further discussion.Este ensaio teórico é resultado de reflexões dos autores acerca de questões epistemológicas sobre a contabilidade financeira. Através de uma perspectiva epistemológica, este trabalho busca traçar perspectivas filosóficas, históricas, sociológicas e discursivas que guiaram a pesquisa acadêmica na área da contabilidade financeira. Para isso, exploram-se as similaridades e diferenças entre a teoria e a prática contábil, pois esse é o primeiro para a compreensão da contabilidade como disciplina científica. Analisam-se as teorias que suportam a pesquisa em contabilidade financeira, discutindo seu propósito, evolução histórica e métodos científicos utilizados. O presente trabalho também discute os contextos sociológicos e

  18. On the normativity of human nature: some epistemological remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Antonella

    2003-04-01

    This paper examines the role played by the concept of human nature in ethical theory. The focus is on the epistemological problems that arise from application of this notion to the foundation of ethics. From this viewpoint, two theories, the neoscholastic and the neoclassical ones, are expounded, analyzed and compared. The aim is to highlight their opposite ways of relating the "ought-to-be" (of norms) to the "is" (of human nature). The conclusion is drawn that an adequate solution of the dispute depends on a correct interpretation of Hume's law. Reflection is conducted in the last section on the implications of metaethical discourse on human nature for applied ethics.

  19. Epistemological and Treatment Implications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A. H.

    The treatment implications of understanding mind as solely epiphenomenal to nonlinearly founded neurobiology are discussed. G. Klimovsky's epistemological understanding of psychoanalysis as a science is rejected and treatment approaches integrating W. R. Bion's and D. W. Winnicott's work are supported.

  20. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  2. What Future for Educational Research in Europe? Political, Epistemological and Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the future of European educational research (EER) and its politics of knowledge. EER is interpreted as a field of power/knowledge, where a hegemonic epistemic framework is raised that assembles an evidence-based epistemology, a "what works" political rationality and a technocratic model of educational research.…

  3. Drones, information technology, and distance: mapping the moral epistemology of remote fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of

  4. Making Stories and Taking Stories: Methodological Reflections on Researching Grief and Marital Tension following the Death of a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Gordon; Dawson, Pam

    1996-01-01

    Explores some of the methodological issues which arose during an investigation into experiences of bereaved parents. Notes the values of ethnographic approaches in researching intimate and painful experiences and argues that parents' stories about their children's lives are central to processes of identity reconstruction during grief. (RJM)

  5. Historical transformation and epistemological discontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močnik Rastko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from recent formulas of EU bureaucracy for subordinating scientific and educational apparatuses to the needs of the capital and to the requests of its political representatives, the article analyses the interconnection between the historical transformation of the ideological state apparatuses (universities, higher education institutions, research institutes etc. and the epistemological discontinuity provoked by the triumph of technosciences. The hypothesis to be tested is the following: While the crisis of West European-North American capitalism requires an ever tighter submission of ideological state apparatuses, and especially of scientific and academic apparatuses to the needs of the capital, theoretical practices in the humanities and social sciences have come to the point where they entered into an open conflict with the domination of the capital and have, as a consequence, started to subvert their own institutional supports in the ideological apparatuses of the capitalist state. For this purpose, the article reconsiders social sciences as a compromise formation and, eventually, reassesses the historical materialism as a non-Cartesian modern science.

  6. Interculturalidad y descolonialidad: Retos y desafíos epistemológicos; Interculturalidade e descolonialidade: desafios epistemológicos; Interculturality and Decoloniality: Epistemological Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Collado Ruano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El objetivo del artículo es reflexionar sobre los retos y desafíos epistemológicos de la interculturalidad y la descolonialidad. Por eso el trabajo identifica y define las diferentes perspectivas epistemológicas y metodológicas que han emergido desde la mitad del siglo XX: la multidisciplinariedad, la pluridisciplinariedad, la interdisciplinariedad y la transdisciplinariedad. También se aborda la globalización desde un pensamiento fronterizo enfocado en la “epistemología del sur”. Como resultado, se concluye que es necesaria una ecología de saberes para crear “otros mundos posibles” que nos permitan lograr los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS pactados por los Naciones Unidas.   Palabras clave: interculturalidad, ubuntu, globalización, descolonialidad, epistemología.     Resumo: O objetivo do artigo é refletir sobre os desafios epistemológicos da interculturalidade e da descolonialidade. Por isso o trabalho identifica e define as diferentes perspectivas epistemológicas e metodológicas que surgiram desde meados do século XX: multidisciplinaridade, pluridisciplinaridade, interdisciplinaridade e transdisciplinaridade. Aborda-se a globalização partir dum pensamento de fronteira focado na "epistemologia do Sul". Como resultado, conclui-se que uma ecologia de saberes é necessária para criar "outros mundos possíveis" que nos permitem alcançar os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS acordados pelas Nações Unidas.   Palavras-chave: interculturalidade, ubuntu, globalização, descolonialidade, epistemologia.     Abstract: The objective of this article is to reflect about the epistemological challenges of interculturality and decoloniality. For this reason, the work identifies and defines the different epistemological and methodological perspectives that have emerged since the mid-twentieth century: multidisciplinarity, pluridisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. It

  7. Investigating learners' epistemological framings of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Vesal

    Classical mechanics challenges students to use their intuitions and experiences as a basis for understanding, in effect to approach learning as "a refinement of everyday thinking'' (Einstein, 1936). Moving on to quantum mechanics (QM), students, like physicists, need to adjust this approach, in particular with respect to the roles that intuitive knowledge and mathematics play in the pursuit of coherent understanding (these are adjustments to aspects of their epistemologies). In this dissertation, I explore how some students manage the epistemological transition. I began this work by recruiting both graduate and undergraduate students, interviewing each subject several times as they moved through coursework in QM. The interviews featured, among other things, how students tried to fit ideas together in mutually consistent ways, including with respect to intuitive knowledge, mathematics and experiment, if at all. I modeled these dynamic cognitive processes as different epistemological framings (i.e., tacit, in-the-moment responses to the question "How should I approach knowledge?''). Through detailed qualitative analyses of students' reasoning and a systematic coding of their interviews, I explored how these coherence seeking related framings impacted their learning. The dissertation supports three main findings: (1) students' patterns of epistemological framing are mostly stable within a given course; (2) students who profess epistemologies aligned with the coordination of coherence seeking framings tend to be more stable in demonstrating them; and (3) students aware that their understanding of QM ultimately anchors in its mathematics tend to produce more coherent explanations and perform better in their courses. These findings are consistent with existing research on student epistemologies in QM and imply that epistemologies, in particular whether and how students seek coherence, require greater attention and emphasis in instruction.

  8. Kritik Epistemologi Islam dalam Islamologi Terapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Anshori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses critique of Islamic epistemology within applied Islamology. The writer concludes that Islamic epistemology is an episteme which has been originally derived from Islamic doctrines. It can be obtained through a number of methods. The first method is revelation, which has an absolute truth. The second way is reason, which becomes a potency blessed by God to all humankind. Through impressions, which are attained by the five senses, the reason uses them as source of contemplation to draw conclusions. This episteme contains, however, a relative truth. The third method is kashfî. This episteme is also named as ‘irfanî episteme, which had successfully grown within Sufism tradition where the source of knowledge is experience, namely al-ru’yat al-mubâshirah (direct experience. The last mentioned episteme is founded on the dichotomy between exoteric and esoteric aspects where the hierarchy of esoteric knowledge is higher than the exoteric ones as the first possesses divine basis. The critique of Islamic epistemology within applied Islamology is oriented towards the domination of scientific epistemology or modern epistemology, which recognizes positivism or scientific knowledge as the sole method employed by the modern people to gain knowledge. The fundamental difference between the scientific-rational episteme and the Islamic episteme rests within each worldview.

  9. How do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Training Motivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Molan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that human resources development through workplace training is one of the major investments in the workforce in today’s globalized and challenging market. As training motivation influences employees’ preparation for the workplace training, their respond to the programme, their learning outcome, their performance levels, and use of acquired knowledge and skills in their workplace it seems logical to investigate and determine antecedents of training motivation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the concepts of epistemological beliefs, training motivation and the actual participation in the workplace training. We predicted that epistemological beliefs would have an effect on training motivation and actual participation on the workplace training and that there would be a positive relationship between the concepts, meaning that the more sophisticated epistemological beliefs would lead to higher motivation and participation. To test the epistemological beliefs, the Epistemic Belief Inventory (Schraw, Bendixen & Dunkle, 2002 was used and adjusted to the workplace setting. Then the results were compared to employees’ training motivation, which was measured with a questionnaire made by authors of the present study, and employees’ actual number of training hours annually. The results confirmed the relationship between the concepts as well as a significant predicting value of epistemological beliefs on motivation and actual participation. Epistemic Belief Inventory did not yield expected results reported by the authors of the instrument therefore the limitations, possible other interpretations and suggested further exploration are discussed.

  10. Co-writing, Co-knowing. Transforming Epistemologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Burchard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our article offers a vision of how collaborative processes ofknowledge-making in an interdisciplinary faculty writinggroup can transform professional lives of isolation into onesthat flourish. Central to our co-creation of knowledge arethe practice of storytelling in a critical self-reflective manner andthe elements of commitment, connection and relationship.Together we have found that these elements provide basicstrategies for managing the isolation that would otherwisebe a significant force in our working lives.Our commitment is epistemological and moral, as wecommit to knowledge-making, but also to each other asindividuals and as moral agents, to our values, and to bringingour values into our work. Learning about ourselvestogether can enhance our sense of identity and our ability tonavigate limits and boundaries.Through supportive, intentional and reflective collaboration,we re-vision knowledge-making as fundamentally socialand relational, and theorizing as grounded in the specificityof narratives of shared, lived experience.

  11. Reflecting Marxist Epistemology and the Irreligiousness of Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system based on private ownership of the means of production and distribution .... he believes that “one of the major ways which the image of a new ... Farewell to Babylon which he termed 'spiritual nationalism' which ... They deal with subjects ...

  12. Exploring vocabulary-related epistemological beliefs with Q-methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rock

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi decenni parecchie ricerche si sono concentrate sulla comprensione delle motivazioni che rendono conto dell’adozione di determinate strategie per l’apprendimento di vocaboli da parte di alcuni studenti e non di altri. Ciò ha comportato il prendere in esame numerose variabili, comprese tra le altre l’attitudine dello studente allo studio delle lingue, la motivazione, il ruolo dell’insegnante, e la convinzione di essere autoefficaci. In questo articolo si è dato rilievo all’esplorazione delle credenze epistemologiche riguardanti l’apprendimento di vocaboli, in un tentativo di comprendere quali credenze epistemologiche sono state più o meno favorite da 40 studenti universitari italiani di inglese come lingua straniera. Utilizzando una tecnica nota come metodologia Q, l’indagine ha rivelato che, sebbene i partecipanti condividano molte credenze epistemologiche riguardanti l’apprendimento di vocaboli, ci sono anche alcune importanti differenze tra di loro. Queste in particolare si riferiscono a come gli studenti sono dipendenti da una fonte esterna di conoscenza e alle loro opinioni sulla certezza della conoscenza.

  13. Using Computer Simulations for Promoting Model-based Reasoning. Epistemological and Educational Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develaki, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Scientific reasoning is particularly pertinent to science education since it is closely related to the content and methodologies of science and contributes to scientific literacy. Much of the research in science education investigates the appropriate framework and teaching methods and tools needed to promote students' ability to reason and evaluate in a scientific way. This paper aims (a) to contribute to an extended understanding of the nature and pedagogical importance of model-based reasoning and (b) to exemplify how using computer simulations can support students' model-based reasoning. We provide first a background for both scientific reasoning and computer simulations, based on the relevant philosophical views and the related educational discussion. This background suggests that the model-based framework provides an epistemologically valid and pedagogically appropriate basis for teaching scientific reasoning and for helping students develop sounder reasoning and decision-taking abilities and explains how using computer simulations can foster these abilities. We then provide some examples illustrating the use of computer simulations to support model-based reasoning and evaluation activities in the classroom. The examples reflect the procedure and criteria for evaluating models in science and demonstrate the educational advantages of their application in classroom reasoning activities.

  14. Indonesian teachers' epistemological beliefs and inclusive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Kieron; Budiyanto; Kaye, Helen; Rofiah, Khofidotur

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of children with intellectual disabilities attend inclusive schools in Indonesia. Previous research has suggested that teachers' type of school and experience influences their beliefs about inclusive education. This research collected questionnaire data from 267 Indonesian teachers and compared the responses from those working in inclusive, special and regular schools regarding their epistemological and pedagogical beliefs. The results showed that teachers in inclusive schools expressed stronger social constructivist beliefs than those in other schools. However, it was teachers' epistemological beliefs, rather than their type of school or experience, which were the significant predictor of their beliefs about inclusive education. The findings suggest that international epistemological research needs to have a more nuanced view of constructivist models of learning to better understand and inform how inclusive pedagogy is being enacted in different contexts.

  15. Piaget's epistemic subject and science education: Epistemological vs. psychological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1993-06-01

    Many individuals claim that Piaget's theory of cognitive development is empirically false or substantially disconfirmed by empirical research. Although there is substance to such a claim, any such conclusion must address three increasingly problematic issues about the possibility of providing an empirical test of Piaget's genetic epistemology: (1) the empirical underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence, (2) the empirical difficulty of testing competence-type explanations, and (3) the difficulty of empirically testing epistemic norms. This is especially true of a central epistemic construct in Piaget's theory — the epistemic subject. To illustrate how similar problems of empirical testability arise in the physical sciences, I briefly examine the case of Galileo and the correlative difficulty of empirically testing Galileo's laws. I then point out some important epistemological similarities between Galileo and Piaget together with correlative changes needed in science studies methodology. I conclude that many psychologists and science educators have failed to appreciate the difficulty of falsifying Piaget's theory because they have tacitly adopted a philosophy of science at odds with the paradigm-case of Galileo.

  16. Logging into the Field—Methodological Reflections on Ethnographic Research in a Pluri-Local and Computer-Mediated Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Mónika Greschke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to introduce an ethnic group inhabiting a common virtual space in the World Wide Web (WWW, while being physically located in different socio-geographical contexts. Potentially global in its geographical extent, this social formation is constituted by means of interrelating virtual-global dimensions with physically grounded parts of the actors' lifeworlds. In addition, the communities' social life relies on specific communicative practices joining mediated forms of communication with co-presence based encounters. Ethnographic research in a pluri-local and computer-mediated field poses a set of problems which demand thorough reflection as well as a search for creative solutions. How can the boundaries of the field be determined? What does "being there" signify in such a case? Is it possible to enter the field while sitting at my own desk, just by visiting the respective site in the WWW, simply observing the communication going on without even being noticed by the subjects in the field? Or does "being in the field" imply that I ought to turn into a member of the studied community? Am I supposed to effectively live with the others for a while? And then, what can "living together" actually mean in that case? Will I learn enough about the field simply by participating in its virtual activities? Or do I have to account for the physically grounded dimensions of the actors' lifeworlds, as well? Ethnographic research in a pluri-local and computer-mediated field in practice raises a lot of questions regarding the ways of entering the field and being in the field. Some of them will be discussed in this paper by means of reflecting research experiences gained in the context of a recently concluded case study. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703321

  17. Research assemblages and epistemological commitments

    OpenAIRE

    Davy, Zowie

    2016-01-01

    A practical recognition that is required of researchers is to be able to choose the best form of methodology for the job at hand. Or for researchers to understand by choosing one methodology over another will inevitable produce different results. I want to draw on Fox and Alldred’s recent paper by paraphrasing their understanding of ‘doing and producing research.’ I think their concept of research machines as part of a ‘research-assemblage’ allows us to begin to recognize research as a proces...

  18. Students' General and Physics Epistemological Beliefs: A Twofold Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral; Sengul-Turgut, Gulsen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although research on epistemological beliefs has expanded over the past two decades, there are still some issues that need to be explored, such as whether epistemological beliefs are domain general or domain specific. Purpose: One of the purposes of this research was to determine if high school students' general epistemological beliefs…

  19. A fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy-aided methodology to determine goat dietary composition in a Mediterranean shrubland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, T; Landau, S; Ungar, E D; Perevolotsky, A; Dvash, L; Muklada, H; Kababya, D; Walker, J W

    2008-06-01

    An ecologically sound approach to the problem of brush encroachment onto Israeli rangeland might be their utilization by goats, but better knowledge of the feeding selectivity and ability of goats to thrive in encroached areas is required to devise viable production systems. Direct observation of bites could provide precise and accurate estimates of diet selection, but construction of a sufficiently large database would require too much time. The present study describes the first attempt to construct fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations of the botanical and nutritional composition of the diet, and of the total intake of free-ranging goats, based on reference values determined with bite-count procedures. Calibration of fecal NIRS was based on 43 observations encompassing 3 goat breeds and 4 periods (spring, summer, and fall of 2004, and spring of 2005). Each observation comprised 242 min of continuous recording of the species and bite-type category selected by a single animal, on each of 2 consecutive days. The mass and chemical quality of each species and bite-type category-a total of more than 200,000 bites-were determined by using the simulated bite technique. Associated feces were scanned in the 1,100- to 2,500-nm range with a reflectance monochromator. Fecal NIRS calibrations had reasonable precision for dietary percentages of the 3 main botanical components: herbaceous vegetation (as one category; R(2) = 0.85), Phillyrea latifolia (R(2) = 0.89), and tannin-rich Pistacia lentiscus (R(2) = 0.77), with SE of cross-validation (SECV) of 7.8, 6.3, and 5.6% of DM, respectively. The R(2) values for dietary percentages of CP, NDF, IVDMD, and polyethylene glycol-binding tannins were 0.93, 0.88, 0.91, and 0.74, respectively, with SECV values of 0.9, 2.1, 4.3, and 0.9% of DM, respectively. The R(2) values for intakes of herbaceous vegetation, P. latifolia, and P. lentiscus were 0.80, 0.75, and 0.65, with SECV values of 71, 64, and 46 g of DM

  20. Development of Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry quantitative methodologies for elemental characterization of building materials and their degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Marguí, Eva; Torrent, Laura; Queralt, Ignasi; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry based quantitative methodology for elemental characterization of liquid extracts and solids belonging to old building materials and their degradation products from a building of the beginning of 20th century with a high historic cultural value in Getxo, (Basque Country, North of Spain) is proposed. This quantification strategy can be considered a faster methodology comparing to traditional Energy or Wavelength Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF and WD-XRF) spectrometry based methodologies or other techniques such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In particular, two kinds of liquid extracts were analysed: (i) water soluble extracts from different mortars and (ii) acid extracts from mortars, black crusts, and calcium carbonate formations. In order to try to avoid the acid extraction step of the materials and their degradation products, it was also studied the TXRF direct measurement of the powdered solid suspensions in water. With this aim, different parameters such as the deposition volume and the measuring time were studied for each kind of samples. Depending on the quantified element, the limits of detection achieved with the TXRF quantitative methodologies for liquid extracts and solids were set around 0.01-1.2 and 2-200 mg/L respectively. The quantification of K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn and Pb in the liquid extracts was proved to be a faster alternative to other more classic quantification techniques (i.e. ICP-MS), accurate enough to obtain information about the composition of the acidic soluble part of the materials and their degradation products. Regarding the solid samples measured as suspensions, it was quite difficult to obtain stable and repetitive suspensions affecting in this way the accuracy of the results. To cope with this problem, correction factors based on the quantitative results obtained using ED-XRF were calculated to improve the accuracy of

  1. Prospective Elemantary Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaroglu Akgul, Esra; Oztuna Kaplan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined "prospective elementary science teachers' epistemological beliefs". Forty-nine prospective elementary science teachers participated into research. The research was designed in both quantitative and qualitative manner, within the context of "Special Methods in Science Teaching I" course.…

  2. Organizational Epistemology, Education and Social Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2007-01-01

    Organizational learning or epistemology has emerged in order to manage the creation of knowledge and innovation within contemporary capitalism. Its insights are being applied also to the public sector. Much of the research in organizational learning has drawn upon the discipline of psychology, particularly constructivist theory. Two approaches in…

  3. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    field of study which is concerned with the control and communication in animal and ... process upon which cybernetics is based has proved enormous, and over the ... the epistemological implications deriving from the Cybernetic perspective. .... the manner in which we conceive of organisations and their contexts has so.

  4. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to build machines upon the principles which characterise organisms, and another which follows the epistemological implications deriving from the cybernetic perspective. The former line of development has given rise to a number of theories and techniques, which facilitate the achievement of regulation and control in social ...

  5. Globalization, Post-modernity and Epistemological Imperialism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge is crucial to the march of globalization but as globalization from national financial systems, this study identifies steps that Africa could adopt to confront epistemological imperialism. Keywords: Globalization; Post-modernity; Political Economy. International Journal of Educational Research Vol. 4 (1) 2008: pp. 183- ...

  6. Social behavioural epistemology and the scientific community

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MILIND WATVE

    2017-07-20

    Jul 20, 2017 ... Keywords. epistemology; paradigm shift; peer review bias; evolutionary psychology. Introduction ... process and the other is the community's reactions to a published finding that ..... abandoned the hypothesis and stopped all actions founded ... before a person becomes consciously aware of the urge to act.

  7. Gorgias' Rhetoric: Epistemology, Doxa, and Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory T.

    Gorgias' rhetoric can be explained in three parts: his sensory-based but non-empirical epistemology; his definitions of language as inherently deceptive and of "doxa" as the only "knowledge" communicable; and his antithetical style, which reproduces the necessary negotiation of understanding in the world. Gorgias' epistemology…

  8. Anti-Luck (Too Weak) Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    I argue that Duncan Pritchard’s anti-luck virtue epistemology is insufficient for knowledge. I show that Pritchard fails to achieve the aim that motivates his adoption of a virtue-theoretic condition in the first place: to guarantee the appropriate direction of fit that known beliefs have. Finally...

  9. Habermasian knowledge interests: epistemological implications for health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Muñoz Terrón, José María; Aranda Torres, Cayetano

    2015-04-01

    The Habermasian concept of 'interest' has had a profound effect on the characterization of scientific disciplines. Going beyond issues unrelated to the theory itself, intra-theoretical interest characterizes the specific ways of approaching any science-related discipline, defining research topics and methodologies. This approach was developed by Jürgen Habermas in relation to empirical-analytical sciences, historical-hermeneutics sciences, and critical sciences; however, he did not make any specific references to health sciences. This article aims to contribute to shaping a general epistemological framework for health sciences, as well as its specific implications for the medical and nursing areas, via an analysis of the basic knowledge interests developed by Habermas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. PERKEMBANGAN PARADIGMA EPISTEMOLOGI DALAM FILSAFAT ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathul Mufid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:    Based on historical reports, Islamic epistemology paradigm has evolved from time to time bringing different schools each other. This paper aims at revealing such differences. Methods employed are philosophical Literary Review where compiled data are analyzed inductively to formulate theoretical constructions. Research findings reveal that peripatetic philosophers highlight their mind as a dominant tool to gain knowledge using demonstrative method (burhānī.Whilst illuminative philosophers, ‘irfāniyyīn, and Sufis believe that knowledge can only be derived from mystical intuition after purification of the heart (qalb trough practices (riyā╨ah. Different schools such as ones held by Mulla Sadra and Abed al-Jabiri are based on those distinctive principles.Abstrak:      Paradigma epistemologi pemikiran Islam menurut laporan sejarah mengalami perkembangan dari zaman ke zaman, yang berbeda prinsip antara aliran yang satu dengan yang lain. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menguak letak perbedaan antara aliran-aliran tersebut. Metode kepustakaan filsafat dilakukan dengan analisa data induktif untuk merumuskan konstruksi teoritik.  Temuan penelitian ini adalah, bahwa para filosof Muslim Paripatetik mengedepankan akal atau rasio sebagai alat yang paling dominan untuk memperoleh pengetahuan yang benar dengan menggunakan metode demonstratif (burhānī. Sementara filosof iluminasi, kaum ‘irfānī, dan kaum sufi berprinsip bahwa pengetahuan hakiki hanya dapat diperoleh melalui intuisi-mistik, setelah melalui proses penyucian hati (qalb dengan berbagai bentuk latihan (riyā╨ah. Sementara epistemologi Mulla Sadra menggunakan tipe “hikmah”, yaitu pemaduan antara visi rasional dengan visi mistik, yang kemudian diselaraskan dengan syari’at. Epistemolog kontemporer, Abed al-Jabiri memilih epistemologi burhānī yang meyakini bahwa sumber pengetahuan adalah rasio, bukan teks atau intuisi.

  11. Online Learning Journals as an Instructional and Self-Assessment Tool for Epistemological Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Brett

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study looked at the instructional and assessment effects of using learning journals in three distance asynchronous computer conferencing courses (n=18, n=16, n=17. The instructor used a design-research methodology: each iteration of the course involved modifications to how learning journals were used based on analyses of the responses and results from the preceding course. Modifications included: a use of orienting questions; b question content, c journal assessment and d amount of scaffolding. Protocols were analyzed with a view to characterizing students’ epistemic cognition from two perspectives: belief mode (rationalist epistemology, self analysis, norms of inquiry to defend competing beliefs and design mode (knowledge building epistemology, collective responsibility, norms of inquiry to support idea improvement and explanatory coherence. Changes in metacognitive reflection and learning journal activity were related to measures of learning. As a pedagogical tool, learning journals with directed questions (scaffolding encouraged self-awareness of learning and epistemological reflection. Résumé : La présente étude a examiné les effets de l’utilisation de journaux d’apprentissage sur l’enseignement et l’évaluation dans trois cours à distance asynchrones en téléconférence assistée par ordinateur (n = 18, n = 16, n = 17. L’instructeur a utilisé une méthodologie de recherche-conception : à chaque prestation du cours, des modifications étaient apportées à la manière dont les journaux d’apprentissage étaient utilisés en se basant sur l’analyse des réponses et les résultats obtenus lors de la prestation précédente. Les modifications concernaient : a l’utilisation de questions d’orientation; b le contenu des questions; c l’évaluation du journal; d la quantité d’échafaudage. Les protocoles ont été analysés de manière à caractériser la cognition épistémique des étudiants à partir de deux

  12. A methodological approach to study the stability of selected watercolours for painting reintegration, through reflectance spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Claudia; Capobianco, Giuseppe; Agresti, Giorgia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Morresi, Fabio; Rossi, Sara; Santamaria, Ulderico; Serranti, Silvia

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the stability to simulated solar radiation of some paintings samples through a new methodological approach adopting non-invasive spectroscopic techniques. In particular, commercial watercolours and iron oxide based pigments were used, these last ones being prepared for the experimental by gum Arabic in order to propose a possible substitute for traditional reintegration materials. Reflectance spectrophotometry in the visible range and Hyperspectral Imaging in the short wave infrared were chosen as non-invasive techniques for evaluation the stability to irradiation of the chosen pigments. These were studied before and after artificial ageing procedure performed in Solar Box chamber under controlled conditions. Data were treated and elaborated in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the chosen techniques in identifying the variations on paint layers, induced by photo-degradation, before they could be observed by eye. Furthermore a supervised classification method for monitoring the painted surface changes adopting a multivariate approach was successfully applied.

  13. Typology reconfigured: from the metaphysics of essentialism to the epistemology of representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to encourage a reconfiguration of the discussion about typology in biology away from the metaphysics of essentialism and toward the epistemology of classifying natural phenomena for the purposes of empirical inquiry. First, I briefly review arguments concerning 'typological thinking', essentialism, species, and natural kinds, highlighting their predominantly metaphysical nature. Second, I use a distinction between the aims, strategies, and tactics of science to suggest how a shift from metaphysics to epistemology might be accomplished. Typological thinking can be understood as a scientific tactic that involves representing natural phenomena using idealizations and approximations, which facilitates explanation, investigation, and theorizing via abstraction and generalization. Third, a variety of typologies from different areas of biology are introduced to emphasize the diversity of this representational reasoning. One particular example is used to examine how there can be epistemological conflict between typology and evolutionary analysis. This demonstrates that alternative strategies of typological thinking arise due to the divergent explanatory goals of researchers working in different disciplines with disparate methodologies. I conclude with several research questions that emerge from an epistemological reconfiguration of typology.

  14. Scholar-Craftsmanship: Question-Type, Epistemology, Culture of Inquiry, and Personality-Type in Dissertation Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Thomas P.; Rogers, Katrina S.

    2013-01-01

    "Scholar-Craftsmanship" (SC) is a quadrant methodological framework created to help social science doctoral students construct first-time dissertation research. The framework brackets and predicts how epistemological domains, cultures of inquiries, personality indicators, and research question--types can be correlated in dissertation…

  15. Preservice Teachers' Reconciliation of an Epistemological Issue in an Integrated Mathematics/Science Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormas, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Preservice teachers in six sections (n = 87) of a sequenced, methodological and process-integrated elementary mathematics/science methods course were able to reconcile an issue centered on a similar area of epistemology. Preservice teachers participated in a science inquiry lesson on biological classification and a mathematics problem-solving…

  16. The epistemological significance of possession entering the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Craig

    2015-09-01

    The discourse of the American Psychiatric Association's DSM reflects the inherently dialogic or contradictory nature of its stated mandate to demonstrate both 'nosological completeness' and cultural 'inclusiveness'. Psychiatry employs the dialogic discourse of the DSM in a one-sided, positivistic manner by identifying what it considers universal mental disease entities stripped of their cultural context. In 1992 the editors of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders proposed to introduce possession into their revisions. A survey of the discussions about introducing 'possession' as a dissociative disorder to be listed in the DSM-IV indicates a missed epistemological break. Subsequently the editors of the DSM-5 politically 'recuperated' possession into its official discourse, without acknowledging the anarchic challenges that possession presents to psychiatry as a cultural practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Positivism as classical epistemological framework of educational policy and school practice institutionalization in contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindomar Wessler Boneti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article consists of an epistemological reflection on educational policies in order to contribute to the Red Latinoamerica de Estudios Epistemológicos en Política Educativa (ReLePe debate. It is about to rescue the historical journey of the positivist position as classical epistemological framework of the educational policy institutionalization with regard to the implementation of educational action, with special focus to the set of rules, norms and values that conduct school activity. It is argued that these frameworks are constituted from two interconnected movements: historical construction of the epistemological frameworks of science and the Modern State that with the new mode of production, capitalism, gives rise to the second one: bourgeois movement of class distinction based on lifestyle. Thus, from the “Modern Reason”, it was outlined what may be regarded as a “model of civility”, becoming the epistemological framework and goal of achieving the educational policy institutionalization and school activity in contemporaneity.

  18. PEMAHAMAN EPISTEMOLOGIS CALON MAHASISWA MENGENAI ILMU-ILMU SOSIAL DAN ILMU-ILMU ALAM

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    Anindito Aditomo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological understanding is an important part of college students’ intellectual development. The present study examines the structure of epistemological understanding on a sample of students in an Indonesian university. The study also compares epistemological understanding of the social and natural science disciplines. Participants were mostly female (58%, on average 17.9 years, and enrolled in either a social science (fashion design, law, and psychology; N = 575 or natural sciences study programme (engineering, pharmacy, and biology; N = 924. A Likert-type instrument was used to measure three dimensions of epistemological understanding regarding authority as a source of knowledge, the subjectivity of knowledge, and the changeability of knowledge. Eigen values and scree plot in the exploratory factor analysis indicate a four-factor solution. These factors referred to the three hypothesised dimensions, and one additional dimension reflecting beliefs related specifically to factual knowledge. Additional analyses show that knowledge in the social sciences are seen as more subjective and uncertain. Furthermore, while students generally trust epistemic authorities from both fields, the trust towards authority in the social sciences is associated with a belief that knowledge is subjective. The reverse pattern was found for the natural sciences. A possible explanation is that social science students recognised but were uncomfortable with the subjective nature of their discipline, and hence sought certainty from epistemic authorities.

  19. Epistemologic inquiries in evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Guyatt, Gordon H; Ashcroft, Richard E

    2009-04-01

    Since the term "evidence-based medicine" (EBM) first appeared in the scientific literature in 1991, the concept has had considerable influence in many parts of the world. Most professional societies, the public,and funding agencies have accepted EBM with remarkable enthusiasm. The concept of evidence-based practice is now applied in management, education, criminology, and social work. Yet, EBM has attracted controversy: its critics allege that EBM uses a narrow concept of evidence and a naive conception of the relationships between evidence, theory, and practice. They also contend that EBM presents itself as a radical restructuring of medical knowledge that discredits more traditional ways of knowing in medicine, largely in the interests of people with a particular investment in the enterprise of large-scale clinical trials. Because EBM proposes aspecific relationship between theory, evidence, and knowledge, its theoretical basis can be understood as an epistemological system. Undertaking epistemological inquiry is important because the adoption of a particular epistemological view defines how science is conducted. In this paper, we challenge this critical view of EBM by examining how EBM fits into broad epistemological debates within the philosophy of science. We consider how EBM relates to some classical debates regarding the nature of science and knowledge. We investigate EBM from the perspective of major epistemological theories (logical-positivism/inductivism, deductivism/falsificationism/theory-ladeness of observations, explanationism/holism, instrumentalism, underdetermination theory by evidence). We first explore the relationship between evidence and knowledge and discuss philosophical support for the main way that evidence is used in medicine: (1) in the philosophical tradition that "rational thinkers respect their evidence," we show that EBM refers to making medical decisions that are consistent with evidence, (2) as a reliable sign, symptom, or mark to

  20. Truth and victims’ rights: Towards a legal epistemology of international criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Edgar R.

    2013-01-01

    The author advances the thesis that the now well established international crime victims' right to know the truth creates an opportunity for an applied epistemology reflection regarding international criminal justice. At the heart of the project lies the author's argument that this victims' right -if taken seriously- implies both the right that the international criminal justice system's normative structures or legal frameworks and practices feature a truth-promoting profile, or in other word...

  1. Tracing the becoming of reflective practitioner through the enactment of epistemic practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenca, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for tracing the cognitive and affective micro-processes management accountants can draw upon to construct themselves as reflective practitioners within organizational context. Design/methodology/approach - Drawing on pragmatic...... constructivism and Heron's (1992) theory of learning and personhood, the framework provides a methodology for tracing the way management accountants can construct themselves as reflective practitioners by enactig epistemic practices (Cetina, 2001). Furthermore, we enquire into the epistemological requirements...... for creating trustworthy knowledge and the processes through which actors can diminish the proactive-pragmatic truth gap. Findings - The framework shows how the participatory function of the mind, deeply rooted in affective processes, is implicated in creating empathic engagement with epistemic objects...

  2. Elementary epistemological features of machine intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of machine intelligence (MI) is useful for defining a common platform in both theoretical and applied artificial intelligence (AI). The goal of this paper is to set canonical definitions that can assist pragmatic research in both strong and weak AI. Described epistemological features of machine intelligence include relationship between intelligent behavior, intelligent and unintelligent machine characteristics, observable and unobservable entities and classification of in...

  3. MEMBANGUN EPISTEMOLOGI TAFSIR SUFI; (Intervensi Psikologi Mufassir

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    habibi al amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jika kita telusuri literature – literature ‘ulu>m al-Qur’a>n maka kita sering mendapati bahwa epistemologi tafsir sufi lahir dari nafas sufisme. Namun demikian epistemologi sufi yang digunakan dalam penafsiran al-Qur’an tidak dapat lepas dari faktor kejiwaan. Hal Ini ditunjukkan dengan produk penafsiran yang berupa identitas perlambangan (alegorasi ayat-ayat Al-Qur’an dalam bentuk metafora jiwa suci yang diorientasikan menuju eksistensi Yang Maha Suci. Pengembangan struktur jiwa dalam sufi terbentuk melalui pengalaman-pengalaman yang kemudian digunakan untuk mengelaborasi makna di balik teks. Menariknya, kejiwaan para sufi yang dikelola melalui latihan-latihan olah jiwa (riya>d}ah kurang disentuh dan dikritisi sebagai sebuah bentuk epistemologi. Selain proses pengalaman kejiwaan, dalam memahami kalam ilahi para sufi tidak terlepas dari kaidah linguistik serta makna lahiriah dari ayat-ayat dan susunan gramatika. Mereka menjelaskan ayat dengan menembus batas-batas makna teks dan menyelami makna ayat dengan pengalaman dan doktrin mereka. Proses jelajah dan eksplorasi yang tertimbun dari makna lahir dalam studi ilmu tafsir masuk pada kajian takwil. Konsep umum tentang takwil dalam perspektif sufi merupakan pendekatan yang menanjak/transendensi/ s}u’u>di>, mengambil emanasi dari tanzi>l (ayat-ayat ilahiah yang bercorak menukik (imanensi/nuzuli.

  4. Recognizing tacit knowledge in medical epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based medicine movement advocates basing all medical decisions on certain types of quantitative research data and has stimulated protracted controversy and debate since its inception. Evidence-based medicine presupposes an inaccurate and deficient view of medical knowledge. Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge both explains this deficiency and suggests remedies for it. Polanyi shows how all explicit human knowledge depends on a wealth of tacit knowledge which accrues from experience and is essential for problem solving. Edmund Pellegrino's classic treatment of clinical judgment is examined, and a Polanyian critique of this position demonstrates that tacit knowledge is necessary for understanding how clinical judgment and medical decisions involve persons. An adequate medical epistemology requires much more qualitative research relevant to the clinical encounter and medical decision making than is currently being done. This research is necessary for preventing an uncritical application of evidence-based medicine by health care managers that erodes good clinical practice. Polanyi's epistemology shows the need for this work and provides the structural core for building an adequate and robust medical epistemology that moves beyond evidence-based medicine.

  5. The worst enemy of science: clarifying polemics issues on Paul Feyerabend’s Epistemology in teacher training

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    Felipe Damasio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the objections to Feyerabend's epistemology arise from misinterpretations of ideas by this author. Terms and expressions as epistemological anarchism, irrationality, control of science and anything goes can give the false impression that the author's arguments are chaotic and unsustainable. This paper discusses these concepts, opposing the misconceptions about them. In initial and continuing teacher education, this reflection can be useful both for the deconstruction of certain misleading images about the nature of science and for the upbringing of critical citizens acquaintated to the concepts of modern philosophy of science.

  6. Epistemological Belief Congruency in Mathematics between Vocational Technology Students and Their Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Unruh, Susan; Morphew, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Three questions were addressed in this study. Is there evidence of epistemological beliefs congruency between students and their instructor? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict mathematical anxiety? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict…

  7. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM AS A SOLUTION TO RATIONALITY IN POSTNONCLASSICAL EPISTEMOLOGY

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    O. V. Molokova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. In this article the epistemology is investigated in such direction of social thought as social constructivism. The occurrence and popularity of a socially-constructivist paradigm was preceded by polemic between defenders of orientation of a science on the objectivity, positions adhering positivistically- universalistic and their opponents defending positions relativism. In the centre of discussion of scientific community there were such important problems for philosophy, as search for scientific true; objectivity of scientific knowledge and a relative autonomy of a science; relativization scientific knowledge. Methodology. Features of modern constructivism − in a special sight at knowledge, in a new foreshortening of its consideration when it represents itself as the tool of maintenance of ability to live of an organism as integrity (the individual, social group, a society. The outstanding characteristics of constructivism are the new foreshortening of consideration of possibilities of social knowledge − as constituting element of human experience of an everyday life. Scientific novelty. The important point is studying of how the scientific knowledge influences life of people, changes and structures life of the person. As the knowledge does not correspond any more with the objective world by a reflexion principle, loses sense and a question on its conformity of a reality that removes stubborn problems of true, reliability, objectivity. Conclusions. Social constructivism creates new possibilities for studying a problem of true and connected with it epistemological procedures of understanding, an explanation, interpretation, allows to look at the nature of human knowledge differently. In modern scientific researches the wide circulation is received by idea of designed character social and cultural the validity. This idea is supported with conclusions of variety of interdisciplinary approaches (the general theory of systems, the

  8. Epistemology and Education: Nimat Hafez BarazangiEpistemology and Education: Nimat Hafez Barazangi

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    Jolanda Guardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The text whose translation I present here deals with feminist epistemology in the Muslim world. As the epistemological assumptions are different from that of Western feminist thought, I introduce it to make the reader familiar with some basic concepts. I consider this text a classic in its field as it is a fundamental text for the development of Muslim feminist thought, a thought whose beginning can be placed in the second half of the twentieth century. In the introduction, after presenting some critical issues, I will briefly introduce the author and her thought.

  9. Epistemological basis of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouailhetas, Yannick; Acar, Maria E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Regarding natural phenomena understood or not, the absolute truth must be somewhere. In fact, there is no evidence that neither nature nor the phenomena that it includes were 'created' to be understood. Except for the fact that Man appeared through the same process, with his curiosity, capacity to perceive and manipulate, his greed for power and fears. In general, the attitude towards questions for which the absolute truth has not been reached varies from ignorance/indifference to the search of knowledge through scientific methodology, and may even be based on beliefs. The fact that the interaction between ionizing radiations and living beings results in biological effect is true. That the biological effect of high doses of radiation, absorbed outside the context of medicine, is hazardous for the irradiated individuals also seems to be true. That any dose is dangerous, or not, is debatable: the available information and knowledge are not consistent enough to end the question; and so, the absolute truth remains hidden. Radiological Protection is founded on the principle that any increase of dose results in an increase in the risk of cancer, and that this risk must be kept as low as possible. It is therefore based on this 'belief' that the international organisms of radiological protection emit recommendations aiming the protection of people and the environment. What is interesting about this question is that because of restrictions imposed by regulating agencies, populations, members of the public and the environment are properly protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiations, which makes the truth no longer interesting. Radiological Protection is a requirement associated to all activities involving nuclear energy. It satisfies several interests and opposes others. The greater the opposed interests and the perception that the absolute truth can represent dialectic advantage to one of the parts, the greater the perception of the importance of its

  10. The erudite humility of the historian: the 'critical epistemology' of Georges Lantéri-Laura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso Lorini, Elisabetta

    2017-06-01

    This paper analyses the historical and epistemological work of the French psychiatrist Georges Lantéri-Laura (1930-2004) within the context of the French 'tradition' of history and philosophy of sciences, with special reference to Georges Canguilhem and Michel Foucault. After an introduction devoted to a critical survey of the most recent works on the history and historiography of psychiatry in French, the paper outlines Lantéri-Laura's approach by focusing especially on the role played by the methodological concept of 'semiology' as regards the relation between medicine and psychiatry. The last part of the paper draws attention to the relation between the history and philosophy of psychiatry in light of Lantéri-Laura's 'critical epistemology'.

  11. THE EPISTEMOLOGY BEHIND THE CURTAIN: THOUGHTS ON THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Brett H

    2017-07-01

    This essay is concerned with the epistemological complications of the interface between psychoanalysis and "scientific" disciplines and methodologies-in particular, with respect to theories of knowledge and conceptualizations of subjectivity appropriate to psychoanalysis. The author suggests that there is in such interface the potential for an untheorized scientism in empiricist prescriptions for the reform and rescue of psychoanalysis, and revisits the notion that subjectivity as conceived psychoanalytically, grounded in lived experience, is irreducible in ways that are unique and existentially abiding. The author explores the problem through the lens of philosophical hermeneutics and cautions against merging psychoanalysis, under the guise of a salutary pluralism, with disciplines guided by a systematized empiricism and its attendant epistemological commitments. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  12. REFLEXÕES TEÓRICO-METODOLÓGICAS SOBRE A CIÊNCIA JURÍDICA E SEU OBJETO / THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL REFLECTIONS ON JURISPRUDENCE AND HIS SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Sgarbossa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article proposes to problematize, from an interdisciplinary dialog that focuses on the fields of Anthropology, History and Sociology, the object and the methods of contemporary Jurisprudence, looking for the redeeming of the value of thoughts from authors such as Eugen Ehrlich and Julius Hermann Von Kirchmann. The article makes some critical reflections on the reductionist conception of law based on positivism, in legalism and statism, advocating a broad concept of law, recognized as a rich human and social phenomenon. On the basis of the thought of Paolo Grossi, it proposes a ransom of ordinamental vision of law, in place of merely compulsory existing conception. The study presents a criticism to the purely technological approach of law, for the sake of a methodological reset that boosts the juridical science, and argues that the withdrawal of myths, as the legal monism, may contribute to the future Jurisprudence not to succumb in front of the strict positivism, the officialism and the strict technicality.

  13. What Difference Does Quantity Make? On the Epistemology of Big Data in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Is big data science a whole new way of doing research? And what difference does data quantity make to knowledge production strategies and their outputs? I argue that the novelty of big data science does not lie in the sheer quantity of data involved, but rather in (1) the prominence and status acquired by data as commodity and recognised output, both within and outside of the scientific community; and (2) the methods, infrastructures, technologies, skills and knowledge developed to handle data. These developments generate the impression that data-intensive research is a new mode of doing science, with its own epistemology and norms. To assess this claim, one needs to consider the ways in which data are actually disseminated and used to generate knowledge. Accordingly, this paper reviews the development of sophisticated ways to disseminate, integrate and re-use data acquired on model organisms over the last three decades of work in experimental biology. I focus on online databases as prominent infrastructures set up to organise and interpret such data; and examine the wealth and diversity of expertise, resources and conceptual scaffolding that such databases draw upon. This illuminates some of the conditions under which big data need to be curated to support processes of discovery across biological subfields, which in turn highlights the difficulties caused by the lack of adequate curation for the vast majority of data in the life sciences. In closing, I reflect on the difference that data quantity is making to contemporary biology, the methodological and epistemic challenges of identifying and analyzing data given these developments, and the opportunities and worries associated to big data discourse and methods. PMID:25729586

  14. What Difference Does Quantity Make? On the Epistemology of Big Data in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2014-06-01

    Is big data science a whole new way of doing research? And what difference does data quantity make to knowledge production strategies and their outputs? I argue that the novelty of big data science does not lie in the sheer quantity of data involved, but rather in (1) the prominence and status acquired by data as commodity and recognised output, both within and outside of the scientific community; and (2) the methods, infrastructures, technologies, skills and knowledge developed to handle data. These developments generate the impression that data-intensive research is a new mode of doing science, with its own epistemology and norms. To assess this claim, one needs to consider the ways in which data are actually disseminated and used to generate knowledge. Accordingly, this paper reviews the development of sophisticated ways to disseminate, integrate and re-use data acquired on model organisms over the last three decades of work in experimental biology. I focus on online databases as prominent infrastructures set up to organise and interpret such data; and examine the wealth and diversity of expertise, resources and conceptual scaffolding that such databases draw upon. This illuminates some of the conditions under which big data need to be curated to support processes of discovery across biological subfields, which in turn highlights the difficulties caused by the lack of adequate curation for the vast majority of data in the life sciences. In closing, I reflect on the difference that data quantity is making to contemporary biology, the methodological and epistemic challenges of identifying and analyzing data given these developments, and the opportunities and worries associated to big data discourse and methods.

  15. What difference does quantity make? On the epistemology of Big Data in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Leonelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Is Big Data science a whole new way of doing research? And what difference does data quantity make to knowledge production strategies and their outputs? I argue that the novelty of Big Data science does not lie in the sheer quantity of data involved, but rather in (1 the prominence and status acquired by data as commodity and recognised output, both within and outside of the scientific community and (2 the methods, infrastructures, technologies, skills and knowledge developed to handle data. These developments generate the impression that data-intensive research is a new mode of doing science, with its own epistemology and norms. To assess this claim, one needs to consider the ways in which data are actually disseminated and used to generate knowledge. Accordingly, this article reviews the development of sophisticated ways to disseminate, integrate and re-use data acquired on model organisms over the last three decades of work in experimental biology. I focus on online databases as prominent infrastructures set up to organise and interpret such data and examine the wealth and diversity of expertise, resources and conceptual scaffolding that such databases draw upon. This illuminates some of the conditions under which Big Data needs to be curated to support processes of discovery across biological subfields, which in turn highlights the difficulties caused by the lack of adequate curation for the vast majority of data in the life sciences. In closing, I reflect on the difference that data quantity is making to contemporary biology, the methodological and epistemic challenges of identifying and analysing data given these developments, and the opportunities and worries associated with Big Data discourse and methods.

  16. Intervensi Negara Dalam Perekonomian: Melacak Epistemologi Politik-Ekonomi Islam

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    Nafis Irkhami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A correct understanding to the fundamental elements in the Islamic political economy is a must for its development. This study tried to seek a conceptual understanding of the basic elements of scientific aspects including worldview and epistemology. Its role to construct the methodology of Islamic political economy also became the main topic. There were some different vision,and epistemological and methodological framework of the Islamic political economy to those of western,. The consequences of those differences leaded to different scientific developments. At the level of praxis, it also produced differences in determining policy, while internal logic, coherence and consistency were essential pre-requisites for scientific approach. Islamic political economiy should be evaluated with its own worldview and epistemology. However, in another side, we could not neglect the role and position of current political and  economic sciences in the process of developing Islamic politial economy. The study of political-economic epistemology consisted of  the intervention and role of the state in the economy, especially in terms of public policy. الملخص: إن تنمية الاقتصاد السياسي الإسلامي يُشترط فيه الفهم الصحيح تجاه العناصر الأساسية فيه. حاول هذا المقال اكتشاف أنواع المفاهيم عن العناصر الأساسية العلمية فيه، وكذلك النظرة السائدة والابستمولوجيا وموقع كل منها في بناء منهجية الاقتصاد السياسي الإسلامي. هناك فروق في الرؤية والابستمولوجيا والاطار المنهجي بين الاقتصاد السياسي الإسلامي والغرب.  وإن هذه الفروق أدت إلى وجود الاختلافات في المبتى العلمي. وفي الجانب العملي، تسببّ هذه الفروق

  17. Epistemology of analogy: Knowledge, society and expression

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    Mauricio Beuchot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we expose the bases of analog epistemology. This theory of knowledge is between an extreme subjectivism and an extreme objectivism. Analog hermeneutics is a realistic hermeneutics. She seeks the truth, but incorporates the meaning and emotion. We have separated the reason from the experience, the praxis theory, the mind or the soul of the body. We have to get them back together, if we do not get lost in the rational (which says little of the human being, or we lose ourselves in the emotional (without logical consistency. The analogical hermeneutic realism is able, thanks to the analogy itself, to mediate in this way of union.

  18. Position epistemological, paradigmatical and pedagogical of the curriculum for the Degree in Nursing at the University of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of educational research which analyzed the epistemological position, paradigmaticand educational curriculum of the Degree of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica. The population consisted ofthe graduates of the School of Nursing. For the participation of teachers in service, worked with saturation (11.For graduates (2008 the population was 74 for a sample of 47 of them and her. We analyzed three dimensions theepistemological and pedagogical paradigm of teaching and reflected in the curriculum. To collect data, aquestionnaire was structured and semi-structured interviews to selected population. The study found that althoughthe position does not require explicit epistemic quote, there are some modules that need internal review to showconsistency between what is manifested mainly in learning activities and methodology, with the characteristicsand assumptions of the hermeneutic interpretive position curriculum. Moreover we can consider that the modulesdespite their particularities and differences in their teaching and learning, with characteristics savedapproximation pedagogical approach that suggests the curriculum. We conclude that it is not explicit or clear theposition that the teachers expressed regarding the pedagogical approach of the curriculum, so it is essential todeepen these concepts again with faculty. However, it is clear that significant progress has been made, howeverthey must think that the investigation is unrelated to the nursing task, a finding consistent with the findings 12years ago, when he became the curriculum change.

  19. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  20. Epistemological Diversity and Moral Ends of Research in Instructed SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore epistemological diversity in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) from the perspective that obtains if we examine the moral ends of research, and we ask: In what ways does epistemological diversity relate to enhancing the social value and educational relevance of the research generated by the instructed SLA…

  1. The Influence of Hindu Epistemology on Ranganathan's Colon Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Bradley Gerald

    This study attempted to determine the influence of Hindu epistemology on Ranganathan's Colon Classification. Only the epistemological schools of Hindu philosophy and the Idea Plane element of Colon Classification were included. A literature search revealed that, although there is significant literature on each side of the problem, no bridges exist…

  2. Epistemology in Qualitative Educational Research: A Review of Published Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the epistemological basis for qualitative educational research studies. Within this context, 20 qualitative studies on education were analysed and three dimensions were sorted out: (1) the purpose or aim of the study, (2) the rationale for the study, and (3) the occurrence of epistemological aspects (theory, paradigm,…

  3. How Epistemological Beliefs Relate to Values and Gender Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    In response to the current literature on possible systematic differences in the epistemological beliefs of men and women and between members of different cultures, this paper examines the way psychological constructs associated with gender (i.e. gender orientation) and culture (i.e. values) are related to individual's epistemological beliefs.…

  4. Intellectual Humility and Morality as Consultee-Centered Consultation Epistemologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Stephen D.; Kearney, Moriah A.; Davis, Don E.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Little research examines how epistemological constructs affect the consultation process in schools. We consider how the epistemological constructs of (a) intellectual humility and (b) moral foundations may moderate the effectiveness of consultee-centered consultation. We define the constructs and provide examples of their potential influences on…

  5. Epistemological Predictors of Prospective Biology Teachers' Nature of Science Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoglu, Pinar; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate epistemological predictors of nature of science understandings of 281 prospective biology teachers surveyed using the Epistemological Beliefs Scale Regarding Science and the Nature of Science Scale. The findings on multiple linear regression showed that understandings about definition of science and…

  6. An Essay for Educators: Epistemological Realism Really is Common Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.

    2008-01-01

    "What is truth?" Pontius Pilot asked Jesus of Nazareth. For many educators today this question seems quaintly passe. Rejection of "truth" goes hand-in-hand with the rejection of epistemological realism. Educational thought over the last decade has instead been dominated by empiricist, anti-realist, instrumentalist epistemologies of two types:…

  7. DARI ‘ABID AL-JABIRI TENTANG EPISTEMOLOGI ARAB ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mahfudh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: To deal with modernity, al-Ja>biri> offered an alternative reading mothods which was then called Qira>'ah mua's}irah (contemporary readings with its characteristics ja'lu al-maqru>' mu'a>s}ir li>nafsih wa mu'a>s}ir lana>. The method is defined into two steps: first, fas}l al-maqru>' 'an al-qa>ri> (subject took distance from the object study to obtain objectivity, second, was}l al-qa> ri> ' an al-maqru> '(the subject has a link himself with the object of study in order to actualize and measure the relevance of the present subject. Furthermore, al-Ja>biri> concluded that Arabic reasoning divided into three epistemological systems, first indication system (baya>ni> epistemology is a system that first appeared in Arab thinking. Nevertheless, al-Ja>biri> considered that this epistemology is strongly influenced by Badui (a'rabi>} so that it is not excessive called as hegemony, thus allowing it to be criticized. Second, 'Irfa>ni> system ('Irfa>ni>’s epistemology} in which knowledge is acquired through God exposure to His slaves (Kashf} after the spiritualists (riya>d}ah. Departing from here, al-Ja>biri> actually scientific obtained in this way failing to provide a convincing conclusion. Third, the burha>ni’s system (burha>ni> epistemology in which al-Ja>biri> is very skewed vision him- emphasized the innate potential source of knowledge is reasonable. Nevertheless, there are opposition who judge that al-Ja>biri> inconsistency against his own behavior, one hand he refused Marxist reading style of tura>ts, but on the other hand, the way he criticized 'Irfa> ni> and prioritized Burhani, then it is considered to be Marxist models. However, there are some scientists who considered that the discovery of al-Ja>biri> is one form of methodological revolution in reading tura> ts, the readings epistemologically useful to articulate the gap tradition (tura> ts and modernity. Keywords: Tradisi (Tura>th, Qira>’ah Mu’as}irah, Baya>ni>, Burha>ni> dan

  8. High School Physics Students' Personal Epistemologies and School Science Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen

    2017-11-01

    This case study explores students' physics-related personal epistemologies in school science practices. The school science practices of nine eleventh grade students in a physics class were audio-taped over 6 weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their ideas on the nature of scientific knowledge after each activity. Analysis of transcripts yielded several epistemological resources that students activated in their school science practice. The findings show that there is inconsistency between students' definitions of scientific theories and their epistemological judgments. Analysis revealed that students used several epistemological resources to decide on the accuracy of their data including accuracy via following the right procedure and accuracy via what the others find. Traditional, formulation-based, physics instruction might have led students to activate naive epistemological resources that prevent them to participate in the practice of science in ways that are more meaningful. Implications for future studies are presented.

  9. Epistemology, development, and integrity in a science education professional development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Elizabeth St. Petery

    This research involved interpretive inquiry to understand changes in the notion of "self" as expressed by teachers recently enrolled as graduate students in an advanced degree program in science education at Florida State University. Teachers work in a context that integrates behavior, social structure, culture, and intention. Within this context, this study focused on the intentional realm that involves interior understandings, including self-epistemology, professional self-identity, and integrity. Scholarship in adult and teacher development, especially ways of knowing theory, guided my efforts to understand change in these notions of self. The five participants in this study were interviewed in depth to explore their "self"-related understandings in detail. The other primary data sources were portfolios and work the participants submitted as part of the program. Guided by a constructivist methodology, I used narrative inquiry and grounded theory to conduct data analysis. As learners and teachers, these individuals drew upon epistemological orientations emphasizing a procedural orientation to knowledge. They experienced varying degrees of interior and exterior development in self and epistemology. They created integrity in their efforts to align their intentions with their actions with a dynamic relationship to context. This study suggests that professional development experiences in science education include consideration of the personal and the professional, recognize and honor differing perspectives, facilitate development, and assist individuals to recognize and articulate their integrity.

  10. Integrative curriculum reform, domain dependent knowing, and teachers` epistemological theories: Implications for middle-level teaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.R. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). College of Education

    1998-12-01

    Integrative curriculum as both a theoretical construct and a practical reality, and as a theme-based, problem-centered, democratic way of schooling, is becoming more widely considered as a feasible alternative to traditional middle-level curricula. Importantly for teaching and learning, domain dependence requires teachers to view one area of knowledge as fully interdependent with other areas of knowledge during the learning process. This requires teachers to adopt personal epistemological theories that reflect integrative, domain dependent knowing. This study explored what happened when teachers from highly traditional domain independent school settings encountered an ambitious college-level curriculum project that was designed to help the teachers understand the potential that integrative, domain dependent teaching holds for precollege settings. This study asked: What influence does an integrative, domain dependent curriculum project have on teachers` domain independent, epistemological theories for teaching and learning? Finding an answer to this question is essential if we, as an educational community, are to understand how integrative curriculum theory is transformed by teachers into systemic curriculum reform. The results suggest that the integrative curriculum project that teachers participated in did not explicitly alter their classroom practices in a wholesale manner. Personal epistemological theories of teachers collectively precluded teachers from making any wholesale changes in their individual classroom teaching. However, teachers became aware of integrative curriculum as an alternative, and they expressed interest in infusing integrative practices into their classrooms as opportunities arise.

  11. Epistemological Development in First-Year Nursing Students Undertaking Cultural Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sallie; Fyers, Katrina

    2018-04-01

    The process of teaching cultural safety is emancipatory, focused on wider social relations and the context in which they arise. As teachers of cultural safety, we are interested in the way that ideas are formed, held, and changed. The aim of this research was to examine whether epistemological shifts were demonstrated by nursing students over one semester of cultural safety teaching-learning. NVivo software was used to analyze 34 nursing students' reflective journals, applying a cognitive-developmental framework. The framework comprised three epistemological positions-dualism, relativism, and propositional-and two in-between locations, referred to as stretching. The results showed student movement between early epistemological positions and students' efforts to stretch to new, yet untried, ways of thinking. In the classroom, these shifts may be subtle; thus, paying careful attention to evidence that students are trying out new ways of thinking is essential. Appreciating that these small but significant shifts are perhaps more important than 'aha' moments is crucial. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(4):229-232.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Case study of a successful learner's epistemological framings of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Vesal; Hammer, David

    2017-06-01

    Research on student epistemologies in introductory courses has highlighted the importance of understanding physics as "a refinement of everyday thinking" [A. Einstein, J. Franklin Inst. 221, 349 (1936), 10.1016/S0016-0032(36)91047-5]. That view is difficult to sustain in quantum mechanics, for students as for physicists. How might students manage the transition? In this article, we present a case study of a graduate student's approaches and reflections on learning over two semesters of quantum mechanics, based on a series of nine interviews. We recount his explicit grappling with the shift in epistemology from classical to quantum, and we argue that his success in learning largely involved his framing mathematics as expressing physical meaning. At the same time, we show he was not entirely stable in these framings, shifting away from them in particular during his study of scattering. The case speaks to literature on students' epistemologies, with respect to the roles of everyday thinking and mathematics. We discuss what this case suggests for further research, with possible implications for instruction.

  13. Psychological effects and epistemological education through mathematics "abstraction" and "construction"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Pera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a broader research which will be found in future work, Psychology and epistemology of mathematical creation, complementary work of experimental research psychology mathematics, whose investigative approach, promoting the combination type cross section paradigms and quantitative methods and qualitative and comparative method and the analytic-synthetic, based on the following idea: to make learning as efficient, contents and methods must be appropriate to the individual particularities of the pupils, a measure of the balance between converging and diverging dosing tasks as a promising opening to the transition from education proficiency in math performance. At this juncture, mathematical existence as ontological approach against the background of a history of "abstraction" mathematical and theoretical observations on the abstraction, realization and other mathematical thought processes, explanatory approach fulfills the context in which s mathematics constituted an important factor in psychological and methodological perspective, in a context of maximizing the educational effectiveness that depends on the quality of the methods used in teaching, focused on knowledge of the general principles of psycho-didactics not only mathematical and mental organization individual student or knowledge of the factors that make possible psycho-educational learning process.

  14. Modern historical epistemology through the prism of Paul Ricoeur’ transactions

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    Trubnikova Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is carried out the contribution of Paul Ricoeur, the leading theorist of modern humanitarian knowledge, in the elaboration of the modern historical epistemology problems. His diverse works affect all sense fields of history and historical perception. The article shows the place of Paul Ricoeur as a primary guide of philosophical hermeneutic tradition achievements in the sphere of historical research, moreover, as a thinker, who gives a principal possibility to surmount divisions of different historiographical trends and find a methodological consensus in regard to basic orientations of historical scholarship. On the basis of his works the dialectic of a historical objectivity and a personal subjectivity of historian, the interoperability issues of history and historical memory are traced. At the same time this paper touches principals dichotomies, basic for the Paul Ricoeur’s considerations, such as fiction and historical narration, structure and event, history and truth, memory and imagination, scientism and art of interpretation, human action and social constraint. The contents of a current debate on the theory of history, based on the development of the Ricoeur’s “defatalisation” of history concept and utopian future vision are shown.

  15. Exploring the challenge of health research priority setting in partnership: reflections on the methodology used by the James Lind Alliance Pressure Ulcer Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Mary; Morley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The James Lind Alliance (JLA) brings patients, carers and clinicians together in Priority Setting Partnerships (PSPs) to identify and prioritise shared uncertainties about the effects of treatment. The JLA emerged from the evidence-informed healthcare movement to address a concern that the research being carried out on treatment effectiveness is not that of most importance to patients and health professionals. In the JLA PSPs, 'hard' evidence-informed ideals meet 'soft' participatory practices. This article explores the challenges of putting co-production methods into practice by reflecting on the methods used by the JLA Pressure Ulcer PSP (JLAPUP). The JLA principles are transparency, inclusivity and avoiding waste in research. This means paying the same close critical attention to how PSPs are designed and run, as is desired in the health research which the JLA seeks to influence. JLAPUP showed that it was possible to work in partnership in a field where patients are often elderly, immobile, unrepresented and particularly unwell, many of whom are living with more than one long term condition. However, for those unfamiliar with it, 'uncertainty' was a difficult term to get to grips with. Also, it was harder for some people than others to take part and to have their voices heard and understood. In keeping with other PSPs, JLAPUP found that the nature and quality of research into pressure ulcer prevention and treatment did not reflect the priorities of those who took part. ᅟ. Studies identifying a mismatch between the priorities of academics and clinicians and those of people with direct experience of a health condition pose a challenge to the assumption that professional researchers can represent the interests of patients and the public in setting priorities for health research. The James Lind Alliance (JLA) brings patients, carers and clinicians together in Priority Setting Partnerships (PSPs) to identify and prioritise shared uncertainties about the effects of

  16. Epistemological Presuppositions for the Theistic Philosophy of A. Plantinga

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    Kirill Karpov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to reconstruct the context surrounding the projects for a reformed epistemology and an affi rmation of the Christian faith by Alvin Plantinga. An analysis of Plantinga’s epistemological presuppositions reveals how they are intertwined. The basic problem surrounding the dispute between fundamentalists and anti-fundamentalists concerning the nature of knowledge constituted the background against which the theistic philosophy of Plantinga began to take form. Examining this dispute, the author of this article attempts to define the position of the philosophers in question and to clarify the differences in terminology which are found in the appropriate literature. The relationship between evidentialism and reliabilism on the one hand and internalism and externalism on the other is noted. The author distinguishes between an early (weak and later (strong type of reformed epistemology. In the former type, Plantinga was concerned with refuting the classical version of epistemological fundamentalism; in the latter, he concentrated his attention on constructing a philosophical scheme which could grant to the basic teachings of theism an epistemological foundation. The author discusses and analyses the main objections to Plantinga. These objections are of two kinds: theological and philosophical. The philosophical objections are aimed at the epistemological presuppositions suggested by Plantinga. The author concludes that, in spite of the value and longevity of Plantiga’s arguments, the solutions to the questions which he raised are dependent on contemporary discussions of analytical epistemology.

  17. Social behavioural epistemology and the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watve, Milind

    2017-07-01

    The progress of science is influenced substantially by social behaviour of and social interactions within the scientific community. Similar to innovations in primate groups, the social acceptance of an innovation depends not only upon the relevance of the innovation but also on the social dominance and connectedness of the innovator. There are a number of parallels between many well-known phenomena in behavioural evolution and various behavioural traits observed in the scientific community. It would be useful, therefore, to use principles of behavioural evolution as hypotheses to study the social behaviour of the scientific community. I argue in this paper that a systematic study of social behavioural epistemology is likely to boost the progress of science by addressing several prevalent biases and other problems in scientific communication and by facilitating appropriate acceptance/rejection of novel concepts.

  18. Epistemology, Ethics, and Progress in Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Barsanti-Innes, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    The emerging paradigm of precision medicine strives to leverage the tools of molecular biology to prospectively tailor treatments to the individual patient. Fundamental to the success of this movement is the discovery and validation of "predictive biomarkers," which are properties of a patient's biological specimens that can be assayed in advance of therapy to inform the treatment decision. Unfortunately, research into biomarkers and diagnostics for precision medicine has fallen well short of expectations. In this essay, we examine the portfolio of research activities into the excision repair cross complement group 1 (ERCC1) gene as a predictive biomarker for precision lung cancer therapy as a case study in elucidating the epistemological and ethical obstacles to developing new precision medicines.

  19. Epistemological and didactic valuation of professional competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jacinto Abambari Arévalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of competency-based approach is not only a new expression of learning outcomes, but also for its epistemological and pedagogical implications leading to a transformation of the educational process and its evaluation. Today, this is an extremely controversial topic due to divorce between university curricula recognized competency, its realization in the teaching-learning process and how evaluated is practiced. It is therefore of utmost importance to achieve a thematic approach about the topic, for the reason that, while theorizing from process competences development is not new, it is so from the perspective of the considerations about how to evaluate performances and evidences. The results of this study contributed to provide a strategy to fulfill this purpose. Keywords: competence development, competence assessment, professional problem solving

  20. An epistemology of facilitation: A Julian M�ller story

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    H. Elmo Pienaar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article furthered an epistemology of facilitation. It was created through bringing into focus broad movements in Julian M�ller�s theoretical academic development. Rather than explaining at length the epistemological concepts characterising M�ller�s theoretical development � rightly because of the importance of narrative in Julian M�ller�s work � the article sought to link a social psychological dimension of both M�ller and the author to these concepts. Resulting from M�ller�s work, the author regarded a narrative approach, social constructionism and postfoundationalism as important epistemological conversational partners in practical theological facilitation.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative research in Sociolinguistics: methodological dadaism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rodrigues Cardoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The confluence between quantitative and qualitative research in Sociolinguistics is a methodological Dadaism? The issue here is not epistemology, because I assume that the Sociolinguistics studies the language linked to social. I want to demonstrate that the methodological approach depends on the research question, ie, the subject about which a thesis is developed.

  2. Political Transformation and Research Methodology in Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between political change and epistemologies and methodologies employed at doctorate level. It does so by analysing the range of topics, questions and methodologies used by doctoral students at the University of Pretoria's Faculty of Education between 1985 and 2005--a time-frame that covers the decade before and…

  3. PSA methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, L

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300{sup 1} and EPS 900{sup 2} PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs.

  4. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300 1 and EPS 900 2 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  5. Profundizando en la educación científica: aspectos epistemológicos y metodológicos a tener en cuenta en la enseñanza Aprofundando a educação científica: aspectos epistemológicos e metodológicos a se considerar no ensino Discussing science education: epistemological and methodological aspects to consider in teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Furió-Más

    2012-06-01

    ção científica e tecnológica: a de mudança conceitual, a sociocultural e a crítica. Finalmente se abordam as orientações metodológicas do modelo de aprendizagem como investigação orientada que têm sido utilizadas com resultados satisfatórios no ensino de temáticas específicas das disciplinas Física e Química.The main objective of this paper is to present teachers with some of the achievements of research on science didactics. First, it shows how the history and epistemology of science, in particular in Chemistry, are contributing to improvements in teaching, considering the inclusion of conceptual and epistemological aspects that facilitate scientific literacy. In particular, examples in building key concepts in school Chemistry are presented, such as the weight of gases, the idea of substance and chemical element. It also warns teachers of some of the critical topics about the nature of science. Secondly, a brief presentation of the major traditions of research on scientific and technological literacy is presented: the conceptual, the sociocultural and critical changes. Finally, some methodological guidelines of learning that have already been successfully used in teaching specific subjects in Physics and Chemistry, such as the oriented research model, are presented.

  6. Developing a questionnaire for measuring epistemological beliefs in history education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, Gerhard; Logtenberg, Albert; Wansink, Bjorn; Huijgen, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Developing pupils’ understanding of history with its own disciplinary and epistemological problems can contribute to the education of a critical and peaceful diverse society. This symposium discusses results of four studies from the Netherlands, Germany and the USA addressing theoretical,

  7. Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bartley, W W

    1993-01-01

    This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

  8. STUDYING PRESCHOOL CHILDREN’S REASONING THROUGH EPISTEMOLOGICAL MOVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpter, Lovisa; Hedefalk, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a theoretical tool for analysing mathematical reasoning using Epistemological Move Analysis (EMA) in combination with a framework focusing on arguments and the foundation of these. We also suggest the addition of evaluative arguments when talking about different types of arguments besides predictive and verifying arguments. The tool was applied on data of preschool children’s mathematical reasoning. The results indicate that different types of epistemological moves a...

  9. Epistemologi Pendidikan Islam: Melacak Metodologi Pengetahuan Perguruan Tinggi Islam Klasik

    OpenAIRE

    Hery, Musnur

    2008-01-01

    Islamic higher college not only limited to higher education that famous at Islamic history like madrasah (e.g. Nizamiyah), and al-Jami'ah (e.g. al-Azhar). Yet, Islamic higher college is the implementation of learning process that can be categorized in higher education stage, that being practiced in Moslem society, even still in non-formal or informal form before madrasah existence. Several epistemologies branch indeed take place at formal institution, while some epistemologies branch theoreti...

  10. Epistemologi Pendidikan Islam: Melacak Metodologi Pengetahuan Perguruan Tinggi Islam Klasik

    OpenAIRE

    Hery, Musnur

    2015-01-01

    Islamic higher college not only limited to higher education that famous at Islamic history like madrasah (e.g. Nizamiyah), and al-Jami’ah (e.g. al-Azhar). Yet, Islamic higher college is the implementation of learning process that can be categorized in higher education stage, that being practiced in Moslem society, even still in non-formal or informal form before madrasah existence. Several epistemologies branch indeed take place at formal institution, while some epistemologies branch theoreti...

  11. Kajian Kritis Pemikiran Epistemologi Frithjof Schuon (1907–1998)

    OpenAIRE

    Dinar Dewi Kania

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to construct and employ a critical study to Frithjof Schuon’ thought on epistemology which includes the nature of knowledge, the object of knowledge and the process of acquiring knowledge. This study is a literature research which utilize his scientific works both primary and secondary sources. The results showed that Schuon epistemology could not eluded the paradigm of Western dualism as truth and certainty viewed double, which are relative truth and absolute t...

  12. Epistemologies, beliefs and conceptions of mathematics teaching and learning : the theory, and what is manifested in mathematics teacher's practices in England, France and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepin, B.; Hudson, B.; Buchberger, F.; Kansanen, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper firstly explores the issues raised in the literature concerning epistemologies, beliefs and conceptions of mathematics and its teaching and learning. Secondly, it analyses the ways in which mathematics teachers’ classroom practices in England, France and Germany reflect teachers’ beliefs

  13. EFL Teachers’ Epistemological Beliefs and Their Assessment Orientations

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    Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismail

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological beliefs—beliefs about the nature of knowledge, where it resides, and how knowledge is constructed and evaluated—have been the target of increased research interest lately. Heretofore, emphasis has been directed to language teaching/learning aspects and strategies. Language assessment practices have not yet received due attention in epistemic research literature. The current study examined the relationship between pre-service EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs and their assessment orientations. Dimensions of epistemological beliefs were assessed via a questionnaire designed and validated by the researcher based on Schommer’s work. Two assessment orientations were examined including: (a transmissive surface- processing orientation and (b constructive deep-processing orientation. The study involved 114 preservice EFL teachers enrolled in the Professional Diploma in Teaching Program in the Abu Dhabi University, the United Arab Emirates. Results of the study showed that EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs have a direct bearing on their assessment orientations and practices. EFL teachers with naive epistemological beliefs tended more to adopt surface-level assessment orientations whereas those with sophisticated epistemological beliefs showed more tendency to adopt deeper level approaches to assessment in language settings. Results are discussed in terms of backwash effects on foreign language instruction, curriculum development, and teacher education. Suggestions for further research are also discussed.

  14. Scrutinizing The Epistemology of Islamic Economics: A Historical Analysis

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    Nurizal Ismail

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The first International Conference on Islamic Economics was held in Makkah, in 1976. Economists, jurists and scholars met together to discuss issues of Muslim ummah. However, there was many books written related to Islamic economics in the history of Islamic civilization, especially in the period of Abbasid caliphate. The fact, development of knowledge in Islamic medieval had established the epistemology of Islamic economics itself. Moreover, the epistemology is a study of the theory of knowledge, the source of knowledge, the application of knowledge and limitation of knowledge. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the contribution of earlier Muslim thinkers to the source of Islamic economics and to identify the epistemology of Islamic economics as proposed by the Muslim thinkers in medieval period. As a result, this paper will propose the epistemology of Islamic economics by integrating Islamic heritage and modern economics that is not conflict with Islamic principles and values. To achieve its objectives; this study employs qualitative research by applying content and descriptive analysis. The finding of this study is that the earlier Muslim thinkers have contributed to the construction of epistemology in Islamic economics. Then, to construct the genuine of Islamic economics, tawhid must be put as a core of Islamic economic epistemology that directs the sources of knowledge which are rooted firstly from revealed and then rational knowledge by using appropriate methods.

  15. A Review and Discussion of Epistemological Commitments, Metacognition, and Critical Thinking with Suggestions on Their Enhancement in Internet-Assisted Chemistry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2001-07-01

    Recently, educators have focused on students' internal control of learning. Epistemological commitments, metacognition, and critical thinking are relevant considerations when addressing this topic. This paper explores the relationships among these domains as a theoretical framework for enhancing chemistry education. The framework shows that these domains share many commonalities. For example, they all focus on learners' self-reflection and they all are rooted in the constructivist theory. This paper further proposes a role for Internet technology in helping students develop appropriate epistemological commitments, metacognitive skills, and critical thinking.

  16. Historia, epistemología y didáctica de las ciencias: unas relaciones necesarias History, epistemology and didactics of science: some necessary relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Patricia Gallego Torres

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se establecen relaciones entre historia, epistemología y didáctica de las ciencias de la naturaleza. De cada una de estas categoría se presenta, además, un análisis de cómo son tratadas en la práctica habitual de algunos sistemas educativos, a la vez que se hacen propuestas para una posible superación. Se propende por hacer objeto de trabajo en el aula cada modelo científico, a partir de una caracterización de las razones que llevaron a la comunidad de especialistas a formularlo y aceptarlo. El objetivo es el de propiciar una reflexión fundamentada para una investigación didáctica, en la que esas relaciones superen habituales miradas aisladas.In this article, the authors present relevant relationships between history, epistemology and didactics of natural sciences. Each of these categories is analyzed based on the real practice of some educational systems and some proposals are outlined in order to improve them. Each one of the scientific models should be the focus of classroom work, taking into account the characterization of the foundations which have led the scientific community to state and accept them. The main objective is to start a reflection based on didactic research in which the established relationships overcome different isolated points of view.

  17. The epistemological status of general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehle, Craig

    2018-03-01

    Forecasts of both likely anthropogenic effects on climate and consequent effects on nature and society are based on large, complex software tools called general circulation models (GCMs). Forecasts generated by GCMs have been used extensively in policy decisions related to climate change. However, the relation between underlying physical theories and results produced by GCMs is unclear. In the case of GCMs, many discretizations and approximations are made, and simulating Earth system processes is far from simple and currently leads to some results with unknown energy balance implications. Statistical testing of GCM forecasts for degree of agreement with data would facilitate assessment of fitness for use. If model results need to be put on an anomaly basis due to model bias, then both visual and quantitative measures of model fit depend strongly on the reference period used for normalization, making testing problematic. Epistemology is here applied to problems of statistical inference during testing, the relationship between the underlying physics and the models, the epistemic meaning of ensemble statistics, problems of spatial and temporal scale, the existence or not of an unforced null for climate fluctuations, the meaning of existing uncertainty estimates, and other issues. Rigorous reasoning entails carefully quantifying levels of uncertainty.

  18. The central dogma, "GMO" and defective epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-10-02

    The expression "Genetically Modified Organisms" was coined to indicate a group of agricultural products (mostly crops and vegetables), modified through direct DNA recombination in order to obtain useful phenotypic traits or to inhibit undesirable characteristics. But the border between rDNA ("GMO") and other biotech methods is blurred. Moreover, the ill-assorted group is frequently charged with having peculiar, negative characteristics: many activists, part of the public and a few social science scholars think that "GMOs" are all dubious, even inherently dangerous. However, theoretical justifications of this alleged problematic nature which is supposed to be necessarily linked to the "splicing" of DNA, only when applied to agricultural products, are missing: the only text which tries to go in depth on the subject, an article by biologist Barry Commoner, takes aim at the wrong target, misunderstanding the Central Dogma. "GMO" is a term that has no clear reference, let alone in a detrimental sense. The only attempt to give it epistemological dignity fails.

  19. MDRC's Approach to Using Predictive Analytics to Improve and Target Social Services Based on Risk. Reflections on Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristin E.; Balu, Rekha; Hendra, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This post is one in a series highlighting MDRC's methodological work. Contributors discuss the refinement and practical use of research methods being employed across the organization. Across policy domains, practitioners and researchers are benefiting from a trend of greater access to both more detailed and frequent data and the increased…

  20. Toward an epistemology of nano-technosciences: Probing technoscience from a historical perspective: on today's surprising prevalence and relevance of Francis Bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jan C

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the attempts to clarify and classify the vague notion of "technosciences" from a historical perspective. A key question that is raised is as follows: Does Francis Bacon, one of the founding fathers of the modern age, provide a hitherto largely undiscovered programmatic position, which might facilitate a more profound understanding of technosciences? The paper argues that nearly everything we need today for an ontologically well-informed epistemology of technoscience can be found in the works of Bacon-this position will be called epistemological real-constructivism. Rather than realist or constructivist, empiricist or rationalist, Bacon's position can best be understood as real-constructivist since it challenges modern dichotomies. Reflection upon the contemporary relevance of Bacon could contribute to the expanding and critical discussion on technoscience. In the following I will reconstruct the term "technoscience". My finding is that at least four different understandings or types of the term "technoscience" co-exist. In a second step, I will analyze and elaborate on Bacon's epistemological position. I will identify central elements of the four different understandings in Bacon's work. Finally, I will conclude that the epistemology of technoscience is, indeed, very old-it is the epistemological position put forward by Bacon.

  1. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Zwickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS evaluates students’ epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students’ reflections on their course’s expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  2. Théodule Ribot's ambiguous positivism: philosophical and epistemological strategies in the founding of French scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillin, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Théodule Ribot (1839-1916) is regarded by many historians of psychology as the "father" of the discipline in France. Ribot contributed to the development of a "new psychology" independent from philosophy, relying on the methods of the natural sciences. However, such an epistemological transition encountered fierce opposition from both the champions of the old-fashioned metaphysical psychology and the representatives of the "scientific spirit." This article focuses on the objections raised by the latter, and especially philosophers of science, against the possibility of a scientific psychology. For instance, according to Auguste Comte, psychology does not satisfy certain basic methodological requirements. To overcome these objections, Ribot, in his La Psychologie Anglaise Contemporaine (1870/1914), devised an epistemological strategy that amounted to invoking criticisms of Comte's views made by other representatives of the positivist school, such as John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2011-01-01

    generalization. Theoretically, the argumentation in the article is based on practice theory. The main part of the article describes three different examples of ways of generalizing on the basis of the same qualitative data material. There is a particular focus on describing the methodological strategies......In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...... operative methodological strategies for producing analytical generalizations in research practices. Thus, the aim of the article is to contribute to the discussions among qualitatively working researchers about generalizing by way of exemplifying some of the methodological practicalities in analytical...

  4. 3rd ICTs and Society Meeting; Paper Session - Theorizing the Internet; Paper 4: A Methodological Reflection on Converging Technologies and Their Relevance to Informa-tion Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-Hang Wong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In light of converging technologies, there is a clear sense that ethicists of various technological domains are coming together. Or, that they should come together. Yet, despite increasing cooperation and boundary-crossing in various fields of the ethics of technology, these efforts remain mostly at topical level. Relatively little attention has been given to issues on methodologies. The current paper aims to contribute to the current research by raising the methodological issues. In this paper, my objective is to argue that ethics of Information Technology (or Information Ethics (IE can benefit from the insights in other fields of the ethics of technology. Drawing the insights from other fields of the ethics of technology, I shall propose a systematic account of an Empirical Information Ethics (EIE

  5. Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting–activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally—and perhaps historically—related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease. PMID

  6. Chinese medicine: a cognitive and epistemological review*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, Ben

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting-activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally-and perhaps historically-related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease.

  7. Mathematical foundations of epistemology based on experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Krylov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with basic prerequisites for the development of epistemology, which uses information concerning real experiments in the real world (with real objects. Such experiments are conducted by “formal-technological” analogs of Turing Machines. These analogs are called “universal synthesizers-analyzers”. They can perform syntheses and analyses of various objects or constructions (obtained by conjunctions of finite number of smaller objects called basic elements with the help of various algorithmic systems having some restrictions. Such algorithmic systems are called Formal Technologies. They have formal structures that are very similar to the formal structure of Maltsev's algebraic systems. This formal closeness allows us, first, to set up a hypothesis concerning algorithmic basis of almost all surrounding physical processes, as understandable as well as till non-understandable ones, that partially explains the wide applicability of mathematics to the outer world; second, this closeness allows one to formulate and prove some theorems (called assertions concerning features and peculiar properties of cognitive algorithms in one-, two- or three-dimensional surroundings for various formal technological systems, including a so called “acquired knowledge effectiveness theorem”. The theorem (assertion can be applied to a very wide class of formal technologies which use an equality predicate for objects analyses. In the paper various cognitive algorithms are listed and proved. These algorithms have different sets of technological operations resembling syntheses and decompositions, as well as different sets of analytical operations including equality predicates, “random stationary mapping” operations (which use unknown algorithms to obtain stationary results, therefore these operations are very similar to oracles in Turing Machines, operations that define object shapes, and so on. The structure of automatic cognitive devices called

  8. Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joyce Catherine

    Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d

  9. Lesson Exemplars in Electricity and Students’ Epistemological Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergel P. Mirana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of a developed lesson exemplars in electricity integrating computer simulations and constructivist approach on students' Epistemological Beliefs. Specifically, it sought to determine how computer simulations, constructivist approach and Formativ e Assessment Classroom Technique (FACT can be integrated in the lesson exemplars in electricity; and evaluate the effects of the developed lesson exemplars in the students’ Epistemological Beliefs. The investigation employed the pre - experimental single - gr oup pretest and posttest study using the Epistemological Beliefs Assessment in Physical Sciences (EBAPS questionnaire. The study was conducted among seventy - two (72 Grade 10 students of a laboratory high school from a state university in the Philippines. They were taught using Physics Educational Technology (PhET and other web - based simulations, constructivist approach, and formative assessment classroom technique. The results revealed that the over - all Epistemological Beliefs of the students did not cha nge significantly; only along Nature of Knowing and Learning and Real - Life Applicability. Generally, utilizing computer simulations and applying constructivist approach did not alter students' epistemological beliefs in its entirety. However, it can be en gaging and effective in promoting students’ understanding of Physics.

  10. Narrative and epistemology: Georges Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimisso, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    In the late 1960s, Georges Canguilhem introduced the concept of 'scientific ideology'. This concept had not played any role in his previous work, so why introduce it at all? This is the central question of my paper. Although it may seem a rather modest question, its answer in fact uncovers hidden tensions in the tradition of historical epistemology, in particular between its normative and descriptive aspects. The term ideology suggests the influence of Althusser's and Foucault's philosophies. However, I show the differences between Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology and Althusser's and Foucault's respective concepts of ideology. I argue that Canguilhem was in fact attempting to solve long-standing problems in the tradition of historical epistemology, rather than following the lead of his younger colleagues. I argue that Canguilhem's 'refurbishment without rejection' of Bachelard's epistemology, which the concept of scientific ideology was aimed to implement, was necessary to justify the historical narratives that Canguilhem had constructed in his own work as a historian of concepts. A strict acceptance of Bachelard's epistemology would have made it impossible to justify them. Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology therefore served as a theoretical justification of his practice as a historian. I maintain that the concept of scientific ideology was needed to reconcile Bachelard's normative epistemology with Canguilhem's view of the history of science and its aims, which differed from Bachelard's more than it is generally acknowledged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Positioning oneself within an epistemology: refining our thinking about integrative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Victoria C

    2010-09-01

    Integrative approaches seem to be paramount in the current climate of family therapy and other psychotherapies. However, integration between and among theories and practices can only occur within a specific epistemology. This article makes a distinction between three different epistemologies: individualizing, systems, and poststructural. It then makes the argument that one can integrate theories within epistemologies and one can adopt practices and some theoretical concepts across theories and across epistemologies, but that it is impossible to integrate theories across epistemologies. It further states that although social constructionism has influenced much of contemporary psychological thinking, because of the divergence between a structural and a poststructural approach, constructionism looks different depending upon one's epistemological stance. Examples of integration within epistemologies and of what looks like integration across epistemologies (but is not) further illustrate these important distinctions. The conclusions reached here are crucial to our philosophical considerations, our pedagogical assumptions, and implications for both research and a reflexive clinical practice. 2010 © FPI, Inc.

  12. How College-Level Introductory Instruction Can Impact Student Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Mollohan, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a survey study of college students' epistemologies about biology and learning biology. Specifically, the authors examined the differences between science and nonscience majors and their changes in epistemologies over the course of a semester of instruction.

  13. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  14. The Methodological Dynamism of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Variations in grounded theory (GT interpretation are the subject of ongoing debate. Divergences of opinion, genres, approaches, methodologies, and methods exist, resulting in disagreement on what GT methodology is and how it comes to be. From the postpositivism of Glaser and Strauss, to the symbolic interactionist roots of Strauss and Corbin, through to the constructivism of Charmaz, the field of GT methodology is distinctive in the sense that those using it offer new ontological, epistemological, and methodological perspectives at specific moments in time. We explore the unusual dynamism attached to GT’s underpinnings. Our view is that through a process of symbolic interactionism, in which generations of researchers interact with their context, moments are formed and philosophical perspectives are interpreted in a manner congruent with GT’s essential methods. We call this methodological dynamism, a process characterized by contextual awareness and moment formation, contemporaneous translation, generational methodology, and methodological consumerism.

  15. From social cognition to social epistemology (in memory of G.M. Andreeva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Khoroshilov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to scientific and literary heritage of Galina M. Andreeva. The methodology of social cognition, for more than half a century developed by Galina M. Andreeva as a tool of social analysis, is discussed. The problem of social cognition, first indicated by V. Turner, Z. Bauman and M. Mamardashvili, is analysed in terms of mentalization, interpersonal interaction and mass consciousness. Based on G. Andreeva’s theoretical research, the correlation between micro-processes of individual cognition construction and macro-processes of society in communication, dialogue and discourse is proved. The issue of finding the correct definition of a group, mass or public consciousness epistemological status is taken as a result of an old trend toward anthropomorphizing the collective cognition subject. This impedes the correlation between personality and society in psychology, meaning “agency” and “structure” in sociology. G.Andreeva discusses the last one, connecting cognitive psychology, social constructionism and activity theory. Theoretical assumptions of social cognition as the process of world image construction are formulated as follows: 1 presumption of general knowledge; 2 active constructive nature; 3 categorization and classification as the basic process; 4 the relationship between discourse and cognition; 5 emotionality; 6 critical orientation; 7 prospective for the clinical analysis of sociocultural realities. With respect to the abovementioned facts, it can be said that the ideas of scientific school founded by Galina М. Andreeva allow to innovatively define social psychology as a modern social and cultural epistemology.

  16. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almack, Kathryn; Simpson, Paul; Billings, Barbara; Mall, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Background: Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. Methods: The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors). Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion—itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people’s care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff. PMID:29642460

  17. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Paul; Almack, Kathryn; Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Simpson, Paul; Billings, Barbara; Mall, Naresh

    2018-04-07

    Background : Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors) . Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion-itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people's care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff.

  18. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Willis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. Methods: The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors. Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion—itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people’s care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff.

  19. Kantian epistemology as an alternative to heroic astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. I.

    Theoretical and observational methods in astronomy have advanced to a point where certain of their outcomes are difficult to comprehend with the traditional categories of human knowledge. The philosophical discipline of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is used here to address four current problems in observational astronomy, exobiology, cosmology, and quantum mechanics. The problems are united by an epistemological content which, when unrecognized, has resulted in some heroic solutions of an ad hoc nature. Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy is employed because his work is consistent with basic attitudes in present-day physics and biology.

  20. Rehumanisasi Pendidikan Akuntansi melalui Pendekatan Epistemologi 3ling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Ekasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to rehumanize accounting education by employing 3ling epistemology. The method used in this research consisted of 3 steps: ngerti, ngrasa, and ngelakoni. This research concluded that dehumanization in accounting education has become accepted reality. Humanization in accounting education could be implemented by integrating ethics, moral and spirituality both in accounting and accounting education and it could be done by inserting ngrasa in learning process. Humanizing accounting education will lead to human welfare. The implementation of 3ling epistemology could change the student’s perception about accounting.

  1. Kantian epistemology as an alternative to heroic astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and observational methods in astronomy have advanced to a point where certain of their outcomes are difficult to comprehend with the traditional categories of human knowledge. The philosophical discipline of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is used here to address four current problems in observational astronomy, exobiology, cosmology, and quantum mechanics. The problems are united by an epistemological content which, when unrecognized, has resulted in some heroic solutions of an ad hoc nature. Kant's critical philosophy is employed because his work is consistent with basic attitudes in present-day physics and biology.

  2. Kepercayaan Epistemologis dan Faktor-faktor yang Memengaruhinya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur Ghufron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to: (1 finding out whether there was conformity between the theoretical model of factors affecting students’ epistemological beliefs and the empirical models, (2 assessing whether interdependent self-construal, level of education, constructivist learning environment and metacognition predicted of epistemological beliefs as measured by belief about knowledge and belief about learning, (3 assessing whether interdependent self-construal, level of education, constructivist learning environment and metacognition predicted of epistemological beliefs as measured by belief about knowledge and (4 assessing whether interdependent self-construal, level of education, constructivist learning environment and metacognition predicted of epistemological beliefs as measured by belief about learning.The population in this research consists of the first to eight semesters students of “X” Department of STAIN Kudus , Central Java. The sample was as many as study 268 students, taken through stratified random sampling method. The data collection techniques used in this research was questionnaire in the form of scales and checklists.The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Models (SEM. The research resulted: (1 The (theoretical model designed in the research is proper, and conforms with the data collected (empirical model, (2 The determination (R² of the students’ epistemological beliefs is 0.80, which means that 80 percent of epistemological beliefs can be explained or predicted through the variables of interdependent self-construal, level of education and constructivist learning environment, (3 The determination (R² of the students’ beliefs about knowledge is 0.52, which means that 52 percent can be explained or predicted through the variables of interdependent self-construal, level of education and constructivist learning environment, (4 The determination (R² of the students’ beliefs about learning is 0.28, which means that

  3. The Body Disciplined: Rewriting Teaching Competence and the Doctrine of Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Shortly after the publication of "The Reflective Practitioner" (1983) and the sequel "Educating the Reflective Practitioner" (1987) "reflection-in-action" became a major concept in teacher education. The concept has, however, been criticised on ontological/epistemological as well as practice oriented accounts (Van Manen, 1995; Newman, 1999;…

  4. Relations among Epistemological Beliefs, Academic Achievement, and Task Performance in Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken R.

    2007-01-01

    Students with differing profiles of epistemological beliefs--their beliefs about personal epistemology, intelligence, and learning--vary in thinking, reasoning, motivation, and use of strategies while working on academic tasks, each of which affect learning. This study examined students' epistemological beliefs according to gender, school…

  5. An Epistemological Analysis of the Application of an Online Inquiry-Based Program in Tourism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper was designed to investigate the application of an online inquiry-based program to European tourism from an epistemological perspective. Fifty tourism students (n = 50) participated in this study and their epistemological beliefs were measured with the Epistemological Belief Scale. A set of pre-, post-, and delayed tests were utilised to…

  6. Testimony in Narrative Educational Research: A Qualitative Interview, Narrative Analysis and Epistemological Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess issues that arise in the context of epistemological claims in narrative educational research by means of narrative analysis and epistemological evaluation. The research questions which guided the study were: 1) To what extent is epistemology considered by narrative educational researchers?; 2) What issues do…

  7. Multiple Epistemological Coherences in an Eighth-Grade Discussion of the Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Seth; Hammer, David; Phelan, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Research on personal epistemologies (Hofer & Pintrich, 2002) has mostly conceptualized them as stable beliefs or stages of development. On these views, researchers characterize individual students' epistemologies with single, coherent descriptions. Evidence of variability in student epistemologies, however, suggests the need for more complex…

  8. The transcendence of time in the epistemology of observation from a phenomenological standpoint

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    Stathis Livadas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I deal with time as a notion of epistemological content associated though with the notion of a subjective consciousness co-constitutive of physical reality. In this phenomenologically grounded approach I attempt to establish a 'metaphysical' aspect of time, within a strictly epistemological context, in the sense of an underlying absolute subjectivity which is non-objectifiable within objective temporality and thus non-susceptible of any ontological designation. My arguments stem, on the one hand, from a version of quantum-mechanical theory (History Projection Operator theory, HPO theory in view of its formal treatment of two different aspects of time within a quantum context. The discrete, partial-ordering properties (the notions of before and after and the dynamical-parameter properties reflected in the wave equations of motion. On the other hand, to strengthen my arguments for a transcendental factor of temporality, I attempt an interpretation of some relevant conclusions in the work of J. Eccles ([5] and of certain results of experimental research of S. Deahaene et al. ([2] and others.

  9. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  10. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

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    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  11. Challenges and Prospects of Methodological Anarchism for Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examjnes Feyerabend's idea of Methodological Anarchism. Specifically, it looks at its challenges and prospects for the growth of science and epistemology in Africa. Feyerabend's point is that people develop best in pluralistic societies; that contain many ideas, traditions and forms of life. It is argued that ...

  12. New epistemological foundations for cultural psychology: from an atomistic to a self-organizing view of living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Adele

    2014-01-01

    An epistemological foundation for cultural psychology is essential to neuro- and behavioural sciences for the challenge psychological sciences must currently face: searching for an explanation of how a brain can become a mind and how individuals assign a sense to the world and their life. Biological systems are very likely determined by physical and chemical laws of spontaneous self-organization and endogenous constraints but, even if the major result of the Darwinian revolution is "the discovery that living species are their story", the modern synthesis of the evolution theory adopted only continuist and gradualist hypotheses. This nourished the analogy between the theory of natural selection and the theory of operant conditioning, thereby supporting empiricist associationism and the methodological positivism of behavioural and "classical" cognitive psychologists. Current scientific contributions provide evidence to the need for psychotherapy and psychopathology of a new epistemological approach in order to connect research stemming from animal models, up to the most abstract levels of personal meaning. The complex system oriented approach, here described, called "post-rationalism", shaped by a change initiated by evolutionary epistemology. The regulation of emotions initially develops within interpersonal relationships and evolves during both phylogeny and ontogeny, according to complex self-organization processes, leading to the acquisition of Self-organizing abilities and the construction of personal meaning. Endorsing the epistemological similarities of neo-Darwinism and behaviourism, and differentiating from this, the above mentioned approach, emphasises the fact that clinical and psycho-therapeutical practice must be founded on the laws of biological organisation: the ongoing activity of neurobiological systems, including the more abstract domains of thought and language.

  13. New epistemological foundations for cultural psychology: from an atomistic to a self-organizing view of living systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele De Pascale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An epistemological foundation for cultural psychology is essential to neuro- and behavioural sciences for the challenge psychological sciences must currently face: searching for an explanation of how a brain can become a mind and how individuals assign a sense to the world and their life. Biological systems are very likely determined by physical and chemical laws of spontaneous self-organization and endogenous constraints but, even if the major result of the Darwinian revolution is "the discovery that living species are their story", the modern synthesis of the evolution theory adopted only continuist and gradualist hypotheses. This nourished the analogy between the theory of natural selection and the theory of operant conditioning, thereby supporting empiricist associationism and the methodological positivism of behavioural and "classical" cognitive psychologists. Current scientific contributions provide evidence to the need for psychotherapy and psychopathology of a new epistemological approach in order to connect research stemming from animal models, up to the most abstract levels of personal meaning. The complex system oriented approach, here described, called "post-rationalism", shaped by a change initiated by evolutionary epistemology. The regulation of emotions initially develops within interpersonal relationships and evolves during both phylogeny and ontogeny, according to complex self-organization processes, leading to the acquisition of Self-organizing abilities and the construction of personal meaning. Endorsing the epistemological similarities of neo-Darwinism and behaviourism, and differentiating from this, the above mentioned approach, emphasises the fact that clinical and psycho-therapeutical practice must be founded on the laws of biological organisation: the ongoing activity of neurobiological systems, including the more abstract domains of thought and language.

  14. Teaching practices epistemologically differentiated about human body learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Maria Ribeiro de Aragão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How could we teach about THE HUMAN BODY as a different way, in both epistemological and pedagogical approaches? How could we leave behind stagnant as well as stagnating aspects of traditional way of teaching, such as the fragmentation/segmentation of contents, the far away reality, the excessive use of details or else, whenever learning about our own body? These are some of the questions we have considered when trying to escape the bad influence which came from our "environment formation" - putting it on all the marks we have acquired inside or even outside school - trying to overview as meaning our body working...in constant interaction with the surrounding ambient. Among those pointed kind of formation marks we frequently acquire from studying at the University - which need to be transcended —here we come to detach those innumerable contacts with both anatomized and misfigurated supposed human bodies' which didn't even look like actual human bodies, because they could never seem to have sheltered life inside themselves. They were inert as well as static bodies, only used as a such of vain "didactic materials" that could/can permit many teachers on their educational formation to focus a certain teaching approach which only seeks both the students' memorization of an infinitude of "complicated words", and to structure the systems -by several procedures of nouns definition and/or classification - as part of the so called biological organism. In order to do a different way of teaching, we have based our approach on three alternative teaching methodologies which focus these matters under a constructive perspective. On those three focused studies, it is possible to observe that some very principles of a present day teaching approach were there considered to achieve some of them: the respect for the students' previous ideas; the understanding about knowledge as something that is not established for good but as ever changeable and, at last, the

  15. Students' Epistemological Framing in Quantum Mechanics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modir, Bahar; Thompson, John D.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2017-01-01

    Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not a fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of epistemological framing, we investigated four…

  16. Epistemological Development and Judgments and Reasoning about Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 96 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-olds and university students) epistemological development and its relation to judgments and reasoning about teaching methods was examined. The domain (scientific or moral), nature of the topic (controversial or noncontroversial), and teaching method (direct instruction by…

  17. A Relationship Between Hemisphericity and Psycho-Epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Richard; Dionne, Jean-Paul

    This review of two distinct areas of research--brain research and psycho-epistemology--indicates a possible link between the two which may potentially help to identify an as yet unknown molar trait which could be responsible for divergent opinions regarding teaching and learning theories, and may help to explain differential achievement when these…

  18. An Analytic Search for the Elements of Naturalized Epistemology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naturalized epistemology is an approach to the theory of knowledge that emphasizes the application of methods, results, and theories from the empirical sciences. It contrasts with approaches that emphasize a priori conceptual analysis or insist on a theory of knowledge that is independent of it. In most cases when ...

  19. 'Epistemology models ontology'− In gesprek met John Polkinghorne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The famous premise of John Polkinghorne, 'epistemology models ontology', has been assessed in this article. It is interpreted that its logic is based on a linear trajectory of knowledge → being. Polkinghorne places much emphasis on the fact that he pursues a 'bottom-up' approach, that is, an inductive way of going about ...

  20. Ontological and epistemological discourse(s) on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses philosophical discourses (ontology and epistemology) that have framed researchers' position on topical issues relating to sustainable development, particularly in relation to Sierra Leone. The country is a nation full of memories; that which has brought lasting pain in the minds of people and the use of ...

  1. Epistemological positions in the light of truth approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Theo A.F.

    2001-01-01

    I discuss in a systematic order the most important epistemological positions in the instrumentalism-realism debate, viz., instrumentalism, constructive empiricism, referential realism, and theory realism. My conclusions are as follows. There are good reasons for the instrumentalist to become a

  2. Evolution Acceptance and Epistemological Beliefs of College Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Deniz, Hasan; Anderson, Elizabeth Shevock

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary theory is central to biology, and scientifically accurate evolution instruction is promoted within national and state standards documents. Previous literature has identified students' epistemological beliefs as potential predictors of evolution acceptance. The present work seeks to explore more directly how student views of evolution…

  3. Epistemological Syncretism in a Biology Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William D.; Park, Soonhye

    2011-01-01

    In teaching science, the beliefs of teachers may come into conflict and inhibit the implementation of reformed teaching practice. An experienced biology teacher, Mr. Hobbs, was found to have two different sets of epistemological beliefs while his classroom practice was predominantly teacher-centered. A case study was then performed in order to…

  4. Epistemological and Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching International Business Ethics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michel

    2015-01-01

    International business ethics courses imply four basic epistemological and pedagogical challenges: (a) understanding various perceptions of ethics and values/virtues; (b) identifying ethical maxims among religious/spiritual traditions; (c) designing international business ethics courses as dialogical experiences; and (d) deepening our personal…

  5. Inferring Teacher Epistemological Framing from Local Patterns in Teacher Noticing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Luna, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we use research from science education on teacher framing and work from mathematics education on teacher noticing to develop new approaches to modeling teacher cognition. The framing literature proposes a dynamic cognitive model of teaching in which teacher epistemological framing, or moment-to-moment understanding of what is going on…

  6. Formal Epistemology and New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, Niki; Douven, Igor

    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of

  7. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  8. Feminism, Epistemology and Experience: Critically (En)gendering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responding to Elizabeth Castelli's (2001) call to “trouble” and destabilise dominant or mainstream categories of analysis in the study of religion and gender, this paper looks at the feminist epistemological category of “experience” as it relates to the study of Islam and Muslim societies. I explore how mystical and mundane ...

  9. Ethico-epistemological implications of artificial intelligence for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We argued for a re-direction of AI. research and suggested a humanization of Artificial Intelligence that cloaks technoscientific innovations with humanistic life jackets for man‟s preservation. The textual analysis method is adopted for this research. Key words: Ethics, Epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, Humanity.

  10. The Tension between Justice and Freedom in Paulo Freire's Epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how the concept of freedom in Paulo Freire's constructivist epistemology-constituted as agentive, spontaneity-based action-is in tension with his ethical project of a pedagogy for justice, one based on responsibility and non-indifference. Resolution of this tension means reconceptualizing the grounding notion of the subject beyond a…

  11. Children as theological hermeneutic: Is there a new epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main thrust of the study, however, is to raise the hypothetical question of whether children have not become an important and indispensable theological hermeneutic themselves. The serious question is raised of whether children if, taken seriously in church and theology are not forcing a new epistemological break or a ...

  12. Causality, Randomness, Intelligibility, and the Epistemology of the Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward R; Bittner, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Because the basic unit of biology is the cell, biological knowledge is rooted in the epistemology of the cell, and because life is the salient characteristic of the cell, its epistemology must be centered on its livingness, not its constituent components. The organization and regulation of these components in the pursuit of life constitute the fundamental nature of the cell. Thus, regulation sits at the heart of biological knowledge of the cell and the extraordinary complexity of this regulation conditions the kind of knowledge that can be obtained, in particular, the representation and intelligibility of that knowledge. This paper is essentially split into two parts. The first part discusses the inadequacy of everyday intelligibility and intuition in science and the consequent need for scientific theories to be expressed mathematically without appeal to commonsense categories of understanding, such as causality. Having set the backdrop, the second part addresses biological knowledge. It briefly reviews modern scientific epistemology from a general perspective and then turns to the epistemology of the cell. In analogy with a multi-faceted factory, the cell utilizes a highly parallel distributed control system to maintain its organization and regulate its dynamical operation in the face of both internal and external changes. Hence, scientific knowledge is constituted by the mathematics of stochastic dynamical systems, which model the overall relational structure of the cell and how these structures evolve over time, stochasticity being a consequence of the need to ignore a large number of factors while modeling relatively few in an extremely complex environment. PMID:21119887

  13. Changing Epistemological Beliefs with Nature of Science Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; Willoughby, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS) implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS…

  14. The epistemology and ontology of human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes epistemological and ontological dimensions of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through an analysis of the functions of computer systems in relation to their users. It is argued that the primary relation between humans and computer systems has historically been epistemic:

  15. Axiological and epistemological contributions to teaching the theory of evolution Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucken Bueno Lucas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the essential role of theme “biological evolution” in scientific formation of students and the diversity of issues identified in the literature for teaching of the same, we developed a qualitative study through contributions of Didactics of Science and Critical Meaningful Learning, characterized by a review of theoretical and methodological on the treatise subject, a historical-epistemological synthesis of Darwinism and its axiological analysis, the elaboration of a didactic sequence for teaching evolution and your appreciation of biology teachers, and a discursive textual analysis of that assessment. Based on this study, therefore, we discuss the possible contributions to the teaching of biology, of proposals that articulate and introduce axiological contributions, historical and philosophical in teaching of biological evolution.

  16. Information as signs: A semiotic analysis of the information concept, determining it's ontological and epistemological commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Martin Muderspach; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to formulate an analytical framework for the information concept based on the semiotic theory. Design/methodology/approach The paper is motivated by the apparent controversy that still surrounds the information concept. Information, being a key concept within...... LIS, suffers from being anchored in various incompatible theories. The paper suggests that information is signs, and it demonstrates how the concept of information can be understood within C.S. Peirce’s phenomenologically rooted semiotic. Hence, from there, certain ontological conditions as well...... epistemological consequences of the information concept can be deduced. Findings The paper argues that an understanding of information, as either objective or subjective/discursive, leads to either objective reductionism and signal processing, that fails to explain how information becomes meaningful at all...

  17. The informational subject in the contemporary context. An analysis from the epistemology of informational community identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Rendón-Rojas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Epistemology of Informational Community Identity (ECI-I is proposed as a toolbox for the analysis of informational reality within categories as contextual paradigm, informational subject and informational entity, built ex profeso for this theoretical-methodological analysis. The concepts of information user´s and informational subject are distinguished, the latest, to seek an answer from a concrete social enclave within a particular community and its interrelationships with others, to under go a process of self construction, from which specific information needs arise. And the user needs to seek concrete answer after formal questioning many facts occurring in a consumerist, unequal and alienating world. So the emphasis is put on the need for an interdisciplinary approach between social theory and library science in the study of the documentary information world of particular informational subjects, which is often marginalized and excluded

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Epistemological Development in Teaching Learning Questionnaire (EDTLQ): An Inventory to Measure Higher Order Epistemological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellström, Sofia; Golino, Hudson; Hamer, Rebecca; Van Rossum, Erik Jan; Almers, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research supports a developmental dimension in views on teaching and learning, but there are currently no quantitative tools to measure the full range of this development. To address this, we developed the Epistemological Development in Teaching and Learning Questionnaire (EDTLQ). In the current study the psychometric properties of the…

  19. Translation of Tanabe Hajime’s “The Limit of Logicism in Epistemology: A Critique of the Marburg and Freiburg Schools”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Morisato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides the first English translation of Tanabe’s early essay, “The Limit of Logicism in Epistemology: A Critique of the Marburg and Freiburg Schools” (1914. The key notion that the young Tanabe seeks to define in relation to his detailed analyses of contemporary Neo-Kantian epistemology is the notion of “pure experience” presented in Nishida’s philosophy. The general theory of epistemology shared among the thinkers from these two prominent schools of philosophy in early 20th century Germany aimed to eliminate the empirical residues in Kant’s theory of knowledge while opposing naïve empiricism and the uncritical methodology of positive science. Their “logicistic” approach, according to Tanabe, seems to contradict Nishida’s notion of pure experience, for it cannot allow any vestige of empiricism in its systematic framework, which is specifically designed to ground scientific knowledge. Yet given that the Neo-Kantian configuration of epistemology does not create the object of knowledge, it must face sensation or representational content as its limiting instance. Thus, to ground a Neo-Kantian theory of knowledge while taking account of this limit of logicism involves explaining their understanding of the unity of subject and object in human knowing. For this, Tanabe argues, recourse to Nishida’s notion of pure experience is indispensable.

  20. Narrative theology: An adequate paradigm for theological reflection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As reflection on the religious claims embedded in stories, narrative theology touches the nerve of theology: what is the epistemological status of theological theories if they are based on discourse which is fundamentally narrative and metaphorical? This paper analyzes this question, along with the important differences ...

  1. Reflecting on Hospitality Management Education through a Practice Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierand, Marc; Zizka, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on hospitality management education from a "practice epistemology" and discuss how a connecting of savoir (theoretical knowledge or "knowing"), savoir-faire (knowing how to do tasks, i.e. task-related skills) and savoir-être (knowing how to be, i.e. behavior) can develop into…

  2. Beyond discipline? Methodological challenges in contemporary child culture studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels-Peder Osmundsen; Borgen, Jorunn Spord; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    of different ontological and epistemological presuppositions, and how they affect concepts and research designs, is pending. In the proposed roundtable, we invite participants to reflect upon ”discipline” in an extended sense, referring to the principles of research conducted in new settings, drawing...

  3. Epistemological development and collaborative learning: a hermeneutic analysis of music therapy students' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, David W

    2008-01-01

    Undergraduate education must address student's developmental needs, as well as their learning needs. Yet, there has been little discussion regarding music therapy students' epistemological development, how that influences their education and clinical training, and how that understanding can inform educators and clinical supervisors. As part of an introductory music therapy course that was taught using collaborative learning consensus groups, students provided written and verbal comments about their experience and some students agreed to a series of interviews (Luce, 2002). This hermeneutic analysis of that data was based upon Perry's Scheme and Women's Ways of Knowing suggested that (a) the students' comments reflected the various perspectives or positions within the models, (b) the collaborative learning consensus groups facilitated transitions and movement within the models, and (c) there was a need for more research to understand music therapy students' developmental needs, to enhance teaching methods and pedagogy, and to address students' developmental needs as they prepare to enter the profession.

  4. Grasping the spirit in nature: Anschauung in Ørsted's epistemology of science and beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynning, Kristine Hays; Jacobsen, Anja Skaar

    2011-03-01

    The intersection between art, poetry, philosophy and science was the leitmotif which guided the lives and careers of romantic natural philosophers including that of the Danish natural philosopher, H. C. Ørsted. A simple model of orsted's career would be one in which it was framed by two periods of philosophical speculation: the youth's curious and idealistic interest in new attractive thoughts and the experienced man's mature reflections at the end of his life. We suggest that a closer look at the epistemological aspects of his works on the theory of beauty reveals a connection between this late work and his early philosophical work including experimental philosophy, but also with the work in teaching and textbook writing, that lies in between. The latter includes Ørsted's view on the application of mathematics in natural philosophy as well as his failed attempt at a genetic presentation of elementary geometry.

  5. Methodological Approaches in the Research of Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Nebojša Janićijević

    2011-01-01

    In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach e...

  6. Understanding students' epistemologies: Examining practice and meaning in community contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Megan Elisabeth

    There is a great need to raise the levels of science achievement for those groups of children who have traditionally underperformed. Prior cognitive research with Native people suggests that problems with achievement for Native students may be more complicated then simple problems with knowing or not knowing content knowledge. This dissertation hypothesizes that Native Americans engage in practices and have funds of knowledge that facilitate sophisticated reasoning in the domain of science. However, the knowledge and patterns of reasoning are not elicited, acceptable, or recognized in classroom science, or perhaps are in conflict with classroom science. Furthermore the divergence is not simply in the details of what is known; there is discord at the level of epistemology, in the fundamental ways in which Native people conceptualize knowledge of the natural world. This work proposes a new framework, Micro-practice epistemology, for understanding epistemology. I propose that epistemology should be understood as implicitly and explicitly imbedded in the worldviews, values, beliefs and practices of our everyday lives. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods this work investigates the everyday practices related to nature, the epistemological stances and biological knowledge embedded in those practices in a 3X3 model (age cohort: child, adult, elder X community). The three communities involved in this work include: Chicago urban Indian community, Menominee reservation community, and a rural working poor white community. I find significant differences in all three areas across communities. Native communities tend to participate in practices in which some aspect of nature is fore-grounded while non-Native participants tended to participate in practices in which nature is the back-grounded. These findings are extended to explore the ways in which worldviews and values are connected to practice and knowledge about the natural world. I find significant differences in

  7. EPISTEMOLOGI TASAWUF DALAM PEMIKIRAN FIQH AL-SYA‘RÂNÎ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahul Huda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study of Islamic law, epistemology constitutes a fundamental aspect of the law upon which the legitimate concept of the law is based. Epistemology becomes the root of debates regarding the truth of legal reasoning among Muslims who often made a truth clam about their own superior episteme. This causes discrepancies amongst them. This dispute was what al-Sya‘rânî found in his time. As a famous jurist, he sought to resolve it and offered a new theory of law. He contends that the arguments underlying the debates about the epistemology of Islamic law flawed. He wants to demonstrate that the arguments do not fit into the tradition of Islamic thought. This study examines al-Sya‘rânî’s thought in the epistemology of Islamic law. It discusses four issues: the valid path to the knowledge about shari’a, kashf as a source of knowledge, the path to the kashf, and the position and relation of reason, tradition and intuition in Islamic law.Abstrak:  Epistemologi merupakan hal yang fundamental karena dari situlah legitimasi dari konsep-konsep hukum syariah bersumber. Di situ pula akar perdebatan tentang kebenaran hasil ijtihad yang sering diklaim secara eksklusif oleh kelompok-kelompok umat Islam sehingga berdampak buruk bagi hubungan dan solidaritas sosial di antara mereka. Fakta seperti itulah yang disaksikan al-Sya‘rânî sepanjang hayatnya. Sebagai faqih terkemuka, dia merasa terpanggil untuk memberikan alternatif solusi teoretik atas masalah ini demi kemaslahatan umat. Setelah melakukan kajian yang panjang, akhirnya dia berkesimpulan bahwa sesungguhnya semua klaim eksklusif tentang kebenaran dan superioritas system episteme tertentu adalah tidak memiliki argumen yang benar-benar meyakinkan, baik dalam tradisi keilmuan umat Islam maupun dalam perspektif  sosiologis. Dalam tulisan ini konsep al-Sya‘rânî mengenai Epistemologi syariah dideskripsikan dalam empat pokok pemikirannya yaitu tentang; jalan yang sah menuju pengetahuan

  8. LA ACCIÓN Y EL ENFOQUE PSICOSOCIAL DE LA INTERVENCIÓN EN CONTEXTOS SOCIALES: ¿PODEMOS PASAR DE LA MODA A LA PRECISIÓN TEÓRICA, EPISTEMOLÓGICA Y METODOLÓGICA?. THE ACTION AND THE PSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACH OF THE INTERVENTION IN SOCIAL CONTEXTS: CAN WE MOVE FROM THE FASHION TO THE THEORETICAL, EPISTEMOLOGICAL, AND METHODOLOGICAL PRECISION?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Villa Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo derivado de investigación, se plantea la pregunta en torno a una realidad que viene creciendo en Colombia: el incremento de los proyectos de intervención psicosocial en diversos sectores sociales, especialmente con víctimas del conflicto armado, violencia social, violencia de género e intrafamiliar, entre otras; además de población en situación de pobreza extrema, desplazamiento forzado y víctimas de catástrofes naturales. En relación con esta lógica de intervención y de acción, la reflexión académica aún sigue siendo escasa, poco clara y repetitiva de concepciones y disquisiciones internas de las disciplinas sociales, especialmente de la psicología. Por lo tanto, desde la experiencia de trabajo, desde la propia investigación y desde los procesos de acompañamiento psicosocial desarrollados por cerca de 15 años, el autor presenta una propuesta de reflexión, que implica una mirada desde el pensamiento crítico social y una postura que permita darle un marco a la acción psicosocial en una perspectiva emancipatoria.The following article, derived from research, poses the question about a growing issue in Colombia: the increase in projects of psychosocial intervention in diverse social sectors, particularly with victims of the armed conflict, social violence, violence of gender and family, etc., as well as population in a situation of extreme poverty, forced displacement and victims of natural disasters. In relation to this logic of intervention and action, the academic reflection tends to be scarce, unclear and repetitive of concepts and internal disquisitions of the social disciplines, especially of psychology. Therefore, from the work experience, from the research itself and from the processes of psychosocial accompaniment for about 15 years, the author presents a reflective proposal, which implies a look from the social critical thought and a stance that allows to give a framework for the psychosocial

  9. Epistemological and Anthropological Thoughts About Neurophilosophy: An Initial Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia París Albert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE At the dawn of the twenty-first century, neurophilosophy appears as a branch of neurosciences. The aim of this article is to review critically some of the epistemological and anthropological debates which neurophilosophy is putting on question again. In this sense the philosophical research conducted by the UNESCO Chair of Philosophy for Peace will be used as the main thread of the analysis. To accomplish this critical review, the article has been organized into two parts: the first is of epistemological nature, and the second has an anthropological perspective. This analysis will lead us to question the significance of the contributions of neurophilosophy to a better understanding of the human being.

  10. Critique of influential epistemological presuppositions in clinical reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorgård, Keld

    2013-01-01

    , better clinical reasoning is typically linked to detachment, neutrality and monological conceptions of rationality. In this article, it is argued that rational clinical decision-making must also include position-dependent experiences, values and dialogical deliberation.......Evidence-based medicine is an important resource in modern clinical reasoning. It is, however, widely discussed how judgement, experience and patient perspectives are supposed to be integrated in evidence-based decision-making. They are recognised as important aspects, but their epistemological...... status has remained unclarified. In this article, it is argued that we need to consider three different yet related epistemological problems in order to obtain a better understanding of these aspects in clinical reasoning. Even though judgement and values are mentioned in the decision-making procedure...

  11. EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERCEPTION AND SCIENTIFIC LITERACY IN LEVEL HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Álvarez-Valenzuela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research in science education has helped to find some difficulties that hinder the teaching-learning process. These problems include conceptual content of school subjects, the influence of prior knowledge of the student and the teachers have not been trained in their university education epistemologically. This research presents the epistemological conceptions of a sample of 114 high school teachers university science area, which refer the ideas about the role of observation in scientific knowledge development and the work of scientists in the process of knowledge generation. It also includes the level of scientific literacy from the literature that is used as a source of information on the teaching. The result also identifies the level of scientific literacy in students and their influence on learning.

  12. Desclassification in knowledge organization: a post-epistemological essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available The contents of the digital network stem from different forms, logics and cultures of knowledge. Once on the Net, however, they are all submitted to unifying formats and logics provided by digital technology itself. A technology is, first of all, the product of a given culture. Every culture and identity classifies and names all kinds of material and symbolic objects. Nowadays, the West is the one culture that has taken upon itself the task of global classification supported by its own digital networks. Classification is an epistemological tool provided by modern rationality whose internal structures and modes of inference are derived from metonymic, dichotomic and analogical reductions of the diversity of current worlds. In this paper, a kind of practical Hermeneutics, called "declassification", is introduced and proposed as the route to a knowledge which overcomes organizational epistemology. Declassification is an open system that installs logical pluralism in the core of understanding and enunciation processes through meta-cognitive tools.

  13. Historical epistemology of space from primate cognition to spacetime physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schemmel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This monograph investigates the development of human spatial knowledge by analyzing its elementary structures and studying how it is further shaped by various societal conditions. By taking a thoroughly historical perspective on knowledge and integrating results from various disciplines, this work throws new light on long-standing problems in epistemology such as the relation between experience and preformed structures of cognition. What do the orientation of apes and the theory of relativity have to do with each other? Readers will learn how different forms of spatial thinking are related in a long-term history of knowledge. Scientific concepts of space such as Newton’s absolute space or Einstein’s curved spacetime are shown to be rooted in pre-scientific structures of knowledge, while at the same time enabling the integration of an ever expanding corpus of experiential knowledge. This work addresses all readers interested in questions of epistemology, in particular philosophers and historians of scie...

  14. Pragmatic epistemology and the community of engaged actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Srđan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will explore the relation between engagement and social science. I will try to argue that positivist epistemology found in the early days of social sciences still greatly influences our understanding of social engagement. In the first part of the paper, I will analyze the epistemology of social sciences advocated by Fourier and Saint-Simon and try to show that, for them, scientific method was primarily the means for taming social change, as well as projecting private desires and plans onto the public sphere. In the second part, I will offer an alternative account of social engagement using the epistemic role of the community found in pragmatism.

  15. The nature of business social ethics in heterodox epistemological worldviews

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Masudul

    2013-01-01

    The model of general system is a process-orientation of learning dynamics in and across complexly interrelated orders. Within such a general system model is found the specific field of unified, that is organic and endogenously circularly inter-related embedding between economy, finance, and the business world-systems. Business social ethics or socio-business ethicality is a problem of epistemological genre. It glues the circularly inter-related sub-systems and their representative behavioral ...

  16. On the Epistemological Nature of Genius and Individual Scientific Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendro I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief exposition summarizes a universally over-arching deepening of the epistemo- logy of aesthetics (especially as regards the nature of Genius as outlined in a particular section of the Author’s work on an all-embracing, post-Kantian epistemological theory of Reality and the Universe called “The Surjective Monad Theory of Reality” (SMTR, which generalizes, in the utmost ontological sense, Kantianism, phenomenology, and a paradigm of Reality called “Reflexive Monism” (RM.

  17. On the Epistemological Nature of Genius and Individual Scientific Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Suhendro I.

    2012-01-01

    This brief exposition summarizes a universally over-arching deepening of the epistemo- logy of aesthetics (especially as regards the nature of Genius) as outlined in a particular section of the Author’s work on an all-embracing, post-Kantian epistemological theory of Reality and the Universe called “The Surjective Monad Theory of Reality” (SMTR), which generalizes, in the utmost ontological sense, Kantianism, phenomenology, and a paradigm of Reality called “Reflexive Monism” (R...

  18. Epistemologies of Religious Education Research in the Nordic Welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette; Osbeck, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is the epistemological conditions and significant features for doing research in religious education in the Nordic region. Historical and institutional conditions make up an important part of the background for understanding. The articles in this issue which...... are introduced here try to grasp and explore the conditions for scholarly knowledge production concerning the teaching of religion in the states in question: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark....

  19. Interrogating gender and the tourism academy through epistemological lens

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Donna; Munar, Ana Maria; Khoo-Lattimore, Catheryn; Biran, Avital

    2017-01-01

    This introductory essay argues for the adoption of feminist epistemologies to unpack the role, nature and effects of gender (in)equality in our tourism academy. Our focus on tourism academia recognizes the importance of tourism to social life and the crucial role that tourism academics play in knowledge production. We therefore argue for a shift in the focus of extant gender research in tourism away from tourism as a phenomenon to ourselves as tourism academics. We provide an overview of the ...

  20. Inside the epistemological cave all bets are off

    OpenAIRE

    Wight, Colin

    2015-01-01

    In this short rejoinder to Friedrich Kratochwil's plea for a 'pragmatic approach to theory building', I argue that, despite his claims to the contrary, his position essentially rests on a curious form of foundationalism and relativism. The problem, as I identify it, is that Kratochwil's attempt to move contemporary debate forward fails because he treats the issue only in epistemological terms. Kratochwil is deeply suspicious of the very idea of the'real world' and reduces it to an infinitely ...

  1. Changing epistemological beliefs with nature of science implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; Willoughby, Shannon

    2018-06-01

    This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS) implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS material was integrated into the classroom. Our original study covered two years of baseline data and one year of treatment data. Two additional years of treatment course data have revealed intriguing new insights into our students' epistemic belief structure. To monitor the evolution of belief structures across each semester we used student pre-post data on the Epistemological Beliefs About the Physical Sciences (EBAPS) assessment. The collected data were also partitioned and analyzed according to the following variables: college (Letters of Science, Business, Education, etc.), degree (BA or BS), status (freshman, sophomore, etc.), and gender (male or female). We find that the treatment course no longer undergoes significant overall epistemic deterioration after a semester of instruction. We also acquire a more detailed analysis of these findings utilizing the aforementioned variables. Most notably, we see that this intervention had a pronounced positive impact on males and on students within the college of Education, Arts & Architecture, and those with no concentration. Lastly, whether or not students believe their ability to learn science is innate or malleable did not seem to change, remaining a rigid construct with student epistemologies.

  2. Ontological-epistemological views of the beautiful Byzantine aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the ontological-epistemology aspects of the beauty of Byzantine art. Byzantine aesthetics and Byzantine art are unjustly neglected in the history of aesthetic thought. Christian aestheticians have an ambivalent attitude towards art. Because, Byzantine painting represents reality show based on the Christians view, where absolutizs a new dimension of spirituality and aesthetics deriving from the ontological-epistemological positions. The phenomenon of beauty in Byzantine art is primarily deposited in epistemological components, where everything is directed to the knowledge of the truth. In Byzantine art beauty has, above all, spiritual character; it does not have a classical aesthetic dimension, but primarily because the ontological character is recognized as one of the innumerable divine energies and of phenomena. The Byzantine painter makes an effort to realize the creative transformation of matter into a unique experience community and relationship with God, who volatility of the world beyond the ontological light that is converted from non-being into being.

  3. Changing epistemological beliefs with nature of science implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS material was integrated into the classroom. Our original study covered two years of baseline data and one year of treatment data. Two additional years of treatment course data have revealed intriguing new insights into our students’ epistemic belief structure. To monitor the evolution of belief structures across each semester we used student pre-post data on the Epistemological Beliefs About the Physical Sciences (EBAPS assessment. The collected data were also partitioned and analyzed according to the following variables: college (Letters of Science, Business, Education, etc., degree (BA or BS, status (freshman, sophomore, etc., and gender (male or female. We find that the treatment course no longer undergoes significant overall epistemic deterioration after a semester of instruction. We also acquire a more detailed analysis of these findings utilizing the aforementioned variables. Most notably, we see that this intervention had a pronounced positive impact on males and on students within the college of Education, Arts & Architecture, and those with no concentration. Lastly, whether or not students believe their ability to learn science is innate or malleable did not seem to change, remaining a rigid construct with student epistemologies.

  4. Contributions for studies’ epistemology regarding international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Medina García

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an interpretative model to be used from an interdisciplinary perspective when undertaking international border studies. Inspired by the theory of social dynamic fields (Sztompka, 1995, this model is articulated in four basic dimensions: ideational, normative, materialist and agentive. The model is both dynamic and interactive; it presupposes the existence of multiple and complex relationships among the four field dimensions, as well as a certain degree of autonomy in each one. The model is also governed by two fundamental vectors: space and time. The spatial dimension refers to the physical and material base, as well as the territorial, and to other aspects such as the psychological apprehension of space and of imaginary space. It its temporal, or historical, dimension, we consider the model to be in constant evolution, on an oneness basis, to the extent that it can be studied as a social fact. We stress the need to construct an eclectic methodology in order to reach a balanced conjunction among various aspects: the tangible and intangible, quantitative and qualitative, interpretive and comprehensive singular and shared, functional and rational-critical.

  5. Epistemological beliefs in introductory biology: Addressing measurement concerns and exploring the relationship with strategy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschuh, Jodi Lynn

    This study had two main purposes: to address measurement concerns about assessing students' epistemological beliefs and to explore the relationship between epistemological beliefs and deep and surface strategy use in an introductory biology classroom. The following research questions guided the study: (a) Are epistemological beliefs multidimensional? (b) Are the measures of epistemological beliefs correlated? (c) Are the measures of strategy use correlated? (d) Are epistemological beliefs correlated with deep and surface strategy use? (e) How much of the unique variance in Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, grade point average (GPA), and course grade is accounted for by epistemological beliefs and strategy use? (f) To what extent does the content analysis of the open-ended questionnaire data support or refute the role of mature epistemological beliefs? and (g) To what extent does the content analysis of the open-ended questionnaire data support or refute the role of deep strategies? Participants (N = 518) were recruited from two sections of an introductory biology course. All participants completed five assessments including the Epistemological Questionnaire, the Epistemological Scenario, the Self-Regulated Learning Inventory, two strategy checklists, and an open-ended questionnaire. The factor analysis, which was used to answer the first question, indicated no clear loading of the hypothesized dimensions underlying epistemological beliefs as measured by the Epistemological Questionnaire. However, the factor analysis of the Epistemological Scenario indicated four factors underlying epistemological beliefs (i.e., certain knowledge, innate ability, quick learning, and simple knowledge). In addition, the correlation analyses, which were used to answer the second, third, and fourth questions, indicated a significant relationship between epistemological beliefs and strategy use. The multiple regression commonality analysis, which was used to answer the fifth

  6. Old Testament exegesis: Reflections on methodology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    1914:v). 2 Becker (2005:3) states as follows: “Die alttestamentliche Texte haben ein Alter von etwa. 2800 bis 2000 Jahren; sie stammen aus einer anderen kulturellen Welt; sie sind in einer fremden, völlig anders strukturierten Sprache geschrieben. Wer solche Texte verstehen will, muβ sie in unsere Sprach- und Denkwelt ...

  7. A Socratic epistemology for verbal emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Kazemzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe and experimentally validate a question-asking framework for machine-learned linguistic knowledge about human emotions. Using the Socratic method as a theoretical inspiration, we develop an experimental method and computational model for computers to learn subjective information about emotions by playing emotion twenty questions (EMO20Q, a game of twenty questions limited to words denoting emotions. Using human–human EMO20Q data we bootstrap a sequential Bayesian model that drives a generalized pushdown automaton-based dialog agent that further learns from 300 human–computer dialogs collected on Amazon Mechanical Turk. The human–human EMO20Q dialogs show the capability of humans to use a large, rich, subjective vocabulary of emotion words. Training on successive batches of human–computer EMO20Q dialogs shows that the automated agent is able to learn from subsequent human–computer interactions. Our results show that the training procedure enables the agent to learn a large set of emotion words. The fully trained agent successfully completes EMO20Q at 67% of human performance and 30% better than the bootstrapped agent. Even when the agent fails to guess the human opponent’s emotion word in the EMO20Q game, the agent’s behavior of searching for knowledge makes it appear human-like, which enables the agent to maintain user engagement and learn new, out-of-vocabulary words. These results lead us to conclude that the question-asking methodology and its implementation as a sequential Bayes pushdown automaton are a successful model for the cognitive abilities involved in learning, retrieving, and using emotion words by an automated agent in a dialog setting.

  8. Reflecting on complexity of biological systems: Kant and beyond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vijver, Gertrudis; Van Speybroeck, Linda; Vandevyvere, Windy

    2003-01-01

    Living organisms are currently most often seen as complex dynamical systems that develop and evolve in relation to complex environments. Reflections on the meaning of the complex dynamical nature of living systems show an overwhelming multiplicity in approaches, descriptions, definitions and methodologies. Instead of sustaining an epistemic pluralism, which often functions as a philosophical armistice in which tolerance and so-called neutrality discharge proponents of the burden to clarify the sources and conditions of agreement and disagreement, this paper aims at analysing: (i) what has been Kant's original conceptualisation of living organisms as natural purposes; (ii) how the current perspectives are to be related to Kant's viewpoint; (iii) what are the main trends in current complexity thinking. One of the basic ideas is that the attention for structure and its epistemological consequences witness to a great extent of Kant's viewpoint, and that the idea of organisational stratification today constitutes a different breeding ground within which complexity issues are raised. The various approaches of complexity in biological systems are captured in terms of two different styles, universalism and (weak and strong) constructivism, between which hybrid forms exist.

  9. Reflecting on the learning opportunities of presenting at a conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Beverly

    2017-03-22

    Background Research productivity is a major indicator of higher educational institutions' (HEI) academic performance. The increasing focus on research productivity is resulting in an expectation that academics publish their research initiatives, ideas and developments in their scope of work or area of interest. It can influence academic status and compel nursing academics to undertake higher degrees, including PhDs or other doctoral studies. Aim To articulate a nurse academic's reflection on presenting her doctoral thesis at an international conference and to encourage students to embrace the dissemination of research. Discussion In HEIs, academic work and research compete with each other. For the academic who is also a doctoral student, attending research conferences for knowledge and dissemination can be challenging and emotionally labouring. Conclusion It is important that doctoral students from the nursing professions engage in research dissemination at local and international level. This can improve their confidence, appreciation of research in terms of methodologies, findings, interventions and presenting styles. It can also help to develop confidence in articulating their own research epistemology and ontology while networking. Implications for practice Attendance at conferences contributes to the development of the doctoral student's confidence, knowledge, research capability, ability to identify good research practice and to engage in peer review.

  10. Reflections from my Pedagogical Practice: Spontaneity versus Formalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Brenes-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an action research process undertaken with the main purpose of recognizing, re-evaluating and revising my pedagogical practices, together with the children I work with (two preschool groups: the first one is a preschool group I interacted with in 2012 comprised of 6 students ages 2 years and 3 months to 3 years and 3 months, while the second one is a group of 13 K-students ages 4 years and 3 months to 5 years and 3 months, with whom I shared in 2013.  This research process reflects the changes that drove me to a metamorphosis. In this process, evidence is given of findings, lessons learned and lessons unlearned which arose from the use of methodological strategies drawn from the naturalist paradigm. As part of the action research process, a change can be noted in my performance where I pass from a vertical epistemological position, in which my practices focused on memory, order and repetition, to a horizontal one in which children have the possibility of engaging in dialog, freely creating and sharing. The main tools to compile the information were filming and the classes shared with my students.

  11. Por uma ciência formativa e indiciária: proposta epistemológica para a ciência da informação Formative science and indicial science: epistemological proposal for information science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Alvarenga de Araújo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflexão epistemológica sobre a Ciência da Informação como “fazer científico” que se estrutura na Ciência Moderna, em termos teóricos e metodológicos e nas Tecnologias daInformação, em termos aplicados. Tal configuração possibilitou o surgimento desta ciência, porém consideramos que a mesma não garantirá à mesma o pleno desenvolvimento comocampo de conhecimento consistente e moderno. A Ciência Moderna, enquanto visão e prática científica encontra-se esgotada e as Tecnologias de Informação são apenas mecanismos autoregulados que funcionam segundo princípios de automatismos. A partir destas considerações propomos o conceito de ciência formativa (Bachelard, 1996 e o paradigma indiciário (Ginzburg, 1991 como bases teóricas e metodológicas para uma epistemologia da Ciência da Informação. O conceito de ciência formativa se baseia no principio dos três estados do espírito científico e nas condições psicológicas do progresso científico e o paradigma indiciário propõe a intuição (empírica e racional como base metodológica para o fazer científico.Epistemological reflections on the Information Science as scientific field that if structure in the context of modern science, in theoretical and methodological terms and technologies of the information in applied terms. Such configuration made possible the sprouting of this science; however we consider that the same one will not guarantee to this science the full development as field of consistent and modern knowledge. Modern Science, while scientific practical vision and meets depleted and the information technologies are only auto-regulated mechanisms that function according to principles of automatisms. To leave of these considerations we propols the concept of Formative Science (Bachelard, 1996 and the Indiciario Paradigm (1991 with epistemological basis for the Information Science. The concept of formative science if a base on the principles of tree

  12. TITIK TOLAK EPISTEMOLOGIS FILSAFAT ALAM SEMESTA IMMANUEL KANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miska M. Amien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Immanuel Kant denied metaphysical thought. According to Kant, men are not able to understand the nature of something but phenomena. So also in terms of the universe, men can not attain the nature of universe but phenomena that rose from universe. In this context, Kant denied traditional cosmology. However, Kant develops his own cosmology. He talks about the origin of cosmos. Although the origin of cosmos can not retrace clearly, but it is able to understood by nebular theory. Kant explained space and time base on epistemological principles. Space and time are an image in human mind, they rose in the same time, and the other things came later.

  13. Science and Fiction. On Don Quijote’s Epistemological Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Schmelzer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work seeks to analyze the representation of scientific knowledge in Cervantes’ Quixote, focusing on various passages that underline the scientific expertise of don Quixote himself. It is shown that the novel contains a subtle critique of science, based on an epistemological skepticism with regard to the arbitrariness of our world concepts. The characterization of don Quixote as a man of science even permits deducting that he suffers from a ‘double mental damage’, caused by the lecture of both books of cavalry and science. Cervantes thus would consider science to be fiction, a very modern point of view.

  14. Politics, Epistemology and the Problems of Rationalism in La pesquisa

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Larson

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes how Juan José Saer’s noir detective novel, La pesquisa, exposes the fundamental contradictions of Kantian rationalism. The novel, like Kantian theory, realizes a critique of reason by positing its own human, epistemological limits. Of course, the philosophical problems we see in Saer’s novel don’t simply exist in a vacuum, but respond to the politics of rationalism within Argentina, namely the 1976-83 dictatorship. I demonstrate how the contradictions within the ‘rationa...

  15. VET and the creative epistemology of the hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    , and to collaborate across the value chains in our organisations. This developing situation should attract the attention of those involved in VET. This keynote presentation will link crafts, vocational education and training and creativity which have a lot in common. In this, the pragmatist idea of an epistemology...... with practical action. We should count something as knowledge only if it enables us to make a fruitful difference to human experience. This links with an understanding of creative actions as those actions that make an impact in and on the world. A practical implication of this would be that VET must teach its...

  16. Towards an epistemological basis for andragogy in midwifery education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E

    1991-04-01

    In designing the curriculum for pre and post registration midwifery courses, the author has utilised an andragogical model. This term refers to the art and science of teaching adults (Knowles 1978). The ideas that Knowles (1978) put forward about andragogy while not new, have been implemented in adult education and are certainly relevant to the modern practice of midwifery education. The aim of this paper is to examine the two extreme philosophical views about the nature of man and to provide an epistemological basis for andragogy in midwifery education.

  17. Interrogating Gender and the Tourism Academy Through Epistemological Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambers, Donna; Munar, Ana Maria; Khoo-Lattimore, Catheryn

    2017-01-01

    This introductory essay argues for the adoption of feminist epistemologies to unpack the role, nature and effects of gender (in) equality in our tourism academy. Our focus on tourism academia recognizes the importance of tourism to social life and the crucial role that tourism academics play...... in knowledge production. We therefore argue for a shift in the focus of extant gender research in tourism away from tourism as a phenomenon to ourselves as tourism academics. We provide an overview of the five papers in this special issue which explore the gendered nature of our academy in diverse contexts...

  18. Ontological and Epistemological Issues Regarding Climate Models and Computer Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezer, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent philosophical discussions (Parker 2009; Frigg and Reiss 2009; Winsberg, 2009; Morgon 2002, 2003, 2005; Gula 2002) about the ontology of computer simulation experiments and the epistemology of inferences drawn from them are of particular relevance to climate science as computer modeling and analysis are instrumental in understanding climatic systems. How do computer simulation experiments compare with traditional experiments? Is there an ontological difference between these two methods of inquiry? Are there epistemological considerations that result in one type of inference being more reliable than the other? What are the implications of these questions with respect to climate studies that rely on computer simulation analysis? In this paper, I examine these philosophical questions within the context of climate science, instantiating concerns in the philosophical literature with examples found in analysis of global climate change. I concentrate on Wendy Parker’s (2009) account of computer simulation studies, which offers a treatment of these and other questions relevant to investigations of climate change involving such modelling. Two theses at the center of Parker’s account will be the focus of this paper. The first is that computer simulation experiments ought to be regarded as straightforward material experiments; which is to say, there is no significant ontological difference between computer and traditional experimentation. Parker’s second thesis is that some of the emphasis on the epistemological importance of materiality has been misplaced. I examine both of these claims. First, I inquire as to whether viewing computer and traditional experiments as ontologically similar in the way she does implies that there is no proper distinction between abstract experiments (such as ‘thought experiments’ as well as computer experiments) and traditional ‘concrete’ ones. Second, I examine the notion of materiality (i.e., the material commonality between

  19. Theories of social constructivism in Anglophone historical epistemology in 2000-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva Vera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionism can be seen as a source of the postmodern movement, and has been influential in the field of cultural studies. The article is devoted to the analysis of the influence of social constructionism in modern Anglophone historiography and historical epistemology (2000-2015. The research results show the meaning and place of social and cultural constructivism in contemporary Anglo-American theoretical historical reflection. Nowadays constructivism is the theoretical framework for many quantitative researches in history. The authors have discussed constructivism and post-constructivism as “umbrella-approaches” and not as “fully-fledged theories” in modern Anglophone historiography. The presence of theoretical foundations of social constructivism in contemporary Anglophone historiography, its role and level of influence can be accurately described as a “critical inoculation constructivism”. To this day the theories of social constructivism perform many reflective and critical functions in cultural history and contemporary Anglo-American historiography. The ideas and postulates of social constructivism continue to play a prominent role in the “democratization” of modern socio-humanitarian knowledge, rethinking ethnicity, gender, socio-cultural identity. The theories of social constructivism are actively used in such historical projects and research directions as gender history, feminism history, sport history, the history of popular culture, media communications, and many others.

  20. Issues in Education: Epistemology, Phenomenology, and Reflection--A "Stop, Look, and Listen" for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Childhood learning is full of easy-to-remember directions. Recall such advice as "Stop, look, and listen" before one crosses the street and "Stop, drop, and roll" if one's clothes catch on fire. These sayings are clear and concise with specific instruction about what to do in a critical situation. As a teacher educator who has been in the field…

  1. Moving the gender agenda or stirring chicken’s entrails?: where next for feminist methodologies in accounting?

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The paper critiques recent research on gender and accounting to explore how feminist methodology can move on and radicalise the gender agenda in the accounting context. Design/methodology/approach – After examining current research on gender and accounting, the paper explores the nature of feminist methodology and its relation to epistemology. It explores three inter-related tenets of feminist methodology in detail: Power and Politics, Subjectivity and Reflexivity. Findings – The pa...

  2. Epistemological and Methodological Controversies Between the Qualitative and Quantitative Paradigm in Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    CUENYA, LUCAS; RUETTI, ELIANA

    2010-01-01

    La distinción entre metodología cuantitativa y cualitativa define dos campos de investigación que profesan postulados paradigmáticos encontrados. El conocimiento científico se caracteriza por ser racional y objetivo, fáctico y verificable, caracterización que sintoniza, en buena medida, con los atributos del método cuantitativo. Por el contrario, el estudio cualitativo busca comprender los fenómenos dentro de su ambiente usual, utilizando como datos descripciones de situaciones, eventos, pers...

  3. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Traditions: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Methodological Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kaya

    2013-01-01

    There has been much discussion about quantitative and qualitative approaches to research in different disciplines. In the behavioural and social sciences, these two paradigms are compared to reveal their relative strengths and weaknesses. But the debate about both traditions has commonly taken place in academic books. It is hard to find an article…

  4. Discovering reality: feminist perspectives on epistemology, metaphysics, methodology, and philosophy of science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harding, Sandra G; Hintikka, Merrill B

    1983-01-01

    ... FOX KELLER / Gender and Science EVELYN FOX KELLER AND CHRISTINE R. GRONTKOWSKI / The Mind's Eye NAOMI SCHEMAN / Individualism and the Objects of Psychology JANE FLAX / Political Philosophy and the Pa...

  5. Methodology feminist in the investigation: the challenge epistemology of the body

    OpenAIRE

    Insuasty Rodriguez, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    The colonization process of Europe and civilization in the Americas set up his «world system» and with it the «single truth» that considers no human any knowledge different. Latin American critical thought propose unlearn western models and transform knowledge systems. The reason objective, scientific, positivist is put on trial. Women’s Studies emerged as critical vision and defies patriarchal reason, that becomes invisible to women and distorts their contributi...

  6. A Structural and Correlational Analysis of Two Common Measures of Personal Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Bonnie Bost

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current inquiry is a factor analytic study which utilizes first and second order factor analytic methods to examine the internal structures of two measurements of personal epistemological beliefs: the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire (SEQ) and Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI). The study also examines the…

  7. Third Wave Materialism: New Feminist Epistemologies and the Generation of European Women's Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tuin, I.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation focuses upon the specific field of feminist epistemology and upon ways in which recent developments in feminist epistemology have been and can be understood as well as accounted for. The dissertation engages with a problematic formulated by Rosi Braidotti who has argued that the

  8. An Epistemological Justification of the Place of Literary Art in the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ruth Ann

    The purpose of this study was to epistemologically justify the place of literary art in the curriculum by showing that its aesthetic significance gives knowledge that can be communicated in no other terms than its own and that this knowledge is consistent with certain epistemological theories. Using theories of art proposed by Langer and Cassirer,…

  9. Algorithms, Interfaces, and the Circulation of Information: Interrogating the Epistemological Challenges of Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jannick; Farkas, Johan

    2016-01-01

    As social and political life increasingly takes place on social network sites, new epistemological questions have emerged. How can information disseminated through new media be understood and disentangled? How can potential hidden agendas or sources be identified? And what mechanisms govern what ...... suggests that new epistemological challenges deserve more scholarly attention, as they hold wide implications for both researchers and users....

  10. An Examination of Locus of Control, Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness in Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the locus of control, epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness levels of preservice early childhood education teachers and to determine the interrelations among these variables. 206 teacher candidates have been asked to fill out Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Central Epistemological Beliefs…

  11. Modeling the Relations among Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation, Learning Approach, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilgunes, Berna; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra

    2009-01-01

    The authors proposed a model to explain how epistemological beliefs, achievement motivation, and learning approach related to achievement. The authors assumed that epistemological beliefs influence achievement indirectly through their effect on achievement motivation and learning approach. Participants were 1,041 6th-grade students. Results of the…

  12. The Related Effects of Item Characteristics in Measures of Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kathryn J.; Mooney, Gillian A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal epistemology is concerned with people's beliefs or assumptions about the nature of knowledge and knowing. Whilst contributions in this field can be traced back to the 1970s, fundamental questions about the ontology and epistemology of the construct still remain. The current study explored the effects of three characteristics of questions…

  13. The Feminist Critique in Epistemological Perspective: Questions of Context in Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Morris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the feminist critique of systems-based family therapy. Discusses the functions of "punctuation,""boundary," and "closure" in systemic epistemology. Explores implications of a new context for family therapy with respect to women's issues, clinical epistemology, and the challenge to raise novel questions in family therapy. (BH)

  14. Poverty and Knowing: Exploring Epistemological Development in Welfare-to-Work Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Olson, Avery B.

    2016-01-01

    Through a one year-long, qualitative study of welfare-to-work students, this study investigates the developing epistemologies of women enrolled in a community college CalWORKs program. We investigate how poverty as a macro-environment and the community college as a micro-environment influence participants' epistemological development. Findings…

  15. Integrating the Ontological, Epistemological, and Sociocultural Aspects: A Holistic View of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Teng

    2016-01-01

    The three aspects of teacher change--ontological, epistemological, and sociocultural--are traditionally regarded as independent. Usually only the epistemological aspect is highlighted in formal teacher education. In this paper, I argue that a holistic and interdependent view of these aspects is needed. Thus, this paper aims to explore the process…

  16. Epistemological and Reading Beliefs Profiles and Their Role in Multiple Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Mar; Solé, Isabel; Martín, Elena; Castells, Nuria; Cuevas, Isabel; González-Lamas, Jara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of epistemological beliefs and reading beliefs in the comprehension of multiple texts which presented conflicting positions about a controversial topic (nuclear energy). More specifically, we investigated the influence of the multidimensional configuration of epistemological and reading…

  17. Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology: A Mixed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to assess preservice teachers' domain-specific epistemological beliefs and to investigate whether preservice teachers distinguish disciplinary differences (physics, chemistry, and biology) in domain-specific epistemological beliefs. Mixed-method research design guided the present research. The researcher explored…

  18. Dewey's Epistemology: An Argument for Warranted Assertions, Knowing, and Meaningful Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Deron R.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to navigate the treacherous path between professionalism and social relevancy, this essay takes up an area of professional philosophy--epistemology--with the intention of reclaiming the integrative role John Dewey held for philosophy and classroom practice. Deron Boyles asserts that epistemology can and should represent an area of…

  19. Effects of Computer Graphics Types and Epistemological Beliefs on Students' Learning of Mathematical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hui

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that determined the implications of computer graphics types and epistemological beliefs with regard to the design of computer-based mathematical concept learning with elementary school students in Taiwan. Discusses the factor structure of the epistemological belief questionnaire, student performance, and students' attitudes…

  20. Changing Epistemological Beliefs: The Unexpected Impact of a Short-Term Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienhues, Dorothe; Bromme, Rainer; Stahl, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that sophisticated epistemological beliefs exert a positive influence on students' learning strategies and learning outcomes. This gives a clear educational relevance to studies on the development of methods for promoting a change in epistemological beliefs and making them more sophisticated. Aims: To…

  1. Children's informal reasoning skills and epistemological beliefs within the family : the role of parenting practices, parental epistemological beliefs and family communication patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Chng, Grace Shiao En

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The current work formulated theoretical models for empirical testing based on three objectives: 1) to explore the associations of familial variables, specifically with regards to parental socialization, with two cognitive aspects of good thinking in children - their informal reasoning skills and their epistemological beliefs, 2) to test the relation between these two competencies as epistemological beliefs have been found to enhance or constrain reasoning, and 3) to investigate...

  2. Methodological approaches in the research of organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach emerges as a legitimate choice in organizational culture research methodology. It combines elements of both subjectivistic and objectivistic methodological approaches, according to the goals, content, and context of the research and preferences of the researcher himself/herself. Since it is possible to combine the two principal methodological approaches in various ways, there are several possible hybrid methodologies in organizational culture research. After the review of objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative methodological approaches, one of possible hybrid approaches in the research of organizational culture is presented in this paper.

  3. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  4. Epistemological problems in assessing cancer risks at low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1987-01-01

    Historically, biology has not been subjected to any epistemological analysis as has been the case with mathematics and physics. Our knowledge of the effects in biological systems of various stimuli proves to be dualistic in a complementary (although not mutually exclusive) way, which bears resemblance to the knowledge of phenomena in quantum physics. The dualistic limbs of biological knowledge are the action of stimuli and the response of the exposed, biological system. With regard to radiogenic cancer, this corresponds to the action of the ionizations and the response of the exposed mammal to that action, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from the present analysis: Predictions as to radiogenic cancer seem often if not always to have neglected the response variability (variations in radiosensitivity) in individuals or among individuals in populations, i.e. the predictions have been based exclusively on radiation doses and exposure conditions. The exposed individual or population, however, must be considered an open statistical system, i.e. a system in which predictions as to the effect of an agent are only conditionally possible. The knowledge is inverse to the size of the dose or concentration of the active agent. On epistemological grounds, we can not gain knowledge about the carcinogenic capacity of very low (non-dominant) radiation doses. Based on the same principle, we can not predict cancer risks at very low (non-dominant) radiation doses merely on the basis of models, or otherwise interpolated or extrapolated high-dose effects, observed under special exposure conditions

  5. Epistemologia pragmatyczna Michaela Williamsa (PRAGMATIST EPISTEMOLOGY BY MICHAEL WILLIAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ziemińska

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents three main elements of Williams' epistemology: the concept of knowledge, the problem of skepticism and the concept of truth. Williams takes knowledge not as pure descriptive but partly normative concept (to know is to be engaged and entitled. He rejects the demonstrative conception of knowledge (knowledge is infallible and prefers the fallibilist conception of knowledge (knowledge is uncertain and fallible. Williams is good at bringing skeptical presuppositions to light: the demonstrative conception of knowledge and the conception of justification with Prior Grounding Requirement, epistemological realism and priority for internal knowledge. He rightly observes that when we change that presuppositions (skeptic's context, knowledge does exist. However, Williams-fallibilist is close to a skeptic: they both agree that our beliefs are uncertain. The difference is only whether some of our beliefs deserve to be called knowledge. The most important worries concern Williams' concept of truth (deflationary pragmatism. According to Williams truth has no nature and it is not a goal of inquiry. However, if truth is not a goal, we can hardly understand the previous discussion with skepticism and the defense of rationality.

  6. Epistemological Anarchy and the Many Forms of Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David R.

    Constructivism has become an important referent for research and practice in science education. A variety of more or less divergent forms of constructivism have developed: discussion between these is occasionally heated. Six such forms are briefly described in order to provide an overview of the field of constructivist theory. A scheme for characterising constructivist writing on the basis of its relative emphasis on (a) personal versus social construction of knowledge and (b) objectivist versus relativist views of the nature of science is suggested. Issues of theory creation and reflexivity, central to constructivist practice, are discussed. It is suggested that debate about the "best" form of constructivism is counterproductive. A more powerful approach to epistemology is that described by Feyerabend, the holding in dialectical tension of a variety of incompatible perspectives: The following essay is written in the conviction that anarchism, while perhaps not the most attractive political philosophy, is certainly excellent medicine for epistemology, and for the philosophy of science (Feyerabend, 1975, 17, italics in original).

  7. Natural kinds in evolution and systematics: metaphysical and epistemological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2009-06-01

    Despite the traditional focus on metaphysical issues in discussions of natural kinds in biology, epistemological considerations are at least as important. By revisiting the debate as to whether taxa are kinds or individuals, I argue that both accounts are metaphysically compatible, but that one or the other approach can be pragmatically preferable depending on the epistemic context. Recent objections against construing species as homeostatic property cluster kinds are also addressed. The second part of the paper broadens the perspective by considering homologues as another example of natural kinds, comparing them with analogues as functionally defined kinds. Given that there are various types of natural kinds, I discuss the different theoretical purposes served by diverse kind concepts, suggesting that there is no clear-cut distinction between natural kinds and other kinds, such as functional kinds. Rather than attempting to offer a unique metaphysical account of 'natural' kind, a more fruitful approach consists in the epistemological study of how different natural kind concepts are employed in scientific reasoning.

  8. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  9. Group-analytic epistemology and the articulation of group-treatment setting in a Department of Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Della Torre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of multi-level projects of care to mental disorders patients in the context of the Mental Health Centre, proposing an epistemological point of view on groups inspired to the epistemology of complexity.Keywords: Multi-level projects of care; Mental Health Centre; Epistemology of Complexity

  10. Context Based Inferences in Research Methodology: The Role of Culture in Justifying Knowledge Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.; Mason, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on work in epistemology and the philosophy of science, this paper seeks to provide very general reasons for why a comparative perspective needs to be applied to the inferential procedures of research methodologies where these concern the issue of justifying knowledge claims. In particular, the paper explores the role of culture on a number…

  11. Missing Things and Methodological Swerves: Unsettling the It-Ness of VET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Sue; Butler, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for approaches to research methodologies that interrupt the machinic metaphors and relationships for living circulating in so much VET research. Using the schematic of "cyborg as a figuration" and Wilson's (2009) four epistemological interventions (witnessing, situating, diffracting, acquiring) the authors practice a form of…

  12. Snapshots of what, exactly? A comment on methodological experimentation and conceptual foundations in place research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Michael E. Patterson

    2007-01-01

    Place ideas in natural resource management have grown in recent years. But with that growth have come greater complexity and diversity in thinking and mounting confusion about the ontological and epistemological assumptions underlying any specific investigation. Beckley et al. (2007) contribute to place research by proposing a new methodological approach to analyzing...

  13. Where Are the Grounds for Grounded Theory? A Troubled Empirical Methodology Meets Wittgenstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a critical exposition of the epistemological underpinnings of a recent redevelopment of Grounded Theory (GT) methodology, "Constructivist" GT. Although proffered as freed from the "objectivist" tenets of the original version, critical examination exposes the essentialism threaded through its integral…

  14. The Promise of Post-Structuralist Methodology: Ethnographic Representation of Education and Masculinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoviciu, Liviu; Haywood, Chris; Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin

    2006-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a remarkable explosion of knowledges across the academy, media and political discourse, generating a wide range of representations of men and masculinity. In this paper, we interrogate the failure for an accompanying understanding of the epistemological and methodological implications of the research process in this…

  15. Intersectionality and Transnational Feminism between Constructivism, Post-Structuralism and Epistemological Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Demaria

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean today to talk about intersectionality or, better, about intersectional approaches within the vast and fragmented field of Feminist Studies? And how can intersectionality help understanding the development of transnational feminism, and viceversa? By offering a brief critical genealogy of the notion of intersectionality, from the systemic to the anti-categorial positions that have characterized the debate on this notion, the essay tries to present a reading of the main questions that stemmed from thinking the working of the many power differentials and identity markers (gender, race, class, ages, disabilities, etc. that constitute regional, national and transnational subjectivities. In adopting an anti-categorial stance, this work attempts at showing how feminism has changed thanks to different, yet complementary, perspectives on intersectional subject formations and positioning, along with the relational and transnational struggles that have been imagined in order to refine a feminist gaze at every level of social, cultural and political life, be it theoretical, methodological or epistemological.

  16. Modern Confucian Epistemology through the Lens of the Second Generation: Between Reason and Intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S. Rošker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper critically introduces the epistemological thought of the crucial representatives of the 20th-century Modern Confucian thinkers. It aims to show their particular developments of the traditional Chinese tenet that the moral cultivation of the Self is a precondition for comprehensive knowledge. A corollary of this premise is that human perception is not only rational, but also irrational, in the sense of also being determined by will or intention, desires and feelings. They assumed that the same border that divided reason from intuition also divided science from philosophy. They were not opposed to science, but to scientism, arguing that science, which aims at the recognition of objects in the external natural world and applies an exclusively rational and analytical methodology, would never be able to solve questions connected to the meaning of life or to influence an individual’s worldview. Whereas science explores fact, philosophy investigates meaning and values. The divide between reason and intuition did not merely separate science and philosophy (or natural sciences and the humanities, but also the sphere of phenomena from the sphere of values.

  17. Gender differences in collaborative learning over online social networks: Epistemological beliefs and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Y.-Y. Chan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are popular venues for computer-supported collaborative work and computer-supported collaborative learning. Professionals within the same discipline, such as software developers, often interact over various social network sites for knowledge updates and collective understandings. The current study aims at gathering empirical evidences concerning gender differences in online social network beliefs and behaviors. A total of 53 engineering postgraduate students were engaged in a blogging community for collaborative learning. Participants’ beliefs about collaboration and nature of knowledge and knowing (i.e. epistemological beliefs are investigated. More specifically, social network analysis metrics including in-degree, out-degree, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality are obtained from an 8-interval longitudinal SNA. Methodologically speaking, the current work puts forward mixed methods of longitudinal SNA and quantitative beliefs survey to explore online social network participants’ beliefs and behaviors. The study’s findings demonstrate significant gender differences in collaborative learning through online social networks, including (1 female engineering postgraduate students engage significantly more actively in online communications, (2 male engineering postgraduate students are more likely to be the potential controllers of information flows, and (3 gender differences exist in belief gains related to social aspects, but not individual's epistemic aspects. Overall, participants in both genders demonstrated enhanced beliefs in collaboration as well as the nature of knowledge and knowing.

  18. Psychotherapy research needs theory. Outline for an epistemology of the clinical exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Sergio

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides an analysis of a basic assumption grounding the clinical research: the ontological autonomy of psychotherapy-based on the idea that the clinical exchange is sufficiently distinguished from other social objects (i.e. exchange between teacher and pupils, or between buyer and seller, or interaction during dinner, and so forth). A criticism of such an assumption is discussed together with the proposal of a different epistemological interpretation, based on the distinction between communicative dynamics and the process of psychotherapy-psychotherapy is a goal-oriented process based on the general dynamics of human communication. Theoretical and methodological implications are drawn from such a view: It allows further sources of knowledge to be integrated within clinical research (i.e. those coming from other domains of analysis of human communication); it also enables a more abstract definition of the psychotherapy process to be developed, leading to innovative views of classical critical issues, like the specific-nonspecific debate. The final part of the paper is devoted to presenting a model of human communication--the Semiotic Dialogical Dialectic Theory--which is meant as the framework for the analysis of psychotherapy.

  19. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  20. Seismic reflection imaging, accounting for primary and multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Thorbecke, Jan; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of seismic reflection data is usually based on the assumption that the seismic response consists of primary reflections only. Multiple reflections, i.e. waves that have reflected more than once, are treated as primaries and are imaged at wrong positions. There are two classes of multiple reflections, which we will call surface-related multiples and internal multiples. Surface-related multiples are those multiples that contain at least one reflection at the earth's surface, whereas internal multiples consist of waves that have reflected only at subsurface interfaces. Surface-related multiples are the strongest, but also relatively easy to deal with because the reflecting boundary (the earth's surface) is known. Internal multiples constitute a much more difficult problem for seismic imaging, because the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces are not known. We are developing reflection imaging methodology which deals with internal multiples. Starting with the Marchenko equation for 1D inverse scattering problems, we derived 3D Marchenko-type equations, which relate reflection data at the surface to Green's functions between virtual sources anywhere in the subsurface and receivers at the surface. Based on these equations, we derived an iterative scheme by which these Green's functions can be retrieved from the reflection data at the surface. This iterative scheme requires an estimate of the direct wave of the Green's functions in a background medium. Note that this is precisely the same information that is also required by standard reflection imaging schemes. However, unlike in standard imaging, our iterative Marchenko scheme retrieves the multiple reflections of the Green's functions from the reflection data at the surface. For this, no knowledge of the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces is required. Once the full Green's functions are retrieved, reflection imaging can be carried out by which the primaries and multiples are

  1. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  2. Relationship between epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation of high school students was studied and their relationship with school majoring, GPA and gender. To estimate epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation Schommer’s Epistemological Questionnaire (EQ and Work Preference Inventory (WPI were used. Through factor analysis of EQ 5 factors were extracted, that differ from those Schommer singled out. Negative correlation between naive epistemological beliefs on one side, and intrinsic (-0.327, p<0.01 and general motivation (-0.247, p<0.01 on the other, was determined. Students majoring in social sciences have more mature epistemological beliefs (F=11.278, df=1, p<0.01. Boys have more mature epistemological beliefs than girls only on factor Avoiding relating, ambiguity and dependence on authority (F=16.899, df=1, p<0.01. Correlation between epistemological beliefs and GPA was not determined. Students majoring in social sciences have higher level of motivation (F=6.626, df=1, p<0.05. Girls are more motivated by enjoying in what they are doing (F=6.261, df=1, p<0.05. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  3. THE NEED FOR STATE IN THE ECONOMY- EPISTEMOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-ŞTEFANIA SAVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the need for state in the economy, in an epistemological viewpoint. It presents in a critical manner the ideas on the state of the mercantilism and physiocracy representatives, of the classical and Keynesian economists and of the so-called current „the new liberal orthodoxy”. It is noticed that the need for a minimal state, as a condition of proper functioning of the society, has been justified even by those who have criticized it (classical liberals, being recognized that a society can not be conceived anarchic and utopian. If during ’29-’33s, the philosophy of laisser-faire was replaced by the Keynesian doctrine, and ’70s have placed the welfare state in a crisis of legitimacy, starting from 2008 we can talk of a resurgence of the Keynesian paradigm, according to which government intervention is seen as a way to stimulate the economic recovery.

  4. Production possibilities of knowledge from the epistemology pluricultural in Bolivia

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    Tania Aillón Gómez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the possibilities for deployment of pluralistic epistemology (alternative to the liberal view, as production base of knowledge, in a society like the Bolivian, characterized by the deepening of the development of market relations, from the startup of the historical development project of Andean Amazonian capitalism of “Movimiento al Socialismo” (MAS. Based on an analysis of the content of the New Education Law (Siñani-Elizardo Avelino Pérez and empirical data on the results of socio-economic reforms promoted by the MAS, identifies the contradictions, which put into question, the possibility of the so-called educational revolution, has the structural bases required for its execution.

  5. Epistemologi Anarkhis Paul Feyerabend dan Implikasinya terhadap Pemikiran Islam

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    Abdul Aziz Faradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Islamic thought is trapped on the stagnancy of ideas. Such condition happens because the function of Islam changes, from an instrument for freedom to a rigid system of ideology. The similar pattern of change identified by Feyerabend also exists in the modern science. The similarity of the pattern inspired the writer to elaborate the concept of anarchy epistemology of Paul Feyerabend and its implication to the Islamic thought. This article uses philosophical hermeneutic  approach by Gadamer in investigating meaningful sense of Feyerabend thought. The conclusion of the study ends up with the importance of returning Islamic thought to the pluralistic environment  because Islam itself was not burn in a single thought but at least there are three epistemic patrons; Bayani, Burhani, and ‘Irfani.

  6. Finding Place in Higher Education: An Epistemological Analysis

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    Shelagh M. Crooks

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Though the topic of student transition into the culture and practices of higher education has been the subject of considerable investigation by scholars, the transition literature has been largely silent on the epistemological challenges that new students face in the context of the university classroom. The purpose of this paper is to look at student transition from this unique perspective. The paper reviews recent empirical research in the area of “personal epistemology,” which establishes the facts regarding what students actually believe about knowledge and knowing as they enter university. The paper also provides an analysis of the epistemological beliefs of university teachers, and the influence that these beliefs have on the teachers’ educational practice. A key issue discussed here is the conflict between students’ conception of knowledge (as certain and possessed by authorities and their teachers’ conception of knowledge (as something constructed through a process of evidential inquiry. Finally, the impact of this epistemological conflict on students’ ability to make sense out of, and find their place in, the new and different learning environment of the university is considered. Bien que le sujet de la transition des étudiants dans la culture et la pratique de l’enseignement supérieur ait fait l’objet de nombreuses analyses de la part de chercheurs universitaires, la documentation sur la transition est en grande partie muette sur les défis épistémologiques auxquels les nouveaux étudiants font face dans le contexte de la salle de classe universitaire. L’objectif de cet article est d’examiner la transition des étudiants à partir de cette perspective unique. Dans cet article, nous examinons la recherche empirique récente effectuée dans le domaine de « l’épistémologie personnelle », qui établit les faits en ce qui concerne ce que les étudiants pensent réellement concernant la connaissance et l

  7. Site, Sector, Scope: Mapping the Epistemological Landscape of Health Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    This essay presents a critical appraisal of the current state of baccalaureate Health Humanities, with a special focus on the contextual differences currently influencing the implementation of this field in Canada and, to a lesser extent, the United States and United Kingdom. I argue that the epistemological bedrock of Health Humanities goes beyond that generated by its written texts to include three external factors that are especially pertinent to undergraduate education: site (the setting of Health Humanities education), sector (the disciplinary eligibility for funding) and scope (the critical engagement with a program's local context alongside an emergent "core" of Health Humanities knowledge, learning, and practice). Drawing largely from the Canadian context, I discuss how these differences can inform or obstruct this field's development, and offer preliminary recommendations for encouraging the growth of baccalaureate Health Humanities-in Canada and elsewhere-in light of these factors.

  8. DIY-Bio - economic, epistemological and ethical implications and ambivalences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulartz, Jozef; van den Belt, Henk

    2016-12-01

    Since 2008, we witness the emergence of the Do-It-Yourself Biology movement, a global movement spreading the use of biotechnology beyond traditional academic and industrial institutions and into the lay public. Practitioners include a broad mix of amateurs, enthusiasts, students, and trained scientists. At this moment, the movement counts nearly 50 local groups, mostly in America and Europe, but also increasingly in Asia. Do-It-Yourself Bio represents a direct translation of hacking culture and practicesfrom the realm of computers and software into the realm of genes and cells. Although the movement is still in its infancy, and it is even unclear whether it will ever reach maturity, the contours of a new paradigm of knowledge production are already becoming visible. We will subsequently sketch the economic, the epistemological and the ethical profile of Do-It-Yourself Bio, and discuss its implications and also its ambivalences.

  9. Aspectos de la epistemología de Mario Bunge

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas O., Carlos

    2004-01-01

    La epistemología de Mario Bunge ha venido difundiéndose cada vez más en los países de habla hispánica e inglesa. Presentamos un esbozo general de su teoría de la ciencia, su vinculación con otras corrientes del pensamiento contemporáneo y algunos rasgos básicos de su meto­dología filosófica. En especial hacemos referencia a los postulados ontológicos de la ciencia, a su estructura hipotético-deductiva, a los crite­rios de validación y al problema d la sistematicidad. El artículo se li­mita a ...

  10. Religion, nature, science education and the epistemology of dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakos, Konstantinos

    2010-03-01

    In his article Scientists at Play in a Field of the Lord, David Long (2010) rightly challenges our presumptions of what science is and brings forth some of the disjunctures between science and deeply held American religious beliefs. Reading his narrative of the conflicts that he experienced on the opening day of the Creation Museum, I cannot help but reconsider what the epistemology of science is and science learning ought to be. Rather than science being taught as a prescribed, deterministic system of beliefs and procedures as it is often done, I suggest instead that it would be more appropriate to teach science as a way of thinking and making sense of dialectical processes in nature. Not as set of ultimate "truths", but as understandings of processes themselves in the process of simultaneously becoming and being transformed.

  11. Postmodern epistemology and the Christian apologetics of CS Lewis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DN Wilson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Evangelicalism at the turn of this century finds itself facing� a challenge that undermines its very validity. This challenge is generally referred to as postmodernism. Within the contemporary evangelical paradigm, the context in� which this term is generally used refers to epistemology � the structure and limitations of human self-consciousness. The gist of the popular post-modernist argument is that human consciousness always develops inductively � from the inside, outward � utilising a particular linguistic and cultural frame of reference in order to construct conceptions of reality. Human self-consciousness, as understood from this context, is therefore always ultimately, something that can only be referred to as insulated. In the light of this, human self- consciousness can have no direct access to what may be commonly referred to as, an absolute truth.

  12. Neoliberal epistemology: From the impossibility of knowing to human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krašovec Primož

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s discussions on education policy mostly consist of uncritical shuffling of allegedly neutral and merely technical or practical notions such as life-long learning, learning to learn or problem-solving and are based on similarly uncritical acceptance of socio-economic theories of the knowledge society, which is supposed to present an objective framework of education reforms. The aim of this article is to sketch the history of mentioned notions and to present a critique of theories of the knowledge society through an analysis of its tacit political content. To this aim, we took upon early neoliberal epistemology (Hayek and Polanyi as well as its transition towards theories of human capital (Drucker and Machlup.

  13. Scientific thinking in elementary school: Children's social cognition and their epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2017-03-01

    Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding the nature of science), and general information-processing skills (inhibition, intelligence, and language abilities) in a whole-class testing procedure. A multiple indicators multiple causes model revealed a significant influence of social cognition (AToM) on epistemological understanding, and a McNemar test suggested that children's development of AToM is an important precursor for the emergence of an advanced, mature epistemological understanding. Children's epistemological understanding, in turn, predicted their experimentation skills. Importantly, this relation was independent of the common influences of general information processing. Significant relations between experimentation skills and inhibition, and between epistemological understanding, intelligence, and language abilities emerged, suggesting that general information processing contributes to the conceptual development that is involved in scientific thinking. The model of scientific thinking that was tested in this study (social cognition and epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills) fitted the data significantly better than 2 alternative models, which assumed nonspecific, equally strong relations between all constructs under investigation. Our results support the conclusion that social cognition plays a foundational role in the emergence of children's epistemological understanding, which in turn is closely related to the development of experimentation skills. Our findings have significant implications for the teaching of scientific thinking in elementary school and they stress the importance of children's epistemological understanding in

  14. Effectuation And Reflection-In-Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Frank; Lervang, Johan-Ulrik; Maack, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Our main aim is to facilitate a reflective methodology for MSc thesis students in practical entrepreneurship that draws on the ideas of ‘reflection-in-action’ while simultaneously making use of the effectuation logics.......Our main aim is to facilitate a reflective methodology for MSc thesis students in practical entrepreneurship that draws on the ideas of ‘reflection-in-action’ while simultaneously making use of the effectuation logics....

  15. Observation of agoraphobic syndrome through the prism of psychoanalytic epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandić Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus of the text is on psychoanalytic epistemology of agoraphobic syndrome which is still not sufficiently clarified in psychodynamic parameters. Detailed theorethic study starts from the very origins, theoretical and practical suggestions of Sigmund Freud. Early psychoanalytic formulations include psychodynamic models of Karl Abraham, Helene Deutsch and Edoardo Weiss, as well as a number of other significant analysts who gave significant insight to the metapsychological formulations of agoraphobia in the beginning of XX century. After portraying crucial theoretic frames of dynamics of agoraphobia originating from French psychoanalysis, illustrated through the work of Maurice Bouvet and Jannine Chasseguet - Smirgle, author moves towards psychoanalytic models presented to the psychoanalytic community during the first and second decade of XXI century. This segment incorporates autistic objects of agoraphobic neurotic according to Donald Cartwright and synthesis of crucial traits of representations of self and representations of object according to Barbara Milrod. Leading us towards the conclusion author makes a resume of the actual psychoanalytic epistemology of the agoraphoic syndrome pointing out at the centrality of non adequately solved separation - individuation stage, as well as ego defects associated to he agoraphobic syndrome. Specificity of object relations of agoraphobic neurotic she illustrates pointing out at the nature of his relationship with the follower, that psychic fusion which provides the feeling of certainty outside the safety of ones own home. This detailed overview of severely insufficient published literature devoted to agoraphobia is resumed accenting the necessity for its further research, as well as clear notion that although neurotic disorder, agoraphobic syndrome by at least one of its pole gravitates towards nozologycal unit marking personality disorders.

  16. Experiment and exploration forms of world-disclosure : from epistemology to Bildung

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Sönke

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with contemporary epistemological questions, connecting Educational Philosophy with the field of Science- and Technology Studies. It can be understood as a draft of a general theory of world-disclosure, which is in its core a distinction between two forms of world-disclosure: experiment and exploration. These two forms have never been clearly distinguished before. The focus lies on the experimental form of world-disclosure, which is described in detail and in contrast to the explorational form along the line of twenty-one characteristics, which are mainly derived from empirical studies of experimental work in the field of natural sciences. It can also be understood as an attempt to integrate elements of the Anglo-Saxon Philosophy of Science with elements of the German tradition of Educational Philosophy. This is also reflected in the style of writing. In accordance to the content-level of the book, the argument for experimental forms of world-disclosure is written in an essayistic, readable st...

  17. The consistency and complementarity between critical meaningful learning theory and the epistemology of Paul Feyerabend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Damasio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in science teaching have advocated concomitant education about and of science. To approach the nature and history of science in basic education is necessary to have an epistemological approach that can go between of rationalism of Bunge and relativism of Feyerabend. In this paper, it is argued that Feyerabend's epistemological stance is that more can help promote meaningful learning critical, so as to form inquiring, flexible, creative, innovative, tolerant and liberal people. In addition, the suggestions Feyerabend's epistemology also complement the Theory of Meaningful Learning Critical to propose a curriculum and a context for the principles of the theory are in science classrooms.

  18. Neopositivism and the DSM psychiatric classification. An epistemological history. Part 2: Historical pathways, epistemological developments and present-day needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Massimiliano

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the concrete historical sources for the use of neopositivist operational criteria by the DSM-III. This paper suggests that distinct sources operated implicitly. The current usefulness of the operational approach is questioned. It is shown that: (a) in epistemology, neopositivism has been replaced by more adequate accounts; (b) psychologists rejected operational definitions because these were unable to define the majority of mental phenomena; (c) mental symptoms cannot be directly described as such, because they already make part of the psychiatric diagnosis to which they belong. In conclusion, diagnosing is based on the hermeneutical co-construction of mental symptoms. The failure of the neopositivist programme suggests that it is time to reconcile scientific formalization and semiotic activity.

  19. Excavating and (Re)Presenting Stories: Narrative Inquiry as an Emergent Methodology in the Field of Adult Vocational Education and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Aaron Samuel; Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Narrative inquiry has been a popular methodology in different disciplines for the last few decades. Using stories, narrative inquiry illuminates lived experience, serving as a valuable complement to research methodologies that are rooted in positivist epistemologies. In this article, we present a brief introduction to narrative inquiry including…

  20. Using Mixed Methods to Evaluate a Community Intervention for Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Bybee, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    This article reviews current epistemological and design issues in the mixed methods literature and then examines the application of one specific design, a sequential explanatory mixed methods design, in an evaluation of a community-based intervention to improve postassault care for sexual assault survivors. Guided by a pragmatist epistemological framework, this study collected quantitative and qualitative data to understand how the implementation of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program affected prosecution rates of adult sexual assault cases in a large midwestern community. Quantitative results indicated that the program was successful in affecting legal systems change and the qualitative data revealed the mediating mechanisms of the intervention's effectiveness. Challenges of implementing this design are discussed, including epistemological and practical difficulties that developed from blending methodologies into a single project. © The Author(s) 2011.

  1. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  2. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  3. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  4. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  5. Problematizing the concept ‘epistemological access’: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda du Plooy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of literature which aims at problematizing the concept ‘epistemological access”, a fairly under-researched topic in South African education. Morrow’s distinction between formal access (institutional access and epistemological access (access to the goods distributed by the institution is used as a conceptual framework. We argue that the meaning of the concept ‘epistemological access’ as Morrow intended was borne out of a particular political need that arose in higher education; the need to democratize access to higher education. The dearth of literature on the concept “epistemological access” and its meaning for access to basic education, especially foundation phase schooling, therefore warranted this literature review.

  6. [Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulz, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology. Thought experiments are an important element in Ernst Mach's epistemology: They facilitate amplifying our knowledge by experimenting with thoughts; they thus exceed the empirical experience and suspend the quest for immediate utility. In an economical perspective, Mach suggested that thought experiments depended on the production of an economic surplus based on the division of labor relieving the struggle for survival of the individual. Thus, as frequently emphasized, in Mach's epistemology, not only the 'economy of thought' is an important feature; instead, also the socioeconomic conditions of science play a decisive role. The paper discusses the mental and social economic aspects of experimental thinking in Mach's epistemology and examines those within the contemporary evolutionary, physiological, and economic contexts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Verification of causal influences of reasoning skills and epistemology on physics conceptual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ding

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to test the causal influences of reasoning skills and epistemologies on student conceptual learning in physics. A causal model, integrating multiple variables that were investigated separately in the prior literature, is proposed and tested through path analysis. These variables include student preinstructional reasoning skills measured by the Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, pre- and postepistemological views measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, and pre- and postperformance on Newtonian concepts measured by the Force Concept Inventory. Students from a traditionally taught calculus-based introductory mechanics course at a research university participated in the study. Results largely support the postulated causal model and reveal strong influences of reasoning skills and preinstructional epistemology on student conceptual learning gains. Interestingly enough, postinstructional epistemology does not appear to have a significant influence on student learning gains. Moreover, pre- and postinstructional epistemology, although barely different from each other on average, have little causal connection between them.

  8. Paradigms in cartography an epistemological review of the 20th and 21st centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Azócar Fernández, Pablo Iván

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the trends, concepts and directions in cartography and mapping in modernism and post-modernism. It explores philosophical and epistemological issues in cartography from positivist-empiricist, neo-positivist and post-structuralist stances.

  9. Epistemological tensions in prospective history teachers’ beliefs about the objectives of secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.G.J.; Akkerman, S.F.; Haenen, J.P.P.; Vermunt, Jan; Wubbels, T.

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades we witnessed ongoing debates about the objectives of history education, with different underlying epistemological perspectives. This qualitative study explored prospective history teachers’ beliefs about these objectives of history education. Prospective history teachers of six

  10. Towards a pluralist epistemological approach in studies on communication and change: humanism, science and environmentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Pedro Carañana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a pluralistic epistemological approach to the investigation of the relationships between communication and social change. To this end, it draws on the proposal of epistemological merger posed by Johan Galtung for Peace Studies and takes into account the specifics of the communication phenomenon. According to Galtung, the combination of Cartesianism, the verum-factum (Vico and Taoism would counter the risks of epistemological monism and overcome its limitations. In this sense, the article proposes to extend each of these epistemologies in a more general and encompassing level (science, humanities, holistic-dialectical environmentalism and describes its historical trajectory to identify the possibilities of complementarity and its value for the study of communication and change.

  11. Making of epistemologically sophisticated physics teachers: A cross-sequential study of epistemological progression from preservice to in-service teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Zhang, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature on learners' epistemological beliefs about physics has almost exclusively focused on analysis of university classroom instruction and its effects on students' views. However, little is known about other populations or factors other than classroom instruction on learners' epistemologies. In this study, we used a cross-sequential method, combining both longitudinal and cross-sectional designs, to investigate an epistemological progression trend from preservice to in-service teachers. Six cohorts of participants were studied, who either were then attending or had completed an undergraduate teacher preparation program in physics at a major Chinese university. These cohorts were incoming freshmen, end-of-year freshmen, end-of-year sophomores, end-of-year juniors, end-of-year seniors, and 1st-year high school physics teachers who were about to enter the 2nd year of teaching. We used the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) as both a pretest and a post-test to gauge the changes in the participants' epistemological views over an entire academic year. Follow-up interviews were also conducted to explore factors responsible for such changes. Results showed that the epistemological trend as measured by CLASS did not increase monotonically. Instead, there was a decrease in the epistemological trend among the incoming freshmen in their first year undergraduate studies, followed by a long stasis until the end of the senior year. Then, there was a rebound for the end-of-year seniors in their 1st year of teaching, followed by another plateau. Interviews revealed that the competitive learning environment, increased content difficulty, and unfamiliar pedagogies in college were major factors that negatively influenced incoming freshmen's views about physics. Conversely, a role change from student to teacher and relatively easy content in high school positively impacted end-of-year seniors' views about physics and learning.

  12. Making of epistemologically sophisticated physics teachers: A cross-sequential study of epistemological progression from preservice to in-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ding

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous literature on learners’ epistemological beliefs about physics has almost exclusively focused on analysis of university classroom instruction and its effects on students’ views. However, little is known about other populations or factors other than classroom instruction on learners’ epistemologies. In this study, we used a cross-sequential method, combining both longitudinal and cross-sectional designs, to investigate an epistemological progression trend from preservice to in-service teachers. Six cohorts of participants were studied, who either were then attending or had completed an undergraduate teacher preparation program in physics at a major Chinese university. These cohorts were incoming freshmen, end-of-year freshmen, end-of-year sophomores, end-of-year juniors, end-of-year seniors, and 1st-year high school physics teachers who were about to enter the 2nd year of teaching. We used the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS as both a pretest and a post-test to gauge the changes in the participants’ epistemological views over an entire academic year. Follow-up interviews were also conducted to explore factors responsible for such changes. Results showed that the epistemological trend as measured by CLASS did not increase monotonically. Instead, there was a decrease in the epistemological trend among the incoming freshmen in their first year undergraduate studies, followed by a long stasis until the end of the senior year. Then, there was a rebound for the end-of-year seniors in their 1st year of teaching, followed by another plateau. Interviews revealed that the competitive learning environment, increased content difficulty, and unfamiliar pedagogies in college were major factors that negatively influenced incoming freshmen’s views about physics. Conversely, a role change from student to teacher and relatively easy content in high school positively impacted end-of-year seniors’ views about physics and

  13. Beyond Epistemological Deficits: Dynamic explanations of engineering students' difficulties with mathematical sense-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Researchers have argued against deficit-based explanations of students' difficulties with mathematical sense-making, pointing instead to factors such as epistemology. Students' beliefs about knowledge and learning can hinder the activation and integration of productive knowledge they have. Such explanations, however, risk falling into a 'deficit trap'-substituting a concepts/skills deficit with an epistemological one. Our interview-based case study of a freshman engineering major, 'Jim,' explains his difficulty solving a physics problem (on hydrostatic pressure) in terms of his epistemology, but avoids a deficit trap by modeling the dynamics of his epistemological stabilities and shifts in terms of fine-grained cognitive elements that include the seeds of epistemological expertise. Specifically, during a problem-solving episode in the interview, Jim reaches and sticks with an incorrect answer that violates common sense. We show that Jim has all the mathematical skills and physics knowledge he would need to resolve the contradiction. We argue that his difficulty doing so stems in part from his epistemological views that (i) physics equations are much more trustworthy than everyday reasoning, and (ii) physics equations do not express meaning that tractably connects to common sense. For these reasons, he does not view reconciling between common sense and formalism as either necessary or plausible to accomplish. But Jim's in-the-moment shift to a more sophisticated epistemological stance highlights the seeds of epistemological expertise that were present all along: he does see common sense as connected to formalism (though not always tractably so), and in some circumstances, this connection is both salient and valued.

  14. What kind of theory is music theory? : Epistemological exercises in music theory and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Music theory has long aligned itself with the sciences - particularly with physics, mathematics, and experimental psychology - seeking to cloak itself in the mantle of their epistemological legitimacy. This affinity, which was foreshadowed in music's inclusion in the medieval quadrivium alongside geometry, astronomy, and arithmetic, is evident throughout the history of music theory from the scientific revolution onward. Yet, as eager as music theorists have been to claim the epistemological p...

  15. Toward methodological emancipation in applied health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally

    2011-04-01

    In this article, I trace the historical groundings of what have become methodological conventions in the use of qualitative approaches to answer questions arising from the applied health disciplines and advocate an alternative logic more strategically grounded in the epistemological orientations of the professional health disciplines. I argue for an increasing emphasis on the modification of conventional qualitative approaches to the particular knowledge demands of the applied practice domain, challenging the merits of what may have become unwarranted attachment to theorizing. Reorienting our methodological toolkits toward the questions arising within an evidence-dominated policy agenda, I encourage my applied health disciplinary colleagues to make themselves useful to that larger project by illuminating that which quantitative research renders invisible, problematizing the assumptions on which it generates conclusions, and filling in the gaps in knowledge needed to make decisions on behalf of people and populations.

  16. Some aspects of the epistemology of William of Ockham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levey

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The background section of the article deals with Aquinas's and Scotus's definition of the relation between intellect and senses. It is shown that Aquinas postulated a species in terme diary between the two, while Scotus only postulated it for abstractive cognition . Ockham removes the intelligible a species altogether, stressing the reliability of intuitive cognition as the basis of certitude about p re se n t situations, while perfect intuitive cognition is the basis of certitude about past situation . Ockham 's theories of the habitus are discussed as seeming to contradict the principle of the razor, but are demonstrated not to involve external intermediaries. Ockham 's epistemology safeguards the intrinsic psycho ­ logical unity of man and allow s a more direct know ledge of the wrold, in that it derieves universals from particulars and does sway with Aquinas's unwieldy theories of illumination and abstraction. Because all knowledge begins with intuitive cognition, an empirical scientific method is for the first time justified.

  17. Social constructivism and positive epistemology: On establishing of scientific facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author is dealing with the problem of genesis and establishing of scientific fact. In the first part is given philosophical treatment of the problem and its futility, for the reason given in Minhausen trilema as a conclusion of this kind of treatment. Second part of the article contains the review of Ludvik Fleck's positive epistemology and of social constructivism. After the short historical review of the roots of social constructivism in the Mannheim's sociology of knowledge, author describes how it goes with erstablishing of scientific fact. Solution is set forth by elaboration of triad physis-nomos-logos within the constitutive elements of society known as authority-institution-reason-discourse. Author's concluding thesis claims that there is no fact without convention, i.e. that nature and scientific fact are connected by institution (scientific or social. It does not mean that there is no sound established facts but that obstacle toward it is provided just with institutional mediation that make condition of possibility of very truth. Therefore, the question: what among known facts are really truthful amounts to eternal problem of science and common sense in every epoch of history. .

  18. EPISTEMOLOGI DAKWAH FARDIYAH DALAM PERSPEKTIF KOMUNIKASI ANTAR PRIBADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Basit

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Da ’wa fardiycih is one of the common activities in Islamic preaching and has been applied since earlier period of Islam. However, it has not applied scientific development so that it goes naturally. Referring to this case, this paper tries to discuss the epistemology of da ’wa fardiyah. The study on essence of da ’wa fardiyah will be started from the use of the term itself Since the term is not specifically found in the Quran, its definition is taken from interpersonal communication. The writer try to build a derived definition as follow: Da’wa fardiyah is face to face interaction between one individual and the other or between an individual and small group of people in order to change the individual or small group of people to live in the way of Islamic teachings. How to develop relation is applied gradually. It started from developing positive perception to mad’u and followed with developing cultural and social relation. The third phase is applied through a closed relation con- sidering potentials and differences in every individual.

  19. Epistemological limitation for attributing health effects to natural radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Abel J.

    2010-01-01

    The attribution of health effects to prolonged radiation exposure situations, such as those experienced in nature, is a challenging problem. The paper describes the epistemological limitations for such attribution it demonstrate that in most natural exposure situations, the theory of radiation-related sciences is not capable to provide the scientific evidence that health effects actually occur (or do not occur) and, therefore, that radiation effects are attributable to natural exposure situations and imputable to nature. Radiation exposure at high levels is known to provoke health effects as tissue reactions. If individuals experience these effects they can be attributed to the specific exposure with a high degree of confidence under the following conditions: the dose incurred have been higher that the relevant dose-threshold for the specific effect; and an unequivocal pathological diagnosis is attainable ensuring that possible competing causes have been eliminated. Only under these conditions, the occurrence of the effect may be properly attested and attributed to the exposure. However, even high levels of natural radiation exposure are lower than relevant dose-thresholds for tissue reactions and, therefore, natural radiation exposure is generally unable to cause these type of effects. One exception to this general rule could be situations of high levels of natural radiation exposure that might be sufficient to induce opacities in the lens of the eyes (which could be considered a tissue-reaction type of effect)

  20. Unbelievable?! Theistic/Epistemological Viewpoint Affects Religion-Health Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, David

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that Religion/Spirituality promotes a variety of positive health outcomes. However, despite reporting lower levels of Religion/Spirituality, non-believers report comparable levels of health to believers. The current study tested the hypothesis that Religion/Spirituality does not have a uniform effect on health for all persons, and tested theological/epistemological categories as moderators. Using the 2012 and 2014 General Social Survey (N = 2670), the relationship between Religion/Spirituality and happiness and self-rated health was investigated. Results indicated that Gnostic Theists experienced Religion/Spirituality more positively than their peers did; Agnostic Theists experienced Religion/Spirituality less positively than their peers did; and Negative Atheists experienced Religion/Spirituality less positively than their peers did. These findings suggested that Religion/Spirituality is not associated with salutary effects for all persons, and that whether a person believes in god(s) and how confident he/she was in god(s)' existence, influenced his/her experience with Religion/Spirituality.

  1. La epistemología y el turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Muñoz De Escalona

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Al estudio del turismo se destinan desde hace varias décadas ingentes recursos materiales y personales. Se ha convertido en la dedicación de una pléyade de estudiosos de muy desigual nivel de preparación. Lo mismo cabe decir de los centros que se ocupan de desarrollar estos estudios y, como cabía esperar, de las empresas editoriales que difunden los resultados de los mismos. Hay quien cree que esta sobreabundancia de centros y editoriales evidencia que, por fin, ya se ha alcanzado la meta de su cientificación. Los asuntos tratados por los estudiosos  son cada vez más variados. Se diría que se aspira a crear un mundo que refleje y duplique el mundo convencional. No es de extrañar por ello que si existe la filosofía se ofrezca en paralelo una filosofía del turismo y, por idénticas razones, una biología del turismo o una arqueología del turismo. Y así en todos los demás aspectos en los que se diversifica el mundo. Entre ellos ha surgido hace pocos años la eventual necesidad de una metodología del turismo y una epistemología del turismo. Sobre ambas cuestiones, se pronuncia el presente trabajo.

  2. Heart of Darkness and the epistemology of cultural differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Armstrong

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Heart of Darkness has a long history of disagreement about whether to regard it as a daring attack on imperialism or a reactionary purveyor of colonial stereotypes. Taking Achebe’s now famous indictment and Clifford's recent praise that Conrad was an exemplary anthropologist, this article argues that Conrad is neither a racist nor an exemplary anthropologist hut a skeptical dramatist of epistemological processes. The novella has received these divergent responses because its enactment of the dilemmas entailed in understanding cultural otherness is inherently double and strategically ambiguous. The article argues that the novella is a calculated failure to depict achieved cross-cultural understanding presented to the reader through textual strategies which oscillate between affirming and denying the possibility of understanding otherness. The article acknowledges that charges such as that made by Achebe are extremely valuable because they break the aura of the text and establish reciprocity between it and its interpreters by putting them on equal terms, and concludes that a recognition of how unsettingly ambiguous the text is about the ideals of reciprocity and mutual understanding will empower us to engage in a sort of dialogue with it which Marlow never achieves with Africans or anyone else.

  3. That Philosophy as Epistemological-Based is Not Debased: A Critique of Post-Modernist/Hermeneutic Critique of Traditional Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Osemwegie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries, beginning with the classic Greeks through the trends of the mid-20th century, philosophical enterprise has been intricately and seemingly irretrievably rooted in the theory of the given—an edification of philosophy as that giant mirror and standard for measuring what counts as knowledge; but is it thus synonymous with or reducible to epistemology? How or why? There are two answers to both of these questions. The attempt in this work is to delineate those separate concerns, their areas of convergence and disparity, but also indicated the genesis of edifying philosophy rooted in epistemology but which has been discredited in the works of some post-modernist reformers—Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Dewey, Quine, and Rorty. Against theirs, this piece shows that historically, philosophizing has had a methodology and some perceptual axioms; that it is not easy to abdicate it from this mode, no matter the will and zeal—for success is not a matter of will alone; that the post-modernists revolution is nothing new with its swollen nerves and arteries (as others before it, it soon wanes. It concludes that the urge for philosophic understanding shows no sign of abating and so the philosophical journey will probably go on and on, each stage building on and rewriting its past and ruminating specific but perennial problematic; that while some of the issues seemingly do appear resolved, others may have endured and eloped any final solution; and finally that the philosophical method and basic assumptions have seriously remained firmly even beyond post-modernist restructurers.

  4. 'GETTING' THE POX: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia

    This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, "getting the pox" is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  5. ‘Getting’ the Pox: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, “getting the pox” is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  6. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque

    2002-01-01

    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  7. Adaptation of the methodological instrument of the representation of the content (CORE to the theoretical framework of TPCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Fernando Candela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the eighties the community in science education has been interested in teachers to identify and develop the Content Pedagogical Knowledge (PCK. To this end, it has designed educational programs from a “reflective orientation” perspective structured from a set of training activities whose tasks are focused on the practice of designing specific content learning environments, where the methodological instrument of the Representation of Content (CoRe has played a critical role. The logical structure of it provides the possibility for teachers to become aware of the theoretical and methodological elements that underpin the PCK. On the other hand, with the emergence of digital technologies as an instrument for representing content and effective management of the classroom, the need to transform the construct of the Content Pedagogical Knowledge (PCK to the Technological and Pedagogical Knowledge of the content is generated (TPCK. In this sense, it is pertinent to adapt the epistemological structure of the CoRe to the theoretical framework of the emerging construct of the TPCK, in order that this instrument continue to be used as a key heuristic in education programs where the practice of designing environments Learning is important for the professional development of teachers. Of course, the adaptation of the CoRe to the perspective of the TPCK is accompanied by a conceptualization of each of the twelve items that configure it, in order to illustrate the teachers during their development.

  8. Fundamentos epistemológicos da teoria modular da mente de Jerry A. Fodor Epistemological fundaments of Jerry A. Fodor's modular theory of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Bez Birolo Candiotto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma apresentação dos fundamentos da teoria modular desenvolvida por Jerry A. Fodor e uma reflexão sobre seus principais desafios. A noção de modularidade da mente de Fodor, por um lado, procura superar as insuficiências metodológicas e epistemológicas do associacionismo e do localizacionismo a respeito das explicações da estrutura e do funcionamento mental; por outro lado, é uma oposição à postura culturalista de Vygotsky, para o qual as funções superiores da mente, como a cognição, são produtos artificiais, culturais. A psicologia cognitiva de Chomsky converteu esse produto "artificial" em "natural", postulando a existência de módulos inatos para desempenhar funções cognitivas específicos. Com base nessa ideia de Chomsky, Fodor procura explicar a mente como um conjunto de módulos. No entanto, sua principal contribuição para as ciências cognitivas é a apresentação da arquitetura mental em dois níveis e a afirmação da existência de módulos centrais responsáveis pelas atividades cognitivas superiores, como criatividade, reflexão ou imaginação.The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements regarding the modular theory developed by Jerry A. Fodor and some considerations about its main challenges. Fodor's notion of mind modularity, on the one hand, aims at overcoming the methodological and epistemological gaps of associationism and localizationism concerning the explanations of the structure and functioning of the mind; on the other hand, Fodor's notion stands as an opposition to Vygotsky's culturalist posture, since for the latter the higher functions of the mind, such as cognition, are artificial and cultural products. Chomsky's cognitive psychology has converted this "artificial" product into a "natural" one, postulating the existence of innate modules to perform specific cognitive functions. Based on Chomsky's idea, Fodor describes the mind as a group of modules. However, his main

  9. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  10. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  11. Language of Physics, Language of Math: Disciplinary Culture and Dynamic Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Edward F.; Kuo, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Mathematics is a critical part of much scientific research. Physics in particular weaves math extensively into its instruction beginning in high school. Despite much research on the learning of both physics and math, the problem of how to effectively include math in physics in a way that reaches most students remains unsolved. In this paper, we suggest that a fundamental issue has received insufficient exploration: the fact that in science, we don't just use math, we make meaning with it in a different way than mathematicians do. In this reflective essay, we explore math as a language and consider the language of math in physics through the lens of cognitive linguistics. We begin by offering a number of examples that show how the use of math in physics differs from the use of math as typically found in math classes. We then explore basic concepts in cognitive semantics to show how humans make meaning with language in general. The critical elements are the roles of embodied cognition and interpretation in context. Then, we show how a theoretical framework commonly used in physics education research, resources, is coherent with and extends the ideas of cognitive semantics by connecting embodiment to phenomenological primitives and contextual interpretation to the dynamics of meaning-making with conceptual resources, epistemological resources, and affect. We present these ideas with illustrative case studies of students working on physics problems with math and demonstrate the dynamical nature of student reasoning with math in physics. We conclude with some thoughts about the implications for instruction.

  12. A epistemologia do armário Epistemology of the closet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesta versão condensada de seu livro homônimo, Sedgwick esboça uma reflexão sobre o "armário" como um dispositivo de regulação da vida de gays e lésbicas que concerne, também, aos heterossexuais e seus privilégios de visibilidade e hegemonia de valores. A pesquisadora norte-americana afirma que "o armário", ou o "segredo aberto", marcou a vida gay/lésbica no último século e não deixou de fazê-lo mesmo após o marco de Stonewall em 1969. Sedgwick argumenta ainda que esse regime, com suas regras contraditórias e limitantes sobre privacidade e revelações, público e privado, conhecimento e ignorância, serviu para dar forma ao modo como muitas questões de valores e epistemologia foram concebidas e abordadas na moderna sociedade ocidental como um todo.In this condensed version of her book, Sedgwick reflects about the "closet" as a regime of regulation of gay and lesbian lives that is also important to heterosexuals since it guarantees their privileges. Sedgwick affirms the "closet", or the "open secret", has been basic to lesbian/gay life for the last century even after Stonewall (1969. She also states that this regime - with its contradictory and constraining rules and limits about privacy and disclosure, public and private, knowledge and ignorance - has served to shape the way in which many questions about values and epistemology were comprehended in the Western Society as a whole.

  13. Perrault's experiments, a matter of soil hydrology and epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Berta, Andrea; Settura, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    The studies conducted in the second half of the Sixteenth Century were crucial both for the hydrological knowledge and for the modern epistemology. In fact thanks to the new experiment-based scientific approach the Sun was about to be fully recognized as the engine of the hydrological cycle instead of an endogenous engine placed in the depths of the Earth, and the original Aristotelic approach to the description of the nature, based on the the four qualities (hot and cold, dry and moist), was got over. At the same time, the questions posed on the hydrological cycle and on the soil hydrology, which are hardly reproducible by means of a controlled laboratory model, severely tested the modern scientific approach at its beginning, and contributed to the development of modern epistemology. Perrault's classical book De l'origine des fontaines (On the origin of springs, 1674) is deeply rooted in these debates. In this book he performed experiments and collected many observations both to assess the water balance at the basin scale and to understand the water movement in the upper soil layers. Particularly he performed four experiments to understand whether the water could spontaneously rise within the soil from the water table and originate springs (1st and 2nd experiment), how deep the rainfall could percolate through the soil and recharge the groundwater table (3rd one), and whether salty water remained salty when rising into the soil by capillary action (4th one). In order to do so he filled with different soils a leaden pipe, 65cm long, and observed their performances against capillary rise, infiltration, percolation and water-content redistribution. The great detail of the experimental report allowed us to quantitatively re-experience the first three ones in the laboratory, with comparable results to Perrault's ones. Moreover it allowed us to recognize both the omitted data which would be needed for a complete repeatability, and the observations which leaded Perrault

  14. Epistemología Pedagógica (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel GARCÍA DEL DUJO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo los autores analizan dos tipos de cuestiones: los presupuestos ontológicos y los problemas gnoselógicos que conlleva la construcción de la Pedagogía en cuanto campo de conocimientos sobre los fenómenos educativos. Desde la perspectiva de los sistemas dinámicos, y distinguiendo en educación entre lo que podemos llamar procesos adaptativos primarios, vitalmente necesarios, y aquellos otros componentes o niveles propios de la evolución cultural, los autores concluyen en la necesidad no sólo de adoptar formas plurales de conocimiento y hasta pluralidad de ciencias sino también de tomar en consideración aspectos tales como la emoción, la sensibilidad, la afectividad para un análisis global de los procesos educativos. El artículo termina, en consecuencia, con una propuesta global de caracterización epistemológica de la Pedagogía y, como contrapunto, una visión analítica de lo que los autores denominan realismo pedagógico ingenuo.SUMMARY: In this article the authors study two kinds of questions: the ontological assumptiones and the constructing the Pedagogy problems as a field of knowledge about educational phenomena. In view of the dynamic systems, and distinguishing in education the primary process of adaptation, vitally necessary, from another typical components or levels of the cultural development, the authors think it's necessary not only to assume a lot of forms of knowledge and sciences but to bear in mind aspects just as the emotion, the sensibilty, the affectivity for a comprehensive study of educational process. The article finish, therefore, with a global epistemological caracterization of the Pedagogy and, as contraposition, a analytical view of that the authors call pedagogical ingenuous realism.

  15. Playing with Personal Media: On an Epistemology of Ignoranc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Kaerlein

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are ubiquitous and increasingly an integral part of everyday media usage. One remarkable development in the field of personal media (smartphones, tablet computers, etc. is the trivialization of their interfaces and appearance, espe-cially when compared to the complexity of the underlying software and hardware. The iPhone and its successors trump with usability, they offer simple and seeming-ly direct access to many functions. Software can be handled with basic hand gestures or voice control, no expert knowledge is required to use the devices. Rather, current apps and operating systems are designed for a playful approach that favours unbiased exploration. The article investigates forms of the trivial in both device materiality and interface design from a media studies perspective. Pertinent philosophical positions on human-technology relationships by Günther Anders and Hans Blumenberg are discussed to explore the ramifications of a highly productive epistemology of ignorance. A focus is placed upon the process of blackboxing, a technique of invisi-bilization common to media technologies wherein the social and material prerequisites of a given artefact are hidden from users. The black box also serves as a model of thought to offer a way of analysing unknown complex systems as proposed in cybernetics, and it has more recently been picked up and refashioned in significant ways in actor-network theory. Playing with personal media is situated between the poles of user infantilization and the freedom of exploring new practices. Triviality in interface design is am-biguous in that it denies insight into more fundamental processes but at the same time creates a space for playful variation not requiring professional knowledge. The article aims to negotiate between positions of elitist criticism and affirmative technophilia, which are widespread in the discourse on mobile devices.

  16. Ethnographic Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    is reinvested in the enterprise for these purposes. The research has provided a framework for understanding how vulnerable employees reflect and navigate their day-to-day experiences, specifically in relation to the local municipality. The case discusses themes of how fieldwork requires being able to improvise...

  17. Goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation among engineering students: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlahcene, Abderrahim; Lashari, Sana Anwar; Lashari, Tahira Anwar

    2017-08-01

    An aspect that has been exhaustively researched in the motivation of the higher education discipline is the engineering students’ process of goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation. However, the focus of those researchers as commonly the influence of goal orientations and epistemological beliefs on intrinsic motivation; they have not combined the two factors and examined relationships among goal orientation, epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation. Therefore, although there is a plethora of research on the matter in related disciplines, the researchers commonly do not have consensus on a term that could be used to discuss how engineering students are motivation. This paper identifies literature whose characteristics have focused on the concept of motivation. Attempts were made to retrieve related lietarure empirically examined motivation, extrinsic motivation, Goal orientation, Epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation to gain insight information. It is believed that the present study may help educators in organizing content, preparing curriculum, and evaluate student tasks, so that students can begin to develop more mature and effective epistemological beliefs and design their proper goals for their learning process.

  18. Qualitative Methodology in Unfamiliar Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    on a qualitative methodology, conscious reflection on research design and objectivity is important when doing fieldwork. This case study discusses such reflections. Emphasis throughout is given to applied qualitative methodology and its contributions to the social sciences, in particular having to do......This case study discusses qualitative fieldwork in Malaysia. The trends in higher education led to investigating how and why young Indians and Chinese in Malaysia are using the university to pursue a life strategy. Given the importance of field context in designing and analysing research based...

  19. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  20. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  1. College Athletes' Reflective Judgment: A Moderator between Sport and Sociocultural Pressures, Body Ideal Internalization, and Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Catie A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the sociocultural model of eating disorder development among male and female college student-athletes as moderated by students' level of Reflective Judgment, a stage theory of adult epistemology marked by increasing cognitive complexity. A review of literature on the established relationships between…

  2. Discussão epistemológica da produção científica de programas de pós-graduação na área da saúde reprodutiva Epistemological discussion of scientific production for post-graduation programs in the reproductive health area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato G. Castro

    2007-01-01

    "person", "health", "ethics" and "science". The works have little or no concern with epistemological reflections. The structure of methodological aspects presents formal concerns in most cases, in a disciplinary and rationalist perspective, what impedes the concretization of academic actions that value the trans-disciplinary approach.

  3. Actores sin sistema y sistemas sin actores: Apuntes para una lectura de la epistemología social desde el pensamiento de la complejidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Aguado Terrón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda una revisión genealógica de las implicaciones epistemológicas del pensamiento sobre lo social, planteando su articulación a partir de la dicotomía entre actores y sistemas, por una parte, y entre intra-determinación y extra-determinación de los sujetos sociales, por otra. La inclusión de las capacidades cognitivas de los sujetos en la teoría social plantea, además de un debate teórico en torno a la complementariedad individuo/colectividad, un problema epistemológico vinculado a la recursividad observacional. Desde esta perspectiva, el pensamiento de la complejidad aporta una vía conceptual de solución para las paradojas epistemológicas del pensamiento sobre lo social en la forma de una teoría general de la organización compleja capaz de englobar coherentemente al observador, la acción observadora y los fenómenos observados.The present paper poses a genealogical approach to the epistemological debate on social theory, departing from its configuration upon a dichotomy between systems and actors, on one side, and between intra-determination and extra-determination of social subject, on the other side. The insertion of social subject’s cognitive capabilities into the theoretical reflection on social phenomena poses, beyond the conceptual debate on the complementarity between individual and collectivity, a deep epistemological problem related to observational recursiveness. From this point of view, the complexity paradigm offers a theoretical path that allows solving some of the epistemological paradoxes in the Social Sciences. It makes this possible by posing a general theory of organizational phenomena that coherently involves the observer, the action of observing and the observed phenomena

  4. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  5. Between normal and pathological: Ludwik Fleck, Georges Canguilhem and the genesis of historical epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Lucio Leitão Condé

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to address, starting from some aspects of the thought of Ludwik Fleck and Georges Canguilhem, the genesis of historical epistemology in the history of science. Specifically, it seeks the contribution of the biological matrix, or the life sciences, presented by these authors, as a central framework in the constitution of historical epistemology. In other words, more than a search of similarities between Fleck and Canguilhem, the main goal is to show how, in formulating independently their ideas of history of science – especially the history of medicine – these authors contributed decisively to the basis of a historical epistemology that will be, throughout the twentieth century, a new thought style for understanding the history of science.

  6. An exploration of university physics students’ epistemological mindsets towards the understanding of physics equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Domert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes and beliefs about learning have been shown to affect learning outcomes. This study explores how university physics students think about what it means to understand physics equations. The data comes from semi-structured interviews with students from three Swedish universities. The analysis follows a data-based, inductive approach to characterise students’ descriptions of what it means to understand equations in terms of epistemological mindsets (perceived critical attributes of a learning, application, or problem-solving situation that are grounded in epistemology. The results are given in terms of different components of students’ epistemological mindsets. Relations between individuals and sets of components as well as differences across various stages of students’ academic career are then explored. Pedagogical implications of the findings are discussed and tentative suggestions for university physics teaching are made.

  7. Improving epistemological beliefs and moral judgment through an STS-based science ethics education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo

    2014-03-01

    This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program.

  8. Effectiveness of Case-Based Learning Instruction on Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Aylin; Geban, Ömer

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes of an urban high school instructed with same teacher. Each teaching method was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received case-based learning and the control group received traditional instruction. At the experimental group, life cases were presented with small group format; at the control group, lecturing and discussion was carried out. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control group with respect to their epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject in favor of case-based learning method group. Thus, case base learning is helpful for development of students' epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry.

  9. Illustrating the Importance of Critical Epistemology to Realize the Promise of Occupational Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Lisette; Laliberte Rudman, Debbie; Magalhães, Lilian

    2016-08-24

    This article argues that it is vital to embrace critical reflexivity to interrogate the epistemological beliefs and principles guiding occupation-based scholarship to move away from frameworks that are incongruent with calls for occupational justice. For this purpose, we describe an epistemic tension between the stated intentions to demonstrate that occupation-based work can be a means to create a more just society and the epistemological beliefs that have historically dominated occupation-based scholarship. To exemplify the potential implications of this tension, a critical analysis of Creswell's social justice/transformative design is presented, illustrating that work that expresses a commitment to social justice while relying on positivist/postpositivist assumptions often risks perpetuating injustices through neglecting their sociopolitical construction. Drawing upon critical social theory, we highlight how engagement with critical epistemological assumptions can facilitate addressing the sociopolitical "roots" of occupational injustices and highlight directions for social transformation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Preservice Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Informal Reasoning Regarding Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nilay; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated preservice elementary science teachers' (PSTs) informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues (SSI), their epistemological beliefs, and the relationship between informal reasoning and epistemological beliefs. From several SSIs, nuclear power usage was selected for this study. A total of 647 Turkish PSTs enrolled in three large universities in Turkey completed the open-ended questionnaire, which assessed the participants' informal reasoning about the target SSI, and Schommer's (1990) Epistemological Questionnaire. The participants' epistemological beliefs were assessed quantitatively and their informal reasoning was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings revealed that PSTs preferred to generate evidence-based arguments rather than intuitive-based arguments; however, they failed to generate quality evidence and present different types of evidence to support their claims. Furthermore, among the reasoning quality indicators, PSTs mostly generated supportive argument construction. Regarding the use of reasoning modes, types of risk arguments and political-oriented arguments emerged as the new reasoning modes. The study demonstrated that the PSTs had different epistemological beliefs in terms of innate ability, omniscient authority, certain knowledge, and quick learning. Correlational analyses revealed that there was a strong negative correlation between the PSTs' certain knowledge and counterargument construction, and there were negative correlations between the PSTs' innate ability, certain knowledge, and quick learning dimensions of epistemological beliefs and their total argument construction. This study has implications for both science teacher education and the practice of science education. For example, PST teacher education programs should give sufficient importance to training teachers that are skillful and knowledgeable regarding SSIs. To achieve this, specific SSI-related courses should form part of science

  11. Epistemological-motivational bases of literary non-fiction genre as factors determining the linguistic structure of text

    OpenAIRE

    GALSTYAN ASHOT

    2016-01-01

    This article dwells on epistemological-motivational aspects of the literary non-fiction genre. The general features of memoir literature are examined form the point of view of their epistemological and cognitive aspects. The cognitive and informational specificities of non-fictional narratives are also considered.

  12. Settler Traditions of Place: Making Explicit the Epistemological Legacy of White Supremacy and Settler Colonialism for Place-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawright, Gardner

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of place-based models of education, credence needs to be given to epistemological traditions that curate individual understandings of and relations to the social world (i.e., places). The epistemological traditions that have been shared across generations of North American settler colonialists are at the center of this article. The…

  13. Looking at Filipino Pre-Service Teachers' Value for Education through Epistemological Beliefs about Learning and Asian Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of epistemological beliefs about learning and Asian values on pre-service teachers' value for education. The relationship of epistemological beliefs and valuing education is based on Schwartz and Bilsky's (1987; 1990) theory of human values. The participants were 362 pre-service teachers from…

  14. On the Epistemological Features Promoted by "Philosophy for Children" and Their Psychological Advantages When Incorporated into RE

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle; Possoz, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the epistemological paradigm in which Philosophy for Children (P4C) is embedded and the personal epistemological positions that are promoted by P4C, in order to address the concern that P4C might induce relativism in pupils. On the basis of theoretical considerations and empirical results, it is shown that P4C does not…

  15. An Evaluation of the Pattern between Students' Motivation, Learning Strategies and Their Epistemological Beliefs: The Mediator Role of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Yilmaz, A.; Yurdagül, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at analysing the relations between students' achievement motivation, learning strategies and their epistemological beliefs in learning through structural equation modelling, and at exploring the mediation role of motivation in the relations between learning strategies and epistemological beliefs. The study group was composed of 446…

  16. The Relationship between Pre-Service Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Preferences for Creating a Constructivist Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylan, Asli; Armagan, Fulya Öner; Bektas, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between pre-service science teachers' epistemological beliefs and perceptions of a constructivist learning environment. The Turkish version of Constructivist Learning Environment Survey and Schommer's Epistemological Belief Questionnaire were administered to 531 pre-service science teachers attending…

  17. Effects of Epistemological Beliefs and Topic-Specific Beliefs on Undergraduates' Cognitive and Strategic Processing of Dual-Positional Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardash, CarolAnne M.; Howell, Karen L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates effects of epistemological beliefs and topic-specific beliefs on undergraduates' (N=40) cognitive and strategic processing of a dual-positional text. Findings reveal that epistemological beliefs about the speed of learning affected the overall number of cognitive processes exhibited, whereas topic-specific beliefs interacted with the…

  18. Assessing Reflection: Understanding Skill Development through Reflective Learning Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathro, Virginia; O'Kane, Paula; Gilbertson, Deb

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest ways in which business educators can interact successfully with reflective learning journals (RLJs). Specifically, the research was interested in how students used RLJs and how educators assessed these RLJs. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 31 RLJs, submitted as part of an international…

  19. MIRD methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.; Gomez Parada, Ines

    2004-01-01

    The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system was established by the Society of Nuclear Medicine of USA in 1960 to assist the medical community in the estimation of the dose in organs and tissues due to the incorporation of radioactive materials. Since then, 'MIRD Dose Estimate Report' (from the 1 to 12) and 'Pamphlets', of great utility for the dose calculations, were published. The MIRD system was planned essentially for the calculation of doses received by the patients during nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. The MIRD methodology for the absorbed doses calculations in different tissues is explained

  20. Arctic development and historical analysis: the use of historical methodology in addressing current issues in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vasiliki Kravariotis

    2008-06-01

    To demonstrate the applicability of historical methodology to current issues in the Canadian Arctic. This is a literature-based analytical historical study, which draws on material from database searches of MEDLINE, Anthropology Plus, POLARInfo, the Arctic Blue Books and Historical Abstracts. Material was also obtained from physical searches of the University of Alberta Libraries and Library and Archives Canada collections, as well as from field research in the records of the Inuulitsivik Maternities. The historical technique of tracing epistemological change over time, pioneered by Michel Foucault and further developed by Ian Hacking, was applied to the history of Canadian authority in the Arctic. This was linked with epistemological changes occurring throughout Western/Southern culture in this period. The applicability of this historical analysis for current issues in the region was then evaluated. An epistemological shift in Western society has moved authority from traditional human actors in government, medicine and, increasingly, science to statistics, which is seen as both impartial and accurate. Human authorities now routinely appeal to statistical authority to validate policy decisions. This change is as apparent in the Arctic as elsewhere, but it has also opened a space for Inuit practices, rooted in traditional Inuit epistemology, to reassert themselves, provided they can satisfy demands for statistical validity. Historical analysis provides a means to identify the spaces which epistemological change and historical contingency have opened in which social and cultural change can occur.