WorldWideScience

Sample records for methodological issues relevant

  1. [The Philosophical Relevance of the Study of Schizophrenia. Methodological and Conceptual Issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Silva, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The study of mental illness involves profound methodological and philosophical debates. This article explores the disciplinary complementarity, particularly, between philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology in the context of the understanding of schizophrenia. After clarifying the possible role of these disciplines, it is explored the way in which a certain symptom of schizophrenia (thought insertion) challenges the current phenomenological approach to the relationship between consciousness and self-awareness. Finally, it is concluded that philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology should, necessarily, regulate their progress jointly in order to reach plausible conclusions about what we call 'schizophrenia'. Crown Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. A systematic review of methodology applied during preclinical anesthetic neurotoxicity studies: important issues and lessons relevant to the design of future clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disma, Nicola; Mondardini, Maria C; Terrando, Niccolò; Absalom, Anthony R; Bilotta, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical evidence suggests that anesthetic agents harm the developing brain thereby causing long-term neurocognitive impairments. It is not clear if these findings apply to humans, and retrospective epidemiological studies thus far have failed to show definitive evidence that anesthetic agents are harmful to the developing human brain. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the preclinical studies published over the past decade, with a focus on methodological issues, to facilitate the comparison between different preclinical studies and inform better design of future trials. The literature search identified 941 articles related to the topic of neurotoxicity. As the primary aim of this systematic review was to compare methodologies applied in animal studies to inform future trials, we excluded a priori all articles focused on putative mechanism of neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective agents. Forty-seven preclinical studies were finally included in this review. Methods used in these studies were highly heterogeneous-animals were exposed to anesthetic agents at different developmental stages, in various doses and in various combinations with other drugs, and overall showed diverse toxicity profiles. Physiological monitoring and maintenance of physiological homeostasis was variable and the use of cognitive tests was generally limited to assessment of specific brain areas, with restricted translational relevance to humans. Comparison between studies is thus complicated by this heterogeneous methodology and the relevance of the combined body of literature to humans remains uncertain. Future preclinical studies should use better standardized methodologies to facilitate transferability of findings from preclinical into clinical science. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Methodological Issues and Practices in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses methodological issues concerning qualitative research and describes research practices that qualitative researchers use to address these methodological issues. Topics discussed include the researcher as interpreter, the emergent nature of qualitative research, understanding the experience of others, trustworthiness in qualitative…

  4. Methodological Issues in Questionnaire Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngshin; Son, Youn Jung; Oh, Doonam

    2015-06-01

    The process of designing a questionnaire is complicated. Many questionnaires on nursing phenomena have been developed and used by nursing researchers. The purpose of this paper was to discuss questionnaire design and factors that should be considered when using existing scales. Methodological issues were discussed, such as factors in the design of questions, steps in developing questionnaires, wording and formatting methods for items, and administrations methods. How to use existing scales, how to facilitate cultural adaptation, and how to prevent socially desirable responding were discussed. Moreover, the triangulation method in questionnaire development was introduced. Steps were recommended for designing questions such as appropriately operationalizing key concepts for the target population, clearly formatting response options, generating items and confirming final items through face or content validity, sufficiently piloting the questionnaire using item analysis, demonstrating reliability and validity, finalizing the scale, and training the administrator. Psychometric properties and cultural equivalence should be evaluated prior to administration when using an existing questionnaire and performing cultural adaptation. In the context of well-defined nursing phenomena, logical and systematic methods will contribute to the development of simple and precise questionnaires.

  5. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  6. Methodological issues in lipid bilayer simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anezo, C; de Vries, AH; Holtje, HD; Tieleman, DP; Marrink, SJ

    2003-01-01

    Methodological issues in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, such as the treatment of long-range electrostatic interactions or the type of pressure coupling, have important consequences for the equilibrium properties observed. We report a series of long (up to 150 ns) MD simulations of

  7. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  8. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of memory, concentration, and speed of information processing. It is a frequent complication following surgery and can have a debilitating effect on patients' recovery and future prognosis. Neuropsychological testing is needed...... to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  9. Least-cost Paths - Some Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmela Herzog

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with methodological issues connected with least-cost path (LCP calculations in archaeology. The number of LCP studies in archaeology has increased rapidly during the last couple of years, but not all of the approaches applied are based on an appropriate model and implementation. Many archaeologists rely on standard GIS software with default settings for calculating LCPs and are not aware of possible alternatives and the pitfalls that are described in this article. After briefly introducing the aims and applications of LCP methods in archaeology, LCP algorithms are discussed. The outcome of the LCP calculations depends not only on the algorithm but also on the cost model, which often includes several cost components. The discussion of the cost components has a focus on slope, because nearly all archaeological LCP studies take this cost component into account and because several methodological issues are connected with slope-based cost models. Other possible cost components are: the load of the walker, vegetation cover, wetlands or other soil properties, travelling and transport on water, water as barrier and as attractor, aspect, altitude, and social or cultural cost components. Eventually, advantages and disadvantages of different ways of combining cost components are presented. Based on the methodological issues I conclude that both validation checks and variations of the model are necessary to analyse the reliability of archaeological LCP results.

  10. Muscle dysmorphia: methodological issues, implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffolk, Mark T; Dovey, Terence M; Goodwin, Huw; Meyer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is a male-dominated, body image-related psychological condition. Despite continued investigation, contention surrounds the nosological status of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review the literature on muscle dysmorphia to provide a qualitative account of methodological issues that may inhibit our understanding. Key areas relating to non-standardized participant groups, measuring instruments, and terminology were identified as potentially inhibiting symptom coherence and diagnostic reliability. New measuring instruments validated with clinical samples and carefully described participant groups, standardized terminology, and a greater emphasis on prospective longitudinal research with specific sub groups of the weight training community would be of interest to the field.

  11. Electromagnetic fields - introduction to relevant issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueggemeyer, H.; Csicsaky, M.

    1993-01-01

    This introductory paper surveys potential sources of electric magnetic, and electro-magnetic fields. Various cases are discussed to exemplify the total frequency range: nuclear magnetic resonance tomography, high-voltage transmission lines, transformer stations, effect lighting balls, military transmitters, transmitter towers of the Postal Services and other operators, mobile radiotelephone equipment, large broadcasting transmitters, radar radiation, high-frequency heat therapy. There is evidence suggesting that electric, magnetic and electro-magnetic fields may possibly represent a certain nuisance or health hazard even at field strength occuring in equipment used for every-day-life purposes, with an emphasis on their possible actions and effects in children and adolescents. The author discusses, in conclusion, the aerial equipment ordinance issued by Lower Saxony. (Uhe) [de

  12. Research methodological issues in evaluating herbal interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Bansal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dipika Bansal, Debasish Hota, Amitava ChakrabartiPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaAbstract: Randomized controlled trials provide the best evidence, and is seen as the gold standard for allopathic research. Herbal therapies are not an integral part of conventional care although they are still used by patients in their health care management. These medicines need to be subjected to rigorous research to establish their effectiveness and safety. Clearly defined treatments are required and should be recorded in a manner that enables other suitably trained researchers to reproduce them reliably. Quality control of herbal products is also a prerequisite of credible clinical trials. Methodological strategies for investigating the herbal interventions and the issues regarding appropriate patient selection, randomization and blinding, placebo effects and choice of comparator, occupational standardization and the selection of appropriate study endpoints to prove efficacy are being discussed. This paper will review research options and propose some suggestions for future research design.Keywords: CAM research, herbal therapies, methodology, clinical trial

  13. Temas ambientais relevantes Relevant environmental issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneas Salati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available NESTE trabalho, são indicados os principais temas ambientais para o Brasil, num futuro próximo (2022. Impactos do aumento da temperatura são estudados através de cenários, que podem modificar o balanço hídrico em algumas regiões, tendo sido observado um aumento da ordem de 0,78ºC no período de 1917 a 2003, na região de Piracicaba. Para a região amazônica, foi observado um aumento de 0,56ºC durante o século XX. Tanto o desmatamento quanto as Mudanças Climáticas Globais atuam na direção de um aumento da temperatura, enquanto o desmatamento influi na direção de uma diminuição das precipitações. O desmatamento provoca, ainda, uma grande perda de biodiversidade, sendo estimadas em uma perda entre 8.000 até 34.000 espécies, considerando-se que o desmatamento aumenta em 1% ao ano.THIS PAPER indicates the environmental issues that must necessarily be approached, in Brazil, in a near future (2022. A study was made on some aspects of the effects of deforestation and Global Climate Change. A temperature rise around 0,78% has been observed during period of 1917 and 2003 in the Piracicaba region. For the Amazon region a rise of 0,56% was observed the 20th Century. The existing information indicates that not only deforestation but also Global Climate Changes act upon temperature rise. Deforestation has direct influence in precipitation decrease. The consequences of Global Climate Change are still unknown, being that some models indicate a precipitation rise and others a decrease. Deforestation also provokes great biodiversity loss, estimated between 8.000 to 34.000 species, considering that deforestation raises 1% per year.

  14. Methodological issues of genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2010-12-01

    Genetic association studies explore the association between genetic polymorphisms and a certain trait, disease or predisposition to disease. It has long been acknowledged that many genetic association studies fail to replicate their initial positive findings. This raises concern about the methodological quality of these reports. Case-control genetic association studies often suffer from various methodological flaws in study design and data analysis, and are often reported poorly. Flawed methodology and poor reporting leads to distorted results and incorrect conclusions. Many journals have adopted guidelines for reporting genetic association studies. In this review, some major methodological determinants of genetic association studies will be discussed.

  15. Privacy and CHI : methodologies for studying privacy issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, S.; Romero, N.A.; Karat, J.

    2006-01-01

    This workshop aims to reflect on methodologies to empirically study privacy issues related to advanced technology. The goal is to address methodological concerns by drawing upon both theoretical perspectives as well as practical experiences.

  16. Big data and virtual communities: methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Torres, María del Rocío; Toral, S. L.; Fornara, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Virtual communities represent today en emergent phenomenon through which users get together to create ideas, to obtain help from one another, or just to casually engage in discussions. Their increasing popularity as well as their utility as a source of business value and marketing strategies justify the necessity of defi ning some specifi c methodologies for analyzing them. The aim of this paper is providing new insights into virtual communities from a methodological viewpoint, hi...

  17. Methodological Issues on Climate Change Mitigation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Borges, Pedro Castro; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses national greenhouse gas emission abatement costing studies as a case to discuss influential factors that determine their outcome and achievement. Costing studies are seen as part of an interconnected whole social process where actors (decision makers, clients, facilitators, expert...... such methodologies to case studies is seen as one way of improving the chances of understanding and handling environmental problems...

  18. Evolution of courseware development methodology : recent issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, J.C.M.M.; Schoenmaker, Jan

    1992-01-01

    To improve the quality of courseware products and the efficiency of the courseware development process, a methodology based upon "courseware engineering", being a combination of instructional systems development and software engineering, has emerged over the last 10¿15 years. Recently, software

  19. Topic A. Have all the relevant issues been identified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work is an answer to the question : have all the relevant issues been identified? The author tries to answer more particularly to the following three points : 1) can risk or responsibility for action be imposed on future generations. 2) Are current safety norms suitable for the future? 3) what controls are appropriate for inter generational cost/benefit evaluations. (O.L.)

  20. Practical Issues of Conducting a Q Methodology Study: Lessons Learned From a Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Maguire, Jane; Kang, Sook Jung; Cha, Chiyoung

    This article advances nursing research by presenting the methodological challenges experienced in conducting a multination Q-methodology study. This article critically analyzes the relevance of the methodology for cross-cultural and nursing research and the challenges that led to specific responses by the investigators. The use of focus groups with key stakeholders supplemented the Q-analysis results. The authors discuss practical issues and shared innovative approaches and provide best-practice suggestions on the use of this flexible methodology. Q methodology has the versatility to explore complexities of contemporary nursing practice and cross-cultural health research.

  1. International Comparisons: Issues of Methodology and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serova Irina A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methodology and organization of statistical observation of the level of countries’ economic development. The theoretical basis of international comparisons is singled out and on its basis the comparative evaluation of inconsistency of theoretical positions and the reasons of differences of GDP growth is carried out. Based on the complexity of the formation of homogeneous data sets in order to obtain correct comparison results, a general scheme for the relationship between the theoretical base of international comparisons and PPP constraints is defined. The possibility of obtaining a single measurement of the indicators of national economies based on the existing sampling errors, measurement uncertainties and classification errors is considered. The emphasis is placed on combining the work using the ICP and CPI with the aim of achieving comparability of data in the territorial and temporal cross-section. Using the basic characteristics of sustainable economic growth, long-term prospects for changing the ranking positions of countries with different levels of income are determined. It is shown that the clarity and unambiguity of the theoretical provisions is the defining condition for the further process of data collection and formation of correct analytical conclusions.

  2. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature. The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research within this field. The article describes and discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose when conducting our study and identifies some strategies for addressing issues like these. The ethical and methodological issues addressed in the article are based on a qualitative study among indigenous Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. The data in this study were collected through 31 semi-structured in-depth interviews with altogether 24 Sami people experiencing disability and 13 next of kin of Sami people experiencing disability (8 mothers, 2 fathers, 2 sister and 1 guardian). The researchers identified 4 main areas of ethical and methodological issues. We present these issues chronologically as they emerged in the research process: 1) concept of knowledge when designing the study, 2) gaining access, 3) data collection and 4) analysis and accountability. The knowledge generated from this study has the potential to benefit future health research, specifically of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability, as well as health research concerning indigenous people in general, providing scientific-based insight into important ethical and methodological issues in research with indigenous people experiencing disability.

  3. Students' Involvement in Faculty Research: Ethical and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Ferguson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faculty who engage students as participants in their qualitative research often encounter methodological and ethical problems. Ethical issues arise from the fiduciary relationship between faculty and their students, and violations of that relationship occur when the educator has a dual role as researcher with those students. Methodological issues arise from research designs to address these ethical issues. This conflict is particularly evident in faculty research on pedagogy in their own disciplines, for which students are necessary as participants but are captive in the relationship. In this article, the authors explore the issues of double agency when faculty involve students as participants in their research.

  4. Methodological Issues in HIV-Related Social Research in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Methodological Issues in HIV/AIDS Social Research in Nigeria ... convaincue au commencement de l'étude qu'une étude sur l'interaction entre le VIH/sida et les questions sensibles comme les ..... One of the vexed issues was the requirement.

  5. Issues in the global applications of methodology in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2008-05-01

    The project and research reported in this collection of articles follows a long-term historical pattern in forensic anthropology in which new case work and applications reveal methodological issues that need to be addressed. Forensic anthropological analysis in the area of the former Yugoslavia led to questions raised regarding the applicability of methods developed from samples in other regions. The subsequently organized project reveals that such differences exist and new methodology and data are presented to facilitate applications in the Balkan area. The effort illustrates how case applications and court testimony can stimulate research advances. The articles also serve as a model for the improvement of methodology available for global applications.

  6. Utility of radiotracer methodology in scientific research of industrial relevancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Z.I.

    1990-01-01

    Utilization of radiotracer methodology in industrial research provides substantial scientific rather than directly demonstrable economic benefits. These benefits include better understanding of industrial processes and subsequently the development of new ones. Examples are given of the use of radiotracers in technological studies and the significance of the obtained results is put down. Creative application of radiotracer methodology may contribute to the economic development and technological advancement of all countries including the developing ones. (orig.) [de

  7. Safety analysis methodology with assessment of the impact of the prediction errors of relevant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The best estimate plus uncertainty approach (BEAU) requires the use of extensive resources and therefore it is usually applied for cases in which the available safety margin obtained with a conservative methodology can be questioned. Outside the BEAU methodology, there is not a clear approach on how to deal with the issue of considering the uncertainties resulting from prediction errors in the safety analyses performed for licensing submissions. However, the regulatory document RD-310 mentions that the analysis method shall account for uncertainties in the analysis data and models. A possible approach is presented, that is simple and reasonable, representing just the author's views, to take into account the impact of prediction errors and other uncertainties when performing safety analysis in line with regulatory requirements. The approach proposes taking into account the prediction error of relevant parameters. Relevant parameters would be those plant parameters that are surveyed and are used to initiate the action of a mitigating system or those that are representative of the most challenging phenomena for the integrity of a fission barrier. Examples of the application of the methodology are presented involving a comparison between the results with the new approach and a best estimate calculation during the blowdown phase for two small breaks in a generic CANDU 6 station. The calculations are performed with the CATHENA computer code. (author)

  8. Making the Invisible Visible: A Methodological and a Substantive Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagley, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of "making the invisible visible" from a methodological and a substantive viewpoint. The ideas emerged from a doctoral research study into individual target setting with middle ability students in an English secondary school. The students involved had been identified by assessments as "average"…

  9. Personality Assessment of Global Talent: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The recruitment of managers who will operate in a culturally heterogeneous context (as expatriate managers, managers in a global company, or managers of a multicultural workforce) is increasingly important in an age of globalization. This article describes conceptual and methodological issues in the assessment of such managers, notably in the…

  10. The relevance of segments reports – measurement methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zimnicki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The segment report is one of the areas of financial statements, and it obliges a company to provide infor-mation about the economic situation in each of its activity areas. The article evaluates the change of segment reporting standards from IAS14R to IFRS8 in the context of feature relevance. It presents the construction of a measure which allows the relevance of segment disclosures to be determined. The created measure was used to study periodical reports published by companies listed on the main market of the Warsaw Stock Exchange from three reporting periods – 2008, 2009 and 2013. Based on the re-search results, it was found that the change of segment reporting standards from IAS14R to IFRS8 in the context of relevance was legitimate.

  11. Research methodology and epidemiology of relevance in recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Kolte, Astrid

    2006-01-01

    With respect to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), unfortunately there is very little consensus about which investigations are useful for identifying causes and evaluating the prognosis, and also about which treatments are effective. In this review, arguments are given for the claim that this lack...... background for most of the RPL cases and the importance of matching/adjusting for a series of prognostic variables when groups are mutually compared). Furthermore, many studies in RPL contain methodological flaws that are sometimes severe. A series of important epidemiological features of RPL is highlighted...... in the review and the most important methodological pitfalls, many of them specific for RPL research, are discussed. Advice is given about to how to avoid the pitfalls in order that the validity of the studies can improve for the benefit of the patients....

  12. Nuclear relevant installations licensing methodology in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the requeriments of the Nuclear Installations Advisory Committee on Licensing (CALIN) from the nuclear security point of view, is presented. The methodology applied by the CALIN for the licensing in the Argentine Republic is included as well as codes, standards of applications and the interaction between the licensing Authority and the Responsible Entity during the whole process. Finally, the Atucha II nuclear power plant's licensing, in construction at present, is explained and the standard, of the licensing schedule, is presented graphically. (author) [es

  13. Methodological Issues in Online Qualitative Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaneta Paunksnienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal and discuss the methodological issues related to online qualitative consumer behavior research. A number of methodological issues are examined, related with the online qualitative research on consumer in-store emotional experience implemented by the authors. It is concluded that the Internet is becoming an increasingly attractive environment for consumer behavior research. A large part of scholars use the Internet as a medium for data collection and analysis. At the same time, researchers study the Internet as a source of information about consumer preferences, their virtual communities, prevailing relationships, traditions and attitudes. The Internet is analyzed as a phenomenon in itself, too. In this article, the Internet is analyzed as a tool for communicating with research participants, and collecting, storing and analyzing data. In general, qualitative inquiry is characterized by contextual and naturalistic approach to the study of objects and processes. Therefore, decision to carry out qualitative study in virtual environment must take additional strategic and tactical solutions. Most often, researchers need to decide about the mode of communication that solves time management, spontaneity and security problems. It is also relevant to sampling and its contents. Different solutions from quantitative studies are required in ensuring the ethics and quality of the study. During the analysis of the qualitative data collected through the Internet, mostly in a form of computer communication language (text, specific characteristics, such as backspacing and correction during the communication that impact spontaneity rate, the absence of non-verbal language, etc., are necessary to be taken into accountIt is concluded that all the above-mentioned issues must be addressed individually to the research topic, object, aim, research problem and the specifics of the respondents. When deciding about the method of

  14. Economic evaluation in stratified medicine: methodological issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joerg eFugel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stratified Medicine (SM is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for health technology assessments (HTAs in many countries. However, these guidelines have initially been developed for traditional pharmaceuticals and not for complex interventions with multiple components. This raises the issue as to whether these guidelines are adequate to SM interventions or whether new specific guidance and methodology is needed to avoid inconsistencies and contradictory findings when assessing economic value in SM.Objective: This article describes specific methodological challenges when conducting health economic (HE evaluations for SM interventions and outlines potential modifications necessary to existing evaluation guidelines /principles that would promote consistent economic evaluations for SM.Results/Conclusions: Specific methodological aspects for SM comprise considerations on the choice of comparator, measuring effectiveness and outcomes, appropriate modelling structure and the scope of sensitivity analyses. Although current HE methodology can be applied for SM, greater complexity requires further methodology development and modifications in the guidelines.

  15. Diabetes and end of life: ethical and methodological issues in gathering evidence to guide care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Trisha; Duggan, Nicole; Savage, Sally; Martin, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Providing palliative care for people with diabetes at the end of life is part of the chronic disease care trajectory, but end of life care is complex and the presence of diabetes further complicates management. The aim of the paper is to discuss the ethical and methodological issues encountered when undertaking research to develop guidelines for managing diabetes at the end of life and the strategies used to address the issues. The issues emerged as we developed guidelines for managing diabetes at the end of life, which included conducting individual interviews with 14 people with diabetes requiring palliative care and 10 family members. A reflexive researcher journal was maintained throughout the guideline development process. The interview transcripts and researcher's journal were analysed to determine key methodological, ethical and researcher-related issues. Key themes were vulnerability of the sampling population, methodological issues included recruiting participants and ensuring rigor, ethical issues concerned benefit and risk, justice, autonomy, privacy, professional boundaries and informed consent. Researcher-related issues were identified such as managing participant distress and their own emotional distress. People were willing to discuss end of life diabetes management preferences. Undertaking research with people at the end of life is complex because of their vulnerability and the ethical issues involved. However, the ethical principles of autonomy and justice apply and people should be given the relevant information and opportunity to decide whether to participate or not. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G.; Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can infor...

  17. Methodological issues and research recommendations for prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristman, Vicki L; Borg, Jörgen; Godbolt, Alison K

    2014-01-01

    methodological concerns and knowledge gaps in the literature. Here we report and make recommendations on how to avoid methodological flaws found in prognostic studies of MTBI. Additionally, we discuss issues of MTBI definition and identify topic areas in need of further research to advance the understanding......, Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation Task Force on the prognosis of MTBI. Of 299 relevant studies, 101 were accepted as scientifically admissible. The methodological quality of the research literature on MTBI prognosis has not improved since the 2002 Task Force report. There are still many...... of prognosis after MTBI. Priority research areas include but are not limited to the use of confirmatory designs, studies of measurement validity, focus on the elderly, attention to litigation/compensation issues, the development of validated clinical prediction rules, the use of MTBI populations other than...

  18. Family interventions in schizophrenia: Issues of relevance for Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Subho

    2011-12-31

    A growing body of research evidence has confirmed the efficacy of family-interventions as adjuncts to antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia. Much of the recent evidence for such interventions derives from Asian, principally Chinese, studies. These trials have shown that relatively simple forms of family-interventions have wide ranging benefits, and can be implemented successfully in routine clinical settings. With the accumulation of this evidence in their favour, family-interventions for schizophrenia in Asia are poised to take the next critical step, that of wider implementation and improved accessibility for potential users. However, several issues merit consideration. Family-interventions need to be based on a culturally-informed theory, which incorporates cultural variables of relevance in these countries. While the ideal format for conducting family-interventions is still to be determined, it is quite evident that for such interventions to be useful they need to be simple, inexpensive, needs-based, and tailored to suit the socio-cultural realities of mental health systems in Asian countries. The evidence also suggests that delivery by non-specialist personnel is the best way to ensure that such services reach those who stand to benefit most from these treatments. However, there are several existing challenges to the process of dissemination of family-interventions. The major challenges include the achievement of a critical mass of trained professionals capable of delivering these interventions, and finding innovative solutions to make family-interventions more acceptable to families. If these hurdles are overcome, we could look forward to a genuine collaboration with families, who have always been the mainstay of care for the mentally ill in Asia.

  19. Methodological choice and the study of sensitive issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Ahlberg

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been relatively little concern with methodological issues within the study of religion. In this article the author considers the need for a continuing clarification of how diverse methodological approaches relate to the study of religion in general, and what is more, of certain aspects of the role of the researcher in particular. A main difference between the methodological approaches as referred to in this article — and illustrated by reference to minority studies -is in the closeness of the researcher to his field. One could perhaps state that while the researcher draws nearer to his field in soft approaches the theories remain further away from the empirical data (i.e. in that one creates greater vistas while the opposite is true for those that work with hard data designs, that meta-theories are almost excluded (as pure speculation due to the strict demands for operationalization, as the (effect of the researcher is to a greater extend likewise excluded from the picture. Though in both cases the choices made must naturally be made explicit as must the researcher relate to a qualified discussion between experts who have some kind of relationship to the kind of empirical material or theoretical thinking that is at issue in the particular project.

  20. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  1. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Tracey J; Parker, Jennifer D; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Slama, Rémy; Bell, Michelle L; Choi, Hyunok; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Karr, Catherine J; Lobdell, Danelle T; Wilhelm, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O(3)), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and infant mortality. While most published studies have found some marker of air pollution related to some types of perinatal outcomes, variability exists in the nature of the pollutants and outcomes associated. Synthesis of the findings has been difficult for various reasons, including differences in study design and analysis. A workshop was held in September 2007 to discuss methodological differences in the published studies as a basis for understanding differences in study findings and to identify priorities for future research, including novel approaches for existing data. Four broad topic areas were considered: confounding and effect modification, spatial and temporal exposure variations, vulnerable windows of exposure, and multiple pollutants. Here we present a synopsis of the methodological issues and challenges in each area and make recommendations for future study. Two key recommendations include: (1) parallel analyses of existing data sets using a standardized methodological approach to disentangle true differences in associations from methodological differences among studies; and (2) identification of animal studies to inform important mechanistic research gaps. This work is of critical public health importance because of widespread exposure and because perinatal outcomes are important markers of future child and adult health.

  2. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF CLINICAL TRIALS IN THE PEDIATRIC POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Topolyanskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting clinical trials on children population is a challenge both for organizers and pediatricians involved in trials. Difficulties in recruiting patients, a significant heterogenecity of the population, specific side reactions, difficulties in identifying the objective final points warrant the specific nature of designing clinical trials in pediatrics. The article illustrates key issues and methodology aspects: planning, design, control groups, patient recruitment. It stresses the need to carefully consider specific characteristics of a child’s system and multi-disciplinary approach involving a pediatrician at the early stages of planning, preliminary consultations with parent organizations, children and regulators.Key words: clinical trials, methodology, planning, design, patient recruitment, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:6-10

  3. Interestingness of association rules in data mining: Issues relevant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... synonymous with the internet has changed the competitive business environment ... Importance of automated methods that address this immensity problem, ... issues that reveal many promising avenues for future research.

  4. Methodological issues related to studies of lead mobilization during menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkowitz Gertrud S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been a substantial decline in lead exposure in the United States during the past two decades, mobilization of existing lead stored in bone potentially represents an important endogenous source of exposure for menopausal women. It has been hypothesized that lead may be mobilized from skeletal stores during conditions of high bone turnover, such as during menopause. However, such mobilization has not been documented in prospective studies. This discussion is focussed on some of the methodological difficulties to be anticipated in longitudinal studies of lead mobilization specific to menopause and the issues that need to be taken into account when evaluating the results of such studies. To evaluate whether lead mobilization occurs during menopause, a prospective repeated measures design is needed using X-ray fluorescence analysis of lead in bone and serial measurements of blood lead. Potential confounders and effect modifiers also need to be taken into account in the statistical analysis.

  5. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered.

  6. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  7. Methodologic quality and relevance of references in pharmaceutical advertisements in a Canadian medical journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, J; Holbrook, A

    1994-07-01

    To evaluate the methodologic quality and relevance of references in pharmaceutical advertisements in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ). Analytic study. All 114 references cited in the first 22 distinct pharmaceutical advertisements in volume 146 of CMAJ. Mean methodologic quality score (modified from the 6-point scale used to assess articles in the American College of Physicians' Journal Club) and mean relevance score (based on a new 5-point scale) for all references in each advertisement. Twenty of the 22 companies responded, sending 78 (90%) of the 87 references requested. The mean methodologic quality score was 58% (95% confidence limits [CL] 51% and 65%) and the mean relevance score 76% (95% CL 72% and 80%). The two mean scores were statistically lower than the acceptable score of 80% (p e., other than reports of clinical trials). Half of the advertisements had a methodologic quality score of less than 65%, but only five had a relevance score of less than 65%. Although the relevance of most of the references was within minimal acceptable limits, the methodologic quality was often unacceptable. Because advertisements are an important part of pharmaceutical marketing and education, we suggest that companies develop written standards for their advertisements and monitor their advertisements for adherence to these standards. We also suggest that the Pharmaceutical Advertising Advisory Board develop more stringent guidelines for advertising and that it enforce these guidelines in a consistent, rigorous fashion.

  8. Recent results relevant to ignition physics and machine design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Airoldi, A.; Bombarda, F.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma regimes under which ignition can be achieved involve a characteristic range of parameters and issues on which information has been provided by recent experiments. In particular, these results have motivated a new, in-depth analysis of the expected performance of the Ignitor machine as well as of the plasma processes that it can investigate. The main results and recent advances in the design of key systems of the machine are reported. (author)

  9. Recent results relevant to ignition physics and machine design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Airoldi, A.; Bombarda, F.

    1999-01-01

    The plasma regimes under which ignition can be achieved involve a characteristic range of parameters and issues on which information has been provided by recent experiments. In particular, these results have motivated a new, in-depth analysis of the expected performance of the Ignitor machine as well as of the plasma processes that it can investigate. The main results and recent advances in the design of key systems of the machine are reported. (author)

  10. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discus...

  11. School resources and student achievment: worldwide findings and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Meyer. M. Nascimento

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues raised in the Education Production Function literature since the US 1966 Coleman Report have fuelled high controversy on the role of school resources in relation to student performance. In several literature reviews and some self estimates, Erik Hanushek (1986, 1997, 2006 systematically affirms that these two factors are not associated one to another – neither in the US nor abroad. In recent cross-country analyses, Ludger Woessmann (2003; 2005a; 2005b links international differences in attainment to institutional differences across educational systems – not to resourcing levels. In the opposite direction, Stephen Heyneman and William Loxley (1982, 1983 tried to demonstrate in the 1980’s that, at least for low income countries, school factors seemed to outweigh family characteristics on the determination of students’ outcomes – although other authors show evidence that such a phenomenon may have existed only during a limited period of the 20th Century. In the 1990s, meta-analyses raised the argument that school resources were sufficiently significant to be regarded as pedagogically important. The turn of the Century witnessed a new movement: the recognition that endogenous determination of resource allocation is a substantial methodological issue. Therefore, efforts have been made to incorporate the decision-making processes that involve families, schools and policy-makers in economic models. This implies changes in research designs that may affect the direction of future policy advices patronised by international development and educational organisations.

  12. Relevant safety issues in designing the HTR-10 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuliang; Xu Yuanghui

    2001-01-01

    The HTR-10 is a 10 MWth pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor being constructed as a research facility at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology. This paper discusses design issues of the HTR-10 which are related to safety. It addresses the safety criteria used in the development and assessment of the design, the safety important systems, and the safety classification of components. It also summarises the results of safety analysis, including the approach used for the radioactive source term, as well as the approach to containment design. (author)

  13. Integration of electricity markets in Europe. Relevant issues for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creti, Anna; Fumagalli, Eileen; Fumagalli, Elena

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the current trend towards a higher degree of market integration in Europe and identify those aspects that are particularly relevant for Italy. The Italian involvement in this process appears comparatively modest. A welfare analysis, which focuses specifically on the integration of the Italian market, will certainly be a useful support to any policy decision. We argue that, given the peculiarities of the Italian market design, a volume coupling solution could avoid, at the moment, the costs of what could be a significant harmonization effort and, in the end, it might constitute the best short-term strategy. This proposal should be adequately considered, taking into account the complexity of designing an efficient volume-only coordination procedure. (author)

  14. Hospital infection prevention and control issues relevant to extensive floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Mundy, Linda M; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Glen Mayhall, C

    2013-02-01

    The devastating clinical and economic implications of floods exemplify the need for effective global infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies for natural disasters. Reopening of hospitals after excessive flooding requires a balance between meeting the medical needs of the surrounding communities and restoration of a safe hospital environment. Postflood hospital preparedness plans are a key issue for infection control epidemiologists, healthcare providers, patients, and hospital administrators. We provide recent IPC experiences related to reopening of a hospital after extensive black-water floods necessitated hospital closures in Thailand and the United States. These experiences provide a foundation for the future design, execution, and analysis of black-water flood preparedness plans by IPC stakeholders.

  15. ["Nudges": relevance, limitations and ethical issues, specifically in health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyard, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    The concept of "nudge" has recently spread accross the field of research that addresses the issue of health behaviours change. According to Thaler and Sunstein (2008) a nudge is "any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people's behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives". Similar concepts, such as persuasive technology or manipulation, have been studied for decades in the fields of design, psychology or communication. The novelty of the concept of "nudge"' lies in its particular political purpose, namely libertarian paternalism. Meanwhile, the analysis of the decision process induced by a nudge shows that it does not simply amount to a change in the environment and that its handling is ethically tricky. The main interest of this concept might actually lie in a better assessment and a better regulation of the public health impact of choice architecture for economic purposes, such as marketing and advertising. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  16. Evaluation of speech errors in Putonghua speakers with cleft palate: a critical review of methodology issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenghui; Whitehill, Tara L

    2014-04-01

    Speech errors associated with cleft palate are well established for English and several other Indo-European languages. Few articles describing the speech of Putonghua (standard Mandarin Chinese) speakers with cleft palate have been published in English language journals. Although methodological guidelines have been published for the perceptual speech evaluation of individuals with cleft palate, there has been no critical review of methodological issues in studies of Putonghua speakers with cleft palate. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies published over the past 30 years in Chinese language journals. Only studies incorporating perceptual analysis of speech were included. Thirty-seven articles which met inclusion criteria were analyzed and coded on a number of methodological variables. Reliability was established by having all variables recoded for all studies. This critical review identified many methodological issues. These design flaws make it difficult to draw reliable conclusions about characteristic speech errors in this group of speakers. Specific recommendations are made to improve the reliability and validity of future studies, as well to facilitate cross-center comparisons.

  17. Methodological issues in human studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Jacobs, David R

    2015-12-01

    Possible harm from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in humans is speculated based on two types of evidence; 1) increasing trends of suspected diseases in ecological studies of populations and 2) findings from traditional epidemiological studies of individuals. However, ecological findings are not regarded as direct human evidence of the relation between EDCs and disease, while the evidence among epidemiological studies of individuals is often inconsistent. Thus, a criticism is that linking EDCs and health in human is naively presumed without solid evidence. However, human studies of EDCs are methodologically complex and understanding methodological issues will help to interpret findings from existing human studies and to properly design optimal human studies. The key issues are low reliability of exposure assessment of EDCs with short half-lives, EDC mixtures, possibility of non-monotonic dose-response relationships, non-existence of an unexposed group, difficulties in measuring exposure during critical periods, and interactions with established risk factors. Furthermore, EDC mixtures may affect human health through other mechanisms than traditional endocrine disruption, for example glutathione depletion or mitochondrial dysfunction. Given this complexity, the most plausible scenario in humans is that exposure to EDC mixtures leads to increasing risk of related diseases at the ecological level, but inconsistent associations would be expected in traditional epidemiological studies. Although epidemiologists have long relied on Bradford Hill's criteria to objectively evaluate whether associations observed in epidemiology can be interpreted as causal, there are challenges to use these criteria for EDCs, particularly concerning consistency across studies and the findings of linear dose-response relationships. At the individual level, compared to EDCs with short half-lives, epidemiological studies of EDCs with long half-lives among populations with a relatively low

  18. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomĂŠdecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  19. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  20. Some methodological issues in neuroradiological research in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, T.; Retz, W.; Hofmann, E.; Becker, G.; Teichmann, E.; Gsell, W.

    1995-01-01

    An outline is given of some of the methodological issues discussed in neuroradiological research on psychiatric illnesses. The strengths and shortcomings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in depicting and quantifying brain structures are described. Temporal lobe anatomy and pathology are easily accessible to MRI, whereas limits on anatomical delineation hamper approaches to frontal lobe study. White matter hyperintense lesions are sensitively depicted by MRI, but specificity is limited. The distinction of vascular and primary degenerative dementia is considerably improved by CT and MRI analysis. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI have enhanced the understanding of treatable organic psychiatric disorders, e.g., normal pressure hydrocephalus. Subcortical and white matter pathology has been replicated in CT and MRI studies of late onset psychiatric disorders, clinical overlap with cerebrovascular disease or neuro degeneration may be of import. Trans cranial sonography findings of brainstem structural change specific to unipolar depression may contribute to the understanding of affective psychoses. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI are likely to stimulate psychiatric research in the future. (author)

  1. Investigating precipitation changes of anthropic origin: data and methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2017-04-01

    There is much concern about the social, environmental and economic impacts of climate change that could result directly from changes in temperature and precipitation. For temperature, the situation is better understood; but despite the many studies that have been already dedicated to precipitation, change in this process - that could be associated to the transition to the Anthropocene - has not yet been convincingly proven. A large fraction of those studies have been exploring temporal (linear) trends in local precipitation, sometimes using records over only a few decades; other fewer studies have been dedicated to investigating global precipitation change. Overall, precipitation change of anthropic origin has showed to be difficult to establish with high statistical significance and, moreover, different data and products have displayed important discrepancies; this is valid even for global precipitation. We argue that the inadequate resolution and length of the data commonly used, as well as methodological issues, are among the main factors limiting the ability to identify the signature of change in precipitation. We propose several ways in which one can hope to improve the situation - or at least - clarify the difficulties. From the point of view of statistical analysis, the problem is one of detecting a low frequency anthropogenic signal in the presence of "noise" - the natural variability (the latter includes both internal dynamics and responses to volcanic, solar or other natural forcings). A consequence is that as one moves to longer and longer time scales, fluctuations are increasingly averaged and at some point, the anthropogenic signal will stand out above the natural variability noise. This approach can be systematized using scaling fluctuation analysis to characterizing different precipitation scaling regimes: weather, macroweather, climate - from higher to lower frequencies; in the anthropocene, the macroweather regime covers the range of time scales

  2. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  3. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Deciding the way. Comparing energy risks: methodologies and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Yoshio; Lee, R.

    1999-01-01

    The following major issues in comparative assessment of energy systems are discussed: target users; decision making process; subject policy-making; setting boundaries; aggregated health indicators; monetary valuation; long-term health effects; global warming; methods to reflect uncertainties. Suggestions for study approaches of the mentioned issues are proposed

  5. Methodological Issues in Survey Research: A Historical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, W.; de Leeuw, E.D.; van der Zouwen, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of social surveys and describe the historical development of scientific survey methodology and survey statistics. The origins of survey research can be traced back to the early 19th century and the first scientiflc survey was conducted in England in

  6. The meaning of dwelling features : Conceptual and methodological issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, H.C.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study is about the meaning of dwelling features. It relates the research areas of housing preferences and the meaning of a dwelling with each other and with aspects of the means-end approach as applied in marketing research. It results in a conceptual and methodological framework for studying

  7. Some New Theoretical Issues in Systems Thinking Relevant for Modelling Corporate Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Gianfranco

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe fundamental concepts and theoretical challenges with regard to systems, and to build on these in proposing new theoretical frameworks relevant to learning, for example in so-called learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on some crucial fundamental aspects introduced…

  8. Issues in Learning About and Teaching Qualitative Research Methods and Methodology in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For many qualitative researchers in the social sciences, learning about and teaching qualitative research methods and methodology raises a number of questions. This topic was the focus of a symposium held during the Second Berlin Summer School for Qualitative Research Methods in July 2006. In this contribution, some of the issues discussed during the symposium are taken up and extended, and some basic dimensions underlying these issues are summarized. How qualitative research methods and methodology are taught is closely linked to the ways in which qualitative researchers in the social sciences conceptualize themselves and their discipline. In the following, we distinguish between a paradigmatic and a pragmatic view. From a pragmatic point of view, qualitative research methods are considered research strategies or techniques and can be taught in the sense of recipes with specific steps to be carried out. According to a paradigmatic point of view (strongly inspired by constructivism, qualitative research methods and methodology are conceptualized as a craft to be practiced together by a "master" and an "apprentice." Moreover, the teaching of qualitative research methods also depends heavily on the institutional standing of qualitative compared to quantitative research method. Based on these considerations, five basic dimensions of learning about and teaching qualitative research methods are suggested: ways of teaching (ranging from the presentation of textbook knowledge to cognitive apprenticeship and instructors' experience with these; institutional contexts, including their development and the teaching of qualitative research methods in other than university contexts; the "fit" between personality and method, including relevant personal skills and talents; and, as a special type of instructional context that increasingly has gained importance, distance learning and its implications for learning about and teaching qualitative research methods

  9. Review of issues relevant to acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Development of acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management requires the translation of publicly determined goals and objectives into definitive issues which, in turn, require resolution. Since these issues are largely of a subjective nature, they cannot be resolved by technological methods. Development of acceptable risk criteria might best be accomplished by application of a systematic methodology for the optimal implementation of subjective values. Multi-attribute decision analysis is well suited for this purpose

  10. Online data collection from video game players: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D; Eatough, Virginia

    2004-10-01

    The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet to collect data concerning both online and offline gamers. Drawing from experience of a number of studies carried out online by the authors and by reviewing the available literature, the authors discuss the main issues concerning data collected from video game players. The paper examines a number of areas, including recruiting and utilizing participants, validity, suitable methods of data collection (i.e., questionnaire studies, online tests, participant observation, online interviews), and ethical issues. It is concluded that online research methods can be a useful way of examining the psychosocial aspects of video game playing.

  11. Guidance on assessing the methodological and reporting quality of toxicologically relevant studies: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gbeminiyi O; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Wright, Robert A; Lalu, Manoj Mathew; Patlewicz, Grace; Becker, Richard A; DeGeorge, George L; Fergusson, Dean; Hartung, Thomas; Lewis, R Jeffrey; Stephens, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of methodological and reporting quality are critical to adequately judging the credibility of a study's conclusions and to gauging its potential reproducibility. To aid those seeking to assess the methodological or reporting quality of studies relevant to toxicology, we conducted a scoping review of the available guidance with respect to four types of studies: in vivo and in vitro, (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs), physico-chemical, and human observational studies. Our aims were to identify the available guidance in this diverse literature, briefly summarize each document, and distill the common elements of these documents for each study type. In general, we found considerable guidance for in vivo and human studies, but only one paper addressed in vitro studies exclusively. The guidance for (Q)SAR studies and physico-chemical studies was scant but authoritative. There was substantial overlap across guidance documents in the proposed criteria for both methodological and reporting quality. Some guidance documents address toxicology research directly, whereas others address preclinical research generally or clinical research and therefore may not be fully applicable to the toxicology context without some translation. Another challenge is the degree to which assessments of methodological quality in toxicology should focus on risk of bias - as in clinical medicine and healthcare - or be broadened to include other quality measures, such as confirming the identity of test substances prior to exposure. Our review is intended primarily for those in toxicology and risk assessment seeking an entry point into the extensive and diverse literature on methodological and reporting quality applicable to their work. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Issue-Relevant Values and Opinions About Gay Rights: Beyond Equality and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodebeck, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the role of values in shaping public opinion, the number of values that inform this research is limited. This article employs the concept of issue-relevant values as a means to explore the broader range of values associated with policy issues. After discussing the concept in general terms, the article explores issue-relevant values pertinent to public opinion about gay rights. Using the policy examples of employment nondiscrimination and same-sex couple adoption, the present study identifies, measures, and assesses several values that add to the very short list previously used to explain public opinion about gay rights issues. Content from interest-group Web sites and news media coverage of the two issues aided in identifying the values. Data from an original Internet survey yield valid measures of the values. Multivariate analyses indicate that the values behave in predictable ways: they are strongly influenced by partisanship, and they strongly affect opinions about the two issues. The performance of the values is consistent with findings from previous research on the partisan basis of values and the value-based nature of opinions. The article concludes with suggestions for further empirical and theoretical work that could apply and extend the concept of issue-relevant values.

  13. Medicine and the humanities--theoretical and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puustinen, Raimo; Leiman, M; Viljanen, A M

    2003-12-01

    Engel's biopsychosocial model, Cassell's promotion of the concept "person" in medical thinking and Pellegrino's and Thomasma's philosophy of medicine are attempts to widen current biomedical theory of disease and to approach medicine as a form of human activity in pursuit of healing. To develop this approach further we would like to propose activity theory as a possible means for understanding the nature of medical practice. By "activity theory" we refer to developments which have evolved from Vygotsky's research on socially mediated mental functions and processes. Analysing medicine as activity enforces the joint consideration of target and subject: who is doing what to whom. This requires the use of historical, linguistic, anthropological, and semiotic tools. Therefore, if we analyse medicine as an activity, humanities are both theoretically and methodologically "inbound" (or internal) to the analysis itself. On the other hand, literature studies or anthropological writings provide material for analysing the various forms of medical practices.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of electricity generation: overview and methodological issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    study focuses on the comparability between different technologies, identifying and quantifying the possible mistakes that can occur when comparing two technologies whose environmental assessments have been performed with conflicting assumptions. Nine different power generation technologies were examined......: hard coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, nuclear, biomass, hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic and wind. More than 150 published studies were selected and analyzed to investigate whether "typical" GHG, NOx and SO2 emission factors for each technology could be identified. For a better overview of the sources...... of emissions, those were divided among three life cycle phases: fuel provision, operation of the plant and infrastructure. It was possible to estimate typical emission factors for all technologies except for biomass, where methodological and technical aspects result in very variable outcomes. Within...

  15. Thermoregulatory responses in exercising rats: methodological aspects and relevance to human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Pires, Washington; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Hudson, Alexandre Sérvulo Ribeiro; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Damasceno, William Coutinho; Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Rats are used worldwide in experiments that aim to investigate the physiological responses induced by a physical exercise session. Changes in body temperature regulation, which may affect both the performance and the health of exercising rats, are evident among these physiological responses. Despite the universal use of rats in biomedical research involving exercise, investigators often overlook important methodological issues that hamper the accurate measurement of clear thermoregulatory responses. Moreover, much debate exists regarding whether the outcome of rat experiments can be extrapolated to human physiology, including thermal physiology. Herein, we described the impact of different exercise intensities, durations and protocols and environmental conditions on running-induced thermoregulatory changes. We focused on treadmill running because this type of exercise allows for precise control of the exercise intensity and the measurement of autonomic thermoeffectors associated with heat production and loss. Some methodological issues regarding rat experiments, such as the sites for body temperature measurements and the time of day at which experiments are performed, were also discussed. In addition, we analyzed the influence of a high body surface area-to-mass ratio and limited evaporative cooling on the exercise-induced thermoregulatory responses of running rats and then compared these responses in rats to those observed in humans. Collectively, the data presented in this review represent a reference source for investigators interested in studying exercise thermoregulation in rats. In addition, the present data indicate that the thermoregulatory responses of exercising rats can be extrapolated, with some important limitations, to human thermal physiology.

  16. Emerging issues and methodological advances in fisheries reproductive biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Murua, Hilario

    2011-01-01

    Although incorporating detailed reproductive data into all stock assessments is not a practical goal, the need to understand how reproductive biology affects population productivity is being increasingly recognized.More research focused on reproductive biology—coupled with a shift towards...... a resilience perspective in fisheries science—is resulting in challenges to many long-held assumptions; the emergence of important new issues; and identification of the need to improve data and methods used in reproductive studies. Typically, data for reproductive studies are based on an assessment of gonadal...... while introducing improved and new histological techniques. In this introduction, we address the following needs: (1) to employ standardization, thereby improving our ability to conduct comparative studies; (2) to better understand patterns of gonadal development and spawning events over time; and (3...

  17. Medical databases in studies of drug teratogenicity: methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ehrenstein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vera Ehrenstein1, Henrik T Sørensen1, Leiv S Bakketeig1,2, Lars Pedersen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: More than half of all pregnant women take prescription medications, raising concerns about fetal safety. Medical databases routinely collecting data from large populations are potentially valuable resources for cohort studies addressing teratogenicity of drugs. These include electronic medical records, administrative databases, population health registries, and teratogenicity information services. Medical databases allow estimation of prevalences of birth defects with enhanced precision, but systematic error remains a potentially serious problem. In this review, we first provide a brief description of types of North American and European medical databases suitable for studying teratogenicity of drugs and then discuss manifestation of systematic errors in teratogenicity studies based on such databases. Selection bias stems primarily from the inability to ascertain all reproductive outcomes. Information bias (misclassification may be caused by paucity of recorded clinical details or incomplete documentation of medication use. Confounding, particularly confounding by indication, can rarely be ruled out. Bias that either masks teratogenicity or creates false appearance thereof, may have adverse consequences for the health of the child and the mother. Biases should be quantified and their potential impact on the study results should be assessed. Both theory and software are available for such estimation. Provided that methodological problems are understood and effectively handled, computerized medical databases are a valuable source of data for studies of teratogenicity of drugs.Keywords: databases, birth defects, epidemiologic methods, pharmacoepidemiology

  18. Personality and chronic fatigue syndrome: methodological and conceptual issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geelen, Stefan M; Sinnema, Gerben; Hermans, Hubert J M; Kuis, Wietse

    2007-12-01

    Among clinical psychologists, consulting physicians, scientific researchers and society in general an image has emerged of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) as perfectionist, conscientious, hardworking, somewhat neurotic and introverted individuals with high personal standards, a great desire to be socially accepted and with a history of continuously pushing themselves past their limits. The aim of this article is to (a) give a concise review of the main recent studies on personality and CFS, (b) address the major methodological problems in the study of personality in CFS and (c) discuss some of the conceptual assumptions that seem to limit the research on personality and CFS. The results of the reviewed studies range from no evidence of major differences between the personalities of patients with CFS and controls, to evidence of severe psychopathology and personality disorder in patients with CFS. Although personality seems to play a role in CFS, it is difficult to draw general conclusions on the relation between personality and CFS. It is argued that this is partially due to the diversity and heterogeneity in study methods, patient populations, control groups and CFS case definitions. Personality should be regarded as an important factor to be studied in CFS. However, additional studies are needed, not focusing exclusively on personality disorder, or personality considered on a general trait level. In recent developments in personality research, the continually evolving life narrative that makes sense of, and gives direction to, an individual's life is also regarded as an important aspect of personality. New insights into personality and CFS might be gained by systematically studying the self-narratives of patients with the syndrome.

  19. Cannabis cultivation: Methodological issues for obtaining medical-grade product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Walker, Larry A; Potter, David

    2017-05-01

    As studies continue to reveal favorable findings for the use of cannabidiol in the management of childhood epilepsy syndromes and other disorders, best practices for the large-scale production of Cannabis are needed for timely product development and research purposes. The processes of two institutions with extensive experience in producing large-scale cannabidiol chemotype Cannabis crops-GW Pharmaceuticals and the University of Mississippi-are described, including breeding, indoor and outdoor growing, harvesting, and extraction methods. Such practices have yielded desirable outcomes in Cannabis breeding and production: GW Pharmaceuticals has a collection of chemotypes dominant in any one of eight cannabinoids, two of which-cannabidiol and cannabidivarin-are supporting epilepsy clinical trial research, whereas in addition to a germplasm bank of high-THC, high-CBD, and intermediate type cannabis varieties, the team at University of Mississippi has established an in vitro propagation protocol for cannabis with no detectable variations in morphologic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic profiles as compared to the mother plants. Improvements in phytocannabinoid yields and growing efficiency are expected as research continues at these institutions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Concept of Operations Evaluation for Mitigating Space Flight-Relevant Medical Issues in a Planetary Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsten, Kristina; Hurst, Victor, IV; Scheuring, Richard; Baumann, David K.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Analogue environments assist the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) in developing capabilities to mitigate high risk issues to crew health and performance for space exploration. The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) is an analogue habitat used to assess space-related products for planetary missions. The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tasked with developing planetary-relevant medical scenarios to evaluate the concept of operations for mitigating medical issues in such an environment. Methods: Two medical scenarios were conducted within the simulated planetary habitat with the crew executing two space flight-relevant procedures: Eye Examination with a corneal injury and Skin Laceration. Remote guidance for the crew was provided by a flight surgeon (FS) stationed at a console outside of the habitat. Audio and video data were collected to capture the communication between the crew and the FS, as well as the movements of the crew executing the procedures. Questionnaire data regarding procedure content and remote guidance performance also were collected from the crew immediately after the sessions. Results: Preliminary review of the audio, video, and questionnaire data from the two scenarios conducted within the HDU indicate that remote guidance techniques from an FS on console can help crew members within a planetary habitat mitigate planetary-relevant medical issues. The content and format of the procedures were considered concise and intuitive, respectively. Discussion: Overall, the preliminary data from the evaluation suggest that use of remote guidance techniques by a FS can help HDU crew execute space exploration-relevant medical procedures within a habitat relevant to planetary missions, however further evaluations will be needed to implement this strategy into the complete concept of operations for conducting general space medicine within similar environments

  1. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, Julia; Hansis, Eberhard; Davis, Steven

    2015-04-01

    To understand and potentially steer how humans shape land-climate interactions it is important to accurately attribute greenhouse gas fluxes from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in space and time. However, such accounting of carbon fluxes from LULCC generally requires choosing from multiple options of how to attribute the fluxes to regions and to LULCC activities. Applying a newly-developed and spatially-explicit bookkeeping model, BLUE ("bookkeeping of land use emissions"), we quantify LULCC carbon fluxes and attribute them to land-use activities and countries by a range of different accounting methods. We present results with respect to a Kyoto Protocol-like ``commitment'' accounting period, using land use emissions of 2008-12 as example scenario. We assess the effect of accounting methods that vary (1) the temporal evolution of carbon stocks, (2) the state of the carbon stocks at the beginning of the period, (3) the temporal attribution of carbon fluxes during the period, and (4) treatment of LULCC fluxes that occurred prior to the beginning of the period. We show that the methodological choices result in grossly different estimates of carbon fluxes for the different attribution definitions. The global net flux in the accounting period varies between 4.3 Pg(C) uptake and 15.2 Pg(C) emissions, depending on the accounting method. Regional results show different modes of variation. This finding has implications for both political and scientific considerations: Not all methodological choices are currently specified under the UNFCCC treaties on land use, land-use change and forestry. Yet, a consistent accounting scheme is crucial to assure comparability of individual LULCC activities, quantify their relevance for the global annual carbon budget, and assess the effects of LULCC policies.

  2. Effectiveness of Interventions for Prevention of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran and Some Methodological Issues: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Sadeghi-Bazarghani, Homayoun; Heydari, Mahdiyeh; Rezapour, Ramin; Derakhshani, Naser

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To review the effectiveness of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) interventions implemented for prevention of RTIs in Iran and to introduce some methodological issues. Methods: Required data in this systematic review study were collected through searching the following key words: "Road Traffic Injuries", "Road Traffic accidents", "Road Traffic crashes", “prevention”, and Iran in PubMed, Cochrane Library electronic databases, Google Scholar, Scopus, MagIran, SID and IranMedex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites searched manually. Reference lists of the selected articles were also checked. Gray literature search and expert contact was also conducted. Results: Out of 569 retrieved articles, finally 8 articles included. Among the included studies the effectiveness of 10 interventions were assessed containing: seat belt, enforcements of laws and legislations, educational program, wearing helmet, Antilock Braking System (ABS), motorcyclists' penalty enforcement, pupil liaisons’ education, provisional driver licensing, Road bumps and traffic improvement's plans. In 7 studies (9 interventions) reduction of RTIs rate were reported. Decreased rate of mortality from RTIs were reported in three studies. Only one study had mentioned financial issue (Anti-lock Brake System intervention). Inadequate data sources, inappropriate selection of statistical index and not mention about the control of Confounding Variables (CV), the most common methodological issues were. Conclusion: The results of most interventional studies conducted in Iran supported the effect of the interventions on reduction of RTIs. However due to some methodological or reporting shortcoming the results of these studies should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:29719838

  3. Effectiveness of Interventions for Prevention of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran and Some Methodological Issues: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Sadeghi-Bazarghani, Homayoun; Heydari, Mahdiyeh; Rezapour, Ramin; Derakhshani, Naser

    2018-04-01

    To review the effectiveness of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) interventions implemented for prevention of RTIs in Iran and to introduce some methodological issues. Required data in this systematic review study were collected through searching the following key words: "Road Traffic Injuries", "Road Traffic accidents", "Road Traffic crashes", "prevention", and Iran in PubMed, Cochrane Library electronic databases, Google Scholar, Scopus, MagIran, SID and IranMedex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites searched manually. Reference lists of the selected articles were also checked. Gray literature search and expert contact was also conducted. Out of 569 retrieved articles, finally 8 articles included. Among the included studies the effectiveness of 10 interventions were assessed containing: seat belt, enforcements of laws and legislations, educational program, wearing helmet, Antilock Braking System (ABS), motorcyclists' penalty enforcement, pupil liaisons' education, provisional driver licensing, Road bumps and traffic improvement's plans. In 7 studies (9 interventions) reduction of RTIs rate were reported. Decreased rate of mortality from RTIs were reported in three studies. Only one study had mentioned financial issue (Anti-lock Brake System intervention). Inadequate data sources, inappropriate selection of statistical index and not mention about the control of Confounding Variables (CV), the most common methodological issues were. The results of most interventional studies conducted in Iran supported the effect of the interventions on reduction of RTIs. However due to some methodological or reporting shortcoming the results of these studies should be interpreted cautiously.

  4. Researching the impact of oral health on diet and nutritional status: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula; Thomason, Mark; Walls, Angus; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Morais, Jose A; Ghanem, Henry; Wollin, Stephanie; Ellis, Janice; Steele, Jimmy; Lund, James; Feine, Jocelyne

    2009-04-01

    Assessment of the impact of dental function on diet and nutritional status requires robust methodologies and a standardised approach to increase accuracy of results and to facilitate cross study comparisons. The objectives of this paper are: to report the outcomes of a consensus workshop that critically reviewed publications reporting on dietary methodologies in relation to the impact of oral health on nutrition; to highlight future directions for research and; to make recommendations for appropriate use of methodologies for future research. Data relevant to nutrition and dental status published from 1980 to 2005 in English were presented at the consensus workshop for discussion and appraisal. Relevant papers were retrieved through PubMed. Relevant texts were obtained from the library at Newcastle University, UK. A purposive sample of original articles that illustrated the application of a range of nutritional methodologies to the study of oral health impacts was identified. Original flagship texts on nutritional methodologies were reviewed. Numerous studies have shown an association between loss of teeth and inferior diet. Further research is required to elucidate the impact of novel approaches to prosthetic rehabilitation and the impact of contemporaneous dietary and dental intervention on diet, nutritional status, disease progression and quality of life. The recommendation of the consensus workshop was that future studies should adopt a comprehensive approach to the assessment of nutrition that encompasses measurement of diet, body composition, biochemical indices of intake and levels of nutrients, and functional biomarkers of disease.

  5. Potential CERCLA reauthorization issues relevant to US DOE's Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.D.; Jaksch, J.A.; Dailey, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is currently scheduled to be reauthorized in 1994. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a significant stake in CERCLA reauthorization. CERCLA, along with its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), is the principal legal authority governing DOE's environmental restoration program. The manner in which CERCLA-related issues are identified, evaluated, and dispatched may have a substantial impact on DOE's ability to conduct its environmental restoration program. A number of issues that impact DOE's environmental restoration program could be addressed through CERCLA reauthorization. These issues include the need to (1) address how the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) should be integrated into DOE CERCLA actions, (2) facilitate the streamlining of the Superfund process at DOE sites, (3) address the conflicts between the requirements of CERCLA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) that are especially relevant to DOE, (4) examine the criteria for waiving applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) at DOE sites, and (5) delineate the appropriate use of institutional controls at DOE sites

  6. Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Research: Conceptual Issues, Methodology, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Beelmann, Andreas; Noam, Gil G; Sommer, Simon

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we introduce the special issue entitled Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Science. Its focus is on essential problems and prospects for intervention research examining two related topics, i.e., methodological issues and research integrity, and challenges in the transfer of research knowledge into practice and policy. The main aims are to identify how to advance methodology in order to improve research quality, examine scientific integrity in the field of intervention science, and discuss future steps to enhance the transfer of knowledge about evidence-based intervention principles into sustained practice, routine activities, and policy decisions. Themes of the special issue are twofold. The first includes questions about research methodology in intervention science, both in terms of research design and methods, as well as data analyses and the reporting of findings. Second, the issue tackles questions surrounding the types of knowledge translation frameworks that might be beneficial to mobilize the transfer of research-based knowledge into practice and public policies. The issue argues that innovations in methodology and thoughtful approaches to knowledge translation can enable transparency, quality, and sustainability of intervention research.

  7. Methodological individualism as opposed to methodological holism. History, relevancy and the implications of the (insoluble? debate on the explanatory capacity and scientific status of sociocultural anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kulenović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of wider research into the status of explanation in the debate on the scientific status of anthropology – wherein one of the key assumptions is that there is a strong correlation between theoretical and methodological structures which would make them inseparable, and that explanation or explanatory potential, is the point of convergence which can be used to test for the possibility of separating theoretical and methodological structures in the first place. To test this idea, a line of debate between methodological holism and methodological individualism – one of the longest running and most complex debates in the social sciences and humanities – was considered. The historical background of the debate has been highlighted, and its relevancy and implications in the controversy about the explanatory capacity and scientific status of sociocultural anthropology.

  8. Behavioral issues in operations management new trends in design, management, and methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral Operations Management  has been identified in the last years as one of the most promising emerging fields in Operations Management. Behavioral Issues in Operations Management  explains and examines up-to-date research in this field, which works to analyze the impact of human behavior on the management of complex operating systems.   A collection of studies from leading scholars presents different methodologies and approaches, supported by real data and case studies. Issues such as building trust and strong cooperative relationships with suppliers, enhancing motivation and designing proper incentives for stimulating more effective decision maker behaviours are considered. The main decision-making processes affected by behavioral issues are also analyzed with a focus on new product development, logistics, and supply chain integration.   The broad coverage of methodologies and practical implications makes Behavioral Issues in Operations Management an ideal reference for both researchers developing...

  9. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  10. Relevant training issues for introduction of digital radiology: Results of a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peer, S.; Faulkner, K.; Torbica, P.; Peer, R.; Busch, H. P.; Vetter, S.; Neofotistou, E.; Back, C.; Bosmans, H.; Vano, E.

    2005-01-01

    Council Directive 97/43/Euratom establishes the need for adequate training of radiology staff. The transition to digital radiology implies changes in various imaging aspects, which are not sufficiently covered by current institutional training programmes. This work aimed to assess how professionals, experienced in digital imaging, acquired their expertise and hence, what form institutional training should take. Within DIMOND III, a survey on training and resources was performed among radiology professionals. A lack of institutional education for digital radiology was found. In the transition to digital radiology, 30-35% train on the job and another 23-28% receive training from digital equipment vendors. A general agreement exists on the need for new quality criteria and strategies for dose management. Issues relevant for conventional/digital transition are only sparsely covered in EC training programmes. Based on these results, a set of training issues was produced, to be included in future European guidelines. (authors)

  11. Application of a methodology to determine priorities for nuclear power plant safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is sponsoring a research program to determine priorities of nuclear power plant safety issues. A methodology has been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in the development of risk and cost estimates for implementing resolutions to the safety issues. The information development methods are intended to provide the NRC with a consistent level of information for use in ranking the issues. The NRC uses this information, along with judgmental factors, to rank the issues for further consideration by the NRC staff. The primary purpose of the priority rankings are to assist in the allocation of resources to issues that have high potential for reducing public risk as well as to remove issues from further consideration that have little safety significance

  12. Team Dynamics. Essays in the Sociology and Social Psychology of Sport Including Methodological and Epistemological Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Hans

    This document contains nine essays on the sociology and social psychology of team dynamics, including methodological and epistemological issues involved in such study. Essay titles are: (1) Conflict and Achievement in Top Athletic Teams--Sociometric Structures of Racing Eight Oar Crews; (2) Top Performance Despite Internal Conflict--An Antithesis…

  13. Evaluation of Adult Literacy Education in the United States: A Review of Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Tsang, Mun C.

    2008-01-01

    This is a critical review of methodological issues in the evaluation of adult literacy education programs in the United States. It addresses the key research questions: What are the appropriate methods for evaluating these programs under given circumstances. It identifies 15 evaluation studies that are representative of a range of adult literacy…

  14. A Content and Methodological Review of Articles Concerning Multiracial Issues in Six Major Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive content and methodological review of articles about multiracial issues in 6 journals related to counseling up to the year 2006. The authors summarize findings about the 18 articles that emerged from this review of the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of Counseling & Development," "The Counseling…

  15. Essays on issues relevant to the regulation of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Hoos, I.R.; Hilberry, N.; Metlay, D.S.; Watson, R.A.

    1978-05-01

    This document contains a collection of essays prepared by the individuals who participated in a Special Task Group for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the purpose of identifying and proposing goals (or guiding principles) for the regulation of radioactive waste management. The report of the Special Task group to the NRC is contained in 'Proposed Goals for Radioactive Waste Management'. The titles of the essays are as follows: History and interpretation of radioactive waste management in the United States; The credibility issue; Assessment of methodologies for radioactive waste management; Remarks on managerial errors and public participation; Observations and impressions on the nature of radioactive waste management problems; and Goals for nuclear waste management

  16. Methodological and conceptual issues regarding occupational psychosocial coronary heart disease epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Hermann; Formazin, Maren; Pohrt, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Overview Psychosocial occupational epidemiology has mainly focused on the demand-control and, to a much lesser extent, the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) models. These models and the strong focus on them raise some conceptual and methodological issues we will address in the following letter. The conceptual issues include the empirical confirmation of the assumptions of these models, the extent to which the focus on the demand-control and ERI models is warranted, and whether the sub-dimensions of the scales in these models have common health effects. We argue that there is a lack of empirical approval of (i) the assumptions behind both models and (ii) the focus on these models. The methodological issues include how exposure to job strain is categorized, how ERI previously has been measured, and the validity of self-reports of job strain. We argue that (i) a population independent definition of job strain is lacking, (ii) the older measurements of ERI mix exposure and effect, and (iii) we know little regarding the validity of the measurement of the psychosocial working environment. Finally, we suggest that analyses of monitoring data with a broader focus on the psychosocial working environment can be used to shed light to some of the issues raised above. Introduction In the last three decades (1, 2), psychosocial occupational epidemiology related to coronary heart disease (CHD) has mainly focused on the job-strain model, also referred to as the demand-control model (3, 4). In this model, two aspects of work are deemed relevant: demands and control. Negative consequences to health are to be expected when high demands are simultaneously present with low control. This combination has been termed job strain (3, 4). Recently, there has also been increased interest in the ERI model (5, 6) which considers the level of effort relative to rewards at work: an imbalance is present when the efforts outweigh the rewards (5, 6). In longitudinal studies of CHD, there has been only a

  17. Review on the NEI Methodology of Debris Transport Analysis in Sump Blockage Issue for APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Uk; Lee, Jeong Ik; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul; Bang, Young Seok

    2007-01-01

    Since USNRC (United State Nuclear Regulatory Committee) initially addressed post-accident sump performance under Unresolved Safety Issue USI A-43, sump blockage issue has gone through GSI-191, Regulation Guide 1.82, Rev. 3 (RG. 1.82 Rev.3), and generic Letter 2004-02 for PWRs (Pressurized Water Reactors). As a response of these USNRC's activities, NEI 04-07 was issued in order to evaluate the post-accident performance of a plant's recirculation sump. The baseline methodology of NEI 04-07 is composed of break selection, debris generation, latent debris, debris transport, and head loss. In analytical refinement of NEI 04-07, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) is suggested for the evaluation of debris transport in emergency core cooling (ECC) recirculation mode as guided by RG. 1.82 Rev.3. In Korea nuclear industry also keeps step with international activities of this safety issue, with Kori 1 plant as a pioneering edge. Korean nuclear industry has been also pursuing development of an advanced PWR of APR1400, which incorporates several improved safety features. One of the key features, considering sump blockage issue, is the adoption of IRWST (In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank). This device, as the acronym implies, changes the emergency core cooling water injection pattern. This fact makes us to review the applicability of NEI 04-07's methodology. In this paper we discuss the applicability of NEI 04- 07's methodology, and more over, new methodology is proposed. And finally the preliminary debris transport is analyzed

  18. Ethical and methodological issues in qualitative studies involving people with severe and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Ing-Marie; Blomqvist, Marjut; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2017-01-01

    Undertaking research studies in the field of mental health is essential in mental health nursing. Qualitative research methodologies enable human experiences to become visible and recognize the importance of lived experiences. This paper argues that involving people with schizophrenia in research is critical to promote their health and well-being. The quality of qualitative research needs scrutinizing according to methodological issues such as trustworthiness and ethical standards that are a fundamental part of qualitative research and nursing curricula. The aim of this study was to critically review recent qualitative studies involving people with severe and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions, regarding descriptions of ethical and methodological issues in data collection and analysis. A search for relevant papers was conducted in three electronic databases, in December 2016. Fifteen qualitative interview studies were included and reviewed regarding methodological issues related to ethics, and data collection and analysis. The results revealed insufficient descriptions of methodology regarding ethical considerations and issues related to recruitment and sampling in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness, putting trustworthiness at risk despite detailed descriptions of data analysis. Knowledge from the perspective of individuals with their own experience of mental illness is essential. Issues regarding sampling and trustworthiness in qualitative studies involving people with severe mental illness are vital to counteract the stigmatization of mental illness.

  19. EFL/ESL Textbook Selection in Korea and East Asia - Relevant Issues and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    EFL/ESL departments periodically face the problem of textbook selection. Cogent issues are that non-native speakers will use L2 English mainly to communicate with other non-native English speakers, so an American accent is becoming less important. L2 English will mainly be used in computer-mediated communication, hence the importance of L2 Digital Literacy. The convergence of Information Communication Technologies is radically impacting Second Language Acquisition, which is integrating web-hosted Assessment and Learning Management Systems. EFL/ESL textbooks need to be compatible with blended learning, prepare students for a globalized world, and foster autonomous learning. I summarize five papers on EFL/ESL textbook evaluation and selection, and include relevant material for adaptation. Textbooks are major sources of contact with the target language, so selection is an important decision. Educators need to be systematic and objective in their approach, adopting a selection process that is open, transparent, accountable, participatory, informed and rigorous.

  20. Attentional bias modification based on visual probe task: methodological issues, results and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attentional bias, the tendency that a person has to drive or maintain attention to a specific class of stimuli, may play an important role in the etiology and persistence of mental disorders. Attentional bias modification has been studied as a form of additional treatment related to automatic processing. Objectives: This systematic literature review compared and discussed methods, evidence of success and potential clinical applications of studies about attentional bias modification (ABM using a visual probe task. Methods: The Web of Knowledge, PubMed and PsycInfo were searched using the keywords attentional bias modification, attentional bias manipulation and attentional bias training. We selected empirical studies about ABM training using a visual probe task written in English and published between 2002 and 2014. Results: Fifty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Most (78% succeeded in training attention in the predicted direction, and in 71% results were generalized to other measures correlated with the symptoms. Conclusions: ABM has potential clinical utility, but to standardize methods and maximize applicability, future studies should include clinical samples and be based on findings of studies about its effectiveness.

  1. An Evaluation Methodology Development and Application Process for Severe Accident Safety Issue Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A general evaluation methodology development and application process (EMDAP paradigm is described for the resolution of severe accident safety issues. For the broader objective of complete and comprehensive design validation, severe accident safety issues are resolved by demonstrating comprehensive severe-accident-related engineering through applicable testing programs, process studies demonstrating certain deterministic elements, probabilistic risk assessment, and severe accident management guidelines. The basic framework described in this paper extends the top-down, bottom-up strategy described in the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.203 to severe accident evaluations addressing U.S. NRC expectation for plant design certification applications.

  2. Research on Evaluation Methodology for High Temperature Components and Technical Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Han, S.B.

    2007-03-01

    The research on evaluation methodology for high temperature components and technical issues includes the comparison of evaluation technology of Very High Temperature Reactors(VHTRs) with that of present commercial reactors, the review of Hot Gas Duct(HGD) insulation designs, the analysis of the codes related to VHTR component construction and the analysis of technical issues on application of present codes to HGD construction. Codes to assure the integrity of the VHTR components are not fully prepared yet in any country. To understand the evaluation technology of the VHTR-related codes, key requirements of ASME B and PV Code Section III, Subsection NB and NH were compared. Six kinds of HGD designs were reviewed and compared. A reference which analyzed seven kinds of present component codes were reviewed and the limitations of them were summarized. Especially it was found that the selection of materials is limited, material property data are not enough, and design analysis methodology is not fully specified

  3. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1996-01-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as open-quotes design for manufactureclose quotes or open-quotes concurrent engineeringclose quotes are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of open-quotes Design for Constructibility and Performanceclose quotes is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance

  4. APPLICATION OF LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING FOR ASSESSING DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMMES - EXAMINATION OF SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. RAMESH RAO

    2011-01-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), a statistical tool in industrial setup, has been in use since 1980 for monitoring and evaluation of programs on disease control / immunization status among children / health workers performance in health system. While conducting LQAS in the field, there are occasions, even after due care of design, there are practical and methodological issues to be addressed before it is recommended for implementation and intervention. LQAS is applied under the assumpti...

  5. Methodological and theoretical issues in the comparative analysis of gender relations in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    S Walby

    1994-01-01

    The aim in this paper is to contribute to the development of a research agenda for the comparative analysis of gender relations in Western Europe. Its focus is the clarification of the methodological and theoretical issues involved. Several different indices of gender inequality are assessed. It is argued that it is important to distinguish between the form and degree of patriarchy, rather than assuming that these are closely associated. Data from the EC and Scandinavia are used to illustrate...

  6. How to Select the most Relevant Roughness Parameters of a Surface: Methodology Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovskij, I. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the foundations for new methodology creation which provides solving problem of surfaces structure new standards parameters huge amount conflicted with necessary actual floors quantity of surfaces structure parameters which is related to measurement complexity decreasing are considered. At the moment, there is no single assessment of the importance of a parameters. The approval of presented methodology for aerospace cluster components surfaces allows to create necessary foundation, to develop scientific estimation of surfaces texture parameters, to obtain material for investigators of chosen technological procedure. The methods necessary for further work, the creation of a fundamental reserve and development as a scientific direction for assessing the significance of microgeometry parameters are selected.

  7. TASK RELEVANCE IN THE DESIGN OF ONLINE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TEACHERS OF ELLs: A Q Methodology Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. COLLINS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Online professional development (oPD for teachers should focus on designing web-based learning opportunities that help practicing educators solve the tough problems of practice when working in their schools. Technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge can be integrated in the design of online professional development modules to enhance task relevance for maximum learning and transformation. The purpose of this study was to learn which tasks in an online professional development module were ranked by in-service educators as relevant to their work with English language learners (ELLs. Using Q methodology, the researcher asked participants to rank the relevancy of 36 online tasks from an online professional development module designed and developed at an American university. Participants used a -5 to 5 forced distribution to rank online activities from “Least relevant to my work with ELLs” to “Most relevant to my work with ELLs” followed by a semi-structured interview to explain their decisions. After data analysis, two factors emerged, indicating that participants’ perceptions on task relevance differed by professional roles and educational settings. The participants also favored didactic online tasks over interactive tasks. The findings from the oPD participants’ responses have the potential to serve as the basis for future online professional development design and for planning other relevant activities to be applied to the e-learning environment.

  8. Argumentation in elementary science education: addressing methodological issues and conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru

    2017-11-01

    In this review essay I respond to issues raised in Mijung Kim and Wolff-Michael Roth's paper titled "Dialogical argumentation in elementary science classrooms", which presents a study dealing with dialogical argumentation in early elementary school classrooms. Since there is very limited research on lower primary school students' argumentation in school science, their paper makes a contribution to research on children's argumentation skills. In this response, I focus on two main issues to extend the discussion in Kim and Roth's paper: (a) methodological issues including conducting a quantitative study on children's argumentation levels and focusing on children's written argumentation in addition to their dialogical argumentation, and (b) investigating children's conceptual understanding along with their argumentation levels. Kim and Roth emphasize the difficulty in determining the level of children's argumentation through the Toulmin's Argument Pattern and lack of high level arguments by children due to their difficulties in writing texts. Regarding these methodological issues, I suggest designing quantitative research on coding children's argument levels because such research could potentially provide important findings on children's argumentation. Furthermore, I discuss alternative written products including posters, figures, or pictures generated by children in order to trace children's arguments, and finally articulating argumentation and conceptual understanding of children.

  9. Methodological and Practical Issues of Scientific Research on the Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasescu, M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role and importance of marketing research in a dynamic and complex sector such as retail. The paper approaches the theoretical issues related to the methods and instruments of marketing research appropriate for the retail market. The theory about qualitative and quantitative research methods is supported by relevant examples which lead to a better understanding of the marketing research process and of its effectiveness on retail activities.

  10. Problems and Issues in Using Computer- Based Support Tools to Enhance 'Soft' Systems Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Stansfield

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the issue of whether computer-based support tools can enhance the use of 'soft' systems methodologies as applied to real-world problem situations. Although work has been carried out by a number of researchers in applying computer-based technology to concepts and methodologies relating to 'soft' systems thinking such as Soft Systems Methodology (SSM, such attempts appear to be still in their infancy and have not been applied widely to real-world problem situations. This paper will highlight some of the problems that may be encountered in attempting to develop computer-based support tools for 'soft' systems methodologies. Particular attention will be paid to an attempt by the author to develop a computer-based support tool for a particular 'soft' systems method of inquiry known as the Appreciative Inquiry Method that is based upon Vickers' notion of 'appreciation' (Vickers, 196S and Checkland's SSM (Checkland, 1981. The final part of the paper will explore some of the lessons learnt from developing and applying the computer-based support tool to a real world problem situation, as well as considering the feasibility of developing computer-based support tools for 'soft' systems methodologies. This paper will put forward the point that a mixture of manual and computer-based tools should be employed to allow a methodology to be used in an unconstrained manner, but the benefits provided by computer-based technology should be utilised in supporting and enhancing the more mundane and structured tasks.

  11. Methodological proposal for the jotted issue of the first epoch of the Hero magazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité García Díaz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the neocolonial republic emerges in Sancti Spiritus a very significative magazine of artistic, literary and scientific sketch: Hero, founded by Jacinto Gomer Fernández-Morera and Anastacio Fernández-Morera del Castillo, it first appeared on December 20th 1907. This issue constitutes a vivid reflect of the commercial, literary, cultural, scientific and historic panorama and above all, of the life of the middle and high class in Sancti Spiritus at the beginning of the XX century. The need to divulge the advantage the texts of Hero constitute for the high school and university students, also to humanistic profile graduates and others, such as investigators, evidenced the need to carry out an investigation that pursued such purposes. That’s why the methodological proposal for the jotted issue of the first epoch of the Hero magazine (1907-1908 takes place, composed by 38 publications, departing from the fundamental theorizations about the jotted issue of the presentation of the methodological proposal on behalf of updating these publication texts for its potential readers.

  12. Social Issues: Making Them Relevant and Appropriate to Undergraduate Student Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthouse, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design education is now considered a core issue for industrial/product design courses, however research has shown that the predominant focus tends to be on environmental issues, as social issues are much harder to tackle. Similarly, social issues are rarely considered in industrial practice. If student designers are to become…

  13. Edge Plasma Physics Issues for the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) in Reactor Relevant Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaluno, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Apicella, M.L.; Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Cucchiaro, A.; Ramogida, G.; Zagorski, R.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of First wall materials and compatibility with ITER /DEMO relevant plasmas is among the RD missions for possible new European plasma fusion devices that the FAST project will address. FAST can operate with ITER relevant values of P/R (up to 22 MW/m, against the ITER 24 MW/m, inclusive of the α particles power), thanks to its compactness; thus it can investigate the physics of large heat loads on divertor plates. The FAST divertor will be made of bulk W tiles, for basic operations, but also fully toroidal divertor targets made of liquid lithium (L-Li) are foreseen. To have reliable predictions of the thermal loads on the divertor plates and of the core plasma purity a number of numerical self-consistent simulations have been made for the H-mode and steady-state scenario by using the code COREDIV. This code, already validated in the past on experimental data (namely JET, FTU, Textor), is able to describe self-consistently the core and edge plasma in a tokamak device by imposing the continuity of energy and particle fluxes and of particle densities and temperatures at the separatrix. In the present work the results of such calculations will be illustrated, including heat loads on the divertor. The overall picture shows that, marginally in the intermediate and, necessarily in the high density H-mode scenarios ( e >=2 and 5·10 20 m -3 respectively), impurity seeding should be foreseen with W as target material: however, only a small amount of Ar (0.03% atomic concentration), not affecting the core purity, is sufficient to maintain the divertor peak loads below 18 MW/m 2 , that represents the safety limit for the W mono block technology, presently accepted for the ITER divertor tiles. Li always needs additional impurities for decreasing divertor heat loads, the Z eff value being ≤ than 1.8. At low plasma densities (but ≥ 1.3·10 20 m -3 ), typical of steady state regimes, W by alone is effective in dissipating the input power by radiative losses, without

  14. Postclosure risks at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository: A review of methodological and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel, J.; Kasperson, R.E.; Goble, R.; Renn, O.

    1988-06-01

    Accordingly, the first section of the report provides an overview and critique of the risk analysis methodology proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE 1988) in the Draft Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and related documents. The second section addresses specific technical problems associated with the site. Each section considers the significance or implications of the issues for the successful long-term isolation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere. We conclude with overall observations on the adequacy of current understandings and approaches in the waste disposal program and implications for the State of Nevada

  15. Methodological issues of assessing the effects of social inequality in Russia’s regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Anatol’evna Kozlova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue concerning the assessment of the impact of social inequality on the socio-demographic characteristics of society. The authors evaluate the impact of the social inequality growth in the Russian Federation subjects on the basis of the analysis of the decile ratio dynamics. They propose a methodological approach to determine the degree of dependence of crime rate on the growth of social inequality. The authors compare the influence of the decile ratio and purchasing power on mortality rate in the regions of Russia

  16. Methodological issues in the study of risk perception and human behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad perspective on the use of the methods and techniques of the behavioral and social sciences as they pertain to the work of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, particularly in issues of risk perception. Four major topics or themes are discussed: (1) a brief overview of the classic theories of risk perception; (2) current contractor work in the area of risk perception and cognitive psychology; (3) other uses of the social and behavioral sciences in the Agency; and (4) methodological considerations in using the techniques

  17. ABOUT THE RELEVANCE AND METHODOLOGY ASPECTS OF TEACHING THE MATHEMATICAL MODELING TO PEDAGOGICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Perminov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the need for profile training in mathematical modeling for pedagogical students, caused by the total penetration of mathematics into different sciences, including the humanities; fast development of the information communications technologies; and growing importance of mathematical modeling, combining the informal scientific and formal mathematical languages with the unique opportunities of computer programming. The author singles out the reasons for mastering and using the mathematical apparatus by teaches in every discipline. Indeed, among all the modern mathematical methods and ideas, mathematical modeling retains its priority in all professional spheres. Therefore, the discipline of “Mathematical Modeling” can play an important role in integrating different components of specialists training in various profiles. By mastering the basics of mathematical modeling, students acquire skills of methodological thinking; learn the principles of analysis, synthesis, generalization of ideas and methods in different disciplines and scientific spheres; and achieve general culture competences. In conclusion, the author recommends incorporating the “Methods of Profile Training in Mathematical Modeling” into the pedagogical magistracy curricula. 

  18. Capital structure in LNG infrastructures and gas pipelines projects: Empirical evidences and methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, Axel; Roussanaly, Simon; Sabathier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG infrastructures and gas pipeline projects, by using data relating to projects whose financial close occurred between June 2004 and March 2011. Most results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. Especially, the projects located in risky countries and larger projects tend to exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. In addition, regasification projects appear to have a more diluted equity ownership. Methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects are also examined from a capital-budgeting perspective. In particular, the equity residual method, usually used by industrial practitioners to value these projects, should be adjusted. - Highlights: • This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG and gas pipeline infrastructures. • Most of our results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. • Projects located in risky countries exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. • Larger projects and regasification projects also have less concentrated equity ownerships. • From a capital-budgeting viewpoint, we examine methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects

  19. How methodological issues affect the energy indicator results for different electricity generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Gagnon, Luc; Bakken, Tor Haakon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the basis for the comparison of energy products. The paper will discuss important methodological issues with regard to various energy indicators and it will, by means of a few selected energy indicators, show examples of results for hydropower, wind power and electricity from biomass, gas and coal. Lastly it will suggest methods to achieve results which are more consistent when comparing electricity production technologies. In general, methodological issues can affect the results of life cycle assessments. In this paper, the authors have focused on the effect of system boundaries for energy indicators and found that the internal ranking of cases within one electricity generation technology is dependent on the indicator used. These variations do not, however, alter the general ranking of the major technologies studied. The authors suggest that future assessments should focus on a smaller set of indicators: the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), which is the most “universal” indicator, Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) for assessment of upstream activities, and a suggested “Cumulative Fossil Energy Demand” (CFED) for resource depletion assessments. There is also a need for stricter standardisation and increased transparency in the assessment of energy products. - Highlights: • There is a need for stricter standardisation of energy performance assessments. • System boundaries for renewable sources should be harmonised. • One should focus on a smaller set of indicators. CED should be included

  20. Combining rigour with relevance: a novel methodology for testing Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrew; Lewith, George; Little, Paul

    2011-03-24

    There is a need to develop an evidence base for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) that is both rigorous and reflective of good practice. This paper proposes a novel methodology to test individualised herbal decoctions using a randomised, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. A feasibility study was conducted to explore the role of CHM in the treatment of endometriosis. Herbal formulae were pre-cooked and dispensed as individual doses in sealed plastic sachets. This permitted the development and testing of a plausible placebo decoction. Participants were randomised at a distant pharmacy to receive either an individualised herbal prescription or a placebo. The trial met the predetermined criteria for good practice. Neither the participants nor the practitioner-researcher could reliably identify group allocation. Of the 28 women who completed the trial, in the placebo group (n=15) 3 women (20%) correctly guessed they were on placebo, 8 (53%) thought they were on herbs and 4 (27%) did not know which group they had been allocated to. In the active group (n=13) 2 (15%) though they were on placebo, 8 (62%) thought they were on herbs and 3 (23%) did not know. Randomisation, double blinding and allocation concealment were successful and the study model appeared to be feasible and effective. It is now possible to subject CHM to rigorous scientific scrutiny without compromising model validity. Improvement in the design of the placebo using food colourings and flavourings instead of dried food will help guarantee the therapeutic inertia of the placebo decoction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. FCγ Chimeric Receptor-Engineered T Cells: Methodology, Advantages, Limitations, and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sconocchia

    2017-04-01

    . Third, the off-target effect of CD16-CR T cells may be controlled by withdrawing the mAb administration. The goal of this manuscript was threefold. First, we review the current state-of-the-art of preclinical CD16-CR T cell technology. Second, we describe its in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity. Finally, we compare the advantages and limitations of the CD16-CR T cell technology with those of CAR T cell methodology.

  2. A review of occupational safety and health issues relevant to the Environmental Restoration Program: Selected case histories and associated issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, A.M.; Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.C.

    1994-08-01

    Since the 1940s, US Department of Energy (DOE) sites have been used for nuclear materials processing and production, warhead testing, and weapons research and development. These activities have resulted in extensive environmental contamination. DOE has established a goal to cleanup and restore the groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water at its facilities across the nation. To achieve this goal, many workers will be needed to conduct the cleanup. These workers will need training and will be required to follow occupational safety and health (OSH) regulations and guidelines. Compliance with the OSH regulations and guidelines will have an anomous influence on the schedule, money, and technology needed for environmental restoration. Therefore, one area that must be considered in the early stages of long-term planning is the impact of OSH issues on the environmental restoration process. The DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigate the impact of these issues on the environmental restoration process

  3. Soft System Methodology as a Tool to Understand Issues of Governmental Affordable Housing Programme of India: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sukanya; Roy, Souvanic; Sanyal, Manas Kumar

    2016-09-01

    With the help of a case study, the article has explored current practices of implementation of governmental affordable housing programme for urban poor in a slum of India. This work shows that the issues associated with the problems of governmental affordable housing programme has to be addressed to with a suitable methodology as complexities are not only dealing with quantitative data but qualitative data also. The Hard System Methodologies (HSM), which is conventionally applied to address the issues, deals with real and known problems which can be directly solved. Since most of the issues of affordable housing programme as found in the case study are subjective and complex in nature, Soft System Methodology (SSM) has been tried for better representation from subjective points of views. The article explored drawing of Rich Picture as an SSM approach for better understanding and analysing complex issues and constraints of affordable housing programme so that further exploration of the issues is possible.

  4. Evaluation of water-hammer experience in nuclear power plants. Technical findings relevant to Unresolved Safety Issue A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings relevant to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. These findings were derived from studies of reported water hammer occurrences and underlying causes and provide key insights into means to minimize or eliminate further water hammer occurrences. It should also be noted that this report does not represent a substitute for current rules and regulations

  5. Evaluation of water hammer occurrence in nuclear power plants: technical findings relevant to unresolved safety issue A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report, which includes responses to public comments, summarizes key technical findings relevant to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. These findings were derived from studies of reported water hammer occurrences and underlying causes and provide key insights into means to minimize or eliminate further water hammer occurrences. This report does not represent a substitute for current rules and regulations

  6. Methodological issues in the study of intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal functional disorder with the highest prevalence in the industrialized world. The intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the pathogenesis of IBS and is not merely a consequence of this disorder. Previous research efforts have not revealed unequivocal microbiological signatures of IBS, and the experimental results are contradictory. The experimental methodologies adopted to investigate the complex intestinal ecosystem drastically impact the quality and significance of the results. Therefore, to consider the methodological aspects of the research on IM in IBS, we reviewed 29 relevant original research articles identified through a PubMed search using three combinations of keywords: "irritable bowel syndrome + microflora", "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiota" and "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiome". For each study, we reviewed the quality and significance of the scientific evidence obtained with respect to the experimental method adopted. The data obtained from each study were compared with all considered publications to identify potential inconsistencies and explain contradictory results. The analytical revision of the studies referenced in the present review has contributed to the identification of microbial groups whose relative abundance significantly alters IBS, suggesting that these microbial groups could be IM signatures for this syndrome. The identification of microbial biomarkers in the IM can be advantageous for the development of new diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of different subtypes of IBS.

  7. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs

  9. A Quantitative and Systematic Methodology to Investigate Energy Consumption Issues in Multimodal Intercity Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Du

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy issues in transportation systems have garnered increasing attention recently. This study proposes a systematic methodology for policy-makers to minimize energy consumption in multimodal intercity transportation systems considering suppliers’ operational constraints and travelers’ mobility requirements. A bi-level optimization model is developed for this purpose and considers the air, rail, private auto, and transit modes. The upper-level model is a mixed integer nonlinear program aiming to minimize energy consumption subject to transportation suppliers’ operational constraints and traffic demand distribution to paths resulting from the lower-level model. The lower-level model is a linear program seeking to maximize the trip utilities of travelers. The interactions between the multimodal transportation suppliers and intercity traffic demand are considered under the goal of minimizing system energy consumption. The proposed bi-level mixed integer model is relaxed and transformed into a mathematical program with complementarity constraints, and solved using a customized branch-and-bound algorithm. Numerical experiments, conducted using multimodal travel options between Lafayette, Indiana and Washington, D.C. reiterate that shifting traffic demand from private cars to the transit and rail modes significantly reduce energy consumption. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides tools to quantitatively analyze system energy consumption and traffic demand distribution among transportation modes under specific policy instruments. The results illustrate the need to systematically incorporate the interactions among traveler preferences, network structure, and supplier operational schemes to provide policy-makers insights for developing traffic demand shift mechanisms to minimize system energy consumption. Hence, the proposed methodology provide policy-makers the capability to analyze energy consumption in the transportation sector by a

  10. Animal Models of Virus-Induced Neurobehavioral Sequelae: Recent Advances, Methodological Issues, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Converging lines of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that viral infections in early developmental stages may be a causal factor in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. This etiological link, however, remains controversial in view of the lack of consistent and reproducible associations between viruses and mental illness. Animal models of virus-induced neurobehavioral disturbances afford powerful tools to test etiological hypotheses and explore pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal or neonatal inoculations of neurotropic agents (such as herpes-, influenza-, and retroviruses in rodents result in a broad spectrum of long-term alterations reminiscent of psychiatric abnormalities. Nevertheless, the complexity of these sequelae often poses methodological and interpretational challenges and thwarts their characterization. The recent conceptual advancements in psychiatric nosology and behavioral science may help determine new heuristic criteria to enhance the translational value of these models. A particularly critical issue is the identification of intermediate phenotypes, defined as quantifiable factors representing single neurochemical, neuropsychological, or neuroanatomical aspects of a diagnostic category. In this paper, we examine how the employment of these novel concepts may lead to new methodological refinements in the study of virus-induced neurobehavioral sequelae through animal models.

  11. Overview on hydrogen risk research and development activities: Methodology and open issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentaib, Ahmed; Meynet, Nicolas; Bleyer, Alexande [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Severe Accident Department, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-02-15

    During the course of a severe accident in a light water nuclear reactor, large amounts of hydrogen can be generated and released into the containment during reactor core degradation. Additional burnable gases [hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO)] may be released into the containment in the corium/concrete interaction. This could subsequently raise a combustion hazard. As the Fukushima accidents revealed, hydrogen combustion can cause high pressure spikes that could challenge the reactor buildings and lead to failure of the surrounding buildings. To prevent the gas explosion hazard, most mitigation strategies adopted by European countries are based on the implementation of passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs). Studies of representative accident sequences indicate that, despite the installation of PARs, it is difficult to prevent at all times and locations, the formation of a combustible mixture that potentially leads to local flame acceleration. Complementary research and development (R and D) projects were recently launched to understand better the phenomena associated with the combustion hazard and to address the issues highlighted after the Fukushima Daiichi events such as explosion hazard in the venting system and the potential flammable mixture migration into spaces beyond the primary containment. The expected results will be used to improve the modeling tools and methodology for hydrogen risk assessment and severe accident management guidelines. The present paper aims to present the methodology adopted by Institut de Radioprotection et de Su.

  12. New statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases relevant to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginevan, M.E.; Collins, J.J.; Brown, C.D.; Carnes, B.A.; Curtiss, J.B.; Devine, N.

    1981-01-01

    The present research develops new statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases of relevance to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies, and uses these to identify, quantify, and pedict adverse health effects of energy related pollutants. Efforts are in five related areas including: (1) evaluation and development of statistical procedures for the analysis of death rate data, disease incidence data, and large scale data sets; (2) development of dose response and demographic models useful in the prediction of the health effects of energy technologies; (3) application of our method and models to analyses of the health risks of energy production; (4) a reanalysis of the Tri-State leukemia survey data, focusing on the relationship between myelogenous leukemia risk and diagnostic x-ray exposure; and (5) investigation of human birth weights as a possible early warning system for the effects of environmental pollution

  13. High-level methodologies for grammar engineering, introduction to the special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Duchier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grammar Engineering is the task of designing and implementing linguistically motivated electronic descriptions of natural language (so-called grammars. These grammars are expressed within well-defined theoretical frameworks, and offer a fine-grained description of natural language. While grammars were first used to describe syntax, that is to say, the relations between constituents in a sentence, they often go beyond syntax and include semantic information. Grammar engineering provides precise descriptions which can be used for natural language understanding and generation, making these valuable resources for various natural language applications, including textual entailment, dialogue systems, or machine translation. The first attempts at designing large-scale resource grammars were costly because of the complexity of the task (Erbach et al. 1990 and of the number of persons that were needed (see e.g. Doran et al. 1997. Advances in the field have led to the development of environments for semi-automatic grammar engineering, borrowing ideas from compilation (grammar engineering is compared with software development and machine learning. This special issue reports on new trends in the field, where grammar engineering benefits from elaborate high-level methodologies and techniques, dealing with various issues (both theoretical and practical.

  14. Methodological and ethical issues in research using social media: a metamethod of Human Papillomavirus vaccine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Diana L; Woodworth, Claire F

    2014-12-02

    Online content is a primary source of healthcare information for internet-using adults and a rich resource for health researchers. This paper explores the methodological and ethical issues of engaging in health research using social media. A metamethod was performed on systematically selected studies that used social media as a data source for exploring public awareness and beliefs about Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) and HPV vaccination. Seven electronic databases were searched using a variety of search terms identified for each of three concepts: social media, HPV vaccine, and research method. Abstracts were assessed for eligibility of inclusion; six studies met the eligibility criteria and were subjected to content analysis. A 10-item coding scheme was developed to assess the clarity, congruence and transparency of research design, epistemological and methodological underpinnings and ethical considerations. The designs of the six selected studies were sound, although most studies could have been more transparent about how they built in rigor to ensure the trustworthiness and credibility of findings. Statistical analysis that intended to measure trends and patterns did so without the benefit of randomized sampling and other design elements for ensuring generalizability or reproducibility of findings beyond the specified virtual community. Most researchers did not sufficiently engage virtual users in the research process or consider the risk of privacy incursion. Most studies did not seek ethical approval from an institutional research board or permission from host websites or web service providers. The metamethod exposed missed opportunities for using the dialogical character of social media as well as a lack of attention to the unique ethical issues inherent in operating in a virtual community where social boundaries and issues of public and private are ambiguous. This suggests the need for more self-conscious and ethical research practices when using social media

  15. Exploring Issues of Relevance and Quality in the Context of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper draws insights from a mini research project that was conducted at the University of Botswana in Botswana, within a wider, collaborative research effort established amongst five universities in the Southern African Development Community which focused on the links between educational quality and relevance and ...

  16. Adolescent developmental issues in Hong Kong: Relevance to positive youth development programs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2006-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental issues and problems in Hong Kong are examined in this paper. First, the changing adolescent substance abuse patterns are described. Second, although the overall youth crime trend was relatively stable in the past decade, shoplifting and stealing crimes deserve our concern. Third, adolescent mental health problem is a growing problem. Fourth, statistics show that unhealthy life styles, such as smoking, early sex and moral confusion are issues of concern. Fifth, the proportion of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage has increased. Sixth, youth unemployment and non-engaged youth are growing problems when the economy of Hong Kong is undergoing re-structuring. Seventh, family and parenting problems in families with adolescents deserve our attention. Finally, the Social Development Index showed that the development of young people has gradually deteriorated in the past decade. These adolescent issues and problems provide useful pointers for designing the positive youth development program financially sponsored by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  17. On the issue of methodology of estimating the regional competitive advantages by types of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Rashitovich Safiullin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the research methodology of the competitive position of territories by types of economic activities to define the relevant types of economic activities and to diagnose their competitive advantages. Methods a differentiated approach to the analysis of competitiveness based on matrix models of competitive positioning which allows to identify the relevant types of economic activities of the territory. This approach determined the choice of specific research methods dialectics abstraction systematic logical structural comparative and statistical. The application of the above methods helped to ensure the validity of the analysis results theoretical and practical conclusions. Results in the study were used the experience and knowledge gained during an earlier undertaken series of projects relating to the assessment of economy efficiency of Tatarstan Republic in 20052011.Previous reports dealt with the change of the selected industries positions of the Republic the structure and dynamics of the competitive position of these industries compared to the leading Russian regions. A distinctive feature of the research results presented in this article is a comparative analysis of competitive advantages of economic activities of Tatarstan Republic based on the matrix model of competitive positioning. Scientific novelty for the first time the matrix model of diagnostics of competitive advantages of the territory by the type of economic activity was proposed which allows to identify the priority industrial portfolio and provide targeted management actions to enhance its investment attractiveness. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used by legislative and executive authorities of the Russian Federation business community research institutions and organizations to develop strategies and programs of socioeconomic development and territorial planning schemes priority directions of industrial and investment

  18. The relevancy of current environmental issues to solder joints in microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walitsky, P.J.; Yost, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    The technical issues brought about by recent federal mandates are reviewed and discussed. Progress made in the elimination of CFCs is briefly reviewed. The problems, implications, and status of pending anti-lead legislation and taxation are discussed at length. Recommendations are made for the enactment of rational, fair, and orderly legislation and taxation

  19. Prediction of work metabolism from heart rate measurements in forest work: some practical methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Philippe-Antoine; Imbeau, Daniel; Dubeau, Denise; Auger, Isabelle; Leone, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Individual heart rate (HR) to workload relationships were determined using 93 submaximal step-tests administered to 26 healthy participants attending physical activities in a university training centre (laboratory study) and 41 experienced forest workers (field study). Predicted maximum aerobic capacity (MAC) was compared to measured MAC from a maximal treadmill test (laboratory study) to test the effect of two age-predicted maximum HR Equations (220-age and 207-0.7 × age) and two clothing insulation levels (0.4 and 0.91 clo) during the step-test. Work metabolism (WM) estimated from forest work HR was compared against concurrent work V̇O2 measurements while taking into account the HR thermal component. Results show that MAC and WM can be accurately predicted from work HR measurements and simple regression models developed in this study (1% group mean prediction bias and up to 25% expected prediction bias for a single individual). Clothing insulation had no impact on predicted MAC nor age-predicted maximum HR equations. Practitioner summary: This study sheds light on four practical methodological issues faced by practitioners regarding the use of HR methodology to assess WM in actual work environments. More specifically, the effect of wearing work clothes and the use of two different maximum HR prediction equations on the ability of a submaximal step-test to assess MAC are examined, as well as the accuracy of using an individual's step-test HR to workload relationship to predict WM from HR data collected during actual work in the presence of thermal stress.

  20. Nuclear thermal rocket clustering: 1, A summary of previous work and relevant issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksa, J.J.; Houts, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    A general review of the technical merits of nuclear thermal rocket clustering is presented. A summary of previous analyses performed during the Rover program is presented and used to assess clustering in the context of projected Space Exploration Initiative missions. A number of technical issues are discussed including cluster reliability, engine-out operation, neutronic coupling, shutdown core power generation, shutdown reactivity requirements, reactor kinetics, and radiation shielding. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Review of D-T Experiments Relevant to Burning Plasma Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enabled not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. The TFTR and JET, in conjunction with the worldwide fusion effort, have studied a broad range of topics including magnetohydrodynamic stability, transport, wave-particle interactions, the confinement of energetic particles, and plasma boundary interactions. The D-T experiments differ in three principal ways from previous experiments: isotope effects associated with the use of deuterium-tritium fuel, the presence of fusion-generated alpha particles, and technology issues associated with tritium handling and increased activation. The effect of deuterium-tritium fuel and the presence of alpha particles is reviewed and placed in the perspective of the much large r worldwide database using deuterium fuel and theoretical understanding. Both devices have contributed substantially to addressing the scientific and technical issues associated with burning plasmas. However, future burning plasma experiments will operate with larger ratios of alpha heating power to auxiliary power and will be able to access additional alpha-particle physics issues. The scientific opportunities for extending our understanding of burning plasmas beyond that provided by current experiments is described

  2. The relevance of the ISO26000 social responsibility issues to the Hong Kong construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Robyn Barnes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CorporateSocial Responsibility (CSR, the responsibility of a corporation for theimpacts of its decisions on society and the environment, originated as a termin the 1950’s (Carroll 1999. However, ISO 26000 (ISO 2010“Guidance on Social Responsibility” published in November 2010, redefines “SocialResponsibility” (“SR” broadly, by reference to SR principles, core subjectsand issues. The Hong Kong Construction Industry (“HKCI” sector is critical to Hong Kong’s economy, accounting for5.6% of the GDP and 9.2% of employment in 1999 (Tang 2001. In 2011, the gross value of constructionwork by main contractors amounted to HK$128.53 billion and contributed HK$65.4 billion (HKGov 2013to the total GDP of HK$1,823.2 billion (3.6% (HKTDC 2013.The aim of this research is toinvestigate which ISO 26000 CSR issues are relevantto HKCI firms. Theprinciple findings are that: the reported level of HKCI CSR activity relativeto the 7 core subject of ISO 26000 is a function of company size; many SME’sconsider that many of the ISO 26000 SR issues are irrelevant to them; but forthe large construction contractors, reputation, legislation and or regulation andcorporate culture are drivers of improvements in CSR in the HKCI.

  3. Application of the API/NPRA SVA methodology to transportation security issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2006-03-17

    Security vulnerability analysis (SVA) is becoming more prevalent as the issue of chemical process security is of greater concern. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the National Petrochemical and Refiner's Association (NPRA) have developed a guideline for conducting SVAs of petroleum and petrochemical facilities in May 2003. In 2004, the same organizations enhanced the guidelines by adding the ability to evaluate transportation security risks (pipeline, truck, and rail). The importance of including transportation and value chain security in addition to fixed facility security in a SVA is that these issues may be critically important to understanding the total risk of the operation. Most of the SVAs done using the API/NPRA SVA and other SVA methods were centered on the fixed facility and the operations within the plant fence. Transportation interfaces alone are normally studied as a part of the facility SVA, and the entire transportation route impacts and value chain disruption are not commonly considered. Particularly from a national, regional, or local infrastructure analysis standpoint, understanding the interdependencies is critical to the risk assessment. Transportation risks may include weaponization of the asset by direct attack en route, sabotage, or a Trojan Horse style attack into a facility. The risks differ in the level of access control and the degree of public exposures, as well as the dynamic nature of the assets. The public exposures along the transportation route need to be carefully considered. Risks may be mitigated by one of many strategies including internment, staging, prioritization, conscription, or prohibition, as well as by administrative security measures and technology for monitoring and isolating the assets. This paper illustrates how these risks can be analyzed by the API/NPRA SVA methodology. Examples are given of a pipeline operation, and other examples are found in the guidelines.

  4. Combining nutrition and exercise to optimize survival and recovery from critical illness: Conceptual and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Daren K; Stapleton, Renee D; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hough, Catherine L; Morris, Peter; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Day, Andrew; Prado, Carla M; Needham, Dale M

    2016-10-01

    Survivors of critical illness commonly experience neuromuscular abnormalities, including muscle weakness known as ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). ICU-AW is associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation, extended ICU and hospital stays, more healthcare-related hospital costs, a higher risk of death, and impaired physical functioning and quality of life in the months after ICU admission. These observations speak to the importance of developing new strategies to aid in the physical recovery of acute respiratory failure patients. We posit that to maintain optimal muscle mass, strength and physical function, the combination of nutrition and exercise may have the greatest impact on physical recovery of survivors of critical illness. Randomized trials testing this and related hypotheses are needed. We discussed key methodological issues and proposed a common evaluation framework to stimulate work in this area and standardize our approach to outcome assessments across future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Was Feyerabend a Popperian? Methodological issues in the History of the Philosophy of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collodel, Matteo

    2016-06-01

    For more than three decades, there has been significant debate about the relation between Feyerabend and Popper. The discussion has been nurtured and complicated by the rift that opened up between the two and by the later Feyerabend's controversial portrayal of his earlier self. The first part of the paper provides an overview of the accounts of the relation that have been proposed over the years, disentangles the problems they deal with, and analyses the evidence supporting their conclusions as well as the methodological approaches used to process that evidence. Rather than advancing a further speculative account of the relation based on Feyerabend's philosophical work or autobiographical recollections, the second part of the paper strives to clarify the problems at issue by making use of a wider range of evidence. It outlines a historical reconstruction of the social context within which Feyerabend's intellectual trajectory developed, putting a special emphasis on the interplay between the perceived intellectual identity of Feyerabend, Feyerabend's own intellectual self-concept, and the peculiar features of the evolving Popperian research group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Methodological issues in cardiovascular epidemiology: the risk of determining absolute risk through statistical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Vassilis StavrinosOffice of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Department of Dietetics, Nutrition, Harokopio University, Athens, GreeceAbstract: During the past years there has been increasing interest in the development of cardiovascular disease functions that predict future events at individual level. However, this effort has not been so far very successful, since several investigators have reported large differences in the estimation of the absolute risk among different populations. For example, it seems that predictive models that have been derived from US or north European populations  overestimate the incidence of cardiovascular events in south European and Japanese populations. A potential explanation could be attributed to several factors such as geographical, cultural, social, behavioral, as well as genetic variations between the investigated populations in addition to various methodological, statistical, issues relating to the estimation of these predictive models. Based on current literature it can be concluded that, while risk prediction of future cardiovascular events is a useful tool and might be valuable in controlling the burden of the disease in a population, further work is required to improve the accuracy of the present predictive models.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, risk, models

  7. Partial least squares path modeling basic concepts, methodological issues and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noonan, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This edited book presents the recent developments in partial least squares-path modeling (PLS-PM) and provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the most advanced research related to PLS-PM. The first section of this book emphasizes the basic concepts and extensions of the PLS-PM method. The second section discusses the methodological issues that are the focus of the recent development of the PLS-PM method. The third part discusses the real world application of the PLS-PM method in various disciplines. The contributions from expert authors in the field of PLS focus on topics such as the factor-based PLS-PM, the perfect match between a model and a mode, quantile composite-based path modeling (QC-PM), ordinal consistent partial least squares (OrdPLSc), non-symmetrical composite-based path modeling (NSCPM), modern view for mediation analysis in PLS-PM, a multi-method approach for identifying and treating unobserved heterogeneity, multigroup analysis (PLS-MGA), the assessment of the common method b...

  8. Cobenefits of replacing car trips with alternative transportation: a review of evidence and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Zhang, Ying; Crabb, Shona; Shah, Pushan

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed.

  9. Cobenefits of Replacing Car Trips with Alternative Transportation: A Review of Evidence and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed.

  10. Implementation of a documentation model comprising nursing terminologies--theoretical and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Krogh, Gunn; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2008-04-01

    To describe and discuss theoretical and methodological issues of implementation of a nursing services documentation model comprising NANDA nursing diagnoses, Nursing Intervention Classification and Nursing Outcome Classification terminologies. The model is developed for electronic patient record and was implemented in a psychiatric hospital on an organizational level and on five test wards in 2001-2005. The theory of Rogers guided the process of innovation, whereas the implementation procedure of McCloskey and Bulecheck combined with adult learning principals guided the test site implementation. The test wards managed in different degrees to adopt the model. Two wards succeeded fully, including a ward with high percentage of staff with interdisciplinary background. Better planning regarding the impact of the organization's innovative aptitude, the innovation strategies and the use of differentiated methods regarding the clinician's individual premises for learning nursing terminologies might have enhanced the adoption to the model. To better understand the nature of barriers and the importance of careful planning regarding the implementation of electronic patient record elements in nursing care services, focusing on nursing terminologies. Further to indicate how a theory and specific procedure can be used to guide the process of implementation throughout the different levels of management.

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in psychiatry: Methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prohovnik, I.

    1984-01-01

    Traditionally, measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been confined to neurology and nuclear medicine. Only one laboratory had concentrated on using this technique in psychiatric studies. Recently, however, rCBF has been increasingly used in psychiatry, and it seems appropriate at this time to examine the value and limitations of this method. The present article reviews selected methodological issues that may complicate the performance and interpretation of rCBF studies, with the aim of providing some means to evaluate published work and to plan further psychiatric research. In this paper, the term rCBF refers only to the two-dimensional, noninvasive methods that rely on inhalation or intravenous injection of xenon-133. The growing interest of rCBF to psychiatry stems mostly from the fact that this technique can indirectly map cerebral metabolism and, by interface, neural activity or information processing. Regional metabolism and blood flow are closely coupled to the human brain in the absence of gross pathology, and since psychiatric patients rarely present acute neurological abnormalities that might disrupt this coupling, one may infer regional metabolism from flow

  12. Investigation of display issues relevant to the presentation of aircraft fault information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    This research, performed as a part of NASA Langley's Faultfinder project, investigated display implementation issues related to the introduction of real time fault diagnostic systems into next generation commercial aircraft. Three major issues were investigated: visual display styles for presenting fault related information to the crew, the form the output from the expert system should take, and methods for filtering fault related information for presentation to the crew. Twenty-four flight familiar male volunteers participated as subjects. Five subjects were NASA test pilots, six were Commercial Airline Pilots, seven were Air Force Lear Jet pilots, and six were NASA personnel familiar with flight (non-pilots). Subjects were presented with aircraft subsystem information on a CRT screen. They were required to identify the subsystems presented in a display and to remember the state (normal or abnormal) of subsystem parameter information contained in the display. The results of the study indicated that in the simpler experimental test cases (i.e., those involving single subsystem failures and composite hypothesis displays) subjects' performance did not differ across the different display formats. However, for the more complex cases (i.e., those involving multiple subsystem faults and multiple hypotheses displays), subjects' performance was superior in the text- and picture-based display formats compared to the symbol-based format. In addition, the findings suggest that a layered approached to information display is appropriate.

  13. The relevance of the psychometrist category as a professional resource: Training-related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van Eeden

    2016-05-01

    Research purpose: The aim was to explore if the training of student psychometrists contributes to the relevance of this category in terms of the demographic profile of student psychometrists, the scope of services potentially provided by them and the content of training programmes. Motivation for the study: There is a paucity of research on training in the psychometrist category. Research design, approach and method: Data were obtained from the files of a cohort of student psychometrists who were registered in the Department of Psychology at the University of South Africa (UNISA. Follow-up surveys on training and work contexts were conducted amongst these students and their in-practice supervisors to confirm and supplement the data. In addition, a survey on the national availability of training programmes for psychometrists was conducted at South African universities. Main findings: Gender and racial skewness in terms of the demographic profile of the UNISA students seemed to reflect a national trend. In terms of the scope of services, training opportunities and perceived job opportunities for psychometrists seemed limited and despite the utilisation of the skills area in all the applied contexts, concerns related to the sectors being served were identified. With regard to the content of the training programmes, students and in-practice supervisors expressed a need for greater preparation in test use before related practical experience takes place. The importance of the university’s involvement during the practicum was also emphasised. Practical/managerial implications: Recommendations are made regarding the structure and content of training programmes. This information could be applied in adapting existing programmes and in developing new programmes. Contribution/value-add: Ultimately, these recommendations could contribute to the value of the psychometrist category as a professional resource relevant to a variety of settings.

  14. CANDU reactors, their regulation in Canada, and the identification of relevant NRC safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charak, I.; Kier, P.H.

    1995-04-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL) and its subsidiary in the US, are considering submitting the CANDU 3 design for standard design certification under 10 CFR Part 52. CANDU reactors are pressurized heavy water power reactors. They have some substantially different safety responses and safety systems than the LWRs that the commercial power reactor licensing regulations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have been developed to deal with. In this report, the authors discuss the basic design characteristics of CANDU reactors, specifically of the CANDU 3 where possible, and some safety-related consequences of these characteristics. The authors also discuss the Canadian regulatory provisions, and the CANDU safety systems that have evolved to satisfy the Canadian regulatory requirements as of December 1992. Finally, the authors identify NRC regulations, mainly in 10 CFR Parts 50 and 100, with issues for CANDU 3 reactor designs. In all, eleven such regulatory issues are identified. They are: (1) the ATWS rule (section 50.62); (2) station blackout (section 50.63); (3) conformance with Standard Review Plan (SRP); (4) appropriateness of the source term (section 50.34(f) and section 100.11); (5) applicability of reactor coolant pressure boundary (RCPB) requirements (section 50.55a, etc); (6) ECCS acceptance criteria (section 50.46)(b); (7) combustible gas control (section 50.44, etc); (8) power coefficient of reactivity (GDC 11); (9) seismic design (Part 100); (10) environmental impacts of the fuel cycle (section 51.51); and (11) (standards section 50.55a)

  15. Issues in casemix funding for acute inpatient psychiatric services and their relevance to mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanker, S

    1996-09-01

    With increased recognition by government, health administrators, and clinicians of the need to simultaneously contain health expenditure, improve the productivity and efficiency of health services and maintain quality of patient care, applications of casemix funding have been advocated as an alternative means of financing acute hospital care. Currently in Australia, the Commonwealth's casemix development program is encouraging the States and Territories to participate in certain casemix initiatives. Acute psychiatric hospital care and treatment have been excluded from the initial stages of the implementation of casemix in recognition of a number of inherent obstacles or challenges affecting the utility and accuracy of casemix in funding the psychiatric sector. Despite anecdotal claims that the reduced length of stay that often occurs under casemix payment systems may negatively impact upon the quality of care and patient outcomes, to date little empirical research has been directed towards measuring the potential impact of psychiatric casemix on the quality of patient care. Psychiatry cannot afford to ignore the casemix debate on account of its current exclusion from the early phases of implementation. To do so is to run the risk of having casemix imposed at some later stage in the absence of consultation. In the meantime it is vital that mental health professionals, including nurses, participate in the development and implementation of casemix, and contribute to research aimed at increasing or maximizing the relevance of casemix to the funding of psychiatric services.

  16. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  17. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  18. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  19. Legislative Issues in Disclosing Financial Conflicts of Interest to Participants in Biomedical Research: Effectiveness and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Sun

    2017-12-01

    This research focuses on the analysis regarding disclosure of financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) after Gelsinger v. University of Pennsylvania (Penn). The main legal issue was that the participants did not have enough opportunity to make an autonomous decision about participating in the research because he was not informed about the researchers' and the institution's substantial FCOI. The disclosure system was adopted by the Code of Federal Regulations. Under the regulation, researchers and institutions need to report FCOI over $5,000 to the institution, and the internal review boards have to report to the federal authority if needed. In case of human research, the disclosure to Food and Drug Administration is mandatory. FCOI disclosure system would help participants to make an autonomous decision, and increase trust to the research process and researchers. Moreover, the system would let researchers keep fiduciary duty while (possibly) lowering legal liability in case of a lawsuit. There were discussions about the disclosure methodology in the United States. However, there have not been a lot of discussions in Korea even after the "Humidifier Disinfectant" case. Therefore, new legislations need to be considered. First, the system requires disclosure funded by not only government but also private institutions. Second, like California Supreme Court, the subject would be reviewed under the reasonable person standard by participants, including patents, equity, and stock. Third, the disclosure needs to include simple or brief explanation to the FCOI to be better understood by the participants. Fourth, the disclosure should be in the informed consent process. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  20. Conceptual and methodological issues in studying alcohol’s harm to others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Room Robin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is a longer history of concern about alcohol’s harm to others, researchers’ interest has intensified in the last few years. The background of variation in concern over time in different societies is outlined. Three main traditions of research have emerged: population survey studies of such harm from the perspective of the ‘other’; analysis of register or case-record data which includes information on the involvement of another’s drinking in the case; and qualitative studies of interactions and experiences involved in particular harms from others’ drinking. In the course of the new spate of studies, many conceptual and methodological issues have arisen, some of which are considered in the paper. The diverse types of harms which have been studied are discussed. The social and personal nature of many of the harms means they do not fit easily into a disability or costing model, raising questions about how they might best be counted and aggregated. Harm from others’ drinking is inherently interactional, and subject to varying definitions of what counts as harm. The attribution to drinking, in the usual situation of conditional causation, is also subject to variation, with moral politics potentially coming into play. For measurement and comparison, account needs to be taken of cultural and individual variations in perceptions and thresholds of what counts as a harm, and attribution to alcohol. The view from the windows of a population survey and of a response agency case register are often starkly different, and research is needed, as an input and spur to policy initiatives, on what influences this difference and whether and how the views might be reconciled.

  1. An Improved Methodology to Overcome Key Issues in Human Fecal Metagenomic DNA Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obtain fecal metagenomic DNA with sufficient amount and good quality but low host genomic DNA contamination. In the current study, we demonstrate a quick, robust, unbiased, and cost-effective method for the isolation of high molecular weight (>23 kb metagenomic DNA (260/280 ratio >1.8 with a good yield (55.8 ± 3.8 ng/mg of feces. We also confirm that there is very low human genomic DNA contamination (eubacterial: human genomic DNA marker genes = 227.9:1 in the human feces. The newly-developed method robustly performs for fresh as well as stored fecal samples as demonstrated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 454 FLX+. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that compared to other DNA extraction methods tested, the fecal metagenomic DNA isolated with current methodology retains species richness and does not show microbial diversity biases, which is further confirmed by qPCR with a known quantity of spike-in genomes. Overall, our data highlight a protocol with a balance between quality, amount, user-friendliness, and cost effectiveness for its suitability toward usage for culture-independent analysis of the human gut microbiome, which provides a robust solution to overcome key issues associated with fecal metagenomic DNA isolation in human gut microbiome studies.

  2. MHealth resources for asthma and pregnancy care: methodological issues and social media recruitment. A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Graham R; O'Connor, Anita; Chamberlain, Chervonne; Halpin, David

    2018-06-26

    A discussion of methodological issues and social media recruitment to a feasibility study to investigate mHealth resources for asthma and pregnancy care. pregnant women with asthma are reported to be poorly supported according to international research. We sought to establish if a mHealth intervention might be feasible and acceptable to them. a Phase I or modelling study. A project team designed an intervention to address UK national guidelines for the management of asthma during pregnancy, using other resources already accessible on the web. This was made available on a project website optimized for mobile phone usage. Links were Tweeted and advertised on Facebook, asking participants to access the project website, which included links to the resources and before- and after-use questionnaires to establish baseline symptom data and participant views of the resources. Despite 55,700 Twitter impressions in a 76 day period over winter 2016-2017, this recruitment strategy garnered 402 engagements but only seven respondents for questionnaire 1 and zero respondents for questionnaire 2. We could not recruit to this study despite believing that social media recruitment would be effective, and we recommend that social media recruitment be used cautiously. Apparently, we did not sufficiently address theoretical aspects of communications theory and were not clear enough about our key messages. Publication bias may exist regarding the non-publication of other failed telemedicine studies using social media; this goes largely unreported in some systematic reviews and may influence researchers' decision-making regarding social media recruitment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Land and Resource Management Issues Relevant to Deploying In-Situ Thermal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tanana, Heather [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kline, Michelle [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Utah is home to oil shale resources containing roughly 1.3 trillion barrels of oil equivalent and our nation’s richest oil sands resources. If economically feasible and environmentally responsible means of tapping these resources can be developed, these resources could provide a safe and stable domestic energy source for decades to come. In Utah, oil shale and oil sands resources underlay a patchwork of federal, state, private, and tribal lands that are subject to different regulatory schemes and conflicting management objectives. Evaluating the development potential of Utah’s oil shale and oil sands resources requires an understanding of jurisdictional issues and the challenges they present to deployment and efficient utilization of emerging technologies. The jurisdictional patchwork and divergent management requirements inhibit efficient, economic, and environmentally sustainable development. This report examines these barriers to resource development, methods of obtaining access to landlocked resources, and options for consolidating resource ownership. This report also examines recent legislative efforts to wrest control of western public lands from the federal government. If successful, these efforts could dramatically reshape resource control and access, though these efforts appear to fall far short of their stated goals. The unintended consequences of adversarial approaches to obtaining resource access may outweigh their benefits, hardening positions and increasing tensions to the detriment of overall coordination between resource managers. Federal land exchanges represent a more efficient and mutually beneficial means of consolidating management control and improving management efficiency. Independent of exchange proposals, resource managers must improve coordination, moving beyond mere consultation with neighboring landowners and sister agencies to coordinating actions with them.

  4. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration.

  5. Investigating High-tech and Knowledge-Intensive Ventures: Methodological Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle; Christensen, Patrizia V.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the methodology applied in a longitudinal project on entrepreneurship, the SNE project.......The paper presents and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the methodology applied in a longitudinal project on entrepreneurship, the SNE project....

  6. Current psychometric and methodological issues in the measurement of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James W; Sumner, Jennifer A; Raes, Filip; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Debeer, Elise; Hermans, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Autobiographical memory is a multifaceted construct that is related to psychopathology and other difficulties in functioning. Across many studies, a variety of methods have been used to study autobiographical memory. The relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) and psychopathology has been of particular interest, and many studies of this cognitive phenomenon rely on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) to assess it. In this paper, we examine several methodological approaches to studying autobiographical memory, and focus primarily on methodological and psychometric considerations in OGM research. We pay particular attention to what is known about the reliability, validity, and methodological variations of the AMT. The AMT has adequate psychometric properties, but there is great variability in methodology across studies that use it. Methodological recommendations and suggestions for future studies are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Methodological Aspects and Relevance of the Study of Vegetable Oil, Fat and Lipoprotein Oxidation Using Pancreatic Lipase and Arylesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Nus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils as major dietary components are involved in the development of chronic diseases. In this paper the physiological relevance and some methodological aspects related to the determination of two enzymes enrolled in metabolism of fat – pancreatic lipase and arylesterase – are discussed. Pancreatic lipase has been extensively used to study the triacylglycerol fatty acid composition and the in vitro digestion of oils and fats. The action of this enzyme may be coupled to analytical methods as GC, HPLC, HPSEC, TLC- -FID, etc. as a useful tool for understanding the composition and digestion of thermal oxidized oils. Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis occurs in the water/oil interface, and it presents a behaviour that seems to be Michaelian, in which the apparent Km and the apparent Vmax of the enzymatic process depend more on the type of oil tested than on the degree of alteration. The kinetic behaviour of pancreatic lipase towards thermally oxidized oils also depends on the presence of natural tensioactive compounds present in the oil and surfactants formed during the frying. Arylesterase is an HDL binding enzyme that inhibits LDL oxidation. Low serum concentration of this enzyme has been related to increased cardiovascular disease risk. In this paper the most widely used methods for the determination of arylesterase activity are commented on. The importance of intrinsic factors (e.g. substrates, cofactors participating in the enzyme reaction is also discussed. Moreover, several suggestions about further researches on the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. diet, oxidative stress upon the enzyme activity are proposed.

  8. Methodological issues concerning the application of reliable laser particle sizing in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mascellis, R.; Impagliazzo, A.; Basile, A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Terribile, F.

    2009-04-01

    During the past decade, the evolution of technologies has enabled laser diffraction (LD) to become a much widespread means of particle size distribution (PSD), replacing sedimentation and sieve analysis in many scientific fields mainly due to its advantages of versatility, fast measurement and high reproducibility. Despite such developments of the last decade, the soil scientist community has been quite reluctant to replace the good old sedimentation techniques (ST); possibly because of (i) the large complexity of the soil matrix inducing different types of artefacts (aggregates, deflocculating dynamics, etc.), (ii) the difficulties in relating LD results with results obtained through sedimentation techniques and (iii) the limited size range of most LD equipments. More recently LD granulometry is slowly gaining appreciation in soil science also because of some innovations including an enlarged size dynamic range (0,01-2000 m) and the ability to implement more powerful algorithms (e.g. Mie theory). Furthermore, LD PSD can be successfully used in the application of physically based pedo-transfer functions (i.e., Arya and Paris model) for investigations of soil hydraulic properties, due to the direct determination of PSD in terms of volume percentage rather than in terms of mass percentage, thus eliminating the need to adopt the rough approximation of a single value for soil particle density in the prediction process. Most of the recent LD work performed in soil science deals with the comparison with sedimentation techniques and show the general overestimation of the silt fraction following a general underestimation of the clay fraction; these well known results must be related with the different physical principles behind the two techniques. Despite these efforts, it is indeed surprising that little if any work is devoted to more basic methodological issues related to the high sensitivity of LD to the quantity and the quality of the soil samples. Our work aims to

  9. Exploring morally relevant issues facing families in their decisions to monitor the health-related behaviours of loved ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, D; Christiansen, E K; Wynn, R

    2009-07-01

    Patient self-management of disease is increasingly supported by technologies that can monitor a wide range of behavioural and biomedical parameters. Incorporated into everyday devices such as cell phones and clothes, these technologies become integral to the psychosocial aspects of everyday life. Many technologies are likely to be marketed directly to families with ill members, and families may enlist the support of clinicians in shaping use. Current ethical frameworks are mainly conceptualised from the perspective of caregivers, researchers, developers and regulators in order to ensure the ethics of their own practices. This paper focuses on families as autonomous decision-makers outside the regulated context of healthcare. We discuss some morally relevant issues facing families in their decisions to monitor the health-related behaviours of loved ones. An example - remote parental monitoring of adolescent blood glucose - is presented and discussed through the lens of two contrasting accounts of ethics; one reflecting the predominant focus on health outcomes within the health technology assessment (HTA) framework and the other that attends to the broader sociocultural contexts shaping technologies and their implications. Issues discussed include the focus of assessments, informed consent and child assent, and family co-creation of system characteristics and implications. The parents' decisions to remotely monitor their child has relational implications that are likely to influence conflict levels and thus also health outcomes. Current efforts to better integrate outcome assessments with social and ethical assessments are particularly relevant for informed decision-making about health monitoring technologies in families.

  10. Current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. 1. Features and issues of probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) could play an important role in assuring safety of NPPs. However PRA had not always effectively used, which was indicated in Japanese government's report on Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. At the Risk Technical Committee (RTC) of Standards Committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan, preparation of standards (implementing criteria) focusing on PRA methodology and investigation on basic philosophy for use of PRA had been in progress. Based on activities of RTC, a serial in three articles including this described current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. This article introduced features and issues of PRA methodology related to the use of PRA. Features of PRA methodology could be shown as (1) systematic and comprehensive understanding of risk, (2) support of grading approach, (3) identification of effective safety upgrade measures and (4) quantitative understanding of effects of uncertainty. Issues of PRA methodology were (1) extension of PRA application area, (2) upgrade of PRA methodology, (3) quality assurance of PRA, (4) treatment of uncertainty and (5) quantitative evaluation criteria. (T. Tanaka)

  11. External Validity in the Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; Hickey, Tom

    1978-01-01

    An examination of the concept of external validity from two theoretical perspectives: a traditional mechanistic approach and a dialectical organismic approach. Examines the theoretical and methodological implications of these perspectives. (BD)

  12. Scientific Issues Relevant to Setting Regulatory Criteria to Identify Endocrine-Disrupting Substances in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Demeneix, Barbara; Ivell, Richard; Panzica, Giancarlo; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as exogenous compounds or mixtures that alter function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations. European regulations on pesticides, biocides, cosmetics, and industrial chemicals require the European Commission to establish scientific criteria to define EDs. We address the scientific relevance of four options for the identification of EDs proposed by the European Commission. Option 1, which does not define EDs and leads to using interim criteria unrelated to the WHO definition of EDs, is not relevant. Options 2 and 3 rely on the WHO definition of EDs, which is widely accepted by the scientific community, with option 3 introducing additional categories based on the strength of evidence (suspected EDs and endocrine-active substances). Option 4 adds potency to the WHO definition, as a decision criterion. We argue that potency is dependent on the adverse effect considered and is scientifically ambiguous, and note that potency is not used as a criterion to define other particularly hazardous substances such as carcinogens and reproductive toxicants. The use of potency requires a context that goes beyond hazard identification and corresponds to risk characterization, in which potency (or, more relevantly, the dose-response function) is combined with exposure levels. There is scientific agreement regarding the adequacy of the WHO definition of EDs. The potency concept is not relevant to the identification of particularly serious hazards such as EDs. As is common practice for carcinogens, mutagens, and reproductive toxicants, a multi-level classification of ED based on the WHO definition, and not considering potency, would be relevant (corresponding to option 3 proposed by the European Commission). Slama R, Bourguignon JP, Demeneix B, Ivell R, Panzica G, Kortenkamp A, Zoeller RT. 2016. Scientific issues relevant

  13. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  14. Project-Based Learning and Agile Methodologies in Electronic Courses: Effect of Student Population and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zapater

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Project-Based Learning (PBL and Agile methodologies have proven to be very interesting instructional strategies in Electronics and Engineering education, because they provide practical learning skills that help students understand the basis of electronics. In this paper we analyze two courses, one belonging to a Master in Electronic Engineering and one to a Bachelor in Telecommunication Engineering that apply Agile-PBL methodologies, and compare the results obtained in both courses with a traditional laboratory course. Our results support previous work stating that Agile-PBL methodologies increase student satisfaction. However, we also highlight some open issues that negatively affect the implementation of these methodologies,such as planning overhead or accidental complexity. Moreover,we show how differences in the student population, mostly related to the time spent on-campus, their commitment to the course or part-time dedication, have an impact on the benefits of Agile-PBL methods. In these cases, Agile-PBL methodologies by themselves are not enough and need to be combined with other techniques to increase student motivation.

  15. Methodological issues in analyzing human communication – the complexities of multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Tina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter develops a multimodal method for transcribing speech, communication, and performance. The chapter discusses the methodological solutions to the complex translation of speech, language rhythm and gesture in time and space into the two-dimensional format of a piece of paper. The focus...

  16. Conceptual issues of research methodology for the behavioural, life and social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellenbergh, G.J.; Adèr, H.J.; Baird, D.; Berger, M.P.F.; Cornell, J.E.; Hagenaars, J.A.P.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Research methodology (RM) must be clearly separated from substantive fields, such as medicine, psychology, education, sociology and economics, and, on the other side, from the philosophy of science and statistics. RM starts from substantive research problems and uses statistical knowledge, but it

  17. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. II. Sampling method affects ectoparasite studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 1 (2016), s. 59-66 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Parasite community * Fish sampling method * Methodology * Parasitological examination * Rutilus rutilus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  18. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  19. Human Machine Interface and Usability Issues: Exploring a Preliminary Mission Management System Evaluation Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kardos, Monique

    2001-01-01

    ...) concept demonstrator test during June 2000. The questionnaire was designed to examine usability and interface issues relating to the design of the systems or tools, and to provide suggestions for future iterations of the system...

  20. Inernational research in health care management: its need in the 21st century, methodological challenges, ethical issues, pitfalls, and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; Rathert, Cheryl; D'Aunno, Thomas A; Savage, Grant T

    2015-01-01

    This commentary argues in favor of international research in the 21st century. Advances in technology, science, communication, transport, and infrastructure have transformed the world into a global village. Industries have increasingly adopted globalization strategies. Likewise, the health sector is more internationalized whereby comparisons between diverse health systems, international best practices, international benchmarking, cross-border health care, and cross-cultural issues have become important subjects in the health care literature. The focus has now turned to international, collaborative, cross-national, and cross-cultural research, which is by far more demanding than domestic studies. In this commentary, we explore the methodological challenges, ethical issues, pitfalls, and practicalities within international research and offer possible solutions to address them. The commentary synthesizes contributions from four scholars in the field of health care management, who came together during the annual meeting of the Academy of Management to discuss with members of the Health Care Management Division the challenges of international research. International research is worth pursuing; however, it calls for scholarly attention to key methodological and ethical issues for its success. This commentary addresses salient issues pertaining to international research in one comprehensive account.

  1. Methodological issues in implementing a sustainable forest management plan in remote mountain areas - The Karakorum (Pakistan)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Efrem

    2014-01-01

    Based on a practical case-study, the Central Karakorum National Park - Gilgit-Baltistan - Pakistan, the aim of the thesis is to present a methodological framework for promoting the sustainable forest management in mountain areas characterized by remoteness, difficulties of access and where few data are available. Forest resources of Karakorum Mountains assume an essential role for the livelihoods of local communities, heavily dependent on wood for heating, cooking and construction purposes...

  2. Theoretical and Methodological issues concerning managers' mental models of competitive industry structures

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Kevin; Johnson, Gerry; De Chernatony, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    To be presented at the British Academy of Management Conference, Bradford, September 1992. The methodology traditionally employed by strategic groups theorists categorizes companies on the basis of objective economic variables such as industry supply characteristics. Other lines of research have suggested that this economic approach is limited, and that a more cognitive approach is needed. Strategic groups theory proposes one way in which companies may be categorized, but it is not clea...

  3. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. III. Effect of fish preservation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 3 (2018), s. 213-224 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : flounder Paralichthys-olivaceus * Neoheterobothrium-hirame * community structure * infection levels * Baltic sea * Odontobutidae * ectoparasites * Perciformes * collection * ecology * Parasite community * Preservation methods * Perca fluviatilis * Rhodeus amarus * Methodology * Parasitological examination Subject RIV: GL - Fish ing OBOR OECD: Fish ery Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  4. Methodological issues and research recommendations for prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury: results of the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristman, Vicki L; Borg, Jörgen; Godbolt, Alison K; Salmi, L Rachid; Cancelliere, Carol; Carroll, Linda J; Holm, Lena W; Nygren-de Boussard, Catharina; Hartvigsen, Jan; Abara, Uko; Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David

    2014-03-01

    The International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) Prognosis performed a comprehensive search and critical review of the literature from 2001 to 2012 to update the 2002 best-evidence synthesis conducted by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Neurotrauma, Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation Task Force on the prognosis of MTBI. Of 299 relevant studies, 101 were accepted as scientifically admissible. The methodological quality of the research literature on MTBI prognosis has not improved since the 2002 Task Force report. There are still many methodological concerns and knowledge gaps in the literature. Here we report and make recommendations on how to avoid methodological flaws found in prognostic studies of MTBI. Additionally, we discuss issues of MTBI definition and identify topic areas in need of further research to advance the understanding of prognosis after MTBI. Priority research areas include but are not limited to the use of confirmatory designs, studies of measurement validity, focus on the elderly, attention to litigation/compensation issues, the development of validated clinical prediction rules, the use of MTBI populations other than hospital admissions, continued research on the effects of repeated concussions, longer follow-up times with more measurement periods in longitudinal studies, an assessment of the differences between adults and children, and an account for reverse causality and differential recall bias. Well-conducted studies in these areas will aid our understanding of MTBI prognosis and assist clinicians in educating and treating their patients with MTBI. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Theory and History, Questions and Methodology: Current and Future Issues in Research into ICT in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Anne; Jones, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Serious criticisms of research in information and communications technology (ICT) in education have been published recently in both the UK and the USA. This paper addresses several issues raised in these commentaries: a lack of sound theoretical underpinnings to our research, persistent neglect of the history of our sub-discipline, the choice of…

  6. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics--an interdisciplinary field with a long tradition--is approached in this two-part article from two directions, in each case with several objectives. Part I, in this issue of "JAE", is devoted to the first direction, which is mainly definitional and organizational: the objectives are to present an outline of the field's…

  7. [Conceptual and methodological issues involved in the research field of diagnostic reasoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Persia, Francisco N

    2016-05-01

    The psychopathological field is crossed by dilemmas that put in question its methodological, conceptual and philosophical filiations. Since the early works of Ey and Jaspers until recent work of Berrios it has been in question the position psychopathology has in the field of medicine in general, and in the field of psychiatry in particular, especially if it should follow the principles of natural science or if it has an autonomous position between them. This debate has led to two opposing positions facing two different models of psychopathology: the biomedical model and the socio-constructionist model. In this work it is proposed to review the scope and difficulties involved in each model following two central axes: diagnostic reasoning and mental illness conceptual problem. Later, as a synthesis of the analysis proposed they are identified central concepts of each model that could allow the development of a hybrid model in psychopathology; in between them the comprehensive framework employed in symptoms recognition and the social component that characterizes it are highlighted. As a conclusion, these concepts are proposed as central aspects for conceptual and methodological clarification of the research field of diagnostic reasoning in psychopathology.

  8. Exploring the Benefits of Respite Services to Family Caregivers: Methodological Issues and Current Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H.; Liu, Yin; Bangerter, Lauren R.; Rovine, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives There is growing emphasis on empirical validation of the efficacy of community-based services for older people and their families, but research on services such as respite care faces methodological challenges that have limited the growth of outcome studies. We identify problems associated with the usual research approaches for studying respite care, with the goal of stimulating use of novel and more appropriate research designs that can lead to improved studies of community-based services. Method Using the concept of research validity, we evaluate the methodological approaches in the current literature on respite services, including adult day services, in-home respite and overnight respite. Results Although randomized control trials (RCTs) are possible in community settings, validity is compromised by practical limitations of randomization and other problems. Quasi-experimental and interrupted time series designs offer comparable validity to RCTs and can be implemented effectively in community settings. Conclusion An emphasis on RCTs by funders and researchers is not supported by scientific evidence. Alternative designs can lead to development of a valid body of research on community services such as respite. PMID:26729467

  9. Experimental investigations relevant for hydrogen and fission product issues raised by the Fukushima accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Gupta

    2015-02-01

    with the operation of passive safety systems in phenomena oriented and coupled effects experiments. In the present paper, potential hydrogen and fission product issues raised by the Fukushima accident are discussed. The discussion focuses on hydrogen and fission product behavior inside nuclear power plant containments under severe accident conditions. The relevant experimental investigations conducted in the technical scale containment THAI (thermal hydraulics, hydrogen, aerosols, and iodine test facility (9.2 m high, 3.2 m in diameter, and 60 m3 volume are discussed in the light of the Fukushima accident.

  10. Issues and insights of PRA methodology in nuclear and space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents some important issues and technical insights on the scope, conceptual framework, and essential elements of nuclear power plant Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and that of the PRAs in general applications of the aerospace industry, such as the Space Shuttle PRA being conducted by NASA. Discussions are focused on various lessons learned in nuclear power plant PRA applications and their potential applicability to the PRAs in the aerospace and launch vehicle systems. Based on insights gained from PRA projects for nuclear power plants and from the current Space Shuttle PRA effort, the paper explores the commonalities and the differences between the conduct of the different PRAs and the key issues and risk insights derived from extensive modeling practices in both industries of nuclear and space. (author)

  11. Bringing translation out of the shadows: translation as an issue of methodological significance in cross-cultural qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Poon, Maurice Kwong-Lai

    2010-04-01

    Translation is an integral component of cross-cultural research that has remained invisible. It is commonly assumed that translation is an objective and neutral process, in which the translators are "technicians" in producing texts in different languages. Drawing from the field of translation studies and the findings of a translation exercise conducted with three bilingual Cantonese-English translators, the authors highlight some of the methodological issues about translation in cross-cultural qualitative research. They argue that only by making translation visible and through open dialogue can researchers uncover the richness embedded in the research data and facilitate multiple ways of knowing.

  12. 3rd ICTs and Society Meeting; Paper Session - Theorizing the Internet; Paper 4: A Methodological Reflection on Converging Technologies and Their Relevance to Informa-tion Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-Hang Wong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In light of converging technologies, there is a clear sense that ethicists of various technological domains are coming together. Or, that they should come together. Yet, despite increasing cooperation and boundary-crossing in various fields of the ethics of technology, these efforts remain mostly at topical level. Relatively little attention has been given to issues on methodologies. The current paper aims to contribute to the current research by raising the methodological issues. In this paper, my objective is to argue that ethics of Information Technology (or Information Ethics (IE can benefit from the insights in other fields of the ethics of technology. Drawing the insights from other fields of the ethics of technology, I shall propose a systematic account of an Empirical Information Ethics (EIE

  13. Delivering spacecraft control centers with embedded knowledge-based systems: The methodology issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayache, S.; Haziza, M.; Cayrac, D.

    1994-01-01

    Matra Marconi Space (MMS) occupies a leading place in Europe in the domain of satellite and space data processing systems. The maturity of the knowledge-based systems (KBS) technology, the theoretical and practical experience acquired in the development of prototype, pre-operational and operational applications, make it possible today to consider the wide operational deployment of KBS's in space applications. In this perspective, MMS has to prepare the introduction of the new methods and support tools that will form the basis of the development of such systems. This paper introduces elements of the MMS methodology initiatives in the domain and the main rationale that motivated the approach. These initiatives develop along two main axes: knowledge engineering methods and tools, and a hybrid method approach for coexisting knowledge-based and conventional developments.

  14. Morbidity and mortality in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. I. Methodological issues and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Voelz, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Cancer among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities, has been reviewed with respect to mortality between 1950 and 1969 and incidence between 1969 and 1974. Several potentially causal occupational exposures have existed. Higher than expected incidence, currently, of cancers of the colon and rectum appears to be explained better by socioeconomic than occupational factors. Healthy worker and healthy military effects, white ethnicity, and migration are discussed as intervening variables relevant to interpreting mortality data in counties dominated by a single major facility. The utility of county data bases in the study of single local area mortality rates is reviewed

  15. Methodological issues in radiation dose-volume outcome analyses: Summary of a joint AAPM/NIH workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Herbert, Donald; Yan, Di; Jackson, Andrew; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Langer, Mark; Sapareto, Steve

    2002-01-01

    This report represents a summary of presentations at a joint workshop of the National Institutes of Health and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Current methodological issues in dose-volume modeling are addressed here from several different perspectives. Areas of emphasis include (a) basic modeling issues including the equivalent uniform dose framework and the bootstrap method, (b) issues in the valid use of statistics, including the need for meta-analysis, (c) issues in dealing with organ deformation and its effects on treatment response, (d) evidence for volume effects for rectal complications, (e) the use of volume effect data in liver and lung as a basis for dose escalation studies, and (f) implications of uncertainties in volume effect knowledge on optimized treatment planning. Taken together, these approaches to studying volume effects describe many implications for the development and use of this information in radiation oncology practice. Areas of significant interest for further research include the meta-analysis of clinical data; interinstitutional pooled data analyses of volume effects; analyses of the uncertainties in outcome prediction models, minimal parameter number outcome models for ranking treatment plans (e.g., equivalent uniform dose); incorporation of the effect of motion in the outcome prediction; dose-escalation/isorisk protocols based on outcome models; the use of functional imaging to study radio-response; and the need for further small animal tumor control probability/normal tissue complication probability studies

  16. What Can Be Learned From a Laboratory Model of Conceptual Change? Descriptive Findings and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Stellan; Cosejo, David G.

    2014-07-01

    The problem of how people process novel and unexpected information— deep learning (Ohlsson in Deep learning: how the mind overrides experience. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011)—is central to several fields of research, including creativity, belief revision, and conceptual change. Researchers have not converged on a single theory for conceptual change, nor has any one theory been decisively falsified. One contributing reason is the difficulty of collecting informative data in this field. We propose that the commonly used methodologies of historical analysis, classroom interventions, and developmental studies, although indispensible, can be supplemented with studies of laboratory models of conceptual change. We introduce re- categorization, an experimental paradigm in which learners transition from one definition of a categorical concept to another, incompatible definition of the same concept, a simple form of conceptual change. We describe a re-categorization experiment, report some descriptive findings pertaining to the effects of category complexity, the temporal unfolding of learning, and the nature of the learner's final knowledge state. We end with a brief discussion of ways in which the re-categorization model can be improved.

  17. Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Kakeshita, Idalina Shiraishi; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s)”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion). CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time. PMID:24897056

  18. Childhood leukaemia near British nuclear installations: Methodological issues and recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bithell, J. F.; Keegan, T. J.; Kroll, M. E.; Murphy, M. F. G.; Vincent, T. J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, the German Childhood Cancer Registry published the results of the Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken (KiKK) study of childhood cancer and leukaemia around German nuclear power stations. The positive findings appeared to conflict with the results of a recent British analysis carried out by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE), published in 2005. The present paper first describes the COMARE study, which was based on data from the National Registry of Children's Tumours (NRCT); in particular, the methodology used in this study is described. Although the results of the COMARE study were negative for childhood leukaemia, this apparent discrepancy could be accounted for by a number of differences in approach, especially those relating to the distances from the power stations and the ages of the children studied. The present study was designed to match the KiKK study as far as possible. The incidence observed (18 cases within 5 km against 14.58 expected, p = 0.21) was not significantly raised. The risk estimate for proximity in the regression fitted was actually negative, though the confidence intervals involved are so wide that the difference from that reported in the KiKK study is only marginally statistically significant (p = 0.063). (authors)

  19. Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A CaseStudy Of Kolar District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Murthy, I.K.; Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Sahana, C.A.; Srivathsa, K.G.; Khan, H.

    2007-06-01

    There is a need to assess climate change mitigationopportunities in forest sector in India in the context of methodologicalissues such as additionality, permanence, leakage, measurement andbaseline development in formulating forestry mitigation projects. A casestudy of forestry mitigation project in semi-arid community grazing landsand farmlands in Kolar district of Karnataka, was undertaken with regardto baseline and project scenariodevelopment, estimation of carbon stockchange in the project, leakage estimation and assessment ofcost-effectiveness of mitigation projects. Further, the transaction coststo develop project, and environmental and socio-economic impact ofmitigation project was assessed.The study shows the feasibility ofestablishing baselines and project C-stock changes. Since the area haslow or insignificant biomass, leakage is not an issue. The overallmitigation potential in Kolar for a total area of 14,000 ha under variousmitigation options is 278,380 tC at a rate of 20 tC/ha for the period2005-2035, which is approximately 0.67 tC/ha/yr inclusive of harvestregimes under short rotation and long rotation mitigation options. Thetransaction cost for baseline establishment is less than a rupee/tC andfor project scenario development is about Rs. 1.5-3.75/tC. The projectenhances biodiversity and the socio-economic impact is alsosignificant.

  20. Studies of self-pollution in diesel school buses: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, Jonathan; Sirianni, Greg

    2007-09-01

    Considerable interest has focused on levels of exhaust emissions in the cabins of diesel-powered school buses and their possible adverse health effects. Significantly different policy and engineering issues would be raised if compelling evidence found that inc-cabin contamination was due to self-pollution from bus emissions, rather than ambient pollution, neighboring vehicles, and/or re-entrained road dust. We identified 19 reports from 11 studies that measured diesel exhaust particulate in the cabins of 58 school bus of various type. Studies were evaluated in light of their experimental design, their data quality, and their capacity to quantify self-pollution. Only one study had a true experimental design, comparing the same buses with and without emission controls, while four others used intentional tracers to quantify tail pipe and/or crankcase emissions. Although definitive data are still lacking, these studies suggest that currently available control technologies can nearly eliminate particulate self-pollution inside diesel school buses.

  1. Evaluation of the performance of diagnosis-related groups and similar casemix systems: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, G; Reid, B

    2001-05-01

    With the increasing recognition and application of casemix for managing and financing healthcare resources, the evaluation of alternative versions of systems such as diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) has been afforded high priority by governments and researchers in many countries. Outside the United States, an important issue has been the perceived need to produce local versions, and to establish whether or not these perform more effectively than the US-based classifications. A discussion of casemix evaluation criteria highlights the large number of measures that may be used, the rationale and assumptions underlying each measure, and the problems in interpreting the results. A review of recent evaluation studies from a number of countries indicates that considerable emphasis has been placed on the predictive validity criterion, as measured by the R2 statistic. However, the interpretation of the findings has been affected greatly by the methods used, especially the treatment and definition of outlier cases. Furthermore, the extent to which other evaluation criteria have been addressed has varied widely. In the absence of minimum evaluation standards, it is not possible to draw clear-cut conclusions about the superiority of one version of a casemix system over another, the need for a local adaptation, or the further development of an existing version. Without the evidence provided by properly designed studies, policy-makers and managers may place undue reliance on subjective judgments and the views of the most influential, but not necessarily best informed, healthcare interest groups.

  2. Catalyzing Cross-Disciplinary Research and Education Within and Beyond the Environmental and Geosciences to Address Emerging, Societally-Relevant Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cak, A. D.; Vigdor, L. J.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Giebel, B. M.; Santistevan, C.; Chasteau, C.

    2017-12-01

    Tackling emergent, societally-relevant problems in the environmental sciences is hardly confined to a single research discipline, but rather requires collaborations that bridge diverse domains and perspectives. While new technologies (e.g., Skype) can in theory unite otherwise geographically distributed participation in collaborative research, physical distance nevertheless raises the bar on intellectual dialogue. Such barriers may reveal perceptions of or real differences across disciplines, reflecting particular traditions in their histories and academic cultures. Individual disciplines are self-defined by their scientific, epistemologic, methodologic, or philosophical traditions (e.g., difficulties in understanding processes occurring at different scales, insufficient research funding for interdisciplinary work), or cultural and discursive hurdles (e.g., navigating a new field's jargon). Coupled with these challenges is a considerable deficiency in educating the next generation of scientists to help them develop a sufficient comfort level with thinking critically across multiple disciplinary domains and conceptual frameworks. To address these issues, the City University of New York (CUNY), the largest public urban university in the U.S., made a significant investment in advancing cross-disciplinary research and education, culminating in the opening of the CUNY Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) in New York City (NYC) in late 2014. We report here on our experiences incubating new collaborative efforts to address environmental science-related research as it is interwoven with the ASRC's five research initiatives (Environmental Sciences, Neuroscience, Structural Biology, Photonics, and Nanoscience). We describe the ASRC's overall structure and function as both a stand-alone interdisciplinary center and one that collaborates more broadly with CUNY's network of twenty-four campuses distributed across NYC's five boroughs. We identify challenges we have faced so

  3. Cultural Adaptations: Conceptual, Ethical, Contextual, and Methodological Issues for Working with Ethnocultural and Majority-World Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Guillermo; Adames, Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Mayor advancements have been achieved in research on the cultural adaptation of prevention and treatment interventions that are conducted with diverse ethnocultural groups. This commentary addresses conceptual, ethical, contextual, and methodological issues related to cultural adaptations. The articles in this special issue represent a major contribution to the study of cultural adaptations in prevention science. We frame our analysis of fidelity to core intervention components using a conceptual approach that examines (a) the propositional model (theory of change), (b) the procedural model (theory of action, methods), and (c) the philosophical assumptions that undergird these models. Regarding ethics, we caution against imposing the norms, values, and world views of the Western dominant society onto vulnerable populations such as ethnocultural groups. Given that the assumption of universality in behavioral science has been questioned, and as randomized clinical trials (RCTs) seldom examine the ecological validity of evidence-based interventions and treatments (EBI/T), imposing such interventions onto ethnocultural groups is problematic since these interventions contain values, norms, beliefs, and worldviews that may be contrary to those held by many ethnocultural groups. Regarding methods, several innovative designs are discussed that serve as alternatives to the RCT and represent an important contribution to prevention science. Also, we discuss guidelines for conducting cultural adaptations. Finally, the articles in this special issue make a major contribution to the growing field of cultural adaptation of preventive interventions with ethnocultural groups and majority-world populations.

  4. Methodological issues in protein and lipidic expressions in brain tissue exposed to Co60 based on DESI/MALDI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Matheus F.; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.; Augusti, Rodinei; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Vendramini, Pedro H.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper attempts to present some issues in the methodology of identifying lipid and protein changes in brain tissue induced by radiation. The goal was to address the analysis of the methodology and to investigate the feasibility of the generation of lipid/protein profiles of irradiated brain tissue, in order to identify radioinduced changes. Lipids and proteins are biomolecules with diverse structures and functionalities that participate in important intracellular processes. Changes in the lipid and the tissue protein profiles may indicate a cellular response to an external stimulus as well as the emergence of neoplasms or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. DESI-MS is a convenient method for identifying lipids and their spatial distribution in tissue beyond analytical quantification. DESI-MS allows the creation of an image of several low lipid m/z classes. MALDI-MS has already been a method used in the study of macromolecules as structural, membrane, hormone, neuromediator and immunological peptides. Through a full-scan matrix scan, with a m/z spectrum between 500-1000 for lipids and with a mass spectrum of 1000-15000 Da for proteins, the molecular profile can be analyzed. Generated pixel shape 2D chemical image. The produced image allows to associate the tissue distribution of the lipids and proteins with their chemical profile identified, allowing the verification of the changes radioinduced. Radiation triggers intense oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, causing DNA damage with consequent alterations in proteomics and cellular lipid explaining such changes in the lipid and protein expressions. The cellular morphophysiological changes are responsible for both the clonogenic inhibition and the induction of the apoptotic process. The images's production was directly dependent on the rigorous execution of the methodological procedures. Innumerable interferences could impair the image

  5. Vulnerability or Sensitivity to the Environment? Methodological Issues, Trends, and Recommendations in Gene–Environment Interactions Research in Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Leighton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the potential role of gene–environment interactions (GxE in explaining vulnerability to psychopathology in humans has witnessed a shift from a diathesis-stress perspective to differential susceptibility approaches. This paper critically reviews methodological issues and trends in this body of research. Databases were screened for studies of GxE in the prediction of personality traits, behavior, and mental health disorders in humans published between January 2002 and January 2015. In total, 315 papers were included. Results showed that 34 candidate genes have been included in GxE studies. Independent of the type of environment studied (early or recent life events, positive or negative environments, about 67–83% of studies have reported significant GxE interactions, which is consistent with a social susceptibility model. The percentage of positive results does not seem to differ depending on the gene studied, although publication bias might be involved. However, the number of positive findings differs depending on the population studied (i.e., young adults vs. older adults. Methodological considerations limit the ability to draw strong conclusions, particularly as almost 90% (n = 283/315 of published papers are based on samples from North America and Europe, and about 70% of published studies (219/315 are based on samples that were also used in other reports. At the same time, there are clear indications of methodological improvements over time, as is shown by a significant increase in longitudinal and experimental studies as well as in improved minimum genotyping. Recommendations for future research, such as minimum quality assessment of genes and environmental factors, specifying theoretical models guiding the study, and taking into account of cultural, ethnic, and lifetime perspectives, are formulated.

  6. Arctic development and historical analysis: the use of historical methodology in addressing current issues in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vasiliki Kravariotis

    2008-06-01

    To demonstrate the applicability of historical methodology to current issues in the Canadian Arctic. This is a literature-based analytical historical study, which draws on material from database searches of MEDLINE, Anthropology Plus, POLARInfo, the Arctic Blue Books and Historical Abstracts. Material was also obtained from physical searches of the University of Alberta Libraries and Library and Archives Canada collections, as well as from field research in the records of the Inuulitsivik Maternities. The historical technique of tracing epistemological change over time, pioneered by Michel Foucault and further developed by Ian Hacking, was applied to the history of Canadian authority in the Arctic. This was linked with epistemological changes occurring throughout Western/Southern culture in this period. The applicability of this historical analysis for current issues in the region was then evaluated. An epistemological shift in Western society has moved authority from traditional human actors in government, medicine and, increasingly, science to statistics, which is seen as both impartial and accurate. Human authorities now routinely appeal to statistical authority to validate policy decisions. This change is as apparent in the Arctic as elsewhere, but it has also opened a space for Inuit practices, rooted in traditional Inuit epistemology, to reassert themselves, provided they can satisfy demands for statistical validity. Historical analysis provides a means to identify the spaces which epistemological change and historical contingency have opened in which social and cultural change can occur.

  7. Methodological issues in developing a community forestry greenhouse gas emissions mitigation project in Mancherial forest division of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, I.K.; Hegde, G.T.; Sudha, P.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    There are several contentious issues related to forestry mitigation projects. The special report of the IPCC and literature published so far have shown that permanence, leakage, baseline establishment, measurement, monitoring, etc., could be addressed satisfactorily using existing scientific methods and accounting rules. To understand the methodological issues of developing community forestry projects, a case study was conducted in Mancherial forest division of Adilabad district in Andhra Pradesh, India. This paper addresses: the setting of project boundaries, baseline selection, establishment of additionality and the calculation of carbon sequestration as a result of the project, prior to project implementation. The steps involved in development of the project and the different methods used for establishing baseline, estimating leakage and transaction cost of developing a community forestry project are presented. The stock is projected to increase by 1480 x 10 3 t C during 2000-2012 over the baseline scenario under the modeling approach and the cost of establishing a baseline and project formulation for a project extending over 32,956 ha is estimated to be US$ 1.25 ha -1 and US$ 4 t C -1

  8. Lifting the veil: a typological survey of the methodological features of Islamic ethical reasoning on biomedical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdur-Rashid, Khalil; Furber, Steven Woodward; Abdul-Basser, Taha

    2013-04-01

    We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa-i.e., the products of the application of the tools that we describe-are generally characterized by internal consistency. We also conclude that Islamic ethical reasoning on bioethical issues, while clearly scripture-based, is also characterized by strong consequentialist elements and possesses clear principles-based characteristics. The paper contributes to the study of bioethics by familiarizing non-specialists in Islamic ethics with the role, scope, and applicability of key Islamic ethical concepts, such as "aims" (maqāṣid), "universals" (kulliyyāt), "interest" (maṣlaḥa), "maxims" (qawā`id), "controls" (ḍawābit), "differentiators" (furūq), "preponderization" (tarjīḥ), and "extension" (tafrī`).

  9. Methodological issues in detecting gene-gene interactions in breast cancer susceptibility: a population-based study in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onay Venus

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that gene-gene interactions are ubiquitous in determining the susceptibility to common human diseases. The investigation of such gene-gene interactions presents new statistical challenges for studies with relatively small sample sizes as the number of potential interactions in the genome can be large. Breast cancer provides a useful paradigm to study genetically complex diseases because commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may additively or synergistically disturb the system-wide communication of the cellular processes leading to cancer development. Methods In this study, we systematically studied SNP-SNP interactions among 19 SNPs from 18 key genes involved in major cancer pathways in a sample of 398 breast cancer cases and 372 controls from Ontario. We discuss the methodological issues associated with the detection of SNP-SNP interactions in this dataset by applying and comparing three commonly used methods: the logistic regression model, classification and regression trees (CART, and the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method. Results Our analyses show evidence for several simple (two-way and complex (multi-way SNP-SNP interactions associated with breast cancer. For example, all three methods identified XPD-[Lys751Gln]*IL10-[G(-1082A] as the most significant two-way interaction. CART and MDR identified the same critical SNPs participating in complex interactions. Our results suggest that the use of multiple statistical approaches (or an integrated approach rather than a single methodology could be the best strategy to elucidate complex gene interactions that have generally very different patterns. Conclusion The strategy used here has the potential to identify complex biological relationships among breast cancer genes and processes. This will lead to the discovery of novel biological information, which will improve breast cancer risk management.

  10. Geotechnical site assessment methodologies relevant to potential deep underground disposal facilities: with particular reference to the determination of in situ rock stress by the hydraulic fracturing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, B.G.; Richards, L.R.

    1986-10-01

    A final report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodologies relevant to Land 3/4 sites. Two areas of research have been investigated; in situ stress determination by the hydraulic fracturing method in basic volcanics and sediments and the laboratory determination of hydraulic fracture tensile strength. The analysis and interpretation of the hydraulic fracturing test data from a programme of testing in the Vale of Belvoir is discussed in detail particularly in respect of the effects of pore water pressure and fluid diffusion in the rocks being tested. The regional stress regime of the Vale of Belvoir is discussed with respect to the results of the in situ stress determination. A method for determining the hydraulic fracture tensile strength in the laboratory is described. The results of a series of laboratory tests on rock core are reported. (author)

  11. Tooth wear and erosion: methodological issues in epidemiological and public health research and the future research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganss, C; Young, A; Lussi, A

    2011-09-01

    This paper addresses methodological issues in the field of tooth wear and erosion research including the epidemiological indices, and identifies future work that is needed to improve knowledge about tooth wear and erosion. The paper is result of the work done at the meetings of the Special Interest Group "Tooth Surface Loss and Erosion" at the 2008, 2009 and 2010 conferences of the European Association for Dental Public Health, and the Workshop "Current Erosion indices- flawed or valid" which took place in Basel in 2007. Although there is consensus about the definition and the diagnostic criteria of various forms of tooth wear, gaps in research strategies have been identified. A basic problem is that fundamental concepts of wear and erosion as an oral health problem, have not yet been sufficiently defined. To a certain extent, tooth wear is a physiological condition, and there is no consensus as to whether it can be regarded as a disease. Furthermore, the multitude of indices and flaws in existing indices, make published data difficult to interpret. Topics for the research agenda are: the initiation of a consensus process towards an internationally accepted index, and the initiation of data collection on the prevalence of various forms of wear on a population-based level. There should be an emphasis on promoting communication between basic and clinical sciences, and the area of Public Health Dentistry. Furthermore, the question of whether tooth wear is a public health problem remains open for debate.

  12. Core and edge aspects of quiescent double barrier operation on DIII-D, with relevance to critical ITB physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Casper, T.A.; Burrell, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results from DIII-D address critical internal transport barrier (ITB) research issues relating to sustainability, impurity accumulation and ITB control, and have also demonstrated successful application of general profile control tools. In addition, substantial progress has been made in understanding the physics of the Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) regime, increasing the demonstrated operating space for the regime and improving performance. Highlights include: (1) A clear demonstration of q-profile modification using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD); (2) Successful use of localized profile control using electron cyclotron heating (ECH) or ECCD to reduce central high-Z impurity accumulation associated with density peaking; (3) Theory based modeling codes are now being used to design experiments; (4) The operating space for Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) has been substantially broadened, in particular higher density operation has been achieved; (5) Both absolute (β≤ 3.8%, neutron rate S n ≤ 5.5x10 15 s -1 ) and relative (β N H 89 = 7 for 10τ E ) performance has been increased; (6) With regard to sustainment, QDB plasmas have been run for 3.8 s or 26 τ E . These results emphasize that it is possible to produce sustained high quality H-mode performance with an edge localized mode (ELM)-free edge, directly addressing a major issue in fusion research, of how to ameliorate or eliminate ELM induced pulsed divertor particle and heat loads. (author)

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide measurements in the first 2 years of life: methodological issues, clinical and epidemiological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Benedictis Fernando M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO is a useful tool to diagnose and monitor eosinophilic bronchial inflammation in asthmatic children and adults. In children younger than 2 years of age FeNO has been successfully measured both with the tidal breathing and with the single breath techniques. However, there are a number of methodological issues that need to be addressed in order to increase the reproducibility of the FeNO measurements within and between infants. Indeed, a standardized method to measure FeNO in the first 2 years of life would be extremely useful in order to meaningfully interpret FeNO values in this age group. Several factors related to the measurement conditions have been found to influence FeNO, such as expiratory flow, ambient NO and nasal contamination. Furthermore, the exposure to pre- and postnatal risk factors for respiratory morbidity has been shown to influence FeNO values. Therefore, these factors should always be assessed and their association with FeNO values in the specific study population should be evaluated and, eventually, controlled for. There is evidence consistently suggesting that FeNO is increased in infants with family history of atopy/atopic diseases and in infants with recurrent wheezing. These findings could support the hypothesis that eosinophilic bronchial inflammation is present at an early stage in those infants at increased risk of developing persistent respiratory symptoms and asthma. Furthermore, it has been shown that FeNO measurements could represent a useful tool to assess bronchial inflammation in other airways diseases, such as primary ciliary dyskinesia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and cystic fibrosis. Further studies are needed in order to improve the reproducibility of the measurements, and large prospective studies are warranted in order to evaluate whether FeNO values measured in the first years of life can predict the future development of asthma or other respiratory diseases.

  14. The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1997-12-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  15. Questões relevantes para a aprovação de medicamentos biossimilares Relevant issues to biossimilars licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Serrapio Peres

    2012-12-01

    mais conservadora, enquanto que EUA e Brasil parecem estar construindo um arcabouço mais flexível. Ao lado das questões sanitárias, entretanto, destacam-se as questões econômicas, de grande importância na legislação dos EUA e Europa e não abordadas na regulamentação brasileira - o que pode trazer insegurança aos produtores interessados neste mercado.When the patent of a drug expires, low cost generics may be introduced in market. Trial results that demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the reference product can be extrapolated to the generic, simplifying the approval process. This paradigm cannot be applied to biopharmaceutical products, large molecules difficult to be characterized. Minor changes in the production process can influence the biological and clinical properties of the product and result in differences in efficacy and safety profiles. It is not possible to demonstrate the identical nature of biopharmaceuticals arising from different manufacturing sources, so they cannot be approved as simple generics and need specific regulation. A bibliographical survey of the main issues involved in the approval of similar versions of biopharmaceuticals was performed as well as a comparative analysis of the regulatory situation in the largests pharmaceutical markets - U.S. and European Union - based on legislation, draft laws, guidelines and technical references issued by their regulatory agencies - FDA (Food and Drug Administration and EMEA (European Medicines Agency, respectively, in order enlight the discussion now taking place in Brazil. Based on the laws and guidelines studied, it is concluded that, although Brazil, Europe and the United States are at different stages of setting their regulatory framework for biossimilars, it is possible to identify some similarities in approach, such as the need for different treatment for each product class (or a case by case focus and a step by step comparison exercise, the results of which will define the amount of

  16. The contracts of construction of yachts and pleasure craft : an Italian perspective on the most relevant legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Fabro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide a general overview of the Italian legislation and practice on the legal topics concerning the contracts of construction of yachts and pleasure craft, including an analysis of the most commonly adopted contractual clauses. After an introduction on the nature of the contract of construction in relation to the discipline of contracts of sale and contracts ‘’for work and materials’’ (contratto di appalto, the issues of the transfer of title/property and the registration of contracts of construction under the provisions of the Italian Navigation Code will be considered. Furthermore, the certification under Directive no. 94/25/EC as amended by Directive no. 2003/44/EC will be described together with an overview of the main differences compared to the classification of the Registries. An analysis of the possible causes of dispute between buyers and builders will complete the article with some comparative remarks regarding the discipline of the guarantee for defects, the rejection and the termination in the contracts of construction of yachts and vessels.

  17. Methodological issues in assessing changes in costs pre- and post-medication switch: a schizophrenia study example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyhuis Allen W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, and costly illness that adversely impacts patients' lives and health care payer budgets. Cost comparisons of treatment regimens are, therefore, important to health care payers and researchers. Pre-Post analyses ("mirror-image", where outcomes prior to a medication switch are compared to outcomes post-switch, are commonly used in such research. However, medication changes often occur during a costly crisis event. Patients may relapse, be hospitalized, have a medication change, and then spend a period of time with intense use of costly resources (post-medication switch. While many advantages and disadvantages of Pre-Post methodology have been discussed, issues regarding the attributability of costs incurred around the time of medication switching have not been fully investigated. Methods Medical resource use data, including medications and acute-care services (hospitalizations, partial hospitalizations, emergency department were collected for patients with schizophrenia who switched antipsychotics (n = 105 during a 1-year randomized, naturalistic, antipsychotic cost-effectiveness schizophrenia trial. Within-patient changes in total costs per day were computed during the pre- and post-medication change periods. In addition to the standard Pre-Post analysis comparing costs pre- and post-medication change, we investigated the sensitivity of results to varying assumptions regarding the attributability of acute care service costs occurring just after a medication switch that were likely due to initial medication failure. Results Fifty-six percent of all costs incurred during the first week on the newly initiated antipsychotic were likely due to treatment failure with the previous antipsychotic. Standard analyses suggested an average increase in cost-per-day for each patient of $2.40 after switching medications. However, sensitivity analyses removing costs incurred post-switch that were potentially

  18. Text-mining as a methodology to assess eating disorder-relevant factors: Comparing mentions of fitness tracking technology across online communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaig, Duncan; Bhatia, Sudeep; Elliott, Mark T; Walasek, Lukasz; Meyer, Caroline

    2018-05-07

    Text-mining offers a technique to identify and extract information from a large corpus of textual data. As an example, this study presents the application of text-mining to assess and compare interest in fitness tracking technology across eating disorder and health-related online communities. A list of fitness tracking technology terms was developed, and communities (i.e., 'subreddits') on a large online discussion platform (Reddit) were compared regarding the frequency with which these terms occurred. The corpus used in this study comprised all comments posted between May 2015 and January 2018 (inclusive) on six subreddits-three eating disorder-related, and three relating to either fitness, weight-management, or nutrition. All comments relating to the same 'thread' (i.e., conversation) were concatenated, and formed the cases used in this study (N = 377,276). Within the eating disorder-related subreddits, the findings indicated that a 'pro-eating disorder' subreddit, which is less recovery focused than the other eating disorder subreddits, had the highest frequency of fitness tracker terms. Across all subreddits, the weight-management subreddit had the highest frequency of the fitness tracker terms' occurrence, and MyFitnessPal was the most frequently mentioned fitness tracker. The technique exemplified here can potentially be used to assess group differences to identify at-risk populations, generate and explore clinically relevant research questions in populations who are difficult to recruit, and scope an area for which there is little extant literature. The technique also facilitates methodological triangulation of research findings obtained through more 'traditional' techniques, such as surveys or interviews. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Relationship between Intuitive Action Choices and Moral Reasoning on Animal Ethics Issues in Students of Veterinary Medicine and Other Relevant Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2018-01-01

    With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas. Action choices showed significant relationships to PI, MN, and UP questions, and these varied across program groups. Having a previous degree or more experience with farm animals had a negative relationship, and experience with horses or companion animals a positive relationship, with intuitive action choices favoring life and bodily integrity of animals. This study helps to explain the complex relationship between intuitive moral action choices and moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. As a useful research and educational tool for understanding this relationship, the VetDIT can enhance ethical decision making.

  20. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. I. Duration of live fish storage prior to dissection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2016), s. 107-115 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Parasite community * Temporal changes * Carassius gibelio * Fish holding * Methodology * Parasitological examination Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  1. ISSUES ON USING PRICE INDICES FOR ESTIMATING GDP AND ITS COMPONENTS AT CONSTANT PRICES ACCORDING TO SNA METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prykhodko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines requirements and methodological approaches to the calculation of price indices (deflators in the national accounts. It gives estimation for the level and dynamics of price indicators. It proposes on improving the calculation of price indices (deflators in the national accounts of Ukraine.

  2. An Examination of the State of Imitation Research in Children with Autism: Issues of Definition and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevlever, Melina; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that children with autism are impaired in their ability to imitate others. However, diverse methodologies, contradictory findings, and varying theoretical explanations continue to exist in the literature despite decades of research. A comprehensive account of imitation in children with autism is hampered by the lack…

  3. Methodological Issues in Documentary Ethnography: A Renewed Call for Putting Cameras in the Hands of the People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesca, Robert

    The participatory method of image production holds enormous potential for communication and journalism scholars operating out of a critical/cultural framework. The methodological potentials of mechanical reproduction were evident in the 1930s, when Walter Benjamin contributed three enduring concepts: questioning the art/document dichotomy; placing…

  4. Exploring the Society-Body-School Nexus: Theoretical and Methodology Issues in the Study of Body Pedagogics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article I identify how developments in consumer culture, waged-work and health policy have informed our current interest in the body, before suggesting that Durkheim's and Mauss's methodological approach towards the external and internal dimensions of "social facts" provides us with a valuable basis on which we can analyse the…

  5. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment Program (RIIA). A methodology for analyzing the short-term air quality impacts of new power plants: issue paper 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1979-07-01

    A simplified methodology is presented, based on Gaussian plume relationships, which could be used to assess regulatory constraints and vegetation damage for new power plants. Data input requirements include: (a) power plant size (MW), (b) fuel type, sulfur content, and level of control, and (c) nearby terrain elevation difference, with respect to stack base, for critical receptors. Based on sample calculations the 24-hour PSD increment is seen to be the most restrictive, using the ASME dispersion coefficients. An 800-MW plant (which is close to the optimum size from cost and reliability considerations according to a recent analysis), could be forced to reduce emissions below the levels assumed in this paper if adverse conditions were encountered. For example, terrain features higher than about 300 m at the critical distance from the plant could be restrictive, as could sufficiently persistent winds that would confine 24-hour plume spreading to <10/sup 0/.

  6. Relevance of methodological design for the interpretation of efficacy of drug treatment of premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, M. D.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Schweitzer, D. H.; Olivier, B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate whether the design and methodology of drug-treatment studies of premature ejaculation affect the efficacy outcome differently. Therefore, methodological, design and efficacy data from 79 studies ( 3034 males), published between 1943

  7. On Instructional Utility, Statistical Methodology, and the Added Value of ECD: Lessons Learned from the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brian; Nugent, Rebecca; Rupp, Andre A.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of "JEDM" was dedicated to bridging work done in the disciplines of "educational and psychological assessment" and "educational data mining" (EDM) via the assessment design and implementation framework of "evidence-centered design" (ECD). It consisted of a series of five papers: one…

  8. Methodological issues in systematic reviews of headache trials: adapting historical diagnostic classifications and outcome measures to present-day standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Douglas C; Gray, Rebecca N; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Steiner, Timothy J; Taylor, Frederick R

    2005-05-01

    Recent efforts to make headache diagnostic classification and clinical trial methodology more consistent provide valuable advice to trialists generating new evidence on effectiveness of treatments for headache; however, interpreting older trials that do not conform to new standards remains problematic. Systematic reviewers seeking to utilize historical data can adapt currently recommended diagnostic classification and clinical trial methodological approaches to interpret all available data relative to current standards. In evaluating study populations, systematic reviewers can: (i) use available data to attempt to map study populations to diagnoses in the new International Classification of Headache Disorders; and (ii) stratify analyses based on the extent to which study populations are precisely specified. In evaluating outcome measures, systematic reviewers can: (i) summarize prevention studies using headache frequency, incorporating headache index in a stratified analysis if headache frequency is not available; (ii) summarize acute treatment studies using pain-free response as reported in directly measured headache improvement or headache severity outcomes; and (iii) avoid analysis of recurrence or relapse data not conforming to the sustained pain-free response definition.

  9. Consistent assignment of nursing staff to residents in nursing homes: a critical review of conceptual and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tonya; Nolet, Kimberly; Bowers, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Consistent assignment of nursing staff to residents is promoted by a number of national organizations as a strategy for improving nursing home quality and is included in pay for performance schedules in several states. However, research has shown inconsistent effects of consistent assignment on quality outcomes. In order to advance the state of the science of research on consistent assignment and inform current practice and policy, a literature review was conducted to critique conceptual and methodological understandings of consistent assignment. Twenty original research reports of consistent assignment in nursing homes were found through a variety of search strategies. Consistent assignment was conceptualized and operationalized in multiple ways with little overlap from study to study. There was a lack of established methods to measure consistent assignment. Methodological limitations included a lack of control and statistical analyses of group differences in experimental-level studies, small sample sizes, lack of attention to confounds in multicomponent interventions, and outcomes that were not theoretically linked. Future research should focus on developing a conceptual understanding of consistent assignment focused on definition, measurement, and links to outcomes. To inform current policies, testing consistent assignment should include attention to contexts within and levels at which it is most effective. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2013.

  10. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research on support for nurses directly involved with women who chose to terminate their pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Gmeiner

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses’ experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die metodologiese vraagstukke te beskryf rondom die uitvoer van kwalitatiewe navorsing waar verpleegkundiges se ervaring van hul direkte betrokkenheid by terminasie van swangerskap verken en beskryf is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  11. History, applications, methodological issues and perspectives for the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) in marine and freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo E; Moyer, Gregory R

    2014-12-01

    Genetic material (short DNA fragments) left behind by species in nonliving components of the environment (e.g. soil, sediment, or water) is defined as environmental DNA (eDNA). This DNA has been previously described as particulate DNA and has been used to detect and describe microbial communities in marine sediments since the mid-1980's and phytoplankton communities in the water column since the early-1990's. More recently, eDNA has been used to monitor invasive or endangered vertebrate and invertebrate species. While there is a steady increase in the applicability of eDNA as a monitoring tool, a variety of eDNA applications are emerging in fields such as forensics, population and community ecology, and taxonomy. This review provides scientist with an understanding of the methods underlying eDNA detection as well as applications, key methodological considerations, and emerging areas of interest for its use in ecology and conservation of freshwater and marine environments.

  12. Exploring the concept of "caring cultures": A critical examination of the conceptual, methodological and validity issues with the "caring cultures" construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillin, Nicola; Taylor, Ruth; Walker, Susan

    2017-12-01

    To critically examine the conceptual, methodological and validity issues with the "caring cultures" construct. Post the Francis Report, "caring cultures" and alternative terminology such as "culture/s of care/caring/compassionate care" have gained prominence in the literature, especially within a UK policy context. However, in order to understand the value these "caring cultures" hold in terms of clinical practice, the concept itself first needs to be understood. A discussion and critical examination of the concept of "caring cultures" and associated terminology. Grey literature, database, library and reference list searches were conducted. It is implied that "caring cultures" influence patient care. However, evidence which verifies this assertion is limited. In this article, the concept of "caring cultures" is deconstructed and its validity explored. An alternative to "caring cultures" is proposed in terms of research, whereby the concept of culture is instead explored in detail, on a microsystem level, using appropriate methodology. The concept of "caring cultures", although attractive in terms of its apparent simplicity, is not considered the most useful nor appropriate phrases in terms of advancing research. Instead, research which examines the established concept of "culture" in relation to outcomes such as patient care, doing so with an appropriate methodology, is viewed as a more suitable alternative. Clarifying concepts and terminology relating to "caring cultures" is essential for research to progress and the impact of culture on clinical practice to be better understood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The neuropsychology of cannabis and other substance use in schizophrenia: review of the literature and critical evaluation of methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulston, Carissa M; Perdices, Michael; Tennant, Christopher C

    2007-11-01

    Research on the neuropsychology of substance use in schizophrenia has been steadily growing over the past decade. However, significant gaps remain in the knowledge of individual substances and their relationship to cognition in the schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Approximately 65 studies to date have directly examined this relationship. Of these, approximately 20 have focused on nicotine, 15 on alcohol, 10 on cocaine, three on stimulants/hallucinogens, one on benzodiazepines, 10 on polydrug abuse, and seven on cannabis. Research on cannabis is especially lacking, given that worldwide it is the most commonly used illicit drug in schizophrenia, is used at higher rates in schizophrenia than in the general population, and makes its own unique contribution to the onset and prognosis of schizophrenia. In the present paper an overview of the neuropsychology literature on substance use in schizophrenia is presented, with special emphasis on cannabis. This incorporates a discussion of the methodological limitations inherent in these studies, and range of potential confounding variables that were not considered or controlled, providing directions for future research into the cognitive correlates of cannabis and other substance use in schizophrenia.

  14. Methodology and Psychological Knowledge Issues in the Procedural Differentiation Sphere and the Evidence Doctrine: Problems of Theory and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Tsyganenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to actual problems of the theory and legislation of the modern criminal trial based on provisions of differentiation of a procedural form. Its basic provisions belong also to questions of evidentiary activity. Characteristics of knowledge on criminal case will claim the psychological knowledge and categories included in the mechanism of legal regulation of criminal procedure activity. Key role is allocated for the principle of freedom of an assessment of proofs. In this case the assessment of proofs is carried out on internal belief. Historically it is connected with institute of jury trial and competitiveness. Both the principle of freedom of assessment of proofs, and many other provisions of the procedural theory and the legislation need interpretation and an explanation with use of modern psychological knowledge. At the same time in modern Russian criminal procedure as well as in foreign types of criminal trial the reduced summary or special procedural jurisdictions are actively applied. It means formation of the differentiated model of criminal legal proceedings at which there is a summary process. Simplification of an order of proof on a criminal case through a wide range of exceptions is characteristic of them that constitutes a theoretical and practical problem. At their decision it is necessary to use a modern arsenal of methodology and the theory, including new achievements in the field of psychological knowledge.

  15. Methodological issues about techniques for the spiking of standard OECD soil with nanoparticles: evidence of different behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Rametta, Gabriella; Manzo, Sonia; Salluzzo, Antonio; Rimauro, Juri; Francia, Girolamo Di

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate at what extent the results of standard nanoparticle (NP) toxicity testing methodologies are affected by the different exposure procedures on soil organisms. In this view, differences in physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs (<100 nm), ZnO bulk (<200 nm) and ionic Zinc (ZnCl 2 ) and their ecotoxicological potential toward Lepidium sativum were investigated with respect to three different spiking methods. Results show that the spiking procedures give homogeneous distribution of the testing nanomaterial in soil but the physicochemical and ecotoxicological properties of the testing species differ according to the spiking procedure. Dry spiking produced the highest ZnO solubility whereas spiking through dispersions of ZnO in water and in aqueous soil extracts produced the lowest. At the same time, the ecotoxic effects showed different trends with regard to the spiking route. The need for a definition of agreed methods concerning the NP spiking procedures is, therefore, urgent

  16. Towards a common disability assessment framework: theoretical and methodological issues for providing public services and benefits using ICF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescutti, Carlo; Frattura, Lucilla; Troiano, Raffaella; Gongolo, Francesco; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Sala, Marina; Meucci, Paolo; Raggi, Alberto; Russo, Emanuela; Buffoni, Mara; Gorini, Giovanna; Conclave, Mario; Petrangeli, Agostino; Solipaca, Alessandro; Leonardi, Matilde

    2009-01-01

    To report on the preliminary results of an Italian project on the implementation of an ICF-based protocol for providing public services and benefits for persons with disabilities. The UN Convention on the Rights of persons with disabilities (UNC) was mapped to the ICF, and core elements were implemented in an ICF-based evaluation protocol. A person-environment interaction classification (PEIC) tree was also developed for defining evaluation outputs. The PEIC and the ICF-based protocol are the guideline and the data interpretation source, respectively, for providing public services and benefits. They enable to assign persons to different services, from surveillance and monitoring to facilitator provision or sustain over time, to barrier removal or to the reorganisation of environmental factors provision. A detailed description of the target intervention is made available through the implementation of a protocol, which points out the effect of personal support and other environmental factors. The detailed description of functioning and disability provided by our methodology can help policy makers and administrators in decision making, on the basis of a description of real needs, and in targeting person-tailored interventions.

  17. Methodological issues about techniques for the spiking of standard OECD soil with nanoparticles: evidence of different behaviours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglietta, Maria Lucia, E-mail: mara.miglietta@enea.it; Rametta, Gabriella; Manzo, Sonia; Salluzzo, Antonio; Rimauro, Juri; Francia, Girolamo Di [ENEA, Portici Technical Unit, C.R. Portici (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate at what extent the results of standard nanoparticle (NP) toxicity testing methodologies are affected by the different exposure procedures on soil organisms. In this view, differences in physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs (<100 nm), ZnO bulk (<200 nm) and ionic Zinc (ZnCl{sub 2}) and their ecotoxicological potential toward Lepidium sativum were investigated with respect to three different spiking methods. Results show that the spiking procedures give homogeneous distribution of the testing nanomaterial in soil but the physicochemical and ecotoxicological properties of the testing species differ according to the spiking procedure. Dry spiking produced the highest ZnO solubility whereas spiking through dispersions of ZnO in water and in aqueous soil extracts produced the lowest. At the same time, the ecotoxic effects showed different trends with regard to the spiking route. The need for a definition of agreed methods concerning the NP spiking procedures is, therefore, urgent.

  18. [Review of the methodological, ethical, legal and social issues of research projects in healthcare with big data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2018-05-31

    The current model for reviewing research with human beings basically depends on decision-making processes within research ethics committees. These committees must be aware of the importance of the new digital paradigm based on the large-scale exploitation of datasets, including personal data on health. This article offers guidelines, with the application of the EU's General Data Protection Regulation, for the appropriate evaluation of projects that are based on the use of big data analytics in healthcare. The processes for gathering and using this data constitute a niche where current research is developed. In this context, the existing protocols for obtaining informed consent from participants are outdated, as they are based not only on the assumption that personal data are anonymized, but that they will continue to be so in the future. As a result, it is essential that research ethics committees take on new capabilities and revisit values such as privacy and freedom, updating protocols, methodologies and working procedures. This change in the work culture will provide legal security to the personnel involved in research, will make it possible to guarantee the protection of the privacy of the subjects of the data, and will permit orienting the exploitation of data to avoid the commodification of personal data in this era of deidentification, so that research meets actual social needs and not spurious or opportunistic interests disguised as research. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire: a new methodology for science and practice in criminology and forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Fugett, April; Lounder, Lindsay

    2014-10-01

    Most modern theories suggest that interpersonal relationships are of central importance in the development of criminal behavior. We tested the parent attachment scales of a new research and clinical measure, the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ). It is a 29-scale battery assessing attachments to mother, father, partner, and peers, which also includes several related clinical scales. Sixty-one (18-20 years of age) male offenders from a maximum security detention center and 131 contrasts completed the ACIQ. ANOVA demonstrated that mother and father attachments displayed different patterns. The attachment scales also predicted the numbers of crimes within the population of juvenile offenders. Thus, the parent attachment scales of the ACIQ showed promise as an instrument to test dynamic systems approaches to developmental models of criminal behavior. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Redevelopment of the Arctic Area of Russia as an Objective of Systems Research and Special-Purpose Program Management Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolayevich Leksin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the methodological foundations of implementation of the rules and regulations of the development of the Arctic region of Russia, which relies on the hypothesis interpreting such development as the biggest integrated megaproject in the history of Russia. The substantiation involves both the project-oriented approach to identify the subject-matter of the research and the systems approach to assess the key opportunities of providing the integrative structure of the megaproject in the conditions of drastic differences between the areal components of the Arctic region, and to study the internal and external factors’ impact on the character, drivers and pace of the region redevelopment. The set of consistent methodological positions concerning their policy implementation by responsible governmental agencies in the foreseeable future of the Arctic is developed. The most important position involves the identification of the objective of the public administration of the Arctic region development as a systemically organized entity of multiple coordinated actions of the federal, regional and municipal authorities, corporations and civil society institutions integrated by the unique policy target and economic, social and infrastructure links. Implementation of the public administration requires the principles of systems approach, the reasonable trade-off between centralization, decentralization and continuity of governance focused exclusively on the Arctic issues. At the same time, the integration of the projects of the region’s areal components development to insure the common targets of the Arctic’s megaproject accompanied by the reconsideration of the earlier developed programs turns into a genuinely new methodological issue. In the article, recommendations to provide such integration are introduced.

  1. Theoretical Issues and Methodological Implications in Researching Visual Search Behaviours: A Preliminary Study Comparing the Cognitive and Ecologic Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Afonso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of research papers have been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underpinning successful decision-making in sports, and analysis of eye movements has deserved special attention in this concern. A thorough reading of existing literature denotes that research on ocular fixations requires at least 100 milliseconds within the same location. For average eye-tracking systems, this means using at least three frames for each fixation. However, ecological psychology has claimed that as low as 16.67 milliseconds might suffice to capture relevant information, implying using merely one frame to consider that a fixation has been made. The goal of this experiment was to directly compare two systems (one frame-one fixation versus three frames-one fixation for coding information concerning eye movements in a representative volleyball task in an in situ condition. Specifically, it was intended to analyse emerging differences and their meaning. Results exhibited statistically significant differences with regard to search rate (number of fixations, number of fixation locations, and mean fixation duration. Analysing fixation locations it was apparent that the ecological paradigm for considering visual fixations afforded supplementary information. Furthermore, the additional emerging cues appeared to be meaningful, and the level of noise introduced was very low. It is suggested that future research in eye movements considers using the one frame-one fixation approach, instead of the traditional three frames-one fixation set.

  2. A systematic review of methodology applied during preclinical anesthetic neurotoxicity studies : important issues and lessons relevant to the design of future clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disma, Nicola; Mondardini, Maria C.; Terrando, Niccolo; Absalom, Anthony R.; Bilotta, Federico

    Preclinical evidence suggests that anesthetic agents harm the developing brain thereby causing long-term neurocognitive impairments. It is not clear if these findings apply to humans, and retrospective epidemiological studies thus far have failed to show definitive evidence that anesthetic agents

  3. La Familia: methodological issues in the assessment of perinatal social support for Mexicanas living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L

    2001-11-01

    Do Mexicanas receive social support from a close network of family and friends during the perinatal period? To answer this question, a longitudinal ethnographic study followed 28 urban Mexican-origin women living in the US from their last trimester of pregnancy through their first month post-partum. A total of 93 interviews with Mexicanas focused on health and social support. All of the women lived in a large western city in the US but varied in their acculturation and income levels. Analyses identified four social support themes from women's experience (the emic analysis) and four social support typologies from the researcher (etic) analyses. The kinds of support women described as emanating from their support networks were inductively identified as Helping with Daily Hassles, Showing Love and Understanding, Being There for Me, and My Family Failing Me. Approximately half of the women reported densely supportive networks. The other women were disconnected from their support networks, or dealt with antagonism or instability in their networks. Women's perceptions of social support differed from the judgements made by the researcher about received support. Specifically, women perceived more network members in the supportive category than did the researcher by a factor of 1.4, and fewer network members in the disconnected category by a factor of 0.7. From an emic perspective, women listed only half as many antagonistic network members compared to the etic analysis (a factor of 0.50). These emic/etic discrepancies complicate clinical assessment of social support, but suggest that data on social support should be collected as part of the clinical processes of perinatal risking. To enhance assessment of social support, a clinically relevant guide is proposed for use by practitioners caring for Mexicanas in the perinatal period.

  4. The saving and empowering young lives in Europe (SEYLE) randomized controlled trial (RCT): methodological issues and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Wasserman, Danuta; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Guillemin, Francis; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Keresztény, Agnes; Iosue, Miriam; Mars, Ursa; Musa, George; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Peeter; Varnik, Airi; Hoven, Christina W

    2013-05-16

    Mental health problems and risk behaviours among young people are of great public health concern. Consequently, within the VII Framework Programme, the European Commission funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in eleven European countries, with Sweden as the coordinating centre, and was designed to identify an effective way to promote mental health and reduce suicidality and risk taking behaviours among adolescents. To describe the methodological and field procedures in the SEYLE RCT among adolescents, as well as to present the main characteristics of the recruited sample. Analyses were conducted to determine: 1) representativeness of study sites compared to respective national data; 2) response rate of schools and pupils, drop-out rates from baseline to 3 and 12 month follow-up, 3) comparability of samples among the four Intervention Arms; 4) properties of the standard scales employed: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5). Participants at baseline comprised 12,395 adolescents (M/F: 5,529/6,799; mean age=14.9±0.9) from Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain. At the 3 and 12 months follow up, participation rates were 87.3% and 79.4%, respectively. Demographic characteristics of participating sites were found to be reasonably representative of their respective national population. Overall response rate of schools was 67.8%. All scales utilised in the study had good to very good internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach's alpha (BDI-II: 0.864; Z-SAS: 0.805; SDQ: 0.740; WHO-5: 0.799). SEYLE achieved its objective of recruiting a large representative sample of adolescents within participating European countries. Analysis of SEYLE data will shed light on the effectiveness

  5. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone - experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullerton Simon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. Methods An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Results Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%. The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3% and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6. Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry

  6. Methodological issues of optimization the sanitary-educational assistance for children with asthma during the health care reform of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Nedelskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Entry. Asthma remains the medical, social, economic issue of the day of modern society and industry of health protection. Research works on questions asthma are sanctified to mainly the improvement of diagnostics and treatment of asthma and a sanitary-educational help is underestimated. In the modern terms of structural alteration of network of establishments of health care in Ukraine a sanitary-educational help must be an effective complex in strategy of therapy of patients with asthma. Research aim. To ground importance, modern forms and methods of sanitary -educational help in providing of control above asthma on the stage of structural reorganization of establishments of health care in Ukraine. Materials and research methods. Scientifically-methodical literature was analyzed on general questions of organization and realization of sanitary-educational work in asthma. Long-term of own experience of realization of this work is generalized in the conditions of stationary treatment of patients with asthma. Research results. Sanitary-educational work in a form of education in the program "Asthma school". General practitioner, as a key figure of establishments of primary medical and sanitary help, must own the psychological methods including medical-psychology programs of before- and after graduation medical education. Conclusions. In providing of effective control above bronchial asthma in children a sanitary-educational help must be logical continuation and addition of curative help. Application of the educational programs and volume of work of doctors at their implementation must be legislatively lighted up in "Protocols of diagnostics and treatment of bronchial asthma for children".

  7. The influence of survey duration on estimates of food intakes and its relevance for public health nutrition and food safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, J; Kearney, J; Leclercq, C; Zunft, H F; De Henauw, S; Lamberg-Allardt, C J; Dunne, A; Gibney, M J

    2000-02-01

    To examine the influence of food consumption survey duration on estimates of percentage consumers, mean total population intakes and intakes among consumers only and to consider its relevance for public health nutrition and food safety issues. Prospective food consumption survey. A multicentre study in five centres in the European Union-Dublin, Ghent, Helsinki, Potsdam and Rome. Teenage subjects were recruited through schools; 948 (80%) out of 1180 subjects completed the survey. 14-day food diaries were used to collect the food consumption data. For mean total population intakes, 53% of the foods had slopes significantly different to 0 (Pday), these differences were small, with 41% of foods having differences of day and a further 35% having differences of 1-5 g/day. Estimates of percentage consumers based on 3 days and 14 days were 1.9 and 3.6 times the 1-day estimate, respectively. For 72% of foods, at least 50% of non-consumers on day 1 became consumers over the subsequent 13 days. Estimates of mean consumer only intakes based on 3 days and 14 days were 53% and 32% of the 1 day value. In practical terms, survey duration influences estimates of percentage consumers and intakes among consumers only but not mean total population intakes. Awareness of this influence is important for improved interpretation of dietary data for epidemiological studies, development of food-based dietary guidelines and food chemical intakes. The Institute of European Food Studies, a non-profit research organization based in Trinity College Dublin. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 166-173

  8. Methodological issues in protein and lipidic expressions in brain tissue exposed to Co{sup 60} based on DESI/MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Matheus F.; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.; Augusti, Rodinei, E-mail: matheus.soares@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: augusti.rodinei@gmail.com, E-mail: augusti@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Eberlin, Marcos N.; Vendramini, Pedro H., E-mail: eberlin@iqm.unicamp.br, E-mail: ph_vendramini@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Thompson Mass Spectroscopy Laboratory

    2017-07-01

    The present paper attempts to present some issues in the methodology of identifying lipid and protein changes in brain tissue induced by radiation. The goal was to address the analysis of the methodology and to investigate the feasibility of the generation of lipid/protein profiles of irradiated brain tissue, in order to identify radioinduced changes. Lipids and proteins are biomolecules with diverse structures and functionalities that participate in important intracellular processes. Changes in the lipid and the tissue protein profiles may indicate a cellular response to an external stimulus as well as the emergence of neoplasms or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. DESI-MS is a convenient method for identifying lipids and their spatial distribution in tissue beyond analytical quantification. DESI-MS allows the creation of an image of several low lipid m/z classes. MALDI-MS has already been a method used in the study of macromolecules as structural, membrane, hormone, neuromediator and immunological peptides. Through a full-scan matrix scan, with a m/z spectrum between 500-1000 for lipids and with a mass spectrum of 1000-15000 Da for proteins, the molecular profile can be analyzed. Generated pixel shape 2D chemical image. The produced image allows to associate the tissue distribution of the lipids and proteins with their chemical profile identified, allowing the verification of the changes radioinduced. Radiation triggers intense oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, causing DNA damage with consequent alterations in proteomics and cellular lipid explaining such changes in the lipid and protein expressions. The cellular morphophysiological changes are responsible for both the clonogenic inhibition and the induction of the apoptotic process. The images's production was directly dependent on the rigorous execution of the methodological procedures. Innumerable interferences could impair the image

  9. Methodologies and Methods for User Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiling

    1999-01-01

    Discusses methodological issues in empirical studies of information-related behavior in six specific research areas: information needs and uses; information seeking; relevance judgment; online searching (including online public access catalog, online database, and the Web); human-system interactions; and reference transactions. (Contains 191…

  10. Methodological issues in the use of individual brain measures to index trait liabilities: The example of noise-probe P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Emily R; Yancey, James R; Drislane, Laura E; Venables, Noah C; Balsis, Steve; Patrick, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Recent research initiatives have called for an increased use of biological concepts and measures in defining and studying mental health problems, but important measurement-related challenges confront efforts in this direction. This article highlights some of these challenges with reference to an intriguing measure of neural reactivity: the probe P3 response, a mid-latency brain potential evoked by an intense, unexpected acoustic-probe stimulus. Using data for a large adult sample (N=418), we report evidence that amplitude of probe P3 response to unwarned noise bursts occurring in a picture-viewing task exhibits robust, independent associations with two distinct trait constructs: weak inhibitory control (or disinhibition; DIS) and threat sensitivity (THT). Additionally, we report a selective association for THT with attentional suppression of probe P3 response during viewing of aversive pictures compared to neutral. These results point to separable elements of variance underlying the probe P3 response, including one element reflecting DIS-related variations in cognitive-elaborative processing, and others reflecting THT-related variations in aversive foreground engagement and abrupt defensive reorientation. Key measurement issues are considered in relation to these specific findings, and methodological and statistical approaches for addressing these issues are discussed in relation to advancement of a quantitatively sound, biologically informed science of psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Issues Of Managerial Accounting Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Barulina E.V; Barulina M.S

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with management accounting, its role and objectives during financial planning process. Research of on American, German and Russian scientists are also considered. Author formulates his own definitions of aims of management accounting, highlighters that object of financial accounting have to include economic costs, economic revenue and economic added value, economic interest. More  over Author defines methods of managment accounting.

  12. An assessment of international trade related to bioenergy use in Austria—Methodological aspects, recent developments and the relevance of indirect trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalt, Gerald; Kranzl, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Increasing international biomass trade for energy and concerns about sustainability of globally traded biomass have raised interest in assessments of cross-border trade related to bioenergy. Within this paper, approaches to overcome methodological difficulties related to biomass trade are proposed and applied for the case of Austria. Biomass currently has a share of 15.5% in Austria’s primary energy consumption of 1354 PJ (2009). According to energy statistics, the rate of self-sufficiency with biomass for energy (defined as the ratio of domestic production to inland consumption, with both imports and exports taken into account) is 91%. However, feedstock imports for transport fuel production and indirect imports of wood-based fuels (wood processing residues and waste liquor of the paper industry originating from imported wood) are not taken into account in energy statistics, but prove to be of some significance. Imports of agricultural commodities to the amount of 9.7 PJ can be attributed to domestic biofuel production, and indirect imports of wood-based fuels, account for 31 PJ. With these import streams taken into account, the share of domestic fuels in bioenergy use is only 67%, rather than 84%, as official energy statistics suggest. On the other hand, Austria is exporting more than 50% of its production of sawnwood, panelboard and paper products. - Highlights: ► We investigate biomass cross-border trade related to bioenergy use in Austria. ► International biomass trade for energy has increased significantly in recent years. ► A flow wood diagram is derived to identify indirect trade streams of wood fuels. ► Biofuel feedstock imports are about as important as direct biofuel imports. ► 33% of bioenergy in Austria originate from imported biomass (2009).

  13. Reconciling the Rigor-Relevance Dilemma in Intellectual Capital Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This paper raises the issue of research methodology for intellectual capital and other types of management research by focusing on the dilemma of rigour versus relevance. The more traditional explanatory approach to research often leads to rigorous results that are not of much help to solve practical problems. This paper describes an alternative…

  14. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  15. Critical review of methodology and application of risk ranking for prioritisation of food and feed related issues, on the basis of the size of anticipated health impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.; Raley, M.; Poulsen, M.; Korsgaard, H.; Bredsdorff, L.; Nauta, M.; Flari, V.; Agostino, D' M.; Coles, D.G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to critically review methodologies for ranking of risks related to feed/food safety and nutritional hazards, on the basis of their anticipated human health impact. An extensive systematic literature review was performed to identify and characterize the available methodologies for

  16. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  17. Methodological issues related to studies of lead mobilization during menopause Consideraciones metodológicas relacionadas con estudios sobre movilización de plomo durante la menopausia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud S. Berkowitz

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available While there has been a substantial decline in lead exposure in the United States during the past two decades, mobilization of existing lead stored in bone potentially represents an important endogenous source of exposure for menopausal women. It has been hypothesized that lead may be mobilized from skeletal stores during conditions of high bone turnover, such as during menopause. However, such mobilization has not been documented in prospective studies. This discussion is focussed on some of the methodological difficulties to be anticipated in longitudinal studies of lead mobilization specific to menopause and the issues that need to be taken into account when evaluating the results of such studies. To evaluate whether lead mobilization occurs during menopause, a prospective repeated measures design is needed using X-ray fluorescence analysis of lead in bone and serial measurements of blood lead. Potential confounders and effect modifiers also need to be taken into account in the statistical analysis.Mientras que la exposición a plomo ha declinado sustancialmente en Estados Unidos durante las dos décadas pasadas, la mobilización del plomo almacenado en los huesos representa potencialmente una importante fuente de exposición endógena en mujeres menopáusicas. No obstante, tal movilización no ha sido documentada por estudios prospectivos. La presente discusión se enfoca en algunas de las dificultades metodológicas a se anticipadas en estudios longitudinales de mobilización de plomo específicamente en la menopausia, y los aspectos que necesitan ser considerados cuando se evalúan los resultados de tales estudios. Para evaluar si durante la menopausia el plomo es mobilizado, se requiere de un diseño prospectivo con mediciones repetidas utilizando análisis de fluorescencia de rayos-X para determinar el plomo en hueso y una serie de mediciones de plomo en sangre. Los potenciales confusores y modificadores del efecto también deben tomarse

  18. Engaging actively with issues in the responsible conduct of science: lessons from international efforts are relevant for undergraduate education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, John D; Connell, Nancy D; Dirks, Clarissa; El-Faham, Mohamed; Hay, Alastair; Heitman, Elizabeth; Stith, James H; Bond, Enriqueta C; Colwell, Rita R; Anestidou, Lida; Husbands, Jo L; Labov, Jay B

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies are demonstrating that engaging undergraduate students in original research can improve their achievement in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and increase the likelihood that some of them will decide to pursue careers in these disciplines. Associated with this increased prominence of research in the undergraduate curriculum are greater expectations from funders, colleges, and universities that faculty mentors will help those students, along with their graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, develop an understanding and sense of personal and collective obligation for responsible conduct of science (RCS). This Feature describes an ongoing National Research Council (NRC) project and a recent report about educating faculty members in culturally diverse settings (Middle East/North Africa and Asia) to employ active-learning strategies to engage their students and colleagues deeply in issues related to RCS. The NRC report describes the first phase of this project, which took place in Aqaba and Amman, Jordan, in September 2012 and April 2013, respectively. Here we highlight the findings from that report and our subsequent experience with a similar interactive institute in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our work provides insights and perspectives for faculty members in the United States as they engage undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral fellows, to help them better understand the intricacies of and connections among various components of RCS. Further, our experiences can provide insights for those who may wish to establish "train-the-trainer" programs at their home institutions.

  19. Nutrition notes for quick reference. Issues and perspectives reflecting the UN thinking on the global nutritional scenario and its relevance to the activities of NAHRES/NAHU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, V.

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional sciences are both complex and multidisciplinary in nature and will be more so in the coming years. Recent developments in nutrition extending into areas such as nutrient gene interactions, nutrient-pollutant interactions, nutritional physiology and preventive medicine among others, are emerging as new dimensions for our understanding the many relationships between nutrition and health on one hand. and nutrition and disease on the other. The future nutritional researcher should be prepared to address a range of scientific and clinical disciplines together. Food safety issues and factors that contribute to nutrient compositional changes are critical to several aspects surrounding the nutrition-health-disease domain, and will continue to attract much attention in the future. Nutritional toxicology too will become a major challenge in this context. New strategies are being sought to address micronutrient malnutrition (vitamin A and iron deficiencies in particular). The UN agencies are supporting several initiatives to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies as major public health problems in nutrition. The IAEA is contributing to these efforts by facilitating the development of a variety of isotope based techniques to improve nutrition monitoring techniques and to identify effective strategies in nutrition intervention schemes particularly among vulnerable groups in developing regions around the world

  20. Nutrition notes for quick reference. Issues and perspectives reflecting the UN thinking on the global nutritional scenario and its relevance to the activities of NAHRES/NAHU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, V [comp.

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional sciences are both complex and multidisciplinary in nature and will be more so in the coming years. Recent developments in nutrition extending into areas such as nutrient gene interactions, nutrient-pollutant interactions, nutritional physiology and preventive medicine among others, are emerging as new dimensions for our understanding the many relationships between nutrition and health on one hand. and nutrition and disease on the other. The future nutritional researcher should be prepared to address a range of scientific and clinical disciplines together. Food safety issues and factors that contribute to nutrient compositional changes are critical to several aspects surrounding the nutrition-health-disease domain, and will continue to attract much attention in the future. Nutritional toxicology too will become a major challenge in this context. New strategies are being sought to address micronutrient malnutrition (vitamin A and iron deficiencies in particular). The UN agencies are supporting several initiatives to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies as major public health problems in nutrition. The IAEA is contributing to these efforts by facilitating the development of a variety of isotope based techniques to improve nutrition monitoring techniques and to identify effective strategies in nutrition intervention schemes particularly among vulnerable groups in developing regions around the world.

  1. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on ''Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payer, Joe H.; Scully, John R.

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on ''Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository''. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  2. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payer, Joe H. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Scully, John R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2003-07-29

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  3. Biofuels Sustainability Criteria. Relevant issues to the proposed Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. (COM(2008) 30 final). Consolidated study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Francis X.; Roman, Mikael (Stockholm Environment Institute, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)) (and others)

    2008-06-15

    forces, illegal land use transformation, and regulatory efforts. Some improvements can be made to existing methodologies in the proposed Directive by being more precise on the system boundaries associated with particular biofuels. More analysis and research is needed in order to improve the incorporation of land use change into estimates of GHG emissions from biofuels. Use of degraded lands for bioenergy and biofuels production offers an interesting option for combining expanded energy production with decreases in GHG emissions by improving land quality as well as by fuel substitution. The incentives for doing so, however, often need to be high, since biomass feedstock producers will always favour higher quality lands, other things being equal. Harmonisation with other sustainability schemes is important in order to create more effective markets and provide clearer signals to producers and consumers. Harmonisation efforts need to be undertaken in future revisions of the Directive, both with major producing countries such as the U.S. and Brazil, but also with respect to existing UNFCCC procedures related to CDM, REDD, and other programmes

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... The main goal of this article is to analyze methodological issues in .... methodology and theory and historiology (theory of historic process) whose goal is to .... internal branches of sociology and interdisciplinary links of ...

  5. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  6. Questões metodológicas para a investigação dos efeitos da poluição do ar na saúde Methodological issues of the research on the health effects of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermano Albuquerque de Castro

    2003-06-01

    poluição do ar e saúde, levando-se em conta essas questões. Desse modo, pode-se garantir uma melhor qualidade na informação que será utilizada pelos gestores que implementarão essas políticas.Urbanization and the growth of cities have contributed to increase the load of contaminants in the environment. Among contaminants, air pollutants remain a major cause of concern due to their capacity to affect large populations and the fact that several adverse health effects associated with exposure to air pollution have been described in the past few years. This article reviews and discusses some methodological issues involved in the assessment of these health effects. The first issue relates to environmental health indicators (EHI. These indicators can be seen as measures that summarize aspects of the relationship between health and the environment. The EHI methodology proposed by the World Health Organisation for the development of environmental health actions has been applied in the area of air quality. A second aspect relates to the assessment of exposure to air pollution. This is perhaps the most difficult task for studies in this area. Issues concerning different microenvironments (indoor and outdoor are relevant and should be taken in to account in order to minimize the errors associated with the correct assessment of exposure to air pollutants. Lastly, a brief discussion of the main epidemiological study designs used to examine the association between air pollution and health effects is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the main study types and their main applications are discussed. These are not the only essential issues when studying the deleterious health effects of air pollution on health. However, in order to have sound environmental health policies one needs well designed and conducted epidemiological studies taking in to account these main issues. In this manner, better information will be available to those involved in the decision

  7. Methodologies, languages and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amako, Katsuya

    1994-01-01

    This is a summary of the open-quotes Methodologies, Languages and Toolsclose quotes session in the CHEP'94 conference. All the contributions to methodologies and languages are relevant to the object-oriented approach. Other topics presented are related to various software tools in the down-sized computing environment

  8. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  9. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  10. Critical review of methodology and application of risk ranking for prioritisation of food and feed related issues, on the basis of the size of anticipated health impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; van Asselt, E. D.; Raley, M.

    , an overarching framework was developed for selection of the appropriate method(s) that could be used for risk ranking of feed and food related hazards, on the basis of human health impact. This framework has the format of a decision tool, with which – given the characteristics of the risk ranking question...... at hand - the most appropriate method(s) can be selected. Application of this overall framework to several case studies showed it can be a useful tool for risk managers/assessors to select the most suitable method for risk ranking of feed/food and diet related hazards, on the basis of expected human......This study aimed to critically review methodologies for ranking of risks related to feed/food safety and nutritional hazards, on the basis of their anticipated human health impact. An extensive systematic literature review was performed to identify and characterize the available methodologies...

  11. Review: Heide von Felden (Ed. (2007. Methodendiskussion in der Biographieforschung [Methodological Issues in Biographical Research: Classical and Innovative Perspectives on Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Heuer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the extent to which the book under review lives up to the expectations raised by its title. The focus is thus on whether the results of interpreting the five featured case studies justify the methodological effort. The interaction between the text and the reader is left out and this is problematic when it comes to interpreting the memories of the Jewish emigrant who is at the centre of three out of the five essays. Furthermore, it is clear that on a formal level (relating to the shared analytical subject as well as in terms of content (relating to interconnectedness that the methodological discussion falls short of the requirements of the approach taken. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901193

  12. Methodological and Clinical Issues in Studies of the Performance of Emotionally Disturbed Children and Adolescents on Abbreviated Forms of the WISC-R: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimet, Sara G.; Adler, Shoshana Shapiro

    1990-01-01

    Reviews research from 1974 to 1988 that suggests there is promise in valid and reliable use of a short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children as a means of obtaining clinically relevant information and as an emergency screening device with children with serious emotional disorders. Discusses situations in which children should…

  13. Relevance and feasibility of Social Life Cycle Assessment from a Company Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2009-01-01

    Methodology development should reflect demands from the intended users: what are the needs of the user group and what is feasible in terms of requirements involving data and work? Mapping these questions of relevance and feasibility is thus a way to facilitate a higher degree of relevance...... of the developed methodology. For the emerging area of social life cycle assessment (SLCA), several different potential user groups may be identified. This article addresses the issues of relevance and feasibility of SLCA from a company perspective through a series of interviews among potential company users....... The empirical basis for the survey is a series of eight semi-structured interviews with larger Danish companies, all of which potentially have the capacity and will to use comprehensive social assessment methodologies. SLCA is not yet a well-defined methodology, but still it is possible to outline several...

  14. Methodological issues in the design of online surveys for measuring unethical work behavior: Recommendations on the basis of a split-ballot experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, K.; Maesschalck, J.B.; Peeters, C.F.W.; Rosen, M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in unethical work behavior. Several types of survey instruments to collect information about unethical work behavior are available. Nevertheless, to date little attention has been paid to design issues of those surveys. There are, however,

  15. Experimental Economics: Some Methodological Notes

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, Annamaria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is presenting in a self-contained paper some methodological aspects as they are received in the current experimental literature. The purpose has been to make a critical review of some very influential papers dealing with methodological issues. In other words, the idea is to have a single paper where people first approaching experimental economics can find summarised (some) of the most important methodological issues. In particular, the focus is on some methodological prac...

  16. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in behavioral and food addiction: A systematic review of efficacy, technical and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSauvaget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives.Behavioral addictions (BA are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.Methods.A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction. Study selection, data analysis and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines.Results.Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode / left prefrontal cathode reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli.ConclusionsDespite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders.

  17. Temas ambientais como "temas geradores": contribuições para uma metodologia educativa ambiental crítica, transformadora e emancipatória Environmental issues as generating issues: contributions to a critical, transforming and emancipating environmental educating methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Freitas de Campos Tozoni-Reis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A educação ambiental crítica e emancipatória exige que os conhecimentos sejam apropriados, construídos, de forma dinâmica, coletiva, cooperativa, contínua, interdisciplinar, democrática e participativa, voltados para a construção de sociedades sustentáveis. Este artigo trata dos temas ambientais como temas geradores para a educação ambiental, inspirados na pedagogia Paulo Freire, para quem educar é um ato de conhecimento da realidade concreta, das situações vividas, um processo de aproximação crítica da própria realidade: compreender, refletir, criticar e agir são as ações pedagógicas pretendidas. Os temas geradores são, portanto, estratégias metodológicas de um processo de conscientização da realidade opressora vivida nas sociedades desiguais; são o ponto de partida para o processo de construção da descoberta, e, por emergir do saber popular, os temas geradores são extraídos da prática de vida dos educandos, substituindo os conteúdos tradicionais e buscados através da pesquisa do universo dos educandos. O caráter político da pedagogia freireana faz-se presente, de forma radical, nos temas geradores, isto é, temas geradores só são geradores de ação-reflexão-ação se forem carregados de conteúdos sociais e políticos com significado concreto para a vida dos educandos. Assim, as propostas educativas ambientais conscientizadoras podem tomar os temas ambientais locais como temas geradores desta ação conscientizadora, desde que estes temas contenham conteúdos socioambientais significativos para os educandos e sejam definidos coletiva e participativamente.The emancipating and critical environmental education demands that knowledge must be adequate, build up in a dynamic, collective, cooperating, continuous, interdisciplinary, democratic and participating way directed to the construction of self-maintaining societies. This paper deals with environmental issues as generating issues for an environmental

  18. Giftedness and Talent in University Education: A Review of Issues and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2014-01-01

    The limited literature on the gifted and talented in university education reveals the importance of investigating relevant issues and directions, given that this human resource should be nurtured for both individual and national development. This review investigates issues relating to definitions, methodologies, and theoretical interpretations,…

  19. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommereux-Blanc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  20. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Charles, Joanna Mary; Lloyd-Williams, Huw

    2013-10-24

    If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990-2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may find it useful to think in this broader

  1. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Methods Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990–2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. Results We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. Conclusions In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may

  2. Algunos aspectos metodológicos de la investigación en resolución de problemas en física: una revisión Some methodological issues involved in Physics problems solving: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Buteler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presenta una revisión de los aspectos metodológicos involucrados en el estudio de las representaciones mentales puestas en juego por las personas para realizar ciertas tareas cognitivas. La revisión se acota al ámbito de la investigación en enseñanza de las ciencias y en particular, a un conjunto de investigaciones que abordan tareas estrechamente relacionadas con la resolución de problemas en Física. La revisión permite analizar y discutir los alcances y limitaciones de las decisiones metodológicas usuales para el estudio de la resolución de problemas en Física. Se ponen en consideración algunas directrices metodológicas plausibles de ser tenidas en cuenta para esta tarea.This work presents a review of the methodological issues involved in the studies of the representations used by people carrying out cognitive tasks. The review is based on literature dealing with cognitive tasks related to Physics problem solving. This review allows the analysis and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the usual methodological decisions in Physics problem solving. Methodological directions for physics problem solving are considered.

  3. Body composition in Nepalese children using isotope dilution: the production of ethnic-specific calibration equations and an exploration of methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakumar, Delan; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Roberts, Sebastian; Chaube, Shiva Shankar; Saville, Naomi M; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony; Osrin, David; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2015-01-01

    Background. Body composition is important as a marker of both current and future health. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) is a simple and accurate method for estimating body composition, but requires population-specific calibration equations. Objectives. (1) To generate population specific calibration equations to predict lean mass (LM) from BIA in Nepalese children aged 7-9 years. (2) To explore methodological changes that may extend the range and improve accuracy. Methods. BIA measurements were obtained from 102 Nepalese children (52 girls) using the Tanita BC-418. Isotope dilution with deuterium oxide was used to measure total body water and to estimate LM. Prediction equations for estimating LM from BIA data were developed using linear regression, and estimates were compared with those obtained from the Tanita system. We assessed the effects of flexing the arms of children to extend the range of coverage towards lower weights. We also estimated potential error if the number of children included in the study was reduced. Findings. Prediction equations were generated, incorporating height, impedance index, weight and sex as predictors (R (2) 93%). The Tanita system tended to under-estimate LM, with a mean error of 2.2%, but extending up to 25.8%. Flexing the arms to 90° increased the lower weight range, but produced a small error that was not significant when applied to children <16 kg (p 0.42). Reducing the number of children increased the error at the tails of the weight distribution. Conclusions. Population-specific isotope calibration of BIA for Nepalese children has high accuracy. Arm position is important and can be used to extend the range of low weight covered. Smaller samples reduce resource requirements, but leads to large errors at the tails of the weight distribution.

  4. Body composition in Nepalese children using isotope dilution: the production of ethnic-specific calibration equations and an exploration of methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delan Devakumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Body composition is important as a marker of both current and future health. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA is a simple and accurate method for estimating body composition, but requires population-specific calibration equations.Objectives. (1 To generate population specific calibration equations to predict lean mass (LM from BIA in Nepalese children aged 7–9 years. (2 To explore methodological changes that may extend the range and improve accuracy.Methods. BIA measurements were obtained from 102 Nepalese children (52 girls using the Tanita BC-418. Isotope dilution with deuterium oxide was used to measure total body water and to estimate LM. Prediction equations for estimating LM from BIA data were developed using linear regression, and estimates were compared with those obtained from the Tanita system. We assessed the effects of flexing the arms of children to extend the range of coverage towards lower weights. We also estimated potential error if the number of children included in the study was reduced.Findings. Prediction equations were generated, incorporating height, impedance index, weight and sex as predictors (R2 93%. The Tanita system tended to under-estimate LM, with a mean error of 2.2%, but extending up to 25.8%. Flexing the arms to 90° increased the lower weight range, but produced a small error that was not significant when applied to children <16 kg (p 0.42. Reducing the number of children increased the error at the tails of the weight distribution.Conclusions. Population-specific isotope calibration of BIA for Nepalese children has high accuracy. Arm position is important and can be used to extend the range of low weight covered. Smaller samples reduce resource requirements, but leads to large errors at the tails of the weight distribution.

  5. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  6. The Multidisciplinary Issue of Obesity: Epidemiological Studies, Company Strategies and Policy Actions: A Systematic and Methodological Review of the Research Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffarini, Chiara; Fioriti, Linda; Marchini, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The work is a review of studies carried out in recent years on the epidemic of obesity. The issue of obesity includes several disciplines: medical-health, socio-economic impacts and policy actions. This review focuses on the three main areas of study: the first area is about patent epidemiological researches, the second one analyzes the companies that focus on research and development towards less obesogenic foods and the third one investigates on the policies actions adopted by European governments to address the problem of obesity. This study underlined a more strong scientific production relative to US and UK countries compared with the southern countries of the world where the attention of scientists and politicians to the obesity is lower due to the problems of food security rather than to those of inappropriate lifestyle. The study of the cause and effects of this phenomenon through epidemiological researches is a good tool to counteract obesity. However, the development of policies controlling and contrasting obesogenic food production is fundamental like greater communication to consumers on the risks of obesity and foods processing.

  7. Economic crisis, economic methodology and the scientific ideal of physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros A. Drakopoulos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The methodological foundations of mainstream economics have been cited as one of the main reasons for its failure to account for the economic crisis of 2008. In spite of this, the status of economic methodology has not been elevated. This is due to the persistent aversion towards methodological discourse by most mainstream economists. The anti-methodology stance has a long presence as exemplified in Frank Hahn’s (1992 work. After focusing on the debate originating after the publication of Hahn’s arguments, the paper offers a categorization of the main explanations for mainstream methodological aversion. Subsequently, it suggests an explanation based on the role of the physics scientific ideal, arguing that the endeavor to achieve the high scientific status of physics by following the methods of physics, contributed to the negative mainstream attitude towards economic methodology. The relevant writings of the extremely influential mainstream economists Irving Fisher and Milton Friedman, reinforce the assertion that the alleged hard science status of economics renders methodological discussions and especially methodological criticism, rather pointless. The paper also calls for a more systematic discussion of this issue, especially in the wake of the line of argument that links the recent failings of mainstream economics to its methodological basis

  8. User requirements for innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycle technologies in the area of economics, environment, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance and cross cutting issues, and methodology for innovative technologies assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, Juergen; Depisch, Frank; Allan, Colin

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA General Conference in 2000 has invited ''all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the Agency in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology''. In response to this invitation, the IAEA initiated an ''International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles'', INPRO. The overall objectives of INPRO is to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling in a sustainable manner energy needs in the 21st century, and to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles that use sound and economically competitive technology. Phase-I of INPRO was initiated in May 2001. During Phase-I, work was subdivided in two sub phase: Phase 1A (finished in June 2003) and Phase 1B (started in June 2003). Phase 1A dealt with the definition of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria, and the development of a methodology for the evaluation of innovative nuclear technologies. In Phase 1A, task groups for several areas were established: (a) Prospects and Potentials of Nuclear Power, (b) Economics; (c) Sustainability and Environment, (d) Safety of Nuclear Installations, (e) Waste Management, (f) Proliferation Resistance, (g) Crosscutting issues and (h) for the Methodology for Assessment. In Phase-IB evaluations of innovative nuclear energy technologies will be performed by Member States against the INPRO Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria. This paper summarizes the results achieved in the Phase 1A of INPRO and is a cooperative effort of the INPRO team, consisting of all INPRO cost free experts and task managers. (author)

  9. Theoretical and methodological approaches in discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) embodies two main approaches: Foucauldian DA and radical social constructionist DA. Both are underpinned by social constructionism to a lesser or greater extent. Social constructionism has contested areas in relation to power, embodiment, and materialism, although Foucauldian DA does focus on the issue of power Embodiment and materialism may be especially relevant for researchers of nursing where the physical body is prominent. However, the contested nature of social constructionism allows a fusion of theoretical and methodological approaches tailored to a specific research interest. In this paper, Chris Stevenson suggests a framework for working out and declaring the DA approach to be taken in relation to a research area, as well as to aid anticipating methodological critique. Method, validity, reliability and scholarship are discussed from within a discourse analytic frame of reference.

  10. Theoretical and methodological approaches in discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Chris

    2004-10-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) embodies two main approaches: Foucauldian DA and radical social constructionist DA. Both are underpinned by social constructionism to a lesser or greater extent. Social constructionism has contested areas in relation to power, embodiment, and materialism, although Foucauldian DA does focus on the issue of power. Embodiment and materialism may be especially relevant for researchers of nursing where the physical body is prominent. However, the contested nature of social constructionism allows a fusion of theoretical and methodological approaches tailored to a specific research interest. In this paper, Chris Stevenson suggests a frame- work for working out and declaring the DA approach to be taken in relation to a research area, as well as to aid anticipating methodological critique. Method, validity, reliability and scholarship are discussed from within a discourse analytic frame of reference.

  11. Q methodology, risk training and quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, M; Hinks, M; Stowell-Smith, M; Mercer, D; Forster, J

    1999-01-01

    The results of a Q methodological study of professional understandings of the notion of risk in mental health services within the UK are discussed in relation to the relevance for staff training and quality assurance. The study attempted to access the diversity of understandings of risk issues amongst a multi-professional group of staff (n = 60) attending inter-agency risk training workshops in 1998. Q methodology is presented as both an appropriate means for such inquiry and as a novel experiential technique for training purposes. A tentative argument is advanced that the qualitative accounts generated by Q research could assist in systematic reviews of quality, complementing the singularly quantitative approaches typically represented in the audit process.

  12. Research Methodologies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert

    . Within the 36 chapters 70 authors bring together a rich selection of theoretical and practical examples of how research methodologies are applied in supply chain management. The book contains papers on theoretical implications as well as papers on a range of key methods, such as modelling, surveys, case...... studies or action research. It will be of great interest to researchers in the area of supply chain management and logistics, but also to neighbouring fields, such as network management or global operations.......While supply chain management has risen to great prominence in recent year, there are hardly related developments in research methodologies. Yet, as supply chains cover more than one company, one central issue is how to collect and analyse data along the whole or relevant part of the supply chain...

  13. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  14. Meditation: Rationales, Experimental Effects, and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    mounted in bringing meditation to the West. It has after all, received the blessings of prominent figures as diverse as the Beatles , Ram Das. Hans Selye...Samuel R. Connally DAJA45-84-M-0439 . 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS SO. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS The ...different from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral Unclassified and Social Sciences

  15. Methodological issues in regional impacts research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the literature concerning regional impacts of climatic change research reveals common elements. Global climatic change scenarios are used to derive regional climate change scenarios, but there is no standard approach for doing so. These scenarios are applied as inputs to impact models that have been used to describe past variations but may not be calibrated for global scenarios. The human element (technology, land use, population density) is generally assumed to remain unchanged. The general process of performing a study on the impacts of projected global warming on the physical and human environments involves three main steps: develop or specify a scenario for global warming for the study area; develop or specify an impact model for the activity in question; and apply the scenario to the impact model. Problems include defining a baseline, resolution of the scenarios, scenario data for regional-scale features, combination of model output with station data, and validation of impact models using archived climate data as inputs. A review of scenario application procedures indicates that four general approaches have been used: the study area baseline is combined with the scenario anomaly of the nearest center of the grid square; the scenario anomaly field is objectively interpreted and combined with the baseline value; the baseline field is objectively interpreted so that data are produced for the same points as the scenario anomaly field; and the baseline and several scenario's anomaly fields are interpolated and combined into one scenario using dynamical/empirical reasoning. 48 refs., 1 fig

  16. Educational neuroscience: definitional, methodological, and interpretive issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, James P; Vu, Lien T

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we hope to accomplish three aims as follows: (1) provide greater clarity regarding the nature and scope of the field of educational neuroscience, (2) propose a framework for understanding when and how neuroscientific research could be informative for educational practice, and (3) describe some examples of neuroscientific findings from the domains of reading and mathematics that are informative according to this framework. We propose that psychological models of learning-related processes should be the basis of instructional decisions, and that neuroscientific evidence in combination with traditional evidence from psychological experiments should be used to decide among competing psychological models. Our review of the neuroscientific evidence for both reading and mathematics suggests that while much has been learned over the past 20 years, there is still a 'disconnect' between contemporary psychological models that emphasize higher level skills and neuroscientific studies that focus on lower level skills. Moreover, few researchers have used neuroscientific evidence to decide among psychological models, but have focused instead on identifying the brain regions that subtend component skills of reading and math. Nevertheless, neuroscientific studies have confirmed the intrinsic relationship between reading and spoken language, revealed interesting predictive relationships between anatomical structures and reading and math disabilities, and there is the potential for fruitful collaborations between neuroscientists and psychologists in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. THE METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Solopenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of economic ground of administrative decisions related to the operation, staff, financial, investment, information & telecommunication, innovative, marketing and international economic activities of an aviation enterprise is determined foe such an enterprise, and the procedure of economic substantiation of administrative decisions with use of economico-mathematical modelling in automated control system (ACS for an aviation enterprise is implemented.

  18. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  19. Methodological aspects of shift-work research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Anders

    2004-01-01

    A major issue in shift-work research is to understand the possible ways in which shift work can impact performance and health. Nearly all body functions, from those of the cellular level to those of the entire body, are circadian rhythmic. Disturbances of these rhythms as well as the social consequences of odd work hours are of importance for the health and well-being of shift workers. This article reviews a number of common methodological issues which are of relevance to epidemiological studies in this area of research. It discusses conceptual problems regarding the use of the term "shift work," and it underscores the need to develop models that explain the mechanisms of disease in shift workers.

  20. Introducing an ILS methodology into research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, N. de; Borsani, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    subsequent design stages. Staff should be allocated to operate the system after assessments based on the workload and safety issues. A methodology for a Plant Tasks Analysis (used as the input for a Manning Analysis Assessment) to define a cost-effective organisational structure is presented. Training is a key issue to support a well-designed plant. This paper describes general training aspects to be considered in the ILS approach. General considerations to tailor a Training Plan are presented as well as for developing training tools such as Plant Simulators and 3D Electronic Models. Manuals, procedures and instructions (relevant for system operation and maintenance) are generally developed by designers or operators focussing on technical characteristics rather than considering the documentation framework and training needs. Methodology and general recommendations regarding documents structure and scope to achieve world class plant documents are also presented. Plant Maintenance should be consistent with in house capabilities regarding the appropriate Level of Repair of each plant item. Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Supportability assessment methodology is presented in order to focus maintenance activities on relevant issues. Spare parts management is a critical issue and hence is also included in this logistical approach. References regarding optimisation of these and related issues are included. All the mentioned factors are optimally integrated from the beginning of the process application in order to achieve the major outcomes with the available resources. (author)

  1. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  2. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  3. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy Through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-04-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.

  4. Theoretical investigations into the influence of the position of a breaking line on the tensile failure of flat, round, bevel-edged tablets using finite element methodology (FEM) and its practical relevance for industrial tablet strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael; Fromme, Paul

    2014-12-30

    Flat, round tablets may have a breaking ("score") line. Pharmacopoeial tablet breaking load tests are diametral in their design, and industrially used breaking load testers often have automatic tablet feeding systems, which position the tablets between the loading platens of the machine with the breaking lines in random orientation to the applied load. The aim of this work was to ascertain the influence of the position of the breaking line in a diametral compression test using finite element methodology (FEM) and to compare the theoretical results with practical findings using commercially produced bevel-edged, scored tablets. Breaking line test positions at an angle of 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5° and 90° relative to the loading plane were studied. FEM results obtained for fully elastic and elasto-plastic tablets were fairly similar, but they highlighted large differences in stress distributions depending on the position of the breaking line. The stress values at failure were predicted to be similar for tablets tested at an angle of 45° or above, whereas at lower test angles the predicted breaking loads were up to three times larger. The stress distributions suggested that not all breaking line angles would result in clean tensile failure. Practical results, however, did not confirm the differences in the predicted breaking loads, but they confirmed differences in the way tablets broke. The results suggest that it is not advisable to convert breaking loads obtained on scored tablets into tablet tensile strength values, and comparisons between different tablets or batches should carefully consider the orientation of the breaking line with respect to the loading plane, as the failure mechanisms appear to vary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  6. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque

    2002-01-01

    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  7. Web survey methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Callegaro, Mario; Vehovar, Asja

    2015-01-01

    Web Survey Methodology guides the reader through the past fifteen years of research in web survey methodology. It both provides practical guidance on the latest techniques for collecting valid and reliable data and offers a comprehensive overview of research issues. Core topics from preparation to questionnaire design, recruitment testing to analysis and survey software are all covered in a systematic and insightful way. The reader will be exposed to key concepts and key findings in the literature, covering measurement, non-response, adjustments, paradata, and cost issues. The book also discusses the hottest research topics in survey research today, such as internet panels, virtual interviewing, mobile surveys and the integration with passive measurements, e-social sciences, mixed modes and business intelligence. The book is intended for students, practitioners, and researchers in fields such as survey and market research, psychological research, official statistics and customer satisfaction research.

  8. Dosimetric methodology of the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1994-01-01

    Establishment of guidance for the protection of workers and members of the public from radiation exposures necessitates estimation of the radiation dose to tissues of the body at risk. The dosimetric methodology formulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is intended to be responsive to this need. While developed for radiation protection, elements of the methodology are often applied in addressing other radiation issues; e.g., risk assessment. This chapter provides an overview of the methodology, discusses its recent extension to age-dependent considerations, and illustrates specific aspects of the methodology through a number of numerical examples

  9. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  10. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  11. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  12. When stereotypes become 'scientific' statements: dealing with gender issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Ana Flávia do Amaral

    2009-06-01

    The theoretical analysis by Watzlawik (Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 2009) demonstrates the scientific fragility of the constructs of masculinity and femininity based on the oversimplification and overlapping between three levels of analysis: group differences, inter-individual differences and intra-individual differences. Watzlawik presents fresh and relevant contributions in terms of methodological issues, especially about the construction of scientific generalizations. Here I focus on issues related to the transformation of stereotypes in statements about gender differences that claim to be 'scientific'--outlining the socio-political agendas of such statements.

  13. Questões metodológicas da pesquisa no campo da saúde Aspectos metodológicos de la investigación en el campo de la salud Methodological issues concerning research in the health field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Collet

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar reflexão sobre o método de pesquisa no campo da saúde. Algumas questões que envolvem o emprego do método das ciências naturais e o método das ciências sociais são apresentadas, buscando compreender alguns problemas metodológicos de um e de outro. Problemas relacionados às questões metodológicas na elaboração de um projeto de investigação são pontuados: diferenciação da natureza do objeto de investigação; contexto em que determinado problema é identificado; tipo de pergunta ao problematizá-lo; procedimentos técnicos, teoria e esquema interpretativo; dicotomia sujeito/objeto do conhecimento; neutralidade do pesquisador; conceito de causalidade.Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar una reflexión sobre el método de investigación en el campo de la salud. Presentamos algunas cuestiones que encierran el empleo de las ciencias naturales y el método de las ciencias sociales, tratando de esclarecer algunos problemas metodológicos tanto de uno como del otro. Abordamos problemas relacionados con los aspectos metodológicos para la elaboración de un proyecto de investigación que necesitan ser continuamente discutidos, incluyendo: la diferenciación de la naturaleza del objetivo de la investigación, el contexto en que determinado problema es identificado, el tipo de pregunta que se hace al problematizarlo, los procedimientos técnicos, la teoría y el esquema interpretativo que lo fundamentan; la dicotomía sujeto/objeto del conocimiento, la neutralidad del investigador, el concepto de causalidad.This work aims at presenting a reflection on the method of research in the health field. Some questions are presented which involve the use of the method of natural sciences and that of social sciences in an attempt at understanding some methodological problems concerning the former and the latter. Problems related to the methodological issues in the elaboration of investigation projects

  14. Industrial implementation issues of Total Site Heat Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, Kew Hong; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Wan Alwi, Sharifah Rafidah; Abdul Manan, Zainuddin

    2013-01-01

    Heat Integration has been a well-established energy conservation strategy in the industry. Total Site Heat Integration (TSHI) has received growing interest since its inception in the 90s. The methodology has been used with certain simplifications to solve TSHI problems. This paper investigates the main issues that can influence the practical implementation of TSHI in the industry. The main aim is to provide an assessment and possible guidance for future development and extension of the TSHI methodology from the industrial perspective. Several key issues have been identified as being of vital importance for the industries: design, operation, reliability/availability/maintenance, regulatory/policy and economics. Design issues to consider include plant layout, pressure drop, etc. For operation, issues such as startup and shutdown need to be considered. Reliability, availability and maintenance (RAM) are important as they directly affect the production. Relevant government policy and incentives are also important when considering the options for TSHI. Finally, a TSHI system needs to be economically viable. This paper highlights the key issues to be considered for a successful implementation of TSHI. The impacts of these issues on TS integration are summarised in a matrix, which forms a basis for an improved and closer-to-real-life implementation of the TSHI methodology. Highlights: ► Current TSHI methodology has been used for solving models with certain simplifications. ► Several issues that can influence practical implementation of TSHI are identified. ► Impacts of these issues on safety, environment and economics are evaluated. ► The findings form a basis for an improved and practical implementation of TSHI

  15. Exploring Educational Quality and Relevance through Integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring Educational Quality and Relevance through Integrating Environmental and Social Issues in Science Education. ... However, the new contextualised concept of learning and teaching was applied only to one of them. A post-test was ...

  16. MIRD methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.; Gomez Parada, Ines

    2004-01-01

    The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system was established by the Society of Nuclear Medicine of USA in 1960 to assist the medical community in the estimation of the dose in organs and tissues due to the incorporation of radioactive materials. Since then, 'MIRD Dose Estimate Report' (from the 1 to 12) and 'Pamphlets', of great utility for the dose calculations, were published. The MIRD system was planned essentially for the calculation of doses received by the patients during nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. The MIRD methodology for the absorbed doses calculations in different tissues is explained

  17. PSA methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, L

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300{sup 1} and EPS 900{sup 2} PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs.

  18. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300 1 and EPS 900 2 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  19. Methodologies for evaluation of AECB regulatory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarranton, G.A.; Gray, B.J.; Yarranton, M.

    1986-05-01

    AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board) commissioned this report to obtain information about methods of planning and conducting evaluation of its regulatory program. The report begins with a bibliography consisting of 280 abstracts assembled from an extensive search of international literature. Each cited publication describes or uses methods applicable to the evaluation of regulatory programs. The report continues with a review of the methodologies found in the literature. It identifies the most relevant references for each step in program evaluation: the commissioning of evaluation; the identification of evaluation issues; the defining of questions; the answering of questions; the reporting of reslts, and the implementation of recommendations. Finally, the report examines the applicability, advantages and disadvantages of the different evaluation methods and makes recommendations about the selection of methods and their application to the AECB program

  20. Research methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    This book deals with how students should use of research methods in their university projects. It aims at helping students in developing comprehensive research strategies for their projects. It also provides introduction to issues of philosophy of science as applied in the social sciences....... That is it provides them with a fair understanding of the root assumptions that guide researchers in their investigations and how these assumptions inform their theoretical thinking and choice of methods....

  1. Measurement of testosterone in human sexuality research: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Goldey, Katherine L; Bell, Sarah N

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone (T) and other androgens are incorporated into an increasingly wide array of human sexuality research, but there are a number of issues that can affect or confound research outcomes. This review addresses various methodological issues relevant to research design in human studies with T; unaddressed, these issues may introduce unwanted noise, error, or conceptual barriers to interpreting results. Topics covered are (1) social and demographic factors (gender and sex; sexual orientations and sexual diversity; social/familial connections and processes; social location variables), (2) biological rhythms (diurnal variation; seasonality; menstrual cycles; aging and menopause), (3) sample collection, handling, and storage (saliva vs. blood; sialogogues, saliva, and tubes; sampling frequency, timing, and context; shipping samples), (4) health, medical issues, and the body (hormonal contraceptives; medications and nicotine; health conditions and stress; body composition, weight, and exercise), and (5) incorporating multiple hormones. Detailing a comprehensive set of important issues and relevant empirical evidence, this review provides a starting point for best practices in human sexuality research with T and other androgens that may be especially useful for those new to hormone research.

  2. Latest developments on safety analysis methodologies at the Juzbado plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurron-Cifuentes, Oscar; Ortiz-Trujillo, Diego; Blanco-Fernandez, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years the Juzbado Plant has developed and implemented several analysis methodologies to cope with specific issues regarding safety management. This paper describes the three most outstanding of them, so as to say, the Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) project, the adaptation of the MARSSIM methodology for characterization surveys of radioactive contamination spots, and the programme for the Systematic Review of the Operational Conditions of the Safety Systems (SROCSS). Several reasons motivated the decision to implement such methodologies, such as Regulator requirements, operational experience and of course, the strong commitment of ENUSA to maintain the highest standards of nuclear industry on all the safety relevant activities. In this context, since 2004 ENUSA is undertaking the ISA project, which consists on a systematic examination of plant's processes, equipment, structures and personnel activities to ensure that all relevant hazards that could result in unacceptable consequences have been adequately evaluated and the appropriate protective measures have been identified. On the other hand and within the framework of a current programme to ensure the absence of radioactive contamination spots on unintended areas, the MARSSIM methodology is being applied as a tool to conduct the radiation surveys and investigation of potentially contaminated areas. Finally, the SROCSS programme was initiated earlier this year 2009 to assess the actual operating conditions of all the systems with safety relevance, aiming to identify either potential non-conformities or areas for improvement in order to ensure their high performance after years of operation. The following paragraphs describe the key points related to these three methodologies as well as an outline of the results obtained so far. (authors)

  3. PKI Scalability Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Slagell, Adam J; Bonilla, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    This report surveys different PKI technologies such as PKIX and SPKI and the issues of PKI that affect scalability. Much focus is spent on certificate revocation methodologies and status verification systems such as CRLs, Delta-CRLs, CRS, Certificate Revocation Trees, Windowed Certificate Revocation, OCSP, SCVP and DVCS.

  4. Cognitive styles: Controversial issues and research problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Volkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical review of cognitive styles research, considering the problems of its theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. Issues concerning the prospects, as well as theoretical and practical relevance of cognitive styles research, are discussed. We examine the main causes leading to researchers’ declining interest to study of cognitive styles, related to theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. The main problems discussed relate to lack of clear definition and common theoretical framework. Moreover, the number of empirical studies prevails over the one aimed at theoretical generalization of empirical results and findings, and therefore the primacy of empirics appears. We analyze the possible ways of advancing the field, suggested research programs and potential perspectives for future research. We pose questions of the relationship between cognitive styles and other psychological constructs, such as abilities and cognitive strategies. We emphasize the need to develop integrative models of cognitive styles in order to systematize and organize a large number of existing cognitive styles dimensions. The main controversial issues concerning cognitive styles’ stability and value are considered. We suggest that cognitive style is a psychological mean of cognitive tasks solving, based on both situation circumstances and subject’s current cognitive resources. Issues concerning cognitive styles may answer the question on the nature of individual differences and clarify psychological mechanisms of personality-situation interaction. Furthermore, it may serve as a basis for integrated studies at the areas of personality and cognitive psychology.

  5. Methodology for Measuring the Complexity of Enterprise Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of enterprise information systems is currently a challenge faced not only by IT professionals and project managers, but also by the users of such systems. Current methodologies and frameworks used to design and implement information systems do not specifically deal with the issue of their complexity and, apart from few exceptions, do not at all attempt to simplify the complexity. This article presents the author's own methodology for managing complexity, which can be used to complement any other methodology and which helps limit the growth of complexity. It introduces its own definition and metric of complexity, which it defines as the sum of entities of the individual UML models of the given system, which are selected according to the MMDIS methodology so as to consistently describe all relevant content dimensions of the system. The main objective is to propose a methodology to manage information system complexity and to verify it in practice on a real-life SAP implementation project.

  6. Q methodology for post-social-turn research in SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Irie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Q methodology, an approach to inquiry on the subjective views about a complex phenomenon/issue which has been increasingly employed in a wide range of social science fields has not yet been applied in language learning and teaching research. It is a unique approach that has characteristics of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The purpose of the present paper is to introduce Q methodology as an alternative approach and demonstrate its potential to respond to the needs of the field that has been expanding in its epistemological diversity since the social turn (Block, 2003; Ortega, 2012. The relevance of the methodology for SLA research will be discussed with a particular focus on the parallels between the development of the methodology in the 1930s and current criticisms towards the traditional cognitive approach in SLA. Using a published study (Irie & Ryan, 2014, the author explains how the focus on the holistic understanding of subjectivity is built into the procedure. Suggestions for possible areas of research and teaching in which Q methodology could be applied are discussed.

  7. Systematic reviews: guidance relevant for studies of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D; Harrison, Jennifer K; Wilkinson, Tim; Dodds, Richard M; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-09-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are increasingly common. This article aims to provide guidance for people conducting systematic reviews relevant to the healthcare of older people. An awareness of these issues will also help people reading systematic reviews to determine whether the results will influence their clinical practice. It is essential that systematic reviews are performed by a team which includes the required technical and clinical expertise. Those performing reviews for the first time should ensure they have appropriate training and support. They must be planned and performed in a transparent and methodologically robust way: guidelines are available. The protocol should be written-and if possible published-before starting the review. Geriatricians will be interested in a table of baseline characteristics, which will help to determine if the studied samples or populations are similar to their patients. Reviews of studies of older people should consider how they will manage issues such as different age cut-offs; non-specific presentations; multiple predictors and outcomes; potential biases and confounders. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may provide evidence to improve older people's care, or determine where new evidence is required. Newer methodologies, such as meta-analyses of individual level data, network meta-analyses and umbrella reviews, and realist synthesis, may improve the reliability and clinical utility of systematic reviews. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  8. New methodological perspectives in pedagogical approach to teaching and learning processes in school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Pérez Piña

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For years, the methodology has been worked from a focus on teaching styles and pedagogy situations approach, which was a breakthrough, but the needs of individualization were drifting towards new methodological perspectives and teaching, being cooperative games, the willing environments, or communication processes (López, 2012, who were showing a new way to understand the methodology and teaching styles in Education, and it was not to focus on a way to understand these issues from the point of view of the teacher, but how attending to the cognitive and learning processes of students, we could better optimize our intervention.Actually, we have analyzed the latest publications in the last three years, around methodology and teaching styles, using various databases. The results of this search have been quite limited, which may make us think that they have not really relevant changes in the design of such education.

  9. Testing methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

  10. Testing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical ''signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs

  11. Immigration and Competitiveness – Some Methodological Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Patay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants can contribute significantly to the economic and social development of regions or urban areas. Some key figures on migration are thus traditionally used in studies on local development. Beyond the usual description of migratory movements, two research fields are often in the centre of controversies, namely the labour market and the inclusion of immigrants. Comparing the European regions, the phases of urban development as well as the relevant internal and external factors present a mixed picture in Europe. At the same time, the dynamics of migratory movements and the reactions of national and subnational policies also vary. The Member States of the European Union aim to harmonise their definitions and data on migration issues, however, the daily practice leads us to the questions of reliability and comparability of migration statistics; and the interdisciplinary character of migration research offers the use of variable research methods. The aim of this study, as a part of a presentation at a conference on urban development, is to describe some key methodological issues of migration research exploring the typical questions. The first part of the paper calls attention to the importance of data quality, processing and interpretation, describing the research methods mainly used in studies on immigration. The second part summarizes the significance of immigration in regional competitiveness, pointing out the possible “stumbling stones” in the relevant migration studies. Some of these factors, the areas that are mainly in the centre of scientific and political debates, are discussed in this paper, namely the labour market challenges and issues relating to the different aspects of segregation.

  12. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  13. Service Innovation Methodologies II : How can new product development methodologies be applied to service innovation and new service development? : Report no 2 from the TIPVIS-project

    OpenAIRE

    Nysveen, Herbjørn; Pedersen, Per E.; Aas, Tor Helge

    2007-01-01

    This report presents various methodologies used in new product development and product innovation and discusses the relevance of these methodologies for service development and service innovation. The service innovation relevance for all of the methodologies presented is evaluated along several service specific dimensions, like intangibility, inseparability, heterogeneity, perishability, information intensity, and co-creation. The methodologies discussed are mainly collect...

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... technological innovations and the spread of knowledge. ... In this paper, we propose a conceptual model to search relevant scientific ... The digital libraries are becoming a source for discovering new research trends ... Text mining techniques are used to solve some particular business issues, so it is called.

  15. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  16. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  17. Whose Side Are We on and for Whom Do We Write? Notes on Issues and Challenges Facing Those Researching and Evaluating Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jon; Garthwaite, Kayleigh

    2015-01-01

    Becker (1967) poses the question "Whose side are we on?," a question which has become an enduring part of discussions within social scientific methodology. This paper explores the key issues in Becker's argument and considers its relevance to researchers today, locating this within a consideration of evaluation-based research and policy.…

  18. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN THE USE OF GENERALIZED ADDITIVE MODELS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE MATTER; CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FOR 9TH INT'L. INHALATION SYMPOSIUM ON EFFECTS OF AIR CONTAMINANTS ON THE RESPIRATORY TRACT - INTERPRETATIONS FROM MOLECULES TO META ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open cohort ("time-series") studies of the adverse health effects of short-term exposures to ambient particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants have been essential in the standard setting process. Last year, a number of serious issues were raised concerning the fitting of Gener...

  19. Issues in Software Engineering of Relevance to Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Software engineering is popularly misconceived as being an upmarket term for programming. In a way, this is akin to characterizing instructional design as the process of creating PowerPoint slides. In both these areas, the construction of systems, whether they are learning or computer systems, is only one part of a systematic process. The most…

  20. Reforms in Public Sector Management: A Relevant Issue for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, both institutions were still rather low in adopting the commercialisation process and information technology, though their adoption levels were different. PACRA had a higher service level than ZDA but, interestingly, the shapes of the service level graphs was identical for the two institutions. In addition, a weak ...

  1. A Review of Prefab Home and Relevant Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad PANJEHPOUR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Having an easily built house has been always one of human wishes. Prefabricated home makes this wish come true because of its affordability and fast completion. This paper gives an overview of different types of prefab home and its terminology. This review sheds light on the characterisation of prefab home, which takes the aspects of off-site technology, mass customisation, and sustainability into consideration. This paper is confined to general review of prefab home without going through different systems utilised in off-site technology. In spite of the fact that prefab home has many advantages, which are discussed in this review, it suffers from a few drawbacks which should be considered by designers. Various exploitations in this field may merit further research in future, including finding the optimum prefabricated systems among the existing systems such as roof, wall, and floor systems for different applications of prefab homes. Nevertheless, there is still a universal design and practice code for prefab homes that emphasize on green technology and sustainability yet to be discovered.

  2. Conceptualising global health: theoretical issues and their relevance for teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowson Mike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has long been debate around the definition of the field of education, research and practice known as global health. In this article we step back from attempts at definition and instead ask what current definitions tell us about the evolution of the field, identifying gaps and points of debate and using these to inform discussions of how global health might be taught. Discussion What we now know as global health has its roots in the late 19th century, in the largely colonial, biomedical pursuit of ‘international health’. The twentieth century saw a change in emphasis of the field towards a much broader conceptualisation of global health, encompassing broader social determinants of health and a truly global focus. The disciplinary focus has broadened greatly to include economics, anthropology and political science, among others. There have been a number of attempts to define the new field of global health. We suggest there are three central areas of contention: what the object of knowledge of global health is, the types of knowledge to be used and around the purpose of knowledge in the field of global health. We draw a number of conclusions from this discussion. First, that definitions should pay attention to differences as well as commonalities in different parts of the world, and that the definitions of global health themselves depend to some extent on the position of the definer. Second, global health’s core strength lies in its interdisciplinary character, in particular the incorporation of approaches from outside biomedicine. This approach recognises that political, social and economic factors are central causes of ill health. Last, we argue that definition should avoid inclusion of values. In particular we argue that equity, a key element of many definitions of global health, is a value-laden concept and carries with it significant ideological baggage. As such, its widespread inclusion in the definitions of global health is inappropriate as it suggests that only people sharing these values may be seen as ‘doing’ global health. Nevertheless, discussion of values should be a key part of global health education. Summary Our discussions lead us to emphasise the importance of an approach to teaching global health that is flexible, interdisciplinary and acknowledges the different interpretations and values of those practising and teaching the field.

  3. Conceptualising global health: theoretical issues and their relevance for teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Mike; Willott, Chris; Hughes, Rob; Maini, Arti; Martin, Sophie; Miranda, J Jaime; Pollit, Vicki; Smith, Abi; Wake, Rae; Yudkin, John S

    2012-11-14

    There has long been debate around the definition of the field of education, research and practice known as global health. In this article we step back from attempts at definition and instead ask what current definitions tell us about the evolution of the field, identifying gaps and points of debate and using these to inform discussions of how global health might be taught. What we now know as global health has its roots in the late 19(th) century, in the largely colonial, biomedical pursuit of 'international health'. The twentieth century saw a change in emphasis of the field towards a much broader conceptualisation of global health, encompassing broader social determinants of health and a truly global focus. The disciplinary focus has broadened greatly to include economics, anthropology and political science, among others. There have been a number of attempts to define the new field of global health. We suggest there are three central areas of contention: what the object of knowledge of global health is, the types of knowledge to be used and around the purpose of knowledge in the field of global health. We draw a number of conclusions from this discussion. First, that definitions should pay attention to differences as well as commonalities in different parts of the world, and that the definitions of global health themselves depend to some extent on the position of the definer. Second, global health's core strength lies in its interdisciplinary character, in particular the incorporation of approaches from outside biomedicine. This approach recognises that political, social and economic factors are central causes of ill health. Last, we argue that definition should avoid inclusion of values. In particular we argue that equity, a key element of many definitions of global health, is a value-laden concept and carries with it significant ideological baggage. As such, its widespread inclusion in the definitions of global health is inappropriate as it suggests that only people sharing these values may be seen as 'doing' global health. Nevertheless, discussion of values should be a key part of global health education. Our discussions lead us to emphasise the importance of an approach to teaching global health that is flexible, interdisciplinary and acknowledges the different interpretations and values of those practising and teaching the field.

  4. Interestingness of association rules in data mining: Issues relevant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    mental changes in many spheres of our daily life. .... concentrate on association rule mining since it features as one of the main data mining tech- ..... years, a lot of work has been done in defining and quantifying 'interestingness. .... a critical effect on both, selection of interesting events and variation of interestingness thresh-.

  5. Environmental restoration issues relevant to lands that support native populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Islands and other remote locations that support indigenous (native) populations require special considerations in the setting of criteria for maximum allowable radioactivity contamination of the environment. The criteria can differ from those applicable to Western continental urban settings because of particular attributes related to lifestyle or environment. Conventionally, guidelines for land cleanup are derived by using a pathway model and descriptions of conventional intake patterns to calculate backwards from an acceptable dose or risk. However, pathways of possible exposure differ in characteristics and relative importance for indigenous populations, and conventional exposure-assessment models need considerable revision for them. More primitive lifestyles usually imply a need for stricter standards. In contrast, somewhat higher risk might not produce any excess cancer incidence if the population is small enough, as is often the case for islanders or other indigenous populations. This paper discusses various factors peculiar to indigenous populations that require consideration when criteria for restoration of contaminated environments are being determined. (author)

  6. Transmutation: a decade of revival issues, relevant experiments and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade, transmutation studies have been again a topic of wide interest and have triggered numerous international activities, like bilateral/multilateral collaborations, information exchanges, state-of-the-art reports, conferences, but also some co-ordinated programmes and experiments. It is legitimate to ask at this point, whether transmutation studies are still 'fashionable' and why; what is known, what has been done and what should be done. Since the motivations of national programmes are often different, due to a different context, we will take for granted that transmutation is generally seen as an option for the back-end of the fuel cycle in order to reduce the burden of potential geological storages of radioactive wastes (whatever their nature). Finally, we also acknowledge the fact that some highly respected scientists have at several occasions during this decade expressed their doubts about the value of the transmutation option. A typical example is the position expressed by Pigford and Rasmussen, reporting the results of a study for the US National Research Council. (author)

  7. Medical Support Issues of Relevance to Military Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Military medicine is often a hotly debated topic among a majority who believe that its primary mission is peacetime healthcare for an enormous dependent, retired, and active duty beneficiary population...

  8. A Methodological Critique of the Moynihan Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, L. Alex

    1974-01-01

    Analyzing Moynihan's findings, author argues that it is impossible, methodologically speaking, for Moynihan to draw valid and useful conclusions relative to the issues he raised from the data he presents in his report. (Author/RJ)

  9. History and Methodology in a Nigerian University | Adesina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History and Methodology in a Nigerian University. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... School of History), is the issue of methodology and in particular, the use of theories.

  10. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  11. Constructivism: a naturalistic methodology for nursing inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J V; King, L

    1997-12-01

    This article will explore the philosophical underpinnings of the constructivist research paradigm. Despite its increasing popularity in evaluative health research studies there is limited recognition of constructivism in popular research texts. Lincoln and Guba's original approach to constructivist methodology is outlined and a detailed framework for nursing research is offered. Fundamental issues and concerns surrounding this methodology are debated and differences between method and methodology are highlighted.

  12. Identification and systems methodologies for territorial delimitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Montoya R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This document identifies the main issues affecting the delimitation of territories and explores the conceptual approaches for describing the relationship of the territories understood as organizations with their environment. Subsequently, we studied the systems methodologies known as soft systems methodology, SSM, and complex adaptive systems, CAS. Finally, the advantages of systemic approaches to territorial delimitation are shown

  13. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF E-LEARNING DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Sergeev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the discussion of the methodological problems of e-learning, didactic issues the use of advanced networking and Internet technologies to create training systems and simulators based on the methodological principles of non-classical and post-non-classical psychology and pedagogy. 

  14. Methodological update in Medicina Intensiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Garmendia, J L

    2018-04-01

    Research in the critically ill is complex by the heterogeneity of patients, the difficulties to achieve representative sample sizes and the number of variables simultaneously involved. However, the quantity and quality of records is high as well as the relevance of the variables used, such as survival. The methodological tools have evolved to offering new perspectives and analysis models that allow extracting relevant information from the data that accompanies the critically ill patient. The need for training in methodology and interpretation of results is an important challenge for the intensivists who wish to be updated on the research developments and clinical advances in Intensive Medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  15. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  16. Methodological Guidelines for Advertising Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry

    2017-01-01

    In this article, highly experienced advertising academics and advertising research consultants John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy present and discuss what they believe to be the seven most important methodological guidelines that need to be implemented to improve the practice of advertising research....... Their focus is on methodology, defined as first choosing a suitable theoretical framework to guide the research study and then identifying the advertising responses that need to be studied. Measurement of those responses is covered elsewhere in this special issue in the article by Bergkvist and Langner. Most...

  17. Identifying Relevant Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, He; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Tell, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Context: Systematic literature review (SLR) has become an important research methodology in software engineering since the introduction of evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) in 2004. One critical step in applying this methodology is to design and execute appropriate and effective search....... Objective: The main objective of the research reported in this paper is to improve the search step of undertaking SLRs in software engineering (SE) by devising and evaluating systematic and practical approaches to identifying relevant studies in SE. Method: We have systematically selected and analytically...

  18. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  19. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  20. Clinical trial methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2011-01-01

    ... in the pharmaceutical industry, Clinical trial methodology emphasizes the importance of statistical thinking in clinical research and presents the methodology as a key component of clinical research...

  1. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  2. Heat transfer education : Keeping it relevant and vibrant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khounsary, A. M.

    1998-08-14

    The motivation for a fresh look at heat transfer education, both in content and in methodology, is generated by a number of trends in engineering practice. These include the increasing demand for engineers with interdisciplinary skills, rapid integration of technology, emergence of computerized and interactive problem-solving tools, shortening time of concept-to-market, availability of new technologies, and an increasing number of new or redesigned products and processes in which heat transfer plays a part. Examination of heat transfer education in this context can be aided by considering the changes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in the student, educator, and researcher populations, employment opportunities, in the needs of corporations, government, industry, and universities, and in the relevant technical problems and issues of the day. Such an overview provides the necessary background for charting a response to the difficult question of how to maintain excellence and continuity in heat transfer education in the face of rapid, widespread, and complex changes. The present paper addresses how to make heat transfer education more relevant and stimulating. This paper represents a written summary of a 1996 panel discussion at the 1996 International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exhibition (IMECE) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in Atlanta, Georgia, on ''Heat Transfer Education: Keeping it Relevant and Vibrant,'' with significant expansion and amplification by the authors and the panelists in the 1997-98 period. The consensus of the participants is that the steps necessary to ensure the desired outcome in heat transfer education should include: (1) a better understanding of the interaction between the student, course content, and market needs; (2) an appreciation of the need in multidisciplinary industrial environments for engineers trained with a broad background: (3) a revision of the introductory heat

  3. New methodology for a person identification system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 31; Issue 3. New methodology for a person identification system. R Bremananth A Chitra. Volume 31 Issue 3 June 2006 pp 259-276 ... Experimental results illustrate that the proposed method has been easily espoused in elections, bank transactions and other security applications.

  4. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory | Deist | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory. F Deist ...

  5. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing availability of audio files on the Web, it is relevant to augment search engines with advanced audio search functionality. In this context, the ranking of the retrieved music is an important issue. This paper proposes a music ranking method capable of flexibly fusing...

  6. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  7. Soft systems methodology: other voices

    OpenAIRE

    Holwell, Sue

    2000-01-01

    This issue of Systemic Practice and Action Research, celebrating the work of Peter Checkland, in the particular nature and development of soft systems methodology (SSM), would not have happened unless the work was seen by others as being important. No significant contribution to thinking happens without a secondary literature developing. Not surprisingly, many commentaries have accompanied the ongoing development of SSM. Some of these are insightful, some full of errors, and some include both...

  8. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some c...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  9. Artificial Intelligence Techniques and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell, Jaime G.; Sleeman, Derek

    1982-01-01

    Two closely related aspects of artificial intelligence that have received comparatively little attention in the recent literature are research methodology, and the analysis of computational techniques that span multiple application areas. We believe both issues to be increasingly significant as Artificial Intelligence matures into a science and spins off major application efforts. It is imperative to analyze the repertoire of AI methods with respect to past experience, utility in new domains,...

  10. Discussion of some issues in assessing nuclear and radiation environmental impacts and in related assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses some noticeable issues in drafting assessment report of nuclear and radiation environmental impacts and relevant aspects needed to be considered from the point of view of comprehensive environmental assessment. The considerable issue are principles of radioactive waste management, optimization of radiation protection and collective dose, and uncertainty of the assessment. Implementing reporting system on assessment of nuclear and radiation environmental impacts would improve environmental protection for nuclear and radiation facilities. However, trade's, regional , country and global assessment of environmental impacts has to be enhanced. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop methodology of qualitative and quantitative comprehensive assessment

  11. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  12. Making academic research more relevant: A few suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Panda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic research in the domain of management scholarship, though steeped in scientific and methodological rigour, is generally found to be of little relevance to practice. The authors of this paper have revisited the rigour-relevance debate in light of recent developments and with special reference to the management research scenario in India. The central thesis of the argument is that the gulf between rigour and relevance needs to be bridged to make academic research more relevant to business organizations and practitioners. They have offered some suggestions to enhance the relevance of academic research to practice.

  13. Maquila Workers’ Health: Basic Issues, What is Known, and a Pilot Study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Blanco R.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Occupational health issues identified in maquilas include respiratory, musculoskeletal, psychological problems, and accidents. This study identifies the basic health issues, as well as the sources and investigational methods needed for drafting health standards for maquilas. It sets out conceptual guidelines, suggesting general methodological strategies appropriate for studies of workers’ health and its determinants in the maquiladora sector. The conceptual-methodological model is based on 1 a review of relevant studies, 2 a mixed methods pilot feasibility study within the community of workers and social actors of a textile maquila in Nicaragua, and 3 the conceptual-methodological integration of a literature review with the results of the pilot study. The main issues identified are the organization of work, health, governmental regulation, family and gender, infrastructure and environment. Methodological recommendations focus on the principle of triangulation; the use of anonymous questionnaires and focus groups to examine specific issues; individual interviews with management personnel and members of the community; and the value of family members as key informers on the impact on family, environment and community. Observation of actual work procedures is ideal but not always possible. A joint health and safety committee and a health services unit would be key instruments in the prevention of accidents and illness and in health promotion and care.

  14. Geostatistical methodology for waste optimization of contaminated premises - 59344

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnoyers, Yvon; Dubot, Didier

    2012-01-01

    The presented methodological study illustrates a Geo-statistical approach suitable for radiological evaluation in nuclear premises. The waste characterization is mainly focused on floor concrete surfaces. By modeling the spatial continuity of activities, Geo-statistics provide sound methods to estimate and map radiological activities, together with their uncertainty. The multivariate approach allows the integration of numerous surface radiation measurements in order to improve the estimation of activity levels from concrete samples. This way, a sequential and iterative investigation strategy proves to be relevant to fulfill the different evaluation objectives. Waste characterization is performed on risk maps rather than on direct interpolation maps (due to bias of the selection on kriging results). The use of several estimation supports (punctual, 1 m 2 , room) allows a relevant radiological waste categorization thanks to cost-benefit analysis according to the risk of exceeding a given activity threshold. Global results, mainly total activity, are similarly quantified to precociously lead the waste management for the dismantling and decommissioning project. This paper recalled the geo-statistics principles and demonstrated how this methodology provides innovative tools for the radiological evaluation of contaminated premises. The relevance of this approach relies on the presence of a spatial continuity for radiological contamination. In this case, geo-statistics provides reliable activity estimates, uncertainty quantification and risk analysis, which are essential decision-making tools for decommissioning and dismantling projects of nuclear installations. Waste characterization is then performed taking all relevant information into account: historical knowledge, surface measurements and samples. Thanks to the multivariate processing, the different investigation stages can be rationalized as regards quantity and positioning. Waste characterization is finally

  15. Forecasting in Intelligence: Indications and Warning Methodology in Modern Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gennadievna Vlasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the national security system effectiveness seriously depends on the professional analysis of information and timely forecasts. Thus the efficient methods of forecasting in the sphere of international relations are of current importance for the modern intelligence services. The Indications and Warning Technique that was a key element of forecasting methodology in intelligence until the end of Cold War is estimated in the present article. Is this method still relevant in the contemporary world with its new international order, new security challenges and technological revolution in the data collection and processing? The main conclusion based on the overview of current researches and known intelligence practice is that indicators technique is still relevant for the early warning of national security threats but requires some adaptation to today’s issues. The most important trends in adaptation are supposed to be a creation of broadest possible spectrum of threatens scenarios as well as research of current strategic threatens and corresponding indicators. Also the appropriate software that automates the use of indications technique by the security services is very important. The author believes that the cooperation between intelligence services and academic community can increase the efficiency of the Indications Methodology and of the strategic forecasting as well.

  16. Nuclear reactors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Francois; Seiler, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Since the seventies, economic incentives have led the utilities to drive a permanent evolution of the light water reactor (LWR). The evolution deals with the reactor designs as well as the way to operate them in a more flexible manner. It is for instance related to the fuel technologies and management. On the one hand, the technologies are in continuous evolution, such as the fuel pellets (MOX, Gd fuel, or Cr doped fuels..) as well as advanced cladding materials (M5 TM , MDA or ZIRLO). On the other hand, the fuel management is also subject to continuous evolution in particular in terms of increasing the level of burn-up, the reactor (core) power, the enrichment, as well as the duration of reactor cycles. For instance, in a few years in France, the burn-up has raised beyond the value of 39 GWj/t, initially authorized up to 52 GWj/t for the UO 2 fuel. In the near future, utilities foreseen to reach fuel burn-up of 60 GWj/t for MOX fuel and 70 GWj/t for UO 2 fuel. Furthermore, the future reactor of fourth generation will use new fuels of advanced conception. Furthermore with the objective of improving the safety margins, methods and calculation tools used by the utilities in the elaboration of their safety demonstrations submitted to the Safety Authority, are in movement. The margin evaluation methodologies often consist of a calculation chain of best-estimate multi-field simulations (e.g. various codes being coupled to simulate in a realistic way the evolution of the thermohydraulic, neutronic and mechanic state of the reactor). The statistical methods are more and more sophisticated and the computer codes are integrating ever-complex physical models (e.g. three-dimensional at fine scale). Following this evolution, the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), whose one of the roles is to examine the safety records and to rend a technical expertise, considers the necessity of reevaluating the safety issues for advanced

  17. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  19. Tourism Methodologies - New Perspectives, Practices and Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in differen...... codings and analysis, and tapping into the global network of social media.......This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  20. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  1. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity: An Interdisciplinary Methodological Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Salling Olesen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thematic issue presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis. Its particular focus is on subjectivity—as an aspect of the research object and as an aspect of the research process. By the term "approach" is indicated the intrinsic connection between the theorizing of an empirical object and the reflection of the research process and the epistemic subject. In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FQS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (BREUER, MRUCK & ROTH, 2002; MRUCK & BREUER, 2003. This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120345

  2. 'The methodology of positive economics' does not give us the methodology of positive economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.I. Mäki (Uskali)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIt is argued that rather than a well defined F-Twist, Milton Friedman's 'Methodology of positive economies' offers an F-Mix: a pool of ambiguous and inconsistent ingredients that can be used for putting together a number of different methodological positions. This concerns issues such as

  3. CUSTOMER SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTION AS A MAIN ISSUE IN CONCEPTUAL PRODUCT DESING: A METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL LA PERCEPCIÓN SUBJETIVA COMO FACTOR PRIMORDIAL EN EL DISEÑO CONCEPTUAL DE PRODUCTOS: UNA PROPUESTA METODOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A León Duarte

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Present economic scenarios compel organizations to introduce new strategies directed to increase their competitiveness. Industrial design is not detached from this tendency; commonly organizations declare that their products are the effect of " listening to the user" . Nevertheless, this process is identified by two basic characteristics: the associated linguistic nature to and the difficulty for interpreting, categorizing and incorporating the user's needs into product specifications. In this sense, the lack of solid and reliable mechanisms to integrate the user's perceived requirements into product characteristics is well known. A particular emphasis is made in the need to incorporate intangible attributes related to product perception by the user. A mechanism to detect and interpret product attributes in the conceptual or early desig and, a procedure to evaluate the user's subjective perception are incorporated. The methodology draws upon particular mechanisms for detection, interpretation and categorization of the requirements in two basic domains. These attributes, once identified, are incorporated in an affordances structure that shows sets of interactions in which the properties of the object are perceived by the user as action possibilities. This structure serves as a guide for the creative team in the detailed design phase, incorporating aspects that the user values the most, employing a combination of mechanisms that include the Kano method, Osgood's semantic differentials, factor analysis and fuzzy logic.El escenario económico actual obliga a las organizaciones a implantar estrategias novedosas, dirigidas a incrementar su competitividad. El diseño industrial no es ajeno a esto; en la actualidad las organizaciones presumen que sus productos son resultado de escuchar al usuario. Sin embargo, este proceso se distingue por dos características: la naturaleza lingüística asociada al mismo y la dificultad para interpretar, categorizar y

  4. Engineering radioecology: Methodological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, A.F.; Projaev, V.V.; Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The term ''radioecology'' has been widely recognized in scientific and technical societies. At the same time, this scientific school (radioecology) does not have a precise/generally acknowledged structure, unified methodical basis, fixed subjects of investigation, etc. In other words, radioecology is a vast, important but rather amorphous conglomerate of various ideas, amalgamated mostly by their involvement in biospheric effects of ionizing radiation and some conceptual stereotypes. This paradox was acceptable up to a certain time. However, with the termination of the Cold War and because of remarkable political changes in the world, it has become possible to convert the problem of environmental restoration from the scientific sphere in particularly practical terms. Already the first steps clearly showed an imperfection of existing technologies, managerial and regulatory schemes; lack of qualified specialists, relevant methods and techniques; uncertainties in methodology of decision-making, etc. Thus, building up (or maybe, structuring) of special scientific and technological basis, which the authors call ''engineering radioecology'', seems to be an important task. In this paper they endeavored to substantiate the last thesis and to suggest some preliminary ideas concerning the subject matter of engineering radioecology

  5. Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  6. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…

  7. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  8. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Tweddell

    2017-01-01

    , and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on the latter, this paper presents five studies on upper secondary and higher education teachers’ professional development and on teaching and learning through video conferencing. Through analysis and discussion of these studies’ findings, we argue......This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice...... that workshops provide a platform that can aid researchers in identifying and exploring relevant factors in a given domain by providing means for understanding complex work and knowledge processes that are supported by technology (for example, e-learning). The approach supports identifying factors...

  9. Research Methodology in Global Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    We review advances in research methodology used in global strategy research and provide suggestions on how researchers can improve their analyses and arguments. Methodological advances in the extraction of information, such as computer-aided text analysis, and in the analysis of datasets......, such as differences-in-differences and propensity score matching, have helped deal with challenges (e.g., endogeneity and causality) that bedeviled earlier studies and resulted in conflicting findings. These methodological advances need to be considered as tools that complement theoretical arguments and well......-explained logics and mechanisms so that researchers can provide better and more relevant recommendations to managers designing the global strategies of their organizations....

  10. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  11. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  12. Exploring Participatory Methodologies in Organizational Discourse Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2014-01-01

    Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new contribu......Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new...... contributions. As regards conceptual efforts are made but further exploration of methodological combinations and their practical implications are called for. This paper argues 1) to combine methodologies by approaching this as scholarly subjectification processes, and 2) to perform combinations in both...

  13. Burn Survivors' Perceptions regarding Relevant Sexual Education Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Yolan; Esmail, Shaniff

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the unique issues childhood burn survivors experience in relation to sex education and sexual development. Design/methodology/approach: Using a phenomenological approach, participants described their lived experiences with regards to sex education and the sexuality issues they encountered as child burn…

  14. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  15. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  16. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  17. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  18. Research Methodology in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help...... researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL....

  19. Nuclear EMP: ingredients of an EMP protection engineering methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Spogen, L.R. Jr.

    1977-02-01

    A fundamental methodology of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection engineering is described. Operations performed within the framework of this methodology are discussed. These operations, along with problem constraints and data, constitute the essential ingredients needed to implement the overall engineering methodology. Basic definitions and descriptions of these essential ingredients are provided. The issues discussed represent the first step in developing a methodology for protecting systems against EMP effects

  20. Design methodology of Dutch banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heij, Hans A. M.

    2000-04-01

    Since the introduction of a design methodology for Dutch banknotes, the quality of Dutch paper currency has improved in more than one way. The methodology is question provides for (i) a design policy, which helps fix clear objectives; (ii) design management, to ensure a smooth cooperation between the graphic designer, printer, papermaker an central bank, (iii) a program of requirements, a banknote development guideline for all parties involved. This systematic approach enables an objective selection of design proposals, including security features. Furthermore, the project manager obtains regular feedback from the public by conducting market surveys. Each new design of a Netherlands Guilder banknote issued by the Nederlandsche Bank of the past 50 years has been an improvement on its predecessor in terms of value recognition, security and durability.

  1. Relevance Feedback in Content Based Image Retrieval: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manesh B. Kokare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the technical achievements in the research area of relevance feedback (RF in content-based image retrieval (CBIR. Relevance feedback is a powerful technique in CBIR systems, in order to improve the performance of CBIR effectively. It is an open research area to the researcher to reduce the semantic gap between low-level features and high level concepts. The paper covers the current state of art of the research in relevance feedback in CBIR, various relevance feedback techniques and issues in relevance feedback are discussed in detail.

  2. Comparative analysis of proliferation resistance assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Inoue, Naoko; Osabe, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the methodologies was performed based on the discussions in the international workshop on 'Assessment Methodology of Proliferation Resistance for Future Nuclear Energy Systems' held in Tokyo, on March 2005. Through the workshop and succeeding considerations, it is clarified that the proliferation resistance assessment methodologies are affected by the broader nuclear options being pursued and also by the political situations of the state. Even the definition of proliferation resistance, despite the commonality of fundamental issues, derives from perceived threat and implementation circumstances inherent to the larger programs. Deep recognitions of the 'difference' among communities would help us to make further essential and progressed discussion with harmonization. (author)

  3. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  4. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  5. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  6. Methodologies for tracking learning paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Gilje, Øystein; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    filmmakers: what furthers their interest and/or hinders it, and what learning patterns emerge. The aim of this article is to present and discuss issues regarding the methodology and meth- ods of the study, such as developing a relationship with interviewees when conducting inter- views online (using MSN). We...... suggest two considerations about using online interviews: how the interviewees value the given subject of conversation and their familiarity with being online. The benefit of getting online communication with the young filmmakers offers ease, because it is both practical and appropriates a meeting...

  7. Identification of new treatments for epilepsy: issues in preclinical methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Buckmaster, Paul S.; Staley, Kevin J.; Moshé, Solomon L.; Perucca, Emilio; Engel, Jerome; Löscher, Wolfgang; Noebels, Jeffrey L.; Pitkänen, Asla; Stables, James; White, Steve H.; O’Brien, Terence J.; Simonato, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preclinical research has facilitated the discovery of valuable drugs for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy. Yet, despite these therapies, seizures are not adequately controlled in a third of all affected individuals, and comorbidities still impose a major burden on quality of life. The introduction of multiple new therapies into clinical use over the past two decades has done little to change this. There is an urgent demand to address the unmet clinical needs for: (a) new symptomatic anti-seizure treatments for drug-resistant seizures with improved efficacy/tolerability profiles, (b) disease modifying treatments that prevent or ameliorate the epileptogenic state, and (c) treatments for the common comorbidities that contribute to disability in people with epilepsy. New therapies also need to address the special needs of certain subpopulations, i.e. age- or gender-specific treatments. Preclinical development in these treatment areas is complex due to heterogeneity in presentation and etiology, and may need to be formulated with a specific seizure, epilepsy syndrome or comorbidity in mind. The aim of this report is to provide a framework that will help define future guidelines that improve and standardize the design, reporting, and validation of data across preclinical anti-epilepsy therapy development studies targeting drug-resistant seizures, epileptogenesis and comorbidities. PMID:22292566

  8. Methodological issues in testing the marginal productivity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T. Gottschalk (Peter); J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractPrevious tests of the marginal productivity theory have been criticized on several grounds reviewed by the authors. One important deficiency has been the small number of factor inputs entered in the production functions. In 1978 Gottschalk suggested a method to estimate production

  9. Determination of fibromyalgia syndrome after whiplash injuries: methodologic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James P; Theodore, Brian R; Wilson, Hilary D; Waldo, Peter G; Turk, Dennis C

    2011-06-01

    Problems in diagnosing fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) among motor vehicle collision (MVC) patients with whiplash (WL) include the following: the predominance of tender points (TPs) in the neck/shoulder girdle region; the 3-month duration of widespread pain criterion; and, the stability of diagnosis. The present study examined the prevalence of FM in a cohort (N = 326) patients with persistent neck pain 3 months after WL injury who were enrolled in a treatment program. Physical examinations were performed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Results indicated that WL patients had a greater proportion of neck/shoulder girdle TPs, relative to distal TPs. Compared with a matched cohort of treatment-seeking FM patients, WL patients indicated less distal TPs (mean = 7.3 TPs vs. mean = 5.6 TPs, P whiplash patients because of persistent localized tenderness after motor vehicle collisions. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DETERMINATION OF FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME FOLLOWING WHIPLASH INJURIES: METHODOLOGIC ISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James P.; Theodore, Brian R.; Wilson, Hilary D.; Waldo, Peter G.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2011-01-01

    Problems in diagnosing FM among motor vehicle collision (MVC) patients with whiplash (WL) include: the predominance of tender points (TPs) in the neck/shoulder girdle region; the 3-month duration of widespread pain criterion; and, the stability of diagnosis. The present study examined the prevalence of FM in a cohort (N = 326) with persistent neck pain 3 months following WL injury who were enrolled in a treatment program. Physical examinations were performed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Results indicated that WL patients had a greater proportion of neck/shoulder girdle TPs, relative to distal TPs. Compared to a matched cohort of treatment-seeking FM patients, WL patients indicated less distal TPs (M = 7.3 TPs vs. M = 5.6 TPs, p < 0.001), but were equivalent on neck/shoulder girdle TPs (M = 9.0 TPs vs. 9.2 TPs, ns). Baseline prevalence of FM for the WL cohort based on ACR criteria was 14% (95% CI: 10% – 18%), adjusted TP criterion discounting for neck/shoulder tenderness indicated a prevalence of FM of 8% (95% CI: 5% – 11%). Finally, 63% of patients meeting American College of Rheumatology FM criteria at baseline did not meet this criterion at post-treatment (approx. 6-months post-MVC). In conclusion, present criteria used in determining FM may result in spuriously inflated rates of diagnosis among WL patients due to persistent localized tenderness following MVC. Furthermore, the transient nature of FM “symptoms” among WL patients should be taken into account before making a final diagnosis. PMID:21419574

  11. Light therapy: Methodological issues from an engineering perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MD E.J.M. Wouters; AC Westerlaken; MBC Aries; AMC Schoutens; MM Sinoo; Joost van Hoof; MPJ Aarts

    2012-01-01

    Light therapy is increasingly administered and studied as a non-pharmacologic treatment for a variety of health-related problems, including treatment of people with dementia. Light therapy comes in a variety of ways, ranging from being exposed to daylight, to being exposed to light emitted by light

  12. Light therapy: Methodological issues from an engineering perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Westerlaken; A.M.C. Schoutens; M.P.J. Aarts; M.B.C. Aries; M.M. Sinoo; J. van Hoof; E.J.M. Wouters

    2012-01-01

    Light therapy is increasingly administered and studied as a non-pharmacologic treatment for a variety of healthrelated problems, including treatment of people with dementia. Light therapy comes in a variety of ways, ranging from being exposed to daylight, to being exposed to light emitted by light

  13. Light therapy: Methodological issues from an engineering perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost van Hoof; Aries; MD E.J.M. Wouters; Van Someren; Schoutens; Westerlaken; Aarts; Sinoo

    2011-01-01

    Light therapy is increasingly administered and studied as a non-pharmacologic treatment for a variety of health-related problems. Light therapy comes in a variety of ways, ranging from being exposed to daylight to being exposed to light from light boxes and ambient bright light. Light therapy is an

  14. Light therapy : methodological issues from an engineering perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.; Westerlaken, A.C.; Aarts, M.P.J.; Wouters, E.J.M.; Schoutens, A.M.C.; Sinoo, M.M.; Aries, M.B.C.

    2012-01-01

    Light therapy is increasingly administered and studied as a non-pharmacologic treatment for a variety of healthrelated problems, including treatment of people with dementia. Light therapy comes in a variety of ways, ranging from being exposed to daylight, to being exposed to light emitted by light

  15. Mutual fund performance: A synthesis of taxonomic and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Badrinath

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive taxonomy of mutual funds and discusses the relative importance of these fund types. While most academic research focuses on US equity funds, we provide results for many more asset classes with this taxonomy—fixed income, balanced, global, International, sector, market-neutral and long-short funds. For each, we start by reporting statistics on the number of funds and their total net asset values at different intervals over the last four decades. We then identify short and long-term patterns in annual returns to mutual funds. We study the cross-sectional and time-series properties of the distribution of investor flows into different types of mutual funds, describe the relationship between flows and performance and discuss its implications for the strategic behaviour of managers and investors. We estimate and interpret fund performance alphas using both the single-factor and four-factor Fama-French models for each taxonomy type. Finally we describe the state of academic research on portfolio performance evaluation tilted towards an applied audience.

  16. Methodological Issues in Measures of Imitative Reaction Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicken, Michael D.; Wilson, Andrew D.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Ideomotor (IM) theory suggests that observing someone else perform an action activates an internal motor representation of that behaviour within the observer. Evidence supporting the case for an ideomotor theory of imitation has come from studies that show imitative responses to be faster than the same behavioural measures performed in response to…

  17. Methodological issues in measures of imitative reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicken, Michael D; Wilson, Andrew D; Williams, Justin H G; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2007-04-01

    Ideomotor (IM) theory suggests that observing someone else perform an action activates an internal motor representation of that behaviour within the observer. Evidence supporting the case for an ideomotor theory of imitation has come from studies that show imitative responses to be faster than the same behavioural measures performed in response to spatial cues. In an attempt to replicate these findings, we manipulated the salience of the visual cue and found that we could reverse the advantage of the imitative cue over the spatial cue. We suggest that participants utilised a simple visuomotor mechanism to perform all aspects of this task, with performance being driven by the relative visual salience of the stimuli. Imitation is a more complex motor skill that would constitute an inefficient strategy for rapid performance.

  18. Identification of new epilepsy treatments: issues in preclinical methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Buckmaster, Paul S; Staley, Kevin J; Moshé, Solomon L; Perucca, Emilio; Engel, Jerome; Löscher, Wolfgang; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Pitkänen, Asla; Stables, James; White, H Steve; O'Brien, Terence J; Simonato, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Preclinical research has facilitated the discovery of valuable drugs for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy. Yet, despite these therapies, seizures are not adequately controlled in a third of all affected individuals, and comorbidities still impose a major burden on quality of life. The introduction of multiple new therapies into clinical use over the past two decades has done little to change this. There is an urgent demand to address the unmet clinical needs for: (1) new symptomatic antiseizure treatments for drug-resistant seizures with improved efficacy/tolerability profiles, (2) disease-modifying treatments that prevent or ameliorate the process of epileptogenesis, and (3) treatments for the common comorbidities that contribute to disability in people with epilepsy. New therapies also need to address the special needs of certain subpopulations, that is, age- or gender-specific treatments. Preclinical development in these treatment areas is complex due to heterogeneity in presentation and etiology, and may need to be formulated with a specific seizure, epilepsy syndrome, or comorbidity in mind. The aim of this report is to provide a framework that will help define future guidelines that improve and standardize the design, reporting, and validation of data across preclinical antiepilepsy therapy development studies targeting drug-resistant seizures, epileptogenesis, and comorbidities. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, LI; Shinn-Yi, CHOU

    2016-01-01

    The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254

  20. Methodological issues and pitfalls of short safety culture questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagtman, H.M.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Stewart, S.

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture surveys have been fielded in many different sectors of industrial activities. Many of these surveys consist of a long list of questions which is time consuming for the respondents. As part of the FP6 HILAS project a shorter survey has been developed, which aimed at getting a high

  1. Methodological issues underlying multiple decrement life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, C J; Avery, R C; Littman, G S; Potter, R G

    1977-02-01

    In this paper, the actuarial method of multiple decrement life table analysis of censored, longitudinal data is examined. The discussion is organized in terms of the first segment of usage of an intrauterine device. Weaknesses of the actuarial approach are pointed out, and an alternative approach, based on the classical model of competing risks, is proposed. Finally, the actuarial and the alternative method of analyzing censored data are compared, using data from the Taichung Medical Study on Intrauterine Devices.

  2. Applications of neuroscience in criminal law: legal and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, John B

    2015-01-01

    The use of neuroscience in criminal law applications is an increasingly discussed topic among legal and psychological scholars. Over the past 5 years, several prominent federal criminal cases have referenced neuroscience studies and made admissibility determinations regarding neuroscience evidence. Despite this growth, the field is exceptionally young, and no one knows for sure how significant of a contribution neuroscience will make to criminal law. This article focuses on three major subfields: (1) neuroscience-based credibility assessment, which seeks to detect lies or knowledge associated with a crime; (2) application of neuroscience to aid in assessments of brain capacity for culpability, especially among adolescents; and (3) neuroscience-based prediction of future recidivism. The article briefly reviews these fields as applied to criminal law and makes recommendations for future research, calling for the increased use of individual-level data and increased realism in laboratory studies.

  3. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming LI

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions.

  4. Methodological Issues in Using Multiple Years of the MCBS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In the systematic review, we identified 22 pooled, 17 repeated cross-sectional, and 17 longitudinal studies. Less than half of these studies explicitly described the...

  5. Methodologic issues in the measurement of urinary renin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.W. Roksnoer (Lodi); K. Verdonk (Koen); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); J.M. van Gool (Jeanette); R. Zietse (Bob); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); A.H.J. Danser (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground and objectives Alge et al. recently reported that urinary renin may be a prognostic biomarker for AKI after cardiac surgery. However, their urinary renin levels far exceeded published plasma renin levels, whereas normally, urinary renin is,10%of plasma renin. This result

  6. Methodological Issues in Leadership Training Research: In Pursuit of Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Robin; Epitropaki, O; O'Broin, Holly

    2017-01-01

    Leadership training has led to a large amount of research due to the belief that such training can lead to (or more precisely  cause) positive changes in followers’ behavior and work performance. This chapter describes some of the conditions necessary  for research to show a causal relationship between leadership training and outcomes. It then describes different research de‐ signs, employed in leadership training research, and considers the types of problems that can affect inferenc...

  7. Forecasting and Technology Management: Statistical Theory and Methodological Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning

    of directions and targets for a R and D project, monitoring of a given area by a public agency, and evaluation of the future competitive situation for a company. This paper gives a brief introduction to the field of technological forecasting especially in relation to the strategic planning process...

  8. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  9. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  10. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  11. Scenario development methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Hudson, J.; Stephansson, O.

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are a) Event tree analysis, b) Influence diagrams and c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs

  12. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  13. Psychosocial Issues in Geriatric Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo M

    2017-11-01

    Geriatric patients present multiple age-related challenges and needs that must be taken into account during the rehabilitation process to achieve expected goals. This article examines the importance of identifying and managing psychosocial issues commonly observed in older adults and presents strategies to optimize their rehabilitation process. Depression, anxiety, fear of falling, adjustment issues, neurocognitive disorders, and caregiver support are discussed as a selection of factors that are relevant for geriatric patients undergoing rehabilitation. An argument is made for the importance of comprehensive geriatric assessment in older adults to identify salient issues that may impact rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant. This document also includes appendices A through I which provide: System descriptions; ISLOCA event trees; human reliability analysis; thermal hydraulic analysis; core uncovery timing calculations; calculation of system rupture probability; ISLOCA consequences analysis; uncertainty analysis; and component failure analysis.

  15. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N.

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant. This document also includes appendices A through I which provide: System descriptions; ISLOCA event trees; human reliability analysis; thermal hydraulic analysis; core uncovery timing calculations; calculation of system rupture probability; ISLOCA consequences analysis; uncertainty analysis; and component failure analysis

  16. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  17. Two aspects of relevance in structured argumentation: minimality and paraconsistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grooters, Diana; Prakken, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies two issues concerning relevance in structured argumentation in the context of the ASPIC+ framework, arising from the combined use of strict and defeasible inference rules. One issue arises if the strict inference rules correspond to classical logic. A longstanding problem is how

  18. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  19. Editorial: AABFJ Volume 9, Issue 1, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Mir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are six excellent and diversified papers published in this edition of the Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal. As highlighted below, these papers’ contributions range from issues relating to accounting standard setting process to the efficient market hypothesis including a paper based on alternative accounting research methodology that explores the issues of career choices by women in a developing economy.

  20. LWR design decision methodology. Phase III. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertucio, R.; Held, J.; Lainoff, S.; Leahy, T.; Prather, W.; Rees, D.; Young, J.

    1982-01-01

    Traditionally, management decisions regarding design options have been made using quantitative cost information and qualitative safety information. A Design Decision Methodology, which utilizes probabilistic risk assessment techniques, including event trees and fault trees, along with systems engineering and standard cost estimation methods, has been developed so that a quantitative safety measure may be obtained as well. The report documents the development of this Design Decision Methodology, a demonstration of the methodology on a current licensing issue with the cooperation of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS), and a discussion of how the results of the demonstration may be used addressing the various issues associated with a licensing position on the issue

  1. Chronopolitics: methodological aspects of public policy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zubchyk

    2016-08-01

    Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.

  2. (Per)Forming Archival Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillet, Lynee Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This article raises multiple issues associated with archival research methodologies and methods. Based on a survey of recent scholarship and interviews with experienced archival researchers, this overview of the current status of archival research both complicates traditional conceptions of archival investigation and encourages scholars to adopt…

  3. State debt dynamics: the methodological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crijanovschi Stela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it’s presented the methodological aspect of the state debt. The issue of supplementary money in order to cover the state debt is one of the factors that generate inflation, which respectively has a negative impact on the economic development

  4. STATE DEBT DYNAMICS: THE METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela CRIJANOVSCHI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it’s presented the methodological aspect of the state debt. The issue of supplementary money in order to cover the state debt is one of the factors that generate inflation, which respectively has a negative impact on the economic development.

  5. Evaluation Methodology. The Evaluation Exchange. Volume 11, Number 2, Summer 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Julia, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third issue of "The Evaluation Exchange" devoted entirely to the theme of methodology, though every issue tries to identify new methodological choices, the instructive ways in which people have applied or combined different methods, and emerging methodological trends. For example, lately "theories of change" have gained almost…

  6. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  7. Introduction to LCA Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2018-01-01

    In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis...

  8. Archetype modeling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, David; Maldonado, José Alberto; Robles, Montserrat

    2018-03-01

    Clinical Information Models (CIMs) expressed as archetypes play an essential role in the design and development of current Electronic Health Record (EHR) information structures. Although there exist many experiences about using archetypes in the literature, a comprehensive and formal methodology for archetype modeling does not exist. Having a modeling methodology is essential to develop quality archetypes, in order to guide the development of EHR systems and to allow the semantic interoperability of health data. In this work, an archetype modeling methodology is proposed. This paper describes its phases, the inputs and outputs of each phase, and the involved participants and tools. It also includes the description of the possible strategies to organize the modeling process. The proposed methodology is inspired by existing best practices of CIMs, software and ontology development. The methodology has been applied and evaluated in regional and national EHR projects. The application of the methodology provided useful feedback and improvements, and confirmed its advantages. The conclusion of this work is that having a formal methodology for archetype development facilitates the definition and adoption of interoperable archetypes, improves their quality, and facilitates their reuse among different information systems and EHR projects. Moreover, the proposed methodology can be also a reference for CIMs development using any other formalism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  10. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works...

  11. Data Centric Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Fadi E.

    2012-01-01

    Data centric applications, an important effort of software development in large organizations, have been mostly adopting a software methodology, such as a waterfall or Rational Unified Process, as the framework for its development. These methodologies could work on structural, procedural, or object oriented based applications, but fails to capture…

  12. The Methodology of Magpies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  13. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  14. Methodology for Selecting Initiating Events and Hazards for Consideration in an Extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielenberg, A.; Hage, M.; Loeffler, H.; Alzbutas, R.; Apostol, M.; Bareith, A.; Siklossy, T.; Brac, P.; Burgazzi, L.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Cizelj, L.; Prosek, A.; Volkanovski, A.; Hashimoto, K.; Godefroy, F.; Gonzalez, M.; Groudev, P.; Kolar, L.; Kumar, M.; Nitoi, M.; Raimond, E.

    2016-01-01

    An extended PSA applies to a site of one or several Nuclear Power Plant unit(s) and its environment. It intends to calculate the risk induced by the main sources of radioactivity (reactor core and spent fuel storages) on the site, taking into account all operating states for each main source and all possible relevant accident initiating events (both internal and external) affecting one unit or the whole site. The combination between hazards or initiating events and their impact on a unit or the whole site is a crucial issue for an extended PSA. The report tries to discuss relevant methodologies for this purpose. The report proposes a methodology to select initiating events and hazards for the development of an extended PSA. The proposed methodology for initiating events identification, screening and bounding analysis for an extended PSA consists of four major steps: 1. A comprehensive identification of events and hazards and their respective combinations applicable to the plant and site. Qualitative screening criteria will be applied, 2. The calculation of initial (possibly conservative) frequency claims for events and hazards and their respective combinations applicable to the plant and the site. Quantitative screening criteria will be applied, 3. An impact analysis and bounding assessment for all applicable events and scenarios. Events are either screened out from further more detailed analysis, or are assigned to a bounding event (group), or are retained for detailed analysis, 4. The probabilistic analysis of all retained (bounding) events at the appropriate level of detail. (authors)

  15. GENERIC APPROACH IN CHOICE OF ADEQUATE METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF IT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Kozina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investments into information technology (IT, (hereinafter: IT investments havereached very high figures, which are still continually on the rise. IT potentials are being usedin an increasing number of ways. Various company managers have different approaches tothis issue. A large number of methods/models for the assessment of IT investments isavailable, so the question is posed of how to choose the adequate assessment category. Thesaid reasons have initiated a need for defining the generic approach in the choice ofadequate methodology for the assessment of IT investments, which was indeed the goal ofthis paper. General ideas to this approach stem from the fact that each IT investment has itspurpose and belongs to a certain type of IT investment (decision-making aspect whichdemands its relevant methodology for assessing IT investments. Two groups of demands(conditions have been defined in choosing relevant methodology. The first group pertains tomethodology analysis and determination of its compatibility with characteristics of thedefined decision-making aspect. The second group of conditions pertains to methodologyanalysis with respect to its possibilities (abilities of integrating quantity, quality and riskfactors of IT decision. Conducted field research shows that the assessment of IT investmentshas been done mainly using simpler methods/models and their combinations, and is focusedon quantity aspects of IT values.

  16. Relevance of the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) to the Post Cold War Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergeson, Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    .... Relevancy is a leadership issue for today, and in the future. Over the last several years, senior leader's sought to make the Army more relevant by undertaking such measures as reducing force structure and trimming the budget...

  17. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  18. Methodological Developments in Geophysical Assimilation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, George

    2005-06-01

    This work presents recent methodological developments in geophysical assimilation research. We revisit the meaning of the term "solution" of a mathematical model representing a geophysical system, and we examine its operational formulations. We argue that an assimilation solution based on epistemic cognition (which assumes that the model describes incomplete knowledge about nature and focuses on conceptual mechanisms of scientific thinking) could lead to more realistic representations of the geophysical situation than a conventional ontologic assimilation solution (which assumes that the model describes nature as is and focuses on form manipulations). Conceptually, the two approaches are fundamentally different. Unlike the reasoning structure of conventional assimilation modeling that is based mainly on ad hoc technical schemes, the epistemic cognition approach is based on teleologic criteria and stochastic adaptation principles. In this way some key ideas are introduced that could open new areas of geophysical assimilation to detailed understanding in an integrated manner. A knowledge synthesis framework can provide the rational means for assimilating a variety of knowledge bases (general and site specific) that are relevant to the geophysical system of interest. Epistemic cognition-based assimilation techniques can produce a realistic representation of the geophysical system, provide a rigorous assessment of the uncertainty sources, and generate informative predictions across space-time. The mathematics of epistemic assimilation involves a powerful and versatile spatiotemporal random field theory that imposes no restriction on the shape of the probability distributions or the form of the predictors (non-Gaussian distributions, multiple-point statistics, and nonlinear models are automatically incorporated) and accounts rigorously for the uncertainty features of the geophysical system. In the epistemic cognition context the assimilation concept may be used to

  19. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant

  20. Cuestiones ético-metodológicas frente a la réplica del experimento de Stanley Milgram, 45 años después Ethical and methodological issues involved in the replica of Stanley Milgram's experiment - 45 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Z. Salomone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En 2009 se publicaron los resultados de la investigación de Jerry Burger, una réplica parcial del célebre estudio de Stanley Milgram sobre obediencia a la autoridad. A 45 años del experimento original, se reabrieron así discusiones éticas y metodológicas insoslayables. Tales cuestiones éticas se organizan en tres niveles diferentes: (1 Las premisas éticas para la utilización de consignas engañosas en la investigación científica: ¿cuáles son estas premisas? ¿por qué ha sido objetado el experimento de Milgram? ¿Es posible una réplica del experimento que salve tales objeciones?; (2 El contexto de aplicación de la investigación: ¿es posible utilizar sus resultados para explicar la obediencia a órdenes aberrantes en casos tan diversos como el nazismo, My Lai, la dictadura militar de Argentina 1976-83, Guantánamo o Abu Ghraib?; (3 Las condiciones para la transmisión de un experimento metodológica y conceptualmente controvertido: ¿cuáles son los principios éticos actualmente vigentes en materia de "objetividad en la enseñanza"? ¿qué supone, en el caso concreto de Milgram, ofrecer a estudiantes e investigadores una perspectiva ética sobre el problema? Como una contribución a este último punto, el presente artículo discute los parámetros actualmente vigentes en materia de Engaño en la investigación y Consentimiento Informado, analizando las implicancias ético-metodológicas de la "solución de los 150 voltios" propuesta por Burger en su réplica del experimento.The results of Jerry Burger's investigation, a partial replica of Stanley Milgram's famous study on obedience to authority, were published in 2009. 45 years after the original experiment was conducted, the ethical and methodological issues surrounding this study inevitably resurfaced. Said ethical issues can be organized into three different levels: (1 The ethical premises which outline the practice of deception in research. What are these premises? Why have

  1. Greenhouse effect. DOE's programs and activities relevant to the global warming phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Robert E. Jr.; Iager, Richard E.; Che, Deborah

    1990-03-01

    While considerable understanding of global climate systems has been gained in the past few years, major sources of uncertainty remain, including the role played by factors such as cloud cover, oceans, and vegetation growth. To help fill these information gaps, DOE undertakes direct research and collects data needed for carbon and climate system models used to predict potential climate changes. These direct research and development efforts represent a requested $28 million in fiscal year 1990 funds, an increase of about $5 million over fiscal year 1989 funding. DOE also conducts a wide range of other research development and demonstration programs it considers indirectly related to the global warming issue, including efforts to increase energy efficiencies, promote conservation, and develop non-fossil energy technologies. For fiscal year 1990, DOE requested about $1.3 billion for these program areas, about $330 million more than the fiscal year 1989 funding level. In these program areas DOE has not established any written criteria or guidance to give special priority to projects on the basis of their relevance or potential impact on global climate change. Senior DOE officials stated that management considers the issue when making funding decisions. In July 1989, the Secretary of Energy established six principles that will form DOE's approach to the global climate change issue, and stated that the issue will be a central part of DOE's efforts to develop a new National Energy Strategy. In addition, several management initiatives have been taken that were related to the issue. These efforts have included compiling an inventory of DOE programs relevant to the issue, organizing a global warming conference, and establishing a DOE Climate Issue Response Group. Public and private organizations, including the Environmental Protection Agency and the World Resources Institute, have made many proposals to address global warming. Generally, the proposals suggested increasing

  2. Health economic assessment: a methodological primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-12-01

    This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs), an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis), and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments.

  3. Health Economic Assessment: A Methodological Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs, an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis, and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments.

  4. Valerian: No Evidence for Clinically Relevant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Kelber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients.

  5. Forensic anthropology casework-essential methodological considerations in stature estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Ghosh, Abhik

    2012-03-01

    The examination of skeletal remains is a challenge to the medical examiner's/coroner's office and the forensic anthropologist conducting the investigation. One of the objectives of the medico-legal investigation is to estimate stature or height from various skeletal remains and body parts brought for examination. Various skeletal remains and body parts bear a positive and linear correlation with stature and have been successfully used for stature estimation. This concept is utilized in estimation of stature in forensic anthropology casework in mass disasters and other forensic examinations. Scientists have long been involved in standardizing the anthropological data with respect to various populations of the world. This review deals with some essential methodological issues that need to be addressed in research related to estimation of stature in forensic examinations. These issues have direct relevance in the identification of commingled or unknown remains and therefore it is essential that forensic nurses are familiar with the theories and techniques used in forensic anthropology. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  6. Comparative analysis as a basic research orientation: Key methodological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Sociological Laboratory of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia has accumulated a vast experience in the field of cross-cultural studies reflected in the publications based on the results of mass surveys conducted in Moscow, Maikop, Beijing, Guangzhou, Prague, Belgrade, and Pristina. However, these publications mainly focus on the comparisons of the empirical data rather than methodological and technical issues, that is why the aim of this article is to identify key problems of the comparative analysis in cross-cultural studies that become evident only if you conduct an empirical research yourself - from the first step of setting the problem and approving it by all the sides (countries involved to the last step of interpreting and comparing the data obtained. The authors are sure that no sociologist would ever doubt the necessity and importance of comparative analysis in the broadest sense of the word, but at the same time very few are ready to discuss its key methodological challenges and prefer to ignore them completely. We summarize problems of the comparative analysis in sociology as follows: (1 applying research techniques to the sample in another country - both in translating and adapting them to different social realities and worldview (in particular, the problematic status of standardization and qualitative approach; (2 choosing “right” respondents to question and relevant cases (cultures to study; (3 designing the research scheme, i.e. justifying the sequence of steps (what should go first - methodology or techniques; (4 accepting the procedures that are correct within one country for cross-cultural work (whether or not that is an appropriate choice.

  7. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers.......ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...

  8. GPS system simulation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The following topics are presented: background; Global Positioning System (GPS) methodology overview; the graphical user interface (GUI); current models; application to space nuclear power/propulsion; and interfacing requirements. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  9. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  10. Nonlinear Image Denoising Methodologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yufang, Bao

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, we propose a theoretical as well as practical framework to combine geometric prior information to a statistical/probabilistic methodology in the investigation of a denoising problem...

  11. Clinical trial methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2011-01-01

    "Now viewed as its own scientific discipline, clinical trial methodology encompasses the methods required for the protection of participants in a clinical trial and the methods necessary to provide...

  12. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    -centric boundary (Filippelli 2008, Handoh and Lenton 2003). However, human alteration of the P cycle has multiple potential boundaries (figure 1), including P-driven freshwater eutrophication (Smith and Schindler 2009), the potential for world P supply to place an ultimate limit on food production (Smil 2000, Childers et al 2011), and depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions (MacDonald et al 2011). Carpenter and Bennett revisit the P boundary from the freshwater eutrophication perspective. Given the extraordinary variation in freshwater ecosystems across the globe, this is a challenging task, but the authors strengthen their analysis by using three different boundaries with relevance to eutrophication, along with two water quality targets and a range of estimates of P flow to the sea. In doing so, they make a compelling case that if freshwater eutrophication is indeed a Rubicon, we have already crossed it. Importantly, Carpenter and Bennett go beyond the calculation of new boundaries to make broader points about humanity's relationship with the P cycle. Disruptions of both the P and N cycles are mostly about our need for food (Galloway et al 2008, Cordell et al 2009), but unlike N, P supplies are finite and irreplaceable. Environmental concerns aside, we can fix all the N2 from the atmosphere we want—but deplete our economically viable P reserves and we're in trouble. Figure 1 Figure 1. Human alteration of the global P cycle has multiple possible boundaries. These include the environmental risks posed by freshwater eutrophication and marine anoxic events, and the food security risks that come from depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions, as well as finite global supplies of high-value mineral P reserves. Photo credits beyond authors: upper left, Shelby Riskin; upper right, Pedro Sanchez. In effect, Carpenter and Bennett argue that among P's multiple boundaries, the one for freshwaters is less forgiving of our current activities (but no less important) than is

  13. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2016-07-01

    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  14. Methodology of sustainability accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Sokil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern challenges of the theory and methodology of accounting are realized through the formation and implementation of new concepts, the purpose of which is to meet the needs of users in standard and unique information. The development of a methodology for sustainability accounting is a key aspect of the management of an economic entity. The purpose of the article is to form the methodological bases of accounting for sustainable development and determine its goals, objectives, object, subject, methods, functions and key aspects. The author analyzes the theoretical bases of the definition and considers the components of the traditional accounting methodology. Generalized structural diagram of the methodology for accounting for sustainable development is offered in the article. The complex of methods and principles of sustainable development accounting for systematized and non-standard provisions has been systematized. The new system of theoretical and methodological provisions of accounting for sustainable development is justified in the context of determining its purpose, objective, subject, object, methods, functions and key aspects.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative research in Sociolinguistics: methodological dadaism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rodrigues Cardoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The confluence between quantitative and qualitative research in Sociolinguistics is a methodological Dadaism? The issue here is not epistemology, because I assume that the Sociolinguistics studies the language linked to social. I want to demonstrate that the methodological approach depends on the research question, ie, the subject about which a thesis is developed.

  16. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Taewan

    2015-01-01

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  17. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  18. Multicultural Issues and Concerns in Library Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiband, Susan J.

    1992-01-01

    Identifies multilingual and multicultural issues relevant to library and information science curricula today and outlines the skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed by graduates to address these issues. Aspects of the curriculum, specific programs, and activities on which to focus are discussed. (13 references) (EA)

  19. Intersystem LOCA risk assessment: methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galyean, W.J.; Kelly, D.L.; Schroeder, J.A.; Auflick, L.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Gertman, D.I.; Hanley, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a research program to develop an improved understanding of the human factors, hardware and accident consequence issues that dominate the risk from an intersystem loss-of-coolant accident (ISLOCA) at a nuclear power plant. To accomplish the goals of this program, a mehtodology has been developed for estimating ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. The steps in this methodology are briefly described, along with the results obtained from an application of the methodology at three pressurized water reactors. Also included are the results of a screening study of boiling water reactors. ((orig.))

  20. Theory of mind and Verstehen (understanding) methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    Theory of mind is a prominent, but highly controversial, field in psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy of mind. Simulation theory, theory-theory and other views have been presented in recent decades, none of which are monolithic. In this article, various views on theory of mind are reviewed, and methodological problems within each view are investigated. The relationship between simulation theory and Verstehen (understanding) methodology in traditional human sciences is an intriguing issue, although the latter is not a direct ancestor of the former. From that perspective, lessons for current clinical psychiatry are drawn. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Overview of the ISAM safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeonov, G.

    2003-01-01

    The ISAM safety assessment methodology consists of the following key components: specification of the assessment context description of the disposal system development and justification of scenarios formulation and implementation of models running of computer codes and analysis and presentation of results. Common issues run through two or more of these assessment components, including: use of methodological and computer tools, collation and use of data, need to address various sources of uncertainty, building of confidence in the individual components, as well as the overall assessment. The importance of the iterative nature of the assessment should be recognised

  2. Research methodology in recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stakeholder analysis methodologies resource book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuch, W.M.; Farhar, B.C.

    1994-03-01

    Stakeholder analysis allows analysts to identify how parties might be affected by government projects. This process involves identifying the likely impacts of a proposed action and stakeholder groups affected by that action. Additionally, the process involves assessing how these groups might be affected and suggesting measures to mitigate any adverse effects. Evidence suggests that the efficiency and effectiveness of government actions can be increased and adverse social impacts mitigated when officials understand how a proposed action might affect stakeholders. This report discusses how to conduct useful stakeholder analyses for government officials making decisions on energy-efficiency and renewable-energy technologies and their commercialization. It discusses methodological issues that may affect the validity and reliability of findings, including sampling, generalizability, validity, ``uncooperative`` stakeholder groups, using social indicators, and the effect of government regulations. The Appendix contains resource directories and a list of specialists in stakeholder analysis and involvement.

  4. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer......This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...... to properly reveal the clinical value. The paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming tissue harmonic imaging....

  5. Reality = Relevance? Insights from Spontaneous Modulations of the Brain's Default Network when Telling Apart Reality from Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2009-01-01

    Background Although human beings regularly experience fictional worlds through activities such as reading novels and watching movies, little is known about what mechanisms underlie our implicit knowledge of the distinction between reality and fiction. The first neuroimaging study to address this issue revealed that the mere exposure to contexts involving real entities compared to fictional characters led to engagement of regions in the anterior medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices (amPFC, PCC). As these core regions of the brain's default network are involved during self-referential processing and autobiographical memory retrieval, it was hypothesized that real entities may be conceptually coded as being more personally relevant to us than fictional characters. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we directly test the hypothesis that entity-associated personal relevance is the critical factor underlying the differential engagement of these brain regions by comparing the brain's response when processing contexts involving family or friends (high relevance), famous people (medium relevance), or fictional characters (low relevance). In line with predictions, a gradient pattern of activation was observed such that higher entity-associated personal relevance was associated with stronger activation in the amPFC and the PCC. Conclusions/Significance The results of the study have several important implications. Firstly, they provide informed grounds for characterizing the dynamics of reality-fiction distinction. Secondly, they provide further insights into the functions of the amPFC and the PCC. Thirdly, in view of the current debate related to the functional relevance and specificity of brain's default network, they reveal a novel approach by which the functions of this network can be further explored. PMID:19277108

  6. Reality = relevance? Insights from spontaneous modulations of the brain's default network when telling apart reality from fiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Abraham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human beings regularly experience fictional worlds through activities such as reading novels and watching movies, little is known about what mechanisms underlie our implicit knowledge of the distinction between reality and fiction. The first neuroimaging study to address this issue revealed that the mere exposure to contexts involving real entities compared to fictional characters led to engagement of regions in the anterior medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices (amPFC, PCC. As these core regions of the brain's default network are involved during self-referential processing and autobiographical memory retrieval, it was hypothesized that real entities may be conceptually coded as being more personally relevant to us than fictional characters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we directly test the hypothesis that entity-associated personal relevance is the critical factor underlying the differential engagement of these brain regions by comparing the brain's response when processing contexts involving family or friends (high relevance, famous people (medium relevance, or fictional characters (low relevance. In line with predictions, a gradient pattern of activation was observed such that higher entity-associated personal relevance was associated with stronger activation in the amPFC and the PCC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the study have several important implications. Firstly, they provide informed grounds for characterizing the dynamics of reality-fiction distinction. Secondly, they provide further insights into the functions of the amPFC and the PCC. Thirdly, in view of the current debate related to the functional relevance and specificity of brain's default network, they reveal a novel approach by which the functions of this network can be further explored.

  7. To retrieve or not to retrieve: These are the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.; Nickelson, D.F.; Swanson, S.P.

    1997-10-01

    There are many factors that must be evaluated when determining whether a buried mixed waste site should be retrieved and subsequently stored, treated, and/or disposed of or if some other action is more appropriate. The criteria developed for the evaluation of remedial actions at mixed waste sites under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulation EPA, provide an excellent methodology for deciding upon a preferred action even if the site is not under CERCLA regulation. Each topic for evaluation in the criteria is not mutually exclusive, and many tradeoffs must be reviewed. The criteria have been broken down into a number of categories: overall protection of human health and the environment; compliance with Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs); long-term effectiveness and permanence; reduction of toxicity, mobility, and volume; short-term effectiveness; implementability; cost; state acceptance; and community acceptance. Once the data is gathered, a Hazards Analysis must be performed to understand the risks of the site to workers, the public, and the environment. The Hazard Analysis is critical in helping personnel understand the associated issues so that an effective evaluation can take place. The intent of this paper is not to focus on a particular site, but to provide information that is useful for many problem holders to better understand the issues associated with buried mixed waste retrieval. Ultimately, these issues affect the final decision of whether or not retrieval is a feasible alternative

  8. Climate Change and Environmental assessments: Issues in an African Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, Arne; Naess, Lars Otto

    1997-12-31

    The present report discusses the potential for integrating climate change issues into environmental assessments of development actions, with an emphasis on sub-Sahara Africa. The study is motivated by the fact that future climate change could have significant adverse impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Africa. Yet, to date global change issues, including climate change, have been largely overlooked in the process of improving environmental assessment procedures and methodologies. It is argued that although emissions of greenhouse gases in Africa are negligible today, it is highly relevant to include this aspect in the planning of long-term development strategies. The report discusses potential areas of conflicts and synergies between climate change and development goals. The general conclusion is that environmental assessments could be an appropriate tool for addressing climate change issues, while there are still several obstacles to its practical implementation. Four priority areas are suggested for further work: (1) Environmental accounting, (2) harmonization and standard-setting, (3) implementation, and (4) risk management. 82 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. A scoping review identifying contemporary issues in rural nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Melanie; Kenny, Amanda; Nay, Rhonda

    2012-12-01

    Rural nurse leaders on a global scale are being challenged to create structures and processes to enable excellence in nursing care. The purpose of this scoping review is to offer an indication of the available literature relating to contemporary issues in rural nursing leadership. A review of contemporary issues facing rural nurse leaders is timely to assist strategy development that will achieve the goal of excellence in nursing. An interpretative scoping literature review methodological framework has been used with an emphasis on thematic construction. Literature published between 2008 and 2012 was reviewed from five electronic databases using the key words rural, nursing, and leadership. Four themes have been identified: expectations of rural nursing leadership, a highly educated workforce, competing interests, and partnering within rural healthcare systems. The content may resonate with rural nurse leaders and encourage a greater awareness of their relevance to leadership practices. The findings provide a greater awareness and understanding of contemporary issues facing rural nurse leaders and may assist with the development of context-sensitive leadership strategies to facilitate excellence in nursing care. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  10. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  11. The Spacing Effect and Its Relevance to Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John

    2017-01-01

    This commentary discusses some theoretical and methodological issues related to research on the spacing effect in second language acquisition research (SLA). There has been a growing interest in SLA in how the temporal distribution of input might impact language development. SLA research in this area has frequently drawn upon the rich field of…

  12. Mutual Relevance of Mainstream and Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that mainstream and cross-cultural psychology address many of the same basic issues and that cross-cultural studies may be a direct and logical extension of the search for causes of variation in human psychology and psychopathology. Discusses differences in theoretical orientation and methodological approach and barriers to communication…

  13. The design of PSB-VVER experiments relevant to accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Nevo, Alessandro; D'auria, Francesco; Mazzini, Marino; Bykov, Michael; Elkin, Ilya V.; Suslov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Experimental programs carried-out in integral test facilities are relevant for validating the best estimate thermal-hydraulic codes, which are used for accident analyses, design of accident management procedures, licensing of nuclear power plants, etc. The validation process, in fact, is based on well designed experiments. It consists in the comparison of the measured and calculated parameters and the determination whether a computer code has an adequate capability in predicting the major phenomena expected to occur in the course of transient and/or accidents. University of Pisa was responsible of the numerical design of the 12 experiments executed in PSB-VVER facility, operated at Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center (Russia), in the framework of the TACIS 2.03/97 Contract 3.03.03 Part A, EC financed. The paper describes the methodology adopted at University of Pisa, starting form the scenarios foreseen in the final test matrix until the execution of the experiments. This process considers three key topics: a) the scaling issue and the simulation, with unavoidable distortions, of the expected performance of the reference nuclear power plants; b) the code assessment process involving the identification of phenomena challenging the code models; c) the features of the concerned integral test facility (scaling limitations, control logics, data acquisition system, instrumentation, etc.). The activities performed in this respect are discussed, and emphasis is also given to the relevance of the thermal losses to the environment. This issue affects particularly the small scaled facilities and has relevance on the scaling approach related to the power and volume of the facility. (author)

  14. The Design of PSB-VVER Experiments Relevant to Accident Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Alessandro Del; D'Auria, Francesco; Mazzini, Marino; Bykov, Michael; Elkin, Ilya V.; Suslov, Alexander

    Experimental programs carried-out in integral test facilities are relevant for validating the best estimate thermal-hydraulic codes(1), which are used for accident analyses, design of accident management procedures, licensing of nuclear power plants, etc. The validation process, in fact, is based on well designed experiments. It consists in the comparison of the measured and calculated parameters and the determination whether a computer code has an adequate capability in predicting the major phenomena expected to occur in the course of transient and/or accidents. University of Pisa was responsible of the numerical design of the 12 experiments executed in PSB-VVER facility (2), operated at Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center (Russia), in the framework of the TACIS 2.03/97 Contract 3.03.03 Part A, EC financed (3). The paper describes the methodology adopted at University of Pisa, starting form the scenarios foreseen in the final test matrix until the execution of the experiments. This process considers three key topics: a) the scaling issue and the simulation, with unavoidable distortions, of the expected performance of the reference nuclear power plants; b) the code assessment process involving the identification of phenomena challenging the code models; c) the features of the concerned integral test facility (scaling limitations, control logics, data acquisition system, instrumentation, etc.). The activities performed in this respect are discussed, and emphasis is also given to the relevance of the thermal losses to the environment. This issue affects particularly the small scaled facilities and has relevance on the scaling approach related to the power and volume of the facility.

  15. The policy trail methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holford, John; Larson, Anne; Melo, Susana

    of ‘policy trail’, arguing that it can overcome ‘methodological nationalism’ and link structure and agency in research on the ‘European educational space’. The ‘trail’ metaphor, she suggests, captures the intentionality and the erratic character of policy. The trail connects sites and brings about change......, but – although policy may be intended to be linear, with specific outcomes – policy often has to bend, and sometimes meets insurmountable obstacles. This symposium outlines and develops the methodology, but also reports on research undertaken within a major FP7 project (LLLIght’in’Europe, 2012-15) which made use......In recent years, the “policy trail” has been proposed as a methodology appropriate to the shifting and fluid governance of lifelong learning in the late modern world (Holford et al. 2013, Holford et al. 2013, Cort 2014). The contemporary environment is marked by multi-level governance (global...

  16. Proposal of methodology of tsunami accident sequence analysis induced by earthquake using DQFM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muta, Hitoshi; Muramatsu, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Since the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station accident, the Japanese regulatory body has improved and upgraded the regulation of nuclear power plants, and continuous effort is required to enhance risk management in the mid- to long term. Earthquakes and tsunamis are considered as the most important risks, and the establishment of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodologies for these events is a major issue of current PRA. The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) addressed the PRA methodology for tsunamis induced by earthquakes, which is one of the methodologies that should be enhanced step by step for the improvement and maturity of PRA techniques. The AESJ standard for the procedure of seismic PRA for nuclear power plants in 2015 provides the basic concept of the methodology; however, details of the application to the actual plant PRA model have not been sufficiently provided. This study proposes a detailed PRA methodology for tsunamis induced by earthquakes using the DQFM methodology, which contributes to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, this study also states the issues which need more research. (author)

  17. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Changing methodologies in TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Spiro, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Covering core topics from vocabulary and grammar to teaching, writing speaking and listening, this textbook shows you how to link research to practice in TESOL methodology. It emphasises how current understandings have impacted on the language classroom worldwide and investigates the meaning of 'methods' and 'methodology' and the importance of these for the teacher: as well as the underlying assumptions and beliefs teachers bring to bear in their practice. By introducing you to language teaching approaches, you will explore the way these are influenced by developments in our understanding of l

  19. Creativity in phenomenological methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Pia; Martinsen, Bente; Norlyk, Annelise

    2014-01-01

    on the methodologies of van Manen, Dahlberg, Lindseth & Norberg, the aim of this paper is to argue that the increased focus on creativity and arts in research methodology is valuable to gain a deeper insight into lived experiences. We illustrate this point through examples from empirical nursing studies, and discuss......Nursing research is often concerned with lived experiences in human life using phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches. These empirical studies may use different creative expressions and art-forms to describe and enhance an embodied and personalised understanding of lived experiences. Drawing...... may support a respectful renewal of phenomenological research traditions in nursing research....

  20. METHODOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION OF ACCOUNTING AND INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES OF THE COMPANY IN THE SYSTEM OF ASSET MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblyanska Olena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to theoretical, methodological and practical issues of accounting and internal control of the company’s stocks in the asset management system. The purpose of the study is to deepen and consolidate the theoretical and practical knowledge of the issues of accounting and internal control of the company’s stocks in the asset management system, identify practical problems with the implementation of the methodology and organization of accounting and internal control of the company’s stocks and develop recommendations for the elimination of deficiencies and improve the accounting and internal control of the company’s stocks. Results. The issue of relevance of proper accounting and internal control of stocks at the enterprise is considered. The research of typical operations with stocks was carried out with the use of the method of their reflection in the account. The classification of stocks, carrying out of their estimation, definition of the initial value, and also the typical correspondence from the account of stocks are resulted. A comparative characteristic of international and national inventory standards was implemented. The article deals with the features of the internal control of inventories at the enterprise, provides normative documents on its organization and methodology, describes the procedure for its implementation at the enterprise and identifies the typical mistakes that occur during its implementation. Conclusions. The questions about theoretical, methodological and practical issues of accounting and internal control of the company’s stocks in the asset management system were considered. A study of typical operations with stocks was carried out with the use of the method of their reflection in the accounts and the features of the internal control of inventories at the enterprise.