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Sample records for method study population

  1. The INTERPHONE study: design, epidemiological methods, and description of the study population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardis, Elisabeth; Richardson, Lesley; Deltour, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    . This paper describes the study design and methods and the main characteristics of the study population. INTERPHONE is the largest case-control study to date investigating risks related to mobile phone use and to other potential risk factors for the tumours of interest and includes 2,765 glioma, 2......The very rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in the possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields. A multinational case-control study, INTERPHONE, was set-up to investigate whether mobile phone use increases...... the risk of cancer and, more specifically, whether the RF fields emitted by mobile phones are carcinogenic. The study focused on tumours arising in the tissues most exposed to RF fields from mobile phones: glioma, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma and parotid gland tumours. In addition to a detailed history...

  2. Consequences of population topology for studying gene flow using link-based landscape genetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Maarten J

    2017-07-01

    Many landscape genetic studies aim to determine the effect of landscape on gene flow between populations. These studies frequently employ link-based methods that relate pairwise measures of historical gene flow to measures of the landscape and the geographical distance between populations. However, apart from landscape and distance, there is a third important factor that can influence historical gene flow, that is, population topology (i.e., the arrangement of populations throughout a landscape). As the population topology is determined in part by the landscape configuration, I argue that it should play a more prominent role in landscape genetics. Making use of existing literature and theoretical examples, I discuss how population topology can influence results in landscape genetic studies and how it can be taken into account to improve the accuracy of these results. In support of my arguments, I have performed a literature review of landscape genetic studies published during the first half of 2015 as well as several computer simulations of gene flow between populations. First, I argue why one should carefully consider which population pairs should be included in link-based analyses. Second, I discuss several ways in which the population topology can be incorporated in response and explanatory variables. Third, I outline why it is important to sample populations in such a way that a good representation of the population topology is obtained. Fourth, I discuss how statistical testing for link-based approaches could be influenced by the population topology. I conclude the article with six recommendations geared toward better incorporating population topology in link-based landscape genetic studies.

  3. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandel Megan T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma.

  4. Methods of Suicide among Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2010-01-01

    A 3-year nationwide population-based data set was used to explore methods of suicide (violent vs. nonviolent) and possible contributing factors among cancer patients in Taiwan. A total of 1,065 cancer inpatients who committed suicide were included as our study sample. The regression shows that those who had genitourinary cancer were 0.55 times (p…

  5. Method for mapping population-based case-control studies: an application using generalized additive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence and risk can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Disease registry data are often mapped by town or county of diagnosis and contain limited data on covariates. These maps often possess poor spatial resolution, the potential for spatial confounding, and the inability to consider latency. Population-based case-control studies can provide detailed information on residential history and covariates. Results Generalized additive models (GAMs provide a useful framework for mapping point-based epidemiologic data. Smoothing on location while controlling for covariates produces adjusted maps. We generate maps of odds ratios using the entire study area as a reference. We smooth using a locally weighted regression smoother (loess, a method that combines the advantages of nearest neighbor and kernel methods. We choose an optimal degree of smoothing by minimizing Akaike's Information Criterion. We use a deviance-based test to assess the overall importance of location in the model and pointwise permutation tests to locate regions of significantly increased or decreased risk. The method is illustrated with synthetic data and data from a population-based case-control study, using S-Plus and ArcView software. Conclusion Our goal is to develop practical methods for mapping population-based case-control and cohort studies. The method described here performs well for our synthetic data, reproducing important features of the data and adequately controlling the covariate. When applied to the population-based case-control data set, the method suggests spatial confounding and identifies statistically significant areas of increased and decreased odds ratios.

  6. Designs and Methods for Association Studies and Population Size Inference in Statistical Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    method provides a simple goodness of t test by comparing the observed SFS with the expected SFS under a given model of population size changes. By the use of Monte Carlo estimation the expected time between coalescent events can be estimated and the expected SFS can thereby be evaluated. Using......). The OR is interpreted as the eect of an exposure on the probability of being diseased at the end of follow-up, while the interpretation of the IRR is the eect of an exposure on the probability of becoming diseased. Through a simulation study, the OR from a classical case-control study is shown to be an inconsistent...... the classical chi-square statistics we are able to infer single parameter models. Multiple parameter models, e.g. multiple epochs, are harder to identify. By introducing the inference of population size back in time as an inverse problem, the second procedure applies the theory of smoothing splines to infer...

  7. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world). Results From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p population in Troms County. Due to the high participation rate, generalization both nationally and to the circumpolar area ought to be possible. PMID:26900910

  8. Study of inter species diversity and population structure by molecular genetic method in Iranian Artemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hajirostamloo, Mahbobeh

    2005-01-01

    Artemia is a small crustacean that adapted to live in brine water and has been seen in different brine water sources in Iran. Considering the importance of genetic studies manifest inter population differences in species, to estimate genetic structure, detect difference at molecular level and separate different Artemia populations of Iran, also study of phylogenic relationships among them, samples of Artemia were collected from nine region: Urmia lake in West Azerbaijan, Sh...

  9. Life cycle and population growth rate of Caenorhabditis elegans studied by a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschiol, Daniel; Schroeder, Fabian; Traunspurger, Walter

    2009-05-16

    The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the predominant model organism in biological research, being used by a huge number of laboratories worldwide. Many researchers have evaluated life-history traits of C. elegans in investigations covering quite different aspects such as ecotoxicology, inbreeding depression and heterosis, dietary restriction/supplement, mutations, and ageing. Such traits include juvenile growth rates, age at sexual maturity, adult body size, age-specific fecundity/mortality, total reproduction, mean and maximum lifespan, and intrinsic population growth rates. However, we found that in life-cycle experiments care is needed regarding protocol design. Here, we test a recently developed method that overcomes some problems associated with traditional cultivation techniques. In this fast and yet precise approach, single individuals are maintained within hanging drops of semi-fluid culture medium, allowing the simultaneous investigation of various life-history traits at any desired degree of accuracy. Here, the life cycles of wild-type C. elegans strains N2 (Bristol, UK) and MY6 (Münster, Germany) were compared at 20 degrees C with 5 x 10(9) Escherichia coli ml-1 as food source. High-resolution life tables and fecundity schedules of the two strains are presented. Though isolated 700 km and 60 years apart from each other, the two strains barely differed in life-cycle parameters. For strain N2 (n = 69), the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m d(-1)), calculated according to the Lotka equation, was 1.375, the net reproductive rate (R 0) 291, the mean generation time (T) 90 h, and the minimum generation time (T min) 73.0 h. The corresponding values for strain MY6 (n = 72) were r m = 1.460, R0 = 289, T = 84 h, and T min = 67.3 h. Peak egg-laying rates in both strains exceeded 140 eggs d(-1). Juvenile and early adulthood mortality was negligible. Strain N2 lived, on average, for 16.7 d, while strain MY6 died 2 days earlier; however

  10. Life cycle and population growth rate of Caenorhabditis elegans studied by a new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder Fabian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the predominant model organism in biological research, being used by a huge number of laboratories worldwide. Many researchers have evaluated life-history traits of C. elegans in investigations covering quite different aspects such as ecotoxicology, inbreeding depression and heterosis, dietary restriction/supplement, mutations, and ageing. Such traits include juvenile growth rates, age at sexual maturity, adult body size, age-specific fecundity/mortality, total reproduction, mean and maximum lifespan, and intrinsic population growth rates. However, we found that in life-cycle experiments care is needed regarding protocol design. Here, we test a recently developed method that overcomes some problems associated with traditional cultivation techniques. In this fast and yet precise approach, single individuals are maintained within hanging drops of semi-fluid culture medium, allowing the simultaneous investigation of various life-history traits at any desired degree of accuracy. Here, the life cycles of wild-type C. elegans strains N2 (Bristol, UK and MY6 (Münster, Germany were compared at 20°C with 5 × 109 Escherichia coli ml-1 as food source. Results High-resolution life tables and fecundity schedules of the two strains are presented. Though isolated 700 km and 60 years apart from each other, the two strains barely differed in life-cycle parameters. For strain N2 (n = 69, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rmd-1, calculated according to the Lotka equation, was 1.375, the net reproductive rate (R0 291, the mean generation time (T 90 h, and the minimum generation time (Tmin 73.0 h. The corresponding values for strain MY6 (n = 72 were rm = 1.460, R0 = 289, T = 84 h, and Tmin = 67.3 h. Peak egg-laying rates in both strains exceeded 140 eggs d-1. Juvenile and early adulthood mortality was negligible. Strain N2 lived, on average, for 16.7 d, while strain MY6 died 2 days

  11. The Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes: I. Description of methods and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuluxananan, Somrat; Suraseranivongse, Suwannee; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Somboonviboon, Wanna; Nipitsukarn, Thana; Sothikarnmanee, Thepakorn; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Werawatganon, Thewarug; Tanudsintum, Surasak; Lekprasert, Varinee; Hintong, Thanoo

    2005-11-01

    Since anesthesia, unlike medical or surgical specialties, does not constitute treatment, The Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand host the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes to determine factors related to anesthesia related adverse events. A prospective descriptive study of occurrence screening was conducted in 20 hospitals comprised of 7 university, 4 general and 4 district hospitals across Thailand. Anesthesia personnels were required to fill up patient-related, surgical-related, anesthesia-related variables and adverse outcomes on a strutured data entry form. The data included preanesthetic evaluation intraoperative period and 24 hr postoperative period. Adverse events specific form was recorded when adverse events occurred. All data were keyed in data management unit with double entry technique and descriptive statistics was used in the first phase of this study. A total of 163403 consecutive cases were recorded in one year. The mean (S.D.) of age, weight and height of patients were 38.6(2.3) yrs, 53.9(17.7) kgs and 153.4(22.7) cm respectively. There were more female (52.9%) than male (47. 1%) patients with ASA PS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 = 50.8%, 36.3%, 10.7%, 2.0%, 0.2% respectively. Hypertension (11.6%), anemia (7.7%) and diabetes melitus (6.8%) were the three most common abnormalities in preanesthetic history taking. Mallampati score of 111870 patients grade 1, 2, 3, 4 were 54.0%, 39.7%, 5.6%, 0.7% and laryngoscopic grade 1, 2, 3, 4 of 74888 patients were 81.0%, 15.5%, 3.0% and 0.5% respectively. The first phase of THAI study epidemiological project can represent both the anesthesia and surgical profiles in Thailand. The collected data available should be useful for the improvement of the quality of anesthesia, guidelines for clinical practices, medical education and for further research.

  12. Adaptive list sequential sampling method for population-based observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Michel H.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2014-01-01

    In population-based observational studies, non-participation and delayed response to the invitation to participate are complications that often arise during the recruitment of a sample. When both are not properly dealt with, the composition of the sample can be different from the desired

  13. Double Antibody Method for Immunoassay of Insulin. Its Application in Population Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welborn, T. A.; Stenhouse, N. S.; Curnow, D. H.; Johnstone, Clare J. [Department of Medicine, Raine Foundation Medical Statistics Unit and Department of Pathology, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia)

    1970-02-15

    The performance of a double-antibody Immunoassay technique over a period of two years is described, during which 3300 samples from population studies were analysed for insulin concentration. The method requires safeguards to ensure that complete separation of ''free'' from ''antibody-bound'' hormone is achieved, thus labelled gamma-globulin is used in the precise preliminary standardization of precipitating antibody. The dose-response curves for crystalline insulin standards over a range of concentration 0.2 to 16,0 ng (5 to 400 micro-International-Units)/ml are consistently nonlinear, but a close fit is obtained by a cubic function obtained empirically from multiple regression analysis, which also corrects satisfactorily for ''within-assay drift'' when large numbers of samples are involved. The coefficient of variation for pooled serum standards repetitively assayed ranged from 10 to 14%. Sources of ''between-assay variability'' of the serum standards include variable integrity of the labelled insulin and the slope of the standard curve. For quality control material, the need for standards of serum as well as crystalline insulin is stressed, Serum-insulin was measured in 3300 adults of the population of Busselton, approximately 1 h after a 50 g oral glucose load. The concentrations were distributed log-normally. Females had significantly higher 'one-hour' serum-insulin levels than males, and both sexes showed a moderate rise of values with age. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the major determinant of serum-insulin was the blood-sugar level, the independent relationship being such that at ''one-hour'' blood-sugar levels exceeding 160 - 180 mg/100 ml, a decline of insulin values occurred. Body-weight had a strong positive association, and height a negative relationship, with the ''one-hour'' serum-insulin. Males with coronary heart disease and hypertension showed elevated insulin levels under 60 years of age, whereas ''ideal'' males (with obesity

  14. Nose profile morphology and accuracy study of nose profile estimation method in Scottish subadult and Indonesian adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarilita, Erli; Rynn, Christopher; Mossey, Peter A; Black, Sue; Oscandar, Fahmi

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated nose profile morphology and its relationship to the skull in Scottish subadult and Indonesian adult populations, with the aim of improving the accuracy of forensic craniofacial reconstruction. Samples of 86 lateral head cephalograms from Dundee Dental School (mean age, 11.8 years) and 335 lateral head cephalograms from the Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia (mean age 24.2 years), were measured. The method of nose profile estimation based on skull morphology previously proposed by Rynn and colleagues in 2010 (FSMP 6:20-34) was tested in this study. Following this method, three nasal aperture-related craniometrics and six nose profile dimensions were measured from the cephalograms. To assess the accuracy of the method, six nose profile dimensions were estimated from the three craniometric parameters using the published method and then compared to the actual nose profile dimensions.In the Scottish subadult population, no sexual dimorphism was evident in the measured dimensions. In contrast, sexual dimorphism of the Indonesian adult population was evident in all craniometric and nose profile dimensions; notably, males exhibited statistically significant larger values than females. The published method by Rynn and colleagues (FSMP 6:20-34, 2010) performed better in the Scottish subadult population (mean difference of maximum, 2.35 mm) compared to the Indonesian adult population (mean difference of maximum, 5.42 mm in males and 4.89 mm in females).In addition, regression formulae were derived to estimate nose profile dimensions based on the craniometric measurements for the Indonesian adult population. The published method is not sufficiently accurate for use on the Indonesian population, so the derived method should be used. The accuracy of the published method by Rynn and colleagues (FSMP 6:20-34, 2010) was sufficiently reliable to be applied in Scottish subadult population.

  15. A new method for studying population genetics of cyst nematodes based on Pool-Seq and genomewide allele frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimee, Benjamin; Duceppe, Marc-Olivier; Véronneau, Pierre-Yves; Lafond-Lapalme, Joël; Jean, Martine; Belzile, François; Bélair, Guy

    2015-11-01

    Cyst nematodes are important agricultural pests responsible for billions of dollars of losses each year. Plant resistance is the most effective management tool, but it requires a close monitoring of population genetics. Current technologies for pathotyping and genotyping cyst nematodes are time-consuming, expensive and imprecise. In this study, we capitalized on the reproduction mode of cyst nematodes to develop a simple population genetic analysis pipeline based on genotyping-by-sequencing and Pool-Seq. This method yielded thousands of SNPs and allowed us to study the relationships between populations of different origins or pathotypes. Validation of the method on well-characterized populations also demonstrated that it was a powerful and accurate tool for population genetics. The genomewide allele frequencies of 23 populations of golden nematode, from nine countries and representing the five known pathotypes, were compared. A clear separation of the pathotypes and fine genetic relationships between and among global populations were obtained using this method. In addition to being powerful, this tool has proven to be very time- and cost-efficient and could be applied to other cyst nematode species. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Molecular Ecology Resources © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-food.

  16. A Pilot Study Using Mixed GPS/Narrative Interview Methods to Understand Geospatial Behavior in Homeless Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Wohlford, Sarah E; Dean, Denis J; Black, Melissa; Balfour, Margaret E; Petrovich, James C; Downs, Dana L; Pollio, David E

    2017-08-01

    Tracking the movements of homeless populations presents methodological difficulties, but understanding their movements in space and time is needed to inform optimal placement of services. This pilot study developed, tested, and refined methods to apply global positioning systems (GPS) technology paired with individual narratives to chronicle the movements of homeless populations. Detail of methods development and difficulties encountered and addressed, and geospatial findings are provided. A pilot sample of 29 adults was recruited from a low-demand homeless shelter in the downtown area of Fort Worth, Texas. Pre- and post-deployment interviews provided participant characteristics and planned and retrospectively-reported travels. Only one of the first eight deployments returned with sufficient usable data. Ultimately 19 participants returned the GPS device with >20 h of usable data. Protocol adjustments addressing methodological difficulties achieved 81 % of subsequent participants returning with sufficient usable data. This study established methods and demonstrated feasibility for tracking homeless population travels.

  17. A salutogenic approach to prevention of metabolic syndrome: a mixed methods population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettola, Juhani; Viljanen, Anna Maria

    2014-12-01

    To find a salutogenic approach for prevention of metabolic syndrome in primary care practice. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods procedure was used to find salutogenic approaches for lifestyle change by assessing individual need, potential, and personal motivation. Data from a population health survey and interviews that focused on a sense of coherence were analysed. Altogether 480 Finnish subjects participated in a population health survey, and 43 of them were interviewed. The 43 interviewees' data were included in the final analysis. With the health survey participants' liability for MetS was assessed, and the objective need for lifestyle intervention was determined. Through the focused interviews potential and personal motivation for lifestyle modification were explored. Finally the data of the 43 interviewed subjects were merged. Four possible lifestyle intervention approaches were identified for specific intervention. First, subjects with a strong sense of coherence only need encouragement to maintain a healthy lifestyle; second, professional support was found important for subjects with gaps in health awareness to improve health understanding; third, strengthening of social support for lifestyle change is necessary for subjects with various practical constraints in their everyday life; and fourth, strengthening of stress adaptation is important for subjects with redundant concerns about their health. Salutogenic client-centred lifestyle modification approaches should be part of primary care practice. Further, a cross-disciplinary approach is needed in primary care research and practice to combat the exploding lifestyle illnesses.

  18. The fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of multiple mini interview in an internationally diverse student population- a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Maureen E.; Dowell, Jon; Husbands, Adrian; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun; Kropmans, Thomas; Dunne, Fidelma P.; Murphy, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Background International medical students, those attending medical school outside of their country of citizenship, account for a growing proportion of medical undergraduates worldwide. This study aimed to establish the fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) in an internationally diverse student population. Methods This was an explanatory sequential, mixed methods study. All students in First Year Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway 2012 we...

  19. Comparative study of different methods used in assessment of population exposure to external environmental radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewiadomski, T.

    1979-08-01

    Doses received by individuals and population from terrestial radiation sources were estimated using three approaches, 1) measurements of dose rates, 2) calculations on the basis of spectrometric analysis of the soil or local radiation field and 3) integrating dosimeters. The 1st approach was carried out by means of pressurised ionization chambers, scintillation counters or GM counters properly calibrated, and also by supplying individuals with dosimetric or radiometric instruments. The data for calculation assessment was based on measurements of dose rates both outdoors and indoors and often taken from spectrometric analysis of natural radionuclide. Several equations and calculation factors have been derived and computer programs developed for calculating the concentration of radionuclides in question and for estimating dose rates in π or 2π geometries. Integrating measurements were carried out using TL dosimeters. To assess the reliability of the methods, comparative measurements were carried out at statistically representative number of locations using a wide choice of techniques. The detailed methods used and the equipment are described in the research programme as well as the results of the measurements. The most reliable results are these obtained when measurements are carried out over a long period of time, e.g. one year

  20. Study Circles as a Method of Informing the Adult Population on Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralj, M.

    2002-01-01

    Public acceptance of the radioactive waste disposal facilities is difficult to achieve. Analysis of the reasons that underlie public rejection of radioactive waste disposal facilities shows that people are not adequately informed about the proposal. They also have a lot of prejudices due to the lack of knowledge and understanding about basic facts on radioactivity and environmental processes. ARAO has proposed that the topic of radioactivity and radioactive waste be included in the program of study circles in order to promote knowledge and understanding of these issues among the adult population in several Slovenian communities. Study circles are self-organized adult learning groups in the local community environment. Two study circles were initially proposed: one in Krsko, the community with a nuclear facility, and one in Radovljica, a community without a nuclear facility. Because of troubles with the unexpected politicization of nuclear issues, the study circle in Krsko was postponed to the later term, so that only the study circle in the community without the nuclear installation was active. The members were found by personal invitations. They worked on different issues dealing with radiation, mainly with the application of radiation and radioactive substances in medicine. Through the study circle activities the interest in radiation issues increased. The members reported that they disseminated their interest and acquired knowledge to their family members and friends. Our experience shows that self-learning in small groups, promoting discussions and the confrontation of different opinions, results in an increase in objective knowledge. Therefore, study circles can provide a good basis for confidence building in the nuclear technology.(author)

  1. A general method to determine sampling windows for nonlinear mixed effects models with an application to population pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Lee Kien; McGree, James; Duffull, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Optimal design methods have been proposed to determine the best sampling times when sparse blood sampling is required in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. However, the optimal blood sampling time points may not be feasible in clinical practice. Sampling windows, a time interval for blood sample collection, have been proposed to provide flexibility in blood sampling times while preserving efficient parameter estimation. Because of the complexity of the population pharmacokinetic models, which are generally nonlinear mixed effects models, there is no analytical solution available to determine sampling windows. We propose a method for determination of sampling windows based on MCMC sampling techniques. The proposed method attains a stationary distribution rapidly and provides time-sensitive windows around the optimal design points. The proposed method is applicable to determine sampling windows for any nonlinear mixed effects model although our work focuses on an application to population pharmacokinetic models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Feeding methods, sleep arrangement, and infant sleep patterns: a Chinese population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Jen-Jen; Wang, Lin-Hong; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; An, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Findings from prior research into the effect of feeding methods on infant sleep are inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine infants' sleep patterns by feeding methods and sleep arrangement from birth to eight months old. This longitudinal cohort study enrolled 524 pregnant women at 34-41 weeks of gestation and their infants after delivery in 2006 and followed up until eight months postpartum. The study subjects were recruited from nine women and children hospitals in nine cities in China (Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanning, Xiamen, Xi'an, Jinan, and Hailin). Participating infants were followed up weekly during the first month and monthly from the second to the eighth month after birth. Twenty-four hour sleep diaries recording infants' sleeping and feeding methods were administered based on caregiver's self-report. Multivariable mixed growth curve models were fitted to estimate the effects of feeding methods and sleep arrangement on infants' sleep patterns over time, controlling for maternal and paternal age, maternal and paternal education level, household income, supplementation of complementary food, and infant birth weight and length. Exclusively formula fed infants had the greatest sleep percentage/24 h, followed by exclusively breast milk fed infants and partially breast milk fed infants (Psleep percentage and night waking frequency between exclusively formula and exclusively breast milk fed infants weakened over time as infants developed. In addition, compared to infants with bed-sharing sleep arrangement, those with room sharing sleep arrangement had greater daytime and 24-hour infant sleep percentage, whereas those with sleeping alone sleep arrangement had greater nighttime sleep percentage. Our data based on caregiver's self-report suggested that partial breastfeeding and bed-sharing may be associated with less sleep in infants. Health care professionals need to work with parents of newborns to develop coping strategies that

  3. Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R

    2017-09-14

    While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey. ©Elizabeth Fearon, Sungai T Chabata, Jennifer A Thompson, Frances M Cowan, James R Hargreaves. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 14.09.2017.

  4. Exploring community gardens in a health disparate population: findings from a mixed methods pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Zanko, Ashley; Price, Bryan; Bonner, Jennifer; Hill, Jennie L

    2012-01-01

    Despite recommendations, there have been few efforts to apply the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in the development, implementation, and evaluation of community gardens. As guided by the CBPR approach and grounded in a social-ecological model and behavioral theory, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to understand opinions and interests in developing and implementing a community garden and to understand factors impacting fruit, vegetable, and gardening behaviors. Community and academic members collaborated to develop and execute this study. The qualitative phase- targeting regional key informants-was designed to elicit perceived benefits and challenges of community gardens at the environmental, community, and individual levels. The quantitative phase targeted low resourced youth and parents and included a variety of validated theory-based questionnaires to understand factors impacting fruit, vegetable, and gardening behaviors. Major benefits of community gardens that emerged from the 10 qualitative interviews included increasing community cohesion and improving nutrition and physical activity factors. The quantitative phase included 87 youth and 67 parents. Across 16 items for fruits and vegetables, the average willingness to try was 1.32 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.40) on a 2-point scale. The majority of youth indicated they would work in a garden (n = 59; 68%) and eat food grown in their garden (n = 71; 82%). Among parents, gardening attitude, belief, and self-efficacy scores were all above average; however, gardening intentions were neutral. This research illustrates the successful partnering a community-academic team and has provided the partnership with a clearer lens to conceptualize and launch future regional community garden efforts.

  5. Perceptions of mental illness and related stigma among Vietnamese populations: findings from a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Pham, Nhu Ngoc K; Wallick, Stacy; Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul

    2014-12-01

    Mental-illness-related (MIR) stigma is recognized as a major barrier to health care. Yet very little is known about mental illness and stigma among Vietnamese populations, or how emigration and acculturation processes might affect traditional views. Focus group discussions were conducted with Vietnamese Americans in New Orleans (Louisiana) and Vietnamese nationals in Bui Chu (Vietnam), who shared historical and cultural backgrounds, in 2010 to assess differences in their perceptions of mental illness and stigma. Results show several significant differences in mental illness perceptions between Vietnamese Americans and Vietnamese nationals, while MIR stigma seemed prevalent and understanding of mental illness was low among both groups.

  6. A phylogenetic method to perform genome-wide association studies in microbes that accounts for population structure and recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Collins

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS in microbial organisms have the potential to vastly improve the way we understand, manage, and treat infectious diseases. Yet, microbial GWAS methods established thus far remain insufficiently able to capitalise on the growing wealth of bacterial and viral genetic sequence data. Facing clonal population structure and homologous recombination, existing GWAS methods struggle to achieve both the precision necessary to reject spurious findings and the power required to detect associations in microbes. In this paper, we introduce a novel phylogenetic approach that has been tailor-made for microbial GWAS, which is applicable to organisms ranging from purely clonal to frequently recombining, and to both binary and continuous phenotypes. Our approach is robust to the confounding effects of both population structure and recombination, while maintaining high statistical power to detect associations. Thorough testing via application to simulated data provides strong support for the power and specificity of our approach and demonstrates the advantages offered over alternative cluster-based and dimension-reduction methods. Two applications to Neisseria meningitidis illustrate the versatility and potential of our method, confirming previously-identified penicillin resistance loci and resulting in the identification of both well-characterised and novel drivers of invasive disease. Our method is implemented as an open-source R package called treeWAS which is freely available at https://github.com/caitiecollins/treeWAS.

  7. A comparative study of different methods used to assess population exposure to terrestrial radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewiadomski, T.; Jasinska, M.; Koperski, J.; Ryba, E.; Schwabenthan, J.

    1980-01-01

    A three-year programme was carried out in which the methods most frequently used for environmental monitoring were compared. These methods were: thermoluminescence, high-pressure ionization chamber, laboratory spectrometry of samples and in situ spectrometry. The details of applied methodology and organization of measurements performed in rural and urban areas are described. Source results are extensively presented in a series of tables. Integrating dosimeters and repeated/within a yearly period/ momentary measurements with e.g. ionization chamber, yield results best representing long-term averages. The advantage of the ionization chamber method is that several measurements can be rapidly performed over large areas. However, such measurements should not be made in the winter or summer, as differences between momentary values and long-term averages are most pronounced during those two periods of the year. The disadvantages of the method of laboratory spectrometry of samples are the difficulties in obtaining samples, need to use sophisticated equipment and data management systems, and the divergence between final results and long-term averages, due to the fact that one cannot include the influence of natural humidity or snow cover in such measurements. In situ spectrometry is hindered by the weight and sophistication of portable spectrometric systems, long measurement periods and the complexity of data management shared with the other spectrometric technique. (author)

  8. High coffee consumption and different brewing methods in relation to postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk in the Norwegian women and cancer study: a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Braaten, Tonje; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Lund, Eiliv

    2014-03-25

    Coffee and its compounds have been proposed to inhibit endometrial carcinogenesis. Studies in the Norwegian population can be especially interesting due to the high coffee consumption and increasing incidence of endometrial cancer in the country. A total of 97 926 postmenopausal Norwegian women from the population-based prospective Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study, were included in the present analysis. We evaluated the general association between total coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk as well as the possible impact of brewing method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to estimate risks, and heterogeneity tests were performed to compare brewing methods. During an average of 10.9 years of follow-up, 462 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified. After multivariate adjustment, significant risk reduction was found among participants who drank ≥8 cups/day of coffee with a hazard ratio of 0.52 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.34-0.79). However, we did not observe a significant dose-response relationship. No significant heterogeneity in risk was found when comparing filtered and boiled coffee brewing methods. A reduction in endometrial cancer risk was observed in subgroup analyses among participants who drank ≥8 cups/day and had a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and in current smokers. These data suggest that in this population with high coffee consumption, endometrial cancer risk decreases in women consuming ≥8 cups/day, independent of brewing method.

  9. A mixed methods study to investigate needs assessment for knee pain and disability: population and individual perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Bie

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Musculoskeletal Services Framework outlines the importance of health care needs assessment. Our aim was to provide a model for this for knee pain and disability, describing felt need (individual assessment of a need for health care and expressed need (demand for health care. This intelligence is required by health care planners in order to implement the new Framework. Methods A multi-method approach was used. A population survey (n = 5784 was administered to adults aged 50+ registered with 3 general practices. The questionnaire contained a Knee Pain Screening Tool to identify the prevalence of knee pain and health care use in the population, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC. Survey responders who scored "severe" or "extreme" on at least one item on the pain or physical function scale on the WOMAC were categorised into "severe" groups. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with 22 survey responders to explore in detail the experience of living with knee pain and disability. A sample of interviewees (n = 10 completed an open format patient diary to explore the experience of knee pain in everyday life. Results The 12-month period prevalence of knee pain was 49.5%, of which half was severe. Severe difficulties were reported with domestic duties, bending, bathing, climbing stairs and getting in or out of a car. Some self-care is occurring. The majority (53% of responders with severe pain or disability had not consulted their GP in the last 12 months. The qualitative study revealed reasons for this including a perception that knee pain is part of normal ageing, little effective prevention and treatment is available and the use of medications causes side effects and dependency. Conclusion This study adds to previous work by highlighting a gap between felt and expressed need and the reasons for this mismatch. There is evidence of self-management, but also missed opportunities for

  10. Ongoing challenges to finding people with Parkinson's disease for epidemiological studies: a comparison of population-level case ascertainment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M Anne; Koehoorn, Mieke; Teschke, Kay

    2011-07-01

    Locating Parkinson's disease cases for epidemiological studies has long been challenging. Self reports, secondary records of physician diagnosis and drug tracer methods each exhibit known disadvantages but have rarely been compared directly. Prescriptions of levodopa have in some studies been considered to comprise a reasonable proxy for Parkinson's disease diagnosis. We tested this assumption by comparing three methods of population-level case ascertainment. We compared the number of Parkinson's disease cases in British Columbia derived from self-reports in the 2001 Canadian Community Health Survey to those obtained from administrative records of filled levodopa prescriptions and to Parkinson's disease diagnoses from physician visit billing and hospital discharge records in 1996 and 2005. We directly compared a case definition based on levodopa prescriptions with a definition based on records of physician diagnosis by calculating positive predictive value and sensitivity. Crude prevalence estimates ranged from approximately 100 to 200 per 100,000. Levodopa-based case definitions overestimated prevalence, while physician- and hospital-record-based case definitions provided lower prevalence estimates compared to survey derived estimates. The proportion of levodopa users with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease declined from 62% to 52% between 1996 and 2005. This decrease was most dramatic among women (64%-44%) and those under age 65 (54%-39%). Sex and age trends suggest increasing use of levodopa among patients with conditions other than Parkinson's disease, such as restless legs syndrome. Increased non-Parkinson's levodopa use decreases the efficiency of levodopa as a Parkinson's disease case tracer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Data-driven drug safety signal detection methods in pharmacovigilance using electronic primary care records: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Ming Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Data-driven analytic methods are a valuable aid to signal detection of ADEs from large electronic health records for drug safety monitoring. This study finds the methods can detect known ADE and so could potentially be used to detect unknown ADE.

  12. Identification of individual foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) using chin pattern photographs: a non-invasive and effective method for small population studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.R. Marlow; K.D. Wiseman; Clara Wheeler; J.E.  Drennan; R.E.  Jackman

    2016-01-01

    The ability to identify individual animals is a valuable tool in the study of amphibian population dynamics, movement ecology, social behavior, and habitat use. Numerous methods of marking amphibians have been employed including the use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, radio-transmitters, elastomers, branding, and mutilation techniques such as toe...

  13. The MOBILIZE Boston Study: Design and methods of a prospective cohort study of novel risk factors for falls in an older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Marian T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are the sixth leading cause of death in elderly people in the U.S. Despite progress in understanding risk factors for falls, many suspected risk factors have not been adequately studied. Putative risk factors for falls such as pain, reductions in cerebral blood flow, somatosensory deficits, and foot disorders are poorly understood, in part because they pose measurement challenges, particularly for large observational studies. Methods The MOBILIZE Boston Study (MBS, an NIA-funded Program Project, is a prospective cohort study of a unique set of risk factors for falls in seniors in the Boston area. Using a door-to-door population-based recruitment, we have enrolled 765 persons aged 70 and older. The baseline assessment was conducted in 2 segments: a 3-hour home interview followed within 4 weeks by a 3-hour clinic examination. Measures included pain, cerebral hemodynamics, and foot disorders as well as established fall risk factors. For the falls follow-up, participants return fall calendar postcards to the research center at the end of each month. Reports of falls are followed-up with a telephone interview to assess circumstances and consequences of each fall. A second assessment is performed 18 months following baseline. Results Of the 2382 who met all eligibility criteria at the door, 1616 (67.8% agreed to participate and were referred to the research center for further screening. The primary reason for ineligibility was inability to communicate in English. Results from the first 600 participants showed that participants are largely representative of seniors in the Boston area in terms of age, sex, race and Hispanic ethnicity. The average age of study participants was 77.9 years (s.d. 5.5 and nearly two-thirds were women. The study cohort was 78% white and 17% black. Many participants (39% reported having fallen at least once in the year before baseline. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of conducting

  14. Development of a rapid multiplex SSR genotyping method to study populations of the fun-gal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, A.; Marcel, T.C.; Confais, J.; Crane, C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Suffert, F.; Walker, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus causing leaf blotch of wheat that often decreases yield severely. Populations of the fungus are known to be highly diverse and poorly differentiated from each other. However, a genotyping tool is needed to address further

  15. Efficiency of two-phase methods with focus on a planned population-based case-control study on air pollution and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ulf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We plan to conduct a case-control study to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 increases the risk of stroke. In case-control studies, selective participation can lead to bias and loss of efficiency. A two-phase design can reduce bias and improve efficiency by combining information on the non-participating subjects with information from the participating subjects. In our planned study, we will have access to individual disease status and data on NO2 exposure on group (area level for a large population sample of Scania, southern Sweden. A smaller sub-sample will be selected to the second phase for individual-level assessment on exposure and covariables. In this paper, we simulate a case-control study based on our planned study. We develop a two-phase method for this study and compare the performance of our method with the performance of other two-phase methods. Methods A two-phase case-control study was simulated with a varying number of first- and second-phase subjects. Estimation methods: Method 1: Effect estimation with second-phase data only. Method 2: Effect estimation by adjusting the first-phase estimate with the difference between the adjusted and unadjusted second-phase estimate. The first-phase estimate is based on individual disease status and residential address for all study subjects that are linked to register data on NO2-exposure for each geographical area. Method 3: Effect estimation by using the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm without taking area-level register data on exposure into account. Method 4: Effect estimation by using the EM algorithm and incorporating group-level register data on NO2-exposure. Results The simulated scenarios were such that, unbiased or marginally biased ( Conclusion In the setting described here, method 4 had the best performance in order to improve efficiency, while adjusting for varying participation rates across areas.

  16. Maternal and fetal characteristics affect discrepancies between pregnancy-dating methods: a population-based cross-sectional register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullinger, Merit; Wesström, Jan; Kieler, Helle; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2017-01-01

    Gestational age is estimated by ultrasound using fetal size as a proxy for age, although variance in early growth affects reliability. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics associated with discrepancies between last menstrual period-based (EDD-LMP) and ultrasound-based (EDD-US) estimated delivery dates. We identified all singleton births (n = 1 201 679) recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register in 1995-2010, to assess the association between maternal/fetal characteristics and large negative and large positive discrepancies (EDD-LMP earlier than EDD-US and 10th percentile in the discrepancy distribution vs. EDD-LMP later than EDD-US and 90th percentile). Analyses were adjusted for age, parity, height, body mass index, smoking, and employment status. Women with a body mass index >40 kg/m 2 had the highest odds for large negative discrepancies (-9 to -20 days) [odds ratio (OR) 2.16, 95% CI 2.01-2.33]. Other factors associated with large negative discrepancies were: diabetes, young maternal age, multiparity, body mass index between 30 and 39.9 kg/m 2 or +1 SD), and unemployment. Several maternal and fetal characteristics were associated with discrepancies between dating methods. Systematic associations of discrepancies with maternal height, fetal sex, and partly obesity, may reflect an influence on the precision of the ultrasound estimate due to variance in early growth. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  17. Quantification of rat retinal growth and vascular population changes after single and split doses of proton irradiation: translational study using stereology methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao W.; Archambeau, John O.; Kubinova, Lucie; Boyle, Soames; Petersen, Georgia; Grove, Roger; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    This study quantified architectural and population changes in the rat retinal vasculature after proton irradiation using stereology. A 100 MeV conformal proton beam delivered 8, 14, 20 and 28 Gy as single and split doses to the whole eye. The vascular networks were prepared from retinal digests. Stereological methods were used to obtain the area of the retina and unbiased estimates of microvessel/artery/vein endothelial, pericyte and smooth muscle population, and vessel length. The retinal area increased progressively in the unirradiated, age-matched controls and in the retinas irradiated with 8 and 14 Gy, indicating uniform progressive retinal growth. No growth occurred after 20 and 28 Gy. Regression analysis of total endothelial cell number in all vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) after irradiation documented a progressive time- and dose-dependent cell loss occurring over 15 to 24 months. The difference from controls was significant (Ppopulations after split doses. At 10 Gy, the rate of endothelial cell loss, a dose parameter used to characterize the time- and dose-dependent loss of the endothelial population, was doubled.

  18. A Comparison of Multiple Methods for Estimating Parasitemia of Hemogregarine Hemoparasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) and Its Application for Studying Infection in Natural Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P.; Harris, D. James; Carranza, Salvador; Gómez-Díaz, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon) and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella), based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina) and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina). From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite distributions in

  19. A comparison of multiple methods for estimating parasitemia of hemogregarine hemoparasites (apicomplexa: adeleorina and its application for studying infection in natural populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P Maia

    Full Text Available Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella, based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina. From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite

  20. A comparison of multiple methods for estimating parasitemia of hemogregarine hemoparasites (apicomplexa: adeleorina) and its application for studying infection in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P; Harris, D James; Carranza, Salvador; Gómez-Díaz, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon) and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella), based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina) and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina). From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite distributions in

  1. Determining adult type 2 diabetes-related health care needs in an indigenous population from rural Guatemala: a mixed-methods preliminary study

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    Chary Anita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Guatemala, diabetes is an emerging public health concern. Guatemala has one of the largest indigenous populations in Latin America, and this population frequently does not access the formal health care system. Therefore, knowledge about the emergence of diabetes in this population is limited. Methods Interview participants (n=23 were recruited from a convenience sample of indigenous adults with type 2 diabetes at one rural diabetes clinic in Guatemala. A structured interview was used to assess knowledge about diabetes and its complications; access to diabetes-related health care and treatment; dietary and lifestyle changes; and family and social supports for individuals living with diabetes. Interviews were supplemented with two group interviews with community leaders and health care providers. Thematic analysis was used to produce insights into diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and practices. In addition, a chart review of the clinic’s electronic medical record identified all adult patients (n=80 presenting in one calendar year for a first-time diabetic consultation. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were extracted and summarized from these records. Results Salient demographic factors in both the structured interview and chart review samples included low educational levels and high indigenous language preference. In the interview sample, major gaps in biomedical knowledge about diabetes included understanding the causes, chronicity, and long-term end-organ complications of diabetes. Medication costs, medical pluralism, and limited social supports for dietary and lifestyles changes were major practical barriers to disease management. Quantitative data from medical records review revealed high rates of poor glycemic control, overweight and obesity, and medication prescription. Conclusions This study provides a preliminary sketch of type 2 diabetes in an indigenous Guatemalan population. Combined qualitative and

  2. A study of biodiversity using DSS method and seed storage protein comparison of populations in two species of Achillea L. in the west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Salehi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intarspecific and interspecific variations are the main reserves of biodiversity and both are important sources of speciation. On this basis, identifing and recognizing the intra and interspecific variations is important in order to recognition of biodiversity. This research was done to study biodiversity and electrophoresis comparison of seed storage proteins in the populations of the two species of the genus Achillea in Hamadan and Kurdistan provinces using of the method of determination of special station (DSS. For this purpose, 12 and 9 special stations were selected for the species A. tenuifolia and A. biebresteinii using the data published in the related flora. Seed storage proteins were extracted and then studied using electrophoresis techniques (SDS-PAGE. In survey of all special stations, 120 plant species were distinguished as associated species. The results of the floristic data for the both species determined six distinctive groups that indicated the existence of intraspecific diversity in this species. The result of analysis of ecological data and seed storage proteins for the two species was in accordance with the floristic data and showed six distinctive groups. The existence of the bands of no. 4, 5, 8, 12 and 13 in the special stations of A. tenuifolia and the bands of 14, 15 and 16 in the special stations of A. biebresteinii o separated the populations of the species in two quite different and distinctive groups.

  3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Population Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nwokediuko, Sylvester

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease varies in different parts of the world. There are no population based studies in Nigeria. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in a population of Nigerian medical students. Methods The Carlsson-Dent questionnaire was administered to medical students in the clinical phase of their training at the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Some putative risk ...

  4. The Sex, Age, and Me study: recruitment and sampling for a large mixed-methods study of sexual health and relationships in an older Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline

    2017-09-01

    Older people are often excluded from large studies of sexual health, as it is assumed that they are not having sex or are reluctant to talk about sensitive topics and are therefore difficult to recruit. We outline the sampling and recruitment strategies from a recent study on sexual health and relationships among older people. Sex, Age and Me was a nationwide Australian study that examined sexual health, relationship patterns, safer-sex practices and STI knowledge of Australians aged 60 years and over. The study used a mixed-methods approach to establish baseline levels of knowledge and to develop deeper insights into older adult's understandings and practices relating to sexual health. Data collection took place in 2015, with 2137 participants completing a quantitative survey and 53 participating in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. As the feasibility of this type of study has been largely untested until now, we provide detailed information on the study's recruitment strategies and methods. We also compare key characteristics of our sample with national estimates to assess its degree of representativeness. This study provides evidence to challenge the assumptions that older people will not take part in sexual health-related research and details a novel and successful way to recruit participants in this area.

  5. Factors associated with the utilization of primary care emergency centers in a Spanish region with high population dispersion: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Otero-García, Laura; Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2014-09-03

    Adequate access to primary care emergency centers is particularly important in rural areas isolated from urban centers. However, variability in utilization of emergency services located in primary care centers among inhabitants of nearby geographical areas is understudied. The objectives of this study are twofold: 1) to analyze the association between the availability of municipal emergency care centers and utilization of primary care emergency centers (PCEC), in a Spanish region with high population dispersion; and 2) to determine healthcare providers' perceptions regarding PCEC utilization. A mixed-methods study was conducted. Quantitative phase: multilevel logistic regression modeling using merged data from the 2003 Regional Health Survey of Castile and Leon and the 2001 census data (Spain). Qualitative phase:14 in-depth- interviews of rural-based PCEC providers. Having PCEC as the only emergency center in the municipality was directly associated with its utilization (p use. PCEC users were considered to be predominantly workers and students with scheduling conflicts with rural primary care opening hours. The location of emergency care centers is associated with PCEC utilization. Increasing access to primary care by extending hours may be an important step toward optimal PCEC utilization. Further research would determine whether lower PCEC use by certain groups is associated with disparities in access to care.

  6. Bacterial population in traditional sourdough evaluated by molecular methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randazzo, C.L.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Restuccia, C.; Giudici, P.; Caggia, C.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To study the microbial communities in artisanal sourdoughs, manufactured by traditional procedure in different areas of Sicily, and to evaluate the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population by classical and culture-independent approaches. Methods and Results: Forty-five LAB isolates were

  7. Access to Difficult-to-reach Population Subgroups: A Family Midwife Based Home Visiting Service for Implementing Nutrition-related Preventive Activities - A Mixed Methods Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Walz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Health and social inequality are tightly linked and still pose an important public health problem. However, vulnerable and disadvantaged populations are difficult to reach for health-related interventions. Given the long-lasting effects of an adverse, particular nutrition-related, intrauterine and neonatal environment on health development (perinatal programming, an early and easy access is essential for sustainable interventions. The goal of this explorative study was therefore to elucidate whether an existing access of family midwives (FMs to families in need of support could be an option to implement effective public health and nutrition interventions. To that end three research objectives were formulated: (1 to determine whether a discernible impact of home visits by FMs can be described; (2 to identify subgroups among these families in need of more specific interventions; (3 to determine how relevant nutrition-related topics are for both FMs and the supported families. For addressing these objectives a mixed methods design was used: Routine documentation data from 295 families visited by a family midwife (FM were analyzed (secondary analysis, and structured expert interviews with FMs were conducted and analyzed. Study reporting followed the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology statement. Based on the FMs reports, a significant improvement (p < 0.001 regarding psycho-social variables could be determined after the home visits. Single mothers, however, seemed to benefit less from the FMs service compared to their counterparts (p = 0.015. Nutritional counseling was demanded by 89% of the families during the home visits. In addition, nutrition-related topics were reported in the interviews to be of high interest to both families and the FMs. Based on the obtained results it is concluded that FMs home visits offer a promising access to vulnerable and disadvantaged families for implementing nutrition

  8. Casas Maternas in the Rural Highlands of Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of the Introduction and Utilization of Birthing Facilities by an Indigenous Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollak, Ira; Valdez, Mario; Rivas, Karin; Perry, Henry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: An international NGO, with financial and managerial support from “partner” communities, established Casas Maternas (birthing facilities) in 3 municipalities in the isolated northwestern highlands of the department of Huehuetenango in Guatemala—an area with high maternal mortality ratio (338 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). Traditional birth attendants are encouraged to bring patients for delivery at the Casas Maternas, where trained staff are present and access to referral care is facilitated. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study in San Sebastian Coatán municipality to assess the contribution of 2 Casas Maternas to health facility deliveries among partner and non-partner communities, with particular emphasis on equity in access. We surveyed all women who delivered in the study area between April 2013 and March 2014, the first full year in which both Casas Maternas in the study area were operating. In addition, using purposive sampling, we conducted in-depth interviews with 22 women who delivered and 6 focus group discussions with 42 community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and Casas Maternas staff members. We analyzed the quantitative data using descriptive statstics and the qualitative data with descriptive content analysis. Results: Of the 321 women eligible for inclusion in the study, we surveyed 275 women (14.3% could not be located or refused to participate). Between April 2013 and March 2014, 70% of women living in partner communities delivered in a health facility (54% in a Casa Materna) compared with 30% of women living in non-partner communities (17% in a Casa Materna). There was no statistically significant difference in uptake of the Casa Materna by maternal education and only a weak effect by household wealth. In contrast, distance from the Casa Materna had a pronounced effect. Traditional birth attendants were strong advocates for utilization of the Casa Materna and played an important role in the

  9. Casas Maternas in the Rural Highlands of Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of the Introduction and Utilization of Birthing Facilities by an Indigenous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollak, Ira; Valdez, Mario; Rivas, Karin; Perry, Henry

    2016-03-01

    An international NGO, with financial and managerial support from "partner" communities, established Casas Maternas (birthing facilities) in 3 municipalities in the isolated northwestern highlands of the department of Huehuetenango in Guatemala-an area with high maternal mortality ratio (338 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). Traditional birth attendants are encouraged to bring patients for delivery at the Casas Maternas, where trained staff are present and access to referral care is facilitated. We conducted a mixed-methods study in San Sebastian Coatán municipality to assess the contribution of 2 Casas Maternas to health facility deliveries among partner and non-partner communities, with particular emphasis on equity in access. We surveyed all women who delivered in the study area between April 2013 and March 2014, the first full year in which both Casas Maternas in the study area were operating. In addition, using purposive sampling, we conducted in-depth interviews with 22 women who delivered and 6 focus group discussions with 42 community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and Casas Maternas staff members. We analyzed the quantitative data using descriptive statstics and the qualitative data with descriptive content analysis. Of the 321 women eligible for inclusion in the study, we surveyed 275 women (14.3% could not be located or refused to participate). Between April 2013 and March 2014, 70% of women living in partner communities delivered in a health facility (54% in a Casa Materna) compared with 30% of women living in non-partner communities (17% in a Casa Materna). There was no statistically significant difference in uptake of the Casa Materna by maternal education and only a weak effect by household wealth. In contrast, distance from the Casa Materna had a pronounced effect. Traditional birth attendants were strong advocates for utilization of the Casa Materna and played an important role in the decision regarding where the birth would take

  10. A New Subspecies Identification and Population Study of the Asian Small-Clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus in Malay Peninsula and Southern Thailand Based on Fecal DNA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. A. Rosli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  11. A new subspecies identification and population study of the Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) in Malay Peninsula and southern Thailand based on fecal DNA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, M K A; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Abdul-Patah, P; Abdul-Samad, Z; Abdul, S N; Burhanuddin, M N; Zulkifli, N A; Shukor, M N; Budsabong, K; Changtragoon, S; Sekiguchi, T; Sasaki, H; Md-Zain, B M

    2014-01-01

    Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  12. The fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of multiple mini interview in an internationally diverse student population--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Maureen E; Dowell, Jon; Husbands, Adrian; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun; Kropmans, Thomas; Dunne, Fidelma P; Murphy, Andrew W

    2014-12-21

    International medical students, those attending medical school outside of their country of citizenship, account for a growing proportion of medical undergraduates worldwide. This study aimed to establish the fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) in an internationally diverse student population. This was an explanatory sequential, mixed methods study. All students in First Year Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway 2012 were eligible to sit a previously validated 10 station MMI. Quantitative data comprised: demographics, selection tool scores and First Year Assessment scores. Qualitative data comprised separate focus groups with MMI Assessors, EU and Non-EU students. 109 students participated (45% of class). Of this 41.3% (n = 45) were Non-EU and 35.8% (n = 39) did not have English as first language. Age, gender and socioeconomic class did not impact on MMI scores. Non-EU students and those for whom English was not a first language achieved significantly lower scores on MMI than their EU and English speaking counterparts (difference in mean 11.9% and 12.2% respectively, PIELTS) (r = 0.5, PIELTS (r = 0.44; p = 0.006; n = 38) and EU school exit exam (r = 0.52; p<0.001; n = 56). MMI predicted EU student OSCE performance (r = 0.27; p = 0.03; n = 64). In the analysis of focus group data two overarching themes emerged: Authenticity and Cultural Awareness. MMI was considered a highly authentic assessment that offered a deeper understanding of the applicant than traditional tools, with an immediate relevance to clinical practice. Cultural specificity of some stations and English language proficiency were seen to disadvantage international students. Recommendations included cultural awareness training for MMI assessors, designing and piloting culturally neutral stations, lengthening station duration and providing high quality advance information to candidates. MMI is a welcome addition to assessment armamentarium for

  13. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving population density functions of cortical pyramidal and thalamic neuronal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Hsu; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2015-02-01

    Compared with the Monte Carlo method, the population density method is efficient for modeling collective dynamics of neuronal populations in human brain. In this method, a population density function describes the probabilistic distribution of states of all neurons in the population and it is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation. In the past, the problem was mainly solved by using the finite difference method. In a previous study, a continuous Galerkin finite element method was found better than the finite difference method for solving the hyperbolic partial differential equation; however, the population density function often has discontinuity and both methods suffer from a numerical stability problem. The goal of this study is to improve the numerical stability of the solution using discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. To test the performance of the new approach, interaction of a population of cortical pyramidal neurons and a population of thalamic neurons was simulated. The numerical results showed good agreement between results of discontinuous Galerkin finite element and Monte Carlo methods. The convergence and accuracy of the solutions are excellent. The numerical stability problem could be resolved using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which has total-variation-diminishing property. The efficient approach will be employed to simulate the electroencephalogram or dynamics of thalamocortical network which involves three populations, namely, thalamic reticular neurons, thalamocortical neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chiang Mai University Health Worker Study aiming toward a better understanding of noncommunicable disease development in Thailand: methods and description of study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Wisetborisut, Anawat; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Uaphanthasath, Ronnaphob; Gomutbutra, Patama; Jiraniramai, Surin; Lerssrimonkol, Chawin; Aramrattanna, Apinun; Doyle, Pat; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is considered to be one of the key drivers of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Thailand and other developing countries. These influences, in turn, may affect an individual's behavior and risk of developing NCDs. The Chiang Mai University (CMU) Health Worker Study aims to provide evidence for a better understanding of the development of NCDs and ultimately to apply the evidence toward better prevention, risk modification, and improvement of clinical care for patients with NCDs and NCD-related conditions. A cross-sectional survey of health care workers from CMU Hospital was conducted between January 2013 and June 2013. Questionnaires, interviews, and physical and laboratory examinations were used to assess urban exposure, occupational shift work, risk factors for NCDs, self-reported NCDs, and other NCD-related health conditions. From 5,364 eligible workers, 3,204 participated (59.7%). About 11.1% of the participants had high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg) and almost 30% were considered to be obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)). A total of 2.3% had a high fasting blood glucose level (≥126 mg/dL), and the most common abnormal lipid profile was high low-density lipoprotein (≥160 mg/dL), which was found in 19.2% of participants. The study of health workers offers three potential advantages. The first is that the study of migrants was possible. Socioenvironmental influence on NCD risk factors can be explored, as changes in environmental exposures can be documented. Second, it allows the investigators to control for access to care. Access to care is potentially a key confounder toward understanding the development of NCDs. Lastly, a study of health personnel allows easy access to laboratory investigations and potential for long-term follow-up. This enables ascertainment of a number of clinical outcomes and provides potential for future studies focusing on therapeutic and prognostic issues

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Diet and Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Zambézia Province, Mozambique (the ZANE Study): Design, Methods, and Population Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Riitta; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Selvester, Kerry; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background There is very little published work on dietary intake and nutritional status of Mozambicans. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study on the diet and nutritional status of adolescent girls in different types of communities in Zambézia Province, Central Mozambique, in two distinct seasons. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and study population characteristics of the Estudo do Estado Nutricional e da Dieta em Raparigas Adolescentes na Zambézia (the ZANE Study). Methods Data was collected in January-February 2010 ("hunger season") and in May-June 2010 ("harvest season"). A total of 551 girls in the age group 14-19 years old were recruited from one urban area and two districts (district towns and rural villages). The study protocol included a background interview, a 24-hour dietary recall interview, a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, hemoglobin measurement, and venous blood, urine, buccal cell, and fecal sampling. Results Adolescent motherhood was common in all study regions. Stunting prevalence for the total study population as a weighted percentage was 17.8% (95/549; 95% CI 14.3-22.0) with no regional differences. Overweight was found mainly in the urban area where the prevalence was 12.6% (20/159; 95% CI 7.5-17.6), thinness was rare. There were regional differences in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia and intestinal helminth infestation, but not human immunodeficiency virus. Conclusions The fully analyzed data from the ZANE Study will yield results useful for setting priorities in nutrition policy and further research on the diet and nutritional status in Mozambique and other countries with similar nutritional problems. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01944891; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944891 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6L9OUrsq8). PMID:24598035

  16. Explaining stasis: microevolutionary studies in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilä, J; Sheldon, B C; Kruuk, L E

    2001-01-01

    Microevolution, defined as a change in the genetic constitution of a population over time, is considered to be of commonplace occurrence in nature. Its ubiquity can be inferred from the observation that quantitative genetic divergence among populations usually exceeds that to be expected due to genetic drift alone, and from numerous observations and experiments consistent with local adaptation. Experimental manipulations in natural populations have provided evidence that rapid evolutionary responses may occur in the wild. However, there are remarkably few cases where direct observations of natural populations have revealed microevolutionary changes occurring, despite the frequent demonstration of additive genetic variation and strong directional selection for particular traits. Those few cases where responses congruent with expectation have been demonstrated are restricted to changes over one generation. In this article we focus on possible explanations as to why heritable traits under apparently strong directional selection often fail to show the expected evolutionary response. To date, few of these explanations for apparent stasis have been amenable to empirical testing. We describe new methods, derived from procedures developed by animal breeding scientists, which can be used to address these explanations, and illustrate the approach with examples from long-term studies of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Understanding why most intensively studied natural populations do not appear to be evolving is an important challenge for evolutionary biology.

  17. Population control methods in stochastic extinction and outbreak scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Segura

    Full Text Available Adaptive limiter control (ALC and adaptive threshold harvesting (ATH are two related control methods that have been shown to stabilize fluctuating populations. Large variations in population abundance can threaten the constancy and the persistence stability of ecological populations, which may impede the success and efficiency of managing natural resources. Here, we consider population models that include biological mechanisms characteristic for causing extinctions on the one hand and pest outbreaks on the other hand. These models include Allee effects and the impact of natural enemies (as is typical of forest defoliating insects. We study the impacts of noise and different levels of biological parameters in three extinction and two outbreak scenarios. Our results show that ALC and ATH have an effect on extinction and outbreak risks only for sufficiently large control intensities. Moreover, there is a clear disparity between the two control methods: in the extinction scenarios, ALC can be effective and ATH can be counterproductive, whereas in the outbreak scenarios the situation is reversed, with ATH being effective and ALC being potentially counterproductive.

  18. Population control methods in stochastic extinction and outbreak scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Juan; Hilker, Frank M; Franco, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive limiter control (ALC) and adaptive threshold harvesting (ATH) are two related control methods that have been shown to stabilize fluctuating populations. Large variations in population abundance can threaten the constancy and the persistence stability of ecological populations, which may impede the success and efficiency of managing natural resources. Here, we consider population models that include biological mechanisms characteristic for causing extinctions on the one hand and pest outbreaks on the other hand. These models include Allee effects and the impact of natural enemies (as is typical of forest defoliating insects). We study the impacts of noise and different levels of biological parameters in three extinction and two outbreak scenarios. Our results show that ALC and ATH have an effect on extinction and outbreak risks only for sufficiently large control intensities. Moreover, there is a clear disparity between the two control methods: in the extinction scenarios, ALC can be effective and ATH can be counterproductive, whereas in the outbreak scenarios the situation is reversed, with ATH being effective and ALC being potentially counterproductive.

  19. New methods for sampling sparse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Ringvall

    2007-01-01

    To improve surveys of sparse objects, methods that use auxiliary information have been suggested. Guided transect sampling uses prior information, e.g., from aerial photographs, for the layout of survey strips. Instead of being laid out straight, the strips will wind between potentially more interesting areas. 3P sampling (probability proportional to prediction) uses...

  20. Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Population Estimation with Mark and Recapture Method Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.; Kaewchoung, W.

    1998-01-01

    Population estimation is the important information which required for the insect control planning especially the controlling with SIT. Moreover, It can be used to evaluate the efficiency of controlling method. Due to the complexity of calculation, the population estimation with mark and recapture methods were not used widely. So that, this program is developed with Qbasic on the purpose to make it accuracy and easier. The program evaluation consists with 6 methods; follow Seber's, Jolly-seber's, Jackson's Ito's, Hamada's and Yamamura's methods. The results are compared with the original methods, found that they are accuracy and more easier to applied

  2. Design and methods of a population-based natural history study of cervical neoplasia in a rural province of Costa Rica: the Guanacaste Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero Rolando

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the enrollment phase of a population-based natural history study of cervical neoplasia in Guanacaste, a rural province of Costa Rica with consistently high rates of invasive cervical cancer. The main goals of the study are to investigate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its co-factors in the etiology of high-grade cervical neoplasia, and to evaluate new cervical cancer screening technologies. To begin, a random sample of censal segments was selected and enumeration of all resident women 18 years of age and over was conducted with the aid of outreach workers of the Costa Rican Ministry of Health. Of the 10 738 women who were eligible to participate, 10 049 (93.6% were interviewed after giving written informed consent. After the interview on cervical cancer risk factors was administered, a pelvic examination was performed on those women who reported previous sexual activity. The pelvic examination included a vaginal pH determination and collection of cervical cells for cytologic diagnosis using three different techniques. Additional cervical cells were collected for determination of the presence and amount of DNA from 16 different types of HPV, and two photographic images of the cervix were taken and interpreted offsite by an expert colposcopist. Finally, blood samples were collected for immunologic and micronutrient assays. Women with any abnormal cytologic diagnosis or a positive Cervigram, as well as a sample of the whole group, were referred for colposcopy, and biopsies were taken when lesions were observed. The enrollment screening will serve as the basis for a prevalent case-control study, and the members of the cohort free from serious disease will be followed actively, at intervals of no more than a year, to study the natural history of HPV infection and the origins of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Details of the field operation are outlined, with particular reference to the

  3. Reliability of different mark-recapture methods for population size estimation tested against reference population sizes constructed from field data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret Grimm

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of population size are fundamental in many ecological studies and biodiversity conservation. Selecting appropriate methods to estimate abundance is often very difficult, especially if data are scarce. Most studies concerning the reliability of different estimators used simulation data based on assumptions about capture variability that do not necessarily reflect conditions in natural populations. Here, we used data from an intensively studied closed population of the arboreal gecko Gehyra variegata to construct reference population sizes for assessing twelve different population size estimators in terms of bias, precision, accuracy, and their 95%-confidence intervals. Two of the reference populations reflect natural biological entities, whereas the other reference populations reflect artificial subsets of the population. Since individual heterogeneity was assumed, we tested modifications of the Lincoln-Petersen estimator, a set of models in programs MARK and CARE-2, and a truncated geometric distribution. Ranking of methods was similar across criteria. Models accounting for individual heterogeneity performed best in all assessment criteria. For populations from heterogeneous habitats without obvious covariates explaining individual heterogeneity, we recommend using the moment estimator or the interpolated jackknife estimator (both implemented in CAPTURE/MARK. If data for capture frequencies are substantial, we recommend the sample coverage or the estimating equation (both models implemented in CARE-2. Depending on the distribution of catchabilities, our proposed multiple Lincoln-Petersen and a truncated geometric distribution obtained comparably good results. The former usually resulted in a minimum population size and the latter can be recommended when there is a long tail of low capture probabilities. Models with covariates and mixture models performed poorly. Our approach identified suitable methods and extended options to

  4. Representativeness in population-based studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drivsholm, Thomas Bo; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Davidsen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Decreasing rates of participation in population-based studies increasingly challenge the interpretation of study results, in both analytic and descriptive epidemiology. Consequently, estimates of possible differences between participants and non-participants are increasingly important...... for the interpretation of study results and generalization to the background population....

  5. Variations in suicide method and in suicide occurrence by season and day of the week in Russia and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Northwestern Russia: a retrospective population-based mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarokov, Yury A; Brenn, Tormod; Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd

    2015-09-23

    Suicide is an important world health issue, especially in territories inhabited by indigenous people. This investigated differences in suicide rates, suicide methods, and suicide occurrence by month and day of the week among the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) and to compare the findings from the NAO with national Russian statistics. In this retrospective population-based mortality study we investigated all suicides that occurred in the NAO in 2002-2012 (N = 252). Suicide method and the month and day of the week suicide occurred was taken from autopsy reports and disaggregated by ethnic group (indigenous and non-indigenous) and sex. Data from the NAO were then compared with national data from the Russian Federal Statistics Service (Rosstat). Hanging was the most common suicide method in the NAO in both indigenous and non-indigenous populations. The proportion of suicides by hanging among males was lower in the NAO than in national data (69.3 vs 86.2 %), but the inverse was true for females (86.5 vs 74.9 %). Suicide by firearm and by cutting was significantly higher among the indigenous population in the NAO when compared with national data. Peaks in suicide occurrence were observed in May and September in the NAO, whereas national data showed only one peak in May. Suicide occurrence in the indigenous population of the NAO was highest in April, while the non-indigenous population showed peaks in May and September. Suicide occurrence in the NAO was highest on Fridays; in national data this occurrence was highest on Mondays. We showed different relative frequencies of suicide by hanging, cutting, and firearm, as well as different suicide occurrence by month and day of the week in the NAO compared with Russia as a whole. These results can be used to plan suicide prevention activities in the Russian Arctic.

  6. Mediterranean studies of cardiovascular disease and hyperglycemia: analytical modeling of population socio-economic transitions (MedCHAMPS)--rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziak, Wasim; Critchley, Julia; Zaman, Shahaduz; Unwin, Nigel; Capewell, Simon; Bennett, Kathleen; Unal, Belgin; Husseini, Abdullatif; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Phillimore, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In response to the escalating epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Mediterranean Region (MR), an international collaboration aiming at understanding the burden of CVD and evaluating cost-effective strategies to combat it was recently established. This paper describes the rationale and methods of the project MedCHAMPS to disseminate this successful experience. The framework of MedCHAMPS is exceptional in combining multiple disciplines (e.g. epidemiology, anthropology, economics), countries [Turkey, Syria, occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), Tunisia, UK, Ireland], research methods (situational and policy analysis, quantitative and qualitative studies, statistical modeling), and involving local stakeholders at all levels to assess trends of CVD/diabetes in the society and attributes of the local health care systems to provide optimal policy recommendations to reduce the burden of CVD/diabetes. MedCHAMPS provides policy makers in the MR and beyond needed guidance about the burden of CVD, and best cost-effective ways to combat it. Our approach of building developed-developing countries collaboration also provides a roadmap for other researchers seeking to build research base into CVD epidemiology and prevention in developing countries.

  7. Statistical methods for detecting and comparing periodic data and their application to the nycthemeral rhythm of bodily harm: A population based study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stroebel, Armin M

    2010-11-08

    Abstract Background Animals, including humans, exhibit a variety of biological rhythms. This article describes a method for the detection and simultaneous comparison of multiple nycthemeral rhythms. Methods A statistical method for detecting periodic patterns in time-related data via harmonic regression is described. The method is particularly capable of detecting nycthemeral rhythms in medical data. Additionally a method for simultaneously comparing two or more periodic patterns is described, which derives from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). This method statistically confirms or rejects equality of periodic patterns. Mathematical descriptions of the detecting method and the comparing method are displayed. Results Nycthemeral rhythms of incidents of bodily harm in Middle Franconia are analyzed in order to demonstrate both methods. Every day of the week showed a significant nycthemeral rhythm of bodily harm. These seven patterns of the week were compared to each other revealing only two different nycthemeral rhythms, one for Friday and Saturday and one for the other weekdays.

  8. Male Contraception: Research, New Methods, and Implications for Marginalized Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Olivia

    2017-07-01

    The majority of research on contraception has focused on manipulating the female reproductive system. Recent studies have identified novel contraceptives for males, including hormonal- and nonhormonal-based therapeutics. Although these new contraceptives are still undergoing clinical trials, their development and potential future use in society necessitate serious consideration of their implications for reproductive health. Through my analysis of the research conducted on male contraception over time and the current therapeutics available, it is clear that male contraception has the potential to shift societal gender dynamics and provide males with greater control over their own reproduction. This article also identifies the implications of these novel contraceptives for marginalized populations, especially men of color and men of lower socioeconomic positions. To overcome barriers to contraception among these populations, public policy efforts are needed in order to motivate the development of programs that facilitate coverage of these new male contraceptives by health plans and to increase their availability to underserved communities. Health care providers will be responsible for educating patients about these novel male contraception options and the need to continue using existing methods (e.g., condoms) in order to prevent sexually transmitted infections. This article analyzes the research conducted on male contraception and identifies the implications of these novel therapeutics for marginalized groups of men in the United States to identify the interventions that will be necessary to help ensure that all men have access to these promising scientific innovations.

  9. Bacterial population in traditional sourdough evaluated by molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; Heilig, H; Restuccia, C; Giudici, P; Caggia, C

    2005-01-01

    To study the microbial communities in artisanal sourdoughs, manufactured by traditional procedure in different areas of Sicily, and to evaluate the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population by classical and culture-independent approaches. Forty-five LAB isolates were identified both by phenotypic and molecular methods. The restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing gave evidence of a variety of species with the dominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Lactobacillus pentosus, in all sourdoughs tested. Culture-independent method, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the V6-V8 regions of the 16S rDNA, was applied for microbial community fingerprint. The DGGE profiles revealed the dominance of L. sanfranciscensis species. In addition, Lactobacillus-specific primers were used to amplify the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rDNA. DGGE profiles flourished the dominance of L. sanfranciscensis and Lactobacillus fermentum in the traditional sourdoughs, and revealed that the closely related species Lactobacillus kimchii and Lactobacillus alimentarius were not discriminated. Lactobacillus-specific PCR-DGGE analysis is a rapid tool for rapid detection of Lactobacillus species in artisanal sourdough. This study reports a characterization of Lactobacillus isolates from artisanal sourdoughs and highlights the value of DGGE approach to detect uncultivable Lactobacillus species.

  10. Perception and prevalence of domestic violence in the study population

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sandeep H.; Rajani, Kajal; Kataria, Lakhan; Trivedi, Ashish; Patel, Sangita; Mehta, Kedar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence is a major contributor to physical and mental ill health of the victim, and it is evident to some degree, in every society of the world. Objectives: 1) To study perception about domestic violence in the study population. 2) To compare prevalence of domestic violence within the three subgroups of the study population (i.e. spouses of psychotic patients, spouses of non-psychiatric patients and hospital staff). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was cond...

  11. Primary care characteristics and their association with health screening in a low-socioeconomic status public rental-flat population in Singapore- a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Liang En; Cher, Wen Qi; Sin, David; Li, Zong Chen; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat

    2016-02-06

    In Singapore, subsidized primary care is provided by centralized polyclinics; since 2000, policies have allowed lower-income Singaporeans to utilize subsidies at private general-practitioner (GP) clinics. We sought to determine whether proximity to primary care, subsidised primary care, or having regular primary care associated with health screening participation in a low socioeconomic-status public rental-flat community in Singapore. From 2009-2014, residents in five public rental-flat enclaves (N = 936) and neighboring owner-occupied precincts (N = 1060) were assessed for participation in cardiovascular and cancer screening. We then evaluated whether proximity to primary care, subsidised primary care, or having regular primary care associated with improved adherence to health screening. We also investigated attitudes to health screening using qualitative methodology. In the rental flat population, for cardiovascular screening, regular primary care was independently associated with regular diabetes screening (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 1.59, CI = 1.12-2.26, p = 0.009) and hyperlipidemia screening (aOR = 1.82, CI = 1.10-3.04, p = 0.023). In the owner-occupied flats, regular primary care was independently associated with regular hypertension screening (aOR = 9.34 (1.82-47.85, p = 0.007), while subsidized primary care was associated with regular diabetes screening (aOR = 2.94, CI = 1.04-8.31, p = 0.042). For cancer screening, in the rental flat population, proximity to primary care was associated with less participation in regular colorectal cancer screening (aOR = 0.42, CI = 0.17-0.99, p = 0.049) and breast cancer screening (aOR = 0.29, CI = 0.10-0.84, p = 0.023). In the owner-occupied flat population, for gynecological cancer screening, usage of subsidized primary care and proximity to primary care was associated with higher rates of breast cancer and cervical cancer screening; however

  12. Ambit determination method in estimating rice plant population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar, B.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice plant population density is a key indicator in determining the crop setting and fertilizer application rate. It is therefore essential that the population density is monitored to ensure that a correct crop management decision is taken. The conventional method of determining plant population is by manually counting the total number of rice plant tillers in a 25 cm x 25 cm square frame. Sampling is done by randomly choosing several different locations within a plot to perform tiller counting. This sampling method is time consuming, labour intensive and costly. An alternative fast estimating method was developed to overcome this issue. The method relies on measuring the outer circumference or ambit of the contained rice plants in a 25 cm x 25 cm square frame to determine the number of tillers within that square frame. Data samples of rice variety MR219 were collected from rice plots in the Muda granary area, Sungai Limau Dalam, Kedah. The data were taken at 50 days and 70 days after seeding (DAS. A total of 100 data samples were collected for each sampling day. A good correlation was obtained for the variety of 50 DAS and 70 DAS. The model was then verified by taking 100 samples with the latching strap for 50 DAS and 70 DAS. As a result, this technique can be used as a fast, economical and practical alternative to manual tiller counting. The technique can potentially be used in the development of an electronic sensing system to estimate paddy plant population density.

  13. Methods for calculating population dose from atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B L; Jow, H N; Lee, I S [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA)

    1978-06-01

    Curves are computed from which population dose (man-rem) due to dispersal of radioactivity from a point source can be calculated in the gaussian plume model by simple multiplication, and methods of using them and their limitations are considered. Illustrative examples are presented.

  14. Comparison of association mapping methods in a complex pedigreed population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Janss, Luc

    2010-01-01

    to collect SNP signals in intervals, to avoid the scattering of a QTL signal over multiple neighboring SNPs. Methods not accounting for genetic background (full pedigree information) performed worse, and methods using haplotypes were considerably worse with a high false-positive rate, probably due...... to the presence of low-frequency haplotypes. It was necessary to account for full relationships among individuals to avoid excess false discovery. Although the methods were tested on a cattle pedigree, the results are applicable to any population with a complex pedigree structure...

  15. Why might adults belong to outdoor walking groups? A qualitative study using photo-elicitation methods in a population with poor health and physical activity indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Sarah; Jones, Andrew; Guell, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Walking groups have multiple health benefits but walking interventions tend to be socially patterned and have the potential to increase health inequity. This poster presented preliminary findings of a qualitative study with a new walking groups in an area of social deprivation

  16. Pilot study to establish a nasal tip prediction method from unknown human skeletal remains for facial reconstruction and skull photo superimposition as applied to a Japanese male populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kageyama, Toru; Uchida, Keiichi; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakurada, Koichi; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Skull-photo superimposition is a technique used to identify the relationship between the skull and a photograph of a target person: and facial reconstruction reproduces antemortem facial features from an unknown human skull, or identifies the facial features of unknown human skeletal remains. These techniques are based on soft tissue thickness and the relationships between soft tissue and the skull, i.e., the position of the ear and external acoustic meatus, pupil and orbit, nose and nasal aperture, and lips and teeth. However, the ear and nose region are relatively difficult to identify because of their structure, as the soft tissues of these regions are lined with cartilage. We attempted to establish a more accurate method to determine the position of the nasal tip from the skull. We measured the height of the maxilla and mid-lower facial region in 55 Japanese men and generated a regression equation from the collected data. We obtained a result that was 2.0±0.99mm (mean±SD) distant from the true nasal tip, when applied to a validation set consisting of another 12 Japanese men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  18. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  19. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; Graaf, de R.; Have, M. ten; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n ¼ 5504) the costs

  20. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  1. A Genetic Study of Wild Populations and Evolution A Genetic Study of Wild Populations and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovanitz William

    1944-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the scientific basis of heredity within the last two decades and the verification of the principal conclusions in many different plants and animals has made possible the application of analytical methods in the study of variations in wild populations. As with the physical and chemical sciences, genetics has been enabled to make use of mathematics to compound (often theoretically out of simple units, the genes, the complexity known as an organism, much in the same way as a chemist compounds molecules with atoms and the physicist compounds atoms with protons and electrons. The determination of the scientific basis of heredity within the last two decades and the verification of the principal conclusions in many different plants and animals has made possible the application of analytical methods in the study of variations in wild populations. As with the physical and chemical sciences, genetics has been enabled to make use of mathematics to compound (often theoretically out of simple units, the genes, the complexity known as an organism, much in the same way as a chemist compounds molecules with atoms and the physicist compounds atoms with protons and electrons.

  2. [Studies on markers of exposure and early effect in areas with arsenic pollution: methods and results of the project SEpiAs. Epidemiological studies on population exposed to low-to-moderate arsenic concentration in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustaffa, Elisa; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic and its inorganic compounds are classified as human carcinogens. Several epidemiological studies conducted in areas of the world characterized by high arsenic concentration in drinking water, even up to 3,000 μg/l, report associations between arsenic exposure and skin, bladder, lung, liver and kidney cancer as well as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and reproductive and developmental effects. Since general population is not exposed to these high arsenic concentrations in the last years attention focused on adverse health effects that low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations (0-150 μg/l) in drinking water could induce. The World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 μg/l for arsenic in drinking water. Almost all epidemiological studies conducted on populations exposed to low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water are limited due to problems arising from both individual exposure assessment and low subjects number. The aim of the present review is to collect literature-based evidences regarding adverse health effects associated with exposure to low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water (10-150 μg/l) in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the health outcomes that such exposure can have on general population.

  3. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  4. Methods of estimating population exposures from Plowshare applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S V; Rohwer, P S [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1969-07-01

    When estimating doses to populations it is necessary to divide the total population into groups that have parameters of similar type and magnitude in order to identify critical population groups. Age groups constitute the most basic and generally useful way of dividing the total population for estimating dose. Models for estimating dose, particularly the internal dose from inhalation and ingestion of radioactivity, should be written as a function of age. The importance of considering age-dependency is emphasized by the fact that some of the internal dose parameters change by much as a factor of ten for some radionuclides when comparing a one year old with an adult. A computer code called INREM has been written which can consider all internal dose parameters as a function of age. The major imitation in using this computer code for all radionuclides is the paucity of age-dependent input data for many radionuclides. Tritium, iodine, cesium, and strontium have been studied in detail with INREM and the results and interpretations are discussed. Another code, EXREM, computes the external dose rates and cumulative doses from both beta particles and gamma photons from submersion in a radioactive cloud, submersion in contaminated water and exposure above a contaminated land surface. This code can consider up to 25 Plowshare detonations and a variety of combinations for calculating doses and dose rates in relation to a detonation schedule. The importance of using both INREM and EXREM to estimate the total dose to a population group is stressed. (author)

  5. Methods of estimating population exposures from Plowshare applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.V.; Rohwer, P.S.

    1969-01-01

    When estimating doses to populations it is necessary to divide the total population into groups that have parameters of similar type and magnitude in order to identify critical population groups. Age groups constitute the most basic and generally useful way of dividing the total population for estimating dose. Models for estimating dose, particularly the internal dose from inhalation and ingestion of radioactivity, should be written as a function of age. The importance of considering age-dependency is emphasized by the fact that some of the internal dose parameters change by much as a factor of ten for some radionuclides when comparing a one year old with an adult. A computer code called INREM has been written which can consider all internal dose parameters as a function of age. The major imitation in using this computer code for all radionuclides is the paucity of age-dependent input data for many radionuclides. Tritium, iodine, cesium, and strontium have been studied in detail with INREM and the results and interpretations are discussed. Another code, EXREM, computes the external dose rates and cumulative doses from both beta particles and gamma photons from submersion in a radioactive cloud, submersion in contaminated water and exposure above a contaminated land surface. This code can consider up to 25 Plowshare detonations and a variety of combinations for calculating doses and dose rates in relation to a detonation schedule. The importance of using both INREM and EXREM to estimate the total dose to a population group is stressed. (author)

  6. Population study of Pyxis arachnoides brygooi (Vuillemin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Madagascar spider tortoise (Pyxis arachnoides spp.) is faced with the threat of habitat destruction as well as the international pet trade. Habitat requirements and population structure of this species are largely unknown. Detailed studies have so far concentrated on the subspecies Pyxis arachnoides arachnoides.

  7. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based

  8. POPULATION STUDIES OF CZECH HUCUL HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Vostrá Vydrová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Population studies were carried out analysis Czech Hucul breed based on pedigree information of animals registered in the Studbook. Pedigree records collected from the year 1834 to 2013 comprised information on 9455 animals used in the analyses. The pedigree depth of the analysed individuals was up to 19 generations. The mean value of inbreeding coefficient was 5.35% (with maximum value 30%. The proportion of inbreed animals was high (98%. The average rate of inbreeding in the reference population was lower than 1%, and the respective estimates of effective population sizes were 54. The presented paper is indicating that genetic diversity in the Czech Hucul breeds is still relatively high and conservation programs should be continued.

  9. Population based ranking of frameless CT-MRI registration methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opposits, Gabor; Kis, Sandor A.; Tron, Lajos; Emri, Miklos [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Berenyi, Ervin [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biomedical Laboratory and Imaging Science; Takacs, Endre [Rotating Gamma Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Dobai, Jozsef G.; Bognar, Laszlo [Debrecen Univ., Medical Center (Hungary). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Szuecs, Bernadett [ScanoMed Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-07-01

    Clinical practice often requires simultaneous information obtained by two different imaging modalities. Registration algorithms are commonly used for this purpose. Automated procedures are very helpful in cases when the same kind of registration has to be performed on images of a high number of subjects. Radiotherapists would prefer to use the best automated method to assist therapy planning, however there are not accepted procedures for ranking the different registration algorithms. We were interested in developing a method to measure the population level performance of CT-MRI registration algorithms by a parameter of values in the [0,1] interval. Pairs of CT and MRI images were collected from 1051 subjects. Results of an automated registration were corrected manually until a radiologist and a neurosurgeon expert both accepted the result as good. This way 1051 registered MRI images were produced by the same pair of experts to be used as gold standards for the evaluation of the performance of other registration algorithms. Pearson correlation coefficient, mutual information, normalized mutual information, Kullback-Leibler divergence, L{sub 1} norm and square L{sub 2} norm (dis)similarity measures were tested for sensitivity to indicate the extent of (dis)similarity of a pair of individual mismatched images. The square Hellinger distance proved suitable to grade the performance of registration algorithms at population level providing the developers with a valuable tool to rank algorithms. The developed procedure provides an objective method to find the registration algorithm performing the best on the population level out of newly constructed or available preselected ones.

  10. Lattice Boltzmann method with the cell-population equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoyang; Cheng Bing; Shi Baochang

    2008-01-01

    The central problem of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is to construct a discrete equilibrium. In this paper, a multi-speed 1D cell-model of Boltzmann equation is proposed, in which the cell-population equilibrium, a direct non-negative approximation to the continuous Maxwellian distribution, plays an important part. By applying the explicit one-order Chapman–Enskog distribution, the model reduces the transportation and collision, two basic evolution steps in LBM, to the transportation of the non-equilibrium distribution. Furthermore, 1D dam-break problem is performed and the numerical results agree well with the analytic solutions

  11. A General Method for QTL Mapping in Multiple Related Populations Derived from Multiple Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan AO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It's well known that incorporating some existing populations derived from multiple parents may improve QTL mapping and QTL-based breeding programs. However, no general maximum likelihood method has been available for this strategy. Based on the QTL mapping in multiple related populations derived from two parents, a maximum likelihood estimation method was proposed, which can incorporate several populations derived from three or more parents and also can be used to handle different mating designs. Taking a circle design as an example, we conducted simulation studies to study the effect of QTL heritability and sample size upon the proposed method. The results showed that under the same heritability, enhanced power of QTL detection and more precise and accurate estimation of parameters could be obtained when three F2 populations were jointly analyzed, compared with the joint analysis of any two F2 populations. Higher heritability, especially with larger sample sizes, would increase the ability of QTL detection and improve the estimation of parameters. Potential advantages of the method are as follows: firstly, the existing results of QTL mapping in single population can be compared and integrated with each other with the proposed method, therefore the ability of QTL detection and precision of QTL mapping can be improved. Secondly, owing to multiple alleles in multiple parents, the method can exploit gene resource more adequately, which will lay an important genetic groundwork for plant improvement.

  12. Methods of Studying Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    Conventional research strategies typically emphasize behavior-determining tendencies so strongly that the person as a whole is ignored. Research strategies for studying whole persons focus on symbolic structures, formulate specific questions in advance, study persons one at a time, use individualized measures, and regard participants as expert…

  13. Differential estimates of southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) population structure based on capture method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucmrtys volam) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides bumah) reproductive success. Southern flying...

  14. Estimation of the size of the female sex worker population in Rwanda using three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Kayitesi, Catherine; Gwiza, Aimé; Ruton, Hinda; Koleros, Andrew; Gupta, Neil; Balisanga, Helene; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2015-10-01

    HIV prevalence is disproportionately high among female sex workers compared to the general population. Many African countries lack useful data on the size of female sex worker populations to inform national HIV programmes. A female sex worker size estimation exercise using three different venue-based methodologies was conducted among female sex workers in all provinces of Rwanda in August 2010. The female sex worker national population size was estimated using capture-recapture and enumeration methods, and the multiplier method was used to estimate the size of the female sex worker population in Kigali. A structured questionnaire was also used to supplement the data. The estimated number of female sex workers by the capture-recapture method was 3205 (95% confidence interval: 2998-3412). The female sex worker size was estimated at 3348 using the enumeration method. In Kigali, the female sex worker size was estimated at 2253 (95% confidence interval: 1916-2524) using the multiplier method. Nearly 80% of all female sex workers in Rwanda were found to be based in the capital, Kigali. This study provided a first-time estimate of the female sex worker population size in Rwanda using capture-recapture, enumeration, and multiplier methods. The capture-recapture and enumeration methods provided similar estimates of female sex worker in Rwanda. Combination of such size estimation methods is feasible and productive in low-resource settings and should be considered vital to inform national HIV programmes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Febrile seizures: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane S. Dalbem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of benign febrile seizures of childhood and describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of this population. Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study, carried out in the city of Barra do Bugres, MT, Brazil, from August 2012 to August 2013. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, a questionnaire that was previously validated in another Brazilian study was used to identify suspected cases of seizures. In the second phase, a neurological evaluation was performed to confirm diagnosis. Results: The prevalence was 6.4/1000 inhabitants (95% CI: 3.8–10.1. There was no difference between genders. Simple febrile seizures were found in 88.8% of cases. A family history of febrile seizures in first-degree relatives and history of epilepsy was present in 33.3% and 11.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of febrile seizures in Midwestern Brazil was lower than that found in other Brazilian regions, probably due to the inclusion only of febrile seizures with motor manifestations and differences in socioeconomic factors among the evaluated areas. Resumo: Objetivos: Estabelecer a prevalência das crises febris e descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico dessa população. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado na cidade de Barra do Bugres (MT, no período de agosto de 2012 a agosto de 2013. Os dados foram coletados em duas etapas. Na primeira fase utilizamos um questionário validado previamente em outro estudo brasileiro, para identificação de casos suspeitos de crises epilépticas. Na segunda etapa realizamos a avaliação neuroclínica para confirmação diagnóstica. Resultados: A prevalência de crise febril foi de 6,4/1000 habitantes (IC95% 3,8; 10,1. Não houve diferença entre os sexos. As crises febris simples foram encontradas em 88,8% dos casos. A história familiar de crise febril e epilepsia em parentes de 1° grau esteve

  16. An alternative method for assessing early mortality in contemporary populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, A S; Pike, I L

    1998-11-01

    Biological anthropologists are interested in a population's early mortality rates for a variety of reasons. Early mortality (infant or juvenile) is of obvious importance to those interested in demography, but early mortality statistics are useful for life history analysis, paleodemography, and human adaptability studies, among others. In general, the form of mortality statistics is derived from demography, where chronological age is the gold standard for statistical calculation and comparison. However, there are numerous problems associated with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of early mortality statistics based on age, particularly for anthropological research, which is often conducted in small or non-calendrical-age numerate populations. The infant mortality rate (IMR), for example, is notoriously difficult to determine in populations where accurate accounting of age is not routine, and yet it is widely used in demography, public health, medicine, and social science research. Here we offer an alternative to age-based early mortality statistics that makes use of human biologists' interest in, and skill at, assessing human growth and development. Our proposal is to use developmental stages of juveniles instead of relying exclusively on age as the basis for mortality statistics. Death or survival according to a developmental stage (such as crawling or weaning) may provide more accurate data that are also more closely related to the cause of death. Developmental stages have the added advantage of putting infants and children back at the center of the discussion of early mortality by focusing on their activities in relation to their environment. A case study from the Turkana population of Kenya illustrates the use of developmental stages in describing early mortality.

  17. Stroke Awareness in the General Population: A Study from Jordan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the awareness level of the Jordanian general population regarding the definition, risk factors, signs and symptoms, and consequences of stroke. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was handed to participants by trained students, the participants were chosen randomly from ...

  18. The Etruscans: a population-genetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernesi, Cristiano; Caramelli, David; Dupanloup, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    The origins of the Etruscans, a non-Indo-European population of preclassical Italy, are unclear. There is broad agreement that their culture developed locally, but the Etruscans' evolutionary and migrational relationships are largely unknown. In this study, we determined mitochondrial DNA sequences...... a culture but also a mitochondrial gene pool. Genetic distances and sequence comparisons show closer evolutionary relationships with the eastern Mediterranean shores for the Etruscans than for modern Italian populations. All mitochondrial lineages observed among the Etruscans appear typically European...... or West Asian, but only a few haplotypes were found to have an exact match in a modern mitochondrial database, raising new questions about the Etruscans' fate after their assimilation into the Roman state....

  19. The COLOFOL trial: study design and comparison of the study population with the source cancer population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansdotter Andersson P

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pernilla Hansdotter Andersson,1 Peer Wille-Jørgensen,2 Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó,3 Sune Høirup Petersen,2 Anna Martling,4 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Ingvar Syk1 On behalf of the COLOFOL Study Group 1Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; 2Abdominal Disease Center K, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden Introduction: The COLOFOL trial, a prospective randomized multicenter trial comparing two follow-up regimes after curative surgical treatment for colorectal cancer, focuses on detection of asymptomatic recurrences. This paper aims to describe the design and recruitment procedure in the COLOFOL trial, comparing demographic characteristics between randomized patients and eligible patients not included in the study. Materials and methods: COLOFOL was designed as a pragmatic trial with wide inclusion criteria and few exclusion criteria, in order to obtain a sample reflecting the general patient population. To be eligible, patients had to be 75 years or younger and curatively resected for stage II or III colorectal cancer. Exclusion criteria were hereditary colorectal cancer, no signed consent, other malignancy, and life expectancy less than 2 years due to concomitant disease. In four of the 24 participating centers, we scrutinized hospital inpatient data to identify all colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery, in order to ascertain all eligible patients who were not included in the study and to compare them with enrolled patients. Results: Of a total of 4,445 eligible patients, 2,509 patients were randomized (56.4% inclusion rate. A total of 1,221 eligible patients were identified in the scrutinized hospitals, of which 684 (56% were randomized. No difference in age or sex distribution was observed between randomized and nonrandomized

  20. Comparación de cinco métodos para estimar la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus en estudios de base poblacional Comparison of five methods for estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor R. S. Pinto

    1997-10-01

    detectar los casos de diabetes mellitus previamente diagnosticados y se recomienda su uso para evaluaciones o planeamiento de servicios de salud. La medición de glucemia en ayunas (M3 como método exclusivo no reportó ventajas sobre el cuestionario individual (M2. Entre los métodos combinados o múltiples, la glucemia en ayunas junto con el cuestionario individual (M4 fue eficiente en relación con M5, que incorpora la glucemia a las 2 horas después de la ingestión de una sobrecarga oral de glucosa.To aid in the search for more practical and reliable methods for use in population-based studies of diabetes mellitus, this article compares five ways of estimating prevalence rates. The analysis was performed on secondary data from a cross-sectional study of a cluster sample of the adult population in nine state capitals in Brazil. The original study was carried out from 1986 to 1988. The 21 846 participants were classified as diabetic or not diabetic by five different methods: household questionnaires administered to the entire sample population (M1; individual questionnaires administered to the selected population (M2; measurement of fasting glucose levels in capillary blood, with levels > or = 120 mg/dL as the cutoff (M3; individual questionnaire and fasting capillary blood glucose > or = 120 mg/dL (M4; and individual questionnaire plus fasting capillary blood glucose > or = 200 mg/dL and capillary glucose 2 hours after oral glucose loading > or = 200 mg/dL (M5. Agreement between the methods was determined by comparison of the rates obtained and use of the kappa coefficient. The age-adjusted prevalence rates of diabetes varied according to the method used. Values obtained with M1 were lower than those indicated by M2; M3 values were higher than M2 values, except in the age group 60-69 years; and with M5 the rates were higher than with M4, except among persons 30-39 years old. With regard to the age-adjusted rates found by the various methods, M1 detected 84% of the M2

  1. The North Jutland County Diabetic Retinopathy Study (NCDRS). Population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, L.L.; Lervang, H.H.; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    Abstract Purpose: Several population based studies have reported blood glucose levels and blood pressure to be risk factors for the development of proliferativ retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy. Despite their importance, these studies were initiated more than two decades ago and may therefore...... reflect the treatment and population composition of a previous era. Studies of the present diabetic population are therefore in demand. Methods: The present cross–section study included 656 type 1 and 328 type 2 diabetic subjects undergoing diabetic retinopathy screening. Crude prevalence rates...... for proliferative diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy, several specific lesions and non–ophthalmic findings were assessed together with their association to a simplified and internationally approved retinal grading. Results: The crude prevalence of proliferative retinopathy was found to be 5.6 % and 0.9 % for type 1...

  2. The North Jutland County Diabetic Retinopathy Study (NCDRS): population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Loumann; Lervang, Hans-Henrik; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Background: Several population-based studies have reported blood glucose levels and blood pressure to be risk factors for the development of diabetic retinopathy. These studies were initiated more than two decades ago and may therefore reflect the treatment and population composition of a previous...... era, suggesting new studies of the present population with diabetes. Aim and methods: This cross-section study included 656 people with type 1 diabetes and 328 with type 2 diabetes. Crude prevalence rates of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, clinically significant macular oedema and several specific...... retinal lesions were assessed, together with their association to a simplified and internationally approved retinal grading. Results: The point prevalence of proliferative retinopathy was found to be 0.8% and 0.3% for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Equivalent prevalence rates of clinically significant...

  3. Use and misuse of mixed methods in population oral health research: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Keuskamp, D

    2018-05-30

    Despite the known benefits of a mixed methods approach in health research, little is known of its use in the field of population oral health. To map the extent of literature using a mixed methods approach to examine population oral health outcomes. For a comprehensive search of all the available literature published in the English language, databases including PubMed, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source (DOSS), CINAHL, Web of Science and EMBASE (including Medline) were searched using a range of keywords from inception to October 2017. Only peer-reviewed, population-based studies of oral health outcomes conducted among non-institutionalised participants and using mixed methods were considered eligible for inclusion. Only nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The most frequent oral health outcome investigated was caries experience. However, most studies lacked a theoretical rationale or framework for using mixed methods, or supporting the use of qualitative data. Concurrent triangulation with a convergent design was the most commonly used mixed methods typology for integrating quantitative and qualitative data. The tools used to collect quantitative and qualitative data were mostly limited to surveys and interviews. With growing complexity recognised in the determinants of oral disease, future studies addressing population oral health outcomes are likely to benefit from the use of mixed methods. Explicit consideration of theoretical framework and methodology will strengthen those investigations. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  4. A morphometric study of antral G-cell density in a sample of adult general population: comparison of three different methods and correlation with patient demography, helicobacter pylori infection, histomorphology and circulating gastrin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Fredrik; Borch, Kurt; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2008-01-01

    whether these methods are intercorrelated and the relation of these methods to plasma gastrin concentrations, demography, the occurrence of H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis. Gastric antral mucosal biopsy sections from 273 adults (188 with and 85 without H pylori infection) from a general...... population sample were examined immunohistochemically for G-cells using cell counting, stereology (point counting) and computerized image analysis. Gastritis was scored according to the updated Sydney system. Basal plasma gastrin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. The three methods for G...

  5. Application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report of an IAEA consultants' meeting held in Vienna, Austria, 14-16 December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting convened by the IAEA in December 1992, made recommendations on the organization of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) using stable isotopic techniques for international comparative studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in chronically undernourished people. The CRP will use recent developments in stable isotope tracer techniques ( 13 C and 15 N) to assess the impact of infection in undernourished people on the kinetics of protein breakdown, protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and on the synthetic rates of selected plasma proteins. Studies will be conducted in developing countries, particularly in young children. The programme goals are to (i) elaborate methods and model protocols which can be implemented in developing countries to investigate the impact on protein metabolism of infection superimposed on chronic undernutrition; (ii) test they hypothesis that dietary requirements for protein and amino acids are related to the place of nutrition and are altered substantially when infection is superimposed on chronic undernutrition. When feasible, the primary focus on protein/amino acid metabolism will be extended to assessments of protein/energy interactions when H 2 18 O becomes more readily available and/or at research sites with indirect calorimetry equipment. The data generated should be appropriate as a basis for reevaluating amino acid/protein requirements in these populations. Refs

  6. Tinnitus: an epidemiologic study in Iranian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalessi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of population, 4% to 30%, suffers from tinnitus that is defined as perception of sound without apparent acoustic stimulus. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population; Tehran province. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2009, recruiting 3207 individuals (age range, 7-98 who were residing in Tehran province, Iran. Participants were asked to fill two questionnaires; the validated Persian version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and another one that was specifically designed for this study. Prevalence of tinnitus and its association factors were evaluated. 3207 participants enrolled into our study comprising 1429 (44.7% male and 1765 (55.3% female with mean age of 55.01±17.85. Of total of 3207 participants, 146 (4.6% had tinnitus consisting of 80 male (54.8% and 66 (45.2% female participants. It showed a rising trend with increasing age that was especially significant after the sixth decade of life (P=0.001. The analysis showed mean TQ global score of 35.96±25.52 that was significantly different between male and female participants (P=0.051 and had no significant correlation with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.10. The tinnitus intensity was moderate to very severe in 95 (56.1% of the participants. Its severity level was not significantly different between men and women (P=0.09. Tinnitus intensity had no significant association with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.31. Patients with higher TQ global score had higher tinnitus intensities (P=0.001. The annoyance level was significantly different between men and women (P=0.04 and its impact on the participants daily routine functions were significantly higher in men (P=0.003. Given the results of the study, demonstrating that prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population (Tehran province was lower than the other countries and had a direct correlation with increasing age only after the sixth

  7. PREVIEW (Prevention of Diabetes Through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and Around the World) study in children aged 10 to 17 years: Design, methods and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenbos, Elke; Drummen, Mathijs; Rijks, Jesse; Adam, Tanja; Stouthart, Pauline; Alfredo Martínez, J; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Stratton, Gareth; Swindell, Nils; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) in adolescence is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]. The PREVIEW (Prevention of Diabetes Through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and Around the World) study assessed the effectiveness of a high-protein, low-glycaemic-index diet and a moderate-protein, moderate-glycaemic-index diet to decrease IR in insulin-resistant children who were overweight or obese. Inclusion criteria were age 10 to 17 years, homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) ≥2.0 and overweight/obesity. In 126 children (mean ± SD age 13.6 ± 2.2 years, body mass index [BMI] z-score 3.04 ± 0.66, HOMA-IR 3.48 ± 2.28) anthropometrics, fat mass percentage (FM%), metabolic characteristics, physical activity, food intake and sleep were measured. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups. IR was higher in pubertal children with morbid obesity than in prepubertal children with morbid obesity (5.41 ± 1.86 vs 3.23 ± 1.86; P = .007) and prepubertal and pubertal children with overweight/obesity (vs 3.61 ± 1.60, P = .004, and vs 3.40 ± 1.50, P < .001, respectively). IR was associated with sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. Fasting glucose concentrations were negatively associated with Baecke sport score (r = -0.223, P = .025) and positively with daytime sleepiness (r = 0.280, P = .016) independent of sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. In conclusion, IR was most severe in pubertal children with morbid obesity. The associations between fasting glucose concentration and Baecke sport score and sleepiness suggest these might be possible targets for diabetes prevention. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Paediatric population neuroimaging and the Generation R Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Tonya; Muetzel, Ryan L.; El Marroun, Hanan

    2018-01-01

    Paediatric population neuroimaging is an emerging field that falls at the intersection between developmental neuroscience and epidemiology. A key feature of population neuroimaging studies involves large-scale recruitment that is representative of the general population. One successful approach f...

  9. Searching for rigour in the reporting of mixed methods population health research: a methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; Elliott, S J; Leatherdale, S T; Robertson-Wilson, J

    2015-12-01

    The environments in which population health interventions occur shape both their implementation and outcomes. Hence, when evaluating these interventions, we must explore both intervention content and context. Mixed methods (integrating quantitative and qualitative methods) provide this opportunity. However, although criteria exist for establishing rigour in quantitative and qualitative research, there is poor consensus regarding rigour in mixed methods. Using the empirical example of school-based obesity interventions, this methodological review examined how mixed methods have been used and reported, and how rigour has been addressed. Twenty-three peer-reviewed mixed methods studies were identified through a systematic search of five databases and appraised using the guidelines for Good Reporting of a Mixed Methods Study. In general, more detailed description of data collection and analysis, integration, inferences and justifying the use of mixed methods is needed. Additionally, improved reporting of methodological rigour is required. This review calls for increased discussion of practical techniques for establishing rigour in mixed methods research, beyond those for quantitative and qualitative criteria individually. A guide for reporting mixed methods research in population health should be developed to improve the reporting quality of mixed methods studies. Through improved reporting, mixed methods can provide strong evidence to inform policy and practice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Comparison of Three Plot Selection Methods for Estimating Change in Temporally Variable, Spatially Clustered Populations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (US). Environment, Fish and Wildlife

    2001-07-01

    Monitoring population numbers is important for assessing trends and meeting various legislative mandates. However, sampling across time introduces a temporal aspect to survey design in addition to the spatial one. For instance, a sample that is initially representative may lose this attribute if there is a shift in numbers and/or spatial distribution in the underlying population that is not reflected in later sampled plots. Plot selection methods that account for this temporal variability will produce the best trend estimates. Consequently, I used simulation to compare bias and relative precision of estimates of population change among stratified and unstratified sampling designs based on permanent, temporary, and partial replacement plots under varying levels of spatial clustering, density, and temporal shifting of populations. Permanent plots produced more precise estimates of change than temporary plots across all factors. Further, permanent plots performed better than partial replacement plots except for high density (5 and 10 individuals per plot) and 25% - 50% shifts in the population. Stratified designs always produced less precise estimates of population change for all three plot selection methods, and often produced biased change estimates and greatly inflated variance estimates under sampling with partial replacement. Hence, stratification that remains fixed across time should be avoided when monitoring populations that are likely to exhibit large changes in numbers and/or spatial distribution during the study period. Key words: bias; change estimation; monitoring; permanent plots; relative precision; sampling with partial replacement; temporary plots.

  11. Stochastic weighted particle methods for population balance equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Robert I.A.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Kraft, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Weight transfer functions for Monte Carlo simulation of coagulation. → Efficient support for single-particle growth processes. → Comparisons to analytic solutions and soot formation problems. → Better numerical accuracy for less common particles. - Abstract: A class of coagulation weight transfer functions is constructed, each member of which leads to a stochastic particle algorithm for the numerical treatment of population balance equations. These algorithms are based on systems of weighted computational particles and the weight transfer functions are constructed such that the number of computational particles does not change during coagulation events. The algorithms also facilitate the simulation of physical processes that change single particles, such as growth, or other surface reactions. Four members of the algorithm family have been numerically validated by comparison to analytic solutions to simple problems. Numerical experiments have been performed for complex laminar premixed flame systems in which members of the class of stochastic weighted particle methods were compared to each other and to a direct simulation algorithm. Two of the weighted algorithms have been shown to offer performance advantages over the direct simulation algorithm in situations where interest is focused on the larger particles in a system. The extent of this advantage depends on the particular system and on the quantities of interest.

  12. Suicide after a stroke: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To establish whether there are increased rates of suicide after a stroke and the degree to which any increase is related to gender, age at stroke, diagnosis, duration of hospitalisation, and time since stroke. DESIGN: Cross linkage of national registers for hospitalisations...... cases of suicide were identified. MAIN RESULTS: Annual incidence rates, both observed and expected, together with standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were computed based on annual population and suicide statistics, stratified by age and gender. The overall annual incidence rate of suicide in the cohort.......76) for patients under 50 years of age group and were least for patients 80 years or older (1.3; 0.95, 1.79). There was no clear relation to stroke diagnosis. Suicides were negatively related to duration of hospitalisation, being lowest for those hospitalised for more than three months (0.88; 0.65, 1...

  13. A method for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew; O'Keefe, Joy M; Walters, Brianne

    2015-01-01

    While numerous methods exist for estimating abundance when detection is imperfect, these methods may not be appropriate due to logistical difficulties or unrealistic assumptions. In particular, if highly mobile taxa are frequently absent from survey locations, methods that estimate a probability of detection conditional on presence will generate biased abundance estimates. Here, we propose a new estimator for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals. The estimator assumes that the target population conforms to a fission-fusion grouping pattern, in which the population is divided into groups that frequently change in size and composition. If assumptions are met, it is not necessary to locate all groups in the population to estimate abundance. We derive an estimator, perform a simulation study, conduct a power analysis, and apply the method to field data. The simulation study confirmed that our estimator is asymptotically unbiased with low bias, narrow confidence intervals, and good coverage, given a modest survey effort. The power analysis provided initial guidance on survey effort. When applied to small data sets obtained by radio-tracking Indiana bats, abundance estimates were reasonable, although imprecise. The proposed method has the potential to improve abundance estimates for mobile species that have a fission-fusion social structure, such as Indiana bats, because it does not condition detection on presence at survey locations and because it avoids certain restrictive assumptions.

  14. Demographic Models for Projecting Population and Migration: Methods for African Historical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Manning

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents methods for projecting population and migration over time in cases were empirical data are missing or undependable. The methods are useful for cases in which the researcher has details of population size and structure for a limited period of time (most obviously, the end point, with scattered evidence on other times. It enables estimation of population size, including its structure in age, sex, and status, either forward or backward in time. The program keeps track of all the details. The calculated data can be reported or sampled and compared to empirical findings at various times and places to expected values based on other procedures of estimation. The application of these general methods that is developed here is the projection of African populations backwards in time from 1950, since 1950 is the first date for which consistently strong demographic estimates are available for national-level populations all over the African continent. The models give particular attention to migration through enslavement, which was highly important in Africa from 1650 to 1900. Details include a sensitivity analysis showing relative significance of input variables and techniques for calibrating various dimensions of the projection with each other. These same methods may be applicable to quite different historical situations, as long as the data conform in structure to those considered here.

  15. [Food and population: study of three countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    In 1985, despite a nearly 25% worldwide surplus of cereals, more than 700 million poor people had insufficient food and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or related causes. 16% of the developing world's population is undernourished. Rapid population growth is a major reason for the world's hunger. Large families exhaust the resources of many urban couples and rural couples with little land. Closely spaced pregnancies deplete the nutritional resources of the mother and lead to low birth weight babies and inadequate lactation. Population growth in already densely populated countries reduces the land available for each family, inevitably contributing to poverty and rural malnutrition. Unemployment and underemployment reach alarming proportions in the city, where the combination of high fertility rates and migration from the countryside have produced growth twice that of the world population as a whole. Few developing countries have been able to generate sufficient investment to create new jobs for all seeking them. Unstable governments attempt to pacify urban unrest by subsidizing food prices and concentrating social and economic investments in the cities, causing further deterioration in rural conditions. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits, although not all are suffering. India, Kenya, and Mexico are 3 countries that have had some success in balancing population growth and food production, but each still has undernourished population sectors because of economic policies that fail to provide sufficient help to their poor and because of implacable population growth. Ending malnutrition in the 3 countries will require reducing the cost of food for households and increasing their incomes, but both objectives are made more difficult by rapid population growth. As a result of the green revolution and other factors, food production in India has tripled since 1950, but population has almost doubled in the same years. With rapid population growth, per

  16. Measuring populism: comparing two methods of content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooduijn, M.; Pauwels, T.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of populism - particularly over time and space - has received only scarce attention. In this research note two different ways to measure populism are compared: a classical content analysis and a computer-based content analysis. An analysis of political parties in the United Kingdom,

  17. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  18. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchi, Francesco; Stewart, Barclay T; Palmer, Jennifer J; Grundy, Chris

    2013-01-23

    Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Our method consisted of multiplying (i) manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii) estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy) obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons' camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced) ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to "gold standard" reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of layout. For each site, estimates were produced in 2-5 working person-days. In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable limitations in settings featuring connected buildings or shelters, a complex pattern of roofs and multi-level buildings. Based on these results, we discuss possible ways forward for the method's development.

  19. The evaluation of a population based diffusion tensor image atlas using a ground truth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; D'Agostino, Emiliano; De Backer, Steve; Vandervliet, Evert; Parizel, Paul M.; Sijbers, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is increasingly being used to detect diffusion tensor (DT) image abnormalities in patients for different pathologies. An important requisite for these VBM studies is the use of a high-dimensional, non-rigid coregistration technique, which is able to align both the spatial and the orientational information. Recent studies furthermore indicate that high-dimensional DT information should be included during coregistration for an optimal alignment. In this context, a population based DTI atlas is created that preserves the orientational DT information robustly and contains a minimal bias towards any specific individual data set. Methods: A ground truth evaluation method is developed using a single subject DT image that is deformed with 20 deformation fields. Thereafter, an atlas is constructed based on these 20 resulting images. Thereby, the non-rigid coregistration algorithm is based on a viscous fluid model and on mutual information. The fractional anisotropy (FA) maps as well as the DT elements are used as DT image information during the coregistration algorithm, in order to minimize the orientational alignment inaccuracies. Results: The population based DT atlas is compared with the ground truth image using accuracy and precision measures of spatial and orientational dependent metrics. Results indicate that the population based atlas preserves the orientational information in a robust way. Conclusion: A subject independent population based DT atlas is constructed and evaluated with a ground truth method. This atlas contains all available orientational information and can be used in future VBM studies as a reference system.

  20. [Nutrition and population: study of three countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion

  1. A statistical method for testing epidemiological results, as applied to the Hanford worker population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    Some recent reports of Mancuso, Stewart and Kneale claim findings of radiation-produced cancer in the Hanford worker population. These claims are based on statistical computations that use small differences in accumulated exposures between groups dying of cancer and groups dying of other causes; actual mortality and longevity were not reported. This paper presents a statistical method for evaluation of actual mortality and longevity longitudinally over time, as applied in a primary analysis of the mortality experience of the Hanford worker population. Although available, this method was not utilized in the Mancuso-Stewart-Kneale paper. The author's preliminary longitudinal analysis shows that the gross mortality experience of persons employed at Hanford during 1943-70 interval did not differ significantly from that of certain controls, when both employees and controls were selected from families with two or more offspring and comparison were matched by age, sex, race and year of entry into employment. This result is consistent with findings reported by Sanders (Health Phys. vol.35, 521-538, 1978). The method utilizes an approximate chi-square (1 D.F.) statistic for testing population subgroup comparisons, as well as the cumulation of chi-squares (1 D.F.) for testing the overall result of a particular type of comparison. The method is available for computer testing of the Hanford mortality data, and could also be adapted to morbidity or other population studies. (author)

  2. Genetic study of scheduled caste populations of Tamil Nadu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Their traditional occupations are sweeping ... computed by gene counting method. ... method. Population relationships were also analysed via. PCA, using SPSS 11.0 version. .... series volume V, Anthropological survey of India, Oxford Uni-.

  3. QUALITATIVE METHODS IN CREATIVITY STUDIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we will focus on developing a qualitative research design suitable for conducting case study in creativity. The case is a team of workers (See Hertel, 2015) doing industrial cleaning in the Danish food industry. The hypothesis is that these workers are both participating in......-specific methods, involving a discussion of creativity test, divergent and convergent thinking, for studying creativity in this specific setting. Beside from that we will develop a research design involving a combination of methods necessary for conducting a case study in the setting mentioned....

  4. Controlling Japanese barberry: Alternative methods and impact on tick populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; Scott C. Williams; Thomas E. Worthley

    2011-01-01

    Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) is classified as invasive in 20 states and four Canadian provinces. It is also established in another 11 states. In addition to forming dense thickets that can inhibit forest regeneration and native herbaceous plant populations, barberry understories can harbor greatly enhanced levels of blacklegged ticks (

  5. Constructing stage-structured matrix population models from life tables: comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Fujiwara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A matrix population model is a convenient tool for summarizing per capita survival and reproduction rates (collectively vital rates of a population and can be used for calculating an asymptotic finite population growth rate (λ and generation time. These two pieces of information can be used for determining the status of a threatened species. The use of stage-structured population models has increased in recent years, and the vital rates in such models are often estimated using a life table analysis. However, potential bias introduced when converting age-structured vital rates estimated from a life table into parameters for a stage-structured population model has not been assessed comprehensively. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of methods for such conversions using simulated life histories of organisms. The underlying models incorporate various types of life history and true population growth rates of varying levels. The performance was measured by comparing differences in λ and the generation time calculated using the Euler-Lotka equation, age-structured population matrices, and several stage-structured population matrices that were obtained by applying different conversion methods. The results show that the discretization of age introduces only small bias in λ or generation time. Similarly, assuming a fixed age of maturation at the mean age of maturation does not introduce much bias. However, aggregating age-specific survival rates into a stage-specific survival rate and estimating a stage-transition rate can introduce substantial bias depending on the organism’s life history type and the true values of λ. In order to aggregate survival rates, the use of the weighted arithmetic mean was the most robust method for estimating λ. Here, the weights are given by survivorship curve after discounting with λ. To estimate a stage-transition rate, matching the proportion of individuals transitioning, with λ used

  6. Using Lemna to Study Geometric Population Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBuhr, Larry E.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment in which students collect and analyze data on the population size of a real organism rather that on a model is presented. The activity allows for the integration of mathematics, graphing techniques, and the use of computers. The lesson is designed to follow the learning cycle format. (KR)

  7. Relative accuracy of three common methods of parentage analysis in natural populations

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2012-12-27

    Parentage studies and family reconstructions have become increasingly popular for investigating a range of evolutionary, ecological and behavioural processes in natural populations. However, a number of different assignment methods have emerged in common use and the accuracy of each may differ in relation to the number of loci examined, allelic diversity, incomplete sampling of all candidate parents and the presence of genotyping errors. Here, we examine how these factors affect the accuracy of three popular parentage inference methods (colony, famoz and an exclusion-Bayes\\' theorem approach by Christie (Molecular Ecology Resources, 2010a, 10, 115) to resolve true parent-offspring pairs using simulated data. Our findings demonstrate that accuracy increases with the number and diversity of loci. These were clearly the most important factors in obtaining accurate assignments explaining 75-90% of variance in overall accuracy across 60 simulated scenarios. Furthermore, the proportion of candidate parents sampled had a small but significant impact on the susceptibility of each method to either false-positive or false-negative assignments. Within the range of values simulated, colony outperformed FaMoz, which outperformed the exclusion-Bayes\\' theorem method. However, with 20 or more highly polymorphic loci, all methods could be applied with confidence. Our results show that for parentage inference in natural populations, careful consideration of the number and quality of markers will increase the accuracy of assignments and mitigate the effects of incomplete sampling of parental populations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Relative accuracy of three common methods of parentage analysis in natural populations

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Planes, Serge; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Parentage studies and family reconstructions have become increasingly popular for investigating a range of evolutionary, ecological and behavioural processes in natural populations. However, a number of different assignment methods have emerged in common use and the accuracy of each may differ in relation to the number of loci examined, allelic diversity, incomplete sampling of all candidate parents and the presence of genotyping errors. Here, we examine how these factors affect the accuracy of three popular parentage inference methods (colony, famoz and an exclusion-Bayes' theorem approach by Christie (Molecular Ecology Resources, 2010a, 10, 115) to resolve true parent-offspring pairs using simulated data. Our findings demonstrate that accuracy increases with the number and diversity of loci. These were clearly the most important factors in obtaining accurate assignments explaining 75-90% of variance in overall accuracy across 60 simulated scenarios. Furthermore, the proportion of candidate parents sampled had a small but significant impact on the susceptibility of each method to either false-positive or false-negative assignments. Within the range of values simulated, colony outperformed FaMoz, which outperformed the exclusion-Bayes' theorem method. However, with 20 or more highly polymorphic loci, all methods could be applied with confidence. Our results show that for parentage inference in natural populations, careful consideration of the number and quality of markers will increase the accuracy of assignments and mitigate the effects of incomplete sampling of parental populations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Suicide after traumatic brain injury: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the rates of suicide among patients who have had a traumatic brain injury. METHODS: From a Danish population register of admissions to hospital covering the years 1979-93 patients were selected who had had either a concussion (n=126 114), a cranial fracture (n=7560......), or a cerebral contusion or traumatic intracranial haemorrhage (n=11 766). All cases of deaths by the end of the study period were identified. RESULTS: In the three diagnostic groups there had been 750 (0.59%), 46 (0.61%), and 99 (0.84%) cases of suicide respectively. Standardised mortality ratios, stratified...... by sex and age, showed that the incidence of suicide among the three diagnostic groups was increased relative to the general population (3.0, 2.7, and 4.1 respectively). In all diagnosis groups the ratios were higher for females than for males, and lower for patients injured before the age of 21 or after...

  10. Bayesian data analysis in population ecology: motivations, methods, and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, Robert

    2016-01-01

    During the 20th century ecologists largely relied on the frequentist system of inference for the analysis of their data. However, in the past few decades ecologists have become increasingly interested in the use of Bayesian methods of data analysis. In this article I provide guidance to ecologists who would like to decide whether Bayesian methods can be used to improve their conclusions and predictions. I begin by providing a concise summary of Bayesian methods of analysis, including a comparison of differences between Bayesian and frequentist approaches to inference when using hierarchical models. Next I provide a list of problems where Bayesian methods of analysis may arguably be preferred over frequentist methods. These problems are usually encountered in analyses based on hierarchical models of data. I describe the essentials required for applying modern methods of Bayesian computation, and I use real-world examples to illustrate these methods. I conclude by summarizing what I perceive to be the main strengths and weaknesses of using Bayesian methods to solve ecological inference problems.

  11. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  12. A two-stage cluster sampling method using gridded population data, a GIS, and Google EarthTM imagery in a population-based mortality survey in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galway LP

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality estimates can measure and monitor the impacts of conflict on a population, guide humanitarian efforts, and help to better understand the public health impacts of conflict. Vital statistics registration and surveillance systems are rarely functional in conflict settings, posing a challenge of estimating mortality using retrospective population-based surveys. Results We present a two-stage cluster sampling method for application in population-based mortality surveys. The sampling method utilizes gridded population data and a geographic information system (GIS to select clusters in the first sampling stage and Google Earth TM imagery and sampling grids to select households in the second sampling stage. The sampling method is implemented in a household mortality study in Iraq in 2011. Factors affecting feasibility and methodological quality are described. Conclusion Sampling is a challenge in retrospective population-based mortality studies and alternatives that improve on the conventional approaches are needed. The sampling strategy presented here was designed to generate a representative sample of the Iraqi population while reducing the potential for bias and considering the context specific challenges of the study setting. This sampling strategy, or variations on it, are adaptable and should be considered and tested in other conflict settings.

  13. Population studies of the unidentified EGRET sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal-Gaskins, J M [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pavlidou, V [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Olinto, A V [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brown, C [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fields, B D [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The third EGRET catalog contains a large number of unidentified sources. Current data allows the intriguing possibility that some of these objects may represent a new class of yet undiscovered gamma-ray sources. By assuming that galaxies similar to the Milky Way host comparable populations of objects, we constrain the allowed Galactic abundance and distribution of various classes of gamma-ray sources using the EGRET data set. Furthermore, regardless of the nature of the unidentified sources, faint unresolved objects of the same class contribute to the observed diffuse gamma-ray background. We investigate the potential contribution of these unresolved sources to the extragalactic gamma-ray background.

  14. Population studies of the unidentified EGRET sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal-Gaskins, J M; Pavlidou, V; Olinto, A V; Brown, C; Fields, B D

    2007-01-01

    The third EGRET catalog contains a large number of unidentified sources. Current data allows the intriguing possibility that some of these objects may represent a new class of yet undiscovered gamma-ray sources. By assuming that galaxies similar to the Milky Way host comparable populations of objects, we constrain the allowed Galactic abundance and distribution of various classes of gamma-ray sources using the EGRET data set. Furthermore, regardless of the nature of the unidentified sources, faint unresolved objects of the same class contribute to the observed diffuse gamma-ray background. We investigate the potential contribution of these unresolved sources to the extragalactic gamma-ray background

  15. Trust of Population within Social Relations System of the Population: A Case Study of Nasleg Administration in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylova, Anna; Popova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The research consists in studying the level of population's trust in nasleg administration (in the administrative-territorial unit) of MS "Khatyryksky nasleg" of Namsky ulus using the case study. The leading research methods for the problem are empirical methods that allow revealing the level of population's trust in administration. The…

  16. A comparison of methods for calculating population exposure estimates of daily weather for health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dear Keith BG

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explain the possible effects of exposure to weather conditions on population health outcomes, weather data need to be calculated at a level in space and time that is appropriate for the health data. There are various ways of estimating exposure values from raw data collected at weather stations but the rationale for using one technique rather than another; the significance of the difference in the values obtained; and the effect these have on a research question are factors often not explicitly considered. In this study we compare different techniques for allocating weather data observations to small geographical areas and different options for weighting averages of these observations when calculating estimates of daily precipitation and temperature for Australian Postal Areas. Options that weight observations based on distance from population centroids and population size are more computationally intensive but give estimates that conceptually are more closely related to the experience of the population. Results Options based on values derived from sites internal to postal areas, or from nearest neighbour sites – that is, using proximity polygons around weather stations intersected with postal areas – tended to include fewer stations' observations in their estimates, and missing values were common. Options based on observations from stations within 50 kilometres radius of centroids and weighting of data by distance from centroids gave more complete estimates. Using the geographic centroid of the postal area gave estimates that differed slightly from the population weighted centroids and the population weighted average of sub-unit estimates. Conclusion To calculate daily weather exposure values for analysis of health outcome data for small areas, the use of data from weather stations internal to the area only, or from neighbouring weather stations (allocated by the use of proximity polygons, is too limited. The most

  17. Methods to study postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Teik Chye; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    to the liver. In general, PPL occurs over 4-6 h in normal individuals, depending on the amount and type of fats consumed. The complexity of PPL changes is compounded by ingestion of food before the previous meal is fully processed. PPL testing is done to determine the impact of (a) exogenous factors...... such as the amount and type of food consumed, and (b) endogenous factors such as the metabolic/genetic status of the subjects, on PPL. To study PPL appropriately, different methods are used to suit the study goal. This paper provides an overview of the methodological aspects of PPL testing. It deals with markers...

  18. Are rapid population estimates accurate? A field trial of two different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, Rebecca F; Coulombier, Denis; Ampuero, Julia; Lucas, Marcelino E S; Barretto, Avertino T; Jacquier, Guy; Diaz, Francisco; Balandine, Serge; Mahoudeau, Claude; Brown, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Emergencies resulting in large-scale displacement often lead to populations resettling in areas where basic health services and sanitation are unavailable. To plan relief-related activities quickly, rapid population size estimates are needed. The currently recommended Quadrat method estimates total population by extrapolating the average population size living in square blocks of known area to the total site surface. An alternative approach, the T-Square, provides a population estimate based on analysis of the spatial distribution of housing units taken throughout a site. We field tested both methods and validated the results against a census in Esturro Bairro, Beira, Mozambique. Compared to the census (population: 9,479), the T-Square yielded a better population estimate (9,523) than the Quadrat method (7,681; 95% confidence interval: 6,160-9,201), but was more difficult for field survey teams to implement. Although applicable only to similar sites, several general conclusions can be drawn for emergency planning.

  19. [Use of psychoactive substances and contraceptive methods by the Brazilian urban population, 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Francisco I; Cunha, Cynthia B; Bertoni, Neilane

    2008-06-01

    To analyze the relationship between utilization patterns for condoms and other contraceptive methods and the consumption of alcohol and drugs. Exploratory study based on data from a probabilistic sample of 5,040 interviewees aged 16 to 65 years living in large urban regions of Brazil in 2005. The data were collected by means of questionnaires. The chi-square automatic interaction classification tree technique was used to study the use of condoms among interviewees of both sexes and other contraceptive methods among women, at the time of the last vaginal sexual intercourse. Among young and middle-aged adults of both sexes and young men in stable relationships, condom use was less frequent among those who said they used psychoactive substances (alcohol and/or illegal drugs). The possible modulating effect of psychoactive substances on contraceptive practices among mature women seems to be more straightforward, compared to the more subtle effects observed among younger women, for whom the different social classes they belonged to seemed to play a more important role. Despite the limitations resulting from an exploratory study, the fact that this was a representative sample of the urban population of Brazil and not from vulnerable populations, reinforces the need to implement integrated public policies directed towards the general population, with regard to preventing drug consumption, alcohol abuse, sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy and promoting sexual and reproductive health.

  20. Internet-based data inclusion in a population-based European collaborative follow-up study of inflammatory bowel disease patients: description of methods used and analysis of factors influencing response rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Frank L; van Zeijl, Gilbert; Sijbrandij, Jildou; Wessels, Frederik; O'Morain, Colm; Limonard, Charles; Russel, Maurice G; Stockbrugger, Reinhold W

    2005-12-07

    To describe an Internet-based data acquisition facility for a European 10-year clinical follow-up study project of a population-based cohort of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and to investigate the influence of demographic and disease related patient characteristics on response rates. Thirteen years ago, the European Collaborative study group of IBD (EC-IBD) initiated a population-based prospective inception cohort of 2 201 uniformly diagnosed IBD patients within 20 well-described geographical areas in 11 European countries and Israel. For the 10-year follow-up of this cohort, an electronic patient questionnaire (ePQ) and electronic physician per patient follow-up form (ePpPFU) were designed as two separate data collecting instruments and made available through an Internet-based website. Independent demographic and clinical determinants of ePQ participation were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. In 958 (316 CD and 642 UC) out of a total number of 1 505 (64%) available IBD patients, originating from 13 participating centers from nine different countries, both ePQ and ePpPFU were completed. Patients older than 40 years at ePQ completion (OR: 1.53 (95%CI: 1.14-2.05)) and those with active disease during the 3 mo previous to ePQ completion (OR: 3.32 (95%CI: 1.57-7.03)) were significantly more likely to respond. An Internet-based data acquisition tool appeared successful in sustaining a unique Western-European and Israelian multi-center 10-year clinical follow-up study project in patients afflicted with IBD.

  1. Potential rapd markers for population studies in tree legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.M.; Ramasubramanian, T.; Mohankumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    RAPDs were quite efficient in bringing out the diversity at DNA level among non-edible legumes viz., Acacia nilotica, Adenanthera pavonina, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecolobium dulce, Clitoria ternatea and Pongamia pinnata. The RAPD primer index reveals the information content of the RAPD primer per se. Of the 82 primers tested, OPE 8, OPI 6, OPL 2, OPL 16, OPI 18, OPI 13, OPI 14, OPP 1, OPE 20 and OPI 4 with comparatively higher primer index were more informative and can be used for further DNA finger printing and population studies in tree legumes. CTAB protocol was found to be superior in isolating genomic DNA of good quality. The 260/280 ratios varied between 1.70 and 2.09. Though the genomic DNA isolated by potassium acetate method was found to be intact in 0.8% agarose gel, the yield was significantly lower than the modified CTAB method. (author)

  2. [Psychiatric comorbidities in transsexualism: Study of a Lebanese transgender population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, C; Haddad, R; Richa, S

    2016-12-01

    The question of whether gender dysphoria is associated with psychiatric comorbidity has been addressed in several studies. Several cohort studies have shown that psychiatric comorbidity is one of the main features of poor prognosis following sex change therapy. Gender dysphoria is rare, with an estimated prevalence of 0.001% to 0.002% globally. The literature shows a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in people with gender dysphoria, and that they are more common in male to female transsexuals. Data on long-term mortality show that transsexuals present a 51 % increase in mortality compared to the general population. This is mainly attributed to a six-fold increase in the number of suicides and a higher rate of psychiatric disorders and risky behaviors leading to HIV infection and substance abuse. Assess psychiatric comorbidity in a population of Lebanese transgender individuals and compare it to the general population. The hypothesis of our study is that the Lebanese transgenders suffer from more psychiatric comorbidities than the general population. Our second objective was to determine the specific mental health needs of this population in order to adapt our services to their medical needs and their specific concerns. Our objective was to acquire 20 transgender participants and 20 control subjects. We chose a snowball sampling method. The evaluation consisted of three questionnaires including a general demographic questionnaire, the MINI 5.0.0 Arabic version for axis I disorders and the SCID-II for axis II disorders. The mean age of both groups was 23.55 years. Fifty-five percent (n=11) transgender participants had active suicidal thoughts against 0 % in controls. Within the group of transgender, 45 % (n=9) had a major depressive episode, 5 % (n=1) had a generalized anxiety disorder, 5 % (n=1) had a posttraumatic stress disorder and 10 % (n=2) had a major depressive episode with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder. We noted a significant

  3. Population size estimation of men who have sex with men through the network scale-up method in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ezoe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM are one of the groups most at risk for HIV infection in Japan. However, size estimates of MSM populations have not been conducted with sufficient frequency and rigor because of the difficulty, high cost and stigma associated with reaching such populations. This study examined an innovative and simple method for estimating the size of the MSM population in Japan. We combined an internet survey with the network scale-up method, a social network method for estimating the size of hard-to-reach populations, for the first time in Japan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An internet survey was conducted among 1,500 internet users who registered with a nationwide internet-research agency. The survey participants were asked how many members of particular groups with known population sizes (firepersons, police officers, and military personnel they knew as acquaintances. The participants were also asked to identify the number of their acquaintances whom they understood to be MSM. Using these survey results with the network scale-up method, the personal network size and MSM population size were estimated. The personal network size was estimated to be 363.5 regardless of the sex of the acquaintances and 174.0 for only male acquaintances. The estimated MSM prevalence among the total male population in Japan was 0.0402% without adjustment, and 2.87% after adjusting for the transmission error of MSM. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated personal network size and MSM prevalence seen in this study were comparable to those from previous survey results based on the direct-estimation method. Estimating population sizes through combining an internet survey with the network scale-up method appeared to be an effective method from the perspectives of rapidity, simplicity, and low cost as compared with more-conventional methods.

  4. Prevalence of polyhydramnios at a Danish hospital--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anne; Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Rode, Line

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of polyhydramnios, the related maternal and perinatal morbidity, and to estimate the association between perinatal outcome and the degree of polyhydramnios in a Danish population. METHODS: The study population consisted of 168 w...

  5. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell Gottlieb; Robert Panne; Chris Smerecnik; Gerjo Kok

    2012-01-01

    Background: While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how

  6. [A study of population pharmacokinetics of linezolid in Chinese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Bai, N; Liu, Y N; Wang, R

    2016-12-12

    Objective: To study the population pharmacokinetic (PPK) profiles of linezolid in Chinese healthy volunteers and infected patients. Methods: Linezolid 600 mg was administered to 31 Chinese healthy volunteers with a single dose and to 57 infected patients every 12 h for at least 5 doses. High performance liquid chromatography was applied to determine the plasma concentration of linezolid. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling method was applied to analyze the PPK profiles. Results: For healthy volunteers with single dose of linezolid, 2-compartment with linear elimination model was the most appropriate structural pharmacokinetic model. The population typical value of apparent volume of central compartment was 26.99 L, volume of peripheral compartment was 22.22 L, apparent clearance of central compartment was 7.99 L/h, and clearance of peripheral compartment was 101.28 L/h. For each 1 kg deviation of weight from the mean value, 0.62 L of volume of peripheral compartment was correlated. For Chinese infected patients with multiple doses of linezolid, 1-compartment with linear elimination model was the most appropriate structural pharmacokinetic model. The population typical value of apparent volume was 38.85 L, and apparent clearance was 4.70 L/h. For each 1 kg deviation of weight from the mean value, 0.79 L of volume, as well as 0.04 L/h of clearance were correlated. For each 1 year deviation of age from the mean value, -0.045 L/h of clearance was correlated. Conclusions: The pharmacokinetic profiles of linezolid in Chinese simulate a 2-compartment with linear elimination model when single dose is administrated, and the weight is linearly positive-correlated to volume. While a 1-compartment with linear elimination model is appropriate when multiple doses are administrated, and the weight is linearly positive-correlated to volume and clearance, but the age is linearly negative-correlated to clearance.

  7. Stochastic weighted particle methods for population balance equations with coagulation, fragmentation and spatial inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kok Foong; Patterson, Robert I.A.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Kraft, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Problems concerning multi-compartment population balance equations are studied. •A class of fragmentation weight transfer functions is presented. •Three stochastic weighted algorithms are compared against the direct simulation algorithm. •The numerical errors of the stochastic solutions are assessed as a function of fragmentation rate. •The algorithms are applied to a multi-dimensional granulation model. -- Abstract: This paper introduces stochastic weighted particle algorithms for the solution of multi-compartment population balance equations. In particular, it presents a class of fragmentation weight transfer functions which are constructed such that the number of computational particles stays constant during fragmentation events. The weight transfer functions are constructed based on systems of weighted computational particles and each of it leads to a stochastic particle algorithm for the numerical treatment of population balance equations. Besides fragmentation, the algorithms also consider physical processes such as coagulation and the exchange of mass with the surroundings. The numerical properties of the algorithms are compared to the direct simulation algorithm and an existing method for the fragmentation of weighted particles. It is found that the new algorithms show better numerical performance over the two existing methods especially for systems with significant amount of large particles and high fragmentation rates.

  8. Stochastic weighted particle methods for population balance equations with coagulation, fragmentation and spatial inhomogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kok Foong [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Patterson, Robert I.A.; Wagner, Wolfgang [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics, Mohrenstraße 39, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Kraft, Markus, E-mail: mk306@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637459 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Problems concerning multi-compartment population balance equations are studied. •A class of fragmentation weight transfer functions is presented. •Three stochastic weighted algorithms are compared against the direct simulation algorithm. •The numerical errors of the stochastic solutions are assessed as a function of fragmentation rate. •The algorithms are applied to a multi-dimensional granulation model. -- Abstract: This paper introduces stochastic weighted particle algorithms for the solution of multi-compartment population balance equations. In particular, it presents a class of fragmentation weight transfer functions which are constructed such that the number of computational particles stays constant during fragmentation events. The weight transfer functions are constructed based on systems of weighted computational particles and each of it leads to a stochastic particle algorithm for the numerical treatment of population balance equations. Besides fragmentation, the algorithms also consider physical processes such as coagulation and the exchange of mass with the surroundings. The numerical properties of the algorithms are compared to the direct simulation algorithm and an existing method for the fragmentation of weighted particles. It is found that the new algorithms show better numerical performance over the two existing methods especially for systems with significant amount of large particles and high fragmentation rates.

  9. A study of lip prints among Pondicherry population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Sathish; Vezhavendhan, N; Vendhan, Priya

    2012-07-01

    Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation that deals with the examination of the system of furrows on the red part of human lips. Like fingerprint, lip print is also unique for every individual. But most of the crime-detecting agencies are unaware of the importance of lip print and it is not commonly attempted in identification of the suspects. The aim of the present study is to determine the predominant lip print pattern among Pondicherry population, India, and also to determine its uniqueness. The study comprised of 60 students (30 males and 30 females), aged from 17 to 25 years, from Pondicherry population, India. A dark-colored lipstick was applied with a single stroke and the students were asked to rub both the lips to spread the applied lipstick, after which a lip print was made on butter paper. The lip print was visualized with magnifying lens. Percentage calculation method was used to identify the predominant lip pattern. One-sample T test was done to identify the statistical significance within the different types of lip pattern with P value print and Type III appears to be the most predominant pattern in males, followed by the Type II, Type IV, Type I and Type V patterns. In females, Type II appears to be the most predominant pattern followed by the Type IV, Type I, Type III and Type V patterns.

  10. Comparison between ARIMA and DES Methods of Forecasting Population for Housing Demand in Johor

    OpenAIRE

    Alias Ahmad Rizal; Zainun Noor Yasmin; Abdul Rahman Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting accuracy is a primary criterion in selecting appropriate method of prediction. Even though there are various methods of forecasting however not all of these methods are able to predict with good accuracy. This paper presents an evaluation of two methods of population forecasting for housing demand. These methods are Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Double Exponential Smoothing (DES). Both of the methods are principally adopting univariate time series analysis w...

  11. Mental health consultations in a prison population: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustad Aase-Bente

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychiatric morbidity among prison inmates is substantially higher than in the general population. We do, however, have insufficient knowledge about the extent of psychiatric treatment provided in our prisons. The aim of the present study was to give a comprehensive description of all non-pharmacological interventions provided by the psychiatric health services to a stratified sample of prison inmates. Methods Six medium/large prisons (n = 928 representing 1/3 of the Norwegian prison population and with female and preventive detention inmates over-sampled, were investigated cross-sectionally. All non-pharmacological psychiatric interventions, excluding pure correctional programs, were recorded. Those receiving interventions were investigated further and compared to the remaining prison population. Results A total of 230 of the 928 inmates (25 % had some form of psychiatric intervention: 184 (20 % were in individual psychotherapy, in addition 40 (4 % received ad hoc interventions during the registration week. Group therapy was infrequent (1 %. The psychotherapies were most often of a supportive (62 % or behavioural-cognitive (26 % nature. Dynamic, insight-oriented psychotherapies were infrequent (8 %. Concurrent psychopharmacological treatment was prevalent (52 %. Gender and age did not correlate with psychiatric interventions, whereas prisoner category (remanded, sentenced, or preventive detention did (p Conclusion Our results pertain only to prisons with adequate primary and mental health services and effective diversion from prison of individuals with serious mental disorders. Given these important limitations, we do propose that the service estimates found may serve as a rough guideline to the minimum number of sessions a prison's psychiatric health services should be able to fulfil in order to serve the inmates psychiatric needs. The results rely on the specialist services' own estimates only. Future studies should

  12. Implementing a generic method for bias correction in statistical models using random effects, with spatial and population dynamics examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Kristensen, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Statistical models play an important role in fisheries science when reconciling ecological theory with available data for wild populations or experimental studies. Ecological models increasingly include both fixed and random effects, and are often estimated using maximum likelihood techniques...... configurations of an age-structured population dynamics model. This simulation experiment shows that the epsilon-method and the existing bias-correction method perform equally well in data-rich contexts, but the epsilon-method is slightly less biased in data-poor contexts. We then apply the epsilon......-method to a spatial regression model when estimating an index of population abundance, and compare results with an alternative bias-correction algorithm that involves Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling. This example shows that the epsilon-method leads to a biologically significant difference in estimates of average...

  13. A Population Study of Gaseous Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiaras, A.; Waldmann, I. P.; Zingales, T.; Rocchetto, M.; Morello, G.; Damiano, M.; Karpouzas, K.; Tinetti, G.; McKemmish, L. K.; Tennyson, J.; Yurchenko, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    We present here the analysis of 30 gaseous extrasolar planets, with temperatures between 600 and 2400 K and radii between 0.35 and 1.9 R Jup. The quality of the HST/WFC3 spatially scanned data combined with our specialized analysis tools allow us to study the largest and most self-consistent sample of exoplanetary transmission spectra to date and examine the collective behavior of warm and hot gaseous planets rather than isolated case studies. We define a new metric, the Atmospheric Detectability Index (ADI) to evaluate the statistical significance of an atmospheric detection and find statistically significant atmospheres in around 16 planets out of the 30 analyzed. For most of the Jupiters in our sample, we find the detectability of their atmospheres to be dependent on the planetary radius but not on the planetary mass. This indicates that planetary gravity plays a secondary role in the state of gaseous planetary atmospheres. We detect the presence of water vapour in all of the statistically detectable atmospheres, and we cannot rule out its presence in the atmospheres of the others. In addition, TiO and/or VO signatures are detected with 4σ confidence in WASP-76 b, and they are most likely present in WASP-121 b. We find no correlation between expected signal-to-noise and atmospheric detectability for most targets. This has important implications for future large-scale surveys.

  14. Frailty syndrome in an independent urban population in Brazil (FIBRA study: a cross-sectional populational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Barradas Calado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Frailty is a multifactorial syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of frailty syndrome in an elderly urban population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out at the homes of a randomized sample representing the independent elderly individuals of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. METHODS: Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and criteria of the frailty phenotype were obtained at the subjects' homes; 385 individuals were evaluated. Frailty was defined based on detection of weight loss, exhaustion, weakness, slowness and low physical activity level. Individuals with three or more of these characteristics were classified as frail and those with one or two as pre-frail. Specific cutoff points for weakness, slowness and low physical activity level were calculated. RESULTS: The participants' mean age was 73.9 ± 6.5 years, and 64.7% were women. 12.5% had lost weight over the last year; 20.5% showed exhaustion, 17.1% slowness, 24.4% low physical activity level and 20.5% weakness. 9.1% were considered frail and 49.6% pre-frail. Frail subjects were older, attended more medical visits, had a higher chance of hospitalization within the last 12 months and had more cerebrovascular events, diabetes, neoplasms, osteoporosis and urinary and fecal incontinence. CONCLUSION: In this independent elderly population, there were numerous frail and pre-frail individuals. Frailty syndrome was associated with high morbidity. Cutoff points for weakness, slowness and low physical activity level should be adjusted for the population under study. It is essential to identify frail and pre-frail older individuals for appropriate interventions.

  15. The establishment of tocopherol reference intervals for Hungarian adult population using a validated HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Gábor; Szpisjak, László; Bajtai, Attila; Siska, Andrea; Klivényi, Péter; Ilisz, István; Földesi, Imre; Vécsei, László; Zádori, Dénes

    2017-09-01

    Evidence suggests that decreased α-tocopherol (the most biologically active substance in the vitamin E group) level can cause neurological symptoms, most likely ataxia. The aim of the current study was to first provide reference intervals for serum tocopherols in the adult Hungarian population with appropriate sample size, recruiting healthy control subjects and neurological patients suffering from conditions without symptoms of ataxia, myopathy or cognitive deficiency. A validated HPLC method applying a diode array detector and rac-tocol as internal standard was utilized for that purpose. Furthermore, serum cholesterol levels were determined as well for data normalization. The calculated 2.5-97.5% reference intervals for α-, β/γ- and δ-tocopherols were 24.62-54.67, 0.81-3.69 and 0.29-1.07 μm, respectively, whereas the tocopherol/cholesterol ratios were 5.11-11.27, 0.14-0.72 and 0.06-0.22 μmol/mmol, respectively. The establishment of these reference intervals may improve the diagnostic accuracy of tocopherol measurements in certain neurological conditions with decreased tocopherol levels. Moreover, the current study draws special attention to the possible pitfalls in the complex process of the determination of reference intervals as well, including the selection of study population, the application of internal standard and method validation and the calculation of tocopherol/cholesterol ratios. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Harmonising measures of knee and hip osteoarthritis in population-based cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyland, K M; Gates, L S; Nevitt, M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Population-based osteoarthritis (OA) cohorts provide vital data on risk factors and outcomes of OA, however the methods to define OA vary between cohorts. We aimed to provide recommendations for combining knee and hip OA data in extant and future population cohort studies, in order to ...

  17. [Prospect and application of microsatellite population genetics in study of geoherbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Yong-Qing; Yuan, Qing-Jun; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jiang, Dan; Jing, Li

    2013-12-01

    The author introduces the basic concepts of microsatellite and population genetics and its characteristics, expounds the application of these theories for population genetic structure and genetic diversity, gene flow and evolutionary significant unit ESU division research. This paper discuss its applicationin study of genetic causes, origin of cultivation, different regional origins of geoherbs, aiming at providing a new theory and method for geoherbs.

  18. A population-based prospective study of optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, K; Jarius, S; Skejoe, Hanne Pernille Bro

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is often associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Early diagnosis is critical to optimal patient management. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of acute ON and the rates of conversion to MS and antibody-mediated ON. METHOD: Population-based prospective study......-specific incidence was 3.28 (2.44-4.31) per 100,000 person years, 2.02 for men and 4.57 for women. At follow-up, 20 patients met the diagnostic criteria for MS, MRI lesions disseminated in space and time in 17/20 patients. AQP4-IgG was detected in none, MOG-IgG was detected in two patients. CONCLUSION...

  19. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh Bhandarkar; Ajit Shah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. Methods: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. Results: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the pe...

  20. Development and evaluation of a new method for sampling and monitoring the symphylid population in pineapple

    OpenAIRE

    Soler, A.; Gaude, J. M.; Marie-Alphonsine, P. A.; Vinatier, F.; Dole, B.; Govindin, J. C.; Fournier, P.; Quénéhervé, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Symphylids (Hanseniella sp.) are polyphagous soilborne parasites. Today, symphylid populations on pineapple are monitored by observing root symptoms and the presence of symphylids at the bottom of basal leaves. The authors developed a reliable method with a bait and trap device to monitor symphylid populations in pineapple or fallow crops. The spatial distribution of the symphylid populations was evaluated using the variance/mean ratios and spatial analyses based on Moran's and Ge...

  1. Sanitary study of the population living in the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Briggs, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The populations of Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation affected by Chernobyl accident are anxious about the radiation effects on their healthy. The International Chernobyl Project has, in a great part, looked for the pathology increase and to assess its incidence on their healthy. This study does not prove that the Chernobyl accident would have important effects on population healthy of contaminated areas

  2. A hypothetical study of populations under constant mortality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R B

    1976-03-01

    28 countries with different characteristics have been selected in order to observe the amount of time it takes for these different countries to reach stable age distributions. The individual populations by sex and age were projected for 150 years in 5-year intervals with the present constant mortality and fertility schedules by component method. Observations have been made by considering the following characteristics of population when it has acquired stability: age distribution; the rate of growth, birthrate, and mortality rate; the population change; the intrinsic rate of growth, birthrate and mortality rate; and approximate time taken to stabilize the population. The initial age distribution has a significant part in the amount of time it takes for a population to acquire stability, and its intrinsic rate of growth is mostly dependent upon the existing age distribution of that population. The time taken for a country's population to become stable depends upon the age distribution, fertility and mortality schedules at the beginning. It has been observed that countries having a higher intrinsic rate of growth take comparatively less time in acquiring stability than the countries having a lower intrinsic rate of growth. The mortality and fertility schedules of a country is another important phenomenon. The populations of the different countries at the point of stability were growing according to their rates of growth. No specific trend of population growth could be found among the groups of countries. Time taken for stabilizing the population is completely based upon age distributions, fertility and mortality schedules a particular country was having at the beginning. The range of time taken for different countries to acquire stability generally ranged from 100 to 135 years. Among the different countries the relationship for the time it takes to acquire stability has not been established. This is a hypothetical approach in order to obtain some idea as to how a

  3. ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Gayevskiy

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

  4. An evaluation of the methods of determining excited state population distributions from sputtering sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowdon, K.J.; Andresen, B.; Veje, E.

    1978-01-01

    The method of calculating relative initial level populations of excited states of sputtered atoms is developed in principle and compared with those in current use. The reason that the latter, although mathematically different, have generally led to similar population distributions is outlined. (Auth.)

  5. Disregarding population specificity: its influence on the sex assessment methods from the tibia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotěrová, A.; Velemínská, J.; Dupej, J.; Brzobohatá, Hana; Pilný, A.; Brůžek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2017), s. 251-261 ISSN 0937-9827 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : forensic anthropology population data * sex determination * tibia * population specificity * discriminant function analysis * GAME method Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 2.382, year: 2016

  6. Application of homotopy-perturbation method to nonlinear population dynamics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M.S.H.; Hashim, I.; Abdulaziz, O.

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, the homotopy-perturbation method (HPM) is employed to derive approximate series solutions of nonlinear population dynamics models. The nonlinear models considered are the multispecies Lotka-Volterra equations. The accuracy of this method is examined by comparison with the available exact and the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (RK4)

  7. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Woo; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Youngeun; Hong, Seung-Han; Kim, Soohwaun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Shin, Dong Chun; Lim, Youngwook

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.

  8. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Woo Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.

  9. Childhood disability in Malawi: a population based assessment using the key informant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataryn, Myroslava; Polack, Sarah; Chokotho, Linda; Mulwafu, Wakisa; Kayange, Petros; Banks, Lena Morgon; Noe, Christiane; Lavy, Chris; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-11-28

    Epidemiological data on childhood disability are lacking in Low and Middle Income countries (LMICs) such as Malawi, hampering effective service planning and advocacy. The Key Informant Method (KIM) is an innovative, cost-effective method for generating population data on the prevalence and causes of impairment in children. The aim of this study was to use the Key Informant Method to estimate the prevalence of moderate/severe, hearing, vision and physical impairments, intellectual impairments and epilepsy in children in two districts in Malawi and to estimate the associated need for rehabilitation and other services. Five hundred key informants (KIs) were trained to identify children in their communities who may have the impairment types included in this study. Identified children were invited to attend a screening camp where they underwent assessment by medical professionals for moderate/severe hearing, vision and physical impairments, intellectual impairments and epilepsy. Approximately 15,000 children were identified by KIs as potentially having an impairment of whom 7220 (48%) attended a screening camp. The estimated prevalence of impairments/epilepsy was 17.3/1000 children (95% CI: 16.9-17.7). Physical impairment (39%) was the commonest impairment type followed by hearing impairment (27%), intellectual impairment (26%), epilepsy (22%) and vision impairment (4%). Approximately 2100 children per million population could benefit from physiotherapy and occupational therapy and 300 per million are in need of a wheelchair. An estimated 1800 children per million population have hearing impairment caused by conditions that could be prevented or treated through basic primary ear care. Corneal opacity was the leading cause of vision impairment. Only 50% of children with suspected epilepsy were receiving medication. The majority (73%) of children were attending school, but attendance varied by impairment type and was lowest among children with multiple impairments (38

  10. Counting hard-to-count populations: the network scale-up method for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, H Russell; Hallett, Tim; Iovita, Alexandrina; Johnsen, Eugene C; Lyerla, Rob; McCarty, Christopher; Mahy, Mary; Salganik, Matthew J; Saliuk, Tetiana; Scutelniciuc, Otilia; Shelley, Gene A; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Weir, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Estimating sizes of hidden or hard-to-reach populations is an important problem in public health. For example, estimates of the sizes of populations at highest risk for HIV and AIDS are needed for designing, evaluating and allocating funding for treatment and prevention programmes. A promising approach to size estimation, relatively new to public health, is the network scale-up method (NSUM), involving two steps: estimating the personal network size of the members of a random sample of a total population and, with this information, estimating the number of members of a hidden subpopulation of the total population. We describe the method, including two approaches to estimating personal network sizes (summation and known population). We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and provide examples of international applications of the NSUM in public health. We conclude with recommendations for future research and evaluation. PMID:21106509

  11. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anoop Shankar1, Kristine E Lee2, Barbara EK Klein2, Paul Muntner3, Peter C Brazy4, Karen J Cruickshanks2,5, F Javier Nieto5, Lorraine G Danforth2, Carla R Schubert2,5, Michael Y Tsai6, Ronald Klein21Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; 3Department of Community Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA; 6Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in population-based studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons of the effect of various estimating equations on the prevalence estimates of CKD in a general population sample.Patients and methods: We examined a population-based sample comprising adults from Wisconsin (age, 43–86 years; 56% women. We compared the prevalence of CKD, defined as a GFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine, by applying various commonly used equations including the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD equation, Cockcroft–Gault (CG equation, and the Mayo equation. We compared the performance of these equations against the CKD definition of cystatin C >1.23 mg/L.Results: We found that the prevalence of CKD varied widely among different GFR equations. Although the prevalence of CKD was 17.2% with the MDRD equation and 16.5% with the CG equation, it was only 4.8% with the Mayo equation. Only 24% of those identified to have GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1

  12. A Tractable Method for Describing Complex Couplings between Neurons and Population Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardella, Christophe; Marre, Olivier; Mora, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Neurons within a population are strongly correlated, but how to simply capture these correlations is still a matter of debate. Recent studies have shown that the activity of each cell is influenced by the population rate, defined as the summed activity of all neurons in the population. However, an explicit, tractable model for these interactions is still lacking. Here we build a probabilistic model of population activity that reproduces the firing rate of each cell, the distribution of the population rate, and the linear coupling between them. This model is tractable, meaning that its parameters can be learned in a few seconds on a standard computer even for large population recordings. We inferred our model for a population of 160 neurons in the salamander retina. In this population, single-cell firing rates depended in unexpected ways on the population rate. In particular, some cells had a preferred population rate at which they were most likely to fire. These complex dependencies could not be explained by a linear coupling between the cell and the population rate. We designed a more general, still tractable model that could fully account for these nonlinear dependencies. We thus provide a simple and computationally tractable way to learn models that reproduce the dependence of each neuron on the population rate.

  13. Epidemiological studies of some populations exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    During 1984 September 19 and 20, a meeting was held at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba to discuss current epidemiological studies of populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Twelve representatives from three countries attended the meeting and eleven papers were extensively discussed. The majority of these papers described studies of populations occupationally exposed to radiation. The report contains summaries of the papers presented and of the discussions that took place

  14. Application of the backstepping method to the prediction of increase or decrease of infected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniya, Toshikazu; Sano, Hideki

    2016-05-10

    In mathematical epidemiology, age-structured epidemic models have usually been formulated as the boundary-value problems of the partial differential equations. On the other hand, in engineering, the backstepping method has recently been developed and widely studied by many authors. Using the backstepping method, we obtained a boundary feedback control which plays the role of the threshold criteria for the prediction of increase or decrease of newly infected population. Under an assumption that the period of infectiousness is same for all infected individuals (that is, the recovery rate is given by the Dirac delta function multiplied by a sufficiently large positive constant), the prediction method is simplified to the comparison of the numbers of reported cases at the current and previous time steps. Our prediction method was applied to the reported cases per sentinel of influenza in Japan from 2006 to 2015 and its accuracy was 0.81 (404 correct predictions to the total 500 predictions). It was higher than that of the ARIMA models with different orders of the autoregressive part, differencing and moving-average process. In addition, a proposed method for the estimation of the number of reported cases, which is consistent with our prediction method, was better than that of the best-fitted ARIMA model ARIMA(1,1,0) in the sense of mean square error. Our prediction method based on the backstepping method can be simplified to the comparison of the numbers of reported cases of the current and previous time steps. In spite of its simplicity, it can provide a good prediction for the spread of influenza in Japan.

  15. Application of Holt exponential smoothing and ARIMA method for data population in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriatna, A.; Susanti, D.; Hertini, E.

    2017-01-01

    One method of time series that is often used to predict data that contains trend is Holt. Holt method using different parameters used in the original data which aims to smooth the trend value. In addition to Holt, ARIMA method can be used on a wide variety of data including data pattern containing a pattern trend. Data actual of population from 1998-2015 contains the trends so can be solved by Holt and ARIMA method to obtain the prediction value of some periods. The best method is measured by looking at the smallest MAPE and MAE error. The result using Holt method is 47.205.749 populations in 2016, 47.535.324 populations in 2017, and 48.041.672 populations in 2018, with MAPE error is 0,469744 and MAE error is 189.731. While the result using ARIMA method is 46.964.682 populations in 2016, 47.342.189 in 2017, and 47.899.696 in 2018, with MAPE error is 0,4380 and MAE is 176.626.

  16. Development and evaluation of a new method for sampling and monitoring the symphylid population in pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Alain; Gaude, Jean-Marie; Marie-Alphonsine, Paul-Alex; Vinatier, Fabrice; Dole, Bernard; Govindin, Jean-Claude; Fournier, Patrick; Queneherve, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    Symphylids (Hanseniella sp.) are polyphagous soilborne parasites. Today, symphylid populations on pineapple are monitored by observing root symptoms and the presence of symphylids at the bottom of basal leaves. The authors developed a reliable method with a bait and trap device to monitor symphylid populations in pineapple or fallow crops. The spatial distribution of the symphylid populations was evaluated using the variance/mean ratios and spatial analyses based on Moran's and Geary's indices. The method has been tested to monitor symphylid populations at different developmental stages of pineapple. Adding potato baits to the soil samples increased the trapping efficiency of symphylids when compared with 'soil only' and 'bait only' methods. The handling of the samples is also facilitated by the new device. Results showed that the vertical distribution of symphylids may be uniform deeply inside the soil profile under pineapple, up to 50 cm. Results showed that symphylid populations are highly aggregated, showing a spot area about 4-6 m wide for their development. The new method allows better and easier evaluation of symphylid populations. It may be very useful in the evaluation of new IPM methods to control symphylids under pineapple. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Accurate and fast methods to estimate the population mutation rate from error prone sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Michael M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population mutation rate (θ remains one of the most fundamental parameters in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary biology. However, its accurate estimation can be seriously compromised when working with error prone data such as expressed sequence tags, low coverage draft sequences, and other such unfinished products. This study is premised on the simple idea that a random sequence error due to a chance accident during data collection or recording will be distributed within a population dataset as a singleton (i.e., as a polymorphic site where one sampled sequence exhibits a unique base relative to the common nucleotide of the others. Thus, one can avoid these random errors by ignoring the singletons within a dataset. Results This strategy is implemented under an infinite sites model that focuses on only the internal branches of the sample genealogy where a shared polymorphism can arise (i.e., a variable site where each alternative base is represented by at least two sequences. This approach is first used to derive independently the same new Watterson and Tajima estimators of θ, as recently reported by Achaz 1 for error prone sequences. It is then used to modify the recent, full, maximum-likelihood model of Knudsen and Miyamoto 2, which incorporates various factors for experimental error and design with those for coalescence and mutation. These new methods are all accurate and fast according to evolutionary simulations and analyses of a real complex population dataset for the California seahare. Conclusion In light of these results, we recommend the use of these three new methods for the determination of θ from error prone sequences. In particular, we advocate the new maximum likelihood model as a starting point for the further development of more complex coalescent/mutation models that also account for experimental error and design.

  18. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  19. Hepatoblastoma incidence in Taiwan: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giun-Yi Hung

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of hepatoblastoma is not well known in Taiwan. The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence rates of hepatoblastoma by age and sex. Methods: The data of patients with hepatoblastoma diagnosed from 1995 to 2012 were obtained from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Incidence rates of hepatoblastoma according to sex and age were analyzed. This study employed the published methods of International Agency for Research on Cancer to calculate the age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs, standard errors, 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and standardized incidence rate ratios (SIRRs. Results: In total, 211 patients were diagnosed with hepatoblastoma during the 18-year study period. The ASIR was 0.76 per million person-years. Hepatoblastoma was predominantly diagnosed in children (n = 184, 87.2%. By contrast, adolescents/adults (n = 10, 4.7% and elderly people (n = 17, 8.1% were rarely affected. The incidence peaked at ages 0–4 years with corresponding ASIR of 7.3 per million person-years. A significant male predilection was only found in children and elderly people, with male-to-female SIRRs of 1.23 and 1.89, respectively. During 1995–2012, the overall incidence of hepatoblastoma significantly increased only in children (annual percent change: 7.4%, 95% CI 3.9%–11.1%, p < 0.05 and specifically in boys (annual percent change: 6.5%, 95% CI 1.9%–11.2%, p < 0.05. Conclusion: Only 27 patients aged ≥ 15 years with hepatoblastoma were identified in this study, the existence of adult hepatoblastoma still requires novel molecular tools to elucidate. The association between the upward trend of hepatoblastoma incidence in boys and increased survival of prematurity in Taiwan warrants further investigations. Keywords: Hepatoblastoma, Incidence, Taiwan

  20. Studies on Erythropoietin Bioassay Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kyoung Sam; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-09-15

    It is the purpose of this paper to design the most preferable method of erythropoietin bioassay in Korea. Bioassay utilizing polycythemic mice are currently in general use for the indirect determination of erythropoietin. Assay animals are usually prepared either by transfusion or by exposure to reduced oxygen tension in specially constructed chamber. We prepared the polycythemic mice by the specially constructed hypobaric chamber. We observed weights and hematocrits of the mice in the hypobaric chamber, then hematocrits and 72 hours {sup 59}Fe red cell uptake ratio of the polycythemic mice induced by hypoxia after removal from the hypobaric chamber. We designed the method of erythropoietin bioassay according to the results obtained by above experiments. Then we measured the 72 hours {sup 59}Fe red cell uptake ratio of the polycythemic mice with normal saline, normal plasma and anemic plasma according to the method we designed. The results are followed:1) The hematocrits of the mice in hypobaric chamber increased to 74% in 11 days. It is preferable to maintain the pressure of the chamber to 400 mmHg for first 4 days then 300 mmHg for last 10 days to reduce the death rate and time consuming in hypobaric chamber. 2) After removal from the hypobaric chamber, the 72 hours {sup 59}Fe red cell uptake ratio decreased rapidly and maintained the lowest level from the fourth day to tenth day. 3) We design the method of erythropoietin bioassay according to the results of above experiment and to the half life of erythropoietin. 4) The Korean product {sup 59}Fe is mixture of {sup 55}Fe and {sup 59}Fe. And the {sup 59}Fe red cell uptake ratio in normal mice was far less with Korean product {sup 59}Fe than with pure {sup 59}Fe of foreign product. So it is desirable to use pure {sup 59}Fe in this method of erythropoietin bioassay. 5) Considering the cost, the technique, the time consuming and the sensitivity it is the most preferable method of erythropoietin bioassay in Korea

  1. Association of STAT4 with rheumatoid arthritis - A replication study in three European populations : a replication study in three European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orozco, Gisela; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Delgado-Vega, Angelica M.; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Balsa, Alejandro; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Benjamin; Gonzalez-Escribano, Maria F.; Petersson, Ingemar F.; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; Barrera, Pilar; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Radstake, Timothy R. D. J.; van Leeuwen, Miek A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta; Martin, Javier

    Objective. This study was undertaken to investigate the previously reported association of the STAT4 polymorphism rs7574865 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 3 different European populations from Spain, Sweden, and The Netherlands, comprising a total of 2,072 patients and 2,474 controls. Methods.

  2. Searching for Rigour in the Reporting of Mixed Methods Population Health Research: A Methodological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. M.; Elliott, S. J.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Robertson-Wilson, J.

    2015-01-01

    The environments in which population health interventions occur shape both their implementation and outcomes. Hence, when evaluating these interventions, we must explore both intervention content and context. Mixed methods (integrating quantitative and qualitative methods) provide this opportunity. However, although criteria exist for establishing…

  3. Accuracy, precision, and economic efficiency for three methods of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population density assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Andrew M; Parrella, Michael P

    2011-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major horticultural pest and an important vector of plant viruses in many parts of the world. Methods for assessing thrips population density for pest management decision support are often inaccurate or imprecise due to thrips' positive thigmotaxis, small size, and naturally aggregated populations. Two established methods, flower tapping and an alcohol wash, were compared with a novel method, plant desiccation coupled with passive trapping, using accuracy, precision and economic efficiency as comparative variables. Observed accuracy was statistically similar and low (37.8-53.6%) for all three methods. Flower tapping was the least expensive method, in terms of person-hours, whereas the alcohol wash method was the most expensive. Precision, expressed by relative variation, depended on location within the greenhouse, location on greenhouse benches, and the sampling week, but it was generally highest for the flower tapping and desiccation methods. Economic efficiency, expressed by relative net precision, was highest for the flower tapping method and lowest for the alcohol wash method. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for all three methods used. If relative density assessment methods such as these can all be assumed to accurately estimate a constant proportion of absolute density, then high precision becomes the methodological goal in terms of measuring insect population density, decision making for pest management, and pesticide efficacy assessments.

  4. Predictors of medication use in the Roma population in Spain: a population-based national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, M; Hernández Barrera, V; López de Andrés, A; Jiménez-Trujillo, I; Jiménez-García, R; Carrasco-Garrido, P

    2015-05-01

    To describe the prevalence of prescribed and self-medicated use of medication in the Spanish Roma population, and identify the associated factors. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data from the first National Health Survey conducted on the Roma population in Spain were used. The sample comprised 1000 Spanish Roma adults of both sexes aged ≥16 years. Answers (yes/no) to the question, 'In the last two weeks have you taken the following medicines [in reference to a list of medicines that might be used by the population] and were they prescribed for you by a doctor?' were used to ascertain 'medication use'. 'Self-medication' referred to use of these medicines without medical prescription. Using multivariate logistic regression models, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to identify associated factors. The overall prevalence of medication use in the Roma population for both sexes was 69.1%, and 38.7% was self-medicated. Females reported higher use of medication than males (75.1% vs 62.3%); however, self-medication was higher among males. Analgesics and antipyretics were used most often (35.8%). Among males, the variables that were independently and significantly associated with a higher probability of medication use were: age; negative perception of health; presence of chronic disease (OR 2.81; 95% CI 1.67-4.73); and medical visits (OR 4.51; 95% CI 2.54-8.01). The variables were the same among females, except for age. A high percentage of the Spanish Roma population use medication, and a significant proportion of them self-medicate. The presence of chronic diseases, a negative perception of health and medical consultations were associated with increased use of medication in the study population. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of antimicrobial drugs in general hospitals. I. Description of population and definition of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, T R; Shapiro, M; Rosner, B; Kass, E H

    1979-06-01

    The patterns of use of antimicrobial drugs in a random sample of general hosptials in Pennsylvania were studied. The sample was tested for validity, and all deaths and discharges were analyzed for 10 random days drawn across the year spanning July 1973 to June 1974. Methods were developed for abstracting the hospital records and for determining the reproducibility of the findings of the physician and nonphysician chart reviewers. More than 99% of the requested charts were available. In the 5,288 charts reviewed, most of the required data were readily available. The study population was 84% white and 58% female; most patients were in hospitals that had more than 300 beds and that were located in towns with populations of greater than 10,000. In 41% of the 2,070 antimicrobial courses administered to almost 30% of the patients, an explicit clinical statement of why the drug was being given could be found in the chart. The information for review was found in clinical charts, but in half of the charts, the information required was not on face sheets and discharge summaries.

  6. Epidemiology of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brevern, M; Radtke, A; Lezius, F; Feldmann, M; Ziese, T; Lempert, T; Neuhauser, H

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence and incidence, clinical presentation, societal impact and comorbid conditions of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the general population. Methods Cross‐sectional, nationally representative neurotological survey of the general adult population in Germany with a two stage sampling design: screening of 4869 participants from the German National Telephone Health Interview Survey 2003 (response rate 52%) for moderate or severe dizziness or vertigo, followed by validated neurotological interviews (n = 1003; response rate 87%). Diagnostic criteria for BPPV were at least five attacks of vestibular vertigo lasting <1 min without concomitant neurological symptoms and invariably provoked by typical changes in head position. In a concurrent validation study (n = 61) conducted in two specialised dizziness clinics, BPPV was detected by our telephone interview with a specificity of 92% and a sensitivity of 88% (positive predictive value 88%, negative predictive value 92%). Results BPPV accounted for 8% of individuals with moderate or severe dizziness/vertigo. The lifetime prevalence of BPPV was 2.4%, the 1 year prevalence was 1.6% and the 1 year incidence was 0.6%. The median duration of an episode was 2 weeks. In 86% of affected individuals, BPPV led to medical consultation, interruption of daily activities or sick leave. In total, only 8% of affected participants received effective treatment. On multivariate analysis, age, migraine, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and stroke were independently associated with BPPV. Conclusion BPPV is a common vestibular disorder leading to significant morbidity, psychosocial impact and medical costs. PMID:17135456

  7. A rangewide population genetic study of trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Ransler, F.A.; Berkman, L.K.; Quinn, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    For management purposes, the range of naturally occurring trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) has been divided into two populations, the Pacific Coast Population (PP) and the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP). Little is known about the distribution of genetic variation across the species' range despite increasing pressure to make difficult management decisions regarding the two populations and flocks within them. To address this issue, we used rapidly evolving genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA sequence and 17 nuclear microsatellite loci) to elucidate the underlying genetic structure of the species. Data from both markers revealed a significant difference between the PP and RMP with the Yukon Territory as a likely area of overlap. Additionally, we found that the two populations have somewhat similar levels of genetic diversity (PP is slightly higher) suggesting that the PP underwent a population bottleneck similar to a well-documented one in the RMP. Both genetic structure and diversity results reveal that the Tri-State flock, a suspected unique, non-migratory flock, is not genetically different from the Canadian flock of the RMP and need not be treated as a unique population from a genetic standpoint. Finally, trumpeter swans appear to have much lower mitochondrial DNA variability than other waterfowl studied thus far which may suggest a previous, species-wide bottleneck. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  8. A Study Of Prevalence Of Obesity In Adult Punjabi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Goyal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally with more than 1 billion overweight, Atleast 300 million of them are clinically obese and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability (1. Long considered a buy product of modern life in rich, developed contries, obesity is spreading to developing contries as well. Two critical factors that have influenced this explosion are changes in dietary patterns and levels of physical activity. The latest list of morbidity associated with obesity includes about forty diseases. Though, prevalence of co-morbidities of obesity is quite high among adults in India yet there are relatively less reliable and representative data available. Hence, this study was carried out. Material & Methods : It was a community based, cross sectional study conducted in field practice areas at Rural Health Centre (RHC, Pohir and Urban Health Centre (UHC, Kirti Nagar attached to the department of Community Medicine, DMC & Hospital Ludhiana. Field practice area of RHC is composed of 10 villages serving a total population of 20,450. The Urban health Centre covers ten colonies having a total populaation of 20.645.

  9. A New Method for Deriving the Stellar Birth Function of Resolved Stellar Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, M.; Tchernyshyov, K.; Brown, T. M.; Gordon, K. D.

    2015-07-01

    We present a new method for deriving the stellar birth function (SBF) of resolved stellar populations. The SBF (stars born per unit mass, time, and metallicity) is the combination of the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history (SFH), and the metallicity distribution function (MDF). The framework of our analysis is that of Poisson Point Processes (PPPs), a class of statistical models suitable when dealing with points (stars) in a multidimensional space (the measurement space of multiple photometric bands). The theory of PPPs easily accommodates the modeling of measurement errors as well as that of incompleteness. Our method avoids binning stars in the color-magnitude diagram and uses the whole likelihood function for each data point; combining the individual likelihoods allows the computation of the posterior probability for the population's SBF. Within the proposed framework it is possible to include nuisance parameters, such as distance and extinction, by specifying their prior distributions and marginalizing over them. The aim of this paper is to assess the validity of this new approach under a range of assumptions, using only simulated data. Forthcoming work will show applications to real data. Although it has a broad scope of possible applications, we have developed this method to study multi-band Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Milky Way Bulge. Therefore we will focus on simulations with characteristics similar to those of the Galactic Bulge. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  10. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Markus G; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  11. A method to assess the population-level consequences of wind energy facilities on bird and bat species: Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.; Beston, Julie A.; Merrill, Matthew; Stanton, Jessica C.; Corum, Margo D.; Loss, Scott R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Erickson, Richard A.; Heist, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    For this study, a methodology was developed for assessing impacts of wind energy generation on populations of birds and bats at regional to national scales. The approach combines existing methods in applied ecology for prioritizing species in terms of their potential risk from wind energy facilities and estimating impacts of fatalities on population status and trend caused by collisions with wind energy infrastructure. Methods include a qualitative prioritization approach, demographic models, and potential biological removal. The approach can be used to prioritize species in need of more thorough study as well as to identify species with minimal risk. However, the components of this methodology require simplifying assumptions and the data required may be unavailable or of poor quality for some species. These issues should be carefully considered before using the methodology. The approach will increase in value as more data become available and will broaden the understanding of anthropogenic sources of mortality on bird and bat populations.

  12. A probabilistic method for testing and estimating selection differences between populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yungang; Wang, Minxian; Huang, Xin; Li, Ran; Xu, Hongyang; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li

    2015-12-01

    Human populations around the world encounter various environmental challenges and, consequently, develop genetic adaptations to different selection forces. Identifying the differences in natural selection between populations is critical for understanding the roles of specific genetic variants in evolutionary adaptation. Although numerous methods have been developed to detect genetic loci under recent directional selection, a probabilistic solution for testing and quantifying selection differences between populations is lacking. Here we report the development of a probabilistic method for testing and estimating selection differences between populations. By use of a probabilistic model of genetic drift and selection, we showed that logarithm odds ratios of allele frequencies provide estimates of the differences in selection coefficients between populations. The estimates approximate a normal distribution, and variance can be estimated using genome-wide variants. This allows us to quantify differences in selection coefficients and to determine the confidence intervals of the estimate. Our work also revealed the link between genetic association testing and hypothesis testing of selection differences. It therefore supplies a solution for hypothesis testing of selection differences. This method was applied to a genome-wide data analysis of Han and Tibetan populations. The results confirmed that both the EPAS1 and EGLN1 genes are under statistically different selection in Han and Tibetan populations. We further estimated differences in the selection coefficients for genetic variants involved in melanin formation and determined their confidence intervals between continental population groups. Application of the method to empirical data demonstrated the outstanding capability of this novel approach for testing and quantifying differences in natural selection. © 2015 He et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. An Improved Real-Coded Population-Based Extremal Optimization Method for Continuous Unconstrained Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a novel evolutionary optimization method, extremal optimization (EO has been successfully applied to a variety of combinatorial optimization problems. However, the applications of EO in continuous optimization problems are relatively rare. This paper proposes an improved real-coded population-based EO method (IRPEO for continuous unconstrained optimization problems. The key operations of IRPEO include generation of real-coded random initial population, evaluation of individual and population fitness, selection of bad elements according to power-law probability distribution, generation of new population based on uniform random mutation, and updating the population by accepting the new population unconditionally. The experimental results on 10 benchmark test functions with the dimension N=30 have shown that IRPEO is competitive or even better than the recently reported various genetic algorithm (GA versions with different mutation operations in terms of simplicity, effectiveness, and efficiency. Furthermore, the superiority of IRPEO to other evolutionary algorithms such as original population-based EO, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and the hybrid PSO-EO is also demonstrated by the experimental results on some benchmark functions.

  14. Methods to improve genomic prediction and GWAS using combined Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujin

    The thesis focuses on methods to improve GWAS and genomic prediction using combined Holstein populations and investigations G by E interaction. The conclusions are: 1) Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian Holsteins can be increased by adding Nordic and Frensh genotyped bulls and a large G by E...... interaction exists between populations. 2) Combining data from Chinese and Danish Holstein populations increases the power of GWAS and detects new QTL regions for milk fatty acid traits. 3) The novel multi-trait Bayesian model efficiently estimates region-specific genomic variances, covariances...

  15. The Epidemiology of Delirium: Challenges and Opportunities for Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H.J.; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J.; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

  16. Study population, questionnaire, data management and sample description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara de Waure

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article describes methodological issues of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk", a multicenter study aimed at assessing the health status and attitudes and behaviours of university students in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire used to carry out the study was adapted from the Italian health behaviours in school-aged children (HBSC project and consisted of 93 items addressing: demographics; nutritional habits and status; physical activity; lifestyles; reproductive and preconception health; health and satisfaction of life; attitudes and behaviours toward academic study and new technologies. The questionnaire was administered to a pool of 12 000 students from 18 to 30 years of age who voluntary decided to participate during classes held at different Italian faculties or at the three "Sportello Salute Giovani" centers which were established in the three sites of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Rome. RESULTS: The final study sample was composed by 8516 university students. The mean age of responders was 22.2 (Standard Deviation 2.0 and 5702 (67.0% were females. According to the distribution in age classes, 3601 (43.3% belonged to the 18-21 one, 3796 (44.5% to the 22-24 class and 1019 (12.2% to the 25-30 class. With respect to socio-economic status, data were available for 8410 responders and showed that 50.3% of students belonged to the middle class. DISCUSSION: The project took into consideration a large number of individuals from different regions of the country and therefore may be considered representative of the general population of Italian university students. Furthermore, it is the first to address, at the same time, several issues, in particular attitudes and behaviours toward health, in Italian university students. CONCLUSION: The analysis of data from such a large sample of university students sets the basis for

  17. The population of Indonesia : regional demographic scenarios using a multiregional method and multiple data sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhidin, Salahudin

    2002-01-01

    This study attempts to contribute on the understanding of regional population dynamics in Indonesia. It outlines a detailed analysis of the changes in regional demographic variables during the last three decades. It provides an assessment of the past population projections, as well as the advantages

  18. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations.

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    Jeffrey R Kugelman

    Full Text Available Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic "no amplification" method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a "targeted" amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA as a "random" amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq as an advanced "no amplification" method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a "targeted" enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4-5 of all compared methods.

  19. Comparison between ARIMA and DES Methods of Forecasting Population for Housing Demand in Johor

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    Alias Ahmad Rizal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting accuracy is a primary criterion in selecting appropriate method of prediction. Even though there are various methods of forecasting however not all of these methods are able to predict with good accuracy. This paper presents an evaluation of two methods of population forecasting for housing demand. These methods are Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA and Double Exponential Smoothing (DES. Both of the methods are principally adopting univariate time series analysis which uses past and present data for forecasting. Secondary data obtained from Department of Statistics, Malaysia was used to forecast population for housing demand in Johor. Forecasting processes had generated 14 models to each of the methods and these models where evaluated using Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE. It was found that 14 of Double Exponential Smoothing models and also 14 of ARIMA models had resulted to 1.674% and 5.524% of average MAPE values respectively. Hence, the Double Exponential Smoothing method outperformed the ARIMA method by reducing 4.00 % in forecasting model population for Johor state. These findings help researchers and government agency in selecting appropriate forecasting model for housing demand.

  20. The Characteristics of the Danish population in the Elderly-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Randi Marie; Andersen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    the characteristics of the Danish population in the Elderly-study. Methods The study is a randomized controlled study and has so far enrolled 716 participants from Germany, USA, and Denmark and 341 are from Denmark. Participants are 60+ years old and fulfil the DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorder. The exclusions...

  1. Incorporating Case Studies into a World Food and Population Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Econopouly, Bethany F.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Johnson, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of case studies in college courses can increase student engagement with the subject matter and improve analytical, problem-solving, and communication skills. Case studies were introduced in a relatively large (54 students) undergraduate world food and population course at Colorado State University in the spring semester of 2008 and…

  2. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries'' are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ``Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries`` are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs.

  4. OCCUPATION AND EPICONDYLITIS: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Reading, Isabel C; Coggon, David; Cooper, Cyrus

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between occupational exposures and lateral and medial epicondylitis and the effect of epicondylitis on sickness absence in a population sample of working aged adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 9696 randomly selected adults aged 25-64 years involving a screening questionnaire and standardised physical examination. Age- and sex-specific prevalence rates of epicondylitis were estimated and associations with occupational risk factors explored. Results Among 6038 respondents, 636 (11%) reported elbow pain in the last week. 0.7% of those surveyed were diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis and 0.6% with medial epicondylitis. Lateral epicondylitis was associated with manual work (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.9-8.4). In multivariate analyses, repetitive bending/straightening elbow > 1 hour day was independently associated with lateral (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.5) and medial epicondylitis (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.8-14.3). 5% of adults with epicondylitis took sickness absence because of their elbow symptoms in the past 12 months (median 29 days). Conclusions Repetitive exposure to bending/straightening the elbow was a significant risk factor for medial and lateral epicondylitis. Epicondylitis is associated with prolonged sickness absence in 5% of affected working-aged adults. PMID:22019808

  5. Anxiety disorders in young people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíse Campos Mondin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities.

  6. Social media methods for studying rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Stringer, Kathleen A; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Shaver, Ashley; Caruthers, Regine L; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Fifer, Carlen; Goldberg, Caren; Russell, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    For pediatric rare diseases, the number of patients available to support traditional research methods is often inadequate. However, patients who have similar diseases cluster "virtually" online via social media. This study aimed to (1) determine whether patients who have the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis (PB) would participate in online research, and (2) explore response patterns to examine social media's role in participation compared with other referral modalities. A novel, internet-based survey querying details of potential pathogenesis, course, and treatment of PLE and PB was created. The study was available online via web and Facebook portals for 1 year. Apart from 2 study-initiated posts on patient-run Facebook pages at the study initiation, all recruitment was driven by study respondents only. Response patterns and referral sources were tracked. A total of 671 respondents with a Fontan palliation completed a valid survey, including 76 who had PLE and 46 who had PB. Responses over time demonstrated periodic, marked increases as new online populations of Fontan patients were reached. Of the responses, 574 (86%) were from the United States and 97 (14%) were international. The leading referral sources were Facebook, internet forums, and traditional websites. Overall, social media outlets referred 84% of all responses, making it the dominant modality for recruiting the largest reported contemporary cohort of Fontan patients and patients who have PLE and PB. The methodology and response patterns from this study can be used to design research applications for other rare diseases. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Incidence of symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the knee : A population-based study in Olmsted County

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareek, A.; Sanders, T. L.; Wu, I. T.; Larson, D. R.; Saris, D. B.F.; Krych, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To (1) define population-based incidence of knee Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions using the population of Olmsted County, (2) examine trends over time, and (3) evaluate rate of surgical management over time. Method: Study population included 302 individuals who were diagnosed with

  8. "The Theory was Beautiful Indeed": Rise, Fall and Circulation of Maximizing Methods in Population Genetics (1930-1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodwohl, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-08-01

    Describing the theoretical population geneticists of the 1960s, Joseph Felsenstein reminisced: "our central obsession was finding out what function evolution would try to maximize. Population geneticists used to think, following Sewall Wright, that mean relative fitness, W, would be maximized by natural selection" (Felsenstein 2000). The present paper describes the genesis, diffusion and fall of this "obsession", by giving a biography of the mean fitness function in population genetics. This modeling method devised by Sewall Wright in the 1930s found its heyday in the late 1950s and early 1960s, in the wake of Motoo Kimura's and Richard Lewontin's works. It seemed a reliable guide in the mathematical study of deterministic effects (the study of natural selection in populations of infinite size, with no drift), leading to powerful generalizations presenting law-like properties. Progress in population genetics theory, it then seemed, would come from the application of this method to the study of systems with several genes. This ambition came to a halt in the context of the influential objections made by the Australian mathematician Patrick Moran in 1963. These objections triggered a controversy between mathematically- and biologically-inclined geneticists, with affected both the formal standards and the aims of population genetics as a science. Over the course of the 1960s, the mean fitness method withered with the ambition of developing the deterministic theory. The mathematical theory became increasingly complex. Kimura re-focused his modeling work on the theory of random processes; as a result of his computer simulations, Lewontin became the staunchest critic of maximizing principles in evolutionary biology. The mean fitness method then migrated to other research areas, being refashioned and used in evolutionary quantitative genetics and behavioral ecology.

  9. Noise nuisance and health inequalities in Belgium: a population study

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit, C; Lorant, V

    2009-01-01

    Context Lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to live in contaminated environments. This may partly explain socioeconomic health inequalities. Aims Does noise nuisance contribute to socio-economic inequalities in subjective health? Method This research is based on the last Belgian census data carried out in 2001. We work on a 10% sample of the Belgian population. The data are processed through bivariate and multivariate analyses. We model poor subjective health in relation to exposure to...

  10. Hydrophilic-coated catheter appreciation study in a pediatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Andréanne; Cloutier, Jonathan; Lebel, Sylvie; Hamel, Micheline; Lamontagne, Pascale; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the paper was to compare the satisfaction of hydrophilic-coated catheters (HC) (SpeediCath, Coloplast Canada, Mississauga, ON) versus uncoated catheters in a pediatric neurogenic bladder population, in order to identify a target group for HC. The main hypothesis was that our patients, with regard to their limitations, might have difficulties using the HC. Material and methods: A comparative prospective study was initiated in one pediatric rehabilitation centre. Out of the 39 patients who tried the HC during a routine clinic visit, 31 patients/parents accepted to participate in a 1-week trial and to answer a satisfaction questionnaire. Their medical records were reviewed for age, neurological disease, intellectual deficit, impaired dexterity and method of catheterization (Mitrofanoff/urethra). Results: Thirty of the 31 patients answered the satisfaction questionnaire. The median age for the 30 patients was 13.5 years (range 6–20 years). Of these patients, 19 were females (63%), 26 performed self-catheterization (87%), and 6 had Mitrofanoff (20%). Ten children (33%) would be ready to proceed with HC and all 10 children would receive catheterization by the urethra. Of these, 9 were females (90%), 8 used compact-HC (80%) and all were self-sufficient. Patients using compact-HC would continue with this catheter. In the patient comments, males catheterizing per-urethra and patients using a continent stoma requiring long catheters had problems with the excess of lubricant. Conclusion: Most children preferred their usual uncoated catheter and would not change for HC. Female patients catheterizing per-urethra with a compact-HC seem to benefit most from this catheter. PMID:21749816

  11. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-10-19

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend disability (p for trend disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study's results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability.

  12. Long-term response to genomic selection: effects of estimation method and reference population structure for different genetic architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, John W M; Coster, Albart; Calus, Mario P L; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2012-01-24

    Genomic selection has become an important tool in the genetic improvement of animals and plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of breeding value estimation method, reference population structure, and trait genetic architecture, on long-term response to genomic selection without updating marker effects. Three methods were used to estimate genomic breeding values: a BLUP method with relationships estimated from genome-wide markers (GBLUP), a Bayesian method, and a partial least squares regression method (PLSR). A shallow (individuals from one generation) or deep reference population (individuals from five generations) was used with each method. The effects of the different selection approaches were compared under four different genetic architectures for the trait under selection. Selection was based on one of the three genomic breeding values, on pedigree BLUP breeding values, or performed at random. Selection continued for ten generations. Differences in long-term selection response were small. For a genetic architecture with a very small number of three to four quantitative trait loci (QTL), the Bayesian method achieved a response that was 0.05 to 0.1 genetic standard deviation higher than other methods in generation 10. For genetic architectures with approximately 30 to 300 QTL, PLSR (shallow reference) or GBLUP (deep reference) had an average advantage of 0.2 genetic standard deviation over the Bayesian method in generation 10. GBLUP resulted in 0.6% and 0.9% less inbreeding than PLSR and BM and on average a one third smaller reduction of genetic variance. Responses in early generations were greater with the shallow reference population while long-term response was not affected by reference population structure. The ranking of estimation methods was different with than without selection. Under selection, applying GBLUP led to lower inbreeding and a smaller reduction of genetic variance while a similar response to selection was

  13. Studies on Hepa filter test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Jon, K.S.; Park, W.J.; Ryoo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare testing methods of the HEPA filter adopted in other countries with each other, and to design and construct a test duct system to establish testing methods. The American D.O.P. test method, the British NaCl test method and several other independently developed methods are compared. It is considered that the D.O.P. method is most suitable for in-plant and leak tests

  14. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend wealth index category had a significant, inverse association with mental disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study’s results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability. PMID:26492258

  15. Population-based study on use of chemotherapy in men with castration resistant prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lissbrant, Ingela Franck; Garmo, Hans; Widmark, Anders; Stattin, P?r

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chemotherapy prolongs life and relieves symptoms in men with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is limited information on a population level on the use of chemotherapy for CRPC. Material and methods. To assess the use of chemotherapy in men with CRPC we conducted a register-based nationwide population-based study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) and a nationwide in-patient drug register (SALT database) between May 2009 and December 2010. We assumed that...

  16. Underwater methods for study of salmonids in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell F. Thurow

    1994-01-01

    This guide describes underwater methods using snorkeling gear to study fish populations in flowing waters of the Intermountain West. It outlines procedures for estimating salmonid abundance and habitat use and provides criteria for identifying and estimating the size of fish underwater.

  17. PINP: a new method of tagging neuronal populations for identification during in vivo electrophysiological recording.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Q Lima

    Full Text Available Neural circuits are exquisitely organized, consisting of many different neuronal subpopulations. However, it is difficult to assess the functional roles of these subpopulations using conventional extracellular recording techniques because these techniques do not easily distinguish spikes from different neuronal populations. To overcome this limitation, we have developed PINP (Photostimulation-assisted Identification of Neuronal Populations, a method of tagging neuronal populations for identification during in vivo electrophysiological recording. The method is based on expressing the light-activated channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 to restricted neuronal subpopulations. ChR2-tagged neurons can be detected electrophysiologically in vivo since illumination of these neurons with a brief flash of blue light triggers a short latency reliable action potential. We demonstrate the feasibility of this technique by expressing ChR2 in distinct populations of cortical neurons using two different strategies. First, we labeled a subpopulation of cortical neurons-mainly fast-spiking interneurons-by using adeno-associated virus (AAV to deliver ChR2 in a transgenic mouse line in which the expression of Cre recombinase was driven by the parvalbumin promoter. Second, we labeled subpopulations of excitatory neurons in the rat auditory cortex with ChR2 based on projection target by using herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1, which is efficiently taken up by axons and transported retrogradely; we find that this latter population responds to acoustic stimulation differently from unlabeled neurons. Tagging neurons is a novel application of ChR2, used in this case to monitor activity instead of manipulating it. PINP can be readily extended to other populations of genetically identifiable neurons, and will provide a useful method for probing the functional role of different neuronal populations in vivo.

  18. A panchromatic study of the stellar populations in NGC 4303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dametto, N. Z.; Riffel, R.; Colina, L. R.; Riffel, R. A.; Piqueras López, J.

    2017-07-01

    We present some preliminary results on a panchromatic study of the stellar populations (SPs) in NGC 4303, using HST/STIS long-slit spectroscopy for the ultra-violet (UV) and optical spectral range, while VLT/SINFONI IFU data were used for the near-infrared (NIR) part of the spectra.

  19. 94 STUDIES ON DOG POPULATION IN MAKURDI, NIGERIA (II): A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STUDIES ON DOG POPULATION IN MAKURDI, NIGERIA (II): A SURVEY OF ... only 5.2% mentioned tick infestation as potential health risk to dogs and humans. Bathing dogs with brush ... as pets and/or security alert; this has consequently ...

  20. The population abundance, distribution pattern and culture studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... The population abundance, distribution pattern and culture studies of ... plankton species belong mainly to the nanoplankton and microplankton ... Algal samples were collected from the shore using microalgal net cone shaped of .... species diversity of Porto Novo, Tamil Nadu and De et al. (1994) in the ...

  1. An observational study of disk-population globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armandroff, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Integrated-light spectroscopy was obtained for twenty-seven globular clusters at the Ca II infrared triplet. Line strengths and radial velocities were measured from the spectra. For the well-studied clusters in the sample, the strength of the CA II lines is very well correlated with previous metallicity estimates obtained using a variety of techniques. The greatly reduced effect of interstellar extinction at these wavelengths compared to the blue region of the spectrum has permitted observations of some of the most heavily reddened clusters in the Galaxy. For several such clusters, the Ca II triplet metallicities are in poor agreement with metallicity estimates from infrared photometry by Malkan. Color-magnitude diagrams were constructed for six previously unstudied metal-rich globular clusters and for the well-studied cluster 47 Tuc. The V magnitudes of the horizontal branch stars in the six clusters are in poor agreement with previous estimates based on secondary methods. The horizontal branch morphologies and reddenings of the program clusters were also determined. Using the improved set of metallicities, radial velocities, and distance moduli, the spatial distribution, kinematics, and metallicity distribution of the Galactic globulars were analyzed. The revised data supports Zinn's conclusion that the metal-rich clusters form a highly flattened, rapidly rotating disk system, while the metal-poor clusters make up the familiar, spherically distributed, slowly rotating halo population. The scale height, metallicity distribution, and kinematics of the metal-rich globulars are in good agreement with those of the stellar thick disk. Luminosity functions were constructed, and no significant difference is found between disk and halo samples. Metallicity gradients seem to be present in the disk cluster system. The implications of these results for the formation and evol

  2. Energy drinks consumption in Erbil city: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassin A. Asaad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Energy drinks have become increasingly prevalent among young adults and adolescents in recent years, particularly young students and athletes who see the consumption of energy drinks as an easy and quick way to boost academic and athletic performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of consumption of energy drinks in a sample of adolescent and adults in Erbil city as well as perceived benefits and its health hazards. Methods: A convenience sample of 600 individuals from different sectors and social groups of Erbil city was selected. Data was obtained through direct interview. The data was managed through SPSS program version 18, using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The prevalence of energy drinks consumption among the study population was 42.7%, especially adolescents and young adults (those ≤ 25 years and was more common among males than females (55.7% and 29.8%, respectively. The main reasons for its consumption were related to getting energy and improving the mood and performance (66.0% and 30.4%, respectively. 62.7% of participants think that it is harmful and could have adverse effects such as heartbeat irregularity and blood pressure swinging, addiction, and osteoporosis (46.2%, 33.7% and 13.2%, respectively. Televisions were the major source of advertisement (71.45. A significant statistical association had been found between the age, gender and educational status of the participants and consuming energy drinks (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption found to be highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults in Erbil city, which calls for review and regulating the sale of these drinks including adolescents' education, raising community’s awareness, banning selling it in public places and increasing taxes.

  3. A descriptive study of plasma cell dyscrasias in Egyptian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, N.M.; Kassem, H.A.; EL Zawam, H.; EL Nahas, T.; Abd El Azeeim, H.; Abd El Azeeim; El Husseiny, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs) refer to a spectrum of disorders characterized by the monoclonal proliferation of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the bone marrow and, sometimes, tissue deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins or their components. These disorders include multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, as well as rare conditions such as light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) and heavy-chain diseases (HCDs). The worldwide annual incidence of MM is estimated at 86,000, which is approximately 0.8% of all new cancer cases. Purpose: Our retrospective study aims to highlight the immunologic and epidemiological features of PCDs mainly MM in Egyptian patients and compare our results with those of other populations. Methods: Two hundred seventeen Egyptian patients with PCD were enrolled in the study. Serum, urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation were used to demonstrate M protein. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients (63.6%) had IgG monoclonal band, 38 patients (17.5%) had IgA, 12 patients (5.5%) had Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia (IgM monoclonal band) and 29 patients (13.4%) were light chain myeloma. One hundred fifty-one (70%) were Kappa chain positive and 66 patients (30%) were lumbda positive. Conventional cytogenetics was available for 40 patients; of them12 patients (30%) showed 13q-. Mean OS was 37.5 months (1-84 months). Survival analysis was statistically insignificant according to age, sex and ISS or type of treatment (P value >0.05). Conclusion: Long term follow up is required to further define the role of different therapeutic lines of treatment including ASCT in the various stages of PCD based on OS data.

  4. A population-based study of glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszat, Lawrence; Laperriere, Normand; Groome, Patti; Schulze, Karleen; Mackillop, William; Holowaty, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To describe (1) the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) in Ontario, (2) survival, and (3) proportion of survival time spent in the hospital after diagnosis. Methods and Materials: We performed a population-based cohort study of all Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) cases of GBM diagnosed between 1982 and 1994. We linked OCR records, hospital files containing surgical procedure codes from the Canadian Institute for Health Information, and province-wide RT records. We studied the odds of treatment using multivariate logistic regression. We expressed the time spent in the hospital as the mean number of days per case, and as a proportion of the interval between diagnosis and death, or 24 months following diagnosis, whichever came first. We used the life-table method and Cox proportional hazards regression to describe survival. Results: The proportion of patients with GBM undergoing any surgery directed at the tumor varied with age (p<0.0001) and region of residence (p<0.0001). The proportion undergoing RT varied with age (p<0.0001), region of residence (p<0.0001), and year of diagnosis (p=0.01). RT dose ≥53.5 Gy varied with age (p<0.0001), region of residence (p<0.0001), and year of diagnosis (p=0.0002). Median survival was 11 months among patients receiving RT and 3 months among those not receiving RT. The percentage of survival time spent in the hospital was similar among those who received from 49.5 to <53.5 Gy, compared to ≥53.5 Gy. Overall survival and the adjusted relative risk of death varied with age and region of residence. Conclusion: We observed practice variation in the treatment of patients with GBM according to age, region of residence, and year of diagnosis. Survival did not increase during the study period. The variation in RT dose between those receiving from 49.5 to <53.5 Gy compared to ≥53.5 Gy was not paralleled by variation in survival between regions where one or the other of the

  5. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’ and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’ or applied by the management (‘From’. Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual

  6. Characterizing Adult Sleep Behavior Over 20 Years-The Population-Based Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomers, Margot L; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Proper, Karin I.; Verschuren, W M Monique; Picavet, H. Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe sleep duration patterns of adults over a 20-year period; to compare sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics across these patterns; and to relate the patterns to sleep quality. Methods: The study population consisted of 3695 adults aged 20 to 59 years at

  7. Population studies of echinoderms and growth and mortality of sea cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: methods of collecting sea cucumbers; determination of growth rates of plates of the calcareous ring; use of growth parameters and a length-frequency distribution to estimate mortality and population turnover; movement of materials through the atoll ecosystem; and autoradiographic studies on spines of sea urchins

  8. Study design and statistical analysis of data in human population studies with the micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Gallo, Fabio; Bonassi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The most common study design performed in population studies based on the micronucleus (MN) assay, is the cross-sectional study, which is largely performed to evaluate the DNA damaging effects of exposure to genotoxic agents in the workplace, in the environment, as well as from diet or lifestyle factors. Sample size is still a critical issue in the design of MN studies since most recent studies considering gene-environment interaction, often require a sample size of several hundred subjects, which is in many cases difficult to achieve. The control of confounding is another major threat to the validity of causal inference. The most popular confounders considered in population studies using MN are age, gender and smoking habit. Extensive attention is given to the assessment of effect modification, given the increasing inclusion of biomarkers of genetic susceptibility in the study design. Selected issues concerning the statistical treatment of data have been addressed in this mini-review, starting from data description, which is a critical step of statistical analysis, since it allows to detect possible errors in the dataset to be analysed and to check the validity of assumptions required for more complex analyses. Basic issues dealing with statistical analysis of biomarkers are extensively evaluated, including methods to explore the dose-response relationship among two continuous variables and inferential analysis. A critical approach to the use of parametric and non-parametric methods is presented, before addressing the issue of most suitable multivariate models to fit MN data. In the last decade, the quality of statistical analysis of MN data has certainly evolved, although even nowadays only a small number of studies apply the Poisson model, which is the most suitable method for the analysis of MN data.

  9. Recommended methods for monitoring change in bird populations by counting and capture of migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. T. Hussell; C. John Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Counts and banding captures of spring or fall migrants can generate useful information on the status and trends of the source populations. To do so, the counts and captures must be taken and recorded in a standardized and consistent manner. We present recommendations for field methods for counting and capturing migrants at intensively operated sites, such as bird...

  10. Data Quality in the Application of Tailored Calendar Methods in Hard-to-Reach Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarra, M.Q.; Vaart, van der W.; Niehof, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A tailored calendar method was used to collect retrospective data from hard-to-reach populations: people with very low levels of income, education and literacy that live in complex societal situations and have low trust in authorities. Recognizing the serious threats to data quality in

  11. Nationwide Genomic Study in Denmark Reveals Remarkable Population Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Jørgensen, Frank G; Als, Thomas D; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Espeseth, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hultman, Christina M; Kjærgaard, Peter C; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ∼800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany, and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen, and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R 2 = 0.639 ± 0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Studies on population dynamic of diamondback moth in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakrong, A.; Limohpasmanee, W.; Keawchoung, P.; Kodcharint, P.

    1994-01-01

    The population dynamic of diamondback moth larva in the field was studied at Khao Khor High-land Agricultural Research Station during August-October 1993 and February-April 1994. The distribution patterns of diamondback moth larva was clumped when population was low and would change to be random when population was high. The maximun and minimum number of diamondback moth in the field were 71,203 and 2,732 larva/rai during March and September. Temperature, rainfall and age of cabbage were slightly relative with number of larva (r=-0.2891, p=0.30; r=-0.2816, p=0.31 and r=0.2931, p=0.29 respectively) but relative humidity has no effect on number of larva

  13. A moment projection method for population balance dynamics with a shrinkage term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shaohua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Block EA, Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Yapp, Edward K.Y.; Akroyd, Jethro; Mosbach, Sebastian [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Xu, Rong [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore); Yang, Wenming [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Block EA, Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Kraft, Markus, E-mail: mk306@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)

    2017-02-01

    A new method of moments for solving the population balance equation is developed and presented. The moment projection method (MPM) is numerically simple and easy to implement and attempts to address the challenge of particle shrinkage due to processes such as oxidation, evaporation or dissolution. It directly solves the moment transport equation for the moments and tracks the number of the smallest particles using the algorithm by Blumstein and Wheeler (1973) . The performance of the new method is measured against the method of moments (MOM) and the hybrid method of moments (HMOM). The results suggest that MPM performs much better than MOM and HMOM where shrinkage is dominant. The new method predicts mean quantities which are almost as accurate as a high-precision stochastic method calculated using the established direct simulation algorithm (DSA).

  14. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Panne, Robert; Smerecnik, Chris

    2012-11-28

    While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change ('Bundling') and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management ('At') or applied by the management ('From'). The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the 'bundling' of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed 'at' an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus 'from' within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change.There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may be bundled and separate suggestions for methods targeting a level

  15. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2010-01-01

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed....

  16. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching....

  17. Pharmacologic studies in vulnerable populations: Using the pediatric experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kanecia; Gonzalez, Daniel; Swamy, Geeta K; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Historically, few data exist to guide dosing in children and pregnant women. Multiple barriers to inclusion of these vulnerable populations in clinical trials have led to this paucity of data. However, federal legislation targeted at pediatric therapeutics, innovative clinical trial design, use of quantitative clinical pharmacology methods, pediatric thought leadership, and collaboration have successfully overcome many existing barriers. This success has resulted in improved knowledge on pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of therapeutics in children. To date, research in pregnant women has not been characterized by similar success. Wide gaps in knowledge remain despite the common use of therapeutics in pregnancy. Given the similar barriers to drug research and development in pediatric and pregnant populations, the route toward success in children may serve as a model for the advancement of drug development and appropriate drug administration in pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Participation rates in the selection of population controls in a case-control study of colorectal cancer using two recruitment methods Tasas de participación en la selección de controles poblacionales en un estudio de casos y controles de cáncer colorrectal usando dos métodos de reclutamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Castaño-Vinyals

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low participation rates in the selection of population controls are an increasing concern for the validity of case-control studies worldwide. Methods: We conducted a pilot study to assess two approaches to recruiting population controls in a study of colorectal cancer, including a face-to-face interview and blood sample collection. In the first approach, persons identified through a population roster were invited to participate through a telephone call by an interviewer telephoning on behalf of our research center. In the second approach, individuals were identified from the lists of selected family practitioners and were telephoned on behalf of the family practitioner. Results: When the second method was used, participation rates increased from 42% to 57% and the percentage of refusals decreased from 47% to 13%. The reasons for refusing to participate did not differ significantly between the two methods. Conclusions: Contact through the family practitioner yielded higher response rates in population controls in the study area.Objetivos: Las bajas tasas de participación de controles poblacionales son una preocupación para la validez de los estudios de casos y controles. Métodos: Realizamos un estudio piloto utilizando dos estrategias de reclutamiento de controles poblacionales en un estudio de cáncer colorrectal, incluyendo una entrevista personal y una extracción de sangre. Con la primera estrategia, una entrevistadora llamaba en nombre del centro de investigación a los sujetos de un censo. Con la segunda estrategia, los sujetos fueron seleccionados a partir de los listados de población asignada a los médicos de familia y la llamada se hacía en nombre del médico. Resultados: Las tasas de participación aumentaron del 42% al 57% usando el segundo método; el porcentaje de rechazos disminuyó del 47% al 13%. Las razones de rechazo no diferían según la estrategia. Conclusiones: El contacto a través del médico de familia

  19. Radionuclide methods application in cardiac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotina, E.D.; Ploskikh, V.A.; Babin, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide methods are one of the most modern methods of functional diagnostics of diseases of the cardio-vascular system that requires the use of mathematical methods of processing and analysis of data obtained during the investigation. Study is carried out by means of one-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Mathematical methods and software for SPECT data processing are developed. This software allows defining physiologically meaningful indicators for cardiac studies

  20. Small mammal populations in zoonotic disease and toxicological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muul, I.

    1978-01-01

    Examples of zoonotic diseases are discussed in relation to their distribution in mammalian hosts. Various ecological factors influence disease distribution patterns so that only a certain portion of the mammalian populations are subject to infections. Emphasis was placed on some of these ecological factors in studying the mainstream of infections in endemic hosts and vectors. This approach might be called medical ecology and would be supplemental to epidemiological studies which characteristically emphasize human involvement in zoonotic disease transmission. For example, occurrence in certain habitats and vertical distribution within forest habitats predisposed various mammalian species to infections. Arboreal species did not have scrub typhus infections while terrestrial species had high infection rates. Malaria parasites were common in arboreal mammals but uncommon in terrestrial species. Additionally, disease surveys in the absence of population data pertaining to potential host species sometimes yield misleading results, especially if age structure within populations changes through time. In field studies use of sentinel animals of known immunological history provide valuable supplemental information to surveys of free living animals which may have been infected at some unknown time in the past. As many different species should be studied as is practical since some species may not be susceptible to certain diseases under study. In laboratory studies, inclusion of non-standard mammals may provide opportunities to culture disease organisms which do not proliferate in standard laboratory species, or to replace diminishing resources of such species as primates

  1. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dumas Cintra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart® system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001. After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample.

  2. Econometric studies of urban population density: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, J F

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the 1st reasonably comprehensive survey of empirical research of urban population densities since the publication of the book by Edmonston in 1975. The survey summarizes contributions to empirical knowledge that have been made since 1975 and points toward possible areas for additional research. The paper also provides a brief interpretative intellectual history of the topic. It begins with a personal overview of research in the field. The next section discusses econometric issues that arise in the estimation of population density functions in which density is a function only of a distance to the central business district of the urban area. Section 4 summarizes the studies of a single urban area that went beyond the estimation of simple distance-density functions, and Section 5 discusses studies that sought to explain the variations across urban areas in population density patterns. McDonald refers to the standard theory of urban population density throughout the paper. This basic model is presented in the textbook by Mills and Hamilton and it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the model.

  3. Clinical prediction in defined populations: a simulation study investigating when and how to aggregate existing models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen P. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical prediction models (CPMs are increasingly deployed to support healthcare decisions but they are derived inconsistently, in part due to limited data. An emerging alternative is to aggregate existing CPMs developed for similar settings and outcomes. This simulation study aimed to investigate the impact of between-population-heterogeneity and sample size on aggregating existing CPMs in a defined population, compared with developing a model de novo. Methods Simulations were designed to mimic a scenario in which multiple CPMs for a binary outcome had been derived in distinct, heterogeneous populations, with potentially different predictors available in each. We then generated a new ‘local’ population and compared the performance of CPMs developed for this population by aggregation, using stacked regression, principal component analysis or partial least squares, with redevelopment from scratch using backwards selection and penalised regression. Results While redevelopment approaches resulted in models that were miscalibrated for local datasets of less than 500 observations, model aggregation methods were well calibrated across all simulation scenarios. When the size of local data was less than 1000 observations and between-population-heterogeneity was small, aggregating existing CPMs gave better discrimination and had the lowest mean square error in the predicted risks compared with deriving a new model. Conversely, given greater than 1000 observations and significant between-population-heterogeneity, then redevelopment outperformed the aggregation approaches. In all other scenarios, both aggregation and de novo derivation resulted in similar predictive performance. Conclusion This study demonstrates a pragmatic approach to contextualising CPMs to defined populations. When aiming to develop models in defined populations, modellers should consider existing CPMs, with aggregation approaches being a suitable modelling

  4. PREVIEW: Prevention of Diabetes through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and around the World. Design, Methods, and Baseline Participant Description of an Adult Cohort Enrolled into a Three-Year Randomised Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Fogelholm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Type-2 diabetes (T2D is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases worldwide. The PREVIEW project has been initiated to find the most effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity for the prevention of T2D, in overweight and obese participants with increased risk for T2D. The study is a three-year multi-centre, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised controlled trial. The impact of a high-protein, low-glycaemic index (GI vs. moderate protein, moderate-GI diet in combination with moderate or high-intensity physical activity on the incidence of T2D and the related clinical end-points are investigated. The intervention started with a two-month weight reduction using a low-calorie diet, followed by a randomised 34-month weight maintenance phase comprising four treatment arms. Eight intervention centres are participating (Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Spain, Bulgaria, Australia, and New Zealand. Data from blood specimens, urine, faeces, questionnaires, diaries, body composition assessments, and accelerometers are collected at months 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36. In total, 2326 adults were recruited. The mean age was 51.6 (SD 11.6 years, 67% were women. PREVIEW is, to date, the largest multinational trial to address the prevention of T2D in pre-diabetic adults through diet and exercise intervention. Participants will complete the final intervention in March, 2018.

  5. PREVIEW: Prevention of Diabetes through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and around the World. Design, Methods, and Baseline Participant Description of an Adult Cohort Enrolled into a Three-Year Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, Mikael; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Macdonald, Ian; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Poppitt, Sally; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Stratton, Gareth; Sundvall, Jouko; Lam, Tony; Jalo, Elli; Christensen, Pia; Drummen, Mathijs; Simpson, Elizabeth; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Muirhead, Roslyn; Silvestre, Marta P.; Kahlert, Daniela; Pastor-Sanz, Laura; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Raben, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases worldwide. The PREVIEW project has been initiated to find the most effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity) for the prevention of T2D, in overweight and obese participants with increased risk for T2D. The study is a three-year multi-centre, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised controlled trial. The impact of a high-protein, low-glycaemic index (GI) vs. moderate protein, moderate-GI diet in combination with moderate or high-intensity physical activity on the incidence of T2D and the related clinical end-points are investigated. The intervention started with a two-month weight reduction using a low-calorie diet, followed by a randomised 34-month weight maintenance phase comprising four treatment arms. Eight intervention centres are participating (Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Spain, Bulgaria, Australia, and New Zealand). Data from blood specimens, urine, faeces, questionnaires, diaries, body composition assessments, and accelerometers are collected at months 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36. In total, 2326 adults were recruited. The mean age was 51.6 (SD 11.6) years, 67% were women. PREVIEW is, to date, the largest multinational trial to address the prevention of T2D in pre-diabetic adults through diet and exercise intervention. Participants will complete the final intervention in March, 2018. PMID:28632180

  6. Comparing methods of targeting obesity interventions in populations: An agent-based simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Glass, Thomas A

    2017-12-01

    Social networks as well as neighborhood environments have been shown to effect obesity-related behaviors including energy intake and physical activity. Accordingly, harnessing social networks to improve targeting of obesity interventions may be promising to the extent this leads to social multiplier effects and wider diffusion of intervention impact on populations. However, the literature evaluating network-based interventions has been inconsistent. Computational methods like agent-based models (ABM) provide researchers with tools to experiment in a simulated environment. We develop an ABM to compare conventional targeting methods (random selection, based on individual obesity risk, and vulnerable areas) with network-based targeting methods. We adapt a previously published and validated model of network diffusion of obesity-related behavior. We then build social networks among agents using a more realistic approach. We calibrate our model first against national-level data. Our results show that network-based targeting may lead to greater population impact. We also present a new targeting method that outperforms other methods in terms of intervention effectiveness at the population level.

  7. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R.; Wiley, Michael R.; Nagle, Elyse R.; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F.

    2017-01-01

    Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic “no amplification” method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a “targeted” amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a “random” amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced “no amplification” method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a “targeted” enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4−5) of all compared methods. PMID:28182717

  8. Methods for decreasing population doses due to medical use of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of radiation safety of population as regard to irradiation of a great contingents of people due to diagnosis procedures, carried out using X-ray and radiological methods of examination, is considered. It is shown, that prevention from excessive irradiation of population due to X-ray radiodiagnostic procedures is possible by realization the complex of activities, including legislative, organizational, technical and other measures. Human exposure doses in diagnosis most not exceed permissible ones, established on the basis of cost-benefit criterion. The necessity of the maximum limitation of exposure of pregnant women and children is emphasized

  9. Correlation between chronological age and third molar developmental stages in an Iranian population (Demirjian method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Aria; Navabi, Manijeh; Sakhdari, Shirin; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Third molar development is the only available tool for estimating the age of individuals after puberty. Since this tooth has very high interethnic variability, formulas calculated to estimate the age from its development stages cannot be generalized to other populations and should be adjusted for each region. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate this method in a sample of Tehran individuals for the first time, and also to compare the development of third molars across sexes and arches, and to estimate cutoff developmental stages for legal minor/major identification. A total of 150 dental patients aged between 15 and 25 years old were prospectively enrolled, and their Demirjian stages were recorded. The associations between chronological age and Demirjian stages were evaluated. Dental formation was compared between sexes and jaws. Cutoff stages were determined to identify legal minor/major cases (above or below 18 years old). Age estimation formula was found for this population. Of the 150 included patients, 56 were males. The difference between the ages of males and females at each given developmental stage was nonsignificant ( P > 0.05), except for the H stage. Age difference between same stage teeth of the maxilla and mandible was nonsignificant. Each of the G and H stages was significantly above 18 years old ( P age were above 90% (all P Third molar development was positively affected by the chronological age ( P = 0.000) and being maxillary ( P = 0.000) but not sex ( P = 0.113). Regression formula for age estimation was: age = 6.52+ (0.64 × sex) + (0.32 × arch) + (1.86 × Demirjian stage). Development of third molar might complete after the age 22. Iranian individuals with third molars at the G and H stages are likely above 18 while those at E and F are likely below 18. Pace of molar development differs for jaws, but intergender differences are open to further investigations.

  10. Human population studies and the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    This essay draws attention to the role of the WHO in shaping research agendas in the biomedical sciences in the postwar era. It considers in particular the genetic studies of human populations that were pursued under the aegis of the WHO from the late 1950s to 1970s. The study provides insights into how human and medical genetics entered the agenda of the WHO. At the same time, the population studies become a focus for tracking changing notions of international relations, cooperation, and development and their impact on research in biology and medicine in the post-World War I era. After a brief discussion of the early history of the WHO and its position in Cold War politics, the essay considers the WHO program in radiation protection and heredity and how the genetic study of "vanishing" human populations and a world-wide genetic study of newborns fitted this broader agenda. It then considers in more detail the kind of support offered by the WHO for these projects. The essay highlights the role of single individuals in taking advantage of WHO support for pushing their research agendas while establishing a trend towards cooperative international projects in biology.

  11. Studies of U in the blood of two population samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Olguin, M.E.; Romero, M.

    1986-01-01

    The present work, attempts to establish the statistical distribution of blood uranium in a population of the same community, similar in age and in living patterns. U traces were evaluated by a fission track technique both in whole blood and plasma samples. Dried samples were compressed into pellets and irradiated in a nuclear reactor using the external detector method. For U quantification, standard U samples were used. A comparative sampling of U content in blood samples from a group of radiation exposed workers and another of leukemia patients was also carried out. Results from the sampling groups are reported and discussed. (author)

  12. Genotyping faecal samples of Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Lalji

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. Results In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use.

  13. Use of models in small mammal population studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, W.; Nichols, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The role of models as contributors to the understanding of natural populations of small mammals is reviewed. A philosophy of model use and projections for future work are also included. Categories of biological phenomena reviewed include models on population dynamics (demographic variables and population regulation, dispersal, sex-ratios, predation, population cycles), population responses to environmental conditions, genetics of small mammal populations, competitive interactions, ecosystems and small mammal functions, and control and management of small mammal populations

  14. Health state of population in vicinity of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. Epidemiologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celko, M.; Durov, M.; Letkovicova, M.; Holy, R.; Sedliak, D.; Zrubec, M.; Kristufek, P.; Machata, M.; Prikazsky, V.; Rehak, R.; Stehlikova, B.; Vladar, M.

    1999-01-01

    Results of epidemiologic study of health state of population in vicinity of the Mochovce nuclear power plant (Slovak Republic) are presented. This report is reported under the headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Basic information about Mochovce NPP; (3) Assessment of population exposition by environmental factors; (4) Basic conceptions and principles of epidemiologic study; (5) Demography and health state of population; (6) Characterisation of databases and data; (7) Description of demographic and health indicators; (8) Calculation of demographic and health indicators in vicinity of the Mochovce NPP and in control areas; (9) Calculated indicators; (10) Statistical methods and evaluation of calculated indicators; (11) Summary and conclusions; (12) References; Appendixes: Literature review of similar epidemiologic studies; Quantities and units in radiation protection; Definitions of indicators calculation - specification of method

  15. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  16. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  17. Ethno- medico - botanical studies of Badaga population In the Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P. N. Arul

    2008-01-01

    The study grains to explore ethno-medicobotany of Badaga population in the Nilgiri hills of Tamilnadu, South India. Ethno botanical field survey and personal discussion methods have been adopted in the collection of data. A list of 71 flowering plants belonging to 42 families, 67 genera and 70 species are employed by the Badaga popu-lation in their native system of medicine for therapeutic purposes. In reviewing ethnomedical information, data on folk herbal remedies and their various methods of applications for treating a wide range of ailments have been furnished. A brief description of plants, their habitat, family and local Badaga names are outlined here. PMID:22557279

  18. SAS Macros for Calculation of Population Attributable Fraction in a Cohort Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit A. Laaksonen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The population attributable fraction (PAF is a useful measure for quantifying the impact of exposure to certain risk factors on a particular outcome at the population level. Recently, new model-based methods for the estimation of PAF and its confidence interval for different types of outcomes in a cohort study design have been proposed. In this paper, we introduce SAS macros implementing these methods and illustrate their application with a data example on the impact of different risk factors on type 2 diabetes incidence.

  19. Statistical Methods for Studying Genetic Variation in Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    iteration will converge to a local optimum, similar to what happens in an EM algorithm. Empirically, a near global optimal can be obtained by multiple...and E Matthysen. Genetic variability and gene flow 131 in the globally , critically-endangered Taita thrush. Conservation Genetics, 1:45–55, 2000. 4.5.2...Libioulle, Edouard Louis, Sarah Hansoul, Cynthia Sandor, Frédéric Farnir, Denis Franchi - mont, Séverine Vermeire, Olivier Dewit, Martine de Vos, Anna

  20. Digital dermatoglyphics: A study on Muslim population from India

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, Neeti; Badiye, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of fingerprint patterns has been found to be varying amongst the different population groups across the globe. Hence, this knowledge becomes crucially important in forensic investigations. The present study was conducted on 480 healthy and consenting Muslim individuals (240 males and 240 females) from Maharashtra State in India. The aims were to determine the frequency distribution of various fingerprint patterns; establish the most and least predominant patterns; and to find...

  1. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Geon Woo; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Youngeun; Hong, Seung-Han; Kim, Soohwaun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Shin, Dong Chun; Lim, Youngwook

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the o...

  2. Radiation dozes reconstruction of Semipalatinsk region Beskaragai area's population by the method of biological measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.; Kundakbaeva, G.; Bigalieva, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The study of radiation situation (on the position of May 1989) in Beskaragai area of Semipalatinsk region showed that the level of γ-radiation on it's territory reached 13-20 μR/hour, which was determined by the traces of long living radionuclides. In the inhabited regions of Dolon, Kanonerka, Buras, Ramadan villages the effect of deepening was noticed, α-particle's density level has reached maximum on the depth of approximately 10 cm, and further it decreases up to the 30 cm depth, This circumstance witnesses about the fact that we are talking about radioactive traces of many years ago happening with a time going to the depth from the upper coverage of soil. We've made the evaluation of radiation influence's genetic effects on the man's population. Cytogenetic analysis (with the use of G-method of chromosome's coloring) at whole in Beskaragai region shows that the frequency of aberrations for the cell among the inhabitants of the region is obviously higher 3.3 times at average in the region than among the population of the controlled area. During the study of the cytogenetic effects of increased radiation level's influence it is important first of all to determine the frequency of chromosome type aberrations - dicentric chromosomes, centric circles, acentric pair fragments. As it is known, the level of chromosome type aberrations is sufficiently well correlated with the doze, We have determined accumulative doze of radiation using the formula (D.C. Lloyd at all. 1992) for the calculation of dicentrics under the chronical influence of the small dozes of ionized radiation. According to the made calculations the oriented reconstruction of radiation dozes in Beskaragai region made 11 ber = 0.11 Sv, for the Dolon village - 14 ber, Kanonerka village - 13 ber, Buras village - 6 ber, Ramadan - 9.5 ber. Presented data allows to ask the question about the more spread use of cytogenetic method of research among the different population's categories living at

  3. Molecular Markers for Genetic Diversity Studies of European Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémi Soós

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give an overview of different molecular techniques which have been used in studies concerning population genetic issues of Lepus species and specifically of L. europaeus. The importance of these researches is ever-growing as the European populations of the brown hare have suffered several falloffs as a consequent upon both natural and anthropogenic effects. With developing tools and techniques molecular genetics have become the centrepiece of population genetics and conservation biology. Nucleic acid methods based on both bi- and uniparentally inherited DNA (allozymes, microsatellites, Y chromosome, mtDNA are often used to study genetic structure, diversity and phylogeography of different species’ populations due to their effectiveness in identifying genetic variability

  4. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Probability Sampling Method for a Hidden Population Using Respondent-Driven Sampling: Simulation for Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    When there is no sampling frame within a certain group or the group is concerned that making its population public would bring social stigma, we say the population is hidden. It is difficult to approach this kind of population survey-methodologically because the response rate is low and its members are not quite honest with their responses when probability sampling is used. The only alternative known to address the problems caused by previous methods such as snowball sampling is respondent-driven sampling (RDS), which was developed by Heckathorn and his colleagues. RDS is based on a Markov chain, and uses the social network information of the respondent. This characteristic allows for probability sampling when we survey a hidden population. We verified through computer simulation whether RDS can be used on a hidden population of cancer survivors. According to the simulation results of this thesis, the chain-referral sampling of RDS tends to minimize as the sample gets bigger, and it becomes stabilized as the wave progresses. Therefore, it shows that the final sample information can be completely independent from the initial seeds if a certain level of sample size is secured even if the initial seeds were selected through convenient sampling. Thus, RDS can be considered as an alternative which can improve upon both key informant sampling and ethnographic surveys, and it needs to be utilized for various cases domestically as well.

  6. The value of some Corsican sub-populations for genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vona Giuseppe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic isolates with a history of a small founder population, long-lasting isolation and population bottlenecks represent exceptional resources in the identification of disease genes. In these populations the disease allele reveals Linkage Disequilibrium (LD with markers over significant genetic intervals, therefore facilitating disease locus identification. In a previous study we examined the LD extension on the Xq13 region in three Corsican sub-populations from the inner mountainous region of the island. On the basis of those previous results we have proposed a multistep procedure to carry out studies aimed at the identification of genes involved in complex diseases in Corsica. A prerequisite to carry out the proposed multi-step procedure was the presence of different degrees of LD on the island and a common genetic derivation of the different Corsican sub-populations. In order to evaluate the existence of these conditions in the present paper we extended the analysis to the Corsican coastal populations. Methods Samples were analyzed using seven dinucleotide microsatellite markers on chromosome Xq13-21: DXS983, DXS986, DXS8092, DXS8082, DXS1225, DXS8037 and DXS995 spanning approximately 4.0 cM (13.3 Mb. We have also investigated the distribution of the DXS1225-DXS8082 haplotype which has been recently proposed as a good marker of population genetic history due to its low recombination rate. Results the results obtained indicate a decrease of LD on the island from the central mountainous toward the coastal sub-populations. In addition the analysis of the DXS1225-DXS8082 haplotype revealed: 1 the presence of a particular haplotype with high frequency; 2 the derivation from a common genetic pool of the sub-populations examined in the present study. Conclusion These results indicate the Corsican sub-populations useful for the fine mapping of genes contributing to complex diseases.

  7. A method for analyzing changing prison populations: explaining the growth of the elderly in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luallen, Jeremy; Kling, Ryan

    2014-12-01

    For the past several decades, the U.S. prison system has witnessed a steady and persistent increase in the ages of prison populations. Given the additional costs and burdens placed on prisons as they house older inmates, this aging trend has generated intense interest among policy makers and academics who seek to understand why prison populations are getting older. This article presents a method for evaluating drivers influencing the change in age distributions among prisoners. We define a methodological approach and demonstrate its application using prison data from four states reporting to the Bureau of Justice Statistics' National Corrections Reporting Program. We find that since 2000, the primary driver of overall growth in the elderly populations in prison (defined as inmates over 50) is the increasing admission age of offenders entering prison. Moreover, changes in offense mix and sentence length/time served over the last decade have had significantly less influence on the age composition of prison populations. We also find that the impact of explanatory factors varies across states and offense types. For example, prison admission and exit rates explain much of the change in elderly drug offenders in New York, but not elderly violent offenders, where admission age plays a much stronger explanatory role. Our analysis offers an effective demonstration that supports the use of this method as an important and informative first step toward understanding components of change that affect the problem of prison aging. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Studying the Stellar Populations of the Local Group with VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    The best chance we have to understand star formation and how it proceeds in the Universe is going to come from detailed studies of the numerous different environments found within the Local Group (LG). Present day star formation in our Galaxy occurs exclusively in metal rich environments (Z ˜ Z_⊙), so if we want to study how low metallicity stars form (and thus understand observations of galaxies at high-redshift) we have to look beyond our Galaxy, to the smallest star forming dwarf galaxies, which can have extremely low metallicities (Z ˜ 0.02-0.05Z_⊙). Of course in its entirety a stellar population always contains the complete details of the star formation history of a galaxy, however this information is often hard to disentangle retroactively. We also have much to learn from the Magellanic Clouds (Z ˜ 0.1- 0.3Z_⊙), although because they are undergoing interactions with our Galaxy and each other their evolutionary picture and its general applicability less obvious. In our LG there are also a number of "remnants", or galaxies which which currently do not form stars (e.g. the dSph, such as Carina, Leo I, Ursa Minor, etc..). It is not straight forward to draw parallels between galaxies which are forming stars and those which aren't. This is of course because star formation has such a dramatic impact upon a galaxy, and alternative methods have to be used to make the most basic of comparisons of properties (e.g. metallicity, mass, luminosity evolution). It is necessary to put all the dwarf galaxies into a global picture if we are to draw meaningful conclusions about their star formation properties (e.g. Ferrara & Tolstoy 1999). Many of the small LG galaxies contain direct evidence of complicated star formation histories (e.g. Smecker-Hane et al. 1994; Tolstoy et al. 1998; Gallart et al. 1999), which suggests that star formation patterns can change dramatically over long time scales. This kind of evolutionary behaviour can have a dramatic impact upon the

  9. Prevalence of renal artery stenosis in subjects with moderate hypertension. A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik B; Borglykke, Anders; Jørgensen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aim. To examine the prevalence of significant renal artery stenosis (RAS) in subjects with moderate to severe hypertension. Materials and methods. Subjects aged 50-66 years with blood pressure >160/100 mmHg or receiving antihypertensive treatment were selected from the population study...

  10. Epidemiology of multiple congenital anomalies in Europe: A EUROCAT population-based registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calzolari, Elisa; Barisic, Ingeborg; Loane, Maria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study describes the prevalence, associated anomalies, and demographic characteristics of cases of multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) in 19 population-based European registries (EUROCAT) covering 959,446 births in 2004 and 2010. METHODS: EUROCAT implemented a computer algorithm f...

  11. A review of population-based studies on hypertension in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is becoming a common health problem worldwide with increasing life expectancy and increasing prevalence of risk factors. Epidemiological data on hypertension in Ghana is necessary to guide policy and develop effective interventions. Methods: A review of population-based studies on ...

  12. Recurrent bacteraemia: A 10-year regional population-based study of clinical and microbiological risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, U.S.; Knudsen, J.D.; Andersen, Christian Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    Background: A population-based nested case-control study was conducted in order to characterize patient factors and microbial species associated with recurrent bacteraemia. Methods: All patients with bacteraemia in a Danish region during 1996-2006 were investigated. Recurrence was defined based o...

  13. The etiology of autistic traits in preschoolers : a population-based twin study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, E.L.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are highly heritable, but the exact etiological mechanisms underlying the condition are still unclear. METHODS: Using a multiple rater twin design in a large sample of general population preschool twins, this study aimed to (a) estimate the contribution of

  14. Pneumococcal serotypes and mortality following invasive pneumococcal disease: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta B; Thomsen, Reimar W; Riis, Anders

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between specific pneumococcal serotypes and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a nationwide population-based...

  15. Chronic Physical Illness and Mental Health in Children. Results from a Large-Scale Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Elgen, Irene; Gillberg, Christopher; Lie, Stein Atle; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in detecting emotional and behavioural problems among children with chronic illness (CI). Methods: Parents and teachers of a population of primary school children in Norway (n = 9430) completed a…

  16. Association of STAT4 with rheumatoid arthritis: a replication study in three European populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orozco, G.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Delgado-Vega, A.M.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Balsa, A.; Pascual-Salcedo, D.; Fernandez-Gutierrez, B.; Gonzalez-Escribano, M.F.; Petersson, I.F.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Barrera, P.; Coenen, M.J.H.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Leeuwen, M.A. van; Wijmenga, C.; Koeleman, B.P.; Alarcon-Riquelme, M.E.; Martin, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the previously reported association of the STAT4 polymorphism rs7574865 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 3 different European populations from Spain, Sweden, and The Netherlands, comprising a total of 2,072 patients and 2,474 controls. METHODS:

  17. Fast and reliable methods for extracting functional connectivity in large populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roudi, Yasser; Tyrcha, Joanna; Hertz, John

    2009-01-01

    in that time bin, and 1 if it has emitted one spike or more. One then can construct an Ising model, P(s )=Z-1exp{h.s+sJs} for the spike patterns with the same means and pair correlations as the data, using Boltzmann learning, which is in principle exact.  The elements Jij , of the matrix J can be considered...... to be functional couplings. However, Boltzmann learning is prohibitively time-consuming for large networks. Here, we compare the results from five fast approximate methods for finding the couplings with those from Boltzmann learning.      We used data from a simulated network of spiking neurons operating...... in a balanced state of asynchronous firing with a mean rate of ~10 Hz for excitatory neurons. Employing a bin size of 10 ms, we performed Boltzmann learning to fit Ising models for populations of size N up to 200 excitatory neurons chosen randomly from the 800 in the simulated network.  We studied the following...

  18. Activating teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin E.; Thomsen, Erik; Szabo, Peter; Horsewell, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed. Peer Reviewed

  19. Expanding the Frontiers of Population Nutrition Research: New Questions, New Methods, and New Approaches12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David L.; Porter, Christine M.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Wuehler, Sara E.; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition research, ranging from molecular to population levels and all points along this spectrum, is exploring new frontiers as new technologies and societal changes create new possibilities and demands. This paper defines a set of frontiers at the population level that are being created by the increased societal recognition of the importance of nutrition; its connection to urgent health, social, and environmental problems; and the need for effective and sustainable solutions at the population level. The frontiers are defined in terms of why, what, who, and how we study at the population level and the disciplinary foundations for that research. The paper provides illustrations of research along some of these frontiers, an overarching framework for population nutrition research, and access to some of the literature from outside of nutrition that can enhance the intellectual coherence, practical utility, and societal benefit of population nutrition research. The frontiers defined in this paper build on earlier forward-looking efforts by the American Society for Nutrition and extend these efforts in significant ways. The American Society for Nutrition and its members can play pivotal roles in advancing these frontiers by addressing a number of well-recognized challenges associated with transdisciplinary and engaged research. PMID:23319128

  20. Recent Studies on Trojan Horse Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Gulino, M.

    2011-01-01

    The study of nuclear reactions that are important for the understanding of astrophysical problems received an increasing attention over the last decades. The Trojan Horse Method was proposed as a tool to overcome some of the problems connected with the measurement of cross-sections between charged particles at astrophysical energies. Here we present some recent studies on this method. (authors)

  1. A 1000 Arab genome project to study the Emirati population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Mariam; Osman, Wael; Tay, Guan K; AlSafar, Habiba S

    2018-04-01

    Discoveries from the human genome, HapMap, and 1000 genome projects have collectively contributed toward the creation of a catalog of human genetic variations that has improved our understanding of human diversity. Despite the collegial nature of many of these genome study consortiums, which has led to the cataloging of genetic variations of different ethnic groups from around the world, genome data on the Arab population remains overwhelmingly underrepresented. The National Arab Genome project in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) aims to address this deficiency by using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to provide data to improve our understanding of the Arab genome and catalog variants that are unique to the Arab population of the UAE. The project was conceived to shed light on the similarities and differences between the Arab genome and those of the other ethnic groups.

  2. Cardiovascular morbidity in COPD: A study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    Although there are a number of studies on the coexistence of heart disease and COPD among patients acutely admitted to hospital, this relationship has not been accurately described in the general population. Especially data on the prevalence of both reduced lung function and impaired left.......4% for moderate COPD (GOLD stage 2) and 2.5% for severe and very severe COPD (GOLD stages 3+4). Individuals with COPD were older and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Among the echocardiographical findings, only the presence of left...... ventricular hyperthrophy was significantly more frequent among individuals with COPD (17.7%) than among participants without COPD (12.1%.), yet this relationship was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age and gender. In the general population, subjects with COPD have a higher prevalence...

  3. Clinical Utility of Noninvasive Method to Measure Specific Gravity in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeanine E; Huynh, Pauline P; Mody, Ameer P; Wang, Vincent J

    2018-04-01

    Clinicians rely on any combination of signs and symptoms, clinical scores, or invasive procedures to assess the hydration status in children. Noninvasive tests to evaluate for dehydration in the pediatric population are appealing. The objective of our study is to assess the utility of measuring specific gravity of tears compared to specific gravity of urine and the clinical assessment of dehydration. We conducted a prospective cohort convenience sample study, in a pediatric emergency department at a tertiary care children's hospital. We approached parents/guardians of children aged 6 months to 4 years undergoing transurethral catheterization for evaluation of urinary tract infection for enrollment. We collected tears and urine for measurement of tear specific gravity (TSG) and urine specific gravity (USG), respectively. Treating physicians completed dehydration assessment forms to assess for hydration status. Among the 60 participants included, the mean TSG was 1.0183 (SD = 0.007); the mean USG was 1.0186 (SD = 0.0083). TSG and USG were positively correlated with each other (Pearson Correlation = 0.423, p = 0.001). Clinical dehydration scores ranged from 0 to 3, with 87% assigned a score of 0, by physician assessment. Mean number of episodes of vomiting and diarrhea in a 24-hour period were 2.2 (SD = 3.9) and 1.5 (SD = 3.2), respectively. Sixty-two percent of parents reported decreased oral intake. TSG measurements yielded similar results compared with USG. Further studies are needed to determine if TSG can be used as a noninvasive method of dehydration assessment in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a Population Balance Model of a pharmaceutical drying process and testing of solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Drying is frequently used in the production of pharmaceutical tablets. Simulation-based control strategy development for such a drying process requires a detailed model. First, the drying of wet granules is modelled using a Population Balance Model. A growth term based on a reduced model was used......, which describes the decrease of the moisture content, to follow the moisture content distribution for a batch of granules. Secondly, different solution methods for solving the PBM are compared. The effect of grid size (discretization methods) is analyzed in terms of accuracy and calculation time. All...

  5. Occupational risk and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study in the United States adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinstein S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sofia Rubinstein,1 Chengwei Wang,1 Wenchun Qu2 1Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, NY, USA; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Objective: Previous studies on occupational risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD have analyzed a limited range of occupations and focused on nephrotoxins. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relative risk for the occurrence of CKD between different occupations in the US adult population. Materials and methods: This was a population-based survey study of 91,340 participants in the US, who completed the National Health Interview Survey, 2004 through 2008. The outcome variable, CKD, was defined as having weakening/failing kidneys in the past 12 months, as diagnosed by a physician. The predictor variable, occupation, was obtained using the census occupational codes, regrouped according to North American Industrial Classification System. Results: After controlling for age, gender, hypertension, and education, and with the category Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations as a reference group, the likelihood of developing CKD was 4.3 times higher in respondents working in Building, Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations, 4.4 times higher in Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations, 4.7 times higher in Transportation and Material Moving Occupations and in Computer and Mathematical Occupations, 4.8 times higher in Production Occupations, 5.3 times higher in Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations, and 6.1 times higher in Healthcare Support Occupations and in Legal Occupations. Conclusion: This study identified occupation groups in US adult population with increased risk for CKD. Alleviation of workplace stress is suggested as a goal for behavioral intervention in high-risk occupations. Keywords: CKD, risk factors, occupations

  6. Comorbidity profile of poliomyelitis survivors in a Chinese population: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2011-06-01

    Previous reports of comorbid conditions in poliomyelitis survivors mainly focused on some disease categories, such as respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric diseases, neurological diseases and cancer. Data regarding a wide spectrum of medical comorbidities in patients with poliomyelitis is still sparse. This study aimed to investigate and profile the wide range of comorbidities among the survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in a Chinese population. In total, 2,032 paralytic poliomyelitis patients were selected as the study group and the comparison group consisted of 10,160 randomly selected enrollees. The comorbidities for analysis were based on a modified version of the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Conditional logistic regression analyses were computed to investigate the risk of comorbidities for these two groups. As compared to controls, patients with paralytic poliomyelitis had significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, peripheral vascular disorder, stroke, paralysis, migraines, Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, pulmonary circulation disorders, chronic pulmonary disease, liver disease, peptic ulcers, hepatitis B or C, deficiency anemias, depression, and lymphoma. Most of the differences are of clinical interest, ORs often being between 2 and 3. No significant difference between poliomyelitis patients and controls was observed in the prevalence of SLE, tuberculosis, alcohol abuse and drug abuse. Our findings demonstrate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in Taiwan are at higher risk of having multiple medical comorbidities although some potential confounding factors including educational level, marital status, obesity and physical activity are not available in our database. The pattern is generally consistent with previous observations from Western populations. Nevertheless, we found several novel associations

  7. Enabling the participation of marginalized populations: case studies from a health service organization in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesanti, Stephanie R; Abelson, Julia; Lavis, John N; Dunn, James R

    2017-08-01

    We examined efforts to engage marginalized populations in Ontario Community Health Centers (CHCs), which are primary health care organizations serving 74 high-risk communities. Qualitative case studies of community participation in four Ontario CHCs were carried out through key informant interviews with CHC staff to identify: (i) the approaches, strategies and methods used in participation initiatives aimed specifically at engaging marginalized populations in the planning of and decision making for health services; and (ii) the challenges and enablers for engaging these populations. The marginalized populations involved in the community participation initiatives studied included Low-German Speaking Mennonites in a rural town, newcomer immigrants and refugees in an urban downtown city, immigrant and francophone seniors in an inner city and refugee women in an inner city. Our analysis revealed that enabling the participation of marginalized populations requires CHCs to attend to the barriers experienced by marginalized populations that constrain their participation. Key informants outlined the features of a 'community development approach' that they rely on to address the barriers to marginalized peoples' involvement by strengthening their skills, abilities and leadership in capacity-building activities. The community development approach also shaped the participation methods that were used in the engagement process of CHCs. However, key informants also described the challenges of applying this approach, influenced by the cultural values of some groups, which shaped their willingness and motivation to participate. This study provides further insight into the approach, strategies and methods used in the engagement process to enable the participation of marginalized populations, which may be transferable to other health services settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Experimental study on rapid embankment construction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Hideaki; Egawa, Kikuji; Hyodo, Kazuya; Kannoto, Yasuo; Sekimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Kokichi.

    1982-01-01

    In the construction of a thermal or nuclear power plant in a coastal area, shorter embankment construction period has come to be called for recently. This tendency is remarkable where construction period is limited due to meteorological or sea conditions. To meet this requirement, the authors have been conducting basic experimental studies on two methods for the rapid execution of embankment construction, that is, Steel Plate Cellular Bulkhead Embedding Method and Ship Hull Caisson Method. This paper presents an outline of the results of the experimental study on these two methods. (author)

  9. EpiReumaPt: how to perform a national population based study - a practical guide

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana M.; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Da Costa, Leonor Pereira; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Silva, Inês; Rego, Tânia; Laires, Pedro; André, Rui; Mauricio, Luís; Romeu, José Carlos; Tavares, Viviana; Cerol, Jorge; Canhão, Helena

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this article was to describe and discuss several strategies and standard operating procedures undertaken in the EpiReumaPt study - which was the first Portuguese, national, cross-sectional population-based study of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases (RMD). METHODS: The technical procedures, legal issues, management and practical questions were studied, analyzed and discussed with relevant stakeholders. During the 1st phase of EpiReumaPt the coordination team and Cen...

  10. POPULATION SYNTHESIS OF HOT SUBDWARFS: A PARAMETER STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Drew; Wade, Richard A.; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; O'Shaughnessy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Binaries that contain a hot subdwarf (sdB) star and a main-sequence companion may have interacted in the past. This binary population has historically helped determine our understanding of binary stellar evolution. We have computed a grid of binary population synthesis models using different assumptions about the minimum core mass for helium ignition, the envelope binding energy, the common-envelope ejection efficiency, the amount of mass and angular momentum lost during stable mass transfer, and the criteria for stable mass transfer on the red giant branch and in the Hertzsprung gap. These parameters separately and together can significantly change the entire predicted population of sdBs. Nonetheless, several different parameter sets can reproduce the observed subpopulation of sdB + white dwarf and sdB + M dwarf binaries, which has been used to constrain these parameters in previous studies. The period distribution of sdB + early F dwarf binaries offers a better test of different mass transfer scenarios for stars that fill their Roche lobes on the red giant branch.

  11. "Health divide" between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Kerala, India: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Slim; Mohindra, Katia Sarla; Siekmans, Kendra; Màk, Geneviève; Narayana, Delampady

    2012-05-29

    The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes) and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N = 1660 men and women, 18-96 years). Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI populations. Multi-level weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the predicted prevalence of morbidity for each age and social group. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to further explore the health gap between tribes and non-tribes, and between subgroups of tribes. Social stratification remains a strong determinant of health in the progressive social policy environment of Kerala. The tribal groups are bearing a higher burden of underweight (46.1 vs. 24.3%), anaemia (9.9 vs. 3.5%) and goitre (8.5 vs. 3.6%) compared to non-tribes, but have similar levels of tuberculosis (21.4 vs. 20.4%) and hypertension (23.5 vs. 20.1%). Significant health inequalities also exist within tribal populations; the Paniya have higher levels of underweight (54.8 vs. 40.7%) and anaemia (17.2 vs. 5.7%) than other Scheduled Tribes. The social gradient in health is evident in each age group, with the exception of hypertension. The predicted prevalence of underweight is 31 and 13 percentage points higher for Paniya and other Scheduled Tribe members, respectively, compared to Forward Caste members 18-30 y (27.1%). Higher hypertension is only evident among Paniya adults 18-30 y (10 percentage points higher than Forward Caste adults of the same age group (5.4%)). The decomposition analysis shows that poverty and other determinants of health only explain 51% and 42% of the health gap between tribes and non-tribes for underweight and goitre, respectively. Policies and programmes designed to benefit the Scheduled Tribes need to promote their well-being in general but

  12. A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN THYROID GLAND IN THE POPULATION OF NORTH - EASTERN REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Due to the high incidence of thyroid disorders in the North - Eastern population of India a study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the gland in the ca davers of this region. AIM : The study was done to compare the dimensions of the thyroid gland in this population with different studies around the world to see if it can throw any light why thyroid disorders are more common in this population and help clin icians to deal better. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The specimens were divided into three groups according to their ages. Twenty (21 specimens (both male and female were taken from each age group. Statistical analysis was done by paired t - test and t was taken a s significant if the value of t was greater than 2.18. SUMMARY : A study of all together of 63 specimen were taken up to see if any morphological differences in dimension exists in various age groups viz. pediatrics , adults and elderly and co relate with fi ndings of previous workers and was statistically analyzed. CONCLUSION : The study showed that there was no morphological difference of this population with that of previous studies done in other parts of the world. Perhaps a histological study in molecular level will throw more light why this stratum of population is so vulnerable to thyroid disorders.

  13. Piloting a Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Method for Evaluating Population-Level Benefits of Wildlife Crossing Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Clevenger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, wildlife crossing structures should enhance the viability of wildlife populations. Previous research has demonstrated that a broad range of species will use crossing structures, however, questions remain as to whether these measures actually provide benefits to populations. To assess this, studies will need to determine the number of individuals using crossings, their sex, and their genetic relationships. Obtaining empirical data demonstrating population-level benefits for some species can be problematic and challenging at best. Molecular techniques now make it possible to identify species, individuals, their sex, and their genetic relatedness from hair samples collected through non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS. We describe efforts to pilot a method to assess potential population-level benefits of wildlife crossing structures. We tested the feasibility of a prototype NGS system designed to sample hair from black bears (Ursus americanus and grizzly bears (U. arctos at two wildlife underpasses. The piloted hair-sampling method did not deter animal use of the trial underpasses and was effective at sampling hair from more than 90% of the bear crossing events at the underpasses. Hair samples were also obtained from non-target carnivore species, including three out of five (60% cougar (Puma concolor crossing events. Individual identification analysis revealed that three female and two male grizzly bears used one wildlife underpass, whereas two female and three male black bears were identified as using the other underpass. Of the 36 hair samples from bears analyzed, five failed, resulting in an 87% extraction success rate, and six more were only identified to species. Overall, 70% of the hair samples from bears collected in the field had sufficient DNA for extraction purposes. Preliminary data from our NGS suggest the technique can be a reliable method to assess the population-level benefits of Banff wildlife crossings. Furthermore, NGS

  14. Improved method for calculation of population doses from nuclear complexes over large geographical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, J.P.; Baker, D.A.; Hill, E.R.; Wendell, L.L.

    1977-09-01

    To simplify the calculation of potential long-distance environmental impacts, an overall average population exposure coefficient (P.E.C.) for the entire contiguous United States was calculated for releases to the atmosphere from Hanford facilities. The method, requiring machine computation, combines Bureau of Census population data by census enumeration district and an annual average atmospheric dilution factor (anti chi/Q') derived from 12-hourly gridded wind analyses provided by the NOAA's National Meteorological Center. A variable-trajectory puff-advection model was used to calculate an hourly anti chi/Q' for each grid square, assuming uniform hourly releases; seasonal and annual averages were then calculated. For Hanford, using 1970 census data, a P.E.C. of 2 x 10 -3 man-seconds per cubic meter was calculated. The P.E.C. is useful for both radioactive and nonradioactive releases. To calculate population doses for the entire contiguous United States, the P.E.C. is multiplied by the annual average release rate and then by the dose factor (rem/yr per Ci/m 3 ) for each radionuclide, and the dose contribution in man-rem is summed for all radionuclides. For multiple pathways, the P.E.C. is still useful, provided that doses from a unit release can be obtained from a set of atmospheric dose factors. The methodology is applicable to any point source, any set of population data by map grid coordinates, and any geographical area covered by equivalent meteorological data

  15. Report on the uncertainty methods study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS) Group, following a mandate from CSNI, has compared five methods for calculating the uncertainty in the predictions of advanced 'best estimate' thermal-hydraulic codes: the Pisa method (based on extrapolation from integral experiments) and four methods identifying and combining input uncertainties. Three of these, the GRS, IPSN and ENUSA methods, use subjective probability distributions, and one, the AEAT method, performs a bounding analysis. Each method has been used to calculate the uncertainty in specified parameters for the LSTF SB-CL-18 5% cold leg small break LOCA experiment in the ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). The uncertainty analysis was conducted essentially blind and the participants did not use experimental measurements from the test as input apart from initial and boundary conditions. Participants calculated uncertainty ranges for experimental parameters including pressurizer pressure, primary circuit inventory and clad temperature (at a specified position) as functions of time

  16. Decay correction methods in dynamic PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Reiman, E.; Lawson, M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to reconstruct positron emission tomography (PET) images in quantitative dynamic studies, the data must be corrected for radioactive decay. One of the two commonly used methods ignores physiological processes including blood flow that occur at the same time as radioactive decay; the other makes incorrect use of time-accumulated PET counts. In simulated dynamic PET studies using 11 C-acetate and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), these methods are shown to result in biased estimates of the time-activity curve (TAC) and model parameters. New methods described in this article provide significantly improved parameter estimates in dynamic PET studies

  17. Comparison of Genome-Wide Association Methods in Analyses of Admixed Populations with Complex Familial Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sørensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Population structure is known to cause false-positive detection in association studies. We compared the power, precision, and type-I error rates of various association models in analyses of a simulated dataset with structure at the population (admixture from two populations; P) and family (K......) levels. We also compared type-I error rates among models in analyses of publicly available human and dog datasets. The models corrected for none, one, or both structure levels. Correction for K was performed with linear mixed models incorporating familial relationships estimated from pedigrees or genetic...... corrected for P. In contrast, correction for P alone in linear models was insufficient. The power and precision of linear mixed models with and without correction for P were similar. Furthermore, power, precision, and type-I error rate were comparable in linear mixed models incorporating pedigree...

  18. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative performance of different stochastic methods to simulate drug exposure and variability in a population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vincent H; Kabbara, Samer

    2006-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) are increasingly being used to predict the pharmacokinetic variability of antimicrobials in a population. However, various MCS approaches may differ in the accuracy of the predictions. We compared the performance of 3 different MCS approaches using a data set with known parameter values and dispersion. Ten concentration-time profiles were randomly generated and used to determine the best-fit parameter estimates. Three MCS methods were subsequently used to simulate the AUC(0-infinity) of the population, using the central tendency and dispersion of the following in the subject sample: 1) K and V; 2) clearance and V; 3) AUC(0-infinity). In each scenario, 10000 subject simulations were performed. Compared to true AUC(0-infinity) of the population, mean biases by various methods were 1) 58.4, 2) 380.7, and 3) 12.5 mg h L(-1), respectively. Our results suggest that the most realistic MCS approach appeared to be based on the variability of AUC(0-infinity) in the subject sample.

  20. Population studies of sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy and dementia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wharton Stephen B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ in vessel walls of the brain as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA could be a major factor in the pathogenesis of dementia. Here we investigate the relationship between dementia and the prevalence of CAA in older populations. We searched the literature for prospective population-based epidemiological clinicopathological studies, free of the biases of other sampling techniques, which were used as a comparison. Methods To identify population-based studies assessing CAA and dementia, a previous systematic review of population-based clinicopathological studies of ageing and dementia was employed. To identify selected-sample studies, PsychInfo (1806–April Week 3 2008, OVID MEDLINE (1950–April Week 2 2008 and Pubmed (searched 21 April 2008 databases were searched using the term "amyloid angiopathy". These databases were also employed to search for any population-based studies not included in the previous systematic review. Studies were included if they reported the prevalence of CAA relative to a dementia classification (clinical or neuropathological. Results Four population-based studies were identified. They showed that on average 55–59% of those with dementia displayed CAA (of any severity compared to 28–38% of the non-demented. 37–43% of the demented displayed severe CAA in contrast to 7–24% of the non-demented. There was no overlap in the range of these averages and they were less variable and lower than those reported in 38 selected sample studies (demented v non-demented: 32–100 v 0–77% regardless of severity; 0–50 v 0–11% for severe only. Conclusion CAA prevalence in populations is consistently higher in the demented as compared to the non-demented. This supports a significant role for CAA in the pathogenesis of dementia.

  1. Critical Appraisal of Mixed Methods Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed methods studies, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed methods research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…

  2. A method optimization study for atomic absorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sensitive, reliable and relative fast method has been developed for the determination of total zinc in insulin by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This designed study was used to optimize the procedures for the existing methods. Spectrograms of both standard and sample solutions of zinc were recorded by measuring ...

  3. Optimizing Usability Studies by Complementary Evaluation Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmettow, Martin; Bach, Cedric; Scapin, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines combinations of complementary evaluation methods as a strategy for efficient usability problem discovery. A data set from an earlier study is re-analyzed, involving three evaluation methods applied to two virtual environment applications. Results of a mixed-effects logistic

  4. A New Method to Study Analytic Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to study analytic inequalities involving n variables. Regarding its applications, we proved some well-known inequalities and improved Carleman's inequality.

  5. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tools for Genetic Studies in Experimental Populations of Polyploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Bourke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyploid organisms carry more than two copies of each chromosome, a condition rarely tolerated in animals but which occurs relatively frequently in the plant kingdom. One of the principal challenges faced by polyploid organisms is to evolve stable meiotic mechanisms to faithfully transmit genetic information to the next generation upon which the study of inheritance is based. In this review we look at the tools available to the research community to better understand polyploid inheritance, many of which have only recently been developed. Most of these tools are intended for experimental populations (rather than natural populations, facilitating genomics-assisted crop improvement and plant breeding. This is hardly surprising given that a large proportion of domesticated plant species are polyploid. We focus on three main areas: (1 polyploid genotyping; (2 genetic and physical mapping; and (3 quantitative trait analysis and genomic selection. We also briefly review some miscellaneous topics such as the mode of inheritance and the availability of polyploid simulation software. The current polyploid analytic toolbox includes software for assigning marker genotypes (and in particular, estimating the dosage of marker alleles in the heterozygous condition, establishing chromosome-scale linkage phase among marker alleles, constructing (short-range haplotypes, generating linkage maps, performing genome-wide association studies (GWAS and quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses, and simulating polyploid populations. These tools can also help elucidate the mode of inheritance (disomic, polysomic or a mixture of both as in segmental allopolyploids or reveal whether double reduction and multivalent chromosomal pairing occur. An increasing number of polyploids (or associated diploids are being sequenced, leading to publicly available reference genome assemblies. Much work remains in order to keep pace with developments in genomic technologies. However, such

  7. Tools for Genetic Studies in Experimental Populations of Polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Peter M; Voorrips, Roeland E; Visser, Richard G F; Maliepaard, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Polyploid organisms carry more than two copies of each chromosome, a condition rarely tolerated in animals but which occurs relatively frequently in the plant kingdom. One of the principal challenges faced by polyploid organisms is to evolve stable meiotic mechanisms to faithfully transmit genetic information to the next generation upon which the study of inheritance is based. In this review we look at the tools available to the research community to better understand polyploid inheritance, many of which have only recently been developed. Most of these tools are intended for experimental populations (rather than natural populations), facilitating genomics-assisted crop improvement and plant breeding. This is hardly surprising given that a large proportion of domesticated plant species are polyploid. We focus on three main areas: (1) polyploid genotyping; (2) genetic and physical mapping; and (3) quantitative trait analysis and genomic selection. We also briefly review some miscellaneous topics such as the mode of inheritance and the availability of polyploid simulation software. The current polyploid analytic toolbox includes software for assigning marker genotypes (and in particular, estimating the dosage of marker alleles in the heterozygous condition), establishing chromosome-scale linkage phase among marker alleles, constructing (short-range) haplotypes, generating linkage maps, performing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, and simulating polyploid populations. These tools can also help elucidate the mode of inheritance (disomic, polysomic or a mixture of both as in segmental allopolyploids) or reveal whether double reduction and multivalent chromosomal pairing occur. An increasing number of polyploids (or associated diploids) are being sequenced, leading to publicly available reference genome assemblies. Much work remains in order to keep pace with developments in genomic technologies. However, such technologies

  8. A population study on rheumatoid arthritis in Lesotho, southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenburgh, J D; Valkenburg, H A; Fourie, P B

    1986-01-01

    Motivated by the results of a hospital study on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Lesotho (southern Africa) a survey of inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and RA was undertaken in a sample of the rural population of that country. Contrary to expectations the prevalence of IP grades 2-4 (definite disease) was low (0.4%) and equal in both sexes, while probable and definite RA combined (American Rheumatism Association (ARA) criteria) occurred in 1.8% of both males and females. RA was slightly more severe than in other rural African Negro studies but less so when compared with the disease condition of the patients observed in the hospital study. Rheumatoid factor and particularly that directed against heterologous antigen occurred in 41% of the RA patients and in 16% of the controls. Two thirds of the definite cases and 29% of the combined probable and definite group showed radiological abnormalities. PMID:3740998

  9. Studying Variance in the Galactic Ultra-compact Binary Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Shane; Breivik, Katelyn

    2017-01-01

    In the years preceding LISA, Milky Way compact binary population simulations can be used to inform the science capabilities of the mission. Galactic population simulation efforts generally focus on high fidelity models that require extensive computational power to produce a single simulated population for each model. Each simulated population represents an incomplete sample of the functions governing compact binary evolution, thus introducing variance from one simulation to another. We present a rapid Monte Carlo population simulation technique that can simulate thousands of populations on week-long timescales, thus allowing a full exploration of the variance associated with a binary stellar evolution model.

  10. A Comparison of Internet-Based Participant Recruitment Methods: Engaging the Hidden Population of Cannabis Users in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Clare Temple

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While a growing number of researchers are embracing Internet-based data collection methods, the adoption of Internet-based recruitment methods has been relatively slow. This may be because little is known regarding the relative strengths and weaknesses of different methods of Internet-based participant recruitment, nor how these different recruitment strategies impact on the data collected. These issues are addressed in this article with reference to a study comparing the effectiveness of three Internet-based strategies in recruiting cannabis users for an online study. Consideration of the recruitment data leads us to recommend that researchers use multipronged Internet-based recruitment campaigns with appropriately detailed recruitment messages tailored to the population of interest and located carefully to ensure they reach the intended audience. Further, we suggest that building rapport directly with potential participants, or utilising derived rapport and implicit endorsements, is an important aspect of successful Internet-based participant recruitment strategies.

  11. Hazard Ranking Method for Populations Exposed to Arsenic in Private Water Supplies: Relation to Bedrock Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, Helen; Fletcher, Tony; Close, Rebecca; Watts, Michael J; Ander, E Louise; Smedley, Pauline L; Verlander, Neville Q; Gregory, Martin; Middleton, Daniel R S; Polya, David A; Studden, Mike; Leonardi, Giovanni S

    2017-12-01

    Approximately one million people in the UK are served by private water supplies (PWS) where main municipal water supply system connection is not practical or where PWS is the preferred option. Chronic exposure to contaminants in PWS may have adverse effects on health. South West England is an area with elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater and over 9000 domestic dwellings here are supplied by PWS. There remains uncertainty as to the extent of the population exposed to arsenic (As), and the factors predicting such exposure. We describe a hazard assessment model based on simplified geology with the potential to predict exposure to As in PWS. Households with a recorded PWS in Cornwall were recruited to take part in a water sampling programme from 2011 to 2013. Bedrock geologies were aggregated and classified into nine Simplified Bedrock Geological Categories (SBGC), plus a cross-cutting "mineralized" area. PWS were sampled by random selection within SBGCs and some 508 households volunteered for the study. Transformations of the data were explored to estimate the distribution of As concentrations for PWS by SBGC. Using the distribution per SBGC, we predict the proportion of dwellings that would be affected by high concentrations and rank the geologies according to hazard. Within most SBGCs, As concentrations were found to have log-normal distributions. Across these areas, the proportion of dwellings predicted to have drinking water over the prescribed concentration value (PCV) for As ranged from 0% to 20%. From these results, a pilot predictive model was developed calculating the proportion of PWS above the PCV for As and hazard ranking supports local decision making and prioritization. With further development and testing, this can help local authorities predict the number of dwellings that might fail the PCV for As, based on bedrock geology. The model presented here for Cornwall could be applied in areas with similar geologies. Application of the method

  12. An efficient method to find potentially universal population genetic markers, applied to metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenuil Anne

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the impressive growth of sequence databases, the limited availability of nuclear markers that are sufficiently polymorphic for population genetics and phylogeography and applicable across various phyla restricts many potential studies, particularly in non-model organisms. Numerous introns have invariant positions among kingdoms, providing a potential source for such markers. Unfortunately, most of the few known EPIC (Exon Primed Intron Crossing loci are restricted to vertebrates or belong to multigenic families. Results In order to develop markers with broad applicability, we designed a bioinformatic approach aimed at avoiding multigenic families while identifying intron positions conserved across metazoan phyla. We developed a program facilitating the identification of EPIC loci which allowed slight variation in intron position. From the Homolens databases we selected 29 gene families which contained 52 promising introns for which we designed 93 primer pairs. PCR tests were performed on several ascidians, echinoderms, bivalves and cnidarians. On average, 24 different introns per genus were amplified in bilaterians. Remarkably, five of the introns successfully amplified in all of the metazoan genera tested (a dozen genera, including cnidarians. The influence of several factors on amplification success was investigated. Success rate was not related to the phylogenetic relatedness of a taxon to the groups that most influenced primer design, showing that these EPIC markers are extremely conserved in animals. Conclusions Our new method now makes it possible to (i rapidly isolate a set of EPIC markers for any phylum, even outside the animal kingdom, and thus, (ii compare genetic diversity at potentially homologous polymorphic loci between divergent taxa.

  13. Regression toward the mean – a detection method for unknown population mean based on Mee and Chua's algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüdtke Rainer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regression to the mean (RTM occurs in situations of repeated measurements when extreme values are followed by measurements in the same subjects that are closer to the mean of the basic population. In uncontrolled studies such changes are likely to be interpreted as a real treatment effect. Methods Several statistical approaches have been developed to analyse such situations, including the algorithm of Mee and Chua which assumes a known population mean μ. We extend this approach to a situation where μ is unknown and suggest to vary it systematically over a range of reasonable values. Using differential calculus we provide formulas to estimate the range of μ where treatment effects are likely to occur when RTM is present. Results We successfully applied our method to three real world examples denoting situations when (a no treatment effect can be confirmed regardless which μ is true, (b when a treatment effect must be assumed independent from the true μ and (c in the appraisal of results of uncontrolled studies. Conclusion Our method can be used to separate the wheat from the chaff in situations, when one has to interpret the results of uncontrolled studies. In meta-analysis, health-technology reports or systematic reviews this approach may be helpful to clarify the evidence given from uncontrolled observational studies.

  14. Population-based cancer survival in the United States: Data, quality control, and statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemani, Claudia; Harewood, Rhea; Johnson, Christopher J; Carreira, Helena; Spika, Devon; Bonaventure, Audrey; Ward, Kevin; Weir, Hannah K; Coleman, Michel P

    2017-12-15

    Robust comparisons of population-based cancer survival estimates require tight adherence to the study protocol, standardized quality control, appropriate life tables of background mortality, and centralized analysis. The CONCORD program established worldwide surveillance of population-based cancer survival in 2015, analyzing individual data on 26 million patients (including 10 million US patients) diagnosed between 1995 and 2009 with 1 of 10 common malignancies. In this Cancer supplement, we analyzed data from 37 state cancer registries that participated in the second cycle of the CONCORD program (CONCORD-2), covering approximately 80% of the US population. Data quality checks were performed in 3 consecutive phases: protocol adherence, exclusions, and editorial checks. One-, 3-, and 5-year age-standardized net survival was estimated using the Pohar Perme estimator and state- and race-specific life tables of all-cause mortality for each year. The cohort approach was adopted for patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2003, and the complete approach for patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2009. Articles in this supplement report population coverage, data quality indicators, and age-standardized 5-year net survival by state, race, and stage at diagnosis. Examples of tables, bar charts, and funnel plots are provided in this article. Population-based cancer survival is a key measure of the overall effectiveness of services in providing equitable health care. The high quality of US cancer registry data, 80% population coverage, and use of an unbiased net survival estimator ensure that the survival trends reported in this supplement are robustly comparable by race and state. The results can be used by policymakers to identify and address inequities in cancer survival in each state and for the United States nationally. Cancer 2017;123:4982-93. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U

  15. A Comparative Rugoscopic Study of the Dentate and Edentulous Individuals in the South Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Prasad Rajguru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the rugae pattern in dentulous and edentulous patients and also evaluates the association of rugae pattern between males and females. Aims and Objectives. This study aims to investigate rugae patterns in dentulous and edentulous patients of both sexes in South Indian population and to find whether palatoscopy is a useful tool in human identification. Materials and Methods. Four hundred outpatients from Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, were included in the study. The study group was equally divided between the sexes, which was further categorized into 100 dentulous and edentulous patients, respectively. Results. The edentulous male showed the highest mean of wavy pattern and total absence of circular pattern while the edentulous female group showed the highest mean of curved pattern and total absence of nonspecific pattern, while dentate population showed similar value as that of the overall population such as straight, wavy, and curved patterns. Conclusion. The present study concludes that there is similar rugae pattern of distribution between male and female dentate population while there is varied pattern between the sexes of edentulous population. However, the most predominant patterns were straight, wavy, and circular patterns.

  16. Women, environment and population: a Moroccan case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mdaghri, C A

    1995-01-01

    The case study of the impact of environmental degradation on rural Moroccan women illustrates that women with a high degree of dependence on natural resources are the most deeply affected by environmental degradation. The study area is deforested with declining water supplies and soil erosion. Within the study area are two peasant sedentary communities with different relationships to the urban economy. The first area is in part of the northwest province of Tetouan, where population density is high, cultivated lands have expanded, and fuelwood collection has increased to the detriment of the environment. The study village is Al Haoud with 87 households. The second area is in the province of Al Hoceima, where resources are poor and population pressure is great. The peasants grow cannabis, which provides substantial revenues, especially for the middlemen. The study village is Iatmanene with 69 households. In Al Haoud women are the basis of the "Jbala" economy, and their survival is based on conservation of resources (sharing of ovens and fuelwood for baking bread). In Iatmanene 33% of households have one member working abroad, and 20% have two or more members absent. Off-farm income is based on sales of dwarf palm produce in Al Haoud and income from migrant workers and petty trading. 4% of housing Al Haoud and 38% in Iatmanene is modern housing. 75% of housing in Iatmanene has 4 or more rooms. No house in Al Haoud has 4 rooms. 91% in Al Haoud, and 71% in Iatmanene are nuclear families. Only Iatmanene of the 12 study villages has piped water and electricity. Iatmanene population has a higher standard of living. Education of girls is 48% in Iatmanene and zero in Al Haoud. Children are used for fetching water. In Al Haoud boys help with water fetching to some extent. Women in Al Haoud and girls in Iatmanene collect fuelwood. Almost all households in Iatmanene and only 68% in Al Haoud know about family planning. 44% in Iatmanene and 0% in Al Haoud are current users

  17. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; dePasquale, M.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; Koch, S.; McEnery, J.; Piran, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi -LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust dataset of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT detected GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift -BAT is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi -GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  18. Population models and simulation methods: The case of the Spearman rank correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astivia, Oscar L Olvera; Zumbo, Bruno D

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of a population model in guiding the design and interpretation of simulation studies used to investigate the Spearman rank correlation. The Spearman rank correlation has been known for over a hundred years to applied researchers and methodologists alike and is one of the most widely used non-parametric statistics. Still, certain misconceptions can be found, either explicitly or implicitly, in the published literature because a population definition for this statistic is rarely discussed within the social and behavioural sciences. By relying on copula distribution theory, a population model is presented for the Spearman rank correlation, and its properties are explored both theoretically and in a simulation study. Through the use of the Iman-Conover algorithm (which allows the user to specify the rank correlation as a population parameter), simulation studies from previously published articles are explored, and it is found that many of the conclusions purported in them regarding the nature of the Spearman correlation would change if the data-generation mechanism better matched the simulation design. More specifically, issues such as small sample bias and lack of power of the t-test and r-to-z Fisher transformation disappear when the rank correlation is calculated from data sampled where the rank correlation is the population parameter. A proof for the consistency of the sample estimate of the rank correlation is shown as well as the flexibility of the copula model to encompass results previously published in the mathematical literature. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi,; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. Methods The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they wer...

  20. Comparative Study of Daylighting Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandala Ariani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess five daylighting calculation method commonly used in architectural study. The methods used include hand calculation methods (SNI/DPMB method and BRE Daylighting Protractors, scale models studied in an artificial sky simulator and computer programs using Dialux and Velux lighting software. The test room is conditioned by the uniform sky conditions, simple room geometry with variations of the room reflectance (black, grey, and white color. The analyses compared the result (including daylight factor, illumination, and coefficient of uniformity value and examines the similarity and contrast the result different. The color variations trial is used to analyses the internally reflection factor contribution to the result.

  1. Genome-wide association study of schizophrenia in Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamada

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder with genetically complex traits. Genetic variants should explain a considerable portion of the risk for schizophrenia, and genome-wide association study (GWAS is a potentially powerful tool for identifying the risk variants that underlie the disease. Here, we report the results of a three-stage analysis of three independent cohorts consisting of a total of 2,535 samples from Japanese and Chinese populations for searching schizophrenia susceptibility genes using a GWAS approach. Firstly, we examined 115,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 120 patient-parents trio samples from Japanese schizophrenia pedigrees. In stage II, we evaluated 1,632 SNPs (1,159 SNPs of p<0.01 and 473 SNPs of p<0.05 that located in previously reported linkage regions. The second sample consisted of 1,012 case-control samples of Japanese origin. The most significant p value was obtained for the SNP in the ELAVL2 [(embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila-like 2] gene located on 9p21.3 (p = 0.00087. In stage III, we scrutinized the ELAVL2 gene by genotyping gene-centric tagSNPs in the third sample set of 293 family samples (1,163 individuals of Chinese descent and the SNP in the gene showed a nominal association with schizophrenia in Chinese population (p = 0.026. The current data in Asian population would be helpful for deciphering ethnic diversity of schizophrenia etiology.

  2. Incidence rates and risk factors of bipolar disorder in the general population: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jojanneke S.; Wohlfarth, Tamar D.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Sutterland, Arjen L.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Denys, Damiaan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Sturkenboom, Mirjam C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence rates (IRs) of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders in the general population according to sociodemographic population characteristics. A cohort study (during the years 1996-2007) was conducted in a general practitioners research database with a longitudinal electronic record

  3. Evidence for Association of the E23K Variant of KCNJ11 Gene with Type 2 Diabetes in Tunisian Population: Population-Based Study and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lasram, Khaled; Ben Halim, Nizar; Hsouna, Sana; Kefi, Rym; Arfa, Imen; Ghazouani, Welid; Jamoussi, Henda; Benrahma, Houda; Kharrat, Najla; Rebai, Ahmed; Ben Ammar, Slim; Bahri, Sonia; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Abid, Abdelmajid; Abdelhak, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Aims. Genetic association studies have reported the E23K variant of KCNJ11 gene to be associated with Type 2 diabetes. In Arab populations, only four studies have investigated the role of this variant. We aimed to replicate and validate the association between the E23K variant and Type 2 diabetes in Tunisian and Arab populations. Methods. We have performed a case-control association study including 250 Tunisian patients with Type 2 diabetes and 267 controls. Allelic association has also been ...

  4. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sewon; Lee, Kiyoung

    2017-06-22

    Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT) was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  5. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewon Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  6. Screening for type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population: Study design and feasibility of a population-based randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Klijs (Bart); S.J. Otto (Suzie); R.J. Heine (Robert); Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda); J.J. Lous (Jan); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We describe the design and present the results of the first year of a population-based study of screening for type 2 diabetes in individuals at high risk of developing the disease. High risk is defined as having abdominal obesity. Methods. Between 2006 and 2007, 79,142

  7. Screening for type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population: study design and feasibility of a population-based randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, B.; Otto, S.J.; Heine, R.J.; van der Graaf, Y.; Lous, J.J.; Koning, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We describe the design and present the results of the first year of a population-based study of screening for type 2 diabetes in individuals at high risk of developing the disease. High risk is defined as having abdominal obesity. Methods. Between 2006 and 2007, 79,142 inhabitants of two

  8. Correction of population stratification in large multi-ethnic association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of genetic risk factors for complex diseases have, taken individually, a small effect on the end phenotype. Population-based association studies therefore need very large sample sizes to detect significant differences between affected and non-affected individuals. Including thousands of affected individuals in a study requires recruitment in numerous centers, possibly from different geographic regions. Unfortunately such a recruitment strategy is likely to complicate the study design and to generate concerns regarding population stratification.We analyzed 9,751 individuals representing three main ethnic groups - Europeans, Arabs and South Asians - that had been enrolled from 154 centers involving 52 countries for a global case/control study of acute myocardial infarction. All individuals were genotyped at 103 candidate genes using 1,536 SNPs selected with a tagging strategy that captures most of the genetic diversity in different populations. We show that relying solely on self-reported ethnicity is not sufficient to exclude population stratification and we present additional methods to identify and correct for stratification.Our results highlight the importance of carefully addressing population stratification and of carefully "cleaning" the sample prior to analyses to obtain stronger signals of association and to avoid spurious results.

  9. Study on the IFNL4 gene ss469415590 variant in Ukrainian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucherenko A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine genotype and allele disribution for the IFNL4 gene ss469415590 and examine it for linkage with the IL28B gene rs12979860 in Ukrainian population. Methods. The studied group consisted of 100 unrelated donors of Eastern European origin representing the population of Ukraine. Genotyping for the IFNL4 gene ss469415590 was performed using the amplification-refractory mutation system PCR. Genotyping for the IL28B gene rs12979860 was performed by the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Results. Genotype frequencies for both studied variants showed no significant deviation from those expected according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Allelic distribution for ss469415590 was: TT – 0.665, G – 0.335. Allelic frequencies of rs12979860 were: C – 0.655, T – 0.345. The results of likelihood ratio test indicated a linkage disequilibrium between the studied variants (p > 0.0001, the major alleles ss469415590 TT and rs12979860 C were in phase. The genetic structure of Ukrainian population in terms of two studied polymorphic variants is similar to the European population presented in the «1000 genomes» project. Conclusions. Considering a tight linkage revealed in Ukrainian population between the ss469415590 variant and rs12979860, a crucial genetic marker of chronic hepatitis C treatment efficiency, this polymorphism might be a promising target for further investigation as a pharmacogenetic marker.

  10. Comparative studies on different molecular methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to evaluate two molecular methods for epidemiological typing of multi drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Mansoura Hospitals. In this study, a total of 300 clinical isolates were collected from different patients distributed among Mansoura Hospitals, Dakahlia governorate, Egypt.

  11. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important decision-making stages. Meanwhile, impacts of development on the environmental components will be also analyzed. This research studies various methods of predicting the environmental changes and determining the ...

  12. Mental disorder sick leave in Sweden: A population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwall, Ulrik; Bill, Sofia; Palmer, Edward; Olsson Bohlin, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The inability to perform productive work due to mental disorders is a growing concern in advanced societies. To investigate medically certified mental disorder and all-cause sick leave in a working population using demographic, socioeconomic and occupational predictors. The study population was the entire Swedish work force aged 16-64 years in December 31st 2011. The outcome was sick leave exceeding 14 days in 2012 with adjustment for 13 confounders. The risk of sick leave with a mental disorder is higher among women compared to men, among persons aged 30-39 and among parents in families with underage children. Employees in welfare service occupations within health care, education and social services have an elevated risk of mental disorder sick leave and constitute a large proportion of the workforce. The results support the need for improving early detection and prevention of mental disorders in the workforce. Improvements in psychosocial work environments are essential, where the higher risk in female dominated welfare occupations particularly, have repercussions on the quality of the welfare services provided for vulnerable groups in society. Better work-life balance in families with younger children could also mitigate the effects of a high total workload in that particular phase of life.

  13. a Study of the AGB in Local Group Bulge Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R.

    1994-01-01

    We propose to survey the bolometric luminosities, colors, and space distribution of the most luminous asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the bulges of M31, M32, and M33. We seek to discover whether the bulges of these galaxies are relatively young, of order 10 Gyr rather than 15 Gyr. We will use WFPC2 and the R, I, and F1042M (1 micron) filters. Knowing that F1042M falls on the first continuum point of M giants, we have shown that we can use 1.04 micron fluxes to reliably calculate bolometric magnitudes for these very red stars. Color information from R and I will permit (1) comparison with Galactic bulge M giants, (2) an estimate of the spread of abundance and (3) increase the accuracy of the bolometric magnitudes. Frames with the damaged HST show signs of resolution to within 3" of the M31 nucleus; Red images with the aberrated HST show a red star cluster associated with the nucleus. Ground-based studies of M32 find an intermediate-age population from spectroscopy and infrared photometry. The repaired HST should resolve stars close to the nuclei of these galaxies. We will measure bolometric luminosity functions to determine if the populations are intermediate age, and attempt to measure the abundance range for stars near the nuclei of these galaxies. If metals have been lost due to winds, theory predicts that we should see a substantial spread of abundances even near the nucleus.

  14. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in populations near nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shleien, B.; Ruttenber, A.J.; Sage, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors reviewed over 40 epidemiologic studies around nuclear power stations, fuel reprocessing plants, and weapons production facilities and testing sites in the United Kingdom, the United States, France, and Canada. They examined these studies for their potential to support a cause and effect relationship between cancer risk and radiation exposure. The extent to which an epidemiologic study supports a causal relation between radiation exposure and increased cancer risk can be evaluated using a set of criteria that have become known as Hill's postulates. In their review, epidemiologic studies yielded results that were biologically plausible and were supported by experimental data, but in almost all of the studies the methodologies were not adequate for evaluating causality. In the majority of cases, the methodologies did not permit examination of dose-response associations, making it impossible to support or refute causal relations. They suggest that investigators consider these issues when designing studies and employ dose reconstruction methodology to estimate radiation doses for specific individuals and population groups.86 references

  15. Metabolomics applied to diabetes-lessons from human population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggi, Sonia; Griffin, Julian L

    2017-12-01

    The 'classical' distribution of type 2 diabetes (T2D) across the globe is rapidly changing and it is no longer predominantly a disease of middle-aged/elderly adults of western countries, but it is becoming more common through Asia and the Middle East, as well as increasingly found in younger individuals. This global altered incidence of T2D is most likely associated with the spread of western diets and sedentary lifestyles, although there is still much debate as to whether the increased incidence rates are due to an overconsumption of fats, sugars or more generally high-calorie foods. In this context, understanding the interactions between genes of risk and diet and how they influence the incidence of T2D will help define the causative pathways of the disease. This review focuses on the use of metabolomics in large cohort studies to follow the incidence of type 2 diabetes in different populations. Such approaches have been used to identify new biomarkers of pre-diabetes, such as branch chain amino acids, and associate metabolomic profiles with genes of known risk in T2D from large scale GWAS studies. As the field develops, there are also examples of meta-analysis across metabolomics cohort studies and cross-comparisons with different populations to allow us to understand how genes and diet contribute to disease risk. Such approaches demonstrate that insulin resistance and T2D have far reaching metabolic effects beyond raised blood glucose and how the disease impacts systemic metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A., E-mail: 008043@pnu.edu.ru [Pacific National University (Russian Federation); Savin, D. A.; Shirokov, A. M. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  17. Use of various contraceptive methods and time of conception in a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Boris; Nahum, Ravit; Yairi, Yael; Hirsch, Michael; Pardo, Josef; Yogev, Yariv; Orvieto, Raoul

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the association between method of contraception and time to conception in a normal community-based population. Prospective, cross-sectional, survey. Large comprehensive ambulatory women's health center. One thousand pregnant women at their first prenatal obstetrics visit were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire. The return to fertility was analyzed by type of contraceptive method, duration of use, and other sociodemographic variables. Response rate was 80% (n=798). Mean age of the patients was 29.9+/-5 years. Seventy-five percent had used a contraceptive before trying to conceive: 80% oral contraceptives, 8% intrauterine device, and 7% barrier methods. Eighty-six percent conceived spontaneously. Contraceptive users had a significantly higher conception rate than nonusers in the first 3 months from their first attempt at pregnancy. Type of contraception was significantly correlated with time to conception. Pregnancy rates within 6 months of the first attempt was 60% for oral contraceptive users compared to 70 and 81% for the intrauterine device and barrier method groups, respectively. There was no correlation between time to conception and parity or duration of contraceptive use. Other factors found to be significantly related to time to conception were older age of both partners and higher body mass index. Contraception use before a planned pregnancy does not appear to affect ease of conception. Type of method used, although not duration of use, may influence the time required to conceive.

  18. Predictors of fibromyalgia: a population-based twin cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Markkula, Ritva A; Kalso, Eija A; Kaprio, Jaakko A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain syndrome, the mechanisms and predictors of which are still unclear. We have earlier validated a set of FM-symptom questions for detecting possible FM in an epidemiological survey and thereby identified a cluster with “possible FM”. This study explores prospectively predictors for membership of that FM-symptom cluster. Methods ...

  19. Methods of evaluating the consequences of irradiation of populations. Final report 1976-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The present state of scientific knowledge does not make it possible to set a threshold for the effects of ionizing radiation on the health of individuals or of populations. The pessimistic assumption whereby any exposure is liable to have a harmful effect therefore remains the basis for the evaluation of standards. The resulting recommendations formulated by the ICRP (Publication No. 26) consist in a system of dose limits, which constitute the new foundation of radiation protection, the aim being to ensure that: - no source of exposure is unjustified, with due regard to the benefits occurring therefrom, - all necessary exposure is kept as low as reasonable achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account, - the dose equivalents received do not exceed certain specified limits. In order to attain this objective, it appeared necessary to have at our disposal, in the context of any project for an installation that is liable to cause exposure to ionizing radiation, means of evaluating the following: 1. the levels of exposure to the individuals and population groups concerned, 2. the resulting radiological detriment to man, 3. the economic and social impacts thereof. In view of the foregoing, therefore, methods for making such evaluation had to be developed. The aim of the Contract of Association concluded in 1976 between the European Atomic Energy Community and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is to develop methodology for evaluating the consequence of the irradiation of populations. It appeared necessary to have such methods for the purpose of implementing the latest recommendations of the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Community Directives, in particular as regards the justification of exposure levels and the optimization of protection measures

  20. Complementary methods to estimate population size of Antillean Manatees (Sirenia: Trichechidae at Cienaga de Paredes, Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Arevalo-Gonzalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on manatee population size in Colombia is limited. This study was aimed at determining manatee population size in the Cienaga de Paredes (Colombia by three different methods: boat-based surveys, side-scan Sonar (SSS surveys and local interviews. Manatees were counted during breathing events by direct observation during the dry season, with the number of sightings per hour (NSH and maximum number of simultaneous sightings (MNSS used as occurrence indices. In 2002, we obtained an average NSH of 27.62 (SD=12.34 and the MNSS was 18; in 2010 the values were 55.71 (SD=29.79 and four respectively. Using linear-transect SSS data we estimated a population size of 12 individuals (%CV=27.3. The local community claimed that no hunting or entanglements had taken place in the area for over 20 years. These methods have pros and cons in terms of investment, effort, efficiency and community involvement, and their efficiency may vary in different seasons. Applying them in a complementary way and at greater spatial and temporal scales could enhance the accuracy of results.

  1. A dynamic urban air pollution population exposure assessment study using model and population density data derived by mobile phone traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Pelliccioni, Armando; Bolignano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A dynamic city-wide air pollution exposure assessment study has been carried out for the urban population of Rome, Italy, by using time resolved population distribution maps, derived by mobile phone traffic data, and modelled air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) concentrations obtained by an integrated air dispersion modelling system. More than a million of persons were tracked during two months (March and April 2015) for their position within the city and its surroundings areas, with a time resolution of 15 min and mapped over an irregular grid system with a minimum resolution of 0.26 × 0.34 Km2. In addition, demographics information (as gender and age ranges) were available in a separated dataset not connected with the total population one. Such BigData were matched in time and space with air pollution model results and then used to produce hourly and daily resolved cumulative population exposures during the studied period. A significant mobility of population was identified with higher population densities in downtown areas during daytime increasing of up to 1000 people/Km2 with respect to nigh-time one, likely produced by commuters, tourists and working age population. Strong variability (up to ±50% for NO2) of population exposures were detected as an effect of both mobility and time/spatial changing in pollutants concentrations. A comparison with the correspondent stationary approach based on National Census data, allows detecting the inability of latter in estimating the actual variability of population exposure. Significant underestimations of the amount of population exposed to daily PM2.5 WHO guideline was identified for the Census approach. Very small differences (up to a few μg/m3) on exposure were detected for gender and age ranges population classes.

  2. Psychiatric morbidity among rural and slum female population: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhunu Shamsun Nahar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among women than men worldwide. The lifetime risk of depres­sion and dysthymia are twice as common in women as men. Rural women usually undergoes more stressful situations and also scores more on stress scale than that of urban and slum population. Objectives: The research objectives of this study are: 1 To find out the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among the study population. 2 To compare the disorders among the rural and slum female population. 3 To find out the influence of existing socio-demographic factors on psychiatric disorders. Method: This is a community-based study, which is also cross sectional and descriptive in nature. The sample for the main study constituted 366 randomly selected respondents. A two-staged screening procedure was carried in the study. First, the total population was studied by screening test-Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ to divide the sample into 'screen positive' and 'screen negative' subjects. In the second stage, full assessment of a mixture of all 'screen positive' and 25% 'screen negative' was carried out by structured clinical interview for diagnosis (SCID-NP. Later SCID filled by the respondents was assessed by consultant psychiatrists by using DSMIV in order to put exact clinical diagnosis. Stress was scored according to Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLE. The total duration of the study was from July 2010 to June 2011. Results: Higher prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was found among rural sample (22.8% than slum (10.90% population. Regarding pattern of psychiatric disorders among rural sample (22.8% than slum (10.9% population.See the PDF for the rest of the abstract.

  3. Disability pensions in relation to stroke: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2002-01-01

    the years 1979-1993 inclusive and were of pensionable age during that period. These patients were then screened in registers for death during the period 1979-1993 and for the award of disability pensions between the years 1979-1995. A total of 19476 (27%) patients had received a pension at some level. MAIN......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish prevalence levels of disability pensions among stroke patients within a national population. RESEARCH DESIGN: From a Danish National register of hospitalizations, 72 673 patients were identified who had a discharge diagnosis of stroke between...... OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Being in possession of a disability pension prior to stroke (n = 8565, 12%), rarely at the highest level, was not associated with elevated risk for stroke, or with elevated stroke mortality. It was, however, associated with a greater mortality subsequent to stroke. Disability pensions...

  4. Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M.; Copplestone, D.; Gilhen, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x10 5 TBq 137 Cs and 2x10 5 TBq 90 Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x10 6 TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h -1 to 140 μSv h -1 . Corresponding mean concentrations of 137 Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.10 2 to 3.10 6 Bq kg -1 dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and species dominance vary significantly. This does not appear to correlate

  5. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygi...

  6. Celebrity suicides and their differential influence on suicides in the general population: a national population-based study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-04-01

    Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide.

  7. Estimating Population Turnover Rates by Relative Quantification Methods Reveals Microbial Dynamics in Marine Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, Richard; Bird, Jordan T; Shumaker, Alexander; Lloyd, Karen G

    2018-01-01

    The difficulty involved in quantifying biogeochemically significant microbes in marine sediments limits our ability to assess interspecific interactions, population turnover times, and niches of uncultured taxa. We incubated surface sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, USA, anoxically at 21°C for 122 days. Sulfate decreased until day 68, after which methane increased, with hydrogen concentrations consistent with the predicted values of an electron donor exerting thermodynamic control. We measured turnover times using two relative quantification methods, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the product of 16S gene read abundance and total cell abundance (FRAxC, which stands for "fraction of read abundance times cells"), to estimate the population turnover rates of uncultured clades. Most 16S rRNA reads were from deeply branching uncultured groups, and ∼98% of 16S rRNA genes did not abruptly shift in relative abundance when sulfate reduction gave way to methanogenesis. Uncultured Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales increased at the onset of methanogenesis with population turnover times estimated from qPCR at 9.7 ± 3.9 and 12.6 ± 4.1 days, respectively. These were consistent with FRAxC turnover times of 9.4 ± 5.8 and 9.2 ± 3.5 days, respectively. Uncultured Syntrophaceae , which are possibly fermentative syntrophs of methanogens, and uncultured Kazan-3A-21 archaea also increased at the onset of methanogenesis, with FRAxC turnover times of 14.7 ± 6.9 and 10.6 ± 3.6 days. Kazan-3A-21 may therefore either perform methanogenesis or form a fermentative syntrophy with methanogens. Three genera of sulfate-reducing bacteria, Desulfovibrio , Desulfobacter , and Desulfobacterium , increased in the first 19 days before declining rapidly during sulfate reduction. We conclude that population turnover times on the order of days can be measured robustly in organic-rich marine sediment, and the transition from sulfate-reducing to methanogenic conditions stimulates

  8. Comparison of genome-wide association methods in analyses of admixed populations with complex familial relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen K Kadri

    Full Text Available Population structure is known to cause false-positive detection in association studies. We compared the power, precision, and type-I error rates of various association models in analyses of a simulated dataset with structure at the population (admixture from two populations; P and family (K levels. We also compared type-I error rates among models in analyses of publicly available human and dog datasets. The models corrected for none, one, or both structure levels. Correction for K was performed with linear mixed models incorporating familial relationships estimated from pedigrees or genetic markers. Linear models that ignored K were also tested. Correction for P was performed using principal component or structured association analysis. In analyses of simulated and real data, linear mixed models that corrected for K were able to control for type-I error, regardless of whether they also corrected for P. In contrast, correction for P alone in linear models was insufficient. The power and precision of linear mixed models with and without correction for P were similar. Furthermore, power, precision, and type-I error rate were comparable in linear mixed models incorporating pedigree and genomic relationships. In summary, in association studies using samples with both P and K, ancestries estimated using principal components or structured assignment were not sufficient to correct type-I errors. In such cases type-I errors may be controlled by use of linear mixed models with relationships derived from either pedigree or from genetic markers.

  9. Study on Quality Improvement Effect and Separate Character of Soybean Male Sterile (MS1) Recurrent Selection Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shuang-jin; ZHANG Meng-chen; JIANG Chun-zhi; YANG Chun-yan; LIU Bing-qiang; CUI Jue

    2007-01-01

    To solve the problem that soybean has narrow genetic base, we constructed a series of male sterile recurrent selection populations, and studied the effects of quality improvement and practical value. An LD-base population, which fits to our ecology type was constructed by 6 years' gene enrichment through the introduction of new genes from 23 local varieties and recurrent selection. The LD-base populations were then improved by making crosses with high protein and high oil genotypes. As a result we obtained a high protein sub-population (db) and a high oil sub-population (gy). For the db sub-population, the protein content is 1.18% higher than the base population, 22.38% of the individuals contain 45% or more of protein, which is 10.99% higher than the base population. For the gy sub-population, oil content is 0.24% higher than the base population. Individuals with oil content of 20% or more are 11.05% higher than the base population. The quantitative characters such as flowering date, mature date, pod habit, and hilum color, etc., all showed wide range of separation, and the segregation ratio approached balance. The c.v. of branch number of ms1 recurrent population (72.8%) is higher than general cross-population (57.3%), and the c.v. of 100 seed weight of ms1 (18.1%) is higher than general cross population (16.5%), the coefficient of variation of plant height, pods per plant, and seeds per pod were not significantly different. It was demonstrated in this paper that the quality character of ms1 male sterile recurrent selection population was improved by adding new genes. And the segregation of other characters widened, making the populations suitable for the objective of soybean breeding. In this paper, we also discussed the breeding method, key technology, and selection effect of soybean ms1 population.

  10. On estimation of time-dependent attributable fraction from population-based case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Ying Qing; Hsu, Li

    2017-09-01

    Population attributable fraction (PAF) is widely used to quantify the disease burden associated with a modifiable exposure in a population. It has been extended to a time-varying measure that provides additional information on when and how the exposure's impact varies over time for cohort studies. However, there is no estimation procedure for PAF using data that are collected from population-based case-control studies, which, because of time and cost efficiency, are commonly used for studying genetic and environmental risk factors of disease incidences. In this article, we show that time-varying PAF is identifiable from a case-control study and develop a novel estimator of PAF. Our estimator combines odds ratio estimates from logistic regression models and density estimates of the risk factor distribution conditional on failure times in cases from a kernel smoother. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal with asymptotic variance that can be estimated empirically from the data. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed estimator performs well in finite sample sizes. Finally, the method is illustrated by a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren; Thomas, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  12. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  13. Methodology of a study on the French population exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedja, M.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Le Brusquet, L.; Fleury, G.; Azoulay, A.; Deschamps, F.; Carlsberg, A.

    2010-01-01

    The characterisation of population exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) is important for assessing health effects of electromagnetic fields. With the aim of estimating and characterising the exposure of the French population to 50-Hz MFs, two representative samples of the population were made. A random selection method based on the distribution of households in different regions of France was used. The samples were carried out starting from a random polling of telephone numbers of households (listed, unlisted fixed phones and cell phones only). A total of 95 362 telephone numbers were dialed to have 2148 volunteers (1060 children and 1088 adults). They all agreed to carrying an EMDEX II meter, measuring and recording MFs, and to filling out a timetable for a 24-hour period. In this article, the methodology of the sample selection and the collection of all necessary information for the realisation of this study are presented. (authors)

  14. Urbanization is Associated with Increased Trends in Cardiovascular Mortality Among Indigenous Populations: the PAI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson da Costa Armstrong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The cardiovascular risk burden among diverse indigenous populations is not totally known and may be influenced by lifestyle changes related to the urbanization process. Objectives: To investigate the cardiovascular (CV mortality profile of indigenous populations during a rapid urbanization process largely influenced by governmental infrastructure interventions in Northeast Brazil. Methods: We assessed the mortality of indigenous populations (≥ 30 y/o from 2007 to 2011 in Northeast Brazil (Bahia and Pernambuco states. Cardiovascular mortality was considered if the cause of death was in the ICD-10 CV disease group or if registered as sudden death. The indigenous populations were then divided into two groups according to the degree of urbanization based on anthropological criteria:9,10 Group 1 - less urbanized tribes (Funi-ô, Pankararu, Kiriri, and Pankararé; and Group 2 - more urbanized tribes (Tuxá, Truká, and Tumbalalá. Mortality rates of highly urbanized cities (Petrolina and Juazeiro in the proximity of indigenous areas were also evaluated. The analysis explored trends in the percentage of CV mortality for each studied population. Statistical significance was established for p value < 0.05. Results: There were 1,333 indigenous deaths in tribes of Bahia and Pernambuco (2007-2011: 281 in Group 1 (1.8% of the 2012 group population and 73 in Group 2 (3.7% of the 2012 group population, CV mortality of 24% and 37%, respectively (p = 0.02. In 2007-2009, there were 133 deaths in Group 1 and 44 in Group 2, CV mortality of 23% and 34%, respectively. In 2009-2010, there were 148 deaths in Group 1 and 29 in Group 2, CV mortality of 25% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions: Urbanization appears to influence increases in CV mortality of indigenous peoples living in traditional tribes. Lifestyle and environmental changes due to urbanization added to suboptimal health care may increase CV risk in this population.

  15. Association Between Zolpidem Use and Glaucoma Risk: A Taiwanese Population-Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Hao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, the relationship between zolpidem use and subsequent risk of glaucoma in a Taiwanese population has not been assessed. Methods We used data from the National Health Insurance system to investigate whether zolpidem use was related to glaucoma risk. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma from 2001 to 2010. The controls were randomly selected non-glaucoma subjects matched by sex and age (?5 years). Zolpidem exposu...

  16. Bladder cancer in cancer patients: population-based estimates from a large Swedish study

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo, J Lorenzo; Sundquist, J; Hemminki, K

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study quantified the risk of urinary bladder neoplasms in cancer patients taking into account the age at first diagnosis, the gender of the patients and the lead time between diagnoses. Methods: We used standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare the incidence of bladder tumours in 967?767 cancer patients with the incidence rate in the general Swedish population. A total of 3324 male and 1560 female patients developed bladder tumours at least 1 year after first cancer dia...

  17. Familial aggregation of gout and relative genetic and environmental contributions: a nationwide population study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J.; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Valdes, Ana M.; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine familial aggregation of gout and to estimate the heritability and environmental contributions to gout susceptibility in the general population. \\ud \\ud METHODS: Using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database in Taiwan, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of data collected from 22 643 748 beneficiaries of the NHI in 2004; among them 1 045 059 individuals had physician-diagnosed gout. We estimated relative risks (RR) of gout in individual...

  18. Increased migraine risk in osteoporosis patients: a nationwide population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Zhang, Zi-Hao; Wu, Ming-Kung; Wang, Chiu-Huan; Lu, Ying-Yi; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and migraine are both important public health problems and may have overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to use a Taiwanese population-based dataset to assess migraine risk in osteoporosis patients. Methods The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to analyse data for 40,672 patients aged ?20?years who had been diagnosed with osteoporosis during 1996?2010. An additional 40,672 age-matched patients without osteoporos...

  19. Study on frequency of dental developmental alterations in a MEXICAN school-based population

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Montes, Constantino; Garcés Ortíz, Maricela; Salcido García, Juan Francisco; Hernández Flores, Florentino

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to know the distribution of dental developmental alterations in the population requesting stomatological attention at the Admission and Diagnosis Clinic of our institution in Mexico City. Material and Methods We reviewed the archives and selected those files with developmental dental alterations. Analyzed data were diagnoses, age, gender, location and number of involved teeth. Results Of the 3.522 patients reviewed, 179 (5.1%) harbored 394 developmental de...

  20. Environmental reference materials methods and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm-Nielsen, Karina Edith

    1998-01-01

    . This study lasted 22 months as well. The samples were produced and stored according to a 2³ factorial design. The influences of storage temperature, UV radiation and ultra-filtration on the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous have been investigated. A Youden plot method is suggested for the graphical....... The methods have been evaluated with regard to their robustness towards variations in the chemical analytical method and with regard to the number of times a significant out of control situation is indicated. The second study regards the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous in autoclaved seawater samples...... with wastewater. The purpose was to improve ortho-phosphate (and total phosphorous) homogeneity. A procedure is suggested which includes freeze-drying and redissolving. All calculations have been performed in SAS® primarily by means of elementary procedures, analyses of variance procedures, SAS Insight and SAS...

  1. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, C; Smit, Filip; de Graaf, R; van Straten, A; Ten Have, M; Cuijpers, P

    2009-06-01

    Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based prospective study (n=4,789). Costs related to health service uptake, patients' out-of-pocket expenses, and costs arising from production losses were calculated for the reference year 2003. The costs for people with social phobia were compared with the costs for people with no mental disorder. The annual per capita total costs of social phobia were euro 11,952 (95% CI=7,891-16,013) which is significantly higher than the total costs for people with no mental disorder, euro 2957 (95% CI=2690-3224). When adjusting for mental and somatic co-morbidity, the costs decreased to euro 6,100 (95% CI=2681-9519), or 136 million euro per year per 1 million inhabitants, which was still significantly higher than the costs for people with no mental disorder. The costs of subthreshold social phobia were also significantly higher than the costs for people without any mental disorder, at euro 4,687 (95% CI=2557-6816). The costs presented here are conservative lower estimates because we only included costs related to mental health services. The economic costs associated with social phobia are substantial, and those of subthreshold social phobia approach those of the full-blown disorder.

  2. Inflammation and peripheral venous disease. The San Diego Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, M; Callas, P W; Allison, M A; Criqui, M H

    2014-09-02

    The inflammatory response to healing in venous thrombosis might cause vein damage and post-thrombotic syndrome. Inflammation may also be involved in venous insufficiency apart from deep-vein thrombosis. We studied the association of inflammation markers with venous insufficiency in a general population sample. We characterised 2,404 men and women in a general population cohort for peripheral venous disease and its severity using physical exam, symptom assessment, and venous ultrasound. Inflammation markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1-beta), IL-8, IL-10, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant-1 (MCP-1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) were compared in 352 case participants with peripheral venous disease and 352 controls with no venous abnormalities frequency matched to cases by age, sex and race. Associations were also evaluated including a subset of 108 cases of severe venous disease, as previously defined. Odds ratios (95% CI), for peripheral venous disease for biomarkers in the top quartile (adjusting for age, race, sex, body mass index and history of venous thrombosis) were 1.8 (1.1-3.0), 1.6 (1.0-2.5) and 1.5 (0.9-2.3) for CRP, fibrinogen and IL-10, respectively. Associations were larger considering cases of severe venous disease, with odds ratios for these three analytes of 2.6 (1.2-5.9), 3.1 (1.3-7.3) and 2.2 (1.1-4.4), and for IL-8: 2.4 (1.1-5.2). There was no association of IL-1-beta, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, MCP-1 or VEGF with overall cases or severe venous disease. In conclusion, a subset of inflammation markers were associated with increased risk of peripheral venous disease, suggesting potential therapeutic targets for treatment.

  3. The association between systemic inflammatory cellular levels and lung function: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia McKeever

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower lung function is associated with an elevated systemic white cell count in men. However, these observations have not been demonstrated in a representative population that includes females and may be susceptible to confounding by recent airway infections or recent cigarette smoking. We tested the hypothesis that lung function is inversely associated with systemic white cell count in a population-based study. METHODS: The study population consisted adults aged 17-90+ years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not report a recent cough, cold or acute illness in a non-smoking and smoking population. RESULTS: In non-smoking adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FEV(1 125.3 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -163.1 to -87.5. Adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FVC 151.1 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -195.0 to -107.2. Similar associations were observed for granulocytes, mononuclear cells and lymphocytes. In current smokers, similar smaller associations observed for total white cell count, granulocytes and mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic cellular inflammation levels are inversely associated with lung function in a population of both non-smokers and smokers without acute illnesses. This may contribute to the increased mortality observed in individuals with a higher baseline white cell count.

  4. A genetic association study of the IGF-1 gene and radiological osteoarthritis in a population-based cohort study (the Rotterdam study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, I.; Bijkerk, C.; Miedema, H.S.; Breedveld, F.C.; Hofman, A.; Valkenburg, H.A.; Pols, H.A.P.; Slagboom, P.E.; Duijn, C.M. van

    1998-01-01

    Objective - A genetic association study was performed to investigate whether radiographical osteoarthritis (ROA) was associated with specific genotypes of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) gene. Methods - Subjects aged 55-65 years were selected from a population-based study of which ROA at

  5. Comparison of Drive Counts and Mark-Resight As Methods of Population Size Estimation of Highly Dense Sika Deer (Cervus nippon Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Takeshita

    Full Text Available Assessing temporal changes in abundance indices is an important issue in the management of large herbivore populations. The drive counts method has been frequently used as a deer abundance index in mountainous regions. However, despite an inherent risk for observation errors in drive counts, which increase with deer density, evaluations of the utility of drive counts at a high deer density remain scarce. We compared the drive counts and mark-resight (MR methods in the evaluation of a highly dense sika deer population (MR estimates ranged between 11 and 53 individuals/km2 on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1999 and 2006. This deer population experienced two large reductions in density; approximately 200 animals in total were taken from the population through a large-scale population removal and a separate winter mass mortality event. Although the drive counts tracked temporal changes in deer abundance on the island, they overestimated the counts for all years in comparison to the MR method. Increased overestimation in drive count estimates after the winter mass mortality event may be due to a double count derived from increased deer movement and recovery of body condition secondary to the mitigation of density-dependent food limitations. Drive counts are unreliable because they are affected by unfavorable factors such as bad weather, and they are cost-prohibitive to repeat, which precludes the calculation of confidence intervals. Therefore, the use of drive counts to infer the deer abundance needs to be reconsidered.

  6. Epidemiological methods for research with drug misusers: review of methods for studying prevalence and morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn John

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of drug misusers have until recently relied on two main forms of sampling: probability and convenience. The former has been used when the aim was simply to estimate the prevalence of the condition and the latter when in depth studies of the characteristics, profiles and behaviour of drug users were required, but each method has its limitations. Probability samples become impracticable when the prevalence of the condition is very low, less than 0.5% for example, or when the condition being studied is a clandestine activity such as illicit drug use. When stratified random samples are used, it may be difficult to obtain a truly representative sample, depending on the quality of the information used to develop the stratification strategy. The main limitation of studies using convenience samples is that the results cannot be generalised to the whole population of drug users due to selection bias and a lack of information concerning the sampling frame. New methods have been developed which aim to overcome some of these difficulties, for example, social network analysis, snowball sampling, capture-recapture techniques, privileged access interviewer method and contact tracing. All these methods have been applied to the study of drug misuse. The various methods are described and examples of their use given, drawn from both the Brazilian and international drug misuse literature.

  7. Skeeter Buster: a stochastic, spatially explicit modeling tool for studying Aedes aegypti population replacement and population suppression strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztian Magori

    2009-09-01

    of genetic control methods. Skeeter Buster is therefore an important tool to model Ae. aegypti populations and the outcome of vector control measures.

  8. Personality, Study Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, N. J.; Wilson, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    A questionnaire measuring four student personality types--stable introvert, unstable introvert, stable extrovert and unstable extrovert--along with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (Form A) were give to 72 graduate students at Aberdeen University and the results showed recognizable interaction between study methods, motivation and personality…

  9. Combined Teaching Method: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, Iryna V.

    2016-01-01

    The search for the best approach to business education has led educators and researchers to seek many different teaching strategies, ranging from the traditional teaching methods to various experimental approaches such as active learning techniques. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effects of the traditional and combined…

  10. Condensed matter studies by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Tomala, K.

    1988-01-01

    The separate abstract was prepared for 1 of the papers in this volume. The remaining 13 papers dealing with the use but not with advances in the use of nuclear methods in studies of condensed matter, were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (M.F.W.)

  11. An application of the variable-r method to subpopulation growth rates in a 19th century agricultural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Sparks

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the differential growth rates of the farming and non-farming segments of a rural Scottish community during the 19th and early 20th centuries using the variable-r method allowing for net migration. Using this method, I find that the farming population of Orkney, Scotland, showed less variability in their reproduction and growth rates than the non-farming population during a period of net population decline. I conclude by suggesting that the variable-r method can be used in general cases where the relative growth of subpopulations or subpopulation reproduction is of interest.

  12. Study on Processing Method of Image Shadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively remove disturbance of shadow and enhance robustness of information processing of computer visual image, this paper makes study on inspection and removal of image shadow. It makes study the continual removal algorithm of shadow based on integration, the illumination surface and texture, it respectively introduces their work principles and realization method, it can effectively carrying processing for shadow by test.

  13. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis - A population study

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Hanne Marie; Telstad, Wenche; Torkildsen, Nina Agnethe Grytten; Kyte, Lars; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Bø, Lars

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS. METHODS: The study included 213 (89.9%) of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logist...

  14. Dental age estimation using Willems method: A digital orthopantomographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwana Begum Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, age estimation has become increasingly important in living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility, and for many other social events such as a birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army, and retirement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of left seven mandibular teeth for estimation of dental age (DA in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA in South Indian population using Willems method. Materials and Methods: Digital Orthopantomogram of 332 subjects (166 males, 166 females who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular teeth (from central incisor to the second molar on left quadrant development was undertaken and DA was assessed using Willems method. Results and Discussion: The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males (r = 0.71 and females (r = 0.88. The overall mean difference between the estimated DA and CA for males was 0.69 ± 2.14 years (P 0.05. Willems method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.69 years and females by 0.08 years and showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. The mean difference between DA and CA according to Willems method was 0.39 years and is statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study showed significant relation between DA and CA. Thus, digital radiographic assessment of mandibular teeth development can be used to generate mean DA using Willems method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA.

  15. German precursor study: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Frey, W.; von Linden, J.; Reichart, G.

    1985-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the GRS by contract of the Federal Minister of Interior. The purpose of the study is to show how the application of system-analytic tools and especially of probabilistic methods on the Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and on other operating experience can support a deeper understanding of the safety-related importance of the events reported in reactor operation, the identification of possible weak points, and further conclusions to be drawn from the events. Additionally, the study aimed at a comparison of its results for the severe core damage frequency with those of the German Risk Study as far as this is possible and useful. The German Precursor Study is a plant-specific study. The reference plant is Biblis NPP with its very similar Units A and B, whereby the latter was also the reference plant for the German Risk Study

  16. A review of the methods for monitoring roe deer European populations with particular reference to Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Meriggi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout the last century, deer populations have shown a remarkable increase both in North America and Europe. As a consequence, the estimate of roe deer density has become a matter of interest. We reviewed the available literature on the methods used for monitoring roe deer populations in Europe from 1950 to 2004, with the aim of detecting the trend of papers and distribution of census techniques by years, countries and habitat types. Particular attention was paid to the census and monitoring methods adopted in Italy and Tuscany, which is the region where the roe deer is more carefully managed. Published papers showed an increasing trend, as did the number of methods used and their complexity. France, Italy, UK and Spain were the countries with the richest literature and the largest variety of methods applied. Eleven census methods have been applied in woods - particularly line transects, pellet group counts, CMR and IKA - with only 6 in open country, mainly pellet group counts. In Europe vantage points are more commonly used for planning culling programs, whilst in Italy, and particularly in Tuscany, the drive census and spotlight counts are mainly used. Unfortunately, in Europe, harvesting programs are still too much based on hunter knowledge and traditions. However the countries where the management of roe deer hunting is of more recent tradition make an exception to this rule. In Italy and Tuscany the methods of monitoring roe deer populations should be improved towards less expensive and more accurate methods. Riassunto Revisione dei metodi di monitoraggio delle popolazioni di capriolo in Europa con particolare riferimento all'Italia Le popolazioni di Cervidi hanno avuto nell'ultimo secolo un notevole incremento sia in America settentrionale, sia in Europa. Di conseguenza la densità delle popolazioni di capriolo è diventata oggetto di interessi diversi e la sua stima

  17. A prospective observational study of skin to subarachnoid space depth in the Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A pre-puncture estimate of skin to subarachnoid space depth (SSD may guide spinal needle placement and reduce complications associated with lumbar puncture. Our aim was to determine (1 The SSD in Indian males, females, parturients and the overall population; (2 To derive formulae for predicting SSD and (3 To determine which previously suggested formula best suited our population. Methods: In this prospective, observational study, 800 adult Indian patients undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia were divided into three groups: Males (Group M, females (Group F and parturients (Group PF. SSD was measured after lumbar puncture. The relationship between SSD and patient characteristics was studied and statistical models were used to derive formula for predicting SSD. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis, forward stepwise multivariate regression analysis and paired t-tests. Results: Mean SSD was 4.71 ± 0.70 cm in the overall population. SSD in adult males (4.81 ± 0.68 cm was significantly longer than that observed in females (4.55 ± 0.66 cm but was comparable with SSD in parturients (4.73 ± 0.73 cm. Formula for predicting SSD in the overall population was 2.71 + 0.09 × Body Mass Index (BMI. Stocker′s formula when applied correlated best with the observed SSD. Formulae were derived for the three groups. Conclusions: We found gender-based differences in SSD, with SSD in males being significantly greater than that observed in the female population. SSD correlated with BMI in the parturient and the overall population. Amongst the previously proposed formulae, Stocker′s formula was most accurate in predicting SSD in our population.

  18. Suicidal Decapitation by Hanging-A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Gilbert, John D

    2018-05-01

    A prospective study was undertaken at Forensic Science SA over a 15-year period from July 2002 to June 2017 for all cases of adult (>18 years) suicidal hangings with decapitation. A total of 1446 cases of suicidal hangings were identified from a general population of approximately 1.5 million (1206 males-age range 18-97 years, average 42.6; and 240 females-age range 18-96 years, average 40.1). Only three cases of decapitation were found, all from long-drop hangings; these consisted of three males (ages 32-55 years; average 45 years). Spinal transections had occurred between the first and second, second and third, and third and fourth cervical vertebrae, respectively. In this study, the number of suicidal hangings with decapitation represented only 0.2% of the total number of hangings. These events are therefore extremely rare, most likely due to most suicidal hangings occurring from relatively low levels in a domestic environment. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  20. Endoscopic Vasectomy of Male Feral Pigeons (Columba livia) as a Possible Method of Population Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderich, Elisabeth; Schildger, Bernd; Lierz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate whether single-entry endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons (Columba livia) significantly reduced fertility and would potentially be valuable for control of feral pigeon populations, 252 male feral pigeons were caught in the city of Berne and endoscopically vasectomized. In this procedure, approximately 1 cm of the deferent duct was removed bilaterally. Rapid, uneventful recoveries occurred in 94% (237/252) of the pigeons, whereas 6% (15/252) died because of complications associated with the procedure, consisting of perforation of the ureter (9/15), major hemorrhage (5/15), and respiratory arrest (1/15). Mean anesthesia time was 23±6 minutes. The vasectomized males were habituated to 2 pigeon houses together with fertile females. Another pigeon house with fertile pairs acted as control. All eggs laid were candled weekly to assess fertility. In the 2 pigeon houses with vasectomized males, the mean fertilization rate was 0.9% (5/563), while in the control pigeon house, the rate was 100% (39/39). The results indicate that endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons may be a promising tool for field control of feral pigeon populations, especially in combination with other methods such as pigeon houses.

  1. Prevalence of widespread pain and associations with work status: a population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksson KG

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This population study based on a representative sample from a Swedish county investigates the prevalence, duration, and determinants of widespread pain (WSP in the population using two constructs and estimates how WSP affects work status. In addition, this study investigates the prevalence of widespread pain and its relationship to pain intensity, gender, age, income, work status, citizenship, civil status, urban residence, and health care seeking. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a postal questionnaire was sent to a representative sample (n = 9952 of the target population (284,073 people, 18–74 years in a county (Östergötland in the southern Sweden. The questionnaire was mailed and followed by two postal reminders when necessary. Results The participation rate was 76.7% (n = 7637; the non-participants were on the average younger, earned less money, and male. Women had higher prevalences of pain in 10 different predetermined anatomical regions. WSP was generally chronic (90–94% and depending on definition of WSP the prevalence varied between 4.8–7.4% in the population. Women had significantly higher prevalence of WSP than men and the age effect appeared to be stronger in women than in men. WSP was a significant negative factor – together with age 50–64 years, low annual income, and non-Nordic citizen – for work status in the community and in the group with chronic pain. Chronic pain but not the spreading of pain was related to health care seeking in the population. Conclusion This study confirms earlier studies that report high prevalences of widespread pain in the population and especially among females and with increasing age. Widespread pain is associated with prominent effects on work status.

  2. Identifying risk for dementia across populations: A study on the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed across populations with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Keeping this in view, a study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase one involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase two involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that no individual above 60 years of age in the studied population was diagnosed as a case of dementia. Thereby, pointing out at some unknown factors, which are responsible for prevention of dementia. Discussion: The differences between the prevalence rate in this study and other studies in India appear to be a function of a valid regional difference. Environmental, phenotypic and genetic factors may contribute to regional and racial variations in dementia. Societies living in isolated hilly and tribal areas seem less predisposed to dementia, particularly age related neurodegenerative and vascular dementia, which are the most common causes for dementia in elderly. This may be because some environmental risk factors are much less prevalent in these settings.

  3. Familial risk of epilepsy: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peljto, Anna L.; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Vasoli, Vincent M.; Leibson, Cynthia L.; Hauser, W. Allen; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all previous studies of familial risk of epilepsy have had potentially serious methodological limitations. Our goal was to address these limitations and provide more rigorous estimates of familial risk in a population-based study. We used the unique resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all 660 Rochester, Minnesota residents born in 1920 or later with incidence of epilepsy from 1935–94 (probands) and their 2439 first-degree relatives who resided in Olmsted County. We assessed incidence of epilepsy in relatives by comprehensive review of the relatives’ medical records, and estimated age-specific cumulative incidence and standardized incidence ratios for epilepsy in relatives compared with the general population, according to proband and relative characteristics. Among relatives of all probands, cumulative incidence of epilepsy to age 40 was 4.7%, and risk was increased 3.3-fold (95% confidence interval 2.75–5.99) compared with population incidence. Risk was increased to the greatest extent in relatives of probands with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (standardized incidence ratio 6.0) and epilepsies associated with intellectual or motor disability presumed present from birth, which we denoted ‘prenatal/developmental cause’ (standardized incidence ratio 4.3). Among relatives of probands with epilepsy without identified cause (including epilepsies classified as ‘idiopathic’ or ‘unknown cause’), risk was significantly increased for epilepsy of prenatal/developmental cause (standardized incidence ratio 4.1). Similarly, among relatives of probands with prenatal/developmental cause, risk was significantly increased for epilepsies without identified cause (standardized incidence ratio 3.8). In relatives of probands with generalized epilepsy, standardized incidence ratios were 8.3 (95% confidence interval 2.93–15.31) for generalized epilepsy and 2.5 (95% confidence interval 0.92–4.00) for focal epilepsy. In relatives of

  4. Assessment of the effect of population and diary sampling methods on estimation of school-age children exposure to fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, W W; Frey, H Christopher; Lau, Alexis K H

    2014-12-01

    Population and diary sampling methods are employed in exposure models to sample simulated individuals and their daily activity on each simulation day. Different sampling methods may lead to variations in estimated human exposure. In this study, two population sampling methods (stratified-random and random-random) and three diary sampling methods (random resampling, diversity and autocorrelation, and Markov-chain cluster [MCC]) are evaluated. Their impacts on estimated children's exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) are quantified via case studies for children in Wake County, NC for July 2002. The estimated mean daily average exposure is 12.9 μg/m(3) for simulated children using the stratified population sampling method, and 12.2 μg/m(3) using the random sampling method. These minor differences are caused by the random sampling among ages within census tracts. Among the three diary sampling methods, there are differences in the estimated number of individuals with multiple days of exposures exceeding a benchmark of concern of 25 μg/m(3) due to differences in how multiday longitudinal diaries are estimated. The MCC method is relatively more conservative. In case studies evaluated here, the MCC method led to 10% higher estimation of the number of individuals with repeated exposures exceeding the benchmark. The comparisons help to identify and contrast the capabilities of each method and to offer insight regarding implications of method choice. Exposure simulation results are robust to the two population sampling methods evaluated, and are sensitive to the choice of method for simulating longitudinal diaries, particularly when analyzing results for specific microenvironments or for exposures exceeding a benchmark of concern. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Preventable trauma deaths: from panel review to population based-studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesconi Sergio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preventable trauma deaths are defined as deaths which could be avoided if optimal care has been delivered. Studies on preventable trauma deaths have been accomplished initially with panel reviews of pre-hospital and hospital charts. However, several investigators questioned the reliability and validity of this method because of low reproducibility of implicit judgments when they are made by different experts. Nevertheless, number of studies were published all around the world and ultimately gained some credibility, particularly in regions where comparisons were made before and after trauma system implementation with a resultant fall in mortality. During the last decade of century the method of comparing observed survival with probability of survival calculated from large trauma registries has obtained popularity. Preventable trauma deaths were identified as deaths occurred notwithstanding a high calculated probability of survival. In recent years, preventable trauma deaths studies have been replaced by population-based studies, which use databases representative of overall population, therefore with high epidemiologic value. These databases contain readily available information which carry out the advantage of objectivity and large numbers. Nowadays, population-based researches provide the strongest evidence regarding the effectiveness of trauma systems and trauma centers on patient outcomes.

  6. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Bhandarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. METHODS: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. RESULTS: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.

  7. A population-based study of cognitive impairment in socially vulnerable adults in Argentina. The Matanza Riachuelo study preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, Leonardo; Blatt, Graciela; Insua, Iván; Furman, Mariano; González, María Agustina; Hermann, Bárbara; Kesselman, Mariana; Massautis, Alicia; Reinado, Alejandra; Senas, Patricia; Yavitz, Claudia; Lejarraga, Horacio; Nunes, Fernando; Arizaga, Raúl Luciano; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2014-01-01

    Population aging has taken place intensively worldwide, even in developing countries. These countries have population groups with low resources and basic unmet needs that are frequently omitted from epidemiological studies. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) and dementia in an economic and socially vulnerable population from Argentina. Methods A door-to-door observational population-based survey among adults over 60 years of cognitive impairment and dementia in the social vulnerable area of the Matanza Riachuelo Basin, in the suburban area of Buenos Aires, Argentina was conducted. Trained psychologists interviewed subjects and a proxy informant. A standardized protocol including a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale and a functional inventory for IADL and ADL was administered. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND) and dementia. Results and Conclusions A total of 2437 elderly persons were assessed, of which 73.6% fulfilled inclusion criteria. The prevalence of CI among those over 60 was 26.4% (18.1% CIND and 8.3% dementia) with higher prevalence of dementia in younger individuals than rates reported in developed counties, probably due to low control of vascular risk factors. This information can help inform health public decisions in the generation of programs and plans for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment in this type of socially vulnerable population. PMID:29213923

  8. Sexuality after a cancer diagnosis: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-12-15

    This study explored differences in sexual activity, function, and concerns between cancer survivors and cancer-free controls in a population-based study. The data were from 2982 men and 3708 women who were 50 years old or older and were participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sexual well-being was assessed with the Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire, and cancer diagnoses were self-reported. There were no differences between cancer survivors and controls in levels of sexual activity (76.0% vs 78.5% for men and 58.2% vs 55.5% for women) or sexual function. Men and women with cancer diagnoses were more dissatisfied with their sex lives than controls (age-adjusted percentages: 30.9% vs 19.8% for men [P = .023] and 18.2% vs 11.8% for women [P = .034]), and women with cancer were more concerned about levels of sexual desire (10.2% vs 7.1%; P = .006). Women diagnosed sexual desire (14.8% vs 7.1%; P = .007) and orgasmic experience (17.6% vs 7.1%; P = .042) than controls, but there were no differences in men. Self-reports of sexual activity and functioning in older people with cancer are broadly comparable to age-matched, cancer-free controls. There is a need to identify the causes of sexual dissatisfaction among long-term cancer survivors despite apparently normal levels of sexual activity and function for their age. The development of interventions addressing low sexual desire and problems with sexual functioning in women is also important and may be particularly relevant for cancer survivors after treatment. Cancer 2016;122:3883-3891. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  9. Prevalence of coronary artery disease and coronary risk factors in Kerala, South India: A population survey – Design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geevar Zachariah

    2013-05-01

    Methods: The design of the study was cross-sectional population survey. We estimated the sample size based on an anticipated prevalence of 7.4% of CAD for rural and 11% for urban Kerala. The derived sample sizes for rural and urban areas were 3000 and 2400, respectively. The urban areas for sampling constituted one ward each from three municipal corporations at different parts of the state. The rural sample was drawn from two panchayats each in the same districts as the urban sample. One adult from each household in the age group of 20–59 years was selected using Kish method. All subjects between 60 and 79 years were included from each household. A detailed questionnaire was administered to assess the risk factors, history of CAD, family history, educational status, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, physical activity and treatment for CAD; anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, electrocardiogram and fasting blood levels of glucose and lipids were recorded.

  10. [Epidemiological methods used in studies in the prevalence of Tourette syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Mazurek, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) prevalence was studied since the early 80-ies. Its clinical course is characterised by co-occurrence of motor and vocal tics. Results of previous epidemiological studies were surprisingly divergent: the prevalence varied from 0.5 to 115 cases per 10,000 population. The disease previously recognised as extremely rare and severe is now considered as quite common, with often moderate course. Selected methods used in studies of TS prevalence and analysis of their possible impact on study results are presented. The studies were divided into 3 groups: studies of the hospitalised population, large-scale screenings and studies involving school population, basing on characteristic and size of population, methods of selection of subjects, diagnostic and screening methods used. Studies of the hospitalised population involved patients with most severe symptoms, in different age groups, different methods of final diagnosis confirmation were used. TS prevalence varied from 0.5 up to 15 cases per 10,000 population. Procedures used in large-scale screening studies made possible the elimination of potential selection bias. Large populations were studied using transparent and repetitive confirmation of diagnoses. Their validity was additionally checked in parallel validity studies. TS prevalence was in the range 4.3 to 10 cases per 10,000 population. The highest TS prevalence was obtained in studies involving schoolchildren. Data were gathered from multiple sources: from parents, teachers and children, as well as from classroom observation. Diagnoses were made by experienced clinicians. TS prevalence obtained in school population studies was between 36.2 up to 115 per 10,000 population.

  11. Lithium and renal and upper urinary tract tumors - results from a nationwide population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A recent alarming finding suggested an increased risk of renal tumors among long-term lithium users. The objectives of the present study were to estimate rates of renal and upper urinary tract tumors (RUT), malignant and benign, among individuals exposed to successive prescriptions...... for lithium, anticonvulsants, and other psychotropic agents used for bipolar disorder, and among unexposed individuals. METHODS: This was a nationwide, population-based longitudinal study including time-specific data from all individuals exposed to lithium (n = 24,272) or anticonvulsants (n = 386,255), all...... individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (n = 9,651), and a randomly selected sample of 1,500,000 from the Danish population. The study period was from 1995 to 2012, inclusive. Outcomes were hazard rate ratios (HR) for RUT in three groups: (i) combined malignant and benign, (ii) malignant, and (iii...

  12. Population specific biomarkers of human aging: a big data study using South Korean, Canadian and Eastern European patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoshina, Polina; Kochetov, Kirill; Putin, Evgeny; Cortese, Franco; Aliper, Alexander; Lee, Won-Suk; Ahn, Sung-Min; Uhn, Lee; Skjodt, Neil; Kovalchuk, Olga; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2018-01-11

    Accurate and physiologically meaningful biomarkers for human aging are key to assessing anti-aging therapies. Given ethnic differences in health, diet, lifestyle, behaviour, environmental exposures and even average rate of biological aging, it stands to reason that aging clocks trained on datasets obtained from specific ethnic populations are more likely to account for these potential confounding factors, resulting in an enhanced capacity to predict chronological age and quantify biological age. Here we present a deep learning-based hematological aging clock modeled using the large combined dataset of Canadian, South Korean and Eastern European population blood samples that show increased predictive accuracy in individual populations compared to population-specific hematologic aging clocks. The performance of models was also evaluated on publicly-available samples of the American population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition, we explored the association between age predicted by both population-specific and combined hematological clocks and all-cause mortality. Overall, this study suggests a) the population-specificity of aging patterns and b) hematologic clocks predicts all-cause mortality. Proposed models added to the freely available Aging.AI system allowing improved ability to assess human aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  13. Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Stickley

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years. Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR (95% confidence interval: CI for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59 to 2.82 (2.11-3.78 between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years. The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%, anxiety (30.2%, and depression (15.4%. Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

  14. Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai

    2018-01-01

    Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases) and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years). Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval: CI) for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59) to 2.82 (2.11-3.78) between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years). The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%), anxiety (30.2%), and depression (15.4%). Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

  15. Birth order and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree.

  16. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis-a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Marie Bøe Lunde

    Full Text Available To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS.The study included 213 (89.9% of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with current employment.After a mean disease duration of almost 19 years, 45% of the population was currently full-time or part- time employed. Patients with relapsing -remitting MS (RRMS had higher employment rate than patients with secondary (SPMS and primary progressive (PPMS. Higher educated MS patients with lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, less severe disability and less fatigue were most likely to be employed.Nearly half of all MS patients were still employed after almost two decades of having MS. Lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, higher education, less fatigue and less disability were independently associated with current employment. These key clinical and demographic factors are important to understand the reasons to work ability in MS. The findings highlight the need for environmental adjustments at the workplace to accommodate individual 's needs in order to improve working ability among MS patients.

  17. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis-a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe Lunde, Hanne Marie; Telstad, Wenche; Grytten, Nina; Kyte, Lars; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Bø, Lars

    2014-01-01

    To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS. The study included 213 (89.9%) of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with current employment. After a mean disease duration of almost 19 years, 45% of the population was currently full-time or part- time employed. Patients with relapsing -remitting MS (RRMS) had higher employment rate than patients with secondary (SPMS) and primary progressive (PPMS). Higher educated MS patients with lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, less severe disability and less fatigue were most likely to be employed. Nearly half of all MS patients were still employed after almost two decades of having MS. Lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, higher education, less fatigue and less disability were independently associated with current employment. These key clinical and demographic factors are important to understand the reasons to work ability in MS. The findings highlight the need for environmental adjustments at the workplace to accommodate individual 's needs in order to improve working ability among MS patients.

  18. Population-based study of Hodgkin's lymphoma in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshemmari, S; Sajnani, K P; Refaat, S; Albassami, A

    2011-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) comprises about 25% of all malignant nodal lymphomas worldwide. Incidence of HL has been increasing in many countries around the world, in the western countries in particular. Cancer incidence variations in different ethnic groups in the same country can lead to some important information about the search of etiological factors. Some researchers found an association between ethnicity and increased risk of HL. In this study, we evaluated the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with HL and the HL subtypes in Kuwait who were diagnosed between 1998 and 2006 and we analyzed the changes in the incidence of HL over time based on age, sex, and ethnicity. The Kuwait Cancer Control Center is a tertiary referral hospital and the only cancer hospital in the entire state of Kuwait. We identified 293 patients who were newly diagnosed with HL by histopathology between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2006, at the Kuwait Cancer Control Center. Incidence data were crossvalidated with the population-based Cancer Registry of Kuwait. Clinical data were obtained by reviewing the patients' medical records. The median age at diagnosis was 39 years (range, 10-85 years) for patients with cHL and 36 years (range, 14-51 years) for patients with NLPHL. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 2.1 cases (range, 1.2-2.9) per 100,000 people per year in the period between 1998 and 2006. NLPHL and cHL were predominant in men with a male to female ratio of 2:1. However, the mean annual percentage change in HL incidence among Kuwaiti patients and non-Kuwaiti patients per year showed unexplained higher percentage in females both Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti. cHL comprised 92.5% of all HL cases and NLPHL comprised 7.5%. Nodular sclerosis was the predominant histologic subtype of cHL (58.9%), whereas mixed cellularity was the second most frequent histologic subtype of cHL, (25.9%). Although the incidence of HL was slightly lower in Kuwait than the worldwide incidence; it

  19. A comparison of statistical methods for genomic selection in a mice population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Haroldo HR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of high-density panels of SNP markers has opened new perspectives for marker-assisted selection strategies, such that genotypes for these markers are used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Because the number of markers is often much larger than the number of phenotypes, marker effect estimation is not a trivial task. The objective of this research was to compare the predictive performance of ten different statistical methods employed in genomic selection, by analyzing data from a heterogeneous stock mice population. Results For the five traits analyzed (W6W: weight at six weeks, WGS: growth slope, BL: body length, %CD8+: percentage of CD8+ cells, CD4+/ CD8+: ratio between CD4+ and CD8+ cells, within-family predictions were more accurate than across-family predictions, although this superiority in accuracy varied markedly across traits. For within-family prediction, two kernel methods, Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces Regression (RKHS and Support Vector Regression (SVR, were the most accurate for W6W, while a polygenic model also had comparable performance. A form of ridge regression assuming that all markers contribute to the additive variance (RR_GBLUP figured among the most accurate for WGS and BL, while two variable selection methods ( LASSO and Random Forest, RF had the greatest predictive abilities for %CD8+ and CD4+/ CD8+. RF, RKHS, SVR and RR_GBLUP outperformed the remainder methods in terms of bias and inflation of predictions. Conclusions Methods with large conceptual differences reached very similar predictive abilities and a clear re-ranking of methods was observed in function of the trait analyzed. Variable selection methods were more accurate than the remainder in the case of %CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ and these traits are likely to be influenced by a smaller number of QTL than the remainder. Judged by their overall performance across traits and computational requirements, RR

  20. Evidence for Association of the E23K Variant of KCNJ11 Gene with Type 2 Diabetes in Tunisian Population: Population-Based Study and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasram, Khaled; Ben Halim, Nizar; Hsouna, Sana; Kefi, Rym; Arfa, Imen; Ghazouani, Welid; Jamoussi, Henda; Benrahma, Houda; Kharrat, Najla; Rebai, Ahmed; Ben Ammar, Slim; Bahri, Sonia; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Abid, Abdelmajid; Abdelhak, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Aims. Genetic association studies have reported the E23K variant of KCNJ11 gene to be associated with Type 2 diabetes. In Arab populations, only four studies have investigated the role of this variant. We aimed to replicate and validate the association between the E23K variant and Type 2 diabetes in Tunisian and Arab populations. Methods. We have performed a case-control association study including 250 Tunisian patients with Type 2 diabetes and 267 controls. Allelic association has also been evaluated by 2 meta-analyses including all population-based studies among Tunisians and Arabs (2 and 5 populations, resp.). Results. A significant association between the E23K variant and Type 2 diabetes was found (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.14–2.27, and P = 0.007). Furthermore, our meta-analysis has confirmed the significant role of the E23K variant in susceptibility of Type 2 diabetes in Tunisian and Arab populations (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.15–1.46, and P < 10−3 and OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.13–1.56, and P = 0.001, resp.). Conclusion. Both case-control and meta-analyses results revealed the significant association between the E23K variant of KCNJ11 and Type 2 diabetes among Tunisians and Arabs. PMID:25165692

  1. Evidence for Association of the E23K Variant of KCNJ11 Gene with Type 2 Diabetes in Tunisian Population: Population-Based Study and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Lasram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Genetic association studies have reported the E23K variant of KCNJ11 gene to be associated with Type 2 diabetes. In Arab populations, only four studies have investigated the role of this variant. We aimed to replicate and validate the association between the E23K variant and Type 2 diabetes in Tunisian and Arab populations. Methods. We have performed a case-control association study including 250 Tunisian patients with Type 2 diabetes and 267 controls. Allelic association has also been evaluated by 2 meta-analyses including all population-based studies among Tunisians and Arabs (2 and 5 populations, resp.. Results. A significant association between the E23K variant and Type 2 diabetes was found (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.14–2.27, and P=0.007. Furthermore, our meta-analysis has confirmed the significant role of the E23K variant in susceptibility of Type 2 diabetes in Tunisian and Arab populations (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.15–1.46, and P<10-3 and OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.13–1.56, and P=0.001, resp.. Conclusion. Both case-control and meta-analyses results revealed the significant association between the E23K variant of KCNJ11 and Type 2 diabetes among Tunisians and Arabs.

  2. Association study of STAT4 polymorphisms and type 1 diabetes in Northeastern Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, C; Li, B; Cheng, Z; Hu, Y; Fang, Z; Zhai, A

    2013-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific, T-cell-mediated disease resulting from the selective destruction of pancreatic β cells. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) gene is one of the most interesting genes for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including T1D. In this study, a case-control study was conducted in a Han population in northeastern China comparing the genotypes of T1D patients to healthy controls for the presence of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the STAT4 gene. The study population comprised of 410 T1D patients and 407 healthy individuals. Two SNPs (rs7574865 and rs3024866) of STAT4 were genotyped with Multiplex SNaPShot method. Data were analyzed with spss 13.0 to determine if a statistical association existed between these genotypes and T1D. One of the two SNPs (rs7574865) was strongly associated with T1D in Northeastern Chinese population compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05), whereas the other tested SNP (rs3024866) demonstrated no significant relationship. In conclusion, the STAT4 gene may play an important role in facilitating susceptibility to T1D in this Han Chinese population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. “Health divide” between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Kerala, India: Population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Slim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. Methods A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N = 1660 men and women, 18–96 years. Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI 2, anaemia, goitre, suspected tuberculosis and hypertension was compared across forward castes, other backward classes and tribal populations. Multi-level weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the predicted prevalence of morbidity for each age and social group. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to further explore the health gap between tribes and non-tribes, and between subgroups of tribes. Results Social stratification remains a strong determinant of health in the progressive social policy environment of Kerala. The tribal groups are bearing a higher burden of underweight (46.1 vs. 24.3%, anaemia (9.9 vs. 3.5% and goitre (8.5 vs. 3.6% compared to non-tribes, but have similar levels of tuberculosis (21.4 vs. 20.4% and hypertension (23.5 vs. 20.1%. Significant health inequalities also exist within tribal populations; the Paniya have higher levels of underweight (54.8 vs. 40.7% and anaemia (17.2 vs. 5.7% than other Scheduled Tribes. The social gradient in health is evident in each age group, with the exception of hypertension. The predicted prevalence of underweight is 31 and 13 percentage points higher for Paniya and other Scheduled Tribe members, respectively, compared to Forward Caste members 18–30 y (27.1%. Higher hypertension is only evident among Paniya adults 18–30 y (10 percentage points higher than Forward Caste adults of the same age group (5.4%. The decomposition analysis shows that poverty and other determinants of health only explain 51% and 42% of the health gap

  4. THE STUDY OF INDONESIA’S READINESS TO COPE WITH DEMOGRAPHIC BONUS: A REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edie Toet Hendratno

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The shift from a population mapping to investigate the population bonus on demographic aspect enhances the economic value this study might contribute for. Indonesian population as the fourth largest number requires some policies to cope with the millennium challenges. Improving nationwide database maintains government on-going strategy to manage its population that is expected to serve all stakeholders for any quest towards economic development. The study uses mixed method with the explanatory sequential strategy. The qualitative approach is used, using social network analysis, supported by desk study, in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and literature studies. This study attempts to provide for improvement to the extant regulations on identity card, mostly electronic-KTP. Demographic bonus is an interesting topic given that the younger the population, the higher the employment demand rate will be. Having systematic database bank and access is expected to alleviate the challenge on high population growth rate in Indonesia. Besides, recommendations are addressed to the policy maker (the Government, mostly on the review or amendment of the extant regulations that might not in line with the database systematic improvements. The study is a primary thesis from a review of population law, using multidisciplinary approach, i.e. population economics (demography, legal study, and public policy that can be used as a testing basis to answer further demographic bonus from an exploration of other scientific inquiries.

  5. Outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies: a nationwide, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Damm, Peter; Moelsted-Pedersen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies with the background population.......The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies with the background population....

  6. Falls and Depression in Men: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Amanda L; Pasco, Julie A; Jacka, Felice N; Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J

    2018-01-01

    The link between falls and depression has been researched in the elderly; however, little information is available on this association in younger adults, particularly men. This study sought to investigate the link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and falls in a population-based sample of 952 men (24-97 years). MDD was diagnosed utilizing the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-Patient edition, and categorized as 12-month/past/never. Body mass index and gait were measured; falls, smoking status, psychotropic medication use, and alcohol intake were self-reported as part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study 5-year follow-up assessment. Thirty-four (3.6%) men met criteria for 12-month MDD, and 110 (11.6%) for past MDD. Of the 952 men, 175 (18.4%) reported falling at least once during the past 12 months. Fallers were older (66 [interquartile range: 48-79] vs. 59 [45-72] years, p = .001) and more likely to have uneven gait ( n = 16, 10% vs. n = 31, 4%, p = .003) than nonfallers. Participants with 12-month MDD had more than twice the odds of falling (age-adjusted odds ratio: 2.22, 95% confidence interval [1.03, 4.80]). The odds of falling were not associated with past depression ( p = .4). Further adjustments for psychotropic drug use, gait, body mass index, smoking status, blood pressure, and alcohol did not explain these associations. Given the 2.2-fold greater likelihood of falling associated with depression was not explained by age or psychotropic drug use, further research is warranted.

  7. Triptan safety during pregnancy: a Norwegian population registry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezvalová-Henriksen, Kateřina; Spigset, Olav; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on triptan safety during pregnancy remains limited to their class effect or studies on sumatriptan. Our aim was to evaluate the individual effect of four most frequently used triptans on several pregnancy outcomes. We used the Norwegian prescription database to access information on triptans redeemed by pregnant women living in Norway between 2004 and 2007. This database was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway covering every institutional delivery in Norway and providing information on pregnancy, delivery, maternal and neonatal health. Estimates of associations with pregnancy outcomes were obtained by Generalised Estimation Equations analysis. Of the 181,125 women in our study, 1,465 (0.8 %) redeemed triptans during pregnancy, and 1,095 (0.6 %) redeemed triptans before pregnancy only (disease comparison group). The population comparison group comprised the remaining 178,565 women. Using this group as reference, we found no associations between triptan redemption during pregnancy and congenital malformations. Second trimester redemption was associated with postpartum haemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.57; 95 % CI 1.19–2.07). The disease comparison group had an increased risk of major congenital malformations (adjusted OR 1.48; 95 % CI 1.11–1.97), low birth weight (adjusted OR 1.39; 95 % CI 1.08–1.81), and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.06–1.60). The association of triptans with postpartum hemorrhage could be attributable to decreased platelet agreeability occurring in severe migraine. Likewise, the increased risk of major congenital malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in the disease comparison group might be attributable to migraine severity

  8. A descriptive study of plasma cell dyscrasias in Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Neemat M; El Zawam, Hamdy; Kassem, Heba A; El Nahas, Tamer; El Husseiny, Noha M; El Azeeim, Hamdy Abd

    2014-06-01

    Plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs) refer to a spectrum of disorders characterized by the monoclonal proliferation of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the bone marrow and, sometimes, tissue deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins or their components. These disorders include multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, as well as rare conditions such as light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) and heavy-chain diseases (HCDs). The worldwide annual incidence of MM is estimated at 86,000, which is approximately 0.8% of all new cancer cases. Our retrospective study aims to highlight the immunologic and epidemiological features of PCDs mainly MM in Egyptian patients and compare our results with those of other populations. Two hundred seventeen Egyptian patients with PCD were enrolled in the study. Serum, urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation were used to demonstrate M protein. One hundred thirty-eight patients (63.6%) had IgG monoclonal band, 38 patients (17.5%) had IgA, 12 patients (5.5%) had Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (IgM monoclonal band) and 29 patients (13.4%) were light chain myeloma. One hundred fifty-one (70%) were Kappa chain positive and 66 patients (30%) were lumbda positive. Conventional cytogenetics was available for 40 patients; of them12 patients (30%) showed 13q-. Mean OS was 37.5months (1-84months). Survival analysis was statistically insignificant according to age, sex and ISS or type of treatment (P value>0.05). Long term follow up is required to further define the role of different therapeutic lines of treatment including ASCT in the various stages of PCD based on OS data. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies

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    Moylan Steven

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective, the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM or International Classification of Diseases (ICD for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as

  10. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study: Radiation Belt Seed Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    Using the Van Allen Probes data, we study the radiation belt seed population and it associated with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storm events. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of “non-preconditioned” and “preconditioned”. The statistical study shows that the storm intensity is of significant importance for the distribution of the seed population (336 keV electrons) in the outer radiation belt. However, substorm intensity can also be important to the evolution of the seed population for some geomagnetic storm events. For non-preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the peak fluxes and their L-shell locations of the seed population and relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1.0 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) is consistent with the energy-dependent dynamic processes in the outer radiation belt. For preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the features of the seed population and relativistic electrons is not fully consistent with the energy-dependent processes. It is suggested that the good correlation between the radiation belt seed population and ≤1.0 MeV electrons contributes to the prediction of the evolution of ≤1.0 MeV electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt during periods of geomagnetic storms.

  11. Reducing NIR prediction errors with nonlinear methods and large populations of intact compound feedstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Ahumada, E; Gómez, A; Vallesquino, P; Guerrero, J E; Pérez-Marín, D; Garrido-Varo, A; Fearn, T

    2008-01-01

    According to the current demands of the authorities, the manufacturers and the consumers, controls and assessments of the feed compound manufacturing process have become a key concern. Among others, it must be assured that a given compound feed is well manufactured and labelled in terms of the ingredient composition. When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) together with linear models were used for the prediction of the ingredient composition, the results were not always acceptable. Therefore, the performance of nonlinear methods has been investigated. Artificial neural networks and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) have been applied to a large (N = 20 320) and heterogeneous population of non-milled feed compounds for the NIR prediction of the inclusion percentage of wheat and sunflower meal, as representative of two different classes of ingredients. Compared to partial least squares regression, results showed considerable reductions of standard error of prediction values for both methods and ingredients: reductions of 45% with ANN and 49% with LS-SVM for wheat and reductions of 44% with ANN and 46% with LS-SVM for sunflower meal. These improvements together with the facility of NIRS technology to be implemented in the process make it ideal for meeting the requirements of the animal feed industry

  12. Theoretical study of atomic structure of Zpopulations in a hot plasma and population inversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennou, Helene.

    1983-05-01

    This thesis presents a theoretical method for atomic-structure calculations (energy levels, wave functions, oscillator strengths): it is a modified Hartree-Fock method including the spin-orbit interaction in the variationnal process. Two applications are first described: one concerning the resonance lines of the Krypton isoelectronic sequence, the other having for purpose the interpretation of Lsub(α) and Lsub(β) satellites in Copper. A description is made of an original collisional-radiative model, which makes use of the preceding method, and allows to calculate the populations of a great number of ionic excited levels in a plasma. This model is used in a detailed study of the Al 10+ Lithium -like ion spectrum. It is able to explain the apparition of inversion populations for some special electronic densities and temperatures, for example between the levels corresponding to the transitions observed at 103.8, 105.7 and 154.7 A [fr

  13. Replication of genome wide association studies on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility loci in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangmei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified three loci (rs17401966 in KIF1B, rs7574865 in STAT4, rs9275319 in HLA-DQ as being associated with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-related HCC in a Chinese population, two loci (rs2596542 in MICA, rs9275572 located between HLA-DQA and HLA-DQB with hepatitis C virus-related HCC (HCV-related HCC in a Japanese population. In the present study, we sought to determine whether these SNPs are predictive for HBV-related HCC development in other Chinese population as well. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We genotyped 4 SNPs, rs2596542, rs9275572, rs17401966, rs7574865, in 506 HBV-related HCC patients and 772 chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients in Han Chinese by TaqMan methods. Odds ratio(ORand 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated by logistic regression. In our case-control study, significant association between rs9275572 and HCC were observed (P = 0.02, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56-0.95. In the further haplotype analysis between rs2596542 at 6p21.33 and rs9275572 at 6p21.3, G-A showed a protective effect on HBV-related HCC occurrence (P<0.001, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.52-0.84. CONCLUSION: These findings provided convincing evidence that rs9275572 significantly associated with HBV-related HCC.

  14. Stroke trends in an aging population. The Technology Assessment Methods Project Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, L W; Barendregt, J J; Bonneux, L; Koudstaal, P J

    1993-07-01

    Trends in stroke incidence and survival determine changes in stroke morbidity and mortality. This study examines the extent of the incidence decline and survival improvement in the Netherlands from 1979 to 1989. In addition, it projects future changes in stroke morbidity during the period 1985 to 2005, when the country's population will be aging. A state-event transition model is used, which combines Dutch population projections and existing data on stroke epidemiology. Based on the clinical course of stroke, the model describes historical national age- and sex-specific hospital admission and mortality rates for stroke. It extrapolates observed trends and projects future changes in stroke morbidity rates. There is evidence of a continuing incidence decline. The most plausible rate of change is an annual decline of -1.9% (range, -1.7% to -2.1%) for men and -2.4% (range, -2.3% to -2.8%) for women. Projecting a constant mortality decline, the model shows a 35% decrease of the stroke incidence rate for a period of 20 years. Prevalence rates for major stroke will decline among the younger age groups but increase among the oldest because of increased survival in the latter. In absolute numbers this results in an 18% decrease of acute stroke episodes and an 11% increase of major stroke cases. The increase in survival cannot fully explain the observed mortality decline and, therefore, a concomitant incidence decline has to be assumed. Aging of the population partially outweighs the effect of an incidence decline on the total burden of stroke. Increase in cardiovascular survival leads to a further increase in major stroke prevalence among the oldest age groups.

  15. Clinical implications of JUPITER in a contemporary European population: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Rana, Jamal S; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-05-01

    Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) has raised several points of debate. We quantified the proportion of individuals meeting the JUPITER criteria, determined their risk profile, and their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events during a long-term follow-up in a contemporary European cohort. A total of 25 639 participants aged between 45 and 79 years were followed for 11.4 ± 2.8 years in EPIC-Norfolk population cohort. A total of 8397 individuals with complete data available were considered potentially eligible for primary prevention. A total of 846 (10.1%) individuals fulfilled the JUPITER criteria [low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-C (LDL-C) JUPITER criteria had significantly higher CHD risk compared with those with LDL-C ≥ 3.4 mmol/L and C-reactive protein JUPITER criteria. In this European cohort, JUPITER-eligible individuals had significantly higher event rates compared with those with LDL-C JUPITER criteria qualified almost one-fifth of the population for statin therapy that otherwise would not have qualified based on SCORE or ATP III criteria.

  16. Case studies: Soil mapping using multiple methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hauke; Wunderlich, Tina; Hagrey, Said A. Al; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Stümpel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Soil is a non-renewable resource with fundamental functions like filtering (e.g. water), storing (e.g. carbon), transforming (e.g. nutrients) and buffering (e.g. contamination). Degradation of soils is meanwhile not only to scientists a well known fact, also decision makers in politics have accepted this as a serious problem for several environmental aspects. National and international authorities have already worked out preservation and restoration strategies for soil degradation, though it is still work of active research how to put these strategies into real practice. But common to all strategies the description of soil state and dynamics is required as a base step. This includes collecting information from soils with methods ranging from direct soil sampling to remote applications. In an intermediate scale mobile geophysical methods are applied with the advantage of fast working progress but disadvantage of site specific calibration and interpretation issues. In the framework of the iSOIL project we present here some case studies for soil mapping performed using multiple geophysical methods. We will present examples of combined field measurements with EMI-, GPR-, magnetic and gammaspectrometric techniques carried out with the mobile multi-sensor-system of Kiel University (GER). Depending on soil type and actual environmental conditions, different methods show a different quality of information. With application of diverse methods we want to figure out, which methods or combination of methods will give the most reliable information concerning soil state and properties. To investigate the influence of varying material we performed mapping campaigns on field sites with sandy, loamy and loessy soils. Classification of measured or derived attributes show not only the lateral variability but also gives hints to a variation in the vertical distribution of soil material. For all soils of course soil water content can be a critical factor concerning a succesful

  17. Our World of 7 Billion: Population Studies in Today's Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    The study of world population integrates so many themes and disciplines in the social studies because it encompasses all of human history--the rise of agriculture and civilizations, scientific progress, territorial conflicts, changing gender roles and more. It is also at the heart of human geography and how people came to dominate and alter the…

  18. THE LIFE QUALITY OF BUYNAKSK CITY INHABITANTS, REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN (POPULATION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We studied the life quality indicators of the population in Buynaksk city, Dagestan, in a random representative sample of 315 people (155 women and 160 men aged between 18 and 76 years. Respondents were divided into 3 age groups (up to 35 years, 35-50 years and 50 years and older.Methods. The study was performed using a common health survey – Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-36 (SF-36 in accordance with the requirements of the International Quality of Life Assessment Project (IQOLA.Results. We conducted a comparative analysis of age dynamics of population quality of life, as well as the male and female population of the study sample. The highest quality of life indicators are found on the scales of social (SF and physical functioning (PF – 83.4 and 82.9 points, respectively, the lowest – on the scale of general health (GH– 58.6. In general, with aging, there is a decrease of life quality among both male and female population. The most marked age-related changes are observed on the scale of role-physical functioning (RF and physical functioning (PF – 54.2 and 48.0% respectively and the least marked on the scale of mental health – 4.4%. The value of the integral index of quality of life in population-based study in Buynaksk city, Republic of Dagestan was 583.4.Conclusion. The research findings might be used in planning, developing and evaluating the effectiveness of various reforms, health and socio-economic programs being implemented in the region as well as to improve the quality of life and well-being. 

  19. Hard-to-reach populations of men who have sex with men and sex workers: a systematic review on sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana B; Dias, Sonia F; Martins, Maria Rosario O

    2015-10-30

    In public health, hard-to-reach populations are often recruited by non-probabilistic sampling methods that produce biased results. In order to overcome this, several sampling methods have been improved and developed in the last years. The aim of this systematic review was to identify all current methods used to survey most-at-risk populations of men who have sex with men and sex workers. The review also aimed to assess if there were any relations between the study populations and the sampling methods used to recruit them. Lastly, we wanted to assess if the number of publications originated in middle and low human development (MLHD) countries had been increasing in the last years. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases and a total of 268 published studies were included in the analysis. In this review, 11 recruitment methods were identified. Semi-probabilistic methods were used most commonly to survey men who have sex with men, and the use of the Internet was the method that gathered more respondents. We found that female sex workers were more frequently recruited through non-probabilistic methods than men who have sex with men (odds = 2.2; p review identified 11 methods used to sample men who have sex with men and female sex workers. There is an association between the type of sampling method and the population being studied. The number of studies based in middle and low human development countries has increased in the last 6 years of this study.

  20. When are genetic methods useful for estimating contemporary abundance and detecting population trends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Tallmon; Dave Gregovich; Robin S. Waples; C. Scott Baker; Jennifer Jackson; Barbara L. Taylor; Eric Archer; Karen K. Martien; Fred W. Allendorf; Michael K. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    The utility of microsatellite markers for inferring population size and trend has not been rigorously examined, even though these markers are commonly used to monitor the demography of natural populations. We assessed the ability of a linkage disequilibrium estimator of effective population size (Ne) and a simple capture-recapture estimator of abundance (N) to quantify...

  1. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in a Brazilian population: The Botucatu Eye Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports population-based data on the prevalence and causes of visual impairment among children and adults in Botucatu, Brazil. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving a random start point and then systematic sampling of an urban Brazilian population in the city of Botucatu. There were approximately 3 300 individuals aged 1 to 91 years who were eligible to participate in the study. Of this sample, 2485 (75.3% underwent ophthalmic examination. The ophthalmic examination included uncorrected (presenting and best corrected distance visual acuity using standardized protocols. The primary cause of decreased visual acuity was identified for all patients with visual impairment. Results Presenting low vision and presenting blindness were found in 5.2% (95% CI: 4.3–6.1 and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.6–2.8 of the population, respectively. Unilateral presenting low vision and unilateral presenting blindness were found in 8.3% (95% CI: 7.2–9.5 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.9–4.4 of the population respectively. Best corrected low vision was found in 1.3% of the population (95% CI: 0.9–1.7 and best corrected blindness was discovered in 0.4% of people (95% CI: 0.2–0.7. The main cause of presenting low vision was refractive error (72.3% and cataract was the most prevalent cause of blindness (50%. Conclusion The main causes of low vision and blindness in this Brazilian city were uncorrected refractive errors, cataract, and retinal diseases. Programs to further reduce the burden of visual impairment need to be targeted toward the correction of refractive error and surgery for cataracts.

  2. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl Lassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years new applications of technologies, including digital images, to capture dietary behaviour in real time have been explored. Objectives: To validate a digital method for estimating evening meal intake in a free-living adult population, and to examine the feasibility of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals into major food categories, and the nutrient content was calculated. A second study included interviews with 28 participants recording their evening meals on weekdays for three consecutive weeks to get their perspective on the feasibility of the method. Results: High correlation coefficients between the digital method and weighed records were found for all measured food categories and nutrients. Comparable means and acceptable limits of agreement (mean difference +/− 2 SD were found with regard to macronutrient distribution (e.g. fat content −5 to 6 E%, energy density (−75 to 91 kJ/100 g, and energy-adjusted foods (e.g. fruit and vegetable content −241 to 236 g/10 MJ. The majority of the participants expressed satisfaction with the method and were willing to record their evening meals for 1 month or more using the digital method. Conclusion: The digital method is valid and feasible for evening meal estimation in real-time where a prolonged recording period of participants’ meals is needed.

  3. CardioBengo study protocol: a population based cardiovascular longitudinal study in Bengo Province, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012, 75 % occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these countries are facing a period of epidemiological transition, being confronted with an increased burden of non-communicable diseases, which challenge health systems mainly designed to deal with infectious diseases. With the adoption of the World Health Organization “Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of non-communicable diseases, 2013–2020”, the national dimension of risk factors for non-communicable diseases must be reported on a regular basis. Angola has no national surveillance system for non-communicable diseases, and periodic population-based studies can help to overcome this lack of information. CardioBengo will collect information on risk factors, awareness rates and prevalence of symptoms relevant to cardiovascular diseases, to assist decision makers in the implementation of prevention and treatment policies and programs. Methods CardioBengo is designed as a research structure that comprises a cross-sectional component, providing baseline information and the assembling of a cohort to follow-up the dynamics of cardiovascular diseases risk factors in the catchment area of the Dande Health and Demographic Surveillance System of the Health Research Centre of Angola, in Bengo Province, Angola. The World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance questionnaires and procedures will be used to collect information on a representative sex-age stratified sample, aged between 15 and 64 years old. Discussion CardioBengo will recruit the first population cohort in Angola designed to evaluate cardiovascular diseases risk factors. Using the structures in place of the Dande Health and Demographic Surveillance System and a reliable methodology that generates comparable results with other

  4. Respondent-driven sampling (rds as a new method to access vulnerable populations to hiv: its application in men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Estrada M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30 million people are living with hiv all around the world in 2010. The most vulnerable hiv/aids groups are sex workers, intravenous drug users, transgender people and population of men who have sex with men (msm. Up to now, the surveillance and behavioral studies on sexual transmitted diseases (sti and hiv have been conducted using intentional sampling methods like the snowball methodology, but this kind of sampling does not achieve representation and does not represent a conclusive method for the study of hidden populations in order to extend and apply its results to the general population. Furthermore, it is necessary to add to this limitation the lack of knowledge about the size of these groups that must face situations of stigma and discrimination. A decade ago a new method was designed to sample hidden and hard to reach populations based on Markov theories and on chain recruitment. This new method is known as respondent-driven sampling (rds and it has been used in several behavioral and hiv prevalence studies. This review article presents the background, the theoretical support and a description of the method. It also analyzes some studies carried out using this new methodology.

  5. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, L.; Dahlstrom, K.; Breiting, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (PMCS) is a rare malignant tumor deriving from the sweat glands. It is typically located on the head and is often mistaken for a metastasis from a more common primary tumor of the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We present the first population......-based study of PMCS. Materials and methods Data on PMCS was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry, which has recorded incident cases of cancer on a nationwide basis since 1943. We extracted all patients diagnosed 1978-2003 with PMCS. Results Fifteen cases of PMCS have been registered during the study...... or PMCS related deaths were reported. Conclusion PMCS is a rare, slow-growing tumor which rarely metastasizes and is associated with low mortality. The age-standardized incidence rate, based on data from a population-based cancer registry of high quality and validity, is less than 0.1 per million. However...

  6. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  7. [Population-based study of diabetic retinopathy in Wolfsburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, L; Grüsser, M; Hoffstadt, K; Jörgens, V; Hartmann, P; Kroll, P

    2001-11-01

    Since November 1997 the complete documentation of an ophthalmological examination of diabetics has been annually subsidized by the Volkswagen Corporation Health Maintenance Organization (VW-HMO). The results of an annual ophthalmological examination were recorded in a standardised history sheet developed by the Initiative Group for Early Detection of Diabetic Eye Diseases. These data included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, lens status and a description of fundus abnormalities. Within 26 months ophthalmological examinations of 2,801 patients were completed which represented 4.5% of all VW-HMO insured patients. On average, patients suffered from diabetes for 9.6 years (SD +/- 8.3), artificial intraocular lenses were present in 357 eyes (6.4%) and 1,216 eyes (12.0%) were diagnosed with cataract or posterior capsule opacification impairing visual acuity. Out of 263 patients younger than 40 years old, 18.8% had a mild or moderate and 3.3% a severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). A proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was found in 2.2% of the younger patients. Of 2,228 patients aged 40 years and older, 11.9% had a mild or moderate and 2.6% a severe NPDR. In 0.9% of this group PDR was diagnosed. An annual ophthalmological screening based on a survey sheet of the Initiative Group was successfully introduced. For the first time a population-based evaluation on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was carried out for inhabitants of a German city. The prevalence of PDR was found to be lower than previously published in comparable studied.

  8. Predictors of fibromyalgia: a population-based twin cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Ritva A; Kalso, Eija A; Kaprio, Jaakko A

    2016-01-15

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain syndrome, the mechanisms and predictors of which are still unclear. We have earlier validated a set of FM-symptom questions for detecting possible FM in an epidemiological survey and thereby identified a cluster with "possible FM". This study explores prospectively predictors for membership of that FM-symptom cluster. A population-based sample of 8343 subjects of the older Finnish Twin Cohort replied to health questionnaires in 1975, 1981, and 1990. Their answers to the set of FM-symptom questions in 1990 classified them in three latent classes (LC): LC1 with no or few symptoms, LC2 with some symptoms, and LC3 with many FM symptoms. We analysed putative predictors for these symptom classes using baseline (1975 and 1981) data on regional pain, headache, migraine, sleeping, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking, and zygosity, adjusted for age, gender, and education. Those with a high likelihood of having fibromyalgia at baseline were excluded from the analysis. In the final multivariate regression model, regional pain, sleeping problems, and overweight were all predictors for membership in the class with many FM symptoms. The strongest non-genetic predictor was frequent headache (OR 8.6, CI 95% 3.8-19.2), followed by persistent back pain (OR 4.7, CI 95% 3.3-6.7) and persistent neck pain (OR 3.3, CI 95% 1.8-6.0). Regional pain, frequent headache, and persistent back or neck pain, sleeping problems, and overweight are predictors for having a cluster of symptoms consistent with fibromyalgia.

  9. Study populations and casemix: influence on analysis of postoperative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, W H

    2000-04-01

    outcome differences observed reached statistical significance except postoperative atelectasis and intraabdominal abscess. Although not statistically significant, the results of the present study suggest that when the same surgeon operates using the same technique in different communities, the outcomes may be different. Care should thus be taken when comparing different populations with different casemixes before definitive conclusions are made in comparative studies.

  10. A Qualitative Study to Assess Factors Supporting Tobacco Use in A Homeless Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribeth Porter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Homeless adults have a higher prevalence of smoking compared to the general population. Most tobacco cessation efforts have focused on the general population, with limited attention paid to this vulnerable population. In this study, homeless adults as well as shelter staff were interviewed to understand their attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smoking cessation, and receptiveness to smoking cessation interventions. Methods: Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were audio recorded and transcribed for 13 homeless adult smokers and 9 staff recruited from a homeless shelter in Charleston, South Carolina. Transcripts were analyzed in a systematic manner by independent investigators trained in grounded theory. The constant comparison method was used to code, categorize and synthesize the qualitative data. Results: The majority of smokers interviewed expressed the desire to stop smoking, but felt that stress from being homeless was a barrier to quitting. When asked about different tobacco cessation methods, there was no preferred method and there was skepticism regarding actual effectiveness of different methods, since many had previously been unsuccessful when tried by these smokers. Shelter staff acknowledged that tobacco cessation was important, but did not see it as a priority for shelter residents. Even though cessation medications are available in the shelter clinic, very few of the smokers or shelter staff interviewed were aware of the availability of these medications. Conclusions: This study suggests that adult smokers in a homeless shelter are interested in quitting smoking and receptive toward assistance, but that lack of awareness and perceived importance of cessation among staff is a significant barrier. Providing training to staff and encouraging them to take a proactive approach to tobacco cessation may be an area to focus future cessation interventions.

  11. Hand Grip Strength: age and gender stratified normative data in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anne W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people originally aged 18 years and over. The aim of this study was to describe normative data for hand grip strength in a community-based Australian population. Secondary aims were to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and hand grip strength, and to compare Australian data with international hand grip strength norms. Methods The sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3 206 (81% of those recruited participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006 which specifically focused on the collection of information relating to musculoskeletal conditions. Results Following the exclusion of 435 participants who had hand pain and/or arthritis, 1366 men and 1312 women participants provided hand grip strength measurement. The study population was relatively young, with 41.5% under 40 years; and their mean BMI was 28.1 kg/m2 (SD 5.5. Higher hand grip strength was weakly related to higher BMI in adults under the age of 30 and over the age of 70, but inversely related to higher BMI between these ages. Australian norms from this sample had amongst the lowest of the hand grip strength of the internationally published norms, except those from underweight populations. Conclusions This population demonstrated higher BMI and lower grip strength in younger participants than much of the international published, population data. A complete exploration of the relationship between BMI and hand grip strength was not fully explored as there were very few participants with BMI in the underweight range. The age and gender grip strength values are lower in younger adults than those reported in international literature.

  12. Modelling population dynamics model formulation, fitting and assessment using state-space methods

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, K B; Morgan, B J T; King, R; Borchers, D L; Cole, D J; Besbeas, P; Gimenez, O; Thomas, L

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a unifying framework for estimating the abundance of open populations: populations subject to births, deaths and movement, given imperfect measurements or samples of the populations.  The focus is primarily on populations of vertebrates for which dynamics are typically modelled within the framework of an annual cycle, and for which stochastic variability in the demographic processes is usually modest. Discrete-time models are developed in which animals can be assigned to discrete states such as age class, gender, maturity,  population (within a metapopulation), or species (for multi-species models). The book goes well beyond estimation of abundance, allowing inference on underlying population processes such as birth or recruitment, survival and movement. This requires the formulation and fitting of population dynamics models.  The resulting fitted models yield both estimates of abundance and estimates of parameters characterizing the underlying processes.  

  13. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence -- a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...

  14. Forced Ignition Study Based On Wavelet Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, E.; Valorani, M.; Paolucci, S.; Zikoski, Z.

    2011-05-01

    The control of ignition in a rocket engine is a critical problem for combustion chamber design. Therefore it is essential to fully understand the mechanism of ignition during its earliest stages. In this paper the characteristics of flame kernel formation and initial propagation in a hydrogen-argon-oxygen mixing layer are studied using 2D direct numerical simulations with detailed chemistry and transport properties. The flame kernel is initiated by adding an energy deposition source term in the energy equation. The effect of unsteady strain rate is studied by imposing a 2D turbulence velocity field, which is initialized by means of a synthetic field. An adaptive wavelet method, based on interpolating wavelets is used in this study to solve the compressible reactive Navier- Stokes equations. This method provides an alternative means to refine the computational grid points according to local demands of the physical solution. The present simulations show that in the very early instants the kernel perturbed by the turbulent field is characterized by an increased burning area and a slightly increased rad- ical formation. In addition, the calculations show that the wavelet technique yields a significant reduction in the number of degrees of freedom necessary to achieve a pre- scribed solution accuracy.

  15. Menstrual pad, a cervical cancer screening tool, a population-based study in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budukh, Atul; Palayekar, Vrushali; Maheshwari, Amita; Deodhar, Kedar; Purwar, Pallavi; Bagal, Sonali; Vadigoppula, Ashok; Lokhande, Manoj; Panse, Nandkumar; Dikshit, Rajesh; Badwe, Rajendra

    2017-07-12

    In the rural areas of India, women generally use a piece of old cloth as a menstrual device. The aim of this study was to detect human papilloma virus (HPV) from menstrual blood on the menstrual pad and assess whether this could be a useful screening tool for cervical cancer. In Jamkhed area of rural Maharashtra, (population A), we collected menstrual pads from women who provided consent in the 30-50 year age group. The women who had provided menstrual pads underwent HC2 testing. We standardized the method for extracting DNA by PCR from the menstrual pad. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of HC2/PCR testing, underwent colposcopy. In the rural population of Pune area of Maharashtra state (population B), menstrual pads were collected. HPV was tested using the PCR method. HPV-positive women and a few HPV-negative women, selected randomly, underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. In population A, 164 women provided their used menstrual pads and also underwent an HC2 screening test. Of these, six (3.2%) cases were reported as HPV positive. In population B, 365 women provided their used menstrual pads for HPV testing, of which 18 (4.9%) cases were diagnosed as HPV positive. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of PCR testing, and 10% randomly selected HPV-negative cases (37) and 18 women who voluntary requested testing underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. The sensitivity of menstrual pad HPV testing compared with gold standard HC2 testing was 83% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.97], 67% (95% CI: 0.30-0.91) and specificity was 99% (95% CI: 0.96-0.99), 88% (95% CI: 0.77-0.94) in population A and population B, respectively. The sensitivity of diagnosing CIN lesion was 83% (95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and specificity was 95% (95% CI: 0.91-0.97). On the basis of the sensitivity and specificity results, and the completely noninvasive, simple and convenient method of detecting HPV, menstrual pad might be considered a cervical cancer screening tool in rural

  16. Two types of population migration in China: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, S

    1992-01-01

    The patterns, extent of, and trends in permanent and temporary migration in China are presented. Permanency is determined by a household registration transfer. Floaters are considered temporary migrants. The regulatory history of migration is given: restrictions prior to 1978 on temporary migration and relaxation of restrictions after 1978. Permanent migration was greatest in the 1950s. Between 1949 and 1960, there were 73.37 million permanent migrants to urban areas from rural areas out of an urban population increase of 105.83 million. During the 1960 and 1970s, urban population was lowered. During the Cultural Revolution, emigration surpassed immigration and the nonagricultural population increased in cities and towns. Between 1976 and 1987, the natural growth of the urban population declined, and nonagricultural population increased from 57.65 million to 204.057 million in cities and towns (1949-88). The trends in the floating population show the lowest ratio of temporary migrants to permanent migrants between 1984 and 1987 to be in Shenyang (15:100); the highest was in Guangzhou (33:100) with an average of 23:100. When the ratio is considered as 20:100 in cities, the average floating population is calculated at 52.87 million in 1987 out of 264.354 million total urban population. 70% were from rural areas. In a comparison of six provinces, Hebei had the lowest percentage of floaters (19%) and Shandong the highest (40%). In country-governed towns, and estimated temporary in-migrants numbered 9.48 million; 8/86 million were floaters. During peak migration, temporary migration averages 50 million/day and permanent migration averages 50,000/day. The primary difference between floaters and permanent migrants is that floaters keep their ties to the land. Surplus labor drives temporary migration, and as such is a release valve. Permanent migration, which is government-controlled, does not allow as much flexibility in adapting to socioeconomic conditions. The sectors

  17. Progression to impaired glucose regulation and diabetes in the population-based Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Susanne; Vistisen, Dorte; Lau, Cathrine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the progression rates to impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) and diabetes in the Danish population-based Inter99 study and in a high-risk subpopulation, separately. Research Design and Methods: From a population-based primary...... glucose regulation using the current World Health Organization classification criteria were calculated for the first time in a large European population-based study. The progression rates to diabetes show the same pattern as seen in the few similar European studies....... prevention study, the Inter99 study, 4,615 individuals without diabetes at baseline and with relevant follow-up data were divided into a low- and a high-risk group based on a risk estimate of ischemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity...... estimated directly from baseline to 5-year follow-up for all the participants, and from baseline through 1- and 3-, to 5-year follow-up for the high-risk individuals, separately. Results: In the combined low- and high-risk group, 2.1 per 100 person-years progressed from normal glucose tolerance to impaired...

  18. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl

    Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...

  19. Primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuyang; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Braileanu, Maria; Porras, Jose L; Caplan, Justin M; Rong, Xiaoming; Huang, Judy; Jallo, George I

    2017-03-01

    Primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma (PISCL) is a rare diagnosis with poorly understood disease progression. Clarification of the factors associated with survival in PISCL patients is warranted. We conducted a population-based cohort study utilizing prospectively collected data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients with histological diagnosis of primary lymphoma in spinal cord (C72.0) from 1973 to 2012 in the SEER database were included. Multivariable survival analysis between patient, lesion characteristics, and PISCL-related death was performed to adjust for confounding factors. We included 346 PISCL patients in our study. Average age was 56.5 ± 17.8 years, with 62.7% being male. Racial distribution of these patients was white (87.6%), black (8.0%), and other (4.3%). More than half (55.8%) of patients were married. The most prevalent histology of PISCL was diffuse B-cell (46.2%), and the majority (55.2%) were low stage (Ann Arbor stage I/II). Most patients (67.9%) received radiation therapy. Average survival interval of patients with PISCL-related death (n=135, 39.0%) was 27.8 months. General cumulative survival probability at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years was 73.8%, 67.9%, and 63.1%, respectively. Multivariable accelerated failure time (AFT) regression showed follicular lymphoma (HR:0.25, P=.008) and more recent diagnosis (HR:0.96, P<.001) was positively associated with PISCL-related survival. Conversely, nonwhite race (HR:1.69, P=.046), older age (HR:1.02, P<.001), unmarried status (HR:2.14, P<.001), and higher stage (HR:1.54, P=.022) were negatively associated with survival. Age, race, marital status, tumor histology, tumor stage, and year of diagnosis were associated with survival of PISCL. While most PISCL-related deaths occur within a 1-year period, subsequent slow progression was observed after the first year of survival. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  20. MRI study on spinal canal content in Western Maharashtrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanapurkar SV, Kulkarni DO, Bahetee BH, Vahane MI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the spinal canal content has been studied since the invention of myelography. However, most studies have measured the diameters of the spinal cord only, not the size of the subarachnoid space. The present study complements the current data on the morphology of the spinal contents, and in particular, the spinal subarachnoid space, by analyzing MRI images. Objective: To study morphology of the dural sac, spinal cord & subarachnoid space using MRI. To define the inner geometrical dimensions of spinal canal content that confine the maneuver of an endoscope inserted in cervical spine. 3. To have comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of cervical spinal canal. Method: Based on MRI images of the spine from 60 normal patients of age between 25-60 years, the dimensions of spinal cord, dural sac & subarachnoid space were measured at mid-vertebral & intervertebral level from C1-C7 vertebrae. The parameters measured were transverse, sagittal diameter of spinal cord & dural sac. The subarachnoid space was measured as anterior, posterior, right, left distance between spinal cord and dura mater. Results: It was found that at each selected transverse level, the subarachnoid space tends to be symmetrical on the right and left sides of the cord, and measures 3.38 mm on an average. However, the anterior and posterior segment, measured on the mid-sagittal plane are generally asymmetric & varies greatly in size ranging 1mm to 6mm with mean 2.57 of anterior & 2.59 of posterior. These measurements match those found in previous studies. The coefficient of variance for the dimensions of the subarachnoid space is as high as 36.16%, while that for the dimensions of the spinal cord (transverse & sagittal are11.08%&13.28%respectively. Conclusion: The findings presented here, expand our knowledge of morphology of spinal canal and show that a thecaloscope must be smaller than 3.38 mm in diameter.

  1. Genealogy construction in a historically isolated population: application to genetic studies of rheumatoid arthritis in the Pima Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J P; Hirsch, R; Jacobsson, L T; Scott, W W; Ma, L D; Pillemer, S R; Knowler, W C; Kastner, D L; Bale, S J

    1999-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of complex traits, many traits may not be amenable to traditional epidemiologic methods. We illustrate an approach that defines an isolated population as the "unit" for carrying out studies of complex disease. We provide an example using the Pima Indians, a relatively isolated population, in which the incidence and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are significantly increased compared with the general U.S. population. A previous study of RA in the Pima utilizing traditional methods failed to detect a genetic effect on the occurrence of the disease. Our approach involved constructing a genealogy for this population and using a genealogic index to investigate familial aggregation. We developed an algorithm to identify biological relationships among 88 RA cases versus 4,000 subsamples of age-matched individuals from the same population. Kinship coefficients were calculated for all possible pairs of RA cases, and similarly for the subsamples. The sum of the kinship coefficient among all combination of RA pairs, 5.92, was significantly higher than the average of the 4,000 subsamples, 1.99 (p genealogy can be anticipated to provide valuable information for the genetic study of diseases other than RA. Defining an isolated population as the "unit" in which to assess familial aggregation may be advantageous, especially if there are a limited number of cases in the study population.

  2. Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

    2014-12-01

    Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey: report of methods and population surveyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, J A; Wilby, K; McMullen, E; Laporte, K

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of health risk due to environmental contaminants depends upon accurate estimates of the distribution of population exposures. Exposure assessment, in turn, requires information on the time people spend in micro-environments and their activities during periods of exposure. This paper describes preliminary results including study methodology and population sampled in a large Canadian survey of time-activity patterns. A 24-hour diary recall survey was performed in 2381 households (representing a 65% response rate) to describe in detail the timing, location and activity pattern of one household member (the adult or child with the next birthday). Four cities (Toronto, Vancouver, Edmonton and Saint John, NB) and their suburbs were sampled by random-digit dialling over a nine-month period in 1994/1995. Supplemental questionnaires inquiring about sociodemographic information, house and household characteristics and potential exposure to toxins in the air and water were also administered. In general, the results show that respondents spend the majority of their time indoors (88.6%) with smaller proportions of time outdoors (6.1%) and in vehicles (5.3%). Children under the age of 12 spend more time both indoors and outdoors and less time in transit than do adults. The data from this study will be used to define more accurately the exposure of Canadians to a variety of toxins in exposure assessment models and to improve upon the accuracy of risk assessment for a variety of acute and chronic health effects known or suspected to be related to environmental exposures.

  4. 85 STUDIES ON DOG POPULATION IN MAKURDI, NIGERIA (I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of dog population in some residential areas of Makurdi, Nigeria, was investigated ... owned dogs kept them as house guards and/or security alert; only 18.8% of dog owners kept them as .... potential health risk to dogs and humans.

  5. Vascular Pathology And Osteoarthritis Population-based studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Hoeven (Theun)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disorder worldwide and causes a considerable burden of pain, disability, and ever increasing costs to society. Due to rapid ageing and the epidemic of obesity in western populations, prevalence of OA is expected

  6. The National Women's Health Study: assembly and description of a population-based reproductive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prior Susan

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miscarriage is a common event but is remarkably difficult to measure in epidemiological studies. Few large-scale population-based studies have been conducted in the UK. Methods This was a population-based two-stage postal survey of reproductive histories of adult women living in the United Kingdom in 2001, sampled from the electronic electoral roll. In Stage 1 a short "screening" questionnaire was sent to over 60,000 randomly selected women in order to identify those aged 55 and under who had ever been pregnant or ever attempted to achieve a pregnancy, from whom a brief reproductive history was requested. Stage 2 involved a more lengthy questionnaire requesting detailed information on every pregnancy (and fertility problems, and questions relating to socio-demographic, behavioural and other factors for the most recent pregnancy in order to examine risk factors for miscarriage. Data on stillbirth, multiple birth and maternal age are compared to national data in order to assess response bias. Results The response rate was 49% for Stage 1 and 73% for the more targeted Stage 2. A total of 26,050 questionnaires were returned in Stage 1. Of the 17,748 women who were eligible on the grounds of age, 27% reported that they had never been pregnant and had never attempted to conceive a child. The remaining 13,035 women reported a total of 30,661 pregnancies. Comparison of key reproductive indicators (stillbirth and multiple birth rates and maternal age at first birth with national statistics showed that the data look remarkably similar to the general population. Conclusions This study has enabled the assembly of a large population-based dataset of women's reproductive histories which appears unbiased compared to the general UK population and which will enable investigation of hard-to-measure outcomes such as miscarriage and infertility.

  7. [Gastric magnetic resonance study (methods, semiotics)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashuk, G A

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows the potentialities of gastric study by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The methodic aspects of gastric study have been worked out. The MRI-semiotics of the unchanged and tumor-affected wall of the stomach and techniques in examining patients with gastric cancer of various sites are described. Using the developed procedure, MRI was performed in 199 patients, including 154 patients with gastric pathology and 45 control individuals who had no altered gastric wall. Great emphasis is placed on the role of MRI in the diagnosis of endophytic (diffuse) gastric cancer that is of priority value in its morphological structure. MRI was found to play a role in the diagnosis of the spread of a tumorous process both along the walls of the stomach and to its adjacent anatomic structures.

  8. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  9. Influence of population versus convenience sampling on sample characteristics in studies of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Mothakunnel, Annu; de Vel-Palumbo, Melissa; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Savage, Greg; Trollor, Julian N; Crawford, John; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether differences in findings of studies examining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were associated with recruitment methods by comparing sample characteristics in two contemporaneous Australian studies, using population-based and convenience sampling. The Sydney Memory and Aging Study invited participants randomly from the electoral roll in defined geographic areas in Sydney. The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing recruited cognitively normal (CN) individuals via media appeals and MCI participants via referrals from clinicians in Melbourne and Perth. Demographic and cognitive variables were harmonized, and similar diagnostic criteria were applied to both samples retrospectively. CN participants recruited via convenience sampling were younger, better educated, more likely to be married and have a family history of dementia, and performed better cognitively than those recruited via population-based sampling. MCI participants recruited via population-based sampling had better memory performance and were less likely to carry the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele than clinically referred participants but did not differ on other demographic variables. A convenience sample of normal controls is likely to be younger and better functioning and that of an MCI group likely to perform worse than a purportedly random sample. Sampling bias should be considered when interpreting findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Central America: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy A. Wong-McClure

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS as found by the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI study for five major Central American populations: Belize (national; Costa Rica (San José; Guatemala (Guatemala City; Honduras (Tegucigalpa; and Nicaragua (Managua. METHODS: Study data on 6 185 adults aged 20 years or older with anthropometric and laboratory determination of MetS from population-based surveys were analyzed. Overall, the survey response rate was 82.0%. MetS prevalence was determined according to criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. The study's protocol was reviewed and approved by the bioethical committee of each country studied. RESULTS: The overall standardized prevalence of MetS in the Central American region was 30.3% (95% confidence interval (CI: 27.1-33.4. There was wide variability by gender and work conditions, with higher prevalence among females and unpaid workers. The standardized percentage of the population free of any component of MetS was lowest in Costa Rica (9.0%; CI: 6.5-11.4 and highest in Honduras (21.1%; CI: 16.4-25.9. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prevalence of MetS in Central America is high. Strengthening surveillance of chronic diseases and establishing effective programs for preventing cardiovascular diseases might reduce the risk of MetS in Central America.

  11. Intergenerational teen pregnancy: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Vigod, Simone N; Farrugia, M Michèle; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G

    2018-05-22

    To estimate the intergenerational association in teenage pregnancy, and whether there is a coupling tendency between a mother and daughter in how their teen pregnancies end, such as an induced abortion (IA) vs. a livebirth. Population-based cohort study. Ontario, Canada. 15,097 mothers and their 16,177 daughters. Generalized estimating equations generated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of a daughter experiencing a teen pregnancy in relation to the number of teen pregnancies her mother had. Multinomial logistic regression estimated the odds that a teen pregnancy ended with IA among both mother and daughter. All models were adjusted for maternal age and world region of origin, the daughter's socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities, mother-daughter cohabitation, and neighborhood-level teen pregnancy rate. Teen pregnancy in the daughter, between ages 15-19 years, and also the nature of the daughter's teen pregnancy, categorized as i) no teen pregnancy, ii) at least one teen pregnancy, all exclusively ending with a livebirth, and iii) at least one teen pregnancy, with at least one teen pregnancy ending with an IA. The proportion of daughters having a teen pregnancy among those whose mother had 0, 1, 2, or ≥ 3 teen pregnancies was 16.3%, 24.9%, 33.5% and 36.3%, respectively. The aOR of a daughter having a teen pregnancy was 1.42 (95% CI 1.25-1.61) if her mother had 1, 1.97 (95% CI 1.71-2.26) if she had 2, and 2.17 (95% CI 1.84-2.56) if her mother had ≥ 3 teen pregnancies, relative to none. If a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy ending with IA, then her daughter had an aOR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.76-2.56) for having a teen pregnancy also ending with IA; whereas, if a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy, all ending with a livebirth, then her daughter had an aOR of 1.73 (95% CI 1.46-2.05) for that same outcome. There is a strong intergenerational occurrence of teenage pregnancy between a mother and daughter, including a coupling tendency in how the pregnancy ends. This

  12. A study to evaluate cephalometric hard tissue profile of Tamil population for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachiappan, S; Tharanikumar, S; Chandran, Ajay; Anusudha, P; Nandini, G D; Balasubramaniam, Murali

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim of this study is to compare, the cephalometric hard tissue profile values and analysis between Tamil and Caucasian population. The study also aims to create a better understanding in the facial proportions of Tamil Nadu population and to have better diagnosis and treatment planning for orthognathic surgery for Tamil population in Tamil Nadu.

  13. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Eva; Rodríguez, Mariola; García, Silvia

    2015-07-23

    Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide) and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure) on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and carrots (Daucus carota) was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min) in tap water (W), chlorine water (CW), chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L) in combination with: (a) vacuum (V: 10 mbar) or (b) positive pressure application (P: 3 bar). The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers) results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination.

  14. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa and carrots (Daucus carota was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min in tap water (W, chlorine water (CW, chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L in combination with: (a vacuum (V: 10 mbar or (b positive pressure application (P: 3 bar. The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination.

  15. Evaluation of microsatellite markers for populations studies and forensic identification of African lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan M; Harper, Cindy K; Bloomer, Paulette; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Funston, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The South African lion (Panthera leo) population is highly fragmented. One-third of its wild lions occur in small (lions were reintroduced from other areas of the species' historical range. Management practices on these reserves have not prioritized genetic provenance or heterozygosity. These trends potentially constrain the conservation value of these lions. To ensure the best management and long-term survival of these subpopulations as a viable collective population, the provenance and current genetic diversity must be described. Concurrently, poaching of lions to supply a growing market for lion bones in Asia may become a serious conservation challenge in the future. Having a standardized, validated method for matching confiscated lion parts with carcasses will be a key tool in investigating these crimes. We evaluated 28 microsatellites in the African lion using samples from 18 small reserves and 1 captive facility in South Africa, two conservancies in Zimbabwe, and Kruger National and Kgalagadi Transfrontier Parks to determine the loci most suited for population management and forensic genetic applications. Twelve microsatellite loci with a match probability of 1.1×10(-5) between siblings were identified for forensics. A further 10 could be added for population genetics studies. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Adherence to physical activity recommendations and its associated factors: an interregional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Alkerwi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Though the influence of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular diseases is well documented, only a few comparative studies have determined the degree of adherence to physical activity recommendations among populations and identified the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and health-related factors associated with good compliance. Design and methods. Cross-sectional interregional NESCaV survey of 3133 subjects compared three populations, Luxembourg, Lorraine (France and Wallonia (Belgium, by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Age and gender prevalence rates of physical activity were standardized to the European population. Results. The likelihood to meet the recommendations was higher in Luxembourg, after adjustment for age, gender, education, employment, weight status, morbidity score, health perception and level of importance attributed to the practice of physical activity (P<0.0001. The odds for meeting the recommendations were significantly higher among those with secondary than tertiary education. Compared to good self-health perception, subjects with poor or fair self-perceived health were less likely to meet the recommendations; this also applied to those attributing little or enough importance to physical activity compared with great importance. Conclusions. Region, education, self-perceived health and perception of importance of physical activity were emerged as independent determinants of meeting the recommendations. Awareness of the positive health effects of physical activity might thus be crucial for motivating the people to become more active. Further research is needed to explore potential region-specific factors which might explain the difference in population behaviours with respect to physical activity.

  17. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Tin Tin; Goh, Jun Yan; Tan, Jackson; Muhaimah, Abdul Rahim; Pigeneswaren, Yoganathan; Khairun, Nasirin Sallamun; Normazidah, Abdul Wahab; Tharisini, Devi Kunasekaran; Majid, Hazreen Abd

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the level of colorectal cancer awareness among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. Methods A rural-based cross sectional survey was carried out in Perak state in Peninsular Malaysia in March 2011. The survey recruited a population-representative sample using multistage sampling. Altogether 2379 participants were included in this study. Validated bowel/colorectal cancer awareness measure questionnaire was used to assess the level of colorectal cancer aware...

  18. Testing the Latino paradox in Latin America: A population-based study of Intra-regional immigrants in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cabieses,Baltica; Tunstall,Helena; Pickett,Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies in high-income countries report better health status of immigrants compared to the local population ("healthy migrant" effect), regardless of their socioeconomic deprivation. This is known as the Latino paradox. Aim: To test the Latino paradox within Latin America by assessing the health of international immigrants to Chile, most of them from Latin American countries, and comparing them to the Chilean-born. Material and Methods: Secondary data analysis of the popul...

  19. Analyses of Dynamics in Dairy Products and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Population by Molecular Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytül Sofu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB with different ecological niches are widely seen in fermented meat, vegetables, dairy products and cereals as well as in fermented beverages. Lactic acid bacteria are the most important group of bacteria in dairy industry due to their probiotic characteristics and fermentation agents as starter culture. In the taxonomy of the lactic acid bacteria; by means of rep-PCR, which is the analysis of repetitive sequences that are based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequence, it is possible to conduct structural microbial community analyses such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP analysis of DNA fragments of different sizes cut with enzymes, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD polymorphic DNA amplified randomly at low temperatures and Amplified Fragment-Length Polymorphism (AFLP-PCR of cut genomic DNA. Besides, in the recent years, non-culture-based molecular methods such as Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE, Thermal Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TGGE, and Fluorescence In-situ Hybridization (FISH have replaced classical methods once used for the identification of LAB. Identification of lactic acid bacteria culture independent regardless of the method will be one of the most important methods used in the future pyrosequencing as a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS techniques. This paper reviews molecular-method based studies conducted on the identification of LAB species in dairy products.

  20. Risk perception among women receiving genetic counseling: a population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sunde, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-01-01

    -up study of 213 women who received genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, 319 women who underwent mammography (Reference Group I), and a random sample of 1070 women from the general population (Reference Group II). RESULTS: Women who received genetic counseling decreased...... counseling, compared to a reduction of 5% (p=0.03) and 2% (p=0.01) in Reference Groups I and II, respectively. Risk communicated only in words, inaccurate risk perception at baseline, and presence of a familial mutation appeared to be predictors of inaccurate risk perception 12 months after counseling......BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the impact of genetic counseling on perceived personal lifetime risk of breast cancer, the accuracy of risk perception, and possible predictors of inaccurate risk perception 1 year following counseling. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective follow...

  1. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer......, a calibration approach was developed. This approach involved an additional dietary assessment common across study populations to re-express individual dietary intakes according to the same reference scale. A single 24-hour diet recall was therefore collected, as the EPIC reference calibration method, from...... in a large multi-centre European study. These studies showed that, despite certain inherent methodological and logistic constraints, a study design such as this one works relatively well in practice. The average response in the calibration study was 78.3% and ranged from 46.5% to 92.5%. The calibration...

  2. Characteristics of pregnant illicit drug users and associations between cannabis use and perinatal outcome in a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Reefhuis, J.; Caton, A.R.; Werler, M.M.; Druschel, C.M.; Roeleveld, N.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 4.6% of American women reported use of an illicit drug during pregnancy. Previous studies on illicit drug use during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes showed inconsistent results. METHODS: This population-based study included

  3. Dynamic phase microscopy, a new method to detect viable and killed spores and to estimate the heterogeneity of spore populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Mulyukin, Andrey L.; Lisovskii, Vitalii V.; Nikolaev, Yury A.; Kretushev, Aleksander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatyana V.; Suzina, Nataliya E.; Duda, Vitalii I.; El-Registan, Galina I.

    One of the challenging tasks in monitoring studies is to estimate heterogeneity of microbial populations by the physiological state and potential viability of individual cells, especially with regard of their ability to withstand various environmental assaults. Previously, we described some approaches based on electron microscopy methods to discriminate vegetative, dormant, and dead cells in both aged microbial cultures and environmental samples, including permafrost. We propose to extend the arsenal of microscopy methods for monitoring studies by a new non-invasive and informative method - dynamic phase microscopy (DPM). The substantial advantage of DPM is that it gives quantitative (digitized) data of undestroyed (living) microscopic objects, exemplified in our work by Bacillus licheniformis spores. Using DPM made it possible to record interference images of objects (spores) and to produce picture of their "phase thickness" (PT) that is the optical path difference in nm. Thus, it was demonstrated the remarkable difference in the PT of spores at different physiological states: dormant, germinating, and heat-killed spores had PT values of 80, 40-50, and 20 nm, respectively. The other found criterion to distinguish between spores was the PT fluctuations. In contrast to dormant and killed spores, the PT of germinating spores oscillated with amplitude of up to 7 nm, with typical frequencies of 1.3 and 3.4 Hz. A combination of the recorded PT values and PT fluctuations gave a key to detect viable and dead cells. Under the conditions that did not support germination (the lack of nutrients), we were able to follow the response of a single dormant spore and a spore population to heating from 25 °C to 70 °C. Thus, a very small temperature change (from 40 °C to 42 °C) under conditions non-favorable for germination, caused a drastic decrease in the spores' PT; the second drop in the PT values was observed during heating from 60 °C to 70 °C. These changes were

  4. Dietary Patterns Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease: Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Gustaw-Rothenberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently dietary pattern analysis has emerged as a way for examining diet-disease relations in Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast with the conventional approach, which focuses on a single nutrient or a few nutrients or foods, this method considers overall eating patterns. We examined the dietary patterns defined by factor analysis using data collected with a food-frequency questionnaire in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD as compared to healthy controls. The diet data were obtained during population based study of the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in a population in Poland. Stratified sampling and random selection strategies were combined to obtain a representative population for screening (age group > 55. From the population screened three times, 71 people were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s according to DSM-IV, and were recruited for further diet risk factors assessment. A group of people with Alzheimer disease (n = 71; F/M 42/29 and the same number of healthy, age and gender matched control were recruited for the study. Patients and their caregivers as well as controls were presented with a food frequency questionnaire based on the 12 food groups. Factor analysis (principal component was used to derive food patterns. The analysis was conducted using the factor procedure. The factors were rotated by an orthogonal transformation (Varimax rotation to achieve simpler structure with greater interpretability. Using factor analysis, we identified major eating patterns, one for Alzheimer’s patients and a different one for control group. The AD dietary pattern, FACTOR AD was characterized by a high intake of meat, butter, high-fat dairy products, eggs, and refined sugar, whereas the other pattern, (FACTOR C was characterized by a high intake of grains and vegetables. These data indicate the existence of dietary patterns defined by factor analysis with data from a food frequency questionnaire, characteristic for Alzheimer’s disease in a

  5. Population based study of fatigue and psychological distress.

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlikowska, T.; Chalder, T.; Hirsch, S. R.; Wallace, P.; Wright, D. J.; Wessely, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of fatigue in the general population and the factors associated with fatigue. DESIGN--Postal survey. SETTING--Six general practices in southern England. SUBJECTS--31,651 men and women aged 18-45 years registered with the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Responses to the 12 item general health questionnaire and a fatigue questionnaire which included self reported measures of duration, severity, and causes of fatigue. RESULTS--15,283 valid questionnaires...

  6. Longitudinal demographic study of wild populations of African annual killifish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrtílek, Milan; Žák, Jakub; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Reichard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 4774. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00291S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : annual nothobranchius fish es * short-lived fish * adult sex-ratio * life-span * natural-populations * senescence * mortality * evolution * furzeri * model Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  7. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, Bruce C; Ransom, Jason I

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance for improving survey designs.

  8. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  9. Tobacco usage among tribal population of Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu - a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikneshan Murugaboopathy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco use is attributed for deaths of 3.5 to 4 million people globally, which is expected to increase to about 10 million during 2020 and around more than two-third will be occurring in developing countries as they are showing an increasing trends of tobacco use. Anti-tobacco messages or campaigns do not reach the Tribal regions. Tobacco use is ingrained in many of the cultural practices of tribal people. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tobacco usage among tribal populations of Nilgiris region, Tamil Nadu. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 4 villages of Conoor and Kothagiri districts of nilgiris region. A total of 363 people were screened and their tobacco usage status was assessed using Interview method. A trained interviewer along with help of community leader collected information about the usage of tobacco among the populations. Oral health status and presence of oral mucosal lesions were also recorded. Results Smokeless tobacco usage was high among the subjects. Majority of the males between 21-40 years were having both smoking and smokeless tobacco. Bidis was the most common form of smoking tobacco and gutka was the commonest smokeless tobacco used. More than 32% females in the age group of 30-45 years were tobacco users. Conclusions Tobacco usage was high among the tribal populations. Interestingly, the number of tobacco users among females was more prevalent. Customized tobacco cessation education programs has to be carried out for effective control of tobacco usage among the tribal population of Nilgiris region.

  10. Lifestyle Characteristics and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Population-Based Study in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Çela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to assess the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the adult population of Albania, a Mediterranean country in Southeast Europe which has experienced major behavioral changes in the past two decades. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, included a population-representative sample of 845 individuals (≥18 years residing in Tirana (345 men, mean age: ; 500 women, mean age: ; response rate: 84.5%. Assessment of GERD was based on Montreal definition. Covariates included socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors with GERD. Results. The overall prevalence of GERD was 11.9%. There were no significant sex differences, but a higher prevalence among the older participants. In fully adjusted models, there was a positive relationship of GERD with smoking, physical inactivity, fried food consumption, and obesity, but not so for alcohol intake and meat consumption. Conclusion. We obtained important evidence on the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of GERD in a Western Balkans' country. Smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity were strong “predictors” of GERD in this population. Findings from this study should be replicated in prospective studies in Albania and other transitional settings.

  11. Replication of genome wide association studies on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility loci in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kangmei; Shi, Weimei; Xin, Zhenhui; Wang, Huifen; Zhu, Xilin; Wu, Xiaopan; Li, Zhuo; Li, Hui; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified three loci (rs17401966 in KIF1B, rs7574865 in STAT4, rs9275319 in HLA-DQ) as being associated with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-related HCC) in a Chinese population, two loci (rs2596542 in MICA, rs9275572 located between HLA-DQA and HLA-DQB) with hepatitis C virus-related HCC (HCV-related HCC) in a Japanese population. In the present study, we sought to determine whether these SNPs are predictive for HBV-related HCC development in other Chinese population as well. We genotyped 4 SNPs, rs2596542, rs9275572, rs17401966, rs7574865, in 506 HBV-related HCC patients and 772 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in Han Chinese by TaqMan methods. Odds ratio(OR)and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression. In our case-control study, significant association between rs9275572 and HCC were observed (P = 0.02, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56-0.95). In the further haplotype analysis between rs2596542 at 6p21.33 and rs9275572 at 6p21.3, G-A showed a protective effect on HBV-related HCC occurrence (P<0.001, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.52-0.84). These findings provided convincing evidence that rs9275572 significantly associated with HBV-related HCC.

  12. Growing hickories (Carya spp.) for roost trees: A method to support conservation of declining bat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; Daniel L. Lindner; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Bats (Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomidae) are a critically important component of North American ecosystems. These insectivorous mammals provide largely unrecognized ecosystem services to agriculture and forest health and sustain bat-dependent native plant populations. The decline of North American bat populations reflects the recent emergence of the fungal disease...

  13. Methods and findings of the SNR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeberlein, K.; Schaefer, H.; Spindler, H.

    1983-01-01

    A featfinding committee of the German Federal Parliament in July 1980 recommended to perform a ''risk-oriented study'' of the SNR-300, the German 300 MW fast breeder prototype reactor being under construction in Kalkar. The main aim of this study was to allow a comparative safety evaluation between the SNR-300 and a modern PWR, thus to prepare a basis for a political decision on the SNR-300. Methods and main results of the study are presented in this paper. In the first step of the risk analysis six groups of accidents have been identified which may initiate core destruction. These groups comprise all conceivable courses, potentially leading to core destruction. By reliability analyses, expected frequency of each group has been calculated. In the accident analysis potential failure modes of the reactor tank have been investigated. Core destruction may be accompanied by the release of significant amounts of mechanical energy. The primary coolant system of SNR-300 is designed to withstand mechanical energy releases up to 370 MJ. Design features make it possible to cool the molten core inside the reactor tank. (orig./RW) [de

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption may protect against overt autoimmune hypothyroidism: a population-based casecontrol study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Blow; Knudsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Alcohol consumption is an important protective risk factor for many autoimmune diseases. We wished to study the association between alcohol consumption and autoimmune hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study, 1997-2001, Denmark. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnose......, or region of inhabitancy. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption seems to confer considerable protection against development of overt autoimmune hypothyroidism irrespective of sex and type of alcohol consumed.......OBJECTIVE: Alcohol consumption is an important protective risk factor for many autoimmune diseases. We wished to study the association between alcohol consumption and autoimmune hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study, 1997-2001, Denmark. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed...... of alcohol per week were as follows: 0 units/week, 1.98 (1.21-3.33); 11-20 units/week, 0.41 (0.20-0.83); and ≥21 units/week, 0.90 (0.41-2.00). Similar results were found for maximum previous alcohol consumption during a calendar year. No interaction was found with type of alcohol consumed (wine vs beer), sex...

  15. A study of idiopathic generalised epilepsy in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullins, G M

    2012-02-03

    Idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) is subdivided into syndromes based on clinical and EEG features. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterise all cases of IGE with supportive EEG abnormalities in terms of gender differences, seizure types reported, IGE syndromes, family history of epilepsy and EEG findings. We also calculated the limited duration prevalence of IGE in our cohort. METHODS: Data on abnormal EEGs were collected retrospectively from two EEG databases at two tertiary referral centres for neurology. Clinical information was obtained from EEG request forms, standardised EEG questionnaires and medical notes of patients. RESULTS: two hundred twenty-three patients met our inclusion criteria, 89 (39.9%) male and 134 (60.1%) females. Tonic clonic seizures were the most common seizure type reported, 162 (72.65%) having a generalised tonic clonic seizure (GTCS) at some time. IGE with GTCS only (EGTCSA) was the most common syndrome in our cohort being present in 94 patients (34 male, 60 female), with 42 (15 male, 27 female) patients diagnosed with Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), 23 (9 male, 14 female) with Juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) and 20 (9 male, 11 female) with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). EEG studies in all patients showed generalised epileptiform activity. CONCLUSIONS: More women than men were diagnosed with generalised epilepsy. Tonic clonic seizures were the most common seizure type reported. EGTCSA was the most frequent syndrome seen. Gender differences were evident for JAE and JME as previously reported and for EGTCSA, which was not reported to date, and reached statistical significance for EGTCA and JME.

  16. Methods for estimating population coverage of mass distribution programmes: a review of practices in relation to trachoma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Elizabeth A; Ngondi, Jeremiah; McFarland, Deborah; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M

    2012-10-01

    In the context of trachoma control, population coverage with mass drug administration (MDA) using antibiotics is measured using routine data. Due to the limitations of administrative records as well as the potential for bias from incomplete or incorrect records, a literature review of coverage survey methods applied in neglected tropical disease control programmes and immunisation outreach was conducted to inform the design of coverage surveys for trachoma control. Several methods were identified, including the '30 × 7' survey method for the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI 30×7), other cluster random sampling (CRS) methods, lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS), purposive sampling and routine data. When compared against one another, the EPI and other CRS