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Sample records for method sixteen children

  1. Children's Pastimes and Play in Sixteen Nations: Is Free-Play Declining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.; D'Agnostino, Heidi; DeLong, Raeka

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a study of the role of play and experiential-learning activities beyond formal schooling in sixteen nations. The study, supported by Unilever PLC, gathered information from the mothers of twenty-four hundred children in countries in North America, South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia who described and rated their…

  2. Evaluation of the Seroprevalence of Hepatit A and Vaccination Status in Children Aged Two and Sixteen Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan KOLANCALI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study; the aim was to evaluate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV in 2-16 year age group, and the rate of hepatitis A vaccination. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 400 children aged between 2 and 16 years with no chronic diseases who attended the pediatrics outpatient clinic in Health Sciences University, Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital. After obtaining informed consent from the parents, blood samples were taken for investigating serological markers for hepatitis A in the microbiology laboratory using the ELISA method. The parents were asked whether or not their children had been vaccinated against hepatitis A. Results: In this study 44.3% of the participants included were girls and 55.8% were boys. The mean age of the children was 10.8±4.18 years. 27.3% of patients were anti-HAV IgG-positive, and 11% had been vaccinated against hepatitis A. When we compared preschool and school age patients, anti-HAV IgG positivity was detected in all children who were vaccinated in the preschool group; while 5.9% of unvaccinated children were anti-HAV IgG-positive and 94.1% were negative. It was found that school age children were unvaccinated, and anti-HAV IgG was positive in 19.6% of the children and negative in 80.4% of the children. Conclusion: In our study, although the prevalence of hepatitis A was found to be low compared to the eastern and southeastern cities of our country, it is still higher than in the developed countries. In order to prevent hepatitis A infection, it is necessary to improve the socio-economic conditions of the country, to create better sanitary conditions and hygienic practices, and raise awareness of the infection.

  3. Sixteen-year comparisons of parent-reported emotional and behaviour problems and competencies in Norwegian children aged 7-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøvik, Torunn Stene; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Studies about changes in the prevalence of emotional and behaviour problems across time are lacking, especially among younger children. To determine if the level of parent-reported emotional and behaviour problems and competencies in young Norwegian school children had changed across a 16-year time interval. We compared parent reports obtained by the Child Behavior Checklist in two samples of children aged 7-9 years from the general population assessed in 1991 and 2007. The results demonstrated overall stability or slight decreases of emotional and behaviour problems and a significant increase in competencies, mainly due to increased activity and social competence scores in the 2007 sample. Boys obtained higher scores than girls in Total Problems, Externalizing and Attention problems at both time points and there was a high stability of the rank order of items. The findings suggest stability in child emotional and behaviour problems, and an increase of competencies across the period.

  4. The relationships between sixteen perfluorinated compound concentrations in blood serum and food, and other parameters, in the general population of South Korea with proportionate stratified sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Mug; Hwang, Yong-Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-02-01

    Serum samples were collected from volunteers of various ages and both genders using a proportionate stratified sampling method, to assess the exposure of the general population in Busan, South Korea to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). 16 PFCs were investigated in serum samples from 306 adults (124 males and 182 females) and one day composite diet samples (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) from 20 of the serum donors, to investigate the relationship between food and serum PFC concentrations. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid were the dominant PFCs in the serum samples, with mean concentrations of 8.4 and 13 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorotridecanoic acid was the dominant PFC in the composite food samples, ranging from studies. We confirmed from the relationships between questionnaire results and the PFC concentrations in the serum samples, that food is one of the important contribution factors of human exposure to PFCs. However, there were no correlations between the PFC concentrations in the one day composite diet samples and the serum samples, because a one day composite diet sample is not necessarily representative of a person's long-term diet and because of the small number of samples taken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sixteen and a half”: a rare neurological syndrome

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    Chetan Chaudhari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available "Sixteen and a half" syndrome is a recently coined terminology for a novel pontine neuro-ophthalmological condition. It is characterised by "one and a half" syndrome with an additional ipsilateral seventh and eighth cranial nerve palsy (1½+7+8=16½. We hereby present a case with "sixteen and a half" syndrome, characterised by facial asymmetry, conjugate gaze palsy and unilateral deafness with vertigo. As demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, the responsible pontine lesion was a brainstem tuberculoma involving the ipsilateral abducens nucleus and the adjacent medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF, along with facial and vestibulocochlear nerve. The location of the tuberculoma and the clinical presentation is unusual.

  6. 29 CFR 779.506 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sixteen-year minimum. 779.506 Section 779.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  7. 29 CFR 570.118 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Oppressive Child Labor § 570.118 Sixteen-year...

  8. Free Sixteen Harmonic Fourier Series Web App with Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    An online HTML5 Fourier synthesizer app is provided that allows students to manipulate sixteen harmonics and construct periodic waves. Students can set the amplitudes and phases for each harmonic, seeing the resulting waveforms and hearing the sounds. Five waveform presets are included: sine, triangle, square, ramp (sawtooth), and pulse train. The…

  9. Cytotoxicity evaluation of sixteen Nigerian medicinal plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of our evaluation of plants from the Nigerian ethnobotany,sixteen extracts from fourteen medicinal plants were evaluated for toxicity and inhibition of tumour cell growth using human rhabdomyosarcoma(RD) cell line. The plant samples were extracted by maceration in methanol at room temperature and were ...

  10. Comparing early design methods for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis - Thiescheffer, R.J.W.; Bekker, M.M.; Eggen, J.H.; Robertson, J.; Skov, M.B.; Bekker, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a study which compares the outcome of two early design methods for children: brainstorming and prototyping. The hypothesis is that children will uncover more design ideas when prototyping than when brainstorming, because prototyping requires the use of a wider range of

  11. Free sixteen harmonic Fourier series web app with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    An online HTML5 Fourier synthesizer app is provided that allows students to manipulate sixteen harmonics and construct periodic waves. Students can set the amplitudes and phases for each harmonic, seeing the resulting waveforms and hearing the sounds. Five waveform presets are included: sine, triangle, square, ramp (sawtooth), and pulse train. The program is free for non-commercial use and can also be downloaded for running offline.

  12. [Rehabilitation methods for children with complicated cataract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, G; Cuşnir, V; Septichina, Natalia; Cuşnir, Vitalie

    2010-01-01

    The work deals with the results of surgical treatment of 155 patients, who had uveal cataract, by method of facoemulsification with artificial crystalline lens transplanting. The age of the sick varied from 3 to 15 as a result of a complex treatment, involving determination of ethnic factor in the development of uveal cataract, before- and after-operation conservative medical treatment, surgical treatment of abscuration ambliopia 78.1% children and the keenness of sight 0.4 and 68.7% got binocularious sight. The study lot of posttraumatic cataract affected children included 189 patients, from them 68 with stationary cataract, 87 with intumescent cataract and 34 with postoperatorial aphakia. Age from 2 to 15 years. 76.3% cases of evolution without postoperatorial complications, in 13.7% intraoperatorial were observed different complications. The work presents the results of surgical treatment 196 of children, who had innate cataract, by the method of facoasoriation with soft intra-eyepiece lens transplanting from 133 patients who had two-sided cataract, 63 had monolateral cataract. All children underwent laser simulation and videocomputer auto-training in post-operation period. As a result of the treatment, 66.8% patients got the amelioration of sight with 0.4, and 58% got binocular sight. The children's age varied between 6 months and 15 years. This article presents a review of the treatment results of 213 children with posttraumatic, congenital and complicated cataracts. The rehabilitation of the patients with the lens pathology includes a complex of measures of early diagnosis, surgery, optimal correction, medical treatment before and after surgery, the prophilaxis and treatment of complications. This approach permits to increase the visual acuity in 83.8% and to restore the binocular vision in 71.4% patients.

  13. Suicide methods in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; de Leo, Diego

    2017-02-01

    There are notable differences in suicide methods between countries. The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe suicide methods in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in different countries/territories worldwide. Suicide data by ICD-10 X codes were obtained from the WHO Mortality Database and population data from the World Bank. In total, 101 countries or territories, have data at least for 5 years in 2000-2009. Cluster analysis by suicide methods was performed for countries/territories with at least 10 suicide cases separately by gender (74 for males and 71 for females) in 2000-2009. The most frequent suicide method was hanging, followed by poisoning by pesticides for females and firearms for males. Cluster analyses of similarities in the country/territory level suicide method patterns by gender identified four clusters for both gender. Hanging and poisoning by pesticides defined the clusters of countries/territories by their suicide patterns in youth for both genders. In addition, a mixed method and a jumping from height cluster were identified for females and two mixed method clusters for males. A number of geographical similarities were observed. Overall, the patterns of suicide methods in children and adolescents reflect lethality, availability and acceptability of suicide means similarly to country specific patterns of all ages. Means restriction has very good potential in preventing youth suicides in different countries. It is also crucial to consider cognitive availability influenced by sensationalised media reporting and/or provision of technical details about specific methods.

  14. Comparison of Methods of Teaching Children Proper Lifting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the effects of three teaching methods on children\\'s ability to demonstrate and recall their mastery of proper lifting techniques. Method: Ninety-three primary five and six public school children who had no knowledge of proper lifting technique were assigned into three equal ...

  15. On the assessment of usability testing methods for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markopoulos, P.; Bekker, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper motivates the need to acquire methodological knowledge for involving children as test users in usability testing. It introduces a methodological framework for delineating comparative assessments of usability testing methods for children participants. This framework consists in three

  16. TRIGLYCERIDE COMPOSITION OF SIXTEEN STRAINS OF MARINE DIATOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily M.G. Panggabean

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Trigliceride or triacylglicerol (TAG composition in crude oil of sixteen strain of marine diatom has been detected by spectra analyses on an Electrospray - Ion Trap – Mass Spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS HCT Bruker-Daltonic GmbH instrument with AgNO3 used as coordination ionization agent. Biomass samples of each microalga strain were taken from early and late stationary cultures in f/2 enriched seawater and algal oils were extracted according to Bligh and Dyer. Results from spectra analysis showed that P-Pt-P (C16:0-C16:1-C16:0 were distinguished in TAG from diatom strains Chaetoceros sp.1, Chaetoceros sp.2, Thalasiossira sp.1, Thalasiossira sp.2, Thalasiossira sp.3, Navicula sp. 1, Navicula sp. 2, Navicula sp. 3, Navicula sp. 4, Nitzschia sp. 2 and Amphora sp. In contrast, TAGs in Melosira sp. included P-P-P (C16:0-C16:0-C16:0 and P-P-O (C16:0-C16:0-C18:1 were identified. TAGs from Chaetoceros sp. were the most varies among samples, i.e. P-Pt-P (C16:0-C16:1-C16:0, A-P-M (C20:4-C16:0-C14:0, P-Pt-Lt (C16:0-C16:1-C18:3, P-Pt-A (C16:0-C16:1-C20:4, D-P-P (C22:6-C16:0-C16:0, A-Ln-P (C20:4-C18:2-C16:0. Various TAGs were also detected in Nitzschia sp.2, i.e. P-Pt-M (C16:0-C16:1-C14:0, P-Pt-P (C16:0-C16:1-C16:0, P-Pt-S (C16:0-C16:1-C18:0, P-Pt-A (C16:0-C16:1-C20:4. TAGs composition in Skeletonema strains that similar to those in Nitzschia sp.1 has longer carbon, i.e. P-P-O (C16:0-C16:0-C18:1, P-O-O (C16:0-C18:1-C18:1 and O-O-O (C18:1-C18:1-C18:1. TAGs with longer carbon chain and more double bond including highly unsaturated fatty acid C20:4 were increased with culture age in diatoms Chaetoceros sp.1, Chaetoceros sp.2, Thalasiossira sp.2, Navicula sp.1 and Nitzschia sp. 2.Keywords: diatom, TAG, ESI-IT-MS, f/2, early and late stationary

  17. Friendship in Young Children: Construction of a Behavioural Sociometric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogdalem, Anne-Greth; Singer, Elly; Eek, Anneloes; Heesbeen, Daniëlle

    2013-01-01

    We need methods to measure friendship among very young children to study the beginnings of friendship and the impact of experiences with friendship for later development. This article presents an overview of methods for measuring very young children's friendships. A behavioural sociometric method was constructed to study degrees of friendship…

  18. Observing Children's Stress Behaviors in a Kindergarten Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative methods to determine whether kindergarten children exhibited stress behaviors during the academic work period of the day. Sixteen children (8 male, 8 female) ages 5-6 years were observed. The data consisted of classroom observations by the researcher, open-ended interviews with teachers, artifacts collected from the…

  19. growth and nutrition in south african children with cystic fibrosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population. Thirty-eight children and adolescents attending the CF clinic at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital,. Cape Town. Methods. Standard anthropometry and a 3-day weighed food record. Results. Median percentage expected weight for height. (WFH) was 93 (interquartile range 84 - 101). Sixteen per cent.

  20. Growth and nutrition in South African children with cystic fibrosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population. Thirty-eight children and adolescents attending the CF clinic at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town. Methods. Standard anthropometry and a 3-day weighed food record. Results. Median percentage expected weight for height (WFH) was 93 (interquartile range 84 - 101). Sixteen per cent of ...

  1. Methods of suicide used by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Urs; Stulz, Niklaus; Unger-Köppel, Jürg; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2012-02-01

    Although relatively rare, suicide is a leading cause of death in children and adolescents in the Western world. This study examined whether children and adolescents are drawn to other methods of suicide than adults. Swiss suicides from 1998 to 2007 were examined. The main methods of suicide were analysed with respect to age and gender. Of the 12,226 suicides which took place in this 10-year period, 333 were committed by children and adolescents (226 males, 107 females). The most prevalent methods of suicide in children and adolescents 0-19 years were hanging, jumping from heights and railway-suicides (both genders), intoxication (females) and firearms (males). Compared to adults, railway-suicides were over-represented in young males and females (both P suicide chosen by children and adolescents. Restricting access to most favoured methods of suicide might be an important strategy in suicide prevention.

  2. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... undercooked meats wear gloves when gardening or working outdoors avoid caring for pets report any signs or ... Know (PDF, 1.67 MB) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare ... Benefits for Children with Disabilities (PDF, 413 KB) Clinical ...

  3. Considerations and Methods for Usability Testing with Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene Hjortboe; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Brooks, Eva Irene

    2017-01-01

    of these methods is that they are designed for adults and are not necessarily appropriate to investigations including children. The guiding questions for this systematic literature review are (1) the motivation for conducting usability tests with children, and (2) the kind of methodological, practical, and ethical...

  4. Chapter Sixteen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2002-08-16

    Aug 16, 2002 ... first year at the university, for several systemic and structural reasons, .... one of his monthly response sessions, “Forget mudslides, earthquakes, ... teacher at every level of the educational system in Nigeria. ... Failure to do.

  5. Children's Literature in the Undergraduate Course on Communication Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Students will develop positive attitudes toward communication research by linking new values and principles with the familiar values and principles contained in children's literature. Course: Communication Research Methods.

  6. Theory, Method, and Triangulation in the Study of Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a comparative study of street children in Montevideo (Uruguay), Rio de Janeiro, and Mexico City contributes to a synergism between theory and method. Notes how theoretical approaches of symbolic interactionism, genetic structuralism, and habitus theory complement interview, participant observation, and content analysis methods;…

  7. Using Drawings and Collages as Data Generation Methods With Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nokhanyo Nomakhwezi Mayaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate data generation methods are key to a successful research project to attain rich and relevant data. When doing research with children, the methods selected should be age appropriate and enable them to contribute their ideas in the research process. However, data generation with children is not “child’s play”—it is a challenging task that requires careful design on the part of the researcher. We conducted a study in South Africa with children between the ages of 9 and 14 who were orphaned and rendered vulnerable by HIV and AIDS in order to explore if, and how, the use of participatory visual methods might enhance resilience. In this article, we provide a reflective account of the research process and discuss lessons learnt from our experiences of using drawings and collage as data generation methods when doing research with children. This article contributes to the literature on the use of participatory visual methods as data generation strategies with children highlighting some caveats and offering insight into how challenges could be circumvented.

  8. Sixteen-state magnetic memory based on the extraordinary Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, A.; Karpovski, M.; Gerber, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a proof-of-concept study of split-cell magnetic storage in which multi-bit magnetic memory cells are composed of several multilevel ferromagnetic dots with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Extraordinary Hall effect is used for reading the data. Feasibility of the approach is supported by realization of four-, eight- and sixteen- state cells. - Highlights: ► We propose a novel structure of multi-bit magnetic random access memory. ► Each cell contains several interconnected storage dots. ► Extraordinary Hall effect is used for reading the data. ► Four-, eight- and sixteen-state cells have been realized.

  9. Function combined method for design innovation of children's bike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Qiu, Tingting; Chen, Huijuan

    2013-03-01

    As children mature, bike products for children in the market develop at the same time, and the conditions are frequently updated. Certain problems occur when using a bike, such as cycle overlapping, repeating function, and short life cycle, which go against the principles of energy conservation and the environmental protection intensive design concept. In this paper, a rational multi-function method of design through functional superposition, transformation, and technical implementation is proposed. An organic combination of frog-style scooter and children's tricycle is developed using the multi-function method. From the ergonomic perspective, the paper elaborates on the body size of children aged 5 to 12 and effectively extracts data for a multi-function children's bike, which can be used for gliding and riding. By inverting the body, parts can be interchanged between the handles and the pedals of the bike. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis of the components and structural design, body material, and processing technology of the bike. The study of Industrial Product Innovation Design provides an effective design method to solve the bicycle problems, extends the function problems, improves the product market situation, and enhances the energy saving feature while implementing intensive product development effectively at the same time.

  10. Classification of Children Intelligence with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahminan; ika Hidayati, Permata

    2018-04-01

    Intelligence of children s An Important Thing To Know The Parents Early on. Typing Can be done With a Child’s intelligence Grouping Dominant Characteristics Of each Type of Intelligence. To Make it easier for Parents in Determining The type of Children’s intelligence And How to Overcome them, for It Created A Classification System Intelligence Grouping Children By Using Fuzzy logic method For determination Of a Child’s degree of intelligence type. From the analysis We concluded that The presence of Intelligence Classification systems Pendulum Children With Fuzzy Logic Method Of determining The type of The Child’s intelligence Can be Done in a way That is easier And The results More accurate Conclusions Than Manual tests.

  11. The Diagnostic Value of ELISA Method for Pertussis in Children

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    O. P. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of low effectiveness of laboratory methods for diagnosing pertussis it is important to look for new ways of verification of this infection. The article presents the analysis of the diagnostic value of ELISA method, which involves the identification of antibodies of different isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA to pertussis toxoid (PT and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA. The study included 279 children: 114 were under 1 year of age, 165 — older than 1 year. The pertussis was confirmed in 74.3 ± 2.6% of patients by using ELISA method. A significant proportion of seronegative patients (46.1 ± 6.2 per cent was revealed in the group of patients under 1 year. The pattern of production of antibodies in unvaccinated children was different. It depended on the age of the children and timing of illness. A low proportion of diagnostically significant indicators of IgM-antibodies at 2—3 weeks of illness was typical for patients under 1 year of age (e.g. 6.7 ± 6.5% as compared to 20.0 ± 7.9% and 50.0 ± 15.3 — 1—3 and 4—6 years of age. The diagnosis of pertussis in children under 1 year of age was confirmed mainly by the detection of IgG, starting from the 4th week of the disease. In the examination of vaccinated children diagnostically significant levels of IgA and IgG were identified (even in the late stages of the disease. Thus, the results of the analysis show special significance of using ELISA method for the diagnosis of pertussis in vaccinated children.

  12. Children's Text Messaging: Abbreviations, Input Methods and Links with Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, N.; Bushnell, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of mobile phone text-messaging method (predictive and multi-press) and experience (in texters and non-texters) on children's textism use and understanding. It also examined popular claims that the use of text-message abbreviations, or "textese" spelling, is associated with poor literacy skills. A sample of 86…

  13. Lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiotas of sixteen French traditional sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Lattanzi, Anna; Dousset, Xavier; Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Lacaze, Guylaine; Onno, Bernard; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-12-23

    Sixteen sourdoughs (FS1-FS16) used for the manufacture of traditional French breads were characterized by strongly acid conditions (median value of pH 3.5). The concentration of free amino acids (FAA) was highly variable, due to different proteolytic activity of flour used for back slopping and of dominant microorganisms. Median value of cell density of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was 9.2 log CFU/g. The ratio between LAB and yeasts ranged from 10,000:1 to 10:1. According to the culture-dependent method and 16S metagenetics, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was the dominant species in French sourdoughs. FS5 and FS15, propagated according to protocols including one back slopping step at 14 °C, were the only exceptions. High positive correlations were found between L. sanfranciscensis, temperature of back slopping and FAA. The results of this study highlighted the broad adaptability of L. sanfranciscensis to very acid sourdough. Besides species frequently encountered (e.g., Lactobacillus parabrevis/Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides), first Lactobacillus xiangfangensis (FS5) and Lactobacillus diolivorans (FS15) were found in sourdough. As determined by RAPD-PCR analyses, the sourdough samples showed a different number of strains, ranging from 5 (FS9, FS11 and FS15) to 12 (FS1 and FS13), meaning a highly variable bacterial diversity. Cluster analysis showed that different sourdoughs, especially when propagated in the same bakery, may harbor similar strains. Except for L. plantarum (FS5) and Ln. mesenteroides (FS3), all the dominant species were detected by both 16S metagenetics and culture-dependent method. Yeast diversity was lower than LAB. Except for FS4 (solely dominated by Kazachstania servazzii), yeast microbiota of French sourdoughs was dominated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains isolated in this study could be a useful base for developing new basic researches on physiology, metabolism, and intraspecific diversity of L

  14. Barriers and facilitators of sports in children with physical disabilities : a mixed-method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Eva A.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; de Blecourt, Alida C. E.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dekker, Rienk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored barriers and facilitators of sports participation of children with physical disabilities from the perspective of the children, their parents and their health professionals. Method: Thirty children and 38 parents completed a questionnaire, and 17 professionals were

  15. Note: Tandem Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with sixteen channels for high-resolution laser-plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shengzhen; Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Qiushi; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Wei, Lai; Liu, Dongxiao; Cao, Leifeng; Gu, Yuqiu

    2018-03-01

    Multi-channel Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscopes, which have better resolution and collection efficiency than pinhole cameras, have been widely used in laser inertial confinement fusion to diagnose time evolution of the target implosion. In this study, a tandem multi-channel KB microscope was developed to have sixteen imaging channels with the precise control of spatial resolution and image intervals. This precise control was created using a coarse assembly of mirror pairs with high-accuracy optical prisms, followed by precise adjustment in real-time x-ray imaging experiments. The multilayers coated on the KB mirrors were designed to have substantially the same reflectivity to obtain a uniform brightness of different images for laser-plasma temperature analysis. The study provides a practicable method to achieve the optimum performance of the microscope for future high-resolution applications in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

  16. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...... as applied research and on evaluation of devel-oped products in the field or in the lab. Also, we find that much research is conducted in natural setting environments with strong focus on field studies....

  17. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Human and animal pathology stipulated by deficiency of vitally important (or 'essential') microelements or their excess, has got its combined name microelementosis [1]. In connection with high biological activity of microelements in organism in different physiologic and pathologic status the quantitative determination of several metals in biomedium of organism is of great importance in the study of microelement metabolism. However, objective and representative data on estimation of school children's provision with microelements are practically absent. The objective of the study was to investigate contents of microelements connected with deficiency of biometals participating in hemopoiesis (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn) in biomedium of the organism of school children in Zarafshan region of the Republic of Uzbekistan. We have applied the method of neutron-activation analysis for determination of microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn) in hair, whole blood, blood serum, urine, saliva, food-stuff samples and in more than 20 elements of other biomedia, as per designed method in Nuclear Physics Institute, Republic of Uzbekistan [4]. The study was carried out on 245 practically healthy children aged 7-17, 131 boys and 33 girls living in four different areas of Samarkand region. According to the designed method the determination of Mn, Cu was done as follows: samples together with standards were packed in polyethylene container and underwent irradiation in vertical channel of the reactor by neutron flow 5x10 13 neutron cm -2 sec - 1 , (for 15 seconds). The measurement of direct activity was conducted in 2 hours for determining of Cu and Mn. For determining of iron, cobalt, zinc the irradiation test measurement was done within 15 hours one month after irradiation by the corresponding radionuclides. In all measurement of element contents different standards were applied: Intralaboratory data was received by fixing a certain number of elements on ashless filter paper and comparison

  18. Nutrition labelling, marketing techniques, nutrition claims and health claims on chip and biscuit packages from sixteen countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Alexandra J; Lock, Karen; Kelishadi, Roya; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Marcilio, Claudia S; Iqbal, Romaina; Dehghan, Mahshid; Yusuf, Salim; Chow, Clara K

    2016-04-01

    Food packages were objectively assessed to explore differences in nutrition labelling, selected promotional marketing techniques and health and nutrition claims between countries, in comparison to national regulations. Cross-sectional. Chip and sweet biscuit packages were collected from sixteen countries at different levels of economic development in the EPOCH (Environmental Profile of a Community's Health) study between 2008 and 2010. Seven hundred and thirty-seven food packages were systematically evaluated for nutrition labelling, selected promotional marketing techniques relevant to nutrition and health, and health and nutrition claims. We compared pack labelling in countries with labelling regulations, with voluntary regulations and no regulations. Overall 86 % of the packages had nutrition labels, 30 % had health or nutrition claims and 87 % displayed selected marketing techniques. On average, each package displayed two marketing techniques and one health or nutrition claim. In countries with mandatory nutrition labelling a greater proportion of packages displayed nutrition labels, had more of the seven required nutrients present, more total nutrients listed and higher readability compared with those with voluntary or no regulations. Countries with no health or nutrition claim regulations had fewer claims per package compared with countries with regulations. Nutrition label regulations were associated with increased prevalence and quality of nutrition labels. Health and nutrition claim regulations were unexpectedly associated with increased use of claims, suggesting that current regulations may not have the desired effect of protecting consumers. Of concern, lack of regulation was associated with increased promotional marketing techniques directed at children and misleadingly promoting broad concepts of health.

  19. Non-adjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking\\ud children with and without a history of specific language\\ud impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Iao, L-S; Ng, LY; Wong, AMY; Lee, OT

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated non-adjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context.\\ud \\ud Method: Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with SLI history and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were tested with a non-adjacent dependency learning task using artificial languages that mimic Cantonese.\\ud \\ud Results: Children with TLD performed above...

  20. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Федорова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used:  the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing.The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps:  diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions.The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-31

  1. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Svetlana Yurievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing. The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions. The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers.

  2. External laryngeal injuries in children--comparison of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka-Glos, L; Jakubowska, A; Frackiewicz, M; Brzewski, M

    2013-09-01

    The injuries of the larynx constitute around 1% of all injuries. The great majority of the injuries of the larynx happens during playing. The effects of these injuries may appear insignificant however, not always the direct clinical symptoms correlate with the degree of respiratory tract failure. The symptoms of laryngeal injuries depend on the extension and strength of the trauma and always relate to impair patency of respiratory tract. The aim of the study is to compare two diagnostic methods: laryngoscopy and ultrasonography in evaluation of laryngeal injuries in children. In the Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, in the period between 2004 and 2010 there were hospitalised 15 children with external injury of the larynx. From among 15 hospitalized children, 7 were qualified as not serious trauma and were treated preservatively and the other 8 as sever trauma. The mechanism of traumas was diverse. Dyspnea was a predominating symptom, the others included hoarsness, change in voice quality, even aphonia, pain while speaking and swallowing, cough and hemoptysis. Direct laryngoscopy is a standard in diagnostics of the injuries of the larynx. Ultrasonography of the larynx is recommended in every case of laryngeal injury as an additional non-invasive complementary diagnostic examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss: Data Collection and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J Bruce; Walker, Elizabeth A; McCreery, Ryan W; Arenas, Richard M; Harrison, Melody; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this article was to describe recruitment, data collection, and methods for a longitudinal, multicenter study involving children with bilateral mild to severe hearing loss. The goals of this research program were to characterize the developmental outcomes of children with mild to severe bilateral hearing loss during infancy and the preschool years. Furthermore, the researchers examined how these outcomes were associated with the child's hearing loss and how home background and clinical interventions mediated and moderated these outcomes. The participants in this study were children who are hard of hearing (CHH) and children with normal hearing (CNH) who provided comparison data. CHH were eligible for participation if (1) their chronological age was between 6 months and 7 years of age at the time of recruitment, (2) they had a better-ear pure-tone average of 25 to 75 dB HL, (3) they had not received a cochlear implant, (4) they were from homes where English was the primary language, and (5) they did not demonstrate significant cognitive or motor delays. Across the time span of recruitment, 430 parents of potential children with hearing loss made contact with the research group. This resulted in 317 CHH who qualified for enrollment. In addition, 117 CNH qualified for enrollment. An accelerated longitudinal design was used, in which multiple age cohorts were followed long enough to provide overlap. Specifically, children were recruited and enrolled continuously across an age span of 6.5 years and were followed for at least 3 years. This design allowed for tests of time (period) versus cohort age effects that could arise by changes in services and technology over time, yet still allowed for examination of important developmental relationships. The distribution of degree of hearing loss for the CHH showed that the majority of CHH had moderate or moderate-to-severe hearing losses, indicating that the sample undersampled children with mild HL. For

  4. PSYCHOTHERAPEUTICAL METHODS FOR WORK WITH CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM CEREBRAL PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivajlo PETROV

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapy in somatopedy is always viewed in the light of the ‘initial theoretical conception’ about the unity of the mental and the somatic (neurophysiological, both in the genesis of the physical and mental disturbances and in the system of therapeutic treatments. The body and the soul, or the physical and the mental represent an unbreakable unity.The psychotherapy is especially adequate method for work with children suffering from cerebral palsy.According to our research work connected with the studying of the utilization of various forms of psychotherapy in the rehabilitation schools for children with cerebral palsy in some places in Bulgaria, as well as our own long-range experiments, we can claim with certainty that the following methods give very good results:1. Music therapy2. Art therapy3. Puppet therapy4. Cultural therapy5. Biblio therapy6. Rational psychotherapy of P. Dubois7. Family therapy8. Cognitive-behavioural therapy9. Suggestion while awake10.Autogen training of J. Schlitz

  5. [Neurophysiological methods in evaliuation of neurorehabiltation in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerczyńska, Anna; Kłusek, Renata; Kaciński, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The authors reviewed neurophysiological methods, which are used in the evaluation of children referred for neurorehabilitation. Rehabilitation techniques which may stimulate or provoke pathological changes in EEG must be ruled out. Electrophysiological and clinical improvement allow for the extension and intensification of rehabilitation. Normal EEG pattern ensures the safe use of techniques consisting of neuromuscular re-education or passive verticalisation, electrotherapy and thermotherapy. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of cognitive impairment is based on neuropsychological tests and endogenous evoked potentials (most often P300). Presence of cognitive dysfunction needs the use of neuropsychological and neurologopedic therapy. Based on results of exogenous evoked potentials appropriate neurorehabilitation program (physiotherapy, kinezytherapy) can be determined and clinical outcome predicted. EMG allows appropriate usage of applications, patterns and principles in the PNF method (such as compression, stretching, resistance), adapting them optimally to the possibility of a child. ENG estimates conduction in motor and sensory nerves. Based on the results nerve impairment can be localized, severity and character of damage estimated (demyelinating, axonal or complex) and course of the disease and treatment monitored. Short characteristics of 37 children with Guillain-Barre syndrome referred for rehabilitation was presented. Special attention was drawn to floppy infants. Results of neuroelectrophysiological examinations determine suitable rehabilitation program adjusted to the course of central nervous system impairment.

  6. A Child-centered Method of Interviewing Children with Movement Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasabai, Parimala S; Mirfin-Veitch, Brigit; Hale, Leigh A; Mulligan, Hilda

    2018-08-01

    Children are increasingly included in qualitative research and new methods for interviewing children are emerging. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss the strategies of a child-centered method of data collection for interviewing children with movement impairments to explore their leisure participation experiences. A study was conducted using an Interpretative Phenomenological Approach (IPA) to explore leisure participation experiences of children with movement impairments aged 6 to 12 years. Various strategies, guided by children, were used to facilitate children's active involvement in the interview process. Twenty-two children (mean age 8.7 years) participated in the interview study, most of them in the presence of their parents or guardian (18 children) and some of them (9 children) with their siblings present. Children enjoyed and were actively engaged in the interview process. Along with talking, 19 children did drawings, 5 children used stickers, 4 children played quiet games, six children shared pictures of their leisure activities, and 16 children physically demonstrated some of their leisure activities, environment, and equipment. A wide range of data collection strategies facilitated children to communicate their leisure participation experiences and to represent children's views without being overly influenced by parental views.

  7. Power Mobility Training Methods for Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Hostnik, Lisa; McElroy, Rachel; Peterson, Courtney; Farris, John P

    2018-01-01

    To summarize and critically appraise the existing evidence related to power mobility training methods used in research studies conducted with children 21 years or younger. A systematic review was conducted using 16 electronic databases to identify primary source quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Data extraction, determination of level of evidence, evaluation of methodological rigor, and assessment of the risk of bias were completed. The Evidence Alert Traffic Light Grading System (EATLS) was used. Twenty-seven studies were included in the review. Levels of evidence were II to V; scientific rigor scores were 2 to 7. An overall Yellow EATLS level of evidence was found indicating that therapists should use caution when providing power mobility training interventions and measure outcomes related to established goals in areas such as development, functional skills, or use of a power mobility device.

  8. Sixteen-Month-Old Infants' Segment Words from Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Pätzold, Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    One of the first challenges facing the young language learner is the task of segmenting words from a natural language speech stream, without prior knowledge of how these words sound. Studies with younger children find that children find it easier to segment words from fluent speech when the words are presented in infant-directed speech, i.e., the…

  9. Thirteen- and Sixteen-Month-Olds' Long-Term Recall of Event Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertsgaard, L.; Bauer, P. J.

    In two experiments, the ability of children younger than 20 months to engage in delayed ordered recall was investigated. In the first experiment, 13- and 16-month-old children were presented with 2-step event sequences and tested for recall, first, immediately following the event and second, after a one-week delay. Sequences were novel-causal,…

  10. Sixteen Years of the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys: Calibration Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.; ACS Instrument Team

    2018-06-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) has been a workhorse HST imager for over sixteen years, subsequent to its Servicing Mission 3B installation in 2002. The once defunct ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) has now been operating nearly twice as long (>9yrs) since its Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) repair than it had originally operated prior to its 2007 failure. Despite the accumulating radiation damage to the WFC CCDs during their long stay in low Earth orbit, ACS continues to be heavily exploited by the HST community as both a prime and a parallel detector.During past year, there have been two new releases of the CALACS image reduction pipeline that have incorporated several recent advancements in ACS calibration capabilities. We review these updates, along with the enhanced calibration reference files (superbiases, superdarks, etc.) associated with these CALACS releases. We also present results from long-term monitoring of WFC dark current and readout noise, and from new studies of detector performance from both WFC and the ACS Solar Blind Channel (SBC). Highlights include: 1) improved characterization of WFC post-flash LED illumination, including a low-level annual modulation of LED intensity; 2) comprehensive assessment of SBC dark current as a function of detector operating temperature, and of SBC operating temperature versus duration of use; and 3) an update to the WFC bad-pixel table resulting from a minor particulate-contamination event in May 2017.

  11. [Sixteen Cases of Colon Stenting as a Bridge to Surgery(BTS)for Obstructive Colorectal Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Ryo; Saito, Shuji; Hirayama, Ryouichi; Miura, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Kazunori; Miyajima, Ayako; Kuwamoto, Nobutsuna; Kataoka, Ryoko; Shindo, Yukito; Fujita, Rikiya

    2017-11-01

    Colonic stent insertion is widely used as a bridge to surgery(BTS)for obstructive colorectal cancer. Stenting can shorten hospitalization and decrease complication and colostomy rates in comparison with emergency surgery. We investigated patients who underwent colonic stent insertion for BTS in our hospital. Sixteen patients(8 men, 8 women) with a colorectal obstruction score of 0 or 1 who underwent colonic stent insertion as a BTS between April 2015 and April 2017 period were investigated. Mean patient age was 68.2(45-94)years. Technical success was obtained in all patients, and clinical success in 14(87%). Total colonoscopy was possible via stent in 10 patients. Nine patients were temporarily discharged from the hospital, and median time to operation was 18(2-43)days. Laparoscopic resection was performed in 14 patients, and anastomotic leakage was a postoperative complication in 1 patient. Colostomy was performed in only 1 patient with anastomotic leakage. Good results were obtained with careful patient selection and safe colonic stent insertion.

  12. Applying Cognitive Behavioural Methods to Retrain Children's Attributions for Success and Failure in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, John; Boyle, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This study involves the use of methods derived from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to change the attributions for success and failure of school children with regard to learning. Children with learning difficulties and/or motivational and self-esteem difficulties (n = 29) were identified by their schools. The children then took part in twelve…

  13. Effects of conventional neurological treatment and a virtual reality training program on eye-hand coordination in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Ji-won; Song, Gui-bin; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of conventional neurological treatment and a virtual reality training program on eye-hand coordination in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] Sixteen children (9 males, 7 females) with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy were recruited and randomly assigned to the conventional neurological physical therapy group (CG) and virtual reality training group (VRG). [Methods] Eight children in the control group performed 45 minutes of th...

  14. Methods of evaluating SPECT images. The usefulness of the Matsuda`s method by the Patlak plot method in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaishi, Yasuko [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Fujino, Osamu [and others

    1998-11-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a tool to study cerebral blood flow (CBF) kinetics. There are three methods of evaluating SPECT images: visual, semi-quantitative (evaluation of the radioactivity ratio of the cerebral region to the cerebellum (R/CE) or to the thalamus (R/TH)) and quantitative (Matsuda`s method by Patlak plot method using {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime radionuclide angiography). We evaluated SPECT images by the quantitative method in 14 patients with neurological disorders and examined the correlation of the results to those obtained by the semi-quantitative method. There was no significant correlation between the R/CE or R/TH ratio and regional CBF except two regions. The evaluation by the semi-quantitative method may have been inappropriate, probably because the cerebellar or thalamic blood flow was not constant in each case. Evaluation by the quantitative method, on the other hand, seemed to be useful not only for the comparison of CBF among normal subjects, but also in the demonstration of progressive changes of CBF in the same case. The Matsuda`s method by the Patlak plot method is suitable for examination of children, since it dose not require aortic blood sampling. (author)

  15. A DRIED BLOOD SPOT METHOD TO EVALUATE CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field methods are needed to detect and monitor anticholinesterase pesticide exposure of young children. Twenty children, aged 11-18 months, living in an agricultural community along the US/Mexico border were enrolled in a pilot study investigating methods to detect pesticide expo...

  16. Development and application of a framework for comparing early-design methods for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis - Thiescheffer, R.J.W.; Bekker, M.M.; Eggen, J.H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Ridder, de H.

    2011-01-01

    When designing with young children, designers usually select user centred design methods based on the children’s required level of engagement and the inspiration expected to be created according to the designer. User centred design methods should be selected for their suitability for children and

  17. Efficacy of Distraction Methods on Procedural Pain and Anxiety by Applying Distraction Cards and Kaleidoscope in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejla Canbulat, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The distraction cards were the most effective method for pain and anxiety relief of children during phlebotomy. Also the distraction method with kaleidoscope was an effective method for pain and anxiety relief during phlebotomy in children.

  18. [Sixteen years of nursing education with diploma at the Semmelweis University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, Mária

    2006-06-25

    Nowadays it is already known that medical sciences on their own cannot achieve spectacular improvement in the state of health of the population even with high-tech appliances. Health care professionals, who can aid individuals, families, and communities in optimizing their physical, mental and social functions, are also needed in the fields of basic provision and clinical-hospital provision and, to achieve this, they possess wider medical, nursing and social scientific expertise. The training of registered nurses was first launched in Hungary at the Postgraduate Medical Institute's Faculty of Health Care (nowadays Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Care) in 1989 as a correspondence, then in 1990 as a full-time program. This was the first step towards the realization of a better, high-standard, individualized nursing system. The aim is training health care professionals who are able to individually assess the needs of people under their care, define the problems, plan, execute and evaluate the nursing-caring process, and take part in nursing research. Besides the positive results of the follow-up examinations of graduate students, the fact cannot be neglected that since the introduction of the training, in the last 15 years it has not become clear to everyone, why the training of registered nurses is necessary, and what these "new-type" professionals can be used for. It is clear to everyone that for real teamwork the mutual appreciation of each other's work, maximum accord, the acceptance and honor of each other are indispensable. Still, all these cannot be expected from school qualification only, these can only be achieved with the continuous proof of aptitude and expertise. For the realistic judgement of registered nurses it is also needed that their nearest colleague, the physician should know in depths and accept the syllabus of the training. That is why the author of the article feels that the history of the first sixteen years of the accredited training

  19. Mission from Mars - a method for exploring user requirements for children in a narrative space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Ludvigsen, Martin; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...... school bag (eBag). The three-hour collaborative session provides a first-hand insight into children's practice in a fun and intriguing way. The method is proposed as a supplement to existing descriptive design methods for interaction design and children....

  20. Parents’ experiences of participation in physical activities for children with cerebral palsy – protecting and pushing towards independence

    OpenAIRE

    Lauruschkus, Katarina; Nordmark, Eva; Hallström, Inger

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To explore how parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) experience their child’s participation in physical activities and to identify facilitators and barriers for being physically active and reducing sedentary behaviour. Methods: Twenty-five parents of sixteen children, aged 8–11 years old with CP, with varying gross motor, cognitive and communicative functions and with different cultural backgrounds, participated in focus group or individual interviews. Content analysis was use...

  1. In Defense of Children's Lies: On Ethics and Methods of Studying Children's Communication of Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    Studies of children's deceptive behavior have scientific merit and can be carried out in an ethically defensible manner. Many arguments against studies requiring children to deceive others in an experimental context are relatively easy to refute. It is true, though, that the debriefing phase of deception studies presents ethical problems,…

  2. Ten- to sixteen-year-olds' perceptions of advertisements for alcoholic drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Leathar, D S; Scott, A C

    1988-01-01

    Groups of children discussed a number of issues concerning advertising, including advertisements they liked and disliked. The findings suggest that advertisements for alcoholic drinks become increasingly salient and attractive over the years 10 to 14. For example, although 10-year-olds rarely mentioned advertisements for alcoholic drinks when talking about favourite television commercials, the older children tended to do so almost immediately. There were also consistent developmental trends in their descriptions of liked and disliked qualities of advertisements and of the symbolism in commercials for alcoholic drinks. Whereas the 10-year-olds' comments tended to be tied to what is specifically shown in commercials, the older children tended to go beyond this and alluded to much more complex imagery, much in the same way that adults do. For example, the 14- and 16-year-olds tended to see larger and beer commercials as promoting masculinity, sociability and working-class values. These findings indicate that advertising campaigns for alcoholic drinks aimed at older teenagers and young adults present qualities which younger teenagers find attractive. We suggest it is no longer tenable for advertisers to absolve themselves of any responsibility by saying that advertisements for alcoholic drinks are targeted only at adults.

  3. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya T. Таgiltseva; Filip D. Shavov

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools; to find out the degree of methods efficiency of suggestopedia in shaping the musical experience of preschool children in various activities at music lessons. Methods. The theoretical foundations of the article are views and concepts of the Bulgarian researcher, teacher and psychologist, G...

  4. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  5. The Effect of Montessori Method on Cognitive Tempo of Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, Gökhan

    2018-01-01

    This study was undertaken to discover the effect of the Montessori Method on the cognitive tempo of 4-5-year-old children. Using an experimental pre-test-post-test paired control group design, the study sample included 60 children attending Ihsan Dogramaci Applied Nursery School (affiliated to Selcuk University, Department of Health Sciences) in…

  6. Multiple Contexts, Multiple Methods: A Study of Academic and Cultural Identity among Children of Immigrant Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdan, Tim; Munoz, Chantico

    2012-01-01

    Multiple methods were used to examine the academic motivation and cultural identity of a sample of college undergraduates. The children of immigrant parents (CIPs, n = 52) and the children of non-immigrant parents (non-CIPs, n = 42) completed surveys assessing core cultural identity, valuing of cultural accomplishments, academic self-concept,…

  7. Children's, Adolescents', and Adults' Judgments and Reasoning about Different Methods of Teaching Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Charles C.; Ryerson, Rachel; Prencipe, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated children's, adolescents', and young adults' judgments and reasoning about teaching two values (racial equality and patriotism) using methods that varied in provision for children's rational autonomy, active involvement, and choice. Ninety-six participants (7-8-, 10-11-, and 13-14-year-olds, and college students) evaluated…

  8. Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

  9. Children's Understanding of Advertising: An Investigation Using Verbal and Pictorially Cued Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Laura; Auty, Susan; Lewis, Charlie; Berridge, Damon

    2007-01-01

    Conflicting results on children's understanding of advertising may stem from differences in research methods. Most studies are conducted using interviewing techniques, employing only verbal questioning. In the present study, 136 children of two age groups (7 and 10 years) were first asked what advertising was for and, after responding, shown…

  10. Climate Change and Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2007, sixteen percent of children lived in counties exceeding the annual fine particulate matter standard. Exposure to higher levels of ambient particulate matter and ozone may increase school absences and hospital admissions due to respiratory illness.

  11. Proceedings of the first ERDA statistical symposium, Los Alamos, NM, November 3--5, 1975. [Sixteen papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, W L; Harris, J L [eds.

    1976-03-01

    The First ERDA Statistical Symposium was organized to provide a means for communication among ERDA statisticians, and the sixteen papers presented at the meeting are given. Topics include techniques of numerical analysis used for accelerators, nuclear reactors, skewness and kurtosis statistics, radiochemical spectral analysis, quality control, and other statistics problems. Nine of the papers were previously announced in Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA), while the remaining seven were abstracted for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and INIS Atomindex. (PMA)

  12. Concepts, features, and design of a sixteen-to-four beam combiner for ILSE [Induction Linac Systems Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, D.L.; Celata, C.; Close, E.; Faltens, A.; Hahn, K.; La Mon, K.; Lee, E.P.; Smith, L.; Thur, W.

    1989-03-01

    Sixteen intense parallel ion beams are to be transversely combined into four by dispersionless double bends. Emittance growth due to electrostatic energy redistribution and to the geometry is evaluated. Most bending elements are electric, and alternate with AG electrostatic quadrupoles similar to those upstream. The final elements are magnetic, combining focusing and ''unbending''. Electrode shapes and pulsed-current arrays (having very small clearances), and mechanical and electric features of the combiner, and described. 1 ref., 7 figs

  13. Children's activities and their meanings for parents: a mixed-methods study in six Western cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone.

  14. Clinical Characteristics and Low Vision Rehabilitation Methods for Partially Sighted School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; Çalışkan, Deniz; İdil, Aysun; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-04-01

    To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near) were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7%) of them were male and 62 (41.3%) of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36%) followed by cortical visual impairment (18%). The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3%) for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7%) and telemicroscopic systems (26.0%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation.

  15. USAGE OF PICTOGRAMS TO INTRODUCE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS TO EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsu YILMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and investigate the perception ability of musical instruments of educable mentally retarded children with the support of visual elements. The research is conducted for every children individually in a special education and rehabilitation centre. The problematic of this research is the level of perception ability of musical instruments with visual support on mild mentally retarded children. In this research, perception ability of defining pictograms by music is introduced as an alternative method. It is researched that how educable mentally retarded children perceive pictograms by music tools. In this case, it is aimed to introduce musical instruments to educable mentally retarded children by pictograms with music. The research is applied with a qualitative approach. Data were obtained with the recorder, then they were turned into texts and analyzed with content analysis method.

  16. Barriers and facilitators of sports in children with physical disabilities: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Eva A; Dijkstra, Pieter U; de Blécourt, Alida C E; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk

    2015-01-01

    This study explored barriers and facilitators of sports participation of children with physical disabilities from the perspective of the children, their parents and their health professionals. Thirty children and 38 parents completed a questionnaire, and 17 professionals were interviewed in a semi-structured way. Data from the three groups were combined in a mixed-method design, after which the results were triangulated. Mean age (SD) of the children was 14.1 (2.9) years old, 58% were boys. Sixty-seven percent of the children had cerebral palsy and 77% participated in sports after school. Most commonly practiced sports were swimming, cycling and football. Children specifically experienced dependency on others as a barrier, parents did not have enough information about sports facilities, and professionals observed that the family's attitude had influence on the child's sports participation. Facilitators were health benefits, fun and social contacts. Sports participation of children with physical disabilities is a complex phenomenon because children, their parents and professionals reported different barriers. Sports participation is more physically challenging for children with severe physical disabilities, as their daily activities already require much energy. However, the psychosocial benefits of sports are applicable to all children with physical disabilities. IMPLICATION FOR REHABILITATION: Perceived barriers seemed to differ for children, parents and health professionals, suggesting that sports participation is a complex phenomenon. Sports might be more physically challenging for children with severe physical disabilities, as their daily activities already take much energy. The psychosocial benefits of sports should be emphasized by rehabilitation professionals when advising children with physical disabilities about sports.

  17. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE THE SPORTS DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARNACOVA ELEONORA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes some conclusions about the influence of the sports dance on the multilateral development of a preschool child`s personality. The author presents methods and techniques used in the didactic activity of teaching-learning the sports dance in groups of children of under school age. At the same time, she outlines the methods of organizing systematically her classes and the fact that the teacher is free to choose the time when to deliver theoretical courses or have practical classes taking in consideration the children`s individual abilities.

  18. APPLICATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NONMEDICAMENTOUS PREVENTION AND TREATMENT METHODS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bezrukova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors justify the necessity to apply non medicamentous treatment methods to the children with bronchial asthma. The scientists familiarize us with a new me dication, whose effect is based on the noninvasive impact of the electromagnetic radiation of the knowingly non thermal intensity. It is for normalization of the disturbed function of the respiratory system. The researchers showed the efficiency of the above said innovative medication, while treating bronchial asthma among children with no side effects whatsoever.Key words: bronchial asthma, nonmedicamentous treatment methods, children.

  19. Children with SLI Exhibit Delays Resolving Ambiguous Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estis, Julie M.; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Fast mapping weaknesses in children with specific language impairment (SLI) may be explained by differences in disambiguation, mapping an unknown word to an unnamed object. The impact of language ability and linguistic stimulus on disambiguation was investigated. Sixteen children with SLI (8 preschool, 8 school-age) and sixteen typically…

  20. A comparison of two analytical evaluation methods for educational computer games for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.M.; Baauw, E.; Barendregt, W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe a comparison of two analytical methods for educational computer games for young children. The methods compared in the study are the Structured Expert Evaluation Method (SEEM) and the Combined Heuristic Evaluation (HE) (based on a combination of Nielsen’s HE and the

  1. A Comparison of Two Methods for Recruiting Children with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dawn; Handley, Louise; Heald, Mary; Simkiss, Doug; Jones, Alison; Walls, Emily; Oliver, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recruitment is a widely cited barrier of representative intellectual disability research, yet it is rarely studied. This study aims to document the rates of recruiting children with intellectual disabilities using two methods and discuss the impact of such methods on sample characteristics. Methods: Questionnaire completion rates are…

  2. Methods and Rates of Punishment Implemented by Families to Enuretic Children in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ihsan Karaman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Nocturnal enuresis is a serious health problem affecting a significant portion of the population. In this study, we investigated the frequency of punishment methods in nocturnal enuresis (NE in Turkey and its relationship with other parameters. Materials and Methods A total of 501 children (301 boys and 200 girls who were admitted to our outpatient clinic due to nocturnal enuresis were included in the study. Mean age was 9.39 years (range 5-18. Prepared questionnaire form inquiring educational status of the family, frequency and implementation and duration of punishment methods was applied to patients and families. Results At least one punishment method was applied to 291 (58.1% of children with NE. Punishment methods of parents were detected as condemnation (257 patients, 51.3%, depriving desires of the child (120 patients, 23.9%, humiliating the child in the presence of other children (113 patients, 22.6%, reprimanding- threatening with punishment (203 patients, 40.5%. This application was found to continue for longer than 1 year in 52% of punished children. Families graduated of high school and above were found to use punishment methods significantly more than others. Conclusion According to the results of our study, a quite high proportion of enuretic children were detected to be exposed to punishment methods. Even, some parents consider that these methods are a part of nocturnal enuresis treatment. We, the doctors, should endeavor more for raising awareness of the community in order to diminish this worrisome behavior.

  3. Turkish Nurses' Use of Nonpharmacological Methods for Relieving Children's Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebioğlu, Ayda; Küçükoğlu, Sibel; Odabaşoğlu, Emel

    2015-01-01

    The experience of pain is frequently observed among children undergoing surgery. Hospitalization and surgery are stressful experiences for those children. The research was conducted to investigate and analyze Turkish nurses' use of nonpharmacological methods to relieve postoperative pain in children. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive. The study took place at 2 hospitals in eastern Turkey. Participants were 143 nurses whose patients had undergone surgical procedures at the 2 hospitals. The researchers used a questionnaire, a checklist of nonpharmacological methods, and a visual analogue scale (VAS) to collect the data. To assess the data, descriptive statistics and the χ² test were used. Of the 143 nurses, 73.4% initially had applied medication when the children had pain. Most of the nurses (58.7%) stated the children generally experienced a middle level of postoperative pain. The most frequent practices that the nurses applied after the children's surgery were (1) "providing verbal encouragement" (90.2%), a cognitive-behavioral method; (2) "a change in the child's position" (85.3%), a physical method; (3) "touch" (82.5%), a method of emotional support; and (4) "ventilation of the room" (79.7%), a regulation of the surroundings. Compared with participants with other educational levels, the cognitive-behavioral methods were the ones most commonly used by the more educated nurses (P encouraging patients with rewards, (2) helping them think happy thoughts, (3) helping them use their imaginations, (4) providing music, and (5) reading books. Female nurses used the following methods more than the male nurses did (P encouragement with rewards, (2) helping patients with deep breathing, (3) keeping a desired item beside them, (4) changing their positions, and (5) ventilating the room. Undergoing surgery is generally a painful experience for children. Nurses most commonly use cognitive-behavioral methods in the postoperative care of their pediatric patients

  4. Neuroradiological methods and findings on presurgical evaluation of epileptic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertun, B.; Elger, C.E.; Solymosi, L.; Kurthen, M.; Schramm, J.

    1993-01-01

    Epilepsy in childhood is often caused by morphological abnormalities and is frequently pharmacoresistant. Therefore it represents a challenge to the neuroradiologist because early and accurate diagnosis of abnormal morphology is the basis for planning surgical intervention with a high change of controlling seizures and a low risk of complications. Both morphological (radiography, CT, MRI and angiography) and functional examinations [intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT)] are essential parts of the presurgical evaluation. In most cases MRI has proved to be most sensitive in detecting lesions except for some calcifications. Routine protocols for brain examinations are not sufficient, missing about 22% of lesions. Therefore a refined MRI and CT protocol is proposed. Even in very young children IAT can be performed at very low risk; these tests contribute highly valuable information about hemispheric dominance and other functions in more than 80% of procedures that is indispensable if postoperative neurological and neuropsychological deficits are to be avoided. (orig.) [de

  5. Spelling skills of Czech primary school children in relation to the method of literacy instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidlová Málková Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the importance of having a set reading instruction method for the development of spelling skills among Czech children ranging in age across the four beginning grades of primary school. 238 children learning to read and spell using an analytical-synthetic method and 251 children learning to read and spell using a genetic method participated in this study. The outcomes of word spelling tests were assessed for the different grade and age levels: first, second- third and fourth. Distributional patterns of spelling skills performance for both instruction method subgroups were created in each of the grade groups. Comparisons of spelling task outputs between both methods were conducted using a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results indicate that children using the genetic method are more effective in acquiring phoneme-grapheme correspondences throughout the first grade, and thus show more accurate word spelling in the first grade spelling task. However, this initial advantage for children learning to spell using the genetic method soon disperses, and it is not reflected in better spelling performance throughout the second to third and fourth grade.

  6. Attainment of gross motor milestones in children with Down syndrome in Kosovo - developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqaj, Samire; Jusaj, Njomza; Živković, Vujica

    2017-08-01

    Aim To investigate the age (in months) at which motor skills are developed in children with Down syndrome (DS), and compare it to the age of the development of the same skills in both, children with typical development (TD), and children with DS reported by four other studies. Methods Sixteen children (7 girls and 9 boys) were monthly assessed for the development of nineteen motor skills between 2008 and 2011. The mean ages when the skills were accomplished were presented using descriptive statistics. Independent T-samples test (significance skills. No significant difference was found between developmental age in children from the present study and children with DS from other studies. Conclusion The rate of attainment of motor skills is delayed in children with DS in comparison to children with TD, however, the developmental sequence is the same. The delayed development is more prominent in more complex skills. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  7. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  8. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of

  9. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Kurmaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  10. Percutaneous Screw Fixation of Distal Tibia Fractures – Functional Results in Sixteen Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kaftandziev, Igor; Trpeski, Simon; Arsovski, Oliver; Spasov, Marko

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An important feature of distal tibia fractures is the relevance of the soft tissue coverage. In order to maintain good functional outcome, several operative techniques have been established. Among them, percutaneous screw fixation has the advantage of causing less biological damage of the soft tissues with lower rates of complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed 16 patients with distal tibia fracture. Operative treatment consisted of indirect reduction and percutaneou...

  11. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. The effects of three different distraction methods on pain and anxiety in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Nejla Canbulat; Bal, Meltem Demirgoz

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate of three different distraction methods (distraction cards, listening to the music of cartoon and balloon inflation) on pain and anxiety relief of children during phlebotomy. This study is a prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. The sample consisted of 6 to 12 years old children who require blood tests. Children were randomized into four groups as the distraction cards, the music, the balloon inflation, and the control. Data were obtained by conducting interviews with the children, their parents, and the observer before and after the procedure. The pain levels of the children were assessed by the parent and observer reports as well as self-report using the Wong-Baker FACES. The anxiety levels of children were assessed by parent and observer reports using Children Fear Scale. One hundred and twenty children (mean age: 9.1 ± 1.6 years) were included. The self-reported procedural pain levels showed significant differences among the study groups (p = .040). The distraction card group (2.33 ± 3.24) had significantly lower pain levels (p = .057) than the control group (4.53 ± 3.23). The procedural child anxiety levels reported by the observer showed a significant difference among the study groups (p = .032). All the forms of distraction significantly reduced pain and anxiety perception. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Laboratory methods for determining pneumonia etiology in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murdoch, David R.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Driscoll, Amanda J.; Karron, Ruth A.; Bhat, Niranjan; Black, Robert E.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Campbell, Harry; Cherian, Thomas; Crook, Derrick W.; de Jong, Menno D.; Dowell, Scott F.; Graham, Stephen M.; Klugman, Keith P.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Martin, Paul; Nataro, James P.; Piazza, Franco M.; Qazi, Shamim A.; Zar, Heather J.; Levine, Orin S.; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Feikin, Daniel R.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Driscoll, Amanda; DeLuca, Andrea; Crawley, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory diagnostics are a core component of any pneumonia etiology study. Recent advances in diagnostic technology have introduced newer methods that have greatly improved the ability to identify respiratory pathogens. However, determining the microbial etiology of pneumonia remains a challenge,

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements using noninvasive 133Xe clearance method in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Maeda, Koji; Kagawa, Yukihide; Morozumi, Kunihiko; Hashimoto, Manami; Tsubokawa, Takashi.

    1985-01-01

    The noninvasive 133-Xe clearance method of estimating rCBF has been widely used in adult clinical studies. It is safe, noninvasive and reproducible, and has provided valuable insight into adult cerebrovascular pathophysiology. However, in children, this technique has not been used to measure rCBF for some fundamental problems. This study was performed to clarify these fundamental problems for applications of noninvasive 133-Xe clearance technique to children. The results showed that three fundamental problems concerning; (1) volume of dead spaces in airway circuits of the system, (2) increasing of look-through phenomenon and (3) correction methods for recirculated 133-Xe and airway artifacts to estimate rCBF are important for applications to children. These problems should be improved to measure as correct rCBF in children as in adults. (author)

  15. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  16. Magnetic solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometrical analysis of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ying; Yan, Zhihong; NguyenVan, Manh; Wang, Lijia; Cai, Qingyun

    2015-08-07

    Fluorenyl functionalized superparamagnetic core/shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, Fe3O4@SiO2@Flu) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The MNPs having an average diameter of 200nm were then used as solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of 16 priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples designated by United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The main influencing parameters, including sorbent amount, desorption solvent, sample volume and extraction time were optimized. Analyses were performed on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Method validation proved the feasibility of the developed sorbents for the quantitation of the investigated analytes at trace levels. Limit of detection ranging from 0.5 to 4.0ng/L were obtained. The repeatability was investigated by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 13.1%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PAHs in water samples with the recoveries in the range of 96.0-106.7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the potential of the drawing intervention method for design and evaluation by young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, W.; Bekker, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of an exploratory study on the use of the Drawing Intervention method for both design and evaluation activities with young children (4-7). In this study we wanted to a) investigate how a variant of this method can be used to evaluate a game with younger

  18. Effectiveness of the Modified Intensive Toilet Training Method on Teaching Toilet Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Avsar; Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effectiveness of a modified version of Azrin and Foxx's (1971) intensive toilet training method on teaching of toilet skills to children with autism. This method consists of administering extra fluids and a time schedule, but does not use overcorrection procedures. Implementation requires a study of six…

  19. Encouraging Reading through an Enactive Method: Strategies for Hearing Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, M. A.

    The paper describes the enactive method, an alternative approach to introducing and teaching reading to young hearing impaired children. The method actively involves the child as a processor of the material rather than as a passive consumer. The approach is established for a short period of time each day until the student outgrows its original…

  20. KidReporter : a method for engaging children in making a newspaper to gather user requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.M.; Beusmans, J.; Keyson, D.V.; Lloyd, P.A.; Bekker, M.M.; Markopoulos, P.; Tsikalkina, M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a design method, called the KidReporter method, for gathering user requirements from children. Two school classes participated in making a newspaper about a zoo, to gather requirements for the design process of an interactive educational game. The educational game was developed to

  1. Parent Training: A Review of Methods for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; LoVullo, Santino V.

    2009-01-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of skills and procedures to aid children with developmental disabilities to establish maximum independence and quality of life. Paramount among the treatment methods that have empirical support are treatments based on applied behavior analysis. These methods are often very labor intensive. Thus,…

  2. A note on discriminating equally optimal semi-Latin squares for sixteen treatments in blocks of size four

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigbu, P.E.

    2004-08-01

    A semi-Latin square for sixteen treatments in blocks of size four is like a 4x4 Latin square except that there exist four treatments in each cell and each of the sixteen treatments occurs once in each row and once in each column. In the literature, three of this class of squares has been found to be A-, D- and E-optimal while an analytic approach has been adopted to further distinguish these optimal ones with the view of identifying the best for experimentation. With this analytic approach the 'best' square was identified - however, it neither provided a common basis for the discrimination of the three squares nor the further classification of the other two good squares. In this paper, therefore, a numerical approach, which basically involves the computation of the generalized inverses of the information matrices of these squares, is adopted. Each of the generalized inverses satisfies the Moore-Penrose inverse properties. Thereafter, a square is considered most preferable among others if it has the maximum number of minimum variance of simple treatment contrasts as well as the minimum number of distinct pairwise treatment variances. Above all, a mini-league table for the three squares is ascertained. (author)

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310–0.966 and 0.523–0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata.

  4. The significance of reverse flow in ductus venosus between sixteen and twenty weeks’ gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Karakoç

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the correlation between reversed a-wave in ductus venosus at 16-20 weeks’ gestation and trisomy 21 and adverse perinatal outcomes. Materials and Methods: Our study included 174 pregnant women who were under follow-up at a tertiary center between May and September 2010. Ductus venosus Doppler (DVD measurements were obtained throughout the 6-month period from women who underwent amniocentesis procedures due to increased risk for trisomy 21 in terms of first or second trimester screening test results. These women were followed up for enrollment of subsequent data about perinatal outcomes. Results: In 13 of 174 cases, Doppler studies indicated a reversed a-wave in the ductus venosus. Of these fetuses, 3 were diagnosed as having trisomy 21 after amniocentesis, which related to 60% (3 of 5 fetuses of all fetuses with trisomy 21. The pregnant women with reversed a-wave in DVD also had an increased rate of preeclampsia (15% and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM (23% in late pregnancy. Conclusion: Reversed a-wave in ductus venosus between 16-20 weeks’ gestation is associated with increased risk of trisomy 21, preeclampsia, and GDM. If further prospective studies confirm its utility, DVD interrogation for trisomy 21 may be extended until 20 weeks’ gestation.

  5. Estimating Steatosis Prevalence in Overweight and Obese Children: Comparison of Bayesian Small Area and Direct Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khalkhali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Often, there is no access to sufficient sample size to estimate the prevalence using the method of direct estimator in all areas. The aim of this study was to compare small area’s Bayesian method and direct method in estimating the prevalence of steatosis in obese and overweight children. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, was conducted on 150 overweight and obese children aged 2 to 15 years referred to the Children's digestive clinic of Urmia University of Medical Sciences- Iran, in 2013. After Body mass index (BMI calculation, children with overweight and obese were assessed in terms of primary tests of obesity screening. Then children with steatosis confirmed by abdominal Ultrasonography, were referred to the laboratory for doing further tests. Steatosis prevalence was estimated by direct and Bayesian method and their efficiency were evaluated using mean-square error Jackknife method. The study data was analyzed using the open BUGS3.1.2 and R2.15.2 software. Results: The findings indicated that estimation of steatosis prevalence in children using Bayesian and direct methods were between 0.3098 to 0.493, and 0.355 to 0.560 respectively, in Health Districts; 0.3098 to 0.502, and 0.355 to 0.550 in Education Districts; 0.321 to 0.582, and 0.357 to 0.615 in age groups; 0.313 to 0.429, and 0.383 to 0.536 in sex groups. In general, according to the results, mean-square error of Bayesian estimation was smaller than direct estimation (P

  6. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying...... was to investigate whether the method (two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs)) suggested for the adults in European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) would be usable for children in the age group between 4 and 14 years. However, all available dietary assessment methods were included...... of 4-14 years. Nevertheless, on the basis of the literature, the recommendations were separated for preschoolers (4-6 years) and schoolchildren (7-14 years). Conclusion: For preschoolers, two non-consecutive days of a structured food record are recommended, using a (for children adapted) picture...

  7. A Study on the Creation of Architectural Spaces for Children Using Rumi’s Storytelling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public areas of behavioral science knowledge on issues related to children's environmental architecture interested in building their studies, based on the theories of learning and development of children. Children have a particular position in spaces, where grownups live, therefore the quality of spaces, proportions, architectural details, materials and so on, should act in a way that create curiosity, understanding of space and communication, selection and finally, the desire to learn and develop creativity in children. The aim of this project is to create conditions and facilities regarding growing, nurturing, creativity, promotion of knowledge and ability of children. The research methodology in this paper consists of two parts: the field and library studies. Research goals include the creation of conditions and possibilities that are the development of creativity and promotion of children's knowledge and ability. Logical and comparative reasoning method has been used for the conclusion based on case studies. Using dynamic architecture can help to develop creativity in children and the dynamics of architectural space can add deepen the joy of playing and storytelling. As a result, the research tries to link psychology and its appearance in the architectural space. The study suggest that storytelling can be facilitated through architectural space and with the help of it, we can increase the architectural designing of educational and artistic spaces.

  8. Dental development in Down syndrome and healthy children: a comparative study using the Demirjian method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, M S; Vucic, S; van Marrewijk, D J F; Ongkosuwito, E M

    2017-05-01

    In children with Down syndrome, the timing of dental eruption is important for orthodontics treatment planning. Aim of this study was to determine whether tooth eruption and development of the dentition in children with Down syndrome are impaired. Dental development was scored on orthopantomograms (OPTs) of 95 children with Down syndrome. The dental age was determined at the left mandibular side according to the Demirjian method and by converting the assigned scores to the dental maturity score. Dental development scores of control children and DS children were compared with a mixed model linear regression analysis. The model showed statistically significant changes relating to increasing age (Pchildren and the control group after using the Nyström imputation (with and without hypodontia). The findings showed that dental development in DS children is similar to the development of control children and that a relationship exists between hypodontia and dental development. The clinically observed late eruption is probably not due to late dental development but due to the other processes that take place during eruption, such as the possible impaired processes at the apical side and the occlusal side of an erupting element. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  10. Sixteen years of ICPC use in Norwegian primary care: looking through the facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassøe Carl-Fredrik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC standard aims to facilitate simultaneous and longitudinal comparisons of clinical primary care practice within and across country borders; it is also used for administrative purposes. This study evaluates the use of the original ICPC-1 and the more complete ICPC-2 Norwegian versions in electronic patient records. Methods We performed a retrospective study of approximately 1.5 million ICPC codes and diagnoses that were collected over a 16-year period at 12 primary care sites in Norway. In the first phase of this period (transition phase, 1992-1999 physicians were allowed to not use an ICPC code in their practice while in the second phase (regular phase, 2000-2008 the use of an ICPC code was mandatory. The ICPC codes and diagnoses defined a problem event for each patient in the PROblem-oriented electronic MEDical record (PROMED. The main outcome measure of our analysis was the percentage of problem events in PROMEDs with inappropriate (or missing ICPC codes and of diagnoses that did not map the latest ICPC-2 classification. Specific problem areas (pneumonia, anaemia, tonsillitis and diabetes were examined in the same context. Results Codes were missing in 6.2% of the problem events; incorrect codes were observed in 4.0% of the problem events and text mismatch between the diagnoses and the expected ICPC-2 diagnoses text in 53.8% of the problem events. Missing codes were observed only during the transition phase while incorrect and inappropriate codes were used all over the 16-year period. The physicians created diagnoses that did not exist in ICPC. These 'new' diagnoses were used with varying frequency; many of them were used only once. Inappropriate ICPC-2 codes were also observed in the selected problem areas and for both phases. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that physicians did not adhere to the ICPC standard due to its incompleteness, i.e. lack of many

  11. FEVER IN CHILDREN WITH RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS: EFFECTIVE AND SAFE METHODS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Taranushenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important — the problem of treatment of fever in children with respiratory viral infections — is discussed in this article. It is fever as one of the first symptoms of disease which often frightens parents and leads to inappropriate and excess usage of antipyretic agents, which in its turn can cause unfavorable consequences. The authors represent their own data on frequency of antipyretic drugs usage in children with respiratory viral infections, as well as the answers of pediatricians to the questionnaires on methods of choice in temperature normalization. According to the modern Russian as well as European and American clinical guidelines on treatment of fever in children the management of selection of patients demanding antipyretic treatment is detailed, indications and contraindications to such therapy are described, the most effective methods of temperature normalization in children with acute respiratory infection are discussed. The authors suggested the data on recommended dosages of paracetamol, which were revised in 2011 by the UK Medicines Control Agency, to be very useful. The current information on advantages of ibuprofen in comparison to paracetamol in treatment of fever in children with respiratory viral infections is shown. The main target of this article is understanding and acceptance by pediatricians of the modern recommendation on differential and reasonable approach to administration of antipyretic drugs in children with respiratory viral infections.

  12. Comparison of the effects of storytelling and creative drama methods on children's awareness about personal hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Hemmati, Soheila; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hassan; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining and improving the health situation of children requires them to become more aware about personal hygiene through proper education. Based on several studies, teachings provided through informal methods are fully understandable for children. Therefore, the goal of this study is to compare the effects of creative drama and storytelling education methods on increasing the awareness of children regarding personal hygiene. This is an applied study conducted using semiempirical method in two groups. The study population consisted of 85 children participating in 4 th center for Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults in Isfahan, 40 of which were randomly selected and placed in storytelling and creative drama groups with 20 members each. The data gathering tool was a questionnaire created by the researchers whose content validity was confirmed by health education experts. The gathered information were analyzed using both descriptive (average and standard deviation) and analytical (independent t -test and paired t -test) statistical methods. The findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between the awareness score of both groups before and after intervention. The average awareness score of storytelling group was increased from 50.69 to 86.83 while the average score of creative drama group was increased from 57.37 to 85.09. Furthermore, according to paired t -test results, there was no significant difference between average scores of storytelling and creative drama groups. The results of the current study showed that although both storytelling and creative drama methods are effective in increasing the awareness of children regarding personal hygiene, there is no significant difference between the two methods.

  13. [Clinical and anatomical features of congenital microphthalmia and anophthalmia in children and conservative methods of rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudovskaya, T V; Filatova, I A; Kiseleva, T N; Bobrovskaya, Yu A; Kokoeva, N Sh

    2016-01-01

    To develop a comprehensive classification system of distinctive clinical and anatomical features of congenital microphthalmia and anophthalmia in children and to specify indications, contraindications, and optimal timing of the primary and subsequent prosthetic treatment. A total of 70 patients with congenital micro- or anophthalmia aged from 1 month to 12 years were examined. Besides the routine ophthalmic examination, all patients underwent eye and orbit ultrasound (axial length measurement and B-scan), computed tomography of the orbits and skull, and immunological tests for infectious diseases (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays). Basing on the examination we have determined the common types of congenital micro- and anophthalmia in children. We have also developed a stepwise prosthetic treatment aimed at better cosmetic rehabilitation. Indications and contraindications for the use of ocular prostheses in children with congenital micro- and anophthalmia have been identified. The proposed method of stepwise prosthetics is the principal option for conservative rehabilitation of children with congenital micro- or anophthalmia.

  14. Ultrasound investigation central hemodynamics as a method of assessment effective analgesia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Dmytriieva

    2016-06-01

    Vinnitsa National Medical University M.I. Pirogov   Summary: The study was include in 23 children (12,4±1,2 years operated on for tumors of the retroperitoneal space (14 children, 61%, renal tumors (6 children, 26%, ovarian cancer (3 children, 13% showed that a comprehensive study of the reactions of pain behavior and central hemodynamics by ultrasonography showed that the use of the scheme KSME bupivacaine 0.3-0.4 mg / kg and a continuous infusion of drugs (fentanyl in a dose of 10 mcg/kg/h for postoperative pain relief leads to effective analgesia after traumatic operations and comprehensive ultrasound including color and spectral Doppler studies, is the main tool by enabling timely and accurately assess the condition of the central hemodynamics at different methods of analgesia.   Key words: central hemodynamics, ultrasound, anesthesia.

  15. What Do Children Know about the Interior of the Body? A Comparison of Two Methods of Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, Paolo

    This research compared two methods used to investigate the knowledge of internal body parts by children ages 4 to 9 years. Subjects were 50 Italian children: 18 preschoolers, 21 first graders, and 11 second or third graders. Children performed two tasks, a Drawing Task in which they drew on the outline of a human figure all the body parts they…

  16. Effectivness of different teaching methods on ergonomics for 12-16 years old children working with computer

    OpenAIRE

    Jasionytė, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Effectivness of Different Teaching Methods on Ergonomics for 12-16 Years Old Children Working with Computer. Work author: Monika Jasionytė Work advisor: assistant Inga Raudonytė, Vilnius University faculty of Medicine Department of Rehabilitation, Physical and Sports Medicine. Main concept: ergonomics, children, methods. Work goal: figure out which teaching method is moust efficiant for 12-16 years old children, work with computer ergonomics Goals: 1. Figure out computer working place ergonom...

  17. Sixteen Years of International Co-operation. The OECD/NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, S.; Valencia, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning under the administration of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has recently completed sixteen years of operation. The Programme, which is essentially an information exchange programme between decommissioning projects, came into being in 1985. It has grown from an initial 10 decommissioning projects from 7 countries to 39 projects from 14 countries today. From purely information exchange to start with, the Programme has, in later years, been functioning as a voice for the collective expression of views of the implementers of nuclear decommissioning. During the first sixteen years of the operation of the Co-operative Programme, nuclear decommissioning has grown from local specialist activities within projects to a competitive commercial industry. By the dismantling and release from regulatory control of over a dozen diverse nuclear facilities, the Programme has been able to demonstrate in practice, that nuclear decommissioning can be performed safely both for the workers and the public, and that this can be done at reasonable costs in an environmentally friendly fashion. During the recent years, discussions and work within the Co-operative Programme, specially within some of the Task Groups, have had/are having effects and repercussions not just in the field of nuclear decommissioning, but can possibly affect activities and regulations in other industries. This paper describes how the Programme and its activities and procedures have evolved over the years and indicate the directions of developments in the organization and execution of decommissioning projects. Finally, it gives a brief overview of the achievements of the Cooperative Programme and visualizes future developments in the field of nuclear decommissioning

  18. Comparative efficiency of endoscopic hemostasis methods in bleeding undercomplicated peptic ulcer in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Олександрович Сокольник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the effectiveness of endoscopic hemostasis in complex treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding in children of Chernovtsy region with peptic ulcer disease.Methods. 43 cases of bleeding in peptic ulcer disease in children are analyzed. Argon plasma coagulation is undergone in order to stop the bleeding for 11 patients, for others – aminocaproic acid irrigation.Results. Using argon plasma coagulation, in contrast to the aminocaproic acid irrigation reduces the risk of rebleeding 0.59 times when the number of patients who must be treated – 2.99.Conclusions. The most effective method of endoscopic hemostasis of bleeding in peptic ulcer disease in children is argon plasma coagulation, which allows you to achieve a stable hemostasis and reduce the risk of rebleeding

  19. THE METHOD OF PNEUMATIC IMITATION OF WEIGHT-BEARING IN CHILDREN WITH SHIN FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Serova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a comparative analysis of shin fracture treatment in 102 children at the age of 4–18 years old. The main group consisted of 51 (50% children, who received postoperative treatment according to the method of pneumatic imitation of weightbearing both on health and injured limbs with «Korvit» apparatus. The control group consisted of 51 (50% patients who did not received the afore-mentioned method of postoperative treatment. The groups were comparable on age, trauma mechanism and localization, surgical operation and complex postoperative therapy. Children of the first group were found to have shorter period of time needed to achievement of pain relief, soft tissue swelling decrease, restoration of the movements in adjacent joints and somatometry values normalization, which allowed earlier verticalization and shorter period of hospitalization.

  20. Efferent detoxification methods and evaluation of the intensive therapy efficacy in children with bacterial toxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Kurochkin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of severe bacterial infections intensive therapy in children is toxemia, disorder of hemodynamic and oxygen transport. Aim. The aim of the work was to study the features of hemodynamics, oxygen transport, the level of toxemia during bacterial intoxication treatment in children, including discrete plasmapheresis. Methods and results. The study included 28 children with severe bacterial infections. We found that the inclusion of efferent methods of intensive care, such as a discrete plasmapheresis, helped to reduce circulation hyperdynamia and restore a balanced mode of delivery and oxygen consumption within 24 hours after the plasmapheresis session. Conclusion. Reduction of toxemia was noted after plasmapresis, which was confirmed by a significant decreasing in the toxicity markers level – middle molecules in the blood and leukocyte index of intoxication.

  1. Sweet sixteen for ANLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Luc; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2012-01-01

    Since its introduction 16 years ago, the astrocyte–neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) model has profoundly modified our understanding of neuroenergetics by bringing a cellular and molecular resolution. Praised or disputed, the concept has never ceased to attract attention, leading to critical advances and unexpected insights. Here, we summarize recent experimental evidence further supporting the main tenets of the model. Thus, evidence for distinct metabolic phenotypes between neurons (mainly oxidative) and astrocytes (mainly glycolytic) have been provided by genomics and classical metabolic approaches. Moreover, it has become clear that astrocytes act as a syncytium to distribute energy substrates such as lactate to active neurones. Glycogen, the main energy reserve located in astrocytes, is used as a lactate source to sustain glutamatergic neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Lactate is also emerging as a neuroprotective agent as well as a key signal to regulate blood flow. Characterization of monocarboxylate transporter regulation indicates a possible involvement in synaptic plasticity and memory. Finally, several modeling studies captured the implications of such findings for many brain functions. The ANLS model now represents a useful, experimentally based framework to better understand the coupling between neuronal activity and energetics as it relates to neuronal plasticity, neurodegeneration, and functional brain imaging. PMID:22027938

  2. Comparison of automated brain volumetry methods with stereology in children aged 2 to 3 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Kristina N. [University Children' s Hospital of Zurich, Center for MR Research, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Latal, Beatrice [University Children' s Hospital, Child Development Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Children' s Research Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Children' s Research Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Scheer, Ianina [University Children' s Hospital, Department for Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Rhein, Michael von [University Children' s Hospital, Child Development Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Reich, Bettina; Bauer, Juergen; Gummel, Kerstin [Justus-Liebig University, Pediatric Heart Center, University Hospital Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Roberts, Neil [University of Edinburgh, Clinical Research and Imaging Centre (CRIC), The Queens Medical Research Institute (QMRI), Edinburgh (United Kingdom); O' Gorman Tuura, Ruth [University Children' s Hospital of Zurich, Center for MR Research, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Children' s Research Center, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-09-15

    The accurate and precise measurement of brain volumes in young children is important for early identification of children with reduced brain volumes and an increased risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. Brain volumes can be measured from cerebral MRI (cMRI), but most neuroimaging tools used for cerebral segmentation and volumetry were developed for use in adults and have not been validated in infants or young children. Here, we investigate the feasibility and accuracy of three automated software methods (i.e., SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer) for brain volumetry in young children and compare the measures with corresponding volumes obtained using the Cavalieri method of modern design stereology. Cerebral MRI data were collected from 21 children with a complex congenital heart disease (CHD) before Fontan procedure, at a median age of 27 months (range 20.9-42.4 months). Data were segmented with SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer, and total intracranial volume (ICV) and total brain volume (TBV) were compared with corresponding measures obtained using the Cavalieri method. Agreement between the estimated brain volumes (ICV and TBV) relative to the gold standard stereological volumes was strongest for FreeSurfer (p < 0.001) and moderate for SPM segment (ICV p = 0.05; TBV p = 0.006). No significant association was evident between ICV and TBV obtained using SPM NewSegment and FSL FAST and the corresponding stereological volumes. FreeSurfer provides an accurate method for measuring brain volumes in young children, even in the presence of structural brain abnormalities. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of automated brain volumetry methods with stereology in children aged 2 to 3 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Kristina N.; Latal, Beatrice; Knirsch, Walter; Scheer, Ianina; Rhein, Michael von; Reich, Bettina; Bauer, Juergen; Gummel, Kerstin; Roberts, Neil; O'Gorman Tuura, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The accurate and precise measurement of brain volumes in young children is important for early identification of children with reduced brain volumes and an increased risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. Brain volumes can be measured from cerebral MRI (cMRI), but most neuroimaging tools used for cerebral segmentation and volumetry were developed for use in adults and have not been validated in infants or young children. Here, we investigate the feasibility and accuracy of three automated software methods (i.e., SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer) for brain volumetry in young children and compare the measures with corresponding volumes obtained using the Cavalieri method of modern design stereology. Cerebral MRI data were collected from 21 children with a complex congenital heart disease (CHD) before Fontan procedure, at a median age of 27 months (range 20.9-42.4 months). Data were segmented with SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer, and total intracranial volume (ICV) and total brain volume (TBV) were compared with corresponding measures obtained using the Cavalieri method. Agreement between the estimated brain volumes (ICV and TBV) relative to the gold standard stereological volumes was strongest for FreeSurfer (p < 0.001) and moderate for SPM segment (ICV p = 0.05; TBV p = 0.006). No significant association was evident between ICV and TBV obtained using SPM NewSegment and FSL FAST and the corresponding stereological volumes. FreeSurfer provides an accurate method for measuring brain volumes in young children, even in the presence of structural brain abnormalities. (orig.)

  4. A method to quantify visual information processing in children using eye tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.G. Kooiker (Marlou); J.J.M. Pel (Johan); S.P. Van Der Steen-Kant; J. van der Steen (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVisual problems that occur early in life can have major impact on a child's development. Without verbal communication and only based on observational methods, it is difficult to make a quantitative assessment of a child's visual problems. This limits accurate diagnostics in children

  5. Prevalence of family violence in adults and children : Estimates using the capture-recapture method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterlee, A.; Vink, R.M.; Smit, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reliable prevalence estimates of family violence in adults and children are difficult to obtain. Most are based on surveys or registration counts, whose research designs and methods are often questionable, making the results difficult to compare. This article presents an alternative

  6. L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea in obese children and adolescents, treatment methods and outcome of treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gillberg; Holm, Jens-Christian; Homøe, Preben

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and discuss the outcome of treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: In February 2016 Pub Med was searched using a predetermined string to retrieve all relevant articles. The search identified 518 publications. In total...... 10 and 38%. Positive airway pressure was effective for treating OSA, but the mean nightly use was needed...

  8. Supporting children to adhere to anti-retroviral therapy in urban Malawi: multi method insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiri Sam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring good adherence is critical to the success of anti-retroviral treatment (ART. However, in resource-poor contexts, where paediatric HIV burden is high there has been limited progress in developing or adapting tools to support adherence for HIV-infected children on ART and their caregivers. We conducted formative research to assess children's adherence and to explore the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of caregivers towards children's treatment. Methods All children starting ART between September 2002 and January 2004 (when ART was at cost in Malawi were observed for at least 6 months on ART. Their adherence was assessed quantitatively by asking caregivers of children about missed ART doses during the previous 3 days at monthly visits. Attendance to clinic appointments was also monitored. In June and July 2004, four focus group discussions, each with 6 to 8 caregivers, and 5 critical incident narratives were conducted to provide complementary contextual data on caregivers' experiences on the challenges to and opportunities of paediatric ART adherence. Results We followed prospectively 47 children who started ART between 8 months and 12 years of age over a median time on ART of 33 weeks (2–91 weeks. 72% (34/47 never missed a single dose according to caregivers' report and 82% (327/401 of clinic visits were either as scheduled, or before or within 1 week after the scheduled appointment. Caregivers were generally knowledgeable about ART and motivated to support children to adhere to treatment despite facing multiple challenges. Caregivers were particularly motivated by seeing children begin to get better; but faced challenges in meeting the costs of medicine and transport, waiting times in clinic, stock outs and remembering to support children to adhere in the face of multiple responsibilities. Conclusion In the era of rapid scale-up of treatment for children there is need for holistic support strategies that focus

  9. A simple and secure method to fix laparoscopic trocars in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K F; Tam, P K H; Li, M K W

    2006-04-01

    We introduce a simple method of fixing trocars to the abdominal wall in children. Before anchoring the trocar, a piece of Tegaderm polyurethrane adhesive (3M Healthcare, St. Paul, Minnesota) is attached to the trocar. A silk stitch is anchored to neighboring skin, and then transfixed over the shaft of the trocar through the adhesive. Both inward and outward movement of the trocar can be restrained. This method is simple, fast, secure, and can be applied to trocars of any size.

  10. Alternative method for predicting optimal insertion depth of the laryngeal tube in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J T; Jeon, S Y; Kim, C S; Kim, S D; Kim, H S

    2007-11-01

    Little information is available about the accuracy of the teeth mark on the laryngeal tube (LT) as a guide to correct placement in children. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate three methods for optimal insertion depth of the size (#) 2 tube in children weighing 12-25 kg. In 24 children, the LT #2 was consecutively inserted by three different methods: (A) until the thick teeth mark on the tube was aligned with the upper incisors, (B) until resistance was felt, and (C) by inserting to a depth, previously measured, of the curved distance between the cricoid cartilage and the upper incisor. In each case, the depth of insertion, the degree of effective ventilation, the presence of leakage, and the fibreoptic view were assessed. Insertion based on the teeth mark led to a shorter insertion depth and a greater incidence of inadequate ventilation compared with the other two methods. There was no difference in the adequacy of ventilation between methods B and C. The vocal cords were more easily identified with methods B (62.5%) and C (75%) than with method A (12.5%). Insertion of the LT #2 aligned with the teeth mark can result in a shallow insertion depth and inadequate ventilation. The measured distance from the cricoid cartilage to the upper incisor offers alternative guidance for correct LT insertion.

  11. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya T. Таgiltseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools; to find out the degree of methods efficiency of suggestopedia in shaping the musical experience of preschool children in various activities at music lessons. Methods. The theoretical foundations of the article are views and concepts of the Bulgarian researcher, teacher and psychologist, G. Lozanov; he had studied out the suggestopedia method for foreign language teaching, and the theory of meta-subject education on the basis of artistic-creative activity and appeal to masterpieces of art. Monitoring and surveillance over non-verbal behavior of children, surveys and discussions were used as practical methods. Results. Musical experience of the child is considered as the process of the development of musical memory. Many suggestopedia techniques developed by Bulgarian and Russian researchers were selected and tested; those that involve the use of involuntary memorization of music when performing creative tasks: free movement or plastic intonation, paint color schemes, music and organizational tasks related to the preparation and conduct music lessons. Three series of diagnostic tasks associated with memory, remembering and recognition of classical pieces of music unknown for preschoolers were worked out to test the effectiveness of these methods and its integration into the process of preschoolers’ music education. The conducted experiment has shown that methods of suggestopedia provide memory activation – children keep in memory classical music. Scientific novelty. The research demonstrates the application reasonability of suggestopedia methods used at foreign language teaching, music education of preschool children and juniors. It has been proved that involuntary memorizing of classical music by children listening to background

  12. Comparative evaluation of audio and audio - tactile methods to improve oral hygiene status of visually impaired school children

    OpenAIRE

    R Krishnakumar; Swarna Swathi Silla; Sugumaran K Durai; Mohan Govindarajan; Syed Shaheed Ahamed; Logeshwari Mathivanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visually impaired children are unable to maintain good oral hygiene, as their tactile abilities are often underdeveloped owing to their visual disturbances. Conventional brushing techniques are often poorly comprehended by these children and hence, it was decided to evaluate the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving the oral hygiene of these children. Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving oral h...

  13. Crystal and molecular structures of sixteen charge-assisted hydrogen bond-mediated diisopropylammonium salts from different carboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhihao; Hu, Kaikai; Jin, Shouwen; Ding, Aihua; Wang, Yining; Dong, Lingfeng; Gao, Xingjun; Wang, Daqi

    2017-10-01

    Cocrystallization of the commonly available organic amine, diisopropylamine, with a series of carboxylic acids gave a total of sixteen molecular salts with the compositions: diisopropylaminium 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanate [(Hdpa)+ · (mpa-), mpa- = 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoate] (1), diisopropylaminium 2-methyl-2-(naphthalen-2-yloxy)-propionate [(Hdpa)+ · (npa-), npa- = 2-methyl-2-(naphthalen-2-yloxy)-propionate] (2), diisopropylaminium indole-3-acetate [(Hdpa)+ · (iaa-), iaa- = indole-3-acetate] (3), diisopropylaminium 4-chlorophenoxyacetate [(Hdpa)+ · (cpa-), cpa- = 4-chlorophenoxyacetate] (4), diisopropylaminium 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate [(Hdpa)+ · (dcpa-), dcpa- = 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate] (5), diisopropylaminium 4-hydroxybenzoate [(Hdpa)+ · (hba-), hba- = 4-hydroxybenzoate] (6), diisopropylaminium 4-aminobenzoate [(Hdpa)+ · (aba-), aba- = 4-aminobenzoate] (7), tetra(diisopropylaminium) tetra(1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate) trihydrate [(Hdpa)44+ · (2-hnpa)44- · 3H2O, 2-hnpa = 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate] (8), diisopropylaminium 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoate [(Hdpa)+ · (3-hnpa-), 3-hnpa- = 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoate] (9), diisopropylaminium 5-bromosalicylate [(Hdpa)+ · (bsa-), bsa- = 5-bromosalicylate] (10), diisopropylaminium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate [(Hdpa)+ · (dna-), dna- = 3,5-dinitrobenzoate] (11), diisopropylaminium 3,5-dinitrosalicylate [(Hdpa)+ · (3,5-dns-), 3,5-dns- = 3,5-dinitrosalicylate] (12), tetra(diisopropylaminium) bis(m-phthalate) monohydrate [(Hdpa+)4 · (mpta2-)2 · H2O, mpta2- = m-phthalate] (13), bis(diisopropylaminium) dihydrogen 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylate [(Hdpa+)2 · (H2Bta2-), H2Bta2- = dihydrogen 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylate] (14), bis(diisopropylaminium) mucate [(Hdpa+)2 · (muc2-), muc2- = mucate] (15), and diisopropylaminium hydrogen 1,2-phenylenediacetate [(Hdpa) · (Hpda-), Hpda- = hydrogen 1,2-phenylenediacetate] (16). The sixteen salts have been characterised by XRD technique, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all the

  14. The Strathclyde Evaluation of Children's Active Travel (SE-CAT: study rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMinn David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school commute is a prime opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, active commuting has decreased over the past 40 years. Strategies that increase walking to school are therefore needed. Travelling Green (TG is a school-based active travel resource aimed at increasing children's walking to school. The resource consists of a curriculum-based program of lessons and goal setting activities. A previous study found that children who received the TG intervention increased self-reported distance travelled to school by active modes and reduced the distance travelled by inactive modes. This study was limited by self-reported outcome measures, a small sample, and no follow-up measures. A more robust evaluation of TG is required to address these limitations. This paper describes the rationale and methods for such an evaluation of Travelling Green, and describes the piloting of various active commuting measures in primary school children. Methods/Design Measures of active commuting were piloted in a sample of 26 children (aged 8-9 years over one school week. These measures were subsequently used in an 18-month quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effect of TG on commuting behaviour. Participants were 166 children (60% male aged 8-9 years from 5 primary schools. Two schools (n = 79 children received TG in September/October 2009. Three schools (n = 87 children acted as a comparison group, and subsequently received TG at a later date. Physical activity was measured using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Personal and environmental determinants of active commuting were measured via parent and child questionnaires, as were factors related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the construct of habit. Measures were taken pre- and post-intervention and at 5 and 12 months follow-up. Discussion The piloted protocol was practical and feasible and piloted measures were reliable and valid. All study data, including

  15. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing.

  16. NetWorking News - A Method for Engaging Children Actively In Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Peter; Dindler, Christian; Fritsch, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    For many years cooperative design was primarily concerned with the development of IT supported systems for professional users. However, the cooperative design approach can embrace other social practices such as children’s everyday life. At a methodological level there is no difference in designing...... the Networking News workshop, offers an opportunity to make first hand studies of children’s IT supported social activities in an informal classroom setting....... with adults or children. However there is a need for new methods to support communication and collaboration between designers and children. This article proposes a new method for understandings children’s appropriation of new technology in an interactive workshop setting. The method, which we call...

  17. Experiences of parents of children with special needs at school entry: a mixed method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqua, A; Janus, M

    2017-07-01

    The transition from pre-school to kindergarten can be complex for children who need special assistance due to mental or physical disabilities (children with 'special needs'). We used a convergent mixed method approach to explore parents' experiences with service provision as their children transitioned to school. Parents (including one grandparent) of 37 children aged 4 to 6 years completed measures assessing their perceptions of and satisfaction with services. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 10 parents to understand their experience with services. Post transition, parents reported lower perceptions of services and decreased satisfaction than pre-transition. The following themes emerged from the qualitative data: qualities of services and service providers, communication and information transfer, parent advocacy, uncertainty about services, and contrasts and contradictions in satisfaction. The qualitative findings indicate that parents were both satisfied and concerned with aspects of the post-transition service provision. While the quantitative results suggested that parents' experience with services became less positive after their children entered school, the qualitative findings illustrated the variability in parents' experiences and components of service provision that require improvements to facilitate a successful school entry. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Effect of Coordinated Teaching Method Practices on Some Motor Skills of 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkok, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the effects of Coordinated Teaching Method activities applied for 10 weeks on 6-year-old children, and to examine the effects of these activities on the development of some motor skills in children. Research Methods: The "Experimental Research Model with Pre-test and Post-test Control Group"…

  19. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... and its relationship to several other key Agency initiatives that are currently under development and... Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural Fields, and Pesticides with No Food Uses... for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers...

  20. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. V. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATION CANDIDATES IN THE FIRST SIXTEEN MONTHS FROM POLYNOMIAL MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Eric B. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Ragozzine, Darin; Holman, Matthew J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Barclay, Thomas; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Still, Martin; Tenenbaum, Peter [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Steffen, Jason H. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, P.O. Box 500, MS 127, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Batalha, Natalie M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gautier, Thomas N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ibrahim, Khadeejah A.; Uddin, Kamal [Orbital Sciences Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kjeldsen, Hans, E-mail: eford@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); and others

    2012-09-10

    Transit timing variations provide a powerful tool for confirming and characterizing transiting planets, as well as detecting non-transiting planets. We report the results of an updated transit timing variation (TTV) analysis for 1481 planet candidates based on transit times measured during the first sixteen months of Kepler observations. We present 39 strong TTV candidates based on long-term trends (2.8% of suitable data sets). We present another 136 weaker TTV candidates (9.8% of suitable data sets) based on the excess scatter of TTV measurements about a linear ephemeris. We anticipate that several of these planet candidates could be confirmed and perhaps characterized with more detailed TTV analyses using publicly available Kepler observations. For many others, Kepler has observed a long-term TTV trend, but an extended Kepler mission will be required to characterize the system via TTVs. We find that the occurrence rate of planet candidates that show TTVs is significantly increased ({approx}68%) for planet candidates transiting stars with multiple transiting planet candidates when compared to planet candidates transiting stars with a single transiting planet candidate.

  1. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children’s category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. PMID:27322371

  2. Cleaved caspase-3 in lung epithelium of children who died with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bem, Reinout A.; van der Loos, Chris M.; van Woensel, Job B. M.; Bos, Albert P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent of cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining in lung epithelial cells in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Observational study in sixteen children who died with acute respiratory distress syndrome and diffuse alveolar damage. SETTING: Pediatric

  3. The reliability of the Greulich-Pyle method in bone age determination among Australian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, Mark L.; Lamont, Anthony C.; Stillwell, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Bone age (BA) determination in skeletally immature children has been used as a measurement of growth for many years. The Greulich-Pyle (G&P) method of estimating BA is most commonly used. The standards used within this atlas were compiled from research conducted on normal white children in the United States, during the 1930s. The applicability of G&P beyond populations similar to its own can be variable. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of G&P in BA determination among Australian children. Hand X-rays of children under the age of 18, investigated for trauma, were recruited. Mean differences between BA, according to the standards of G&P, and chronological age (CA) were compared among all patients and subgroups according to age, gender and left versus right hand. Between January and December 2010, 654 children underwent hand X-rays, 406 of these were included (276 males and 130 females). Overall BA was 2.2 months less than CA (P-value=0.005). BA of males and females was estimated to be 1.5 months (P-value=0.142) and 3.7 months (P-value=0.002) less than their CA respectively. No statistically significant difference was identified with intra-observer (P-value=0.846) and inter-observer interpretations (P-value=0.102). Our results show that the standards of G&P are an accurate means of BA determination in Australian children.

  4. A gamma camera method for quantitation of split renal function in children followed for vesicoureteric reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminen, T.E.; Riihimaeki, E.J.; Taehti, E.E.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1978-01-01

    A method for quantitative estimation of split renal function using a computerized gamma camera system is described. 42 children and adolescents with existing or preexisting vesicouretric reflux and recurrent urinary tract infection were investigated. Total renal clearance of DTPA was calculated with a disapperarance curve derived from the largest extrarenal area in the field of view of a gamma camera with diverging collimator. Split renal function was estimated with the slopes of second phase renograms. The plasma disaapearance clearance of DTPA, calculated using one compartement model with two late blood samples, gave similar resusults with the clearance estimated from the body disappearance curves. The proportional planimetric renal parenchymal areas had good correlation with the split clearance estimated from renogram slopes. The method offers data on renal function and urinary tract dynamics which is very valuable in the follow-up of children with recurrent urinary tract infection and vesicoureteric reflux. (orig.) [de

  5. Alopecia areata in children : treatment with diphencyprone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M L; Hamstra, J J; Plinck, E P; Peereboom-Wynia, J D; Vuzevski, V D; Mulder, P G; Oranje, A P

    1996-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of diphencyprone (DPCP) treatment in a total of 26 children with alopecia areata (AA). Sixteen children had alopecia areata totalis (AAT) and 10 had alopecia areata localis (AAL). DPCP is an absolute contact sensitizer. Twenty-five children could be sensitized with a 2% DPCP

  6. Methods and Practices of Urban Filipino Parents in Promoting Mabuting Asal among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perlita E. de Leon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a portion of an ethnographic study conducted in an urbanizing community in Valenzuela City. The study aimed to investigate and discuss the concepts and practices that parents have in promoting mabuting asal or positive social behavior among their preschool children. The participantswere 15 two-parent families with at least two children, one of whom was between ages 3 and 6 years. Seven of the participating families were dualearner while the rest were single-earner. They were visited at home for at leastan hour twice a week for a period of six months. Afterwards, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the parents in each family. Results suggested that the methods that parents use to promote mabuting asal among the young ones can be categorized into three – physical, verbal, and cognitivetypes. Mothers in both income groups used the physical and cognitive types, although single-earner families would use physical methods more often than cognitive ones. On the other hand, fathers in both income groups would useverbal methods more, possibly as a result of their compensating behavior for their own experiences of harsh and coercive upbringing as young children. The study recommends comprehensive, integrative, sensitive, and flexible child-rearing seminars for parents as well as health and day care workers in the community. In terms of methodology, conducting the research in several localities, across different social groups, with a larger sample could provideanother perspective to the relationships between variables utilized in this research.

  7. Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yam Philippa S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. Methods/design The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry; body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. Discussion The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical

  8. 13C mixed triglyceride breath test: a noninvasive method to assess lipase activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk-van Aalst, K; Van Den Driessche, M; van Der Schoor, S; Schiffelers, S; van't Westeinde, T; Ghoos, Y; Veereman-Wauters, G

    2001-05-01

    Results from the 13C mixed triglyceride (MTG) breath test correlate with duodenal lipase activity in adults. This noninvasive test is a potential screening and diagnostic tool for children with fat malabsorption. The aim of this study was to adapt the methodology of the MTG breath test to study test meals and sampling methods and to define normal values for healthy children of all age groups; premature and full-term infants have similar pancreatic lipase deficiencies. After parental consent was obtained, 12 premature infants ( 2 kg), 12 full-term infants (1-6 months old), 20 children (3-10 years old), and 20 teenagers (11-17 years old) were tested. All children were thriving well, had no gastrointestinal or respiratory problems, and had not received any medication that contained natural 13C. For the premature and full-term infants, a formula was prepared that had a low and stable natural 13C content mixed with 100 mg 13C-labeled MTG (1,3-distearyl, 2-[13C-carboxyl] octanoyl glycerol) and 1 g polyethylene-glycol 3350. The best accepted test meal for children over 3 years old was a slice of white bread with 5 g butter and 15 g chocolate paste, mixed with 250 mg 13C-labeled MTG, and a glass of 100 mL whole-fat milk. Children over 3 years old were able to blow through a straw in a vacutainer for collecting the breath samples. In children under 3 years old, expired air was collected by aspirating breath via a nasal prong. Carbon dioxide production was calculated according to weight, age, and sex. For healthy pediatric control participants, the mean values for cumulative excretion of 13CO2 as a percentage of the administered dose after 6 hours were 23.9 +/- 5.2% in premature infants, 31.9 +/- 7.7% in full-term infants, 32.5 +/- 5.3% in children, and 28.0 +/- 5.4% in teenagers. The mean value for healthy adults is 35.6% with a lower reference limit of 22.8%. Age-specific test meals and breath-sampling techniques for the MTG breath test were defined. The mean values for

  9. Heavy metals assessment in the hair of street children by INAA method, Isfahan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadijeh Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee; Gharipour, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The street children phenomenon is an increasing problem in most cities of the world including Isfahan, which is a fast growing town. The number of street children with the growth of the town is increased. It is therefore important to have baseline data on their health problems. Hair element analysis remains an important tool in the nutritional and environmental assessment of them. A measurement of the elemental concentration in recently-grown hair provides an integrated view of the element status in the follicular cells and their blood supply, unaffected by short term fluctuations in the nutrient intake of the subject. This study aimed to assess heavy metals concentrations in the hair of street children in Isfahan using neutron activation analysis method. The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mn, and Zn) of 17 Iranian street children (Isfahan) was examined. Data analysis found that different profiles of the concentrations of Cr, Hg, Mn, and Zn were seen in each sample. These results were discussed with reference to show of environmental effects. (author)

  10. Dynamical Methods for Evaluating the Time-Dependent Unfolding of Social Coordination in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eFitzpatrick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD suffer from numerous impairments in social interaction that affect both their mental and bodily coordination with others. We explored here whether interpersonal motor coordination may be an important key for understanding the profound social problems of children with ASD. We employed a set of experimental techniques to evaluate not only traditional cognitive measures of social competence but also the dynamical structure of social coordination by using dynamical measures of social motor coordination and analyzing the time series records of behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that children with ASD were equivalent to typically developing children on many social performance outcome measures. However, significant relationships were found between cognitive social measures (e.g., intentionality and dynamical social motor measures. In addition, we found that more perceptually-based measures of social coordination were not associated with social motor coordination. These findings suggest that social coordination may not be a unitary construct and point to the promise of this multi-method and process-oriented approach to analyzing social coordination as an important pathway for understanding ASD-specific social deficits.

  11. [METHOD FOR DETERMINING EROSIVE LESIONS OF THE GASTRIC MUCOUSA IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE ARTHRITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listopadova, A P; Novikova, V P; Melnikova, I U; Petrovskiy, A N; Slizovskiy, N V

    2015-01-01

    To detect the clinical diagnostic criteria for non-invasive diagnosis of erosive gastritis in children with juvenile arthritis have been studied the 92 children aged 9 to 16 years (mean age-13,9 ± 2,3 years) with verified diagnosis of juvenile arthritis, of whom 10 had erosive gastritis (group 1) and 82 without erosions (group 2). A comparison of the groups on 23 grounds by analysis of contingency tables and the subsequent discriminant analysis, has developed a new non-invasive method for determining the erosive lesions of the mucous membrane of the stomach in children with juvenile arthritis, including a score of history, complaints and the results of laboratory studies the level of the G-17, pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and the ratio of pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II, the presence of autoantibodies to the H+, K+/ATPase of the parietal cells of the stomach, the test for occult blood "Colon View Hb and Hb/Hp". Developed a diagnostic table, including 11 features with scores each. The total score 27 or higher allows a high degree of probability to determine the erosive lesions of the gastric mucosa in children with juvenile arthritis.

  12. Testing of leachability and persistence of sixteen pesticides in three agricultural soils of a semiarid Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, I.; Vela, N.; Fenoll, J.; Navarro, G.; Pérez-Lucas, G.; Navarro, S.

    2015-07-01

    Leaching, the movement of water and chemicals into deeper soil layers and groundwater is a subject of worldwide interest because a high percentage of drinking water is extracted from groundwater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential leaching and persistence of sixteen pesticides (one fungicide, three nematicides/insecticides, and twelve herbicides) for three Mediterranean agricultural soils with similar texture (clay loam) but different organic matter content (1.2-3.1%). Adsorption was studied in batch experiments and leaching was tested using disturbed soil columns (40 cm length × 4 cm i.d.). Degradation studies were carried out during 120 days under laboratory conditions. Mobility experiments showed that pesticides can be grouped according to their potential leaching. Thus, pesticides showing medium leachability were included in group 1 (referred as G1) while those with high leachability were termed as G2. The differences observed in the leachability can be attributed to the different organic carbon (OC) content in the soils (0.7-1.8%). Values of log KOC were higher in the order: soil C > soil B > soil A, which agrees with the OC content in each soil. The calculated half-lives ranged from 4.2 days for carbofuran in soil A to 330 days for prometon in soil C. As a general rule, when higher OC content in the soil the greater persistence of the pesticide was observed as a consequence of the increased adsorption. The first order kinetics model satisfactorily explains the disappearance of the studied pesticides in the soil. (Author)

  13. Revision of the Agrilus adonis species-group (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilini with description of sixteen new species from southeastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Jendek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The newly defined Agrilus adonis species-group comprising thirty taxa from Southeast Asia is revised based on the examination of type specimens. The taxonomic concept and distribution of all known taxa is reexamined for the first time since they were described. The complete commented bibliographic data are given for each name. The key to species is provided and complemented with illustration of habitus and genitalia. Images of all primary types are also included. The distribution of selected species is shown on maps. The following sixteen new species are described: Agrilus acrobeles sp. nov.; A. bunsu sp. nov.; A. cechovskyi sp. nov.; A. curiosus sp. nov.; A. garo sp. nov.; A. iban sp. nov.; A. jakli sp. nov.; A. kuchingi sp. nov.; A. lembik sp. nov.; A. meratus sp. nov.; A. orangulu sp. nov.; A. serratus sp. nov.; A. strbai sp. nov.; A. upsilon sp. nov.; A. vir sp. nov. and A. xiphos sp. nov.. The name emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963 is removed from the synonymy of Agrilus perlisensis Fisher 1936 and revalidated as the name for species A. emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963. Nine new synonyms are proposed: Agrilus adonis Deyrolle, 1864 (= A. perlisensis Fisher, 1936 syn. nov. = A. testor Kerremnas, 1900 syn. nov.; A. emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963 (= A. deuvei Baudon, 1965 syn. nov. = A. souvannavongsi Baudon, 1968 syn. nov.; A. famulus Kerremans, 1900 (= A. convergens Fisher, 1930 syn. nov. = A. japanensis Obenberger, 1935 syn. nov.; A. insularis Deyrolle, 1864 (= A. nigrocyaneus Deyrolle, 1864 syn. nov. = A. falsulus Obenberger, 1924 syn. nov.; A. malasicus Fisher, 1930 (=A. bettotanus Fisher, 1930 syn. nov.. Some of those names were already treated as invalid ones but in the synonymy of different species. Their taxonomic history is recognizable from commented references cited at each name.

  14. Methacholine challenge test: Comparison of tidal breathing and dosimeter methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazi, Ahlam; Lands, Larry C; Zielinski, David

    2018-02-01

    Methacholine Challenge Test (MCT) is used to confirm, assess the severity and/or rule out asthma. Two MCT methods are described as equivalent by the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the tidal breathing and the dosimeter methods. However, the majority of adult studies suggest that individuals with asthma do not react at the same PC 20 between the two methods. Additionally, the nebulizers used are no longer available and studies suggest current nebulizers are not equivalent to these. Our study investigates the difference in positive MCT tests between three methods in a pediatric population. A retrospective, chart review of all MCT performed with spirometry at the Montreal Children's Hospital from January 2006 to March 2016. A comparison of the percentage positive MCT tests with three methods, tidal breathing, APS dosimeter and dose adjusted DA-dosimeter, was performed at different cutoff points up to 8 mg/mL. A total of 747 subjects performed the tidal breathing method, 920 subjects the APS dosimeter method, and 200 subjects the DA-dosimeter method. At a PC 20 cutoff ≤4 mg/mL, the percentage positive MCT was significantly higher using the tidal breathing method (76.3%) compared to the APS dosimeter (45.1%) and DA-dosimeter (65%) methods (P < 0.0001). The choice of nebulizer and technique significantly impacts the rate of positivity when using MCT to diagnose and assess asthma. Lack of direct comparison of techniques within the same individuals and clinical assessment should be addressed in future studies to standardize MCT methodology in children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-12-26

    Although the sensitivity of Wet mount technique is questionable, it is the major diagnostic technique for routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitosis in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2013. Single stool sample was processed for direct, Formol ether concentration (FEC) and Kato Katz methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of diagnostic tests were calculated in terms of the "Gold" standard method (the combined result of the three methods altogether). A total of 422 school age children were participated in this study. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high (74.6%) with Kato Katz technique. The sensitivity of Wet mount, FEC and Kato Katz tests against the Gold standard test was 48.9, 63.1 and 93.7%, respectively. Kato Katz technique revealed a better NPV 80.4 (80.1-80.6) as compared to the Wet mount (33.7%) and FEC techniques (41.3%). In this study, the Kato Katz technique outperformed the other two methods but the true values for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic values are not known. Moreover, it is labor intensive and not easily accessible. Hence, it is preferable to use FEC technique to complement the Wet mount test.

  16. Psycho-Rehabilitation Method (Dohsa-Hou and Quality of Life in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Abolfazl Poursadoughi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of psycho-rehabilitation (Dohsa-hou on improving the quality of life of 4-12 year old children with cerebral palsy. Methods: The present research is a semi-experimental study with a pre-test - post-test design, follow-up and control group. The statistical population fully consists of children with cerebral palsy in Yazd. 30 male patients were selected using a convenience sampling method and were divided into the experiment and control groups. Before beginning treatment, parents filled out the quality of life questionnaire and at the end of the treatment period in the post-test and follow-up phase the same assessment was done. The treatment period in the experiment group was 12 sessions (three sessions per week and the follow-up phase was done 50 days after the test. Results: The results obtained from the analysis of covariance showed that psychological rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy improves their quality of life and that this difference was persistent in the follow-up phase (P<0.001. Discussion: Since the rate of cerebral palsy is rising and the symptoms are wide, patients may have an increased need for rehabilitation in the future. Dohsa-hou as a psychological rehabilitation approach is an effective treatment to improve the quality of life of these patients

  17. Evaluation of segmental body composition by gender in obese children using bioelectric impedance analysis method

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    İhsan Çetin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate segmental body composition of children diagnosed with obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis method in terms of different gender. Methods: 48 children, aged between 6-15 years, 21 of whom were boys while 27 were girls, diagnosed with obesity in Erciyes University Medical Faculty Department of Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic were included in our study from April to June in 2011. Those over 95 percentile were defined as obese group. Tanita BC-418 device was used to analyze the body composition. Results: As a result of bioelectrical impedance analysis, lean body mass and body muscle mass were found to be statistically significantly higher in obese girls compared with obese boys. However, lean mass of the left arm, left leg muscle mass and basal metabolic rate were found to be statistically significantly lower in obese girls compared with obese boys. Conclusion: Consequently, it may be suggest that segmental analysis, where gender differences are taken into account, can provide proper exercise pattern and healthy way of weight loss in children for prevention of obesity and associated diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetics and cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Perceptions of Weight and Health Practices in Hispanic Children: A Mixed-Methods Study

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    Byron Alexander Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This study sought to explore the relationship between perceptions of weight and health beliefs and practices in a Hispanic population. Methods. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach was used with semistructured interviews conducted with parent-child (2–5 years old dyads in a primarily Hispanic, low-income population. Parents were queried on their perceptions of their child’s health, health practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze participants’ discussion of health practices and behaviors. Results. Forty parent-child dyads completed the interview. Most (58% of the parents of overweight and obese children misclassified their child’s weight status. The qualitative analysis showed that accurate perception of weight was associated with internal motivation and more concrete ideas of what healthy meant for their child. Conclusions. The qualitative data suggest there may be populations at different stages of readiness for change among parents of overweight and obese children, incorporating this understanding should be considered for interventions.

  19. Astigmatism and Amblyopia among Native American Children (AANAC): design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J M; Dobson, V M; Harvey, E M; Sherrill, D L

    2000-09-01

    The overall goal of the AANAC study is to improve detection of astigmatism and prevention of amblyopia in populations with a high prevalence of astigmatism. To meet this goal, the study will evaluate four methods of screening for astigmatism in preschool children and will assess both the short-term and long-term benefits of early correction of astigmatism in improving acuity and preventing amblyopia. This paper presents an overview of the design and methodology of the AANAC study. Subjects are members of the Tohono O'Odham Nation, a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Preschool-age children who attend Head Start are screened with four tools: the Marco Nidek KM-500 autokeratometer, the MTI photoscreener, the Nikon Retinomax K-Plus autorefractor, and the Lea Symbols acuity chart. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of significant astigmatism, as measured by a technique that uses both cycloplegic retinoscopy and cycloplegic autorefraction, is determined for each of the four screening tools. Presence of amblyopia is evaluated by measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings. Spectacles are provided to all 3-year-old children with > or =2.00 diopters (D) of astigmatism and all 4- and 5-year-old children with > or =1.50 D of astigmatism. Persistence of amblyopia after glasses wearing is evaluated by follow-up measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings, conducted 2-5 months after glasses are prescribed. Long-term effectiveness of early screening and glasses prescription is evaluated through measurement of recognition acuity in two groups of first-grade children: one group who participated in the Head Start program before the intensive vision screening program was initiated, and a second group who participated in the study's Head Start vision screening program.

  20. Reproducibility of Tactile Assessments for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Megan Louise; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review identified tactile assessments used in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but their reproducibility is unknown. Sixteen children with unilateral CP and 31 typically developing children (TDC) were assessed 2-4 weeks apart. Test-retest percent agreements within one point for children with unilateral CP (and TDC) were…

  1. How Do Children with ADHD (Mis)Manage Their Real-Life Dyadic Friendships? A Multi-Method Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Sebastien; Schneider, Barry H.; Lee, Matthew D.; Maisonneuve, Marie-France; Kuehn, Sally M.; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This multimethod study provides detailed information about the friendships of 87 children (76% boys) with ADHD and 46 comparison children aged 7-13 years. The methods included parent and teacher ratings, self-report measures and direct observation of friends' dyadic behaviors in three structured analogue tasks. Results indicated that, in contrast…

  2. Methods of, and Reasons for, Emotional Expression and Control in Children with Internalizing, Externalizing, and Somatic Problems in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Martini, Tanya S.; Raval, Pratiksha H.

    2010-01-01

    Although cross-cultural research concerning children's emotions is growing, few studies have examined emotion dysregulation in culturally diverse populations. This study compared 6- to 8-year-old children's reported methods of expressing and controlling anger, sadness, and physical pain, and their justifications for doing so across four groups in…

  3. Estimating core temperature in infants and children after cardiac surgery: a comparison of six methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxton, Fiona J C; Justin, Linda; Gillies, Donna

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring temperature in critically ill children is an important component of care, yet the accuracy of methods is often questioned. Temperature measured in the pulmonary artery is considered the 'gold standard', but this route is unsuitable for the majority of patients. An accurate, reliable and less invasive method is, however, yet to be established in paediatric intensive care work. To determine which site most closely reflects core temperature in babies and children following cardiac surgery, by comparing pulmonary artery temperature to the temperature measured at rectal, bladder, nasopharyngeal, axillary and tympanic sites. A convenience sample of 19 postoperative cardiac patients was studied. Temperature was recorded as a continuous measurement from pulmonary artery, rectal, nasopharyngeal and bladder sites. Axillary and tympanic temperatures were recorded at 30 minute intervals for 6 1/2 hours postoperatively. The small sample size of 19 infants and children limits the generalizability of the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated no significant difference between pulmonary artery and bladder temperatures, and pulmonary artery and nasopharyngeal temperatures. Intraclass correlation showed that agreement was greatest between pulmonary artery temperature and temperature measured by bladder catheter. There was a significant difference between pulmonary artery temperature and temperature measured at rectal, tympanic and pulmonary artery and axillary sites. Repeated measures analysis showed a significant lag between pulmonary artery and rectal temperature of between 0 and 150 minutes after the 6-hour measurement period. In this study, bladder temperature was shown to be the best estimate of pulmonary artery temperature, closely followed by the temperature measured by nasopharyngeal probe. The results support the use of bladder or nasopharyngeal catheters to monitor temperature in critically ill children after cardiac surgery.

  4. Evaluating health worker performance in Benin using the simulated client method with real children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Alexander K; Onikpo, Faustin; Lama, Marcel; Deming, Michael S

    2012-10-08

    The simulated client (SC) method for evaluating health worker performance utilizes surveyors who pose as patients to make surreptitious observations during consultations. Compared to conspicuous observation (CO) by surveyors, which is commonly done in developing countries, SC data better reflect usual health worker practices. This information is important because CO can cause performance to be better than usual. Despite this advantage of SCs, the method's full potential has not been realized for evaluating performance for pediatric illnesses because real children have not been utilized as SCs. Previous SC studies used scenarios of ill children that were not actually brought to health workers. During a trial that evaluated a quality improvement intervention in Benin (the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness [IMCI] strategy), we conducted an SC survey with adult caretakers as surveyors and real children to evaluate the feasibility of this approach and used the results to assess the validity of CO. We conducted an SC survey and a CO survey (one right after the other) of health workers in the same 55 health facilities. A detailed description of the SC survey process was produced. Results of the two surveys were compared for 27 performance indicators using logistic regression modeling. SC and CO surveyors observed 54 and 185 consultations, respectively. No serious problems occurred during the SC survey. Performance levels measured by CO were moderately higher than those measured by SCs (median CO - SC difference = 16.4 percentage-points). Survey differences were sometimes much greater for IMCI-trained health workers (median difference = 29.7 percentage-points) than for workers without IMCI training (median difference = 3.1 percentage-points). SC surveys can be done safely with real children if appropriate precautions are taken. CO can introduce moderately large positive biases, and these biases might be greater for health workers exposed to quality improvement

  5. Evaluating health worker performance in Benin using the simulated client method with real children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Alexander K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The simulated client (SC method for evaluating health worker performance utilizes surveyors who pose as patients to make surreptitious observations during consultations. Compared to conspicuous observation (CO by surveyors, which is commonly done in developing countries, SC data better reflect usual health worker practices. This information is important because CO can cause performance to be better than usual. Despite this advantage of SCs, the method’s full potential has not been realized for evaluating performance for pediatric illnesses because real children have not been utilized as SCs. Previous SC studies used scenarios of ill children that were not actually brought to health workers. During a trial that evaluated a quality improvement intervention in Benin (the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness [IMCI] strategy, we conducted an SC survey with adult caretakers as surveyors and real children to evaluate the feasibility of this approach and used the results to assess the validity of CO. Methods We conducted an SC survey and a CO survey (one right after the other of health workers in the same 55 health facilities. A detailed description of the SC survey process was produced. Results of the two surveys were compared for 27 performance indicators using logistic regression modeling. Results SC and CO surveyors observed 54 and 185 consultations, respectively. No serious problems occurred during the SC survey. Performance levels measured by CO were moderately higher than those measured by SCs (median CO – SC difference = 16.4 percentage-points. Survey differences were sometimes much greater for IMCI-trained health workers (median difference = 29.7 percentage-points than for workers without IMCI training (median difference = 3.1 percentage-points. Conclusion SC surveys can be done safely with real children if appropriate precautions are taken. CO can introduce moderately large positive biases, and these biases might

  6. [Diagnosis of insulin resistance by indirect methods in obese school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Nerkis; de Szarvas, Sobeida Barbella; Mathison, Yaira; Hadad, Erika; González, Dora; Hernández, Ana; Guevara, Harold

    2013-06-01

    Obesity leads to a deterioration of glucose tolerance and the action of insulin. The purpose of this study was to determine insulin resistance (IR) by indirect methods, and its correlation with clinical, anthropometric and biochemical variables in obese normoglycemic school children. This was a descriptive-correlational study of 72 school prepubescent children, who attended the ambulatory "El Concejo" of the University of Carabobo (UC) and at the Gastroenterology and Pediatric Nutrition service of the city hospital "Enrique Tejera" (CHET), in Valencia, Venezuela, between January-April 2011. exogenous obesity. We assessed personal and family history, presence of Acanthosis Nigricans and nutritional and biochemical status. We found a higher percentage of IR, through the use of the QUICKI method (66.7%), followed by the HOMA (55.6%) and basal insulin (45.9%). The mean (chi) indexes of body mass and waist circumference were significantly greater (p method detected significant differences (p methods. In conclusion, the evaluated techniques, QUICKI, HOMA and basal insulin indexes, were most effective for detecting the IR.

  7. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: Comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jeong Rye; Lee, Young Seok; Yu, Jee Suk

    2015-01-01

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  8. Comparing a Perceptual and an Automated Vision-Based Method for Lie Detection in Younger Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serras Pereira, Mariana; Cozijn, Reinier; Postma, Eric; Shahid, Suleman; Swerts, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how easily it can be detected whether a child is being truthful or not in a game situation, and it explores the cue validity of bodily movements for such type of classification. To achieve this, we introduce an innovative methodology - the combination of perception studies (in which eye-tracking technology is being used) and automated movement analysis. Film fragments from truthful and deceptive children were shown to human judges who were given the task to decide whether the recorded child was being truthful or not. Results reveal that judges are able to accurately distinguish truthful clips from lying clips in both perception studies. Even though the automated movement analysis for overall and specific body regions did not yield significant results between the experimental conditions, we did find a positive correlation between the amount of movement in a child and the perception of lies, i.e., the more movement the children exhibited during a clip, the higher the chance that the clip was perceived as a lie. The eye-tracking study revealed that, even when there is movement happening in different body regions, judges tend to focus their attention mainly on the face region. This is the first study that compares a perceptual and an automated method for the detection of deceptive behavior in children whose data have been elicited through an ecologically valid paradigm.

  9. [Methods of a posteriori identification of food patterns in Brazilian children: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carolina Abreu de; Fonsêca, Poliana Cristina de Almeida; Nobre, Luciana Neri; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide guidance for identifying dietary patterns using the a posteriori approach, and analyze the methodological aspects of the studies conducted in Brazil that identified the dietary patterns of children. Articles were selected from the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences, Scientific Electronic Library Online and Pubmed databases. The key words were: Dietary pattern; Food pattern; Principal Components Analysis; Factor analysis; Cluster analysis; Reduced rank regression. We included studies that identified dietary patterns of children using the a posteriori approach. Seven studies published between 2007 and 2014 were selected, six of which were cross-sectional and one cohort, Five studies used the food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment; one used a 24-hour dietary recall and the other a food list. The method of exploratory approach used in most publications was principal components factor analysis, followed by cluster analysis. The sample size of the studies ranged from 232 to 4231, the values of the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test from 0.524 to 0.873, and Cronbach's alpha from 0.51 to 0.69. Few Brazilian studies identified dietary patterns of children using the a posteriori approach and principal components factor analysis was the technique most used.

  10. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  11. A method of assessing the resilience of whole communities of children: An example from rural Australia

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    Dunstan Debra A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children living in socioeconomic disadvantage are at risk of poor mental health outcomes. In order to focus and evaluate population health programs to facilitate children’s resilience, it is important to accurately assess baseline levels of functioning. With this end in mind, the aim of this study was to test the utility of 1 a voluntary random sampling method and 2 quantitative measures of adaptation (with national normative data for assessing the resilience of children in an identified community. Method This cross-sectional study utilized a sample of participants (N = 309, including parents (n = 169, teachers (n = 20 and children (n = 170; age range = 5-16 years, recruited from the schools in Tenterfield; a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in New South Wales, Australia. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; including parent, teacher and youth versions was used to measure psychological well-being and pro-social functioning, and NAPLAN results (individual children’s and whole school’s performance in literacy and numeracy were used to measure level of academic achievement. Results The community’s disadvantage was evident in the whole school NAPLAN performance but not in the sample’s NAPLAN or SDQ results. The teacher SDQ ratings appeared to be more reliable than parent’s ratings. The voluntary random sampling method (requiring parental consent led to sampling bias. Conclusions The key indicators of resilience - psychological well-being, pro-social functioning and academic achievement – can be measured in whole communities using the teacher version of the SDQ and whole school results on a national test of literacy and numeracy (e.g., Australia’s NAPLAN. A voluntary random sample (dependent upon parental consent appears to have limited value due to the likelihood of sampling bias.

  12. Comparison of different screening methods for blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents

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    Felipe Alves Mourato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare different methods of screening for blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents. METHOD: A database with 17,083 medical records of patients from a pediatric cardiology clinic was used. After analyzing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5,650 were selected. These were divided into two age groups: between 5 and 13 years and between 13 and 18 years. The blood pressure measurement was classified as normal, pre-hypertensive, or hypertensive, consistent with recent guidelines and the selected screening methods. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were then calculated according to gender and age range. RESULTS: The formulas proposed by Somu and Ardissino's table showed low sensitivity in identifying pre-hypertension in all age groups, whereas the table proposed by Kaelber showed the best results. The ratio between blood pressure and height showed low specificity in the younger age group, but showed good performance in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Screening tools used for the assessment of blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents may be useful to decrease the current rate of underdiagnosis of this condition. The table proposed by Kaelber showed the best results; however, the ratio between BP and height demonstrated specific advantages, as it does not require tables.

  13. Cost effectiveness of recruitment methods in an obesity prevention trial for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jodie L; Fuerch, Janene H; Winiewicz, Dana D; Salvy, Sarah J; Roemmich, James N; Epstein, Leonard H

    2007-06-01

    Recruitment of participants for clinical trials requires considerable effort and cost. There is no research on the cost effectiveness of recruitment methods for an obesity prevention trial of young children. This study determined the cost effectiveness of recruiting 70 families with a child aged 4 to 7 (5.9+/-1.3) years in Western New York from February 2003 to November 2004, for a 2-year randomized obesity prevention trial to reduce television watching in the home. Of the 70 randomized families, 65.7% (n=46) were obtained through direct mailings, 24.3% (n=17) were acquired through newspaper advertisements, 7.1% (n=5) from other sources (e.g., word of mouth), and 2.9% (n=2) through posters and brochures. Costs of each recruitment method were computed by adding the cost of materials, staff time, and media expenses. Cost effectiveness (money spent per randomized participant) was US $0 for other sources, US $227.76 for direct mailing, US $546.95 for newspaper ads, and US $3,020.84 for posters and brochures. Of the methods with associated costs, direct mailing was the most cost effective in recruiting families with young children, which supports the growing literature of the effectiveness of direct mailing.

  14. Method of surgical renewal of continuity of pelvic ring in children with extrophy of bladder

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    O. V. Shchekin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Section of back and interbone sacroiliac ligaments from both sides, at extrophy of bladder, instead of osteotomу of iliac bones allows easily to liquidate large diastasis between pubic bones, to carry out them osteosintez, to normalize the location of hip joints and enables to carry out plastic of bladder. Thus there is no bleeding, as ligament have not blood vessels, and there is no cutting or damage of ligatures in the place of osteosinthesis of pubic bones. 3 children aged from 3 weeks to 1 year are operated according to this method. Complications were not present.

  15. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-02-26

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner.

  16. Children as ethnobotanists: methods and local impact of a participatory research project with children on wild plant gathering in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Susanne; Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2016-10-10

    Ethically sound research in applied ethnobiology should benefit local communities by giving them full access to research processes and results. Participatory research may ensure such access, but there has been little discussion on methodological details of participatory approaches in ethnobiological research. This paper presents and discusses the research processes and methods developed in the course of a three-year research project on wild plant gathering, the involvement of children as co-researchers and the project's indications for local impact. Research was conducted in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria, between 2008 and 2010 in four research phases. In phase 1, 36 freelist interviews with local people and participant observation was conducted. In phase 2 school workshops were held in 14 primary school classes and their 189 children interviewed 506 family members with structured questionnaires. In phase 3, 27 children and two researchers co-produced participatory videos. In phase 4 indications for the impact of the project were investigated with questionnaires from ten children and with participant observation. Children participated in various ways in the research process and the scientific output and local impact of the project was linked to the phases, degrees and methods of children's involvement. Children were increasingly involved in the project, from non-participation to decision-making. Scientific output was generated from participatory and non-participatory activities whereas local impact - on personal, familial, communal and institutional levels - was mainly generated through the participatory involvement of children as interviewers and as co-producers of videos. Creating scientific outputs from participatory video is little developed in ethnobiology, whereas bearing potential. As ethnobotanists and ethnobiologists, if we are truly concerned about the impact and benefits of our research processes and results to local communities, the

  17. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; O'Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Comparison of different screening methods for blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Felipe Alves; Lima Filho, José Luiz; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2015-01-01

    To compare different methods of screening for blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents. A database with 17,083 medical records of patients from a pediatric cardiology clinic was used. After analyzing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5,650 were selected. These were divided into two age groups: between 5 and 13 years and between 13 and 18 years. The blood pressure measurement was classified as normal, pre-hypertensive, or hypertensive, consistent with recent guidelines and the selected screening methods. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were then calculated according to gender and age range. The formulas proposed by Somu and Ardissino's table showed low sensitivity in identifying pre-hypertension in all age groups, whereas the table proposed by Kaelber showed the best results. The ratio between blood pressure and height showed low specificity in the younger age group, but showed good performance in adolescents. Screening tools used for the assessment of blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents may be useful to decrease the current rate of underdiagnosis of this condition. The table proposed by Kaelber showed the best results; however, the ratio between BP and height demonstrated specific advantages, as it does not require tables. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  20. Infants and young children modeling method for numerical dosimetry studies: application to plane wave exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahdouh, S; Wiart, J; Bloch, I; Varsier, N; Nunez Ochoa, M A; Peyman, A

    2016-01-01

    Numerical dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the human body. This paper proposes a novel method for building 3D heterogeneous young children models combining results obtained from a semi-automatic multi-organ segmentation algorithm and an anatomy deformation method. The data consist of 3D magnetic resonance images, which are first segmented to obtain a set of initial tissues. A deformation procedure guided by the segmentation results is then developed in order to obtain five young children models ranging from the age of 5 to 37 months. By constraining the deformation of an older child model toward a younger one using segmentation results, we assure the anatomical realism of the models. Using the proposed framework, five models, containing thirteen tissues, are built. Three of these models are used in a prospective dosimetry study to analyze young child exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The results lean to show the existence of a relationship between age and whole body exposure. The results also highlight the necessity to specifically study and develop measurements of child tissues dielectric properties. (paper)

  1. Asthma management simulation for children: translating theory, methods, and strategies to effect behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Bartholomew, L Kay; Gold, Robert S; Pierrel, Elaine; Parcel, Guy S; Sockrider, Marianna M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Fernandez, Maria E; Berlin, Nina J; Abramson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Translating behavioral theories, models, and strategies to guide the development and structure of computer-based health applications is well recognized, although a continued challenge for program developers. A stepped approach to translate behavioral theory in the design of simulations to teach chronic disease management to children is described. This includes the translation steps to: 1) define target behaviors and their determinants, 2) identify theoretical methods to optimize behavioral change, and 3) choose educational strategies to effectively apply these methods and combine these into a cohesive computer-based simulation for health education. Asthma is used to exemplify a chronic health management problem and a computer-based asthma management simulation (Watch, Discover, Think and Act) that has been evaluated and shown to effect asthma self-management in children is used to exemplify the application of theory to practice. Impact and outcome evaluation studies have indicated the effectiveness of these steps in providing increased rigor and accountability, suggesting their utility for educators and developers seeking to apply simulations to enhance self-management behaviors in patients.

  2. Infants and young children modeling method for numerical dosimetry studies: application to plane wave exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Nunez Ochoa, M. A.; Wiart, J.; Peyman, A.; Bloch, I.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the human body. This paper proposes a novel method for building 3D heterogeneous young children models combining results obtained from a semi-automatic multi-organ segmentation algorithm and an anatomy deformation method. The data consist of 3D magnetic resonance images, which are first segmented to obtain a set of initial tissues. A deformation procedure guided by the segmentation results is then developed in order to obtain five young children models ranging from the age of 5 to 37 months. By constraining the deformation of an older child model toward a younger one using segmentation results, we assure the anatomical realism of the models. Using the proposed framework, five models, containing thirteen tissues, are built. Three of these models are used in a prospective dosimetry study to analyze young child exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The results lean to show the existence of a relationship between age and whole body exposure. The results also highlight the necessity to specifically study and develop measurements of child tissues dielectric properties.

  3. Improving Health Outcomes of Children through Effective Parenting: Model and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Martha; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Satcher, David

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the design, development, testing and presentation of preliminary evidence of a translational, culturally relevant parenting education model, titled Smart and Secured Children (SSC). SSC, a quality parenting curriculum, prepares disparate African American parents as leaders for transforming their parenting behaviors and leading their peers and community in changing existing parenting culture. The article recommends expanded utility of identified promising processes, approaches and practices to engage African American parents to lead in addressing health inequity conditions in their families and communities. It adds to the growing scientific literature on the association between parent–child relationship quality and a wide variety of children physical, emotional and social outcomes. SSC applied principles of developmental theories; community based participatory research (CBPR), and iterative Delphi method between the community stakeholders, parents and researchers. The delivery approach of SSC was revamped from professional-led to parent-led content presentation and delivery methods using a conversational learning approach, referred to as ‘conversepedia’. Parents’ leadership development training and delivery of this curriculum in social supportive groups improved their mental wellbeing, parenting capacity and leadership skills. Parents do matter and can choose positive influence in their lives and are capable of reversing negative peer influence. PMID:24366048

  4. Improving Health Outcomes of Children through Effective Parenting: Model and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Okafor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the design, development, testing and presentation of preliminary evidence of a translational, culturally relevant parenting education model, titled Smart and Secured Children (SSC. SSC, a quality parenting curriculum, prepares disparate African American parents as leaders for transforming their parenting behaviors and leading their peers and community in changing existing parenting culture. The article recommends expanded utility of identified promising processes, approaches and practices to engage African American parents to lead in addressing health inequity conditions in their families and communities. It adds to the growing scientific literature on the association between parent–child relationship quality and a wide variety of children physical, emotional and social outcomes. SSC applied principles of developmental theories; community based participatory research (CBPR, and iterative Delphi method between the community stakeholders, parents and researchers. The delivery approach of SSC was revamped from professional-led to parent-led content presentation and delivery methods using a conversational learning approach, referred to as ‘conversepedia’. Parents’ leadership development training and delivery of this curriculum in social supportive groups improved their mental wellbeing, parenting capacity and leadership skills. Parents do matter and can choose positive influence in their lives and are capable of reversing negative peer influence.

  5. Comparison between Greulich-Pyle and Girdany-Golden methods for estimating skeletal age of children in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, Muhammad; Nadeem, Naila; Husen, Yousuf; Rehman, Abdul; Beg, Madiha; Khattak, Yasir Jamil

    2014-12-01

    To compare Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Girdany-Golden (GG) methods for estimation of Skeletal Age (SA) in children referred to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Cross-sectional study. Department of Radiology, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from July 2010 to June 2012. Children up to the age of 18 years, who had undergone X-ray for the evaluation of trauma were included. Each X-ray was interpreted using both methods by two consultant paediatric radiologists having at least 10 years experience, who were blinded to the actual Chronologic Age (CA) of children. A total of 283 children were included. No significant difference was noted in mean SA estimated by GP method and mean CA for female children (p=0.695). However, a significant difference was noted between mean CA and mean SA by GG method for females (p=0.011). For males, there was a significant difference between mean CA and mean SA estimated by both GP and GG methods. A stronger correlation was found between CA and SA estimated by GP method (r=0.943 for girls, r=0.915 for boys) as compared to GG method (r=0.909 for girls, r=0.865 for boys) respectively. Bland- Altman analysis also revealed that the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. Excellent correlation was seen between the two readers for both GP and GG methods. There was no additional benefit of using GP and GG methods simultaneously over using GP method alone. Moreover, although GP was reliable in estimating SA in girls, it was unable to accurately assess SA in boys. Therefore, it would be ideal to develop indigenous standards of bone age estimation based on a representative sample of healthy native children.

  6. Comparison between greulich-pyle and girdany-golden methods for estimating skeletal age of children in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, M.; Nadeem, N.; Rehman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Girdany-Golden (GG) methods for estimation of Skeletal Age (SA) in children referred to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Radiology, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from July 2010 to June 2012. Methodology: Children up to the age of 18 years, who had undergone X-ray for the evaluation of trauma were included. Each X-ray was interpreted using both methods by two consultant paediatric radiologists having at least 10 years experience, who were blinded to the actual Chronologic Age (CA) of children. Results: A total of 283 children were included. No significant difference was noted in mean SA estimated by GP method and mean CA for female children (p=0.695). However, a significant difference was noted between mean CA and mean SA by GG method for females (p=0.011). For males, there was a significant difference between mean CA and mean SA estimated by both GP and GG methods. A stronger correlation was found between CA and SA estimated by GP method (r=0.943 for girls, r=0.915 for boys) as compared to GG method (r=0.909 for girls, r=0.865 for boys) respectively. Bland- Altman analysis also revealed that the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. Excellent correlation was seen between the two readers for both GP and GG methods. Conclusion: There was no additional benefit of using GP and GG methods simultaneously over using GP method alone. Moreover, although GP was reliable in estimating SA in girls, it was unable to accurately assess SA in boys. Therefore, it would be ideal to develop indigenous standards of bone age estimation based on a representative sample of healthy native children. (author)

  7. Measurement of cardiac output in children by pressure-recording analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; González, Rafael; Solana, María José; Fernández, Sarah N; Bellón, José M; López-Herce, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated two pressure-recording analytical method (PRAM) software versions (v.1 and v.2) to measure cardiac index (CI) in hemodynamically stable critically ill children and investigate factors that influence PRAM values. The working hypothesis was that PRAM CI measurements would stay within normal limits in hemodynamically stable patients. Ninety-five CI PRAM measurements were analyzed in 47 patients aged 1-168 months. Mean CI was 4.1 ± 1.4 L/min/m(2) (range 2.0-7.0). CI was outside limits defined as normal (3-5 L/min/m(2)) in 53.7% of measurements (47.8% with software v.1 and 69.2% with software v.2, p = 0.062). Moreover, 14.7% of measurements were below 2.5 L/min/m(2), and 13.6% were above 6 L/min/m(2). CI was significantly lower in patients with a clearly visible dicrotic notch than in those without (3.7 vs. 4.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.004) and in children with a radial arterial catheter (3.5 L/min/m(2)) than in those with a brachial (4.4 L/min/m(2), p = 0.021) or femoral catheter (4.7 L/min/m(2), p = 0.005). By contrast, CI was significantly higher in children under 12 months (4.2 vs. 3.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.034) and weighing under 10 kg (4.2 vs. 3.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.026). No significant differences were observed between cardiac surgery patients and the rest of children. A high percentage of CI measurements registered by PRAM were outside normal limits in hemodynamically stable, critically ill children. CI measured by PRAM may be influenced by the age, weight, location of catheter, and presence of a dicrotic notch.

  8. Method for assessment of skeletal maturity in children below one year of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erasmie, U.; Ringertz, H.

    1980-07-01

    Although there is a continuing clinical interest in the radiological determination of skeletal development in children below one year of age, none of the existing methods is particularly appropriate. We have therefore developed a new and simple method of assessment. This takes into account the dose of radiation and the two aspects of size and maturity of the skeleton; and so we choose to study the lateral view of the tarsus. The calcaneous and talus are ossification centers appearing before birth. The sum of length and height of these centers constitutes the first part of the assessment. The second part of our evaluation includes an appraisal of the cuboid, the third cuneiform and the distal epiphyses of tibia and fibula. For practical purposes we have chosen to relate the two different aspects of skeletal maturity which we have assessed to the weight of the baby.

  9. Effectiveness of the different methods of inhalation drugs delivery in children with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Nedelska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work — to evaluate the effectiveness of inhalation technique when using different types of inhalers (dry powder inhalers — Turbuhaler, Diskus, metered-dose inhalers, breath-actuated inhalers — Easyhaler. Materials and methods. 45 patients aged 6–17 years underwent the evaluation of inhalation technique accuracy with the use of In-Check-Dial — apparatus, which imitates the airway resistance that should be overcome during inspiration through different inhaler types, and measure inspiration velocity. Incidence of mistakes was studied in different age groups. Results. 80 % of children aged 6–7 years made mistakes while using Turbuhaler, 73.3 % — metered-dose inhaler, 60 % — Easyhaler. There were no mistakes in patients making inhalation by means of Diskhaler. 100 % of children aged 12–14 years incorrectly used metered-dose inhaler. Easyhaler was incorrectly used in 66.6 % of cases, Diskhaler — in 26.6 %. Among elder group, incidence of mistakes when making inhalations through Turbuhaler was lower — 40 % in 12–14-year-old group and 25 % — in 15–17-year-old (р < 0.05. Children of 15–17 years old are able to use Turbuhaler and Diskus (mistakes in 33.3 and 46.6 %, respectively. At the same time, none of the patients have done the correct inhalation by means of metered-dose inhaler, 93.3 % of the patients have mistakes when using Easyhaler. Conclusions. The incidence of mistakes depends on the age and inhaler type and reaches 26–100 %. Minimal quantity of mistakes is seen for Diskus (in all age groups, maxi­mal — for metered-dose inhaler. For the purpose of optimal inhaler choice in a child with bronchial asthma, it is advisable to measure the inspiratory flow with the help of In-Check-Dial before therapy administration.

  10. Determination of CMV infection in CSF of children with meningoencephalitis: PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorbakhsh S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: In recent years, many ill cases with cytomegalovirus reactivation in non-immuno compromised persons reported. Goal of study: to determine the CMV infection in cerebrospinal fluid of aseptic meningoencephalitis children hospitalized in Rasul & Mofid hospital (2005-2007. "nMethods: In a cross sectional study 132 cases selected with simple sampling. CMV-DNA in their Cerebro spinal fluids searched by qualitative PCR. "nResults: The age range of the study patients was 5 month- 13 years, median age= 2±3.7 years; 87(65.9% male and 45(34.1% was female. The presenting signs and symptoms were convulsion 77(69.4%; meningitis 25(18.8%, loss of consciousness 47(37%; neurologic defects 15.9%. DNA extrated in 11 cases. Mycoplasma- DNA in 2cases; DNA-CMV detected 2(1.5%. Positive DNA HSV found in 7(15.3% of patients. DNA- HSV type- 15.3% (7/132 cases. An infant 5 month age with developmental delay, microcephaly and recurrent convulsions. A 1 year girl with brain atrophy and progressive hydrocephaly with intracranial shunt "nConclusions: Differentiation between herpes meningoencephalitis and other encephalopathy based on clinical signs in children is too difficult. CMV (1.5% has lower rate than herpes simplex type-1 (5.7%. In addition to CMV and HSV1 all of herpes family viruses (varicella, herpes 6, 7, Epstein barr virus could have role in  children with meningoencephalitis. In recent years a sensitive, rapid, simple diagnostic  test "Single tube Multiplex PCR" in cerebro spinal fluid recommend. Rapid diagnosis and faster treatment is necessary for decreasing mortality and morbidity in all of herpes meningoencephalitis cases

  11. A comparative evaluation of Oratest with the microbiological method of assessing caries activity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Meenakshi; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Ramalingam, Krishnakumar; Reddy, Venugopal; Rao, Arun Prasad; Mathian, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to find out whether Oratest can be used as a diagnostic tool in assessing the caries activity by evaluating its relationship to the existing caries status and the salivary streptococcus mutans level. Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of 90 students divided into two groups. Group I (test group) and Group II (control group) consisting of 30 children for control group and 60 children for test group. The sampling of unstimulated saliva for the estimation of streptococcus mutans was done as per the method suggested by Kohler and Bratthall. The plates were then incubated. Rough surface colonies were identified as streptococcus mutans on a pre-determined area of the tip (approximately 1.5 cm2) were counted for each side of spatula pressed against mitis salivarius bacitracin agar using digital colony counter. The results were expressed in colony forming units (CFU). Oratest was carried out in the same patients after the collection of salivary sample for the microbiological method to evaluate the relationship between the two tests. Statistical Analysis Used: The tests used were ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square test, Pearson′s correlation analysis, Mann-Whitney U test and Student′s independent t-test. Results: In the control group and test group, when the streptococcus mutans count (CFU) and Oratest time (minutes) were correlated using Pearson′s correlation analysis, the streptococcus mutans counts was found to be in a statistically significant negative linear relationship with the Oratest time. When the caries status of the children, participated in the test group were correlated with mutans count (CFU) and Oratest time, caries status were found to be in a statistically significant positive linear relationship with streptococcus mutans count and in a significant negative linear relationship with Oratest time. Conclusions: The test proved to be a simple, inexpensive and rapid technique for assessing caries activity since a

  12. [Review of assessment methods used to evaluate feeding for children with pervasive developmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, G; Ehrmann Feldman, D; Gisel, E

    2008-08-01

    Current evaluations used by occupational therapists to assess and treat feeding problems derive mainly from the domain of dysphagia. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with tools used, in research, for children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and to determine if any of these meet the needs of occupational therapists. The following data bases were searched: Medline, CINAHL, HAPI and PsyINFO, using the terms pervasive developmental disorder, autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, eating behavior, eating disorder, food preference, food selectivity, feeding disorders, picky eater and child. All articles published between 1980 and 2006 (n=27) were reviewed. A total of 20 studies met our selection criteria. Assessment methods are compared using the Disability Creation Model (DCP). The DCP is the Quebec alternative to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). None of the evaluation tools reviewed met all factors that may influence eating in children with PDD. Implications for research and practice in occupational therapy are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B.; McHugh, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.)

  14. Diagnosing clinically significant dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis using noninvasive methods: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Stephen B; Vandermeer, Ben; Milne, Andrea; Hartling, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    To determine the most accurate, noninvasive method of assessing dehydration. The following data sources were searched: electronic databases, gray literature, scientific meetings, reference lists, and authors of unpublished studies. Eligible studies were comparative outpatient evaluations that used an accepted reference standard and were conducted in developed countries in children aged Dehydration Scale (CDS), the "Gorelick" score, and unstructured physician assessment were evaluated in 3, 2, and 5 studies, respectively. Bedside ultrasound, capillary digital videography, and urinary measurements were each evaluated in one study. The CDS had a positive likelihood ratio (LR) range of 1.87-11.79 and a negative LR range of 0.30-0.71 to predict 6% dehydration. When combined with the 4-item Gorelick Score, the positive LR was 1.93 (95% CI 1.07-3.49) and negative LR was of 0.40 (95% CI 0.24-0.68). Unstructured dehydration assessment had a pooled positive LR of 2.13 (95% CI 1.33-3.44) and negative LR of 0.48 (95% CI 0.28-0.82) to detect ≥ 5% dehydration. Overall, the clinical scales evaluated provide some improved diagnostic accuracy. However, test characteristics indicate that their ability to identify children both with and without dehydration is suboptimal. Current evidence does not support the routine use of ultrasound or urinalysis to determine dehydration severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoos, Y.; Brunser, O.; Lawson, F.; Muzeke, A.; Ndjaye, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    It is stated that in developing countries a high rate of Helicobacter pylori infection among newborns and young children occurs. It is further assumed that this incidence may lead to inhibition of defense mechanism (inhibition of acid secretion) against bacteria, per orally ingested. This may result in excessive colonisation of the small intestine by bacteria. This situation may become a major cause for chronic malnutrition and diarrhoea syndrome with failure to thrive. This project aims at determining the occurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children at young age. It is aimed also at tracing the relationship between the Helicobacter pylori infection and the state of undernourishment. Finally it is aimed at comparing the usefulness of pre-/probiotics as anti-infection treatment. The methods used to demonstrate above mentioned parameters are based on stable isotopes, 13 CO 2 and H 2 breath tests mainly. To assess nutritional status and progress in growth conventional anthropometric techniques will be used, complementary to the results obtained by stable isotopes. It is put forward that the use of pre-/probiotics, instead of antibiotics, will suppress upper gastrointestinal infection and restore the intestinal cell capacity to assimilate all food ingredients. (author)

  16. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoos, Y [UZ Gasthuisberg, Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology, Leuven (Belgium); Brunser, O [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Santiago (Chile); Lawson, F [Clinique Padre Pio, Cotonou (Benin); Muzeke, A [Faculte de Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa (Congo); Ndjaye, M F [Cercle Senegalais Gastroenterologie, Dakar (Senegal)

    2000-07-01

    It is stated that in developing countries a high rate of Helicobacter pylori infection among newborns and young children occurs. It is further assumed that this incidence may lead to inhibition of defense mechanism (inhibition of acid secretion) against bacteria, per orally ingested. This may result in excessive colonisation of the small intestine by bacteria. This situation may become a major cause for chronic malnutrition and diarrhoea syndrome with failure to thrive. This project aims at determining the occurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children at young age. It is aimed also at tracing the relationship between the Helicobacter pylori infection and the state of undernourishment. Finally it is aimed at comparing the usefulness of pre-/probiotics as anti-infection treatment. The methods used to demonstrate above mentioned parameters are based on stable isotopes, {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} breath tests mainly. To assess nutritional status and progress in growth conventional anthropometric techniques will be used, complementary to the results obtained by stable isotopes. It is put forward that the use of pre-/probiotics, instead of antibiotics, will suppress upper gastrointestinal infection and restore the intestinal cell capacity to assimilate all food ingredients. (author)

  17. Thematic Analysis of the Children's Drawings on Museum Visit: Adaptation of the Kuhn's Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisovar-Ivanda, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are using techniques that allow children to express their perspectives. In 2003, Kuhn developed the method of data collection and analysis which combined thematic drawing and focused, episodic interview. In this article the Kuhn's method is adjusted using the draw and write technique as a research methodology. Reflections on the…

  18. A systematic review of methods to assess intake of fruits and vegetables among healthy European adults and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riordan, Fiona; Ryan, Kathleen; Perry, Ivan J.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Andersen, Lene Frost; Geelen, Anouk; van’t Veer, Pieter; Eussen, Simone; Dagnelie, Pieter; Wijckmans-Duysens, Nicole; Harrington, Janas M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Evidence suggests that health benefits are associated with consuming recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V), yet standardised assessment methods to measure F&V intake are lacking. The current review aims to identify methods to assess F&V intake among children

  19. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  20. Knowledge of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder of Behavior Modification Methods and Their Training Needs Accordingly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Raid Mousa Al-Shaik

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying knowledge of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder of behavior modification methods and their training needs accordingly. The sample of the study consisted of (98) parents in Jordan. A scale of behavior modification methods was constructed, and then validated. The results of the study showed that the…

  1. Total Energy Expenditure by the doubly labelled water method in rural pre-school children in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Gonzalez-Calderin, S.; Sanchez, V.; Basabe-Tuero, B.; Salazar, G.; Diaz, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labelled water method in nineteen 5 y old children of a rural mountain community in Cuba. Materials and Methods. Ten males and nine females (18.4 and 18.5 kg average weight) with mean BMI values of 16.3 and 16.1 kg/m2 were included in the study. RMR was previously measured in year 2000 by indirect calorimetry in a sample of 11 children and values correlated properly with the estimations using the proposed equations of Henry and Rees. This estimate was used then for the whole group. Energy intake measured by 3-day weighed dietary record was 3.73 MJ/day. Tee was measured by the doubly labelled water method. Results: TEE values of well nourished children were 7.15 and 5.77 MJ/d for boys and girls, respectively. These findings imply that well nourished boys and girls are having a moderate to heavy physical activity requiring 93 and 75 kcal/kg per day. Physical activity of normal Cuban boys and girls living in rural areas was 1.88 and 1.59 METS, which is much higher than those values reported for children from developed countries using DLW. Energy intake was 1639 ± 381 in boys and 1230 ± 355 kcal/d in girls. Conclusions: TEE and physical activity level of rural Cuban children was higher than reported values of children living in developed countries

  2. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macherera, Margaret; Moyo, Lindani; Ncube, Mkhanyiseli; Gumbi, Angella

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe. Methods A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest. Results A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI) clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for universal

  3. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera, MSc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for

  4. Use of Peristeen® transanal colonic irrigation for bowel management in children: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilli, Maurizio; Pallot, David; Andrews, Afiya; Downer, Angela; Dale, Louiza; Willetts, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Transanal colonic irrigation has been shown to be effective in bowel management program in adults. However, there exist limited data in children. We appraised the effectiveness of this technique in a series of children with incontinence or constipation and overflow soiling. Following ethical approval, a review of children with incontinence or constipation on a bowel management program with Peristeen® transanal colonic irrigation treated between 2007 and 2012 was performed. Irrigations were performed with a volume of 10-20 ml/kg of water with schedules depending on patient response. Data are reported as median (range). Twenty-three patients were reviewed. Median age at commencement of irrigations was 7 (2-15) years. Median follow-up is 2 (0.7-3.4) years. Diagnoses include the following: spina bifida (n=11), anorectal anomaly (n=6), Hirschsprung's (n=1), and other complex anomalies (n=5). Sixteen (70%) patients had associated anomalies. Twelve (52%) had constipation and overflow soiling, and 11 (48%) had fecal incontinence. Twenty (87%) had associated urinary wetting. Sixteen (70%) children used alternate-day irrigations, 4 (17%) daily irrigations, and 3 (13%) every third-day irrigations. Nine (39%) patients were taking oral laxatives. Sixteen (70%) reported to be clean and 3 (13%) reported a significant improvement, although were having occasional soiling. Four patients (17%) did not tolerate the irrigations and underwent subsequent colostomy formation for intractable soiling. In our experience, Peristeen® transanal colonic irrigation is an effective method of managing patients with focal soiling in childhood. Majority (83%) of children achieve social fecal continence or a significant improvement with occasional soiling. This was accompanied by high parental satisfaction. Peristeen® transanal colonic irrigation is a valid alternative to invasive surgical procedures and should be considered the first line of treatment for bowel management in children with soiling

  5. [Evaluation of psychological methods for determining the degree of psychological stress in children in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenin, V V; Ostreĭkov, I F; Vasil'ev, Ia I

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with results of comparative evaluation of system of assessment of children's fear and anxiety in dentistry (SDS test) and other objective and subjective methods for assessing anxiety in pediatric patients. We studied 381 pediatric patients aged from 3 to 7 years. The aim of the study was to prove validity mathematical derived FCD test as a technique of anxiety detection in dentistry. During the study following subjective test were used: MAS, DAS, mYPAS, VAS, STAI, STAIC, EASI, PHBQ, and some history data and stress factors were also considered. Objective data used were vital signs (hemodynamics and respiratory rate). Test SDS has strong correlation with YALE, MAS, DAS, STAIlich, VAS and other parameters such as age, sex, person which is responsible for bringing up a child and so on.

  6. Analysis backpropagation methods with neural network for prediction of children's ability in psychomotoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhari, F.; Dhany, H. W.; Zarlis, M.; Sutarman

    2018-03-01

    A good age in optimizing aspects of development is at the age of 4-6 years, namely with psychomotor development. Psychomotor is broader, more difficult to monitor but has a meaningful value for the child's life because it directly affects his behavior and deeds. Therefore, there is a problem to predict the child's ability level based on psychomotor. This analysis uses backpropagation method analysis with artificial neural network to predict the ability of the child on the psychomotor aspect by generating predictions of the child's ability on psychomotor and testing there is a mean squared error (MSE) value at the end of the training of 0.001. There are 30% of children aged 4-6 years have a good level of psychomotor ability, excellent, less good, and good enough.

  7. Short-term effect of two education methods on oral health among hearing impairment children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Pouradeli

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Both video and dental model effectively improve the oral health of children with HI in short term. Continuous school-based oral health education programs, particularly for HI children, need to be considered.

  8. Clustering of attitudes towards obesity: a mixed methods study of Australian parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Tim; Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Petkov, John

    2013-10-12

    Current population-based anti-obesity campaigns often target individuals based on either weight or socio-demographic characteristics, and give a 'mass' message about personal responsibility. There is a recognition that attempts to influence attitudes and opinions may be more effective if they resonate with the beliefs that different groups have about the causes of, and solutions for, obesity. Limited research has explored how attitudinal factors may inform the development of both upstream and downstream social marketing initiatives. Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews were conducted with 159 parents and 184 of their children (aged 9-18 years old) in two Australian states. A mixed methods approach was used to assess attitudes towards obesity, and elucidate why different groups held various attitudes towards obesity. Participants were quantitatively assessed on eight dimensions relating to the severity and extent, causes and responsibility, possible remedies, and messaging strategies. Cluster analysis was used to determine attitudinal clusters. Participants were also able to qualify each answer. Qualitative responses were analysed both within and across attitudinal clusters using a constant comparative method. Three clusters were identified. Concerned Internalisers (27% of the sample) judged that obesity was a serious health problem, that Australia had among the highest levels of obesity in the world and that prevalence was rapidly increasing. They situated the causes and remedies for the obesity crisis in individual choices. Concerned Externalisers (38% of the sample) held similar views about the severity and extent of the obesity crisis. However, they saw responsibility and remedies as a societal rather than an individual issue. The final cluster, the Moderates, which contained significantly more children and males, believed that obesity was not such an important public health issue, and judged the extent of obesity to be less extreme than the other clusters

  9. Play-Based Interview Methods for Exploring Young Children's Perspectives on Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Donna; San Juan, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education provides learning opportunities for children with disabilities in regular settings with other children. Despite the prevalence of inclusive education, few qualitative studies have adequately explored young children's perspectives on inclusion. This paper reviews the findings of a preliminary qualitative study where play-based…

  10. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  11. Building a method for researching attribution of meaning by children aged 5 to 6 in school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tertoolen, A.; van Oers, B.; Geldens, J.; Popeijus, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The

  12. Using the Debate Method for Teaching Argumentation to 10-12 Year-Old Children

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    Y. V. Rybka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to peculiarities of using the debate method in teaching argumentation to 10–12 year-old children. The research is aimed at identifying the most effective ways and means of applying the given method. According to the author’s hypothesis, regular integration of discussions into the training course of rhetoric should promote learners’ argumentation, changing it from a mere fantasy through egocentric attitudes to the objective position expressed in a conclusive argumentative way. To achieve the research objectives, the experimental training method was developed applying the debate technique in the form of role plays adapted to peculiarities of children’s age. The experimental results indicated the decentration dynamics in the training process and, therefore, the effectiveness of the experimental training course. The presented training program can be used in teaching rhetoric to 10–12 year- olds, as well as in the optional argumentation course based on the debate technique. In addition, the analysis of children’s argumentation position in the context of socio-cognitive approach can give an impetus for further studies of children’s speech and thinking. 

  13. Study on cardiac output in children with orthostatic disturbances measured by the external dilution method with a radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, K [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo

    1975-04-01

    As one of the studies on circulation dynamics which possibly contributed to orthostatic disturbance, application to children of the external measurement of cardiac output with /sup 131/I labeled human serum albumin was examined. The effect of orthostatic load was then studied by this method on the children with orthostatic disturbances and the patients improving from other diseases, and the following results were obtained: (1) As in the external method with radioisotope, the head of the scintillation detector was easily oriented, and the diversion of orientation was examined by circulation dilution curve, and the cardiac output was easily and safely measured without causing severe pain to the subjects. This method was performed on 40 children in the recumbent position and 27 in orthostatic load, and it was confirmed that the method was fully applicable to the pediatric field. (2) In half of the 20 patients with orthostatic disturbances and 20 control subjects, the cardiac index in the recumbent position was between 3 l/min/m/sup 2/ and 5 l/min/m/sup 2/. Mean cardiac index was 4.45 l/min/m/sup 2/ in male children, while 4.72 l/min/m/sup 2/ in female children. This mean value was the same or a little higher than the reported adult value.

  14. Early to bed: a study of adaptation among sexually active urban adolescent girls younger than age sixteen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.; Ruchkin, V.; Caminis, A.; Vermeiren, R; Henrich, C.C.; Schwab-Stone, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health

  15. Noninvasive diagnostic methods for perceptual and motor disabilities in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Lampe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of neuroorthopedics centers on chronic diseases demanding close clinical monitoring. We shall use several examples to show how the various noninvasive diagnostic instruments can be used to obtain insight into the central nervous system as well as into the musculoskeletal system and its morphology. The choice of the most appropriate method depends on the problem; that is, whether the method is to be applied for clinical use or for basic research. In this report we introduce various technical examination methods that are being used successfully in the fields of pediatrics, orthopedics, and neurology. The major examination instrument in pediatric diagnostics is sonography, which is being used in this report as a research instrument for the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, but which also gives insight into neurofunctional sequences. In orthopedics, pedography is used for diagnosing deformities of the feet. In neuroorthopedics for children pedography acts as a functional monitor for apraxia and thus allows, for example, a classification of the degree of neurological malfunctions in the lower extremities. The 3D bodyscan is used to minimize x-raying in patients with neurogenic scoliosis. This report introduces examples of the application of MRI and fMRI for basic research. The biometric measuring methods introduced provide precise data in the areas of diagnostics and monitoring and are highly valuable for further neuroorthopedic basic research. In future we expect the ever-evolving technical measuring methods to enable a deeper understanding of the primary neurological causes of and the implications for patients with cerebral palsy and other neuroorthopedic conditions. This may allow the development of new forms of therapy not necessarily predictable today.

  16. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair by the hook method in emergency setting in children presenting with incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kin Wai Edwin; Lee, Kim Hung; Tam, Yuk Him; Sihoe, Jennifer Dart Yin; Cheung, Sing Tak; Mou, Jennifer Wai Cheung

    2011-10-01

    The development of laparoscopic hernia repair has provided an alternative approach to the management of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children. Different laparoscopic techniques for hernia repair have been described. However, we hereby review the role of laparoscopic hernia repair using the hook method in the emergency setting for incarcerated inguinal hernias in children. A retrospective review was conducted of all children who presented with incarcerated inguinal hernia and underwent laparoscopic hernia repair using the hook method in emergency setting between 2004 and 2010. There were a total of 15 boys and 1 girl with a mean age of 30 ± 36 months (range, 4 months to 12 years). The hernia was successfully reduced after sedation in 7 children and after general anesthesia in 4 children. In 5 children, the hernia was reduced by a combined manual and laparoscopic-assisted approach. Emergency laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair using the hook method was performed after reduction of the hernia. The presence of preperitoneal fluid secondary to recent incarceration facilitated the dissection of the preperitoneal space by the hernia hook. All children underwent successful reduction and hernia repair. The median operative time was 37 minutes. There was no postoperative complication. The median hospital stay was 3 days. At a median follow-up of 40 months, there was no recurrence of the hernia or testicular atrophy. Emergency laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair by the hook method is safe and feasible. Easier preperitoneal dissection was experienced, and repair of the contralateral patent processus vaginalis can be performed in the same setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The method of joint drawing in the practice of teaching drawing to the elementary school children with autism spectrum disorders

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    Belyalova O.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While teaching children with autism spectrum disorders how to draw the teacher needs to focus on the fact that each child has creative potential and art activities play important part in the brain development. Often children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder have serious speech impairments, for example, they can talk to parents and family members, but not to classmates and teachers. In that case, one can communicate with a child through drawings, and to access their mood and desires through them. The article describes the method of joint drawing during teaching elementary school children with autism spectrum disorders from the school at the Center for Psychological, Medical and Social Support to Children and Adolescents.

  18. Barriers, facilitators and preferences for the physical activity of school children. Rationale and methods of a mixed study

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    Martínez-Andrés María

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity interventions in schools environment seem to have shown some effectiveness in the control of the current obesity epidemic in children. However the complexity of behaviors and the diversity of influences related to this problem suggest that we urgently need new lines of insight about how to support comprehensive population strategies of intervention. The aim of this study was to know the perceptions of the children from Cuenca, about their environmental barriers, facilitators and preferences for physical activity. Methods/Design We used a mixed-method design by combining two qualitative methods (analysis of individual drawings and focus groups together with the quantitative measurement of physical activity through accelerometers, in a theoretical sample of 121 children aged 9 and 11 years of schools in the province of Cuenca, Spain. Conclusions Mixed-method study is an appropriate strategy to know the perceptions of children about barriers and facilitators for physical activity, using both qualitative methods for a deeply understanding of their points of view, and quantitative methods for triangulate the discourse of participants with empirical data. We consider that this is an innovative approach that could provide knowledges for the development of more effective interventions to prevent childhood overweight.

  19. [THE CORRECTION OF TROPHIC DISORDERS IN CHILDREN OF CHRONIC GASTRODUODENITIS WITH METHOD LOW-FREQUENCY LIGHT-MAGNETOTHERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, T A; Sadovnikova, I V; Belousova, T E

    2015-01-01

    The results of a survey of school children with chronic gastroduodenitis when applying at an early period the medical rehabilitation with method low-frequency light-magnetotherapy. During treatment of hospital was evaluated vegetative-trophic status with methods of cardiointervalography and thermovision functional tests. In normalizes clinical parameters was correction in dynamics of the vegetative status in children, it confirms the effectiveness of the therapy. It is proved, that the use of low-frequency light-magnetotherapy has a positive effect on the vegetative--trophic provision an organism and normalizes the vegetative dysfunction.

  20. Methods and representativeness of a European survey in children and adolescents: the KIDSCREEN study

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    von Rueden Ursula

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to compare three different sampling and questionnaire administration methods used in the international KIDSCREEN study in terms of participation, response rates, and external validity. Methods Children and adolescents aged 8–18 years were surveyed in 13 European countries using either telephone sampling and mail administration, random sampling of school listings followed by classroom or mail administration, or multistage random sampling of communities and households with self-administration of the survey materials at home. Cooperation, completion, and response rates were compared across countries and survey methods. Data on non-respondents was collected in 8 countries. The population fraction (PF, respondents in each sex-age, or educational level category, divided by the population in the same category from Eurostat census data and population fraction ratio (PFR, ratio of PF and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze differences by country between the KIDSCREEN samples and a reference Eurostat population. Results Response rates by country ranged from 18.9% to 91.2%. Response rates were highest in the school-based surveys (69.0%–91.2%. Sample proportions by age and gender were similar to the reference Eurostat population in most countries, although boys and adolescents were slightly underrepresented (PFR Conclusion School-based sampling achieved the highest overall response rates but also produced slightly more biased samples than the other methods. The results suggest that the samples were sufficiently representative to provide reference population values for the KIDSCREEN instrument.

  1. Parenting Practices and Child Misbehavior: A Mixed Method Study of Italian Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Norcia, Anna; Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative method to examine three main research questions: What are the practices that mothers report they use when trying to correct their children’s misbehaviors? Are there common patterns of these practices? Are the patterns that emerge related to children’s well-being? Design Italian mother-child dyads (N=103) participated in the study (when children were 8 years of age). At Time 1 (T1), mothers answered open-ended questions about discipline; in addition, measures of maternal physical discipline and rejection and child aggression were assessed in mothers and children at T1, one year later (T2), and two years later (T3). Results Mothers’ answers to open-ended questions about what they would do in three disciplinary situations were classified in six categories: physical or psychological punishment, control, mix of force and reasoning, reasoning, listening, and permissiveness. Cluster analysis yielded 3 clusters: Group 1, Induction (predominant use of reasoning and listening; 74%); Group 2, Punishment (punitive practices and no reasoning; 16%); Group 3, Mixed practices (combination of reasoning and punishment, as well as high control and no listening; 10%). Multiple-group latent growth curves of maternal physical discipline, maternal rejection, and child aggression were implemented to evaluate possible differences in the developmental trends from T1 to T3, as a function of cluster. Conclusions Qualitative data deepen understanding of parenting because they shed light on what parents think about themselves; their self-descriptions, in turn, help to identify ways of parenting that may have long-lasting consequences for children’s adjustment. PMID:26877716

  2. Treatment of children with H. pylori infection with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunser, O; Cruchet, S; Gotteland, M; Verbeke, S [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2000-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of a high proportion of the population of the less developed countries since an early age. In the developed countries this occurs at a later age and with less frequency. This pathogen causes mostly asymptomatic infection but in a proportion of the population it is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis. A subset of these individuals will eventually develop gastric carcinoma. For this reason there has always been considerable interest in developing innocuous, fast, inexpensive, sensitive, specific and noninvasive methods for diagnosis. The {sup 13}C-urea breath test ({sup 13}C-UBT) satisfies most of these requirements. Eradication of H. pylori is accomplished by administration of proton pump blockers and a variety of antibiotics singly or in associations. The rate of success is rather high but treatment is long, expensive, it has secondary effects and it increases bacterial resistance. For this reason it is worth looking at other forms of treatment. Probiotics have demonstrated capacity to stimulate defensive mechanisms and to inhibit and even kill H. pylori in vitro and in animal experiments. We propose to conduct a study in which children 10 to 18 years of age colonized by H. pylori will receive a probiotic (Lactobacillus GG) twice daily for 4 or 8 weeks and the rate of infection will be assessed by the {sup 13}C-UBT. Local immune responses will be evaluated by measuring quantitatively total salivary slgA and specific slgA. A group of children who will not receive Lactobacillus GG will serve as controls for all procedures. We believe that Lactobacillus GG will eradicate H. pylori and thus make it possible to treat this infection without recourse to antibiotics.

  3. Treatment of children with H. pylori infection with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunser, O.; Cruchet, S.; Gotteland, M.; Verbeke, S.

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of a high proportion of the population of the less developed countries since an early age. In the developed countries this occurs at a later age and with less frequency. This pathogen causes mostly asymptomatic infection but in a proportion of the population it is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis. A subset of these individuals will eventually develop gastric carcinoma. For this reason there has always been considerable interest in developing innocuous, fast, inexpensive, sensitive, specific and noninvasive methods for diagnosis. The 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) satisfies most of these requirements. Eradication of H. pylori is accomplished by administration of proton pump blockers and a variety of antibiotics singly or in associations. The rate of success is rather high but treatment is long, expensive, it has secondary effects and it increases bacterial resistance. For this reason it is worth looking at other forms of treatment. Probiotics have demonstrated capacity to stimulate defensive mechanisms and to inhibit and even kill H. pylori in vitro and in animal experiments. We propose to conduct a study in which children 10 to 18 years of age colonized by H. pylori will receive a probiotic (Lactobacillus GG) twice daily for 4 or 8 weeks and the rate of infection will be assessed by the 13 C-UBT. Local immune responses will be evaluated by measuring quantitatively total salivary slgA and specific slgA. A group of children who will not receive Lactobacillus GG will serve as controls for all procedures. We believe that Lactobacillus GG will eradicate H. pylori and thus make it possible to treat this infection without recourse to antibiotics

  4. Comparison of Three Methods Used in the Diagnosis of Extraesophageal Reflux in Children with Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Formánek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Detection of extraesophageal reflux (EER in children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME using three different diagnostic methods. Methods. Children between 1 and 7 years with OME who underwent adenoidectomy and myringotomy with insertion of a ventilation tube were included in this prospective study. EER was detected using three methods: oropharyngeal pH was monitored for 24 hours using the Restech system; detection of pepsin in middle ear fluid obtained during myringotomy was done using Peptest, and detection of pepsin in an adenoid specimen was done immunohistochemically. Results. Altogether 21 children were included in the study. Pathological oropharyngeal pH was confirmed in 13/21 (61.9% children. Pepsin in the middle ear fluid was present in 5/21 (23.8% children; these 5 patients were diagnosed with the most severe EER established through monitoring of oropharyngeal pH. No specimen of adenoids tested was positive for pepsin upon immunohistochemical examination. Conclusions. Diagnosis of EER in patients with OME using Restech is sensitive but less specific when compared to the detection of pepsin in middle ear fluid using Peptest. Pepsin in the middle ear was consistently present in patients with RYAN score above 200, and these patients in particular could potentially profit from antireflux therapy.

  5. Early to Bed: A Study of Adaptation among Sexually Active Urban Adolescent Girls Younger than Age Sixteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andres; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Caminis, Argyro; Vermeiren, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey administered in 1998 to…

  6. Exploring the Use of Emoji as a Visual Research Method for Eliciting Young Children's Voices in Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fane, Jennifer; MacDougall, Colin; Jovanovic, Jessie; Redmond, Gerry; Gibbs, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Recognition of the need to move from research "on" children to research "with" children has prompted significant theoretical and methodological debate as to how young children can be positioned as active participants in the research process. Visual research methods such as drawing, photography, and videography have received…

  7. Influence author methodic teaching swimming on coordination quality of children 6–10 years old with hearing disabilities

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    Julia Karbunarova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the influence of the author's methodic of teaching swimming on coordination skills of children with hearing disability of primary school age. Material & Methods: in 20 deaf children’s who are studies in special school of Lviv region we make experimental and control groups, and defined the level of static balance by methodic of Romberg and Bondarevskyy, preserve the active balance while walking on the increase by test «Walk on gymnastic beam» and comprehensive display of coordination skills we used test «Three somersaults forward». The survey was conducted before and after the implementation of our methods of teaching swimming. Results: revealed low level of capacity to preserve static balance and ability to preserve the active balance while walking on the increase at the beginning of research. Conclusion: the defined positive impact of the methodic of teaching swimming in deaf children of experimental group according to results of static balance.

  8. Validation of the Monte Carlo criticality program KENO IV and the Hansen-Roach sixteen-energy-group-cross sections for high-assay uranium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handley, G.R.; Masters, L.C.; Stachowiak, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    Validation of the Monte Carlo criticality code, KENO IV, and the Hansen-Roach sixteen-energy-group cross sections was accomplished by calculating the effective neutron multiplication constant, k/sub eff/, of 29 experimentally critical assemblies which had uranium enrichments of 92.6% or higher in the uranium-235 isotope. The experiments were chosen so that a large variety of geometries and of neutron energy spectra were covered. Problems, calculating the k/sub eff/ of systems with high-uranium-concentration uranyl nitrate solution that were minimally reflected or unreflected, resulted in the separate examination of five cases

  9. Play with online virtual pets as a method to improve mirror neuron and real world functioning in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Eric Lewin

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a severe disease with no known cause and no cure or treatment. Recently, ourselves and subsequently others found that so-called "mirror neurons" - neurons that respond not only when a person moves, but upon observation of movement in another - are dysfunctional in autistic children. Here I suggest an easy, simple, inexpensive and fun method to improve mirror neuron functioning in autistic children, increase appreciation in autistic children for the theory of mind and thinking of others, and most importantly hopefully to improve real world functioning: play with virtual online pets that are the "embodiment" of a stuffed animal the child has. Adoption and then care and play with online pets forces, in a fun way, one to think about the world through the eyes and needs of the pet. A simple method to test this play with online virtual pet therapy is described.

  10. Prevalence of proteinuria in school children (aged 12-14 years in Kashmir valley, India, using dipstick method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Ahmad Malla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening for kidney diseases by urinalysis in school children is being conducted in many parts of the world with inexpensive tools such as urinary dipsticks. We conducted this study to know the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria in school children (age group 12-14 years in Kashmir valley as no previous study is available. After applying exclusion criteria, 2068 children were screened for proteinuria by dipstick method. Another test was performed in the children with abnormal findings in the first sample with dipstick of the same brand, after a period of one-month. These children were also assessed by timed urine collection (i.e., 24 h urinary protein. In the first dipstick test, the prevalence of proteinuria in the studied population was 6.2% which persisted in 2.17% after second dipstick examination. No child in the studied group was found to have glycosuria. In our study, no statistically significant association was found between proteinuria and gender, body mass index, or hypertension. In our study, the prevalence of persistent proteinuria in school children (age group 12-14 years in Kashmir valley was almost similar to the studies conducted in different parts of the world.

  11. Incremental Validity and Informant Effect from a Multi-Method Perspective: Assessing Relations between Parental Acceptance and Children's Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Eva; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P; Carrasco, Miguel Á

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between perceived parental acceptance and children's behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) from a multi-informant perspective. Using mothers, fathers, and children as sources of information, we explore the informant effect and incremental validity. The sample was composed of 681 participants (227 children, 227 fathers, and 227 mothers). Children's (40% boys) ages ranged from 9 to 17 years (M = 12.52, SD = 1.81). Parents and children completed both the Parental Acceptance Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) and the check list of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Statistical analyses were based on the correlated uniqueness multitrait-multimethod matrix (model MTMM) by structural equations and different hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed a significant informant effect and a different incremental validity related to which combination of sources was considered. A multi-informant perspective rather than a single one increased the predictive value. Our results suggest that mother-father or child-father combinations seem to be the best way to optimize the multi-informant method in order to predict children's behavioral problems based on perceived parental acceptance.

  12. BOWEL PREPARATION BEFORE COLONOSCOPY FOR CHILDREN: comparison of efficacy of three different methods

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    Seyed Mohsen DEHGHANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Colonoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Adequate bowel preparation is mandatory. Several regimens were discussed in the literature. Among the drugs which has recently used, polyethylene glycol is one of the most popular agents. Objectives - The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of three different methods for 1 day preparation before colonoscopy. Methods - This study included children with the range of ages (2-21 who had an indication of colonoscopy. Exclusion criteria were based on the history of previous surgery, parental disagreement, and patients who did not use preparation protocol. Three methods for bowel preparation were studied: 1- Polyethylene glycol only; 2- Polyethylene glycol and bisacodyl suppositories; 3- Polyethylene glycol plus normal saline enema. Boston Bowel Preparation Score was used for evaluation of preparation. SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA were used for data analysis. Results - In this study 83 cases completed the bowel preparation completely. Acceptable bowel preparation was seen in 24 (85.71%, 36 (94.73%, and 14 (82.35% of cases in PEG, PEG + bisacodyl, and PEG + normal saline enema groups respectively. PEG + bisacodyl suppositories was more effective than PEG + normal saline for the preparation of the first segment ( P=0.05. For second and third segment of colon, BPPS score was higher in PEG + bisacodyl suppositories compared to other regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion - There was no significant difference between 1 day colonoscopy regimens in terms of bowel preparation score. Lowest score was seen in PEG + enema group compared to other group.

  13. Storyline and Associations Pyramid as Methods of Creativity Enhancement: Comparison of Effectiveness in 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smogorzewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study comparing the originality, the length, the number of neologisms and the syntactic complexity of fairy tales created with "Storyline" and "Associations Pyramid." Both methods were developed to enhance children's language abilities and their creative thinking. One hundred twenty eight 5-year-old children…

  14. The Methods Applied by Pre-School Teachers to Raise the Curiosity of Children and Their Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktaskapu Soydan, Sema; Erbay, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the strategies used by pre-school teachers in order to raise curiosity in children. Based on this aim, sample is composed of 52 pre-school teachers working in kindergartens affiliated to Ministry of National Education. Study data were collected via qualitative research methods. Research data were gathered…

  15. Methylation profiles of thirty four promoter-CpG islands and concordant methylation behaviours of sixteen genes that may contribute to carcinogenesis of astrocytoma

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    Wang Yifei

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocytoma is a common aggressive intracranial tumor and presents a formidable challenge in the clinic. Association of altered DNA methylation patterns of the promoter CpG islands with the expression profile of cancer-related genes, has been found in many human tumors. Therefore, DNA methylation status as such may serve as an epigenetic biomarker for both diagnosis and prognosis of human tumors, including astrocytoma. Methods We used the methylation specific PCR in conjunction with sequencing verification to establish the methylation profile of the promoter CpG island of thirty four genes in astrocytoma tissues from fifty three patients (The WHO grading:. I: 14, II: 15, III: 12 and IV: 12 cases, respectively. In addition, compatible tissues (normal tissues distant from lesion from three non-astrocytoma patients were included as the control. Results Seventeen genes (ABL, APC, APAF1, BRCA1, CSPG2, DAPK1, hMLH1, LKB1, PTEN, p14ARF, p15INK4b, p27KIP1, p57KIP2, RASSF1C, RB1, SURVIVIN, and VHL displayed a uniformly unmethylated pattern in all the astrocytoma and non-astrocytoma tissues examined. However, the MAGEA1 gene that was inactivated and hypermethylated in non-astrocytoma tissues, was partially demethylated in 24.5% of the astrocytoma tissues (co-existence of the hypermethylated and demethylated alleles. Of the astrocytoma associated hypermethylated genes, the methylation pattern of the CDH13, cyclin a1, DBCCR1, EPO, MYOD1, and p16INK4a genes changed in no more than 5.66% (3/53 of astrocytoma tissues compared to non-astrocytoma controls, while the RASSF1A, p73, AR, MGMT, CDH1, OCT6,, MT1A, WT1, and IRF7 genes were more frequently hypermethylated in 69.8%, 47.2%, 41.5%, 35.8%, 32%, 30.2%, 30.2%, 30.2% and 26.4% of astrocytoma tissues, respectively. Demethylation mediated inducible expression of the CDH13, MAGEA1, MGMT, p73 and RASSF1A genes was established in an astrocytoma cell line (U251, demonstrating that expression of

  16. Identification of sixteen peptides reflecting heat and/or storage induced processes by profiling of commercial milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jennifer; Baum, Florian; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-09-16

    Peptide profiles of different drinking milk samples were examined to study how the peptide fingerprint of milk reflects processing conditions. The combination of a simple and fast method for peptide extraction using stage tips and MALDI-TOF-MS enabled the fast and easy generation and relative quantification of peptide fingerprints for high-temperature short-time (HTST), extended shelf life (ESL) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk of the same dairies. The relative quantity of 16 peptides changed as a function of increasing heat load. Additional heating experiments showed that among those, the intensity of peptide β-casein 196-209 (m/z 1460.9Da) was most heavily influenced by heat treatment indicating a putative marker peptide for milk processing conditions. Storage experiments with HTST- and UHT milk revealed that the differences between different types of milk samples were not only caused by the heating process. Relevant was also the proteolytic activity of enzymes during storage, which were differently influenced by the heat treatment. These results indicate that the peptide profile may be suitable to monitor processing as well as storage conditions of milk. In the present study, peptide profiling of different types of milk was carried out by MALDI-TOF-MS after stage-tip extraction and relative quantification using an internal reference peptide. Although MALDI-TOF-MS covers only part of the peptidome, the method is easy and quick and is, therefore, suited for routine analysis to address several aspects of food authenticity. Using this method, 16 native peptides were detected in milk that could be modulated by different industrial processes. Subsequent heating and storage experiments with pasteurized and UHT milk confirmed that these peptides are indeed related to the production or storage conditions of the respective products. Furthermore, the heating experiments revealed one peptide, namely the β-casein-derived sequence β-casein 196-209, which underwent

  17. Cooking time but not cooking method affects children's acceptance of Brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, A.A.M.; Delahunty, C.M.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    The home environment potentially presents a simple means to increase acceptance of sensory properties of vegetables by preparation. This research investigated how preparation can effectively impact upon children's acceptance for vegetables. Five- and six-year old children (n = 82, balanced for

  18. Kindergarten Children's Interactions with Touchscreen Mathematics Virtual Manipulatives: An Innovative Mixed Methods Analysis

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    Tucker, Stephen I.; Lommatsch, Christina W.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Anderson-Pence, Katie L.; Symanzik, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of mathematical practices evident during children's interactions with touchscreen mathematics virtual manipulatives. Researchers analyzed 33 Kindergarten children's interactions during activities involving apps featuring mathematical content of early number sense or quantity in base ten, recorded…

  19. When Kids Act Out: A Comparison of Embodied Methods to Improve Children's Memory for a Story

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    Berenhaus, Molly; Oakhill, Jane; Rusted, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, embodied cognition, the idea that sensorimotor processes facilitate higher cognitive processes, has proven useful for improving children's memory for a story. In order to compare the benefits of two embodiment techniques, active experiencing (AE) and indexing, for children's memory for a story, we compared the immediate…

  20. Elementary School Children's Reasoning about Social Class: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rashmita S.; Brown, Christia S.; White, Elizabeth S.; Chow, Kirby A.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined children's identification and reasoning about their subjective social status (SSS), their beliefs about social class groups (i.e., the poor, middle class, and rich), and the associations between the two. Study participants were 117 10- to 12-year-old children of diverse racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds…

  1. Identification of Aurally Handicapped Children and Methods and Procedures of Developing a Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.

    An article on identification of preschool and school age aurally handicapped children and program development by John J. O'Neill precedes discussions of the role of the audiologist in evaluation of these children by Jack A. Willeford, and educational aspects of planning by John J. O'Neill. Three articles are presented on the role of the teacher in…

  2. An Overview of Dyscalculia: Methods for Ascertaining and Accommodating Dyscalculic Children in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Matthew Thomas

    2007-01-01

    For many children, mathematics is an inherently difficult subject to learn. Between 5 and 8 percent of children between the ages of 6 and 14 have a particular type of cognitive deficiency that limits their aptitude to acquire knowledge and understanding of fundamental ideas in numeracy. Increasingly, researchers in the cognitive sciences are…

  3. Diversity effect in category-based inductive reasoning of young children: evidence from two methods.

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    Zhong, Luojin; Lee, Myung Sook; Huang, Yulan; Mo, Lei

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that diverse pieces of evidence, rather than similar pieces of evidence, are considered to have greater strength in adults' inductive reasoning. However, this diversity effect is inconsistently recognized by children. Three experiments using the same materials but different tasks examined whether young children consider the diversity principle in their reasoning. Although Experiment 1 applied a data selection task showed five-year-old children in both China and Korea were not sensitive to the diversity of evidence, Experiments 2 and 3 employed an identification task and demonstrated that children as young as five years were sensitive to diverse evidence. These findings indicated that young children, less than nine years of age, may have diversity effect. Methodological and cultural differences were discussed.

  4. Successful applications of montessori methods with children at risk for learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, J S

    1992-12-01

    The critical elements in the Montessori philosophy are respect for the child, individualization of the program to that child, and the fostering of independence. With her research background, Maria Montessori devised a multisensory developmental method and designed materials which isolate each concept the teacher presents to the child.In presenting these materials the teacher observes the concept and skill development level of the child, ascertaining areas of strength and weakness and matching the next presentation to the child's level of development. Using small sequential steps, the teacher works to ameliorate weakness and guide the student to maximize his strengths. These presentations, usually initiated by the child, enhance cognitive growth using a process which integrates his physical, social, and emotional development.The curriculum contains four major content areas: Practical Life; Sensorial; Oral and Written Language; and Mathematics. Geography, History, Science, Art, Music, Literature, and Motor Skills are also included. In all of these the Montessori presentations build from the simple to the complex, from the concrete to the abstract, and from percept to concept. Vocabulary and language usage are integral to each presentation.The procedures introduced through these presentations are designed to enhance attention, increase self-discipline and self-direction, and to promote order, organization, and the development of a work cycle. At-risk children benefit from the structure, the procedures, and the curriculum. Applications of this method require more teacher selection of materials and direct teaching, particularly of language and math symbols and their manipulations.This early childhood intervention provides an individualized program which allows the at-risk child a successful experience at the preschool level. The program includes a strong conceptual preparation for later academic learning and it promotes the development of a healthy self-concept.

  5. BOWEL PREPARATION BEFORE COLONOSCOPY FOR CHILDREN: comparison of efficacy of three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Haghighat, Mahmood; Imanieh, Mohammad-Hadi; Ghanbari, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Colonoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Adequate bowel preparation is mandatory. Several regimens were discussed in the literature. Among the drugs which has recently used, polyethylene glycol is one of the most popular agents. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of three different methods for 1 day preparation before colonoscopy. This study included children with the range of ages (2-21) who had an indication of colonoscopy. Exclusion criteria were based on the history of previous surgery, parental disagreement, and patients who did not use preparation protocol. Three methods for bowel preparation were studied: 1- Polyethylene glycol only; 2- Polyethylene glycol and bisacodyl suppositories; 3- Polyethylene glycol plus normal saline enema. Boston Bowel Preparation Score was used for evaluation of preparation. SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) were used for data analysis. In this study 83 cases completed the bowel preparation completely. Acceptable bowel preparation was seen in 24 (85.71%), 36 (94.73%), and 14 (82.35%) of cases in PEG, PEG + bisacodyl, and PEG + normal saline enema groups respectively. PEG + bisacodyl suppositories was more effective than PEG + normal saline for the preparation of the first segment ( P=0.05). For second and third segment of colon, BPPS score was higher in PEG + bisacodyl suppositories compared to other regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between 1 day colonoscopy regimens in terms of bowel preparation score. Lowest score was seen in PEG + enema group compared to other group.

  6. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in children: a mixed method study on healthcare professionals attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela; Spila Alegiani, Stefania; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Colaceci, Sofia; Raschetti, Roberto; Arace, Pasquale; Spiazzi, Raffaele; Raponi, Massimiliano

    2016-12-05

    Qualitative and quantitative research investigating determinants of adherence to clinical guidelines (GLs) on surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) are scarce. We conducted a mixed-method study aimed at investigating barriers and at describing attitudes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) regarding SAP in three Italian children's hospitals. The study comprised two sequential phases: 1) collection of qualitative data through focus groups; 2) conduction of a survey on HCPs attitudes towards SAP. Focus groups were carried out in each hospital with a theoretical convenience sample of 10-15 HCPs. Categorical analysis was conducted. Emerging categories and additional topics derived by literature search were used to develop the survey questionnaire, which included 13 questions expressed through a 4-point Likert scale. Members of surgical teams were invited by e-mail to fill in the questionnaire. We summed up the points assigned to each 4-point Likert scale response and calculated a cumulative score expressing overall concordance to expected HCPs attitudes on SAP. We conducted univariate and multivariate analysis to evaluate the relationship among characteristics of respondents and concordance with expected attitudes. The main categories identified in the qualitative phase included determinants of general adherence to GLs (e.g., relevance of clinical judgment), individual determinants (e.g., poor knowledge on hospital data) and organizational/structural determinants (e.g., patient flows). A total of 357 HCPs participated in the survey (response rate: 82.1%). Among respondents, 75% reported that SAP should be performed with first or second-generation cephalosporins, 44% that 2-3 days of antibiotic administration are useful as a precaution after surgery, 32% that SAP is needed for all surgical procedures. At multivariate analysis, professional category (physicians vs nurses; OR: 3.31; 95%CI: 1.88-5.82), and hospital (hospital 1 and 2 vs hospital 3; ORs: 2.79, 95%CI: 1

  7. The Effectiveness of Verbal Self-Instruction Method on Pessimistic Attribution Style about Negative Events in Children with Dyslexia

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    Zahra Eyni Mirkoohi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of verbal self-Instruction on pessimistic attribution style about negative events in children with dyslexia. Methods: The study was experimental with pre-test-post-test and control group. The statistical population consists of all dyslexic students of Maktab Ali School in Tehran City. Forty students were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly allocated to two groups: experimental and control. Experimental group received verbal self-Instruction, Mychnbam and Goodman method in 8 sessions (2 sessions per week, each lasting 45 minutes while the control group received only the routine school training. The measurement was Children's Attribution Style Questionnaire (CASQ.‌‌ Data analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance. Results: Negative pessimistic attribution style (general, stable and internal were significantly decreased (P<0.005. in the experimental group in comparison with control group after intervention. Discussion: Verbal self instruction can be applied in children with dyslexia for improvement of attribution style by psychologists, teachers, educators, special schools, parents and all those who are dealing with these children

  8. The Use of Key Informant Method for Identifying Children with Blindness and Severe Visual Impairment in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Rènée; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 19 million children are visually impaired; of these, 1.4 million are irreversibly blind. A key challenge is to identify them early in life to benefit maximally from visual rehabilitation, and/or treatment. This aggregative review and structured literature analysis summarizes evidence of what it is about the key informant (KI) approach that works to identify children with blindness or severe visual impairment (B/SVI) in the community (for whom, to what extent, in what circumstances, in what respect, how and why). Peer-reviewed (PubMed, hand search) and grey literature (Google, World Health Organization website, academic theses, direct requests) were included, and methods and criteria used for identification, productivity (number of children referred per KI), accuracy of referrals (positive predictive value, PPV), age of children with B/SVI, KI definition, sex, information about cost and comparisons aggregated. We included 31 documents describing 22 unique KI programs. Mostly KIs identified children with B/SVI in 1-3 weeks, i.e. "campaign mode." In 60%, KIs were community volunteers, others formal health sector workers (FHSW). Around 0.02-1.56 children per KI (median = 0.25) were successfully recruited. PPV ranged from 12 to 66%. In two studies comparing FHSWs and community KIs, the latter were 8 and 10 times more productive. KIs working in campaign mode may provide an effective approach to identifying children with B/SVI in communities. Including identification of ocular problems and/or other impairments has been recommended. Research on factors that influence effectiveness and on whether KIs continue to contribute could inform programs.

  9. The methodical approach to determining the heterogeneity of cognitive function in preschool children requiring correction of speech impediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Petrenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been confirmed that children who suffer from speech impediments may experience difficulties in their cognitive activity, limitations in communication, asociality and sense detachment. It is also clear that these children require not only logopedic treatment, but also assistance in developing functions of their cognitive and mental activities. Aims. To identify the case of uniformity lack of cognitive and somatomental functions of 5-6 year old children with speech impediments in a group; to evaluate the method used for this research. Methods. Use estimates of major mental and cognitive activities by means of tests increases the difficulty. Scores from 1 to 10 were given. Such factors as movement coordination, musicality and body plasticity were taken into consideration too. StatSoft STATISTICA10.0. programme was used to run the statistical analysis. Results. The changes of the group with uniformity of physical, cognitive, somatomental and dance abilities were analysed and estimated at the beginning and at the end of the academic year. The results of the claster analysis have shown that the children managed to develop their cognitive and somatomental abilities. Also it was estimated that the level of uniformity has increased in the group. Conclusions. Having done the research we can state that with the help of cluster analysis children with speech impediments can be grouped according to their physical, cognitive, somatomental and dance abilities. With the help of the results of the claster analysis that notifies that the children managed to develop their cognitive and somatomental abilities, we can observe the positivie effects of the suggested dance-cognitive teaching elements in an educational programme.

  10. Çocuk Eğitiminde Reiki Yöntemi Reiki Method Of Children's Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice YALÇIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing the use of reiki in Turkey and in theworld. In a study conducted in Turkey, reiki% of regular users is 0.4.Reiki is, "universal energy" or "life energy" means. On our bodies,"chakra" centers of energy are called. Each chakra, the energy indifferent frequency is considered as the gateway. Reiki philosophy, thisenergy blockage occurs in one of the gates of the body, based on thestrain energy intake. As a result of these energy blockages believed to bemediated disorders and behavioral changes. These chakras locatedalong the spine, glands and nerve centers of the network intersect.Thus, reiki, chakras and glands are gaining the ability to act on thebody as a joint project. This method is based on hormones and bodymovements, child development, and holds an important place in thedevelopment of positive behavior in children. During the practice ofReiki hands, head, neck, chest, abdomen, groin, by touching eachposition is held for 3-5 minutes. This period may be extended 10-20minutes in problem areas. Mean duration of 30-90 minutes, 20-30minutes in childhood. Children have a wide variety of alternativemethods of education, the implementation of alternative methodsoutside the relevant centers, scientific studies about the reliability ofthese methods are difficult to make. Scientific study on alternativemethods used in the education of children is extremely rare. This studyis enough to work with children in our country due to a lackbiomagnetic both informative and will be helpful in further studies. Son yıllarda dünyada ve Türkiye’de reikinin kullanımı artmaktadır. Türkiye’de yapılan bir çalışmada reikiyi düzenli kullananların oranı %0,4’tür. Reiki; “evrensel enerji” ya da “yaşam enerjisi” demektir. Vücudumuz üzerinde, “çakra” adı verilen enerji merkezleri bulunmaktadır. Her çakra, farklı frekanstaki bir enerjinin giriş kapısı olarak değerlendirilir. Reiki felsefesi, bu enerji kap

  11. Micronutrient Daily Intake of Elementary School Children in Bandung as Determined by Using NAA and AAS Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients in human diet are known to be among the most essential sources of nutrition, that required by the human body in small amount to maintain normal physiological function. Micronutrient malnutrition (MNM is widespread all over the world, mostly in the developing country, where young children tend to be the most at risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies. In Indonesia, data of micronutrient status of children is limited. Therefore, the assessment of micronutrient intake of young children is needed to carry out. Food samples were taken by duplicate diet method of 19 elementary school children in Bandung and were analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet. The result was giving the average daily intake of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were 228, 0.15, 0.57, 9.3, 929, 106, 2,1, 2314, 0.022 and 4.6 mg/day respectively and gives 22, 527, 86, 111, 17, 54, 116, 49 and 63% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA values. Its generally concluded that these children are still lack of micronutrient intake, and many of them were below their recommended dietary allowances. These result were expected could be used as baseline data and reference to encourage government and related institution in making policies for public health improvement and micronutrient malnutrition solution as well.

  12. Outcomes 18 years after implementation of a nonoperative caries preventive program - the Nexö-method - on children in Moscow, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmina, Irina; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report the long-term effect (18 years) of the Nexö-method, initially implemented in groups of children in Moscow in 1994. METHODS: Three groups of children were included in the initial study in 1994. This study is a follow-up study of two of the three initial groups: a group of 6-y...

  13. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis in children

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    Gowda Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the role of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC in the management of cholelithiasis in children. Methods: A retrospective review of our experience with LC for cholelithiasis at our institution, between April 2006 and November 2008, was done. Data included patient demographics, clinical history, hematological investigations, imaging studies, operative technique, postoperative complications, postoperative recovery, and final histopathological diagnosis. Results: During the study period of 32 months, 18 children (8 males and 10 females with cholelithiasis were treated by LC. The mean age was 9.4 years (range 3-18. Seventeen children had symptoms of biliary tract disease and 1 child had incidentally detected cholelithiasis during an ultrasonography of abdomen for unrelated cause. Only 5 (27.8% children had definitive etiological risk factors for cholelithiasis and the remaining 13 (75.2% cases were idiopathic. Sixteen cases had pigmented gallstones and 2 had cholesterol gallstones. All the 18 patients underwent LC, 17 elective, and 1 emergency LC. The mean operative duration was 74.2 min (range 50-180. Postoperative complications occurred in 2 (11.1% patients. The average duration of hospital stay was 4.1 days (range 3-6. Conclusion: Laparoscopic chloecystectomy is a safe and efficacious treatment for pediatric cholelithiasis. The cause for increased incidence of pediatric gallstones and their natural history needs to be further evaluated.

  14. Using quality improvement methods to reduce clear fluid fasting times in children on a preoperative ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Richard J G; Stuart, Grant M; Willdridge, Daniel J; Thomas, Mark

    2017-08-01

    We applied quality improvement (QI) methodology to identify the different aspects of why children fasted for prolonged periods in our institution. Our aim was for 75% of all children to be fasted for clear fluid for less than 4 hours. Prolonged fasting in children can increase thirst and irritability and have adverse effects on haemodynamic stability on induction. By reducing this, children may be less irritable, more comfortable and more physiologically stable, improving the preoperative experience for both children and carers. We conducted a QI project from January 2014 until August 2016 at a large tertiary pediatric teaching hospital. Baseline data and the magnitude of the problem were obtained from pilot studies. This allowed us to build a key driver diagram, a process map and conduct a failure mode and effects analysis. Using a framework of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles our key interventions primarily focused on reducing confusion over procedure start times, giving parents accurate information, empowering staff and reducing variation by allowing children to drink on arrival (up to one hour) before surgery. Prior to this project, using the 6,4,2 fasting rule for solids, breast milk, and clear fluids, respectively, 19% of children were fasted for fluid for less than 4 hours, mean fluid fasting time was 6.3 hours (SD 4.48). At the conclusion 72% of patients received a drink within 4 hours, mean fluid fasting reduced to 3.1 hours (SD 2.33). The secondary measures of aspiration (4.14:10 000) and cancellations have not increased since starting this project. By using established QI methodology we reduced the mean fluid fasting time for day admissions at our hospital to 3.1 hours and increased the proportion of children fasting for less than 4 hours from 19% to 72%. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Investigating the Effects of Glottal Stop Productions on Voice in Children With Cleft Palate Using Multidimensional Voice Assessment Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydınlı, Fatma Esen; Özcebe, Esra; Kulak Kayıkçı, Maviş E; Yılmaz, Taner; Özgür, Fatma F

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of glottal stop productions (GS) on voice in children with cleft palate using multidimensional voice assessment methods. This is a prospective case-control study. Children with repaired cleft palate (n = 34) who did not have any vocal fold lesions were separated into two groups based on the results of the articulation test. The glottal stop group (GSG) consisted of 17 children who had GS. The control group (CG) consisted of an equal number of age- and gender-matched children who did not have GS. The voice evaluation protocol included acoustic analysis, Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI), and perceptual analysis (Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain method). The velopharyngeal statuses of the groups were compared using the nasopharyngoscopy and the nasometer. The total pVHI score and the subscales of the pVHI were found to be significantly higher in the GSG. The F0, jitter, and shimmer were found to be numerically higher in the GSG with the difference being statistically significant in jitter (P speech and language pathology intervention including voice therapy techniques. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Participatory assessment of the environment from children's viewpoints: development of a method and its trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, M; Suwa, T; Kabuto, M; Fukushima, T

    2001-02-01

    To understand the actual viewpoints of children about daily life and the environment, the authors, adopting a participatory strategy, visited 21 classes of Japanese school children, improved in a stepwise process their ways of question-asking, and developed "WIFY"(what is important for you); a set of interactive questions composed of a basic question and three accompanying instructions. In applying WIFY, 59 fourth graders, 22 in Nagasaki, Japan and 37 in Beijing, China, reported their viewpoints in each of classroom settings. In both settings, when children were allowed to communicate with each other by the use of WIFY answering sheet, spontaneous exchanges arose and continued. WIFY itself is supposed to bring out and enhance mutual collaboration and spontaneous networking. In this instance, WIFY functioned as a communication tool. When answering sheets were collected and obtained responses were analyzed as cases, a rather materialistic view was suggested among Japanese children and a more disciplined view, which put much value on school and home, was suggested among Chinese children. Further studies are needed to confirm the changing environmental views of children from the collaborative research framework.

  17. Methods for conceptualising ‘visual ability’ as a measurable construct in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Deramore Denver

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vision influences functioning and disability of children with cerebral palsy, so there is a growing need for psychometrically robust tools to advance assessment of children’s vision abilities in clinical practice and research. Vision is a complex construct, and in the absence of clarity about this construct it is challenging to know whether valid, reliable measures exist. This study reports a method for conceptualising ‘visual ability’ as a measurable construct. Methods Using the items from 19 assessment tools previously identified in a systematic review, this study used a two-phase process: first, deductive content analysis linked items to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY, and second, vision-specific ‘Activity’-level items were explored using inductive thematic analysis. Results The linking and content analysis identified that existing assessment tools are measuring vision across the ICF-CY domains of Body Functions, Activities and Participation, and Environmental and Personal Factors. Items specifically coded to vision at the Activity level were defined as measuring ‘how vision is used’, and these items form the basis of the conceptualisation that ‘visual ability’ is measurable as a single construct. The thematic analysis led to the identification of 3 categories containing 13 themes that reflect a child’s observable visual behaviours. Seven abilities reflect how a child uses vision: responds or reacts, initiates, maintains or sustains looking, changes or shifts looking, searches, locates or finds, and follows. Four interactions reflect the contexts in which a child uses their vision to purposefully interact: watches and visually interacts with people and faces, objects, over distance, and with hands. Finally, two themes reflect a child’s overall use of vision in daily activities: frequency of use, and efficiency of use

  18. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndrome with probiotics: Comparison with conventional method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndiaye, M F; Mbengue, M; Mbaye, P S; Diouf, S [Societe Senegalaise de Gasto-enterologie et d' hepatologie, Dakar (Senegal); Ghoos, Y [Labo. Digestie Absorptie, Leuven (Belgium); Brunser, O [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infection (82 %) in Senegal where malnutrition is common in children (25 %). Our aims were to definite prevalence of H. pylori, to determine the relationship between Hp infection and undernourishment and to verify the efficiency of treatment with probiotic. In some studies a positive effect of Saccharomyces boulardii has been demonstrated against H. pylori. We have included healthy children 7 to 10 years of age. 108 out of 129 (84%) were H. pylori-positive by breath-test. Two groups were randomised. Group A was treated with ten days' standard triple therapy (Omeprazole 1 mg Kg/day in single day gift, Amoxycillin 50 mg/kg/two times per day and Clarithromycin 250 mg two times per day). Group B received probiotic (250 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii with 5g Inulin three times per day) for 3 months. Evaluation of treatment was done one month after the end of therapy. Seventy one children out of 110 (64.5%) had digestive symptoms in their medical history. The main signs were recurrent abdominal pain in 64 cases. BMI were less than 18.50 in all the children with H. pylori infection without other nutritional abnormaly. Eight children were eradicated after treatment seven in the group under conventional treatment (58%) and one in the group under probiotics (6%). We concluded that prevalence of H. pylori infection is very high in young children as of the 7 years' age in urban as in rural environments. Symptoms are not specific. No significant difference in the nutritional state is observed between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative children. Treatment by probiotics does not seem to give efficient results for eradication of H. pylori. (author)

  19. A Survey of Restraint Methods for the Safe Transport of Children in Ground Ambulances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rashida H; Shah, Manish; Doughty, Cara; Gilchrest, Anthony

    2018-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) released draft recommendations in 2010 on the safe transport of children in ground ambulances. The purpose of this study was to assess awareness of these guidelines among emergency medical service (EMS) agencies and to identify implementation barriers. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous online survey of 911-responding, ground transport EMS agencies in Texas. Demographics, modes of transport based on case scenarios, and barriers to implementation were assessed. Of 62 eligible EMS agencies that took the survey, 35.7% were aware of the NHTSA guidelines, 62.5% agreed they would improve safety, and 41.1% planned to implement them. Seventy-five percent of EMS agencies used the ideal or acceptable alternative to transport children requiring continuous monitoring, and 69.5% chose ideal or acceptable alternatives for children requiring spinal immobilization. The ideal or acceptable alternative was not chosen for children who were not injured or ill (93.2%), ill or injured but not requiring continuous monitoring (53.3%), and situations when multiple patients required transport (57.6%). The main requirements for implementation were provider education, ambulance interior modifications, new guidelines in the EMS agency, and purchase of new equipment. Few EMS agencies are aware of the NHTSA guidelines on safe transport of children in ground ambulances. Although most agencies appropriately transport children who require monitoring, interventions, or spinal immobilization, they use inappropriate means to transport children in situations with multiple patients, lack of injury or illness, or lack of need for monitoring.

  20. Central intake to improve access to physiotherapy for children with complex needs: a mixed methods case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmeier, Kristy D M; Restall, Gayle; Mulder, Kathy; Dufault, Brenden; Paterson, Marie; Thiessen, Matthew; Lix, Lisa M

    2016-08-31

    Children with complex needs can face barriers to system access and navigation related to their need for multiple services and healthcare providers. Central intake for pediatric rehabilitation was developed and implemented in 2008 in Winnipeg Manitoba Canada as a means to enhance service coordination and access for children and their families. This study evaluates the process and impact of implementing a central intake system, using pediatric physiotherapy as a case example. A mixed methods instrumental case study design was used. Interviews were completed with 9 individuals. Data was transcribed and analyzed for themes. Quantitative data (wait times, referral volume and caregiver satisfaction) was collected for children referred to physiotherapy with complex needs (n = 1399), and a comparison group of children referred for orthopedic concerns (n = 3901). Wait times were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, caregiver satisfaction was analyzed using Fisher exact test and change point modeling was applied to examine referral volume over the study period. Interview participants described central intake implementation as creating more streamlined processes. Factors that facilitated successful implementation included 1) agreement among stakeholders, 2) hiring of a central intake coordinator, 3) a financial commitment from the government and 4) leadership at the individual and organization level. Mean (sd) wait times improved for children with complex needs (12.3(13.1) to 8.0(6.9) days from referral to contact with family, p physiotherapy (i.e., decreasing wait times) for families of children with complex needs. Future research is needed to build on this single discipline case study approach to examine changes in wait times, therapy coordination and stakeholder satisfaction within the context of continuing improvements for pediatric therapy services within the province.

  1. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.

  2. THE EMPIRICAL METHOD OF INVESTIGATING THE CHILDHOOD SUBCULTURE: GROUP OF CHILDREN BEHAVIOR OBSERVATION IN THE GUESTHOUSE POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Yelena N. Suvorkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the empirical research methods investigating the childhood sub-culture. The method is called observation. The author marked general theoretical position, recommendations on its implementation. Based on observations of the group of children behavior in the guesthouse pool it is found out that such category, as honesty is very important in the organization of the order, taking into account that the subculture of childhood is an open, self-organizing system. In the pool, the children come up with a wide variety of games. The adjacent areas are also involved. The author identified two borders, taking place for the child: a clear (fixed border is the side of the pool and unclear border as the transitional designation of states, qualities (dangerous – safe.

  3. Modern methods of breast feeding maintenance in children with intestinal colics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Turti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of long-term breast feeding maintenance is relevant for medical communities of many countries of the world. Long-term breast feeding is especially important in premature children and children born with a perinatal pathology. According to scientific literature, the main reasons of breast feeding termination/reduction and early transfer of children to milk formula feeding include impossibility of breast feeding due to condition severity, prematurity, mother’s milk supply failure and, therefore, various functional digestive disorders (aerophagias, regurgitations, flatulence, colics. It is important to ensure proper latching of the baby to the breast, as it is conductive of effective sucking, and recover complete breast feeding in the event of temporary supplementary and mixed feeding. The article presents results of a trial conducted at the FSBI Scientific Center of Children’s Health. Use of special medical products (nipples, phials developed on the basis of thorough study of maternal breast sucking physiology in the breast feeding termination risk group children (n = 33 allows maintaining children’s need in breast feeding and promotes effective breast feeding recovery.Key words: breast feeding, aerophagia, neonates, premature children, causes of weaning, special medical products (phials, nipples.

  4. Efficacy of Medication and Nonmedication Methods on Working Memory of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadpanah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Working memory is the ability to keep and manipulate information in a short time. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are among the people suffering from deficiency in the active memory, and this deficiency has been attributed to the problem of frontal lobe. This study utilized a new approach with suitable tasks and methods for training active memory and assessment of its effects. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of medicinal and behavioral therapies on working memory of children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Patients and Methods The children participating in this study were 7 - 15 years old, and were diagnosed with ADHD by the psychiatrist and psychologist based on DSM-IV criteria. The intervention group comprised 8 boys and 6 girls with the average age of 11 (± 2 years, and the control group comprised 2 girls and 5 boys with an average age of 11.4 (± 3. Three children in the test group and 2 in the control group were under medicinal therapy. Results Training of working memory significantly improved the performance in nontrained areas as visual-spatial working memory as well as the performance in Raven progressive tests which are a perfect example of nonverbal, complicated reasoning tasks. Conclusions The performance of working memory improved through training, and these trainings extended to other areas of cognition functions not receiving any training. Trainings resulted in the improvement of performance in the tasks related to prefrontal area. They had also a positive and significant impact on the movement activities of hyperactive children.

  5. The method of educational assessment affects children's neural processing and performance: behavioural and fMRI Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J.; Burianová, Hana; Calleia, Alysha; Fynes-Clinton, Samuel; Kervin, Lisa; Bokosmaty, Sahar

    2017-08-01

    Standardised educational assessments are now widespread, yet their development has given comparatively more consideration to what to assess than how to optimally assess students' competencies. Existing evidence from behavioural studies with children and neuroscience studies with adults suggest that the method of assessment may affect neural processing and performance, but current evidence remains limited. To investigate the impact of assessment methods on neural processing and performance in young children, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify and quantify the neural correlates during performance across a range of current approaches to standardised spelling assessment. Results indicated that children's test performance declined as the cognitive load of assessment method increased. Activation of neural nodes associated with working memory further suggests that this performance decline may be a consequence of a higher cognitive load, rather than the complexity of the content. These findings provide insights into principles of assessment (re)design, to ensure assessment results are an accurate reflection of students' true levels of competency.

  6. Validity of 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake by planar posterior-view method in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Eriko; Katoh, Chietsugu; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Shiga, Toru; Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Itoh, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    Renal uptake 99m Tc-DMSA has been quantified by various methods. The aim of this study is to obtain a normal value for 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake calculated by the posterior view method and age variation, and to assess its clinical validity. Scintigrams of 238 children (0-12 years) with 99m Tc-DMSA were reviewed. All the children had a clinical history of primary vesicoureteral reflux and/or neurogenic bladder, ureteral or urethral anomalies. Their kidneys were divided into two groups, ''normal'' and abnormal'' according to their scintigraphic findings and split renal functions. Percent renal uptake per injected dose (% RU) was quantitated from planar images at 2 hours after injection of an age-adjusted dose (26-95 MBq) of 99m Tc-DMSA. Calculated total % RU, individual % UR of the right and left kidneys (mean±sd) in patients with normal kidneys were 40.7±5.0%, 20.2±3.0%, 20.4±2.7%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between % RU and age (r=0.231). Longitudinal variation in the % RU in 9 patients ranged from 1.2% to 18%. Our conventional method for quantifying % RU is simple, practical and feasible in routine clinical practice, especially for children under follow up. (author)

  7. A method to measure the effect of food appearance factors on children's visual preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Heidi; Olsen, Annemarie; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine children’s visual preferences for two food products; yoghurts and smoothies, by using a conjoint layout. In total, 274 children performed an incomplete ranking of 8 pictures formed by three factors each with two levels (23 design). The three food appearance...... for the eight smoothies. The children visually preferred the two products without visible fruit and colour had a large influence on visual preferences too. As regards the yoghurts, the children accepted a less simple variant whereas the most preferred smoothie was very simple. Significant synergetic effects...... between food appearance factors and segmentation factors were found. Additionally gender and ethnicity were found to be influential drivers for food choice....

  8. Modified Ponseti method of treatment for correction of neglected clubfoot in older children and adolescents--a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi, Ramin Haj Zargar; Baghdadi, Taghi; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Abdi, Reza; Aslani, Hossein

    2016-03-01

    Congenital talipes equinovarus may be the most common congenital orthopedic condition requiring treatment. Nonoperative treatment including different methods is generally accepted as the first step in the deformity correction. Ignacio Ponseti introduced his nonsurgical approach to the treatment of clubfoot in the early 1940s. The method is reportedly successful in treating clubfoot in patients up to 9 years of age. However, whether age at the beginning of treatment affects the rate of effective correction and relapse is unknown. We have applied the Ponseti method successfully with some modifications for 11 patients with a mean age of 11.2 years (range, 6 to 19 years) with neglected and untreated clubbed feet. The mean follow-up was 15 months (12 to 36 months). Correction was achieved with a mean of nine casts (six to 13). Clinically, 17 out of 18 feet (94.4%) were considered to achieve a good result with no need for further surgery. The application of this method of treatment is very simple and also cheap in developing countries with limited financial and social resources for health service. To the best of the authors' knowledge, such a modified method as a correction method for clubfoot in older children and adolescents has not been applied previously for neglected clubfeet in older children in the literature.

  9. Hospitalization costs of severe bacterial pneumonia in children: comparative analysis considering different costing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sheila Elke Araujo; Minamisava, Ruth; Vieira, Maria Aparecida da Silva; Itria, Alexander; Pessoa, Vicente Porfirio; Andrade, Ana Lúcia Sampaio Sgambatti de; Toscano, Cristiana Maria

    2017-01-01

    To determine and compare hospitalization costs of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia cases via different costing methods under the Brazilian Public Unified Health System perspective. Cost-of-illness study based on primary data collected from a sample of 59 children aged between 28 days and 35 months and hospitalized due to bacterial pneumonia. Direct medical and non-medical costs were considered and three costing methods employed: micro-costing based on medical record review, micro-costing based on therapeutic guidelines and gross-costing based on the Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates. Costs estimates obtained via different methods were compared using the Friedman test. Cost estimates of inpatient cases of severe pneumonia amounted to R$ 780,70/$Int. 858.7 (medical record review), R$ 641,90/$Int. 706.90 (therapeutic guidelines) and R$ 594,80/$Int. 654.28 (Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates). Costs estimated via micro-costing (medical record review or therapeutic guidelines) did not differ significantly (p=0.405), while estimates based on reimbursement rates were significantly lower compared to estimates based on therapeutic guidelines (pmetodologias de custeio, na perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde. Estudo de custo, com coleta de dados primários de uma amostra de 59 crianças com 28 dias a 35 meses de idade hospitalizadas por pneumonia bacteriana. Foram considerados custos diretos médicos e não médicos. Três metodologias de custeio foram utilizadas: microcusteio por revisão de prontuários, microcusteio considerando diretriz terapêutica e macrocusteio por ressarcimento do Sistema Único de Saúde. Os custos estimados pelas diferentes metodologias foram comparados utilizando o teste de Friedman. Os custos hospitalares de crianças com pneumonia grave foram R$ 780,70 ($Int. 858.7) por revisão de prontuários, R$ 641,90 ($Int. 706.90) por diretriz terapêutica e R$ 594,80 ($Int. 654.28) por

  10. Low-Income, African American and American Indian Children's Viewpoints on Body Image Assessment Tools and Body Satisfaction: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2018-03-03

    Objectives Pediatric obesity is complicated by many factors including psychological issues, such as body dissatisfaction. Body image assessment tools are used with children to measure their acceptance of their body shape or image. Limited research has been conducted with African American and American Indian children to understand their opinions on assessment tools created. This study investigated: (a) children's perception about body image and (b) differences between two body image instruments among low-income, multi-ethnic children. Methods This study uses mixed methodology including focus groups (qualitative) and body image assessment instruments (quantitative). Fifty-one children participated (25 girls, 26 boys); 53% of children identified as African American and 47% as American Indian. The average age was 10.4 years. Open coding methods were used by identify themes from focus group data. SPSS was used for quantitative analysis. Results Children preferred the Figure Rating Scale (FRS/silhouette) instrument over the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS/photo) because their body parts and facial features were more detailed. Children formed their body image perception with influence from their parents and the media. Children verbalized that they have experienced negative consequences related to poor body image including disordered eating habits, depression, and bullying. Healthy weight children are also aware of weight-related bullying that obese and overweight children face. Conclusions for Practice Children prefer that the images on a body image assessment tool have detailed facial features and are clothed. Further research into body image assessment tools for use with African American and American Indian children is needed.

  11. Integration of a Social Skills Training: A Case Study of Children with Low Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Hwa; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2011-01-01

    This study explores changes in children's social skills after a cognitive-social skills model intervention. The intervention was conducted over a period of 12 weeks within a regular preschool setting. Sixteen children including four considered to have low social skills participated in the study. Data analysis revealed that the four children with…

  12. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy tales and…

  13. Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET) randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Philippa S; Morrison, Ryan; Penpraze, Viki; Westgarth, Carri; Ward, Dianne S; Mutrie, Nanette; Hutchison, Pippa; Young, David; Reilly, John J

    2012-03-19

    Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry); body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical activity promotion in families. It should advance our

  14. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  15. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Methods to quantify soft-tissue based facial growth and treatment outcomes in children: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Brons

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Technological advancements have led craniofacial researchers and clinicians into the era of three-dimensional digital imaging for quantitative evaluation of craniofacial growth and treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To give an overview of soft-tissue based methods for quantitative longitudinal assessment of facial dimensions in children until six years of age and to assess the reliability of these methods in studies with good methodological quality. DATA SOURCE: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus and CINAHL were searched. A hand search was performed to check for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION: Primary publications on facial growth and treatment outcomes in children younger than six years of age were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Independent data extraction by two observers. A quality assessment instrument was used to determine the methodological quality. Methods, used in studies with good methodological quality, were assessed for reliability expressed as the magnitude of the measurement error and the correlation coefficient between repeated measurements. RESULTS: In total, 47 studies were included describing 4 methods: 2D x-ray cephalometry; 2D photography; anthropometry; 3D imaging techniques (surface laser scanning, stereophotogrammetry and cone beam computed tomography. In general the measurement error was below 1 mm and 1° and correlation coefficients range from 0.65 to 1.0. CONCLUSION: Various methods have shown to be reliable. However, at present stereophotogrammetry seems to be the best 3D method for quantitative longitudinal assessment of facial dimensions in children until six years of age due to its millisecond fast image capture, archival capabilities, high resolution and no exposure to ionizing radiation.

  17. PARENTING STRESS AND RESILIENCE IN PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD) IN THE MALAYSIAN CONTEXT: A MIXED METHODS PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    KARTINI ILIAS

    2018-01-01

    The multi-phase study aimed to better understand the resilience of parents of children with ASD (autism) in Malaysia. The study utilised a mixed methods, constructive grounded theory design with quantitative parent surveys and qualitative interviews with parents and professionals. Parents of children with ASD reported more parenting stress and depression symptoms as well as poorer sleep quality and family functioning than parents of children without ASD. The findings revealed numerous risk an...

  18. [Hygienic Assesment of Educational Texts: Methodical Approaches and Evaluation of Difficulties for Children of Secondary Textbooks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R; Tkachuk, E A

    2015-01-01

    The understandability and readability of the text are significant indicators of evaluation of textbooks. The aim of the study - rationale of improving the readability and understandability of textbooks. 60 modern textbooks for 5-11th classes on History, Physics, Biology and 23 textbooks of 1960-1980's edition. Flesch index was used to assess the readability, Fogh index - to evaluate understandability. The readability and understandability of texts in textbooks of 1960-1980's and modern editions have no differences and show the same complexity of old and modern textbooks for students. The indicator of understandability of textbooks for primary classes corresponds to age norm and is 4.4±0.2 points. The indicator of readability for these books is less age norm and is 53.8±2.9 points, which increases the physiological cost of educational activities of children of primary school age. Children's readability and understandability of school textbooks are a significant factor of intensity of training activities and can be objectively assessed by Flesch and Fogh indices, that it is appropriate for an objective hygienic assessment of the tension of the educational activities for children. The main direction of optimization of the tension of educational activity is to reduce the intellectual and emotional loads in children by increasing the easiness of reading textbooks due to their compliance with the age peculiarities of students.

  19. Methods for Assessing Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Danelle; Parnell, Andrea M. N.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

    2012-01-01

    A literature review completed by Bauer and Blunden (2008) determined that compared to objective measures, subjective assessments of sleep for typically developing children (e.g., parental reports) were of limited utility. No comparable literature review has been undertaken to determine whether subjective measures are appropriate for assessing…

  20. Method of Abdominal Cavity Postoperative Infiltrates Treatment in Children with Appendiceal Peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Melnichenko, M. G.; Antoniuk, V. V.; Tkachenko, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of postoperative abdominal infiltrates in children operated on appendicular peritonitis with the use of antibiotics and physical factors on the abdominal region according to the utility model includes two stages. The first stage involves regional antibacterial electrophoresis and therapeutic antibacterial microclysters. The second stage includes the impact of diadynamic therapy in infiltration projection and NSAIDs as rectal suppositories.

  1. How U.S. children's hospitals use social media: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charlene A; Ostapovich, Gabrielle; Kramer-Golinkoff, Emily; Griffis, Heather; Asch, David A; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-03-01

    Social media provide new channels for hospitals to engage with communities, a goal of increasing importance as non-profit hospitals face stricter definitions of community benefit under the Affordable Care Act. We describe the variability in social media presence among US children's hospitals and the distribution of their Facebook content curation. Social media data from freestanding children's hospitals were extracted from September-November 2013. Social media adoption was reviewed for each hospital-generated Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Google+ and Pinterest platform. Facebook page (number of Likes) and Twitter account (number of followers) engagement were examined by hospital characteristics. Facebook posts from each hospital over a 6-week period were thematically characterized. We reviewed 5 social media platforms attributed to 45 children's hospitals and 2004 associated Facebook posts. All hospitals maintained Facebook and Twitter accounts and most used YouTube (82%), Google+ (53%) and Pinterest (69%). Larger hospitals were more often high performers for Facebook (67% versus 10%, pSocial media adoption by US children's hospitals was widespread. Beyond its traditional marketing role, social media can serve as a conduit for health education, engagement with communities, including community benefit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lego Serious Play as a participatory research method to involve children in action research projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2018-01-01

    as the materialization of students’ tacit knowledge, experience, and feelings. Furthermore, LSP makes use of visual representation, imagination, creativity, and two-way communication to embrace the voice of children. This approach allows participants to assume ownership of the process, to construct a joint narrative...

  3. Sticker charts: a method for improving adherence to treatment of chronic diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luersen, Kara; Davis, Scott A; Kaplan, Sebastian G; Abel, Troy D; Winchester, Woodrow W; Feldman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Poor adherence is a common problem and may be an underlying cause of poor clinical outcomes. In pediatric populations, positive reinforcement techniques such as sticker charts may increase motivation to adhere to treatment regimens. To review the use of sticker charts to improve adherence in children with chronic disease, Medline and PsycINFO searches were conducted using the key words "positive reinforcement OR behavior therapy" and "adherence OR patient compliance" and "child." Randomized controlled retrospective cohort or single-subject-design studies were selected. Studies reporting adherence to the medical treatment of chronic disease in children using positive reinforcement techniques were included in the analysis. The systematic search was supplemented by identifying additional studies identified through the reference lists and authors of the initial articles found. Positive reinforcement techniques such as sticker charts increase adherence to medical treatment regimens. In several studies, this effect was maintained for months after the initial intervention. Better adherence correlated with better clinical outcomes in some, but not all, studies. Few studies examining the use of sticker charts were identified. Although single-subject-design studies are useful in establishing the effect of a behavioral intervention, larger randomized controlled trials would help determine the precise efficacy of sticker chart interventions. Adherence to medical treatments in children can be increased using sticker charts or other positive reinforcement techniques. This may be an effective means to encourage children with atopic dermatitis to apply their medications and improve clinical outcomes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korean Children (1999-2012) Based on Palpation and Nonpalpation Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Joung, Ji Young; Park, Sun-Mi; Jeong, Dae Joon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer is increasing in several populations; however, contributing factors have not been adequately discussed. Objectives Our aim was to identify trends of childhood thyroid cancer based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database and to elucidate changes in detection methods of cancers using a single-center database. Methods Data from the KCCR and Statistics Korea between 1999 and 2012 were used to calculate the crude incidence of thyroid cancer in children. To analyze detection methods for cancers, pediatric patients (aged 0-19 years, n = 126) who underwent thyroid surgery for thyroid cancers at our institution were identified. Subjects were divided into two groups by detection method: (1) palpation group and (2) screening group. Results The crude incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased from 0.5 per 100,000 in 1999 to 1.7 in 2012. The proportion of thyroid cancer among total cancers also increased from 4.4% in 1999 to 10.6% in 2012. Among 126 children from our institution, 91 cases (72%) were identified as palpable neck masses, and the remainder were discovered during imaging studies. The numbers in both groups gradually increased during the study period. Conclusions The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has steadily increased in Korea. Regarding the detection methods of cancers, most tumors are detected by palpation rather than screening, although the rate of masses identified during screening has increased. PMID:26835429

  5. Researching children's individual empathic abilities in the context of their daily lives: the importance of mixed methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerig, Simone; van Wesel, Floryt; Evers, Sandra J T M; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    In social neuroscience, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between agents. In this perspective paper, we argue that to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of empathy, social neuroscience research should draw on insights and methods from anthropology. First, we discuss neuropsychological studies that investigate empathy in inter-relational contexts. Second, we highlight differences between the social neuroscience and anthropological conceptualizations of empathy. Third, we introduce a new study design based on a mixed method approach, and present initial results from one classroom that was part of a larger study and included 28 children (m = 13, f = 15). Participants (aged 9-11) were administered behavioral tasks and a social network questionnaire; in addition an observational study was also conducted over a period of 3 months. Initial results showed how children's expressions of their empathic abilities were influenced by situational cues in classroom processes. This effect was further explained by children's positions within classroom networks. Our results emphasize the value of interdisciplinary research in the study of empathy.

  6. A mixed methods study of food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs in Hispanic families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A

    2014-12-01

    Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (≤10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n = 90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n = 52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56% ± 11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Standardization of a method to calculate absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Carla Rachel; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Watanabe, Tomoco; Costa, Paulo Luiz Aguirre; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; Machado, Marcia Melo Campos; Liberato Junior, Waldyr de Paula

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To standardize a method and determine normal values for absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children with normal creatinine clearance. Materials and methods: Twenty-two children (between 7 months and 10 years of age; mean 4.5 years) without clinical evidence of renal disease were studied using 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Eighteen had normal renal ultrasonography, micturating urethrocystography, creatinine clearance and visual interpretation of the scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA. Four children were excluded, one with incomplete creatinine clearance and three due to reduction in the creatinine clearance. Absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA (DMSA-Abs) was expressed as the fraction of the administered dose retained by each kidney six hours after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: DMSA-Abs was 21.8 +- 3.2% for the right kidney and 23.1 +-3.3% for the left kidney. There was no correlation between renal uptake and the age groups studied, although there was a tendency to an increase in the creatinine clearance with age. Conclusion: Normal values of DMSA-Abs can be used as an additional parameter for the initial diagnostic evaluation and during follow-up of renal diseases, mainly when bilateral impairment of renal function is suspected or in a patient with a single functioning kidney (in which renal differential function is of limited value). (author)

  8. The Effect of Montessori Method Supported by Social Skills Training Program on Turkish Kindergarten Children's Skills of Understanding Feelings and Social Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, Gökhan; Ari, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    The current research was conducted with the purpose of analyzing the effect of Montessori method supported by Social Skills Training Program on kindergarten children's skills of understanding feelings and social problem solving. 53 children attending Ihsan Dogramaci Applied Nursery School affiliated to Selcuk University, Faculty of Health Sciences…

  9. 16 CFR 1500.53 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toys and other articles intended for use by children over 36 but not over 96 months of age. 1500.53... methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 36 but... to simulate the normal and reasonably foreseeable use, damage, or abuse of toys and other articles...

  10. 16 CFR 1500.52 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toys and other articles intended for use by children over 18 but not over 36 months of age. 1500.52... methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 18 but... to simulate the normal and reasonably foreseeable use, damage, or abuse of toys and other articles...

  11. The method of urine sampling is not a valid predictor for vesicoureteral reflux in children after febrile urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Bernhard; Roesch, Judith; Strasser, Christa; Oswald, Josef

    2017-10-01

    The likelihood of detecting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) after febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) in children logically should correlate with the correct diagnosis of the UTI. Beneath the unspecific symptoms of fever urine analysis is the main diagnostic criterion for the exact diagnosis of febrile UTIs in children. Use of inadequate urine sampling techniques during diagnosis may lead to impaired accuracy in UTI diagnosis. This could lead to the assumption that children, having diagnosed their UTI by the use of possibly inadequate urine sampling techniques should not be evaluated as consequently compared to those, where the diagnosis relied on sterile urine sampling techniques. We hypothesized that children with possibly contaminated urine samples during the initial diagnosis may show a lower rate of VUR in subsequent VCUGs because of a wrong diagnosis initially compared to children, where accurate urine sampling techniques were used. Between 2009 and 2014, a total of 555 patients underwent a primary VCUG at our department indicated because of febrile UTIs. Patients with urine collection methods other than bag urine and catheter/suprapubic aspiration (SPA) were excluded from this study (mid-stream urine, potty urine, n = 149). We evaluated 402 patients (male/female 131/271, mean age 1.91 years), VUR rates and grades were compared between patients where urine was sampled by the use of a urine bag only at the time of diagnosis (n = 296, 73.6%) and those where sterile urine sampling (catheter, suprapubic puncture) was performed (n = 106, 26.3%). 4 patients were excluded due to equivocal data on urine sampling. VUR rate in children after sterile urine sampling using a catheter or SPA accounted to 31.1%. In those where urine samples acquired by the use of urine bags were used, 33.7% showed VUR on subsequent VCUG (p = 0.718). There were no significant differences as to VUR grades or gender, although VUR was much more commonly diagnosed in female patients (37

  12. A Mixed Methods Approach to Equity and Justice Research: Insights from Research on Children's Reasoning About Economic Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Chow, Kirby A; Griffin, Katherine M; Nenadal, Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research approaches are gaining traction across various social science disciplines, including among developmental scientists. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of a mixed methods research approach in examining issues related to equity and justice. We incorporate a brief overview of quantitative and qualitative monomethod research approaches in our larger discussion of the advantages, procedures, and considerations of employing a mixed methods design to advance developmental science from an equity and justice perspective. To better illustrate the theoretical and practical significance of a mixed methods research approach, we include examples of research conducted on children and adolescents' conceptions of economic inequality as one example of developmental science research with an equity and justice frame. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of methods for teaching receptive labeling to children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Laura L; Kodak, Tiffany; Carr, James E

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the conditional-only method (starting with a multiple-stimulus array) is more efficient than the simple-conditional method (progressive incorporation of more stimuli into the array) for teaching receptive labeling to children with autism spectrum disorders (Grow, Carr, Kodak, Jostad, & Kisamore,). The current study systematically replicated the earlier study by comparing the 2 approaches using progressive prompting with 2 boys with autism. The results showed that the conditional-only method was a more efficient and reliable teaching procedure than the simple-conditional method. The results further call into question the practice of teaching simple discriminations to facilitate acquisition of conditional discriminations. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Short- and long-term effects of parent training for preschool children with or at risk of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimestad, Marie Louise; Lambek, Rikke; Zacher Christiansen, Helene

    2016-01-01

    -ups of 3 to 12 months. Program type, intervention modality, and child diagnostic status did not moderate the effect. CONCLUSION: PT was partially supported as an efficacious intervention for preschool children with ADHD or ADHD symptoms with moderate ESs on parent-rated outcomes, but no significant results......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to synthesize the evidence of parent training (PT) as an early intervention for preschool children aged 2.5 to 6 years with ADHD or ADHD symptoms. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Sixteen studies including 1,003 children were...... analyzed. Parent-rated outcomes revealed moderate effect sizes (ESs; Hedges' g) of 0.51 for ADHD symptoms, 0.40 for conduct problems, and 0.64 for negative parenting. Based on independent assessment, results were only significant for negative parenting. Parent-rated outcomes were sustained at follow...

  15. New method for single-breath fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurement with improved feasibility in preschool children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijkenskjöld-Rentzhog, Charlotte; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Nordvall, Lennart; Malinovschi, Andrei; Alving, Kjell

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory societies recommend use of standardized methodologies for fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements in adults and children, but in preschoolers, feasibility remains a problem. The exhalation time needed to obtain steady-state FeNO is unclear. Our primary aim was to study the feasibility of an adapted single-breath FeNO method with age-adjusted exhalation times. We also studied the association between time to steady-state NO level and height, as well as FeNO in relation to asthma and current treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Sixty-three children aged 3-10 years performed FeNO measurements with a hand-held electrochemical device with a newly developed flow-control unit. Exhalation times were pre-adapted to age. Exhaled air was simultaneously sampled to a chemiluminescence analyzer to measure time to steady-state NO level. Eighty-one percent of the children achieved at least one approved measurement. From 4 years upwards, success rate was high (96%). Time to steady-state [NO] (median and interquartile range) was 2.5 s (2.4-3.5) at the age of 3-4 years and 3.5 s (2.7-3.8) at the age of 5-6 years. Height was associated with time to steady state (r(2) = 0.13, p = 0.02). FeNO (geometric mean [95% CI]) was higher in ICS-naïve asthmatic children (n = 19): 15.9 p.p.b. (12.2-20.9), than in both healthy controls (n = 8) 9.1 p.p.b. (6.6-12.4) and asthmatic subjects on treatment (n = 24) 11.5 p.p.b. (9.7-13.6). We found this adapted single-breath method with age-adjusted exhalation times highly feasible for children aged 4-10 years. ICS-naïve asthmatic children had FeNO levels under the current guideline cutoff level (20 p.p.b.), highlighting the importance of taking age into account when setting reference values. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Enteral feeding and its impact on family mealtime routines for caregivers of children with cerebral palsy: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marion; Jewell, Vanessa; Poskey, Gail A; Russell, Asa

    2018-02-01

    Enteral feedings are part of the daily mealtime experience for many caregivers of children with cerebral palsy. The scope of occupational therapy practice incorporates multiple aspects of the enteral feeding process. Yet, the research in this area is very limited. The purpose of this study was to provide practitioners with better understanding of the impact enteral feedings of children with cerebral palsy have on family mealtime routines. Using a complimentary mixed method approach, data were obtained through an online survey containing the Satisfaction Questionnaire with Gastrostomy Feeding (SAGA-8) and supplementary questions, and qualitative semi-structured phone interviews. Participants were caregivers of children with cerebral palsy who receive their primary nutrition through a gastrostomy tube. This study's cohort consisted of n = 36, SAGA-8, and n = 6 in-depth interviews. The mean age of children of was 9.4 (6.94 SD) with a mean age of 3.4 (5.35 SD) when enteral feeding was introduced. While families' overall situations positively changed after the gastronomy tube placement, environmental barriers and length of feeding time continued to present a challenge to mealtime routines. The mixed methods data analysis revealed that successful adjustment to having a child with a gastronomy tube and problem solving are closely linked and a consistent part of mealtime experience. Findings highlighted the necessity of comprehensive support from health professionals in achieving positive mealtime experience. Themes in this study indicated that caregivers would benefit from a professional with knowledge in the development and integration of rituals and routines to support positive outcomes. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. HPLC method for urinary theobromine determination: Effect of consumption of cocoa products on theobromine urinary excretion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Saez-Torres, Concepcion; Rodrigo, Dolores; Grases, Felix

    2015-11-01

    To validate a simple method of urinary theobromine determination, to assess urinary theobromine levels in 80 healthy children and to relate these levels to consumption of cocoa products. Urine samples were diluted, directly injected into an HPLC system, separated by gradient elution on a C18 column, and detected by UV spectrometry. The method was validated for linearity, limits of detection and quantification, imprecision, accuracy, recovery and interferences. The proposed method was used to assess 12-h day and 12-h night urinary theobromine excretion by 80 healthy children, divided into four groups based on consumption of cocoa products. In addition, urinary excretion of magnesium and oxalate, also present in cocoa, was measured in these four groups. The method was linear to a theobromine concentration of 278μmol/L (50mg/L). LOD and LOQ for urine samples, diluted 1:5 (vol/vol) with water, were 1.1 and 3.6μmol/L respectively. Within-run and between-run imprecisions (CV) were each cocoa products (pcocoa products. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of children with (Helicobacter pylori) infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, P F [CDU Padre Pio, Cotonou (Benin); De Maio, G; Andriulli, A [Ospedale CSS, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Ghoos, Y [Lab. Digestie Absorptie, Leuven (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is very high in the developing world where primary infection is acquired in early infancy. It may play a role as aggravating factor of malnutrition. This prevalence is decreasing in industrialised countries. In more cases symptomatology include recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Endoscopy in children is not always available in developing countries. The non-invasive {sup 13}CO{sub 2} Urea Breath Test is particularly indicated in these cases and has been validated as a reliable diagnostic and follow-up tool. The main problem in some countries is to find the good antibiotics without resistance. In this project the authors aim at long-term studying the relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection and nutritional status in young children of developing countries. The conditions of infection as well as absorption and pre- and post treatment period will be monitored by {sup 13}CO{sub 2} Urea Breath Tests. (author)

  19. Treatment of children with Helicobacter infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, P F [Clinique des Maladies de l' Appareil Digestif, Cotonou (Benin); Lawson, W [Clinique des Maladies de l' Appareil Digestif, Cotonou (Benin); De Maio, G; Andriulli, A [Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Ghoos, Y [Lab. Digestie Absoptie, Leuven (Belgium); Brunser, O [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    There is a large interest about Heliobacter pylori infection in childhood nowadays. The prevalence of infection is very high in developing countries and this is extremely correlated to the living conditions with consequences on the future health of children. Contamination mode is not well known but environment factors are involved. We used {sup 13}C Urea Breath Test to assess the prevalence rate in beninese asymptomatic children aged 7-11 years old (about 86%). We evaluated the influence of either conventional or probiotics therapy in eradicating Hp infection and some relationships with growth parameters. We concluded that conventional therapy or use of probiotics might improve infection status and probably influence growth factors in childhood. (author)

  20. INTESTINAL DYSBIOSIS IN CHILDREN WITH FOOD ALLERGY: PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS AND MODERN CORRECTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Makarova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background paper analyses the role of intestinal micro-flora at the stage of forming immunity, the importance of intestinal microflora abnormalities during the periods of allergic diseases development (primarily food allergies, as well as mechanisms of dysbiosis effect on the allergic processes in child's body. The study discusses the mechanisms of treatment and prevention effect of probiotics for cases of child allergic diseases. The work also specifies modern approaches to correcting dysbiotic abnormalities for children with food allergies, reviews the options of diet and medication treatment of food allergy, suggests a new algorithm of gradual treatment that targets correction of dysbiosis in this patient category.Key words: children, food allergy, dysbiosis, probiotics, prebiotics, diet therapy.

  1. Treatment of children with (Helicobacter pylori) infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics comparison with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, P.F.; De Maio, G.; Andriulli, A.; Ghoos, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is very high in the developing world where primary infection is acquired in early infancy. It may play a role as aggravating factor of malnutrition. This prevalence is decreasing in industrialised countries. In more cases symptomatology include recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Endoscopy in children is not always available in developing countries. The non-invasive 13 CO 2 Urea Breath Test is particularly indicated in these cases and has been validated as a reliable diagnostic and follow-up tool. The main problem in some countries is to find the good antibiotics without resistance. In this project the authors aim at long-term studying the relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection and nutritional status in young children of developing countries. The conditions of infection as well as absorption and pre- and post treatment period will be monitored by 13 CO 2 Urea Breath Tests. (author)

  2. Improving Health Outcomes of Children through Effective Parenting: Model and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Okafor, Martha; Sarpong, Daniel; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Satcher, David

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the design, development, testing and presentation of preliminary evidence of a translational, culturally relevant parenting education model, titled Smart and Secured Children (SSC). SSC, a quality parenting curriculum, prepares disparate African American parents as leaders for transforming their parenting behaviors and leading their peers and community in changing existing parenting culture. The article recommends expanded utility of identified promising processes, app...

  3. Oscillometric and auscultatory blood pressure measurement methods in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Stephanie L; Voss, Christine; Harris, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    The phase-out of mercury from clinical settings calls for valid alternatives to assess blood pressure (BP) in children. Aneroid devices provide a mercury-free alternative to BP measurements by auscultation, whereas oscillometric (automated) devices are increasingly becoming the norm in clinical practice due to their ease of use. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the accuracy of oscillometric and aneroid BP devices compared with the mercury sphygmomanometer for the measurement of BP in children. We systematically searched four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science) and relevant journals for eligible articles published before 30 July 2015. We screened 1415 articles, and two authors independently reviewed 92 full-text articles. We included 29 articles (38 studies) with 26 879 children. Random-effects model meta-analyses revealed that oscillometric devices yield higher measurements of SBP than auscultation with a mercury sphygmomanometer (pooled effect estimate 2.53 mmHg; 95% CI 0.57-4.50; P devices and found comparable results. Oscillometric devices may serve as a suitable alternative to auscultation for initial BP screening in the pediatric population.

  4. Method for Assessing Risk of Road Accidents in Transportation of School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogotovkina, N. S.; Volodkin, P. P.; Demakhina, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    The rationale behind the problem being investigated is explained by the remaining high level of the accident rates with the participation of vehicles carrying groups of children, including school buses, in the Russian Federation over the period of several years. The article is aimed at the identification of new approaches to improve the safety of transportation of schoolchildren in accordance with the Concept of children transportation by buses and the plan for its implementation. The leading approach to solve the problem under consideration is the prediction of accidents in the schoolchildren transportation. The article presents the results of the accident rate analysis with the participation of school buses in the Russian Federation for five years. Besides, a system to monitor the transportation of schoolchildren is proposed; the system will allow analyzing and forecasting traffic accidents which involve buses carrying groups of children, including school buses. In addition, the article presents a methodology for assessing the risk of road accidents during the transportation of schoolchildren.

  5. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndrome with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel Ndiaye, M.

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infection in the world. In Senegal prevalence rates is high as well in symptomatic patients (85,8%) as in general population (82%). Helicobacter pylori infection occurs in earlier age and leads to chronic infection (80% of children under 5 years old are infected in Senegal). On the other hand, malnutrition is common in children under 5 years old in Senegal (25%). H. pylori can cause malnutrition in a variety of ways including decreased food intake due to dyspepsia, defective digestion/absorption, diarrhea and may impact on the growth of children. H. pylori infection is a deep public health problem because non-invasive diagnosis tests are not available in routine practice and mainly because there are many difficulties in its treatment: no availability of drug (Clarithromycine); too much high cost of classic and effective therapeutic strategy ( three times minimal salary); high rate of resistance to antibiotics: 60-95% to Metronidazole, 50-60% to Tetracyclines, 30-40% to Macrolides as Azithromycine and Roxithromycine. So, the main problem in Senegal is to find the good, available and cheep treatment without resistance. Probiotics have been considered as a possible tool for this purpose

  6. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndrome with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadel Ndiaye, M [Institute Cercle Senegalais de Gastro-Enterlogie, Dakar (Senegal)

    2000-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infection in the world. In Senegal prevalence rates is high as well in symptomatic patients (85,8%) as in general population (82%). Helicobacter pylori infection occurs in earlier age and leads to chronic infection (80% of children under 5 years old are infected in Senegal). On the other hand, malnutrition is common in children under 5 years old in Senegal (25%). H. pylori can cause malnutrition in a variety of ways including decreased food intake due to dyspepsia, defective digestion/absorption, diarrhea and may impact on the growth of children. H. pylori infection is a deep public health problem because non-invasive diagnosis tests are not available in routine practice and mainly because there are many difficulties in its treatment: no availability of drug (Clarithromycine); too much high cost of classic and effective therapeutic strategy ( three times minimal salary); high rate of resistance to antibiotics: 60-95% to Metronidazole, 50-60% to Tetracyclines, 30-40% to Macrolides as Azithromycine and Roxithromycine. So, the main problem in Senegal is to find the good, available and cheep treatment without resistance. Probiotics have been considered as a possible tool for this purpose.

  7. The improvement of autism spectrum disorders on children communication ability with PECS method Multimedia Augmented Reality-Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taryadi; Kurniawan, I.

    2018-01-01

    This research was done to examine the usage of PECS method (Picture Exchange Communication System) multimedia augmented reality based as a learning alternative in training the communication of autism childen. The aim of this research were developing an approach to improve the communication ability before and after an intervension with PECS multimedia augmented reality method. The subject of this research were 12 autism children in Inclusion school in Pekalongan region. The experiment method was used with the single subject research approach. The research resulted that the average ability level in communication before and after the treatment has shown 47% while during the treatment the average level is 65%. Whereas there is an improvement after intervension stage with the average of 76%..

  8. Development and reliability of an observation method to assess food intake of young children in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Sarah C; Benjamin, Sara E; Ward, Dianne S

    2007-04-01

    To our knowledge, a direct observation protocol for assessing dietary intake among young children in child care has not been published. This article reviews the development and testing of a diet observation system for child care facilities that occurred during a larger intervention trial. Development of this system was divided into five phases, done in conjunction with a larger intervention study; (a) protocol development, (b) training of field staff, (c) certification of field staff in a laboratory setting, (d) implementation in a child-care setting, and (e) certification of field staff in a child-care setting. During the certification phases, methods were used to assess the accuracy and reliability of all observers at estimating types and amounts of food and beverages commonly served in child care. Tests of agreement show strong agreement among five observers, as well as strong accuracy between the observers and 20 measured portions of foods and beverages with a mean intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.99. This structured observation system shows promise as a valid and reliable approach for assessing dietary intake of children in child care and makes a valuable contribution to the growing body of literature on the dietary assessment of young children.

  9. Sleep deprivation in parents caring for children with complex needs at home: a mixed methods systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Damhnat; Bull, Rosalind; Winzenberg, Tania

    2015-02-01

    A significant number of children with a range of complex conditions and health care needs are being cared for by parents in the home environment. This mixed methods systematic review aimed to determine the amount of sleep obtained by these parents and the extent to which the child-related overnight health or care needs affected parental sleep experience and daily functioning. Summary statistics were not able to be determined due to the heterogeneity of included studies, but the common themes that emerged are that parents of children with complex needs experience sleep deprivation that can be both relentless and draining and affects the parents themselves and their relationships. The degree of sleep deprivation varies by diagnosis, but a key contributing factor is the need for parents to be vigilant at night. Of particular importance to health care professionals is the inadequate overnight support provided to parents of children with complex needs, potentially placing these parents at risk of poorer health outcomes associated with sleep deprivation and disturbance. This needs to be addressed to enable parents to remain well and continue to provide the care that their child and family require. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia in preschool children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the discriminative validity, reproducibility, and prevalence of clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia according to gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was a cross-sectional population-based study of 130 children diagnosed with CP at 18-36 months (mean=27.4, 81 males) and 40 children with typical development (TD, mean=26.2, 18 males). Sixteen signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment were directly observed in a videoed mealtime by a speech pathologist, and reported by parents on a questionnaire. Gross motor function was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System. The study found that 67.7% of children had clinical signs, and this increased with poorer gross motor function (OR=1.7, pDysphagia cut-points were modified to exclude a single cough on fluids, with a modified prevalence estimate proposed as 50.8%. Clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia are common in children with CP, even those with ambulatory CP. Parent-report on 16 specific signs remains a feasible screening method. While coughing was consistently identified by clinicians, it may not reflect children's regular performance, and was not sufficiently discriminative in children aged 18-36 months. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accuracy of Demirjian′s 8 teeth method for age prediction in South Indian children: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwana Begum Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Demirjian′s method of tooth development is most commonly used to assess age in individuals with emerging teeth. However, its application on numerous populations has resulted in wide variations in age estimates and consequent suggestions for the method′s adaptation to the local sample. Original Demirjian′s method utilized seven mandibular teeth, to which recently third molar is added so that the method can be applied on a wider age group. Furthermore, the revised method developed regression formulas for assessing age. In Indians, as these formulas resulted in underestimation, India-specific regression formulas were developed recently. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the accuracy and applicability of original regression formulas (Chaillet and Demirjian 2004 and India-specific regression formulas (Acharya 2010 using Demirjian′s 8 teeth method in South Indian children of age groups 9-20 years. Methods: The present study consisted of 660 randomly selected subjects (330 males and 330 females were in the aged ranging from 9 to 20 years divided into 11 groups according to their age. Demirjian′s 8 teeth method was used for staging of teeth. Results: Demirjian′s method underestimated the dental age (DA by 1.66 years for boys and 1.55 years for girls and 1.61 years in total. Acharya′s method over estimated DA by 0.21 years for boys and 0.85 years for girls and 0.53 years in total. The absolute accuracy was better for Acharya′s method compared with Demirjian method. Conclusion: This study concluded that both the Demirjian and Indian regression formulas were reliable in assessing age making Demirjian′s 8 teeth method applicable for South Indians.

  12. Evaluation of methods to relieve parental perceptions of vaccine-associated pain and anxiety in children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E; Beckstrand, Renea L; Pulsipher, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The pain and anxiety associated with vaccination is a significant reason why parents are reluctant to have their children vaccinated. Distraction methods and vapocoolant sprays may be use to modify the parent's perceptions of their child's pain and anxiety, thus encouraging parents to return for the child's next vaccination. A convenience sample of 68 parents with children ranging in age from 2 to 12 years was selected. The parents and the child were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group, a DVD distraction group, or a vapocoolant spray group. After the child was vaccinated, parents evaluated the child's pain and anxiety. No significant difference in the parents' perception of their child's pain or anxiety was found between the two treatment groups compared with the control group. Some parents expressed the desire to be able to choose the type of distraction method their child received rather than having them randomly assigned to a group. Although quantitative results were not statistically significant in this pilot study, parents commented that the DVD distraction method seemed helpful before and/or after vaccination, but not during vaccination, and parents appreciated the distraction. Parents, however, would prefer to choose the intervention rather than being randomly assigned to a group. The effectiveness of interventions with regard to parental perceptions of pain or anxiety warrants further study. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug-binding ability of human serum albumin at children with chronic virus hepatitis radiochemical definition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Dadakhanov, J.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Shukurov, B.V.; Mavlyanov, I.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The chronic virus hepatitis produces numerous abnormalities of liver function. The viruses of B, C, D, F and G hepatitis possess the ability to cause chronically proceeding diseases. Earlier we have found that binding ability of serum albumin at patients with acute forms of virus hepatitis is authentically reduced in comparison with the given parameters of control group. At an acute virus hepatitis B with middle severity the reducing of binding ability of serum albumin was observed at 70 % of patients. At an acute virus hepatitis A the reduce of binding ability of serum albumin is less expressed than at acute virus hepatitis B. At of chronic virus intoxication in human organism there is a formation and accumulation of toxic compounds in the excessive concentrations, which are not inherent to a normal metabolism. One of universal mechanisms of reaction of an organism on the increasing concentration of metabolism products is formation of complexes of various compounds with blood plasma proteins. The formation in an organism of endo- and exotoxins excessive concentrations results in blocking the binding centers of albumin molecule that causes the change of its complexing ability. The purpose of the present research: investigation of binding ability of serum albumin with use of radiochemical method at children with a chronic virus hepatitis B and C. Materials and methods. Under clinical observation there were 52 children in the age from 3 till 14 years. From them at 32 the chronic virus hepatitis B was confirmed, at 20 chronic virus - hepatitis C. Etiological diagnostics was carried out by definition of specific markers of a hepatitis B and C method IFA and PCR. Binding ability of serum albumin was defined by radiochemical method with use of the tritium labeled no-spa (drotaverine hydrochloride). The control group consists from 10 conditionally health children of similar age. Results and their discussion. The results of investigation have shown, that at a

  14. Improved radionuclide method for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children (milk scan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, S.; Kirkpatrick, J.A.; Winter, H.S.; Treves, S.

    1979-01-01

    A radionuclide study using technetium-99m-labelled milk feeding is described for the detection of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children. A comparison of findings in 39 patients referred for both radiographic and radionuclide studies showed that barium studies were positive in 25.6% and radionuclide studies in 59% of cases, reflecting the sensitivity of the radionuclide technique. This technique is also physiological and allows prolonged patient monitoring. It is simple to perform and should prove useful in the evaluation of patients suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration

  15. Optimal sampling strategies to assess inulin clearance in children by the inulin single-injection method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Lyonne K.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Cransberg, Karlien; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2003-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate in patients can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of inulin with the single-injection method. In this method, a single bolus injection of inulin is administered and several blood samples are collected. For practical and convenient application of this method

  16. Two sampling methods yield distinct microbial signatures in the nasopharynges of asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Crandall, Keith A; Freishtat, Robert J

    2016-06-16

    The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses, such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome during health and disease. Most studies so far have surveyed the nasopharynx as a whole; however, less is known about spatial variation (biogeography) in nasal microenvironments and how sampling techniques may capture that microbial diversity. We used targeted 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing and two different sampling strategies [nasal washes (NW) and nasal brushes (NB)] to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota in 30 asthmatic children. Nasal brushing is more abrasive than nasal washing and targeted the inner portion of the inferior turbinate. This region is expected to be different from other nasal microenvironments. Nasal washing is not spatially specific. Our 30 × 2 nasal microbiomes generated 1,474,497 sequences, from which we identified an average of 157 and 186 OTUs per sample in the NW and NB groups, respectively. Microbiotas from NB showed significantly higher alpha-diversity than microbiotas from NW. Similarly, both nasal microbiotas were distinct from each other (PCoA) and significantly differed in their community composition and abundance in at least 9 genera (effective size ≥1 %). Nasopharyngeal microenvironments in asthmatic children contain microbiotas with different diversity and structure. Nasal washes and brushes capture that diversity differently. Future microbial studies of the nasopharynx need to be aware of potential spatial variation (biogeography).

  17. Comparing a perceptual and an automated vision-based method for lie detection in younger children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Serras Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how easily it can be detected whether a child is being truthful or not in a game situation, and it explores the cue validity of bodily movements for such type of classification. To achieve this, we introduce an innovative methodology – the combination of perception studies (in which one uses eye-tracking technology and automated movement analysis. Film fragments from truthful and deceptive children were shown to human judges who were given the task to decide whether the recorded child was being truthful or not. Results reveal that judges are able to accurately distinguish truthful clips from lying clips in both perception studies. Even though the automated movement analysis for overall and specific body regions did not yield significant results between the experimental conditions, we did find a positive correlation between the amount of movement in a child and the perception of lies, i.e., the more movement the children exhibited during a clip, the higher the chance that the clip was perceived as a lie. The eye-tracking study revealed that, even when there is movement happening on different body regions, judges tend to focus their attention mainly on the face region.

  18. How to improve collaboration between the public health sector and other policy sectors to reduce health inequalities? - A study in sixteen municipalities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Ilse; den Hertog, Frank; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Albertine J

    2016-06-22

    The causes of health inequalities are complex. For the reduction of health inequalities, intersectoral collaboration between the public health sector and both social policy sectors (e.g. youth affairs, education) and physical policy sectors (e.g. housing, spatial planning) is essential, but in local practice difficult to realize. The aim of this study was to examine the collaboration between the sectors in question more closely and to identify opportunities for improvement. A qualitative descriptive analysis of five aspects of collaboration within sixteen Dutch municipalities was performed to examine the collaboration between the public health sector and other policy sectors: 1) involvement of the sectors in the public health policy network, 2) harmonisation of objectives, 3) use of policies by the relevant sectors, 4) formalised collaboration, and 5) previous experience. Empirical data on these collaboration aspects were collected based on document analysis, questionnaires and interviews. The study found that the policy workers of social sectors were more involved in the public health network and more frequently supported the objectives in the field of health inequality reduction. Both social policy sectors and physical policy sectors used policies and activities to reduce health inequalities. More is done to influence the determinants of health inequality through policies aimed at lifestyle and social setting than through policies aimed at socioeconomic factors and the physical environment. Where the physical policy sectors are involved in the public health network, the collaboration follows a very similar pattern as with the social policy sectors. All sectors recognise the importance of good relationships, positive experiences, a common interest in working together and coordinated mechanisms. This study shows that there is scope for improving collaboration in the field of health inequality reduction between the public health sector and both social policy sectors

  19. Thousands of exon skipping events differentiate among splicing patterns in sixteen human tissues [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1p0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Florea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is widely recognized for its roles in regulating genes and creating gene diversity. However, despite many efforts, the repertoire of gene splicing variation is still incompletely characterized, even in humans. Here we describe a new computational system, ASprofile, and its application to RNA-seq data from Illumina’s Human Body Map project (>2.5 billion reads.  Using the system, we identified putative alternative splicing events in 16 different human tissues, which provide a dynamic picture of splicing variation across the tissues. We detected 26,989 potential exon skipping events representing differences in splicing patterns among the tissues. A large proportion of the events (>60% were novel, involving new exons (~3000, new introns (~16000, or both. When tracing these events across the sixteen tissues, only a small number (4-7% appeared to be differentially expressed (‘switched’ between two tissues, while 30-45% showed little variation, and the remaining 50-65% were not present in one or both tissues compared.  Novel exon skipping events appeared to be slightly less variable than known events, but were more tissue-specific. Our study represents the first effort to build a comprehensive catalog of alternative splicing in normal human tissues from RNA-seq data, while providing insights into the role of alternative splicing in shaping tissue transcriptome differences. The catalog of events and the ASprofile software are freely available from the Zenodo repository (http://zenodo.org/record/7068; doi:10.5281/zenodo.7068 and from our web site http://ccb.jhu.edu/software/ASprofile.

  20. Thousands of exon skipping events differentiate among splicing patterns in sixteen human tissues [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2dl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is widely recognized for its roles in regulating genes and creating gene diversity. However, despite many efforts, the repertoire of gene splicing variation is still incompletely characterized, even in humans. Here we describe a new computational system, ASprofile, and its application to RNA-seq data from Illumina’s Human Body Map project (>2.5 billion reads.  Using the system, we identified putative alternative splicing events in 16 different human tissues, which provide a dynamic picture of splicing variation across the tissues. We detected 26,989 potential exon skipping events representing differences in splicing patterns among the tissues. A large proportion of the events (>60% were novel, involving new exons (~3000, new introns (~16000, or both. When tracing these events across the sixteen tissues, only a small number (4-7% appeared to be differentially expressed (‘switched’ between two tissues, while 30-45% showed little variation, and the remaining 50-65% were not present in one or both tissues compared.  Novel exon skipping events appeared to be slightly less variable than known events, but were more tissue-specific. Our study represents the first effort to build a comprehensive catalog of alternative splicing in normal human tissues from RNA-seq data, while providing insights into the role of alternative splicing in shaping tissue transcriptome differences. The catalog of events and the ASprofile software are freely available from the Zenodo repository (http://zenodo.org/record/7068; doi:10.5281/zenodo.7068 and from our web site http://ccb.jhu.edu/software/ASprofile.

  1. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndrome with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunser, O; Gotteland, M; Cruchet, S; Poliak, L [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    From the perspective of public health, one of the main characteristics of the less developed countries is their high levels of microbiological contamination of the environment and foodstuffs which manifests itself by repeated episodes of diarrhea; these affect all age groups but mainly infants and children, whose immune system is nor mature and makes them more susceptible. Food, water, flies, fomites and the hands of many individuals carry enteropathogenic bacteria which are transmitted via the fecal-oral cycle. In this way repeated infections become an important factor in the pathogenesis of the cycle of infantile diarrhea - malnutrition which in these countries explains a high proportion of the infantile and preschool morbidity and mortality.

  2. Substautiation of kineziological methods of rehabilitation of children suffering from scoliotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamozhanskaya G.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shows the results of screening studies of the frequency and severity of violations of scoliotic spine. It is noted that this pathology occurs in any population, regardless of the race, and geographic location of its location. Installations constant manifestation of this disease in the range of 0.5% -3% by weight of observations. This indicates that these morphologic variations in the total population of three sigmoid zone are deviations from the average functional characteristics oscillation growth period. In order to ensure early diagnosis and prevention organization corrective measures necessary to systematically monitor physical development, physical fitness and physical condition of the controlled population. Diagnosing the predisposition of children makes it possible means of prevention kinesiology scoliotic prevent violations of I - II degree.

  3. A structured expert evaluation method for the evaluation of children's computer games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baauw, E.; Bekker, M.M.; Barendregt, W.; Costabile, M.F.; Paternò, F.

    2005-01-01

    Inspection-based evaluation methods predicting usability problems can be applied for evaluating products without involving users. A new method (named SEEM), inspired by Norman’s theory-of-action model [18] and Malone’s concepts of fun [15], is described for predicting usability and fun problems in

  4. The Model Method: Singapore Children's Tool for Representing and Solving Algebraic Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Swee Fong; Lee, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Solving arithmetic and algebraic word problems is a key component of the Singapore elementary mathematics curriculum. One heuristic taught, the model method, involves drawing a diagram to represent key information in the problem. We describe the model method and a three-phase theoretical framework supporting its use. We conducted 2 studies to…

  5. Teaching Hearing-Impaired Children in Iraq Using a New Teaching Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N. D. C.; Mustafa, N.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a field test and results of a new didactic teaching method involving resource-based learning to teach various aspects of mathematics and science (fractions, magnetism, planets) to elementary aged hearing impaired student in Iraq. The dramatic improvements in language for learners is described and implications of the methods are…

  6. Credible knowledge: A pilot evaluation of a modified GRADE method using parent-implemented interventions for children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Adrienne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making in child and youth mental health (CYMH care requires recommendations that are developed through an efficient and effective method and are based on credible knowledge. Credible knowledge is informed by two sources: scientific evidence, and practice-based evidence, that reflects the "real world" experience of service providers. Current approaches to developing these recommendations in relation to CYMH will typically include evidence from one source or the other but do not have an objective method to combine the two. To this end, a modified version of the Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach was pilot-tested, a novel method for the CYMH field. Methods GRADE has an explicit methodology that relies on input from scientific evidence as well as a panel of experts. The panel established the quality of evidence and derived detailed recommendations regarding the organization and delivery of mental health care for children and youth or their caregivers. In this study a modified GRADE method was used to provide precise recommendations based on a specific CYMH question (i.e. What is the current credible knowledge concerning the effects of parent-implemented, early intervention with their autistic children?. Results Overall, it appeared that early, parent-implemented interventions for autism result in positive effects that outweigh any undesirable effects. However, as opposed to overall recommendations, the heterogeneity of the evidence required that recommendations be specific to particular interventions, based on the questions of whether the benefits of a particular intervention outweighs its harms. Conclusions This pilot project provided evidence that a modified GRADE method may be an effective and practical approach to making recommendations in CYMH, based on credible knowledge. Key strengths of the process included separating the assessments of the quality of the evidence and

  7. Comparative characteristics of the efficiency of different methods of operational treatment for pectus excavatum in children: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Yu. Razumovsky

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital malformations of the chest are observed in 1%–4% of the population, and the most common among these is pectus excavatum (90%. Aim. We aimed to conduct a retrospective multicenter study to compare the effectiveness of various methods of operative removal of pectus excavatum in children. Material and methods. We retrospectively analyzed the results of the surgical treatment of funnel-like deformity of the thorax in children conducted in clinics of pediatric surgery in seven regions of Russia (1,226 patients. The ratio of boys to girls in the study population was 2.2:1. The study population was divided as per their age into the following groups: 4–7 years (n = 180, 14.7%, 8–14 years (n = 731, 59.6%, and > 14 years (n = 315, 25.7%. The average age at which most children were operated was 11.83 ± 1.24 years. All children underwent a standard preoperative laboratory examination, including a general blood test, urine tests, a biochemical blood test, a hemostasiogram; radiographic diagnostic methods were used with the calculation of the Gizycka index; functional methods of investigation, such as electrocardiography, spirography, and radioisotope scintigraphy of the lungs were also used. Children with second- or third-degree pectus excavatum underwent surgical treatment almost exclusively. The symmetrical forms of the pectus excavatum were more prevalent. In most cases, the main pathological course was complicated. Results and discussion. The operated patients were divided into the following 3 groups: the first (n = 62: operations with the resection of the curved cartilages and external fixation of the sternum-rib complex (Bairov’s operation, the second (n = 374: thoracoplasty with the resection of warped cartilages using internal metal fixators by Timoshchenko, Ravitch, Paltia, Kondrashin, and the third (n = 790: minimally invasive operations without resection with internal fixation (Nuss operations: original and modified

  8. Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection in hospitalised South African children: Which method performs best?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dramowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2012, the South African (SA National Department of Health mandated surveillance of healthcare-associated infection (HAI, but made no recommendations of appropriate surveillance methods. Methods. Prospective clinical HAI surveillance (the reference method was conducted at Tygerberg Children’s Hospital, Cape Town, from 1 May to 31 October 2015. Performance of three surveillance methods (point prevalence surveys (PPSs, laboratory surveillance and tracking of antimicrobial prescriptions was compared with the reference method using surveillance evaluation guidelines. Factors associated with failure to detect HAI were identified by logistic regression analysis. Results. The reference method detected 417 HAIs among 1 347 paediatric hospitalisations (HAI incidence of 31/1000 patient days; 95% confidence interval (CI 28.2 - 34.2. Surveillance methods had variable sensitivity (S and positive predictive value (PPV: PPS S = 24.9% (95% CI 21 - 29.3, PPV = 100%; laboratory surveillance S = 48.4% (95% CI 43.7 - 53.2, PPV = 55.2% (95% CI 50.1 - 60.2; and antimicrobial prescriptions S = 66.4% (95% CI 61.8 - 70.8%, PPV = 88.5% (95% CI 84.5 - 91.6. Combined laboratory-antimicrobial surveillance achieved superior HAI detection (S = 84.7% (95% CI 80.9 - 87.8%, PPV = 97% (95% CI 94.6 - 98.4%. Factors associated with failure to detect HAI included patient transfer (odds ratio (OR 2.0, single HAI event (OR 2.8, age category 1 - 5 years (OR 2.1 and hospitalisation in a general ward (OR 2.3. Conclusions. Repeated PPSs, laboratory surveillance and/or antimicrobial prescription tracking are feasible HAI surveillance methods for low-resource settings. Combined laboratory-antimicrobial surveillance achieved the best sensitivity and PPV. SA paediatric healthcare facilities should individualise HAI surveillance, selecting a method suited to available resources and practice context.

  9. USING THE METHOD KINESIOTAPING IN REHABILITATION OF CHILDREN WITH HEMIPARETIC FORM OF CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Evgenevich Tuchkov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the impact of a new kind of impact in the rehabilitation of hemiparetic form of cerebral palsy – a method kinesiotaping «Concept 4 tapes». Within this framework, the receptor patient unit gradually turned on, resulting in a restructuring of the program abnormal movement, the conditions of use of other methods to increase the efficiency and depth of the order of their influence. The advantage of a technique kinesiotaping is the standard approach, allowing you to apply effects diagram method to all patients without loss of efficacy of therapeutic effects.

  10. Using LMS Method in Smoothing Reference Centile Curves for Lipid Profile of Iranian Children and Adolescents: A CASPIAN Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: LMS is a general monitoring method for fitting smooth reference centile curves in medical sciences. They provide the distribution of a measurement as it changes according to some covariates like age or time. This method describes the distribution of changes by three parameters; Mean, Coefficient of variation and Cox-Box power (skewness. Applying maximum penalized likelihood and spline function, the three curves are estimated and fitted and optimum smoothness is expressed by three curves. This study was conducted to provide the percentiles of lipid profile of Iranian children and adolescents by LMS.

     

    Methods: Smoothed reference centile curves of four groups of lipids (triglycerides, total-LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were developed from the data of 4824 Iranian school students, aged 6-18 years, living in six cities (Tabriz, Rasht, Gorgan, Mashad, Yazd and Tehran-Firouzkouh in Iran. Demographic and laboratory data were taken from the national study of the surveillance and prevention of non-communicable diseases from childhood (CASPIAN Study. After data management, data of 4824 students were included in the statistical analysis, which was conducted by the modified LMS method proposed by Cole. The curves were developed with a degree of freedom of four to ten with some tools such as deviance, Q tests, and detrended Q-Q plot were used for monitoring goodness of fit models.

     

    Results: All tools confirmed the model, and the LMS method was used as an appropriate method in smoothing reference centile. This method revealed the distributing features of variables serving as an objective tool to determine their relative importance.

     

    Conclusion: This study showed that the triglycerides level is higher and

  11. The indoor air and children's health study: methods and incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbury, M C; Maldonado, G; Waller, L

    1996-03-01

    The Indoor Air and Children's Health Study is a prospective cohort study of the relation between indoor air pollution and lower respiratory illness (LRI) during the first 2 years of life. Information on family and household characteristics was obtained from a health maintenance organization for 1,424 infants enrolled at birth. Data on LRI were abstracted from medical records. The incidence of all LRI was 48.4 per 100 child-years. Wheezing-associated respiratory illness (WARI)/asthma was the most common specific LRI, with an incidence of 11.5 per 100 child-years. Total LRI incidence was lowest during the first 6 months of life. Girls had lower incidence than boys [rate ratio (RR) = 0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-0.8)]. With the exception of croup, all LRI were most common during February and March. These results are comparable with those of other prospective studies. Consistent with other studies, self-reported maternal smoking demonstrated an RR of 1.5 (95% CI = 1.2-1.8) for total LRI, but the association varied for specific LRIs from 2.3 (95% CI = 1.5-3.0) for WARI/asthma to 1.0 (95% CI = 0.7-1.6) for bronchitis.

  12. A review of social media methods and lessons learned from the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Winseck, Kate; Jouvenal, Leslie Cooke; Hubble, David; Kulbicki, Kathryn M

    2017-08-01

    Given the reach and influence of social media, the National Children's Study Vanguard Study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of using social media to support participant retention. We describe a social media experiment designed to assess the impact of social media on participant retention, discuss several key considerations for integrating social media into longitudinal research, and review factors that may influence engagement in research-related social media. User participation varied but was most active when at launch. During the short life of the private online community, a total of 39 participants joined. General enthusiasm about the prospect of the online community was indicated. There were many lessons learned throughout the process in areas such as privacy, security, and Institutional Review Board clearance. These are described in detail. The opportunity to engage participants in longitudinal research using online social networks is enticing; however, more research is needed to consider the feasibility of their use in an ongoing manner. Recommendations are presented for future research seeking to use social media to improve retention in longitudinal research.

  13. The treatment of recurrent arthrogrypotic club foot in children by the Ilizarov method. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I H; Yang, M S; Chung, C Y; Cho, T J; Sohn, Y J

    2001-07-01

    Between 1994 and 1997 we used the Ilizarov apparatus to treat 12 recurrent arthrogrypotic club feet in nine patients with a mean age of 5.3 years (3.2 to 7). After a mean of three weeks (two to seven) for correction of the deformity and 1.5 weeks (one to four) for stabilisation in the apparatus, immobilisation in a cast was carried out for a mean of 14 weeks (7 to 24). The mean follow-up period was 35 months (27 to 57). Before operation there were one grade-II (moderate), eight grade-III (severe) and three grade-IV (very severe) club feet, according to the rating system of Dimeglio et al. After operation, all the club feet except one were grade I (benign) with a painless, plantigrade platform. Radiological assessment and functional evaluation confirmed significant improvement. Two complications occurred in one patient, namely, epiphysiolysis of the distal tibia and recurrence of the foot deformity. These results suggest that our proposed modification of the Ilizarov technique is effective in the management of recurrent arthrogrypotic club foot in young children.

  14. “The Good Start Method for English” or how to support development, prevent and treat risk of dyslexia in children learning English as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanowicz Katarzyna M.; Bogdanowicz Marta

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia and at its risk have difficulties in the acquisition of foreign languages, especially non-transparent English. The problems of such pupils concern various aspects of the language system but in particular relate to the ability to read and spell. The research literature dedicated to effective preventative methods and dyslexia treatment suggests that both children with dyslexia and at its risk need phonological awareness training and multi-sensory learning. I...

  15. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Methods Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot...... more challenging by the interviewers. Conclusions Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey...

  16. SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURE OF THE HUMERUS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Bojović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Humeral supracondylar fractures are the second most common fractures seen in children and young teenagers (16.6%. They represent 60-70% of all the elbow fractures. The maximum incidence is found between the fifth and seventh year of age, slightly more often in boys and on non-dominant hand. We performed a retrospective study in our clinic which included 105 patients admitted to our facility during the period from January, 2008 to April, 2012. The included patients had humeral supracondylar fracture either type 2 or type 3 (Gartland classification. At the moment of admission the median age was 7.26 years. All the patients were treated during the first 12 hours, with no more than two attempts of closed reposition. Sixteen patients with type 2 fracture were treated by analgosedation, closed reduction followed by cast immobilization. All other patients were treated after induction of general anesthesia. Sixteen patients were treated by percutaneous fixation of the fragments after closed reduction and 73 were treated with open reduction and pinning with different number and positions of „К“ wires. None of the patients had deep tissue infection; four patients had pin site infection. Three patients had cubitus varus deformity, two patients had elbow contracture, five patients had temporary limitation in extension, and one patient had iatrogenic lesion of the ulnar nerve. This makes 14.2% complication rate in our series. All the fractures healed in the expected period (3–4 weeks. Bauman’s angle, carrying angle and functional factor were measured postoperatively. Closed reposition with pinning, using radiographic control, for the dislocated supracondylar humeral fractures is the safest, as well as the least time consuming and cost-effective method. We also suggest treating these fractures within 12 hours and conversion of closed into open reposition in case of lacking crepitations (possibility of interposition of soft tissues between fragments.

  17. Suitability of imaging methods (X-ray, CT, MRI) in the diagnostics of Ewings sarcoma in children - analysis of own material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuleta-Bosak, E.; Machnik-Broncel, J.; Kluczewska, E.; Madziara, W.; Ciupinska-Kajor, M.; Sojka, D.; Rogala, W.; Juszczyk, J.; Wilk, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ewing sarcoma is a malignant, small round cell bone tumor, presenting predominantly in children and adolescents. Ewing sarcoma may develop in every bone; diaphyses of long bones, ribs and flat bones are the main locations. Local and systemic clinical symptoms are nonspecific - pain, swelling, fever or ill-being. The aim of the study was to assess the role of radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the analysis of bone lesions in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma. Material/Methods: Twenty-seven patients, aged between 1 year and 10 months, and 17 years and 2 months, with histologically verified Ewing sarcoma of the bone, referred to the Radiological Department of University Hospital No 6., John Paul II Upper Silesian Centre for Child Health Katowice, in the period from 1996 to 2007, were included in the study.Plain radiography was performed in every child, CT in 20 and MRI in 12 individuals. Tumour location, extension of the tumour, soft tissue mass, and periosteal reaction were taken into consideration in the evaluation of the lesion. In some cases, pathological features of the MRI and CT were compared. The prevalence of some radiological features was compared to the literature data. Results: The most common site of tumor was: ribs (6 children), femoral bone (6 children), pelvis (4 children) and tibia (3 children). In 2 children, a primary tumor was diagnosed in the spine (multifocal in 1 child). X-rays revealed: periosteal reaction in 17 children (63%), soft tissue involvement in 19 children (70%), permeative component in 16 children (59%), and sclerotic component in 5 children (19%). In 10 children (37%), periosteal reaction was not detected. The examination revealed: soft tissue calcifications in 7 cases (26%), a well-delineated focus of destruction within bones in 3 children (11%), cortical thickening in 4 children (15%), cortical destruction in 4 children (15%), saucerisation in 3 children (11%), bone expansion

  18. Effectiveness of a Motivation and Practical Skills Development Methods on the Oral Hygiene of Orphans Children in Kaunas, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeviciute, Greta; Narbutaite, Julija

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a motivation and practical skills development methods on the oral hygiene of orphans. Sixty eight orphans aged between 7 and 17 years from two orphanages in Kaunas were divided into two groups: practical application group and motivation group. Children were clinically examined by determining their oral hygiene status using Silness-Löe plaque index. Questionnaire was used to estimate the oral hygiene knowledge and practices at baseline and after 3 months. Statistical analysis included: Chi-square test (χ(2)), Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, Spearman's rho correlation coefficient and Kappa coefficient. All children had a plaque on at least one tooth in both groups: motivation 1.14 (SD 0.51), practical application 1.08 (SD 0.4) (P = 0.58). Girls in both groups showed significantly better oral hygiene than boys (P soft drinks, the statistically significant decline of their use was in both groups (P = 0.004). Educational programs are effective in improving oral hygiene, especially when they're based on practical skills training.

  19. Parent-to-parent peer support for parents of children with a disability: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lucy; Carter, Bernie; Sanders, Caroline; Blake, Lucy; Keegan, Kimberley

    2017-08-01

    This paper will report on the findings of a study which investigated the influence of a befriending (parent-to-parent peer support) scheme on parents whose children have a disability or additional need. The scheme operated from an acute children's tertiary setting in the UK. A prospective concurrent mixed method design collected interview (n=70) and questionnaire (n=68) data at two time-points from befrienders (n=13) and befriendees (n=26). The main qualitative findings of the study relate to the different degrees parents (befriendees and befrienders) moved from being lost, to finding and being a guide and getting to a better place. The quantitative findings demonstrate that parent-to-parent peer support has a positive influence on parents' levels of psychological distress and their ability to cope with being a parent of a child with a disability. The befriending scheme acted as a catalyst for many parents to move towards a place where they could grow and begin to flourish and thrive. Professionals should inform parents who have a child with a disability that peer-to-peer parenting support schemes are a valuable and appropriate source of support and help. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effectiveness of Backward Chaining Methods to Improve Skills in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arip Apriyadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A child with intellectual disability has problems in adaptive behavior such as eating skill. The research objective was to describe: 1 the ability of the child with intellectual disability before being given intervention using backward chaining method, 2 the ability of the child with intellectual disability after being given intervention using backward chaining method, and 3 the effectiveness of backward chaining method to increase the eating skills for child with intellectual disability. The method of this study was an experimental method by using the Single Subject Research (SSR with the A-B-A design model. The results showed that the percentage of overlap between the baseline condition-1 and the intervention condition was 0%. The calculation declared that there was increase eating skill for child with intellectual disability with backward chaining. Anak disabilitas intelektual memiliki masalah dalam perilaku adaptif seperti pada keterampilan makan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan: 1 kemampuan anak disabilitas intelektual sebelum diberikan intervensi menggunakan backward chaining, 2 kemampuan anak disabilitas intelektual setelah diberikan intervensi menggunakan backward chaining, dan 3 keefektifan backward chaining untuk meningkatkan keterampilan makan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen dengan menggunakan Single Subject Reseach (SSR dengan desain A-B-A. Hasil penelitian menunjukan perolehan presentase overlap antara kondisi baseline-1 ke kondisi intervensi sebesar 0%. Perhitungan tersebut menyatakan adanya pengaruh keefektifan backward chaining sebagai intervensi terhadap peningkatan keterampilan makan sebagai target behavior.

  1. Exploring the Effectiveness of Implementing Seminars as a Teaching and an Assessment Method in a Children's Literature Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'Adawi, Sharifa Said Ali

    2017-01-01

    The classroom environment should support students' autonomy through teaching and assessment methods. This article highlights students' perceptions about the value of implementing seminars as a teaching and an assessment method in a children's literature course in a college of applied sciences (XCAS). Additionally, preparation considerations and…

  2. "Mastery Learning" Como Metodo Psicoeducativo para Ninos con Problemas Especificos de Aprendizaje. ("Mastery Learning" as a Psychoeducational Method for Children with Specific Learning Problems.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coya, Liliam de Barbosa; Perez-Coffie, Jorge

    1982-01-01

    "Mastery Learning" was compared with the "conventional" method of teaching reading skills to Puerto Rican children with specific learning disabilities. The "Mastery Learning" group showed significant gains in the cognitive and affective domains. Results suggested Mastery Learning is a more effective method of teaching…

  3. A simple lead dust fall method predicts children's blood lead level: New evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Taylor, Alan

    2017-11-01

    We have measured dust fall accumulation in petri dishes (PDD) collected 6 monthly from inside residences in Sydney urban area, New South Wales, Australia as part of a 5-year longitudinal study to determine environmental associations, including soil. with blood lead (PbB) levels. The Pb loading in the dishes (n = 706) had geometric means (GM) of 24µg/m 2 /30d, a median value of 22µg/m 2 /30d with a range from 0.2 to 11,390µg/m 2 /30d. Observed geometric mean PbB was 2.4µg/dL at ages 2-3 years. Regression analyses showed a statistically significant relationship between predicted PbB and PDD. The predicted PbB values from dust in our study are consistent with similar analyses from the US in which floor dust was collected by wipes. Predicted PbB values from PDD indicate that an increase in PDD of about 100µg/m 2 /30d would increase PbB by about 1.5µg/dL or a doubling PbB at the low levels currently observed in many countries. Predicted PbB values from soil indicate that a change from 0 to 1000mg Pb/kg results in an increase of 1.7µg/dL in PbB, consistent with earlier investigations. Blood Pb levels can be predicted from dust fall accumulation (and soil) in cases where blood sampling is not always possible, especially in young children. Petri dish loading data could provide an alternative or complementary "action level" at about 100µg Pb/m 2 /30 days, similar to the suggested level of about 110µg Pb/m 2 for surface wipes, for use in monitoring activities such as housing rehabilitation, demolition or soil resuspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Brief Report: Imaginative Drawing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa L.; Craig, Eleanore

    2016-01-01

    Here we examine imaginative drawing abilities in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and learning disabilities (LD) under several conditions: spontaneous production, with use of a template, and combining two real entities to form an "unreal" entity. Sixteen children in each group, matched on mental and chronological age, were…

  5. Dietary intake in asylum seeker children in The Netherlands, strongly related to age and origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, A. A. M.; Wiegersma, P. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.

    Objective: To monitor the dietary intake of energy, macro- and micronutrients in asylum seeker children. Design and setting: Cross-sectional study in three asylum seeker centres in The Netherlands. Subjects: Hundred and sixteen children 2-12 years old (86% of the study cohort) provided a dietary

  6. Professionals' Guidance about Spoken Language Multilingualism and Spoken Language Choice for Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate factors that influence professionals' guidance of parents of children with hearing loss regarding spoken language multilingualism and spoken language choice. Sixteen professionals who provide services to children and young people with hearing loss completed an online survey, rating the importance of…

  7. The Capacity Profile: a method to classify additional care needs in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester-Delver, Anke; Beelen, Anita; Hennekam, Raoul; Nollet, Frans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interrater reliability and stability over time of the Capacity Profile (CAP). The CAP is a standardized method for classifying additional care needs indicated by current impairments in five domains of body functions: physical health, neuromusculoskeletal

  8. Diuretic ultrasound - noninvasive method for assessment of congenital hydronephrosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueva, A.; Gaidarova, M.; Zlatanova, G.

    2012-01-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction is the most common congenital abnormality of the urinary tract. Its incidence is 5 cases per 100 000 population annually. Several functional methods are available: diuretic renography, diuretic ultrasound and diuretic urography. The aim of this study is to compare the sensitivity and the specificity of the diuretic ultrasound and renography in the evaluation of upper urinary tract obstruction. (authors)

  9. Caregivers' interest in using smokeless tobacco products: Novel methods that may reduce children's exposure to secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Theodore L; Tackett, Alayna P; Borrelli, Belinda

    2016-10-01

    The study examined caregivers' interest in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products for smoking cessation, reduction, and to help them not smoke in places such as around their child, as all three methods would potentially lead to reduced secondhand smoke exposure for their children. A sample of 136 caregivers completed carbon monoxide testing to assess smoking status and a brief survey. Few caregivers had ever used potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (smoke around their child or in the home (55%). Caregivers less motivated to quit smoking and with no home smoking ban were more interested in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products to help them quit/stay quit from smoking (p < .05). © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Methods and results of diuresis renography in infants and children. Methodik und Ergebnisse der Diurese-Nephrographie im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinhans, E. (Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Rohrmann, D. (Urologische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Stollbrink, C. (Paediatrische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Mertens, R. (Paediatrische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Jakse, G. (Urologische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Buell, U. (Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, RWTH Aachen (Germany))

    1994-02-01

    In infants and children with hydronephrosis, the decision-making process for those instances of urinary tract dilatation that require surgical correction and those that do not is based in part on the findings of diuresis renography. Quantitative analysis of renogram curve pattern is a well established tool which, in addition, provides comparable results in follow-up studies. However, standardization of the method including data analysis does not yet exist. In this study, three parameters obtained by mathematical curve analysis were examined: clearance half-time for diuretic response, clearance within 5 minutes and clearance within 16 minutes. As a result, 16 minutes clearance revealed superior results in discriminating obstructive impairments of urine drainage from not obstructive ones. Compared to the clearance halftime, the markedly shorter duration of the examination (16 minutes) is an additional benefit. (orig.)

  11. An ecological method for the sampling of nonverbal signalling behaviours of young children with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2016-08-01

    Profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) are a complex range of disabilities that affect the general health and well-being of the individual and their capacity to interact and learn. We developed a new methodology to capture the non-symbolic signalling behaviours of children with PMLD within the context of a face-to-face interaction with a caregiver to provide analysis at a micro-level of descriptive detail incorporating the use of the ELAN digital video software. The signalling behaviours of participants in a natural, everyday interaction can be better understood with the use of this innovation in methodology, which is predicated on the ecology of communication. Recognition of the developmental ability of the participants is an integral factor within that ecology. The method presented establishes an advanced account of the modalities through which a child affected by PMLD is able to communicate.

  12. The Family Spirit trial for American Indian teen mothers and their children: CBPR rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Jones, Tanya; Tortice, Iralene; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Powers, Julia; Lake, Kristin; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline results of the Family Spirit trial. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the impact of the paraprofessional-delivered "Family Spirit" home-visiting intervention to reduce health and behavioral risks for American Indian teen mothers and their children. A community based participatory research (CBPR) process shaped the design of the current randomized controlled trial of the Family Spirit intervention. Between 2006 and 2008, 322 pregnant teens were randomized to receive the Family Spirit intervention plus Optimized Standard Care, or Optimized Standard Care alone. The Family Spirit intervention is a 43-session home-visiting curriculum administered by American Indian paraprofessionals to teen mothers from 28 weeks gestation until the baby's third birthday. A mixed methods assessment administered at nine intervals measures intervention impact on parental competence, mother's and children's social, emotional and behavioral risks for drug use, and maladaptive functioning. Participants are young (mean age = 18.1 years), predominantly primiparous, unmarried, and challenged by poverty, residential instability and low educational attainment. Lifetime and pregnancy drug use were ~2-4 times higher and ~5-6 times higher, respectively, than US All Races. Baseline characteristics were evenly distributed between groups, except for higher lifetime cigarette use and depressive symptoms among intervention mothers. If study aims are achieved, the public health field will have new evidence supporting multi-generational prevention of behavioral health disparities affecting young American Indian families and the utility of indigenous paraprofessional interventionists in under-resourced communities.

  13. Effectiveness of a Motivation and Practical Skills Development Methods on the Oral Hygiene of Orphans Children in Kaunas, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Markeviciute

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a motivation and practical skills development methods on the oral hygiene of orphans. Material and Methods: Sixty eight orphans aged between 7 and 17 years from two orphanages in Kaunas were divided into two groups: practical application group and motivation group. Children were clinically examined by determining their oral hygiene status using Silness-Löe plaque index. Questionnaire was used to estimate the oral hygiene knowledge and practices at baseline and after 3 months. Statistical analysis included: Chi-square test (χ2, Fisher‘s exact test, Student‘s t-test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient and Kappa coefficient. Results: All children had a plaque on at least one tooth in both groups: motivation 1.14 (SD 0.51, practical application 1.08 (SD 0.4 (P = 0.58. Girls in both groups showed significantly better oral hygiene than boys (P < 0.001. After 3 months educational program oral hygiene status improved in both groups significantly 0.4 (SD 0.35 (P < 0.001. Significantly better oral hygiene was determined in practical application group 0.19 (SD 0.27 in comparison with motivation group 0.55 (SD 0.32 (P < 0.001. By comparing results of first and second questionnaire surveys on use of soft drinks, the statistically significant decline of their use was in both groups (P = 0.004. Conclusions: Educational programs are effective in improving oral hygiene, especially when they’re based on practical skills training.

  14. Integrated complex care coordination for children with medical complexity: A mixed-methods evaluation of tertiary care-community collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Eyal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care medical homes may improve health outcomes for children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN, by improving care coordination. However, community-based primary care practices may be challenged to deliver comprehensive care coordination to complex subsets of CSHCN such as children with medical complexity (CMC. Linking a tertiary care center with the community may achieve cost effective and high quality care for CMC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of community-based complex care clinics integrated with a tertiary care center. Methods A before- and after-intervention study design with mixed (quantitative/qualitative methods was utilized. Clinics at two community hospitals distant from tertiary care were staffed by local community pediatricians with the tertiary care center nurse practitioner and linked with primary care providers. Eighty-one children with underlying chronic conditions, fragility, requirement for high intensity care and/or technology assistance, and involvement of multiple providers participated. Main outcome measures included health care utilization and expenditures, parent reports of parent- and child-quality of life [QOL (SF-36®, CPCHILD©, PedsQL™], and family-centered care (MPOC-20®. Comparisons were made in equal (up to 1 year pre- and post-periods supplemented by qualitative perspectives of families and pediatricians. Results Total health care system costs decreased from median (IQR $244 (981 per patient per month (PPPM pre-enrolment to $131 (355 PPPM post-enrolment (p=.007, driven primarily by fewer inpatient days in the tertiary care center (p=.006. Parents reported decreased out of pocket expenses (p© domains [Health Standardization Section (p=.04; Comfort and Emotions (p=.03], while total CPCHILD© score decreased between baseline and 1 year (p=.003. Parents and providers reported the ability to receive care close to home as a key benefit. Conclusions Complex

  15. No Impact of the Analytical Method Used for Determining Cystatin C on Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberer, Martin; Hoefele, Julia; Benz, Marcus R; Bökenkamp, Arend; Weber, Lutz T

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of inulin clearance is considered to be the gold standard for determining kidney function in children, but this method is time consuming and expensive. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is on the other hand easier to calculate by using various creatinine- and/or cystatin C (Cys C)-based formulas. However, for the determination of serum creatinine (Scr) and Cys C, different and non-interchangeable analytical methods exist. Given the fact that different analytical methods for the determination of creatinine and Cys C were used in order to validate existing GFR formulas, clinicians should be aware of the type used in their local laboratory. In this study, we compared GFR results calculated on the basis of different GFR formulas and either used Scr and Cys C values as determined by the analytical method originally employed for validation or values obtained by an alternative analytical method to evaluate any possible effects on the performance. Cys C values determined by means of an immunoturbidimetric assay were used for calculating the GFR using equations in which this analytical method had originally been used for validation. Additionally, these same values were then used in other GFR formulas that had originally been validated using a nephelometric immunoassay for determining Cys C. The effect of using either the compatible or the possibly incompatible analytical method for determining Cys C in the calculation of GFR was assessed in comparison with the GFR measured by creatinine clearance (CrCl). Unexpectedly, using GFR equations that employed Cys C values derived from a possibly incompatible analytical method did not result in a significant difference concerning the classification of patients as having normal or reduced GFR compared to the classification obtained on the basis of CrCl. Sensitivity and specificity were adequate. On the other hand, formulas using Cys C values derived from a compatible analytical method partly showed insufficient

  16. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mergler, Sandra; de Man, Stella A.; Boot, Annemieke M; Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; Huijbers, Wim A. R.; van Rijn, Rick R.; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children

  17. Prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in the lorestan province of iran, using the key informant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hessom; Kuper, Hannah; Rezvan, Farhad; Amelie, Khatere; Mahboobi-Pur, Hassan; Oladi, Mohammad Reza; Muhit, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan

    2010-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in Lorestan province of Iran, and to assess the feasibility of the Key Informant Method in this setting. Potential cases were identified using the Key Informant Method, in 3 counties of Lorestan province during June through August 2008, and referred for examination. Causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were determined and categorized using standard World Health Organization methods. Of 123 children referred for examination, 27 children were confirmed to have severe visual impairment/blindness or blindness. The median age was11 years (interquartile range 6-13), and 59% were girls. After adjusting for non-attenders, the estimated prevalence of severe visual impairment/blindness was 0.04% (0.03-0.05). The main site of abnormality was retina (44%), followed by disorders of the whole eye (33%). The majority of causes had a hereditary etiology (70%), which was associated with a family history of blindness (P = 0.002). Potentially avoidable causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were found in 14 children (52%). Almost all children with severe visual impairment/blindness had a history of parental consanguinity (93%). Our findings suggest a moderate prevalence of childhood blindness in the Lorestan province of Iran, a high proportion of which may be avoidable, given improved access to ophthalmic and genetic counselling services in rural areas. The Key Informant Method is feasible in Iran; future research is discussed.

  18. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  19. [Application and comparison of NDT-Bobath and Vojta methods in treatment of selected pathologies of the nervous system in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Podogrodzki, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    The paper compares effectiveness of NDT-Bobath and Vojta methods in the treatment of selected dysfunctions of the nervous system in children. It evaluates applicability of both methods in prenatal and perinatal injury of the central nervous system, myelomeningocele, Down syndrome and spasticity. The existing literature is supplemented by own clinical experience of the authors. The paper forms the opinion on the constant debates on the superiority of one method over another.

  20. Radiation dose to children in diagnostic radiology. Measurements and methods for clinical optimisation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, A.J.

    1995-09-01

    A method for estimating mean absorbed dose to different organs and tissues was developed for paediatric patients undergoing X-ray investigations. The absorbed dose distribution in water was measured for the specific X-ray beam used. Clinical images were studied to determine X-ray beam positions and field sizes. Size and position of organs in the patient were estimated using ORNL phantoms and complementary clinical information. Conversion factors between the mean absorbed dose to various organs and entrance surface dose for five different body sizes were calculated. Direct measurements on patients estimating entrance surface dose and energy imparted for common X-ray investigations were performed. The examination technique for a number of paediatric X-ray investigations used in 19 Swedish hospitals was studied. For a simulated pelvis investigation of a 1-year old child the entrance surface dose was measured and image quality was estimated using a contrast-detail phantom. Mean absorbed doses to organs and tissues in urography, lung, pelvis, thoracic spine, lumbar spine and scoliosis investigations was calculated. Calculations of effective dose were supplemented with risk calculations for special organs e g the female breast. The work shows that the examination technique in paediatric radiology is not yet optimised, and that the non-optimised procedures contribute to a considerable variation in radiation dose. In order to optimise paediatric radiology there is a need for more standardised methods in patient dosimetry. It is especially important to relate measured quantities to the size of the patient, using e g the patient weight and length. 91 refs, 17 figs, 8 tabs

  1. Radiation dose to children in diagnostic radiology. Measurements and methods for clinical optimisation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, A J

    1995-09-01

    A method for estimating mean absorbed dose to different organs and tissues was developed for paediatric patients undergoing X-ray investigations. The absorbed dose distribution in water was measured for the specific X-ray beam used. Clinical images were studied to determine X-ray beam positions and field sizes. Size and position of organs in the patient were estimated using ORNL phantoms and complementary clinical information. Conversion factors between the mean absorbed dose to various organs and entrance surface dose for five different body sizes were calculated. Direct measurements on patients estimating entrance surface dose and energy imparted for common X-ray investigations were performed. The examination technique for a number of paediatric X-ray investigations used in 19 Swedish hospitals was studied. For a simulated pelvis investigation of a 1-year old child the entrance surface dose was measured and image quality was estimated using a contrast-detail phantom. Mean absorbed doses to organs and tissues in urography, lung, pelvis, thoracic spine, lumbar spine and scoliosis investigations was calculated. Calculations of effective dose were supplemented with risk calculations for special organs e g the female breast. The work shows that the examination technique in paediatric radiology is not yet optimised, and that the non-optimised procedures contribute to a considerable variation in radiation dose. In order to optimise paediatric radiology there is a need for more standardised methods in patient dosimetry. It is especially important to relate measured quantities to the size of the patient, using e g the patient weight and length. 91 refs, 17 figs, 8 tabs.

  2. Comparison of conventional methods for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in children of the Center-West Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvone M. Brustoloni

    Full Text Available In Brazil, sophisticated techniques currently employed for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis, such as polymerase chain reaction-based assays, are only available in major research centers, whereas conventional methods are still used in many areas where the disease occurs. In the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the country's Center-West Region, visceral leishmaniasis has recently emerged in many cities, and duration of the disease, from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis, has been short. Considering that results of diagnostic tests may depend on the phase of the disease, we compared direct examination of bone marrow aspirates (BMAs, BMA culture, and serology by Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT for diagnosis in children, according to time of evolution (30 days and to spleen size ( 5 cm at admission. Duration of the illness did not interfere with test positivity: direct smear examination and IFAT were positive in more than 80% of patients, as was culture in around 60%. Results of positive microscopy, however, where predominant in patients with larger spleens. Thanks to the association of traditional techniques, only a few patients had to begin a treatment trial without confirming the diagnosis. Conventional methods for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis are still indispensable in our region, and training professionals in basic techniques should be incremented. The highest sensitivity in laboratory diagnosis among the cases investigated was that obtained with a combination of BMA direct examination and IFAT, nearing 100%.

  3. Researching children's individual empathic abilities in the context of their daily lives: The importance of Mixed Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eRoerig

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In social neuroscience, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between agents. In this perspective paper, we argue that to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying development of empathy, social neuroscience research should draw on insights and methods from anthropology. First, we discuss neuropsychological studies that investigated empathy in inter-relational context. Second, we highlight differences between the social neuroscience and anthropological conceptualization of empathy. Third, we introduce a new study design based on a mixed method approach, and present initial results of one classroom that was part of the larger study and included 28 children (m=13, f =15. Participants (age 9-11 were administered behavioral tasks and a social network questionnaire; an observational study was conducted during a period of 10 - 14 weeks. Initial results showed how children’s expressions of their empathic abilities were influenced by situational cues in classroom processes. This effect was further explained by children’s position in the classroom network. Our results emphasize the value of interdisciplinary research in the study of empathy.

  4. Effectiveness of various surgical methods in treatment of Hirschsprung’s disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukač Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hirschsprung’s disease is the most common identifiable developmental disorder of the enteric nervous system, characterized by a failure of its formation in a variable segment of distal bowel. Currently available surgical therapies for Hirschsprung’s disease, although lifesaving, are associated with numerous complications. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different surgical methods and the incidence of serious complications after radical surgery of rectosigmoid Hirschsprung’s disease. Methods. A retrospective analysis, from June 1997 until May 2012 was carried out on 84 patients operated for Hirschsprung’s disease of rectosigmoid colon. Transanal endorectal pull-through was performed in 30 (35.7% patients (group I, while 54 (64.3% patients were operated by other (Soave, Duhamel or Swenson procedures (group II. The age at operation, the incidence and severity of postoperative complications, the need for previous colostomy and the number of reoperations are countered in order to evaluate the efficacy of surgical procedures. Results. In the group I, the mean age at operation was 9.41 ± 6.37 months and in the group II the mean age at operation was 16.8 ± 13.9 months which was significantly higher (p < 0.01. In the group I there were only 3 (10% patients with complications, one (3% of them was prone to only one redo procedure (1.00 ± 0.00 and there was no need for previous colostomy in all patients (100%. In the group II there were 16 (30% patients with significantly frequent complications (p < 0.05, about 2 reoperations on the average (1.94 ± 1.84 in 4 of them (25% and 22 (41% redo procedures, which was, in total, significantly higher than in the group I (p < 0.01. Only Soave’s procedure was performed without previous colostomy in 20 (37% patients. Conclusion. Transanal endorectal pull-through in surgical treatment of patients with Hirschsprung’s disease is more effective than other procedures

  5. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...... quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children...

  6. Children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherian, Ali; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Topical anesthesia has been widely advocated as an important component of atraumatic administration of intraoral local anesthesia. The aim of this study was to use direct observation of children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia. Forty-eight children participated in this randomized controlled clinical trial. They received two separate inferior alveolar nerve block or primary maxillary molar infiltration injections on contralateral sides of the jaws by both cotton-roll vibration (a combination of topical anesthesia gel, cotton roll, and vibration for physical distraction) and control (routine topical anesthesia) methods. Behavioral pain reactions of children were measured according to the author-developed face, head, foot, hand, trunk, and cry (FHFHTC) scale, resulting in total scores between 0 and 18. The total scores on the FHFHTC scale ranged between 0-5 and 0-10 in the cotton-roll vibration and control methods, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation values of total scores on FHFHTC scale were lower in the cotton-roll vibration method (1.21 ± 1.38) than in control method (2.44 ± 2.18), and this was statistically significant (P anesthesia in reducing behavioral pain reactions in children during local anesthesia administration.

  7. Echocardiography as a Predicting Method in Diagnosis, Evaluation and Assessment of Children with Subvalvar Aortic Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejiqi, Ramush; Bejiqi, Hana; Retkoceri, Ragip

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstruction to the left ventricular outflow of the heart may be above the aortic valve (5%), at the valve (74%), or in the subvalvar region (23%). These anomalies represent 3 to 6% of all patients with congenital heart defects (CHD), and it occurs more often in males (male-female ratio of 4:1). AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of transthoracic echocardiography in diagnosis of discrete subaortic membrane, to determine convenient time for surgical intervention, and for identifying involvement of the aortic valve by subaortic shelf. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records and echocardiograms of 18 patients [14 male (77%) and 4 female (23%)] with discrete subaortic membrane, aged 11 month to 12 years, with mean age of 5 years and 3 month, diagnosed at the Pediatric Clinic in Prishtina, during the period September, 1999 and December, 2010 were done. RESULTS: Four patients, in neonatal age were operated from critical coarctation of the aorta and, initial signs of congestive heart failure were presented. 2 of them were operated in Belgrade, Serbia and 2 in Lausanne, Switzerland. CONCLUSION: In all presented patients bicuspid aortic valve was noted, but none of them subaortic membrane was registered. PMID:27275334

  8. A "Global Radiosonde and tracked-balloon Archive on Sixteen Pressure levels" (GRASP) going back to 1905 – Part 2: homogeneity adjustments for pilot balloon and radiosonde wind data

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ramella Pralungo; L. Haimberger

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the comprehensive homogenization of the "Global Radiosonde and tracked balloon Archive on Sixteen Pressure levels" (GRASP) wind records. Many of those records suffer from artificial shifts that need to be detected and adjusted before they are suitable for climate studies. Time series of departures between observations and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration 20th-century (NOAA-20CR) surface pressure only reanalysis have been calculated...

  9. Gender differences and age-related changes in body fat mass in Tibetan children and teenagers: an analysis by the bioelectrical impedance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Long; Fu, Qiang; Li, Wen-Hui; Liu, Su-Wei; Zhong, Hua; Duoji, Bai-Ma; Zhang, Mei-Zhi; Lv, Po; Xi, Huan-Jiu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to obtain the fat base value and the fat distribution characteristics of Tibetan children and teenagers by estimating their body fat content with the bioelectrical impedance method. We recruited 1427 healthy children and teenagers by a stratified cluster sampling method. By using bioelectrical impedance analysis, we obtained various values relevant to fat. We found that total body fat mass and the fat mass of various body parts increased with age in boys and girls. Yet there were no differences between age groups until 11 years. However, fat mass increased quickly between 11 and 18 years, and significant differences were seen between adolescent boys and girls; all fat indices were higher in girls than in boys (pfat in Tibetan children and teenagers in Tibet is related to age and gender related hormone secretion, which reflects the physiological characteristics in different developmental stages.

  10. Evaluation of the stress level of children with idiopathic scoliosis in relation to the method of treatment and parameters of the deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczewska, Justyna; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Stress level due to existing body deformity as well as to the treatment with a corrective brace is one of factors influencing the quality of life of children with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing non-surgical management. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the stress level among children suffering from idiopathic scoliosis in relation to the method of treatment and the parameters of the deformity. Seventy-three patients with idiopathic scoliosis participated in the study. Fifty-two children were treated by means of physiotherapy, while 21 patients were treated with both Cheneau corrective brace and physiotherapy. To assess the stress level related to the deformity itself and to the method of treatment with corrective brace, the two Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQs) were applied, the BSSQ Deformity and the BSSQ Brace, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of the Stress Level of Children with Idiopathic Scoliosis in relation to the Method of Treatment and Parameters of the Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Leszczewska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress level due to existing body deformity as well as to the treatment with a corrective brace is one of factors influencing the quality of life of children with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing non-surgical management. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the stress level among children suffering from idiopathic scoliosis in relation to the method of treatment and the parameters of the deformity. Seventy-three patients with idiopathic scoliosis participated in the study. Fifty-two children were treated by means of physiotherapy, while 21 patients were treated with both Cheneau corrective brace and physiotherapy. To assess the stress level related to the deformity itself and to the method of treatment with corrective brace, the two Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQs were applied, the BSSQ Deformity and the BSSQ Brace, respectively.

  12. Active children through incentive vouchers – evaluation (ACTIVE: a mixed-method feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Christian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents face many barriers to physical activity, demonstrated by the decline in physical activity levels in teenage populations. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of overcoming such barriers via the implementation of an activity-promoting voucher scheme to teenagers in deprived areas. Methods All Year 9 pupils (n = 115; 13.3 ± 0.48 years; 51 % boys from one secondary school in Wales (UK participated. Participants received £25 of activity vouchers every month for six months for physical activity or sporting equipment. Focus groups (n = 7, with 43 pupils, and qualitative interviews with teachers (n = 2 were conducted to assess feasibility, in addition to a process evaluation utilising the RE-AIM framework. Quantitative outcomes at baseline, five months (during intervention and twelve months (follow-up included: physical activity (accelerometer, aerobic fitness (12 min Cooper run and self-reported activity (PAQ-A. Motivation to exercise (BREQ-2 was measured three months post-baseline and at follow-up. Results Qualitative findings showed that vouchers encouraged friends to socialise through activity, provided opportunities to access local activities that pupils normally could not afford, and engaged both those interested and disinterested in physical education. Improvements in weekend moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and reductions in sedentary behaviour were observed in both sexes. Boys’ fitness significantly improved during the voucher scheme. ‘Non-active’ pupils (those not meeting recommended guidelines of 60 mins∙day−1 and those with higher motivation to exercise had higher voucher use. Conclusions Adolescents, teachers and activity providers supported the voucher scheme and felt the vouchers enabled deprived adolescents to access more physical activity opportunities. Voucher usage was associated with improved attitudes to physical activity, increased socialisation with

  13. TREATMENT OF TRANSCONDYLAR EXTENSOR FRACTURES OF THE HUMERUS IN CHILDREN: ON THE ISSUE OF HISTORY OF THE METHOD “COLLAR AND CUFF”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Zolotov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of one of the methods of conservative treatment humeral transcondylar extensor fractures in children - a method «collar and cuff». The second and very common name of this method is connected with the name of the american orthopaedist Walter Blount. «The method of Blount» is mentioned in many domestic and foreign sources. Nevertheless the analysis of publications on the history of the discussed method of treatment indicates the priority in this matter other famous doctor - British podiatrist Robert Jones.

  14. Using a mixed-methods approach to measure impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention study on fruit and vegetable intake of Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Elena; Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Pria, Simona Dalla; Messina, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption to help prevent childhood obesity. The 10-week-long intervention included sessions on nutrition education and media literacy. It also included a health communication media-based campaign workshop during which the children created posters, newsletters and video commercials related to fruits and vegetables targeted to their parents. For evaluation purposes, the study utilized a mixed-methods approach, including a quasi-experimental study (with one intervention group and one control group) and a focus group study. Four different elementary schools in Treviso (Veneto Region of Italy) agreed to participate in the research. The target population for the study included 10-year-old Italian children and their parents. Data indicate that this intervention was effective for children but not for parents. Evaluation results show that the intervention was effective in significantly increasing children's fruit and vegetable intake (Pmedia education intervention to address the children's obesity issue and, in particular, to increase children's fruit and vegetable intake. The study also opens a new perspective on the theoretical constructs investigated, because the development of 'ability of expression' could be considered one of the most important factors to determine the efficacy of the intervention.

  15. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergler, Sandra; Man, Stella A. de; Boot, Annemieke M.; Heus, Karen G.C.B.B.; Huijbers, Wim A.R.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  16. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergler, Sandra [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Care and Service Centre for People with Intellectual Disabilities, Medical Department ASVZ, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Man, Stella A. de [Amphia Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Breda (Netherlands); Boot, Annemieke M. [University of Groningen, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Heus, Karen G.C.B.B. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Paediatrics, Sophia Children' s Hospital, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Huijbers, Wim A.R. [Beatrix Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  17. “The Good Start Method for English” or how to support development, prevent and treat risk of dyslexia in children learning English as a second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanowicz Katarzyna M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Children with developmental dyslexia and at its risk have difficulties in the acquisition of foreign languages, especially non-transparent English. The problems of such pupils concern various aspects of the language system but in particular relate to the ability to read and spell. The research literature dedicated to effective preventative methods and dyslexia treatment suggests that both children with dyslexia and at its risk need phonological awareness training and multi-sensory learning. It is also known that prevention and early treatment is more effective than therapeutic intervention used in older students. Experts in foreign language acquisition recommend that children have contact with longer oral texts and live language (e.g., poems and songs. A recently-published report on the methods of English language teaching in Polish primary schools shows that the lessons conducted there do not realise the majority of the aforementioned recommendations. As a consequence, they do not serve any pupils including those with dyslexia and at its risk. A method which meets most of the demands mentioned above is “The Good Start Method for English”. It is a new program of teaching the English language designed for five to seven-year-olds, which at the same time ensures support for the psychomotor development of children, leading to acceleration in learning progress.

  18. The Effects of Head Start on Children's Kindergarten Retention, Reading and Math Achievement in Fall Kindergarten--An Application of Propensity Score Method and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), this paper applied optimal propensity score matching method to evaluate the effects of Head Start on children's kindergarten retention, reading and math achievement in fall kindergarten comparing with center-based care. Both parametric and nonparametric…

  19. A Fresh Pair of Eyes : A Blind Observation Method for Evaluating Social Skills of Children with ASD in a Naturalistic Peer Situation in School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Vera; Nauta, Maaike H.; Mulder, Erik J.; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Bildt, Annelies

    The Social skills Observation Measure (SOM) is a direct observation method for social skills used in naturalistic everyday situations in school. This study describes the development of the SOM and investigates its psychometric properties in 86 children with Autism spectrum disorder, aged 9.8-13.1

  20. A Fresh Pair of Eyes: A Blind Observation Method for Evaluating Social Skills of Children with ASD in a Naturalistic Peer Situation in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Vera; Nauta, Maaike H.; Mulder, Erik J.; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Bildt, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    The Social skills Observation Measure (SOM) is a direct observation method for social skills used in naturalistic everyday situations in school. This study describes the development of the SOM and investigates its psychometric properties in 86 children with Autism spectrum disorder, aged 9.8-13.1 years. The interrater reliability was found to be…

  1. 16 CFR 1500.50 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an article is not age-labeled in a clear and conspicuous manner or, based on such factors as marketing practices and the customary patterns of usage of a product by children, is inappropriately age... are provided in parentheses for convenience and information only. (3) Each of the test methods...

  2. Observation of the Effectiveness of Drama Method in Helping to Acquire the Addition-Subtraction Skills by Children at Preschool Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Sema; Quadir, Seher Ersoy

    2013-01-01

    Principal aim of this study is to show the effectiveness of the program prepared by researchers in order to enable 6 year-old children attending pre-school educational institutions to effectively gain addition subtraction skills through a drama-related method. The work group in the research comprised of 80 kids who continued their education in…

  3. Assessment of the effect of population and diary sampling methods on estimation of school-age children exposure to fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, W W; Frey, H Christopher; Lau, Alexis K H

    2014-12-01

    Population and diary sampling methods are employed in exposure models to sample simulated individuals and their daily activity on each simulation day. Different sampling methods may lead to variations in estimated human exposure. In this study, two population sampling methods (stratified-random and random-random) and three diary sampling methods (random resampling, diversity and autocorrelation, and Markov-chain cluster [MCC]) are evaluated. Their impacts on estimated children's exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) are quantified via case studies for children in Wake County, NC for July 2002. The estimated mean daily average exposure is 12.9 μg/m(3) for simulated children using the stratified population sampling method, and 12.2 μg/m(3) using the random sampling method. These minor differences are caused by the random sampling among ages within census tracts. Among the three diary sampling methods, there are differences in the estimated number of individuals with multiple days of exposures exceeding a benchmark of concern of 25 μg/m(3) due to differences in how multiday longitudinal diaries are estimated. The MCC method is relatively more conservative. In case studies evaluated here, the MCC method led to 10% higher estimation of the number of individuals with repeated exposures exceeding the benchmark. The comparisons help to identify and contrast the capabilities of each method and to offer insight regarding implications of method choice. Exposure simulation results are robust to the two population sampling methods evaluated, and are sensitive to the choice of method for simulating longitudinal diaries, particularly when analyzing results for specific microenvironments or for exposures exceeding a benchmark of concern. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. [Classification of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Typically Developing Children Based on Electroencephalogram Principal Component Analysis and k-Nearest Neighbor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaojiao; Guo, Qian; Li, Wenjie; Wang, Suhong; Zou, Ling

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to assist the individual clinical diagnosis of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using electroencephalogram signal detection method.Firstly,in our experiments,we obtained and studied the electroencephalogram signals from fourteen attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and sixteen typically developing children during the classic interference control task of Simon-spatial Stroop,and we completed electroencephalogram data preprocessing including filtering,segmentation,removal of artifacts and so on.Secondly,we selected the subset electroencephalogram electrodes using principal component analysis(PCA)method,and we collected the common channels of the optimal electrodes which occurrence rates were more than 90%in each kind of stimulation.We then extracted the latency(200~450ms)mean amplitude features of the common electrodes.Finally,we used the k-nearest neighbor(KNN)classifier based on Euclidean distance and the support vector machine(SVM)classifier based on radial basis kernel function to classify.From the experiment,at the same kind of interference control task,the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children showed lower correct response rates and longer reaction time.The N2 emerged in prefrontal cortex while P2 presented in the inferior parietal area when all kinds of stimuli demonstrated.Meanwhile,the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder exhibited markedly reduced N2 and P2amplitude compared to typically developing children.KNN resulted in better classification accuracy than SVM classifier,and the best classification rate was 89.29%in StI task.The results showed that the electroencephalogram signals were different in the brain regions of prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal cortex between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children during the interference control task,which provided a scientific basis for the clinical diagnosis of attention

  5. The Right to Be Heard: Australian Children's Views about Their Involvement in Decision-Making Following Parental Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the findings from a qualitative study that explored the views of a small group of Australian children about their involvement in decision-making processes following their parents' separation. Sixteen children, aged between seven and 17 years, participated in in-depth interviews that focused on their understandings of the…

  6. Preliminary clinical experience using the method of 31P MR spectroscopy in investigations of neuromuscular diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Horska, A.; Grosmanova, A.; Urban, P.; Suchanek, M.; Jirasek, A.

    1990-01-01

    31 P MR spectroscopy was used to investigate neuromuscular diseases of various origin in 35 patients, mostly children. In devising the procedure of MR examination and of evaluation of results, pattern recognition analysis was used. According to the results of 31 P MR spectroscopy, the patients can be divided into three groups. Group A comprises patients with severe muscular lesions such as Duchenne dystrophy. The second, B group is characterized by milder atrophic changes of muscle fibres. The third group comprises dubious cases. The 31 P MRS method was also used for investigating the development of the disease in time - a decrease in parameter P CR /P i (P CR is an indicator of phosphocreatinine and P i an indicator of inorganic phosphate) corresponds to a deterioration of the clinical condition of patients from group one. In group B fairly stable values of the parameter were observed. An increase in P CR /P i was also observed during administration of Prednisone in a patient with child polymyositis. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 23 refs

  7. Examining Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes about School Issues for Children with Epilepsy: A Mixed-Method Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Amy Loomis

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases to affect the human nervous system, affecting approximately 0.5% of school-age children (Leppik, 2001; Kaleyias et al., 2005). Epilepsy has the potential to profoundly impact a child's adjustment to school. A large body of literature documents that children with epilepsy are at an increased risk for…

  8. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  9. Procedural pain in children with Cystic Fibrosis: an international survey on the methods used by CF centres to prevent and reduce it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festini, Filippo; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    do to prevent pain and fear in CF children. A 14-item questionnaire in 5 languages was sent to 441 CFCs' email addresses worldwide and posted on the INSG-CF web site. It regarded the methods used by CF Centres to control pain and fear during invasive procedures (e.g.: blood drawing, vein cannulation......Procedural pain is an additional burden for children with CE If not adequately prevented and treated procedural pain may result in anxiety and fear bound to the visits at the CF Centre (CFC) and it may affect patients' future compliance to treatments. Aim: To collect data on what CFCs in the world......, throat swab). Completed questionnaires were sent back by 50 CFCs from 12 countries (UK, USA, Canada, New Zealand, Israel, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, France, Denmark) which take care of 4577 CF children overall. Results: 46% of CFCs collaborate with a local Pain Therapy Unit...

  10. Parents' knowledge, attitudes, use of pain relief methods and satisfaction related to their children's postoperative pain management: a descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Hui Yi; He, Hong-Gu; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Liam, Joanne Li Wee; Zhu, Lixia; Cheng, Karis Kin Fong

    2015-06-01

    To examine parents' knowledge about and attitudes towards pain management, use of pain relief strategies and satisfaction with their children's postoperative pain management, as well as the relationships among these variables. Children's postoperative pain is inadequately managed worldwide. Despite increasing emphasis on parental involvement in children's postoperative pain management, few studies have examined parents' management of their child's postoperative pain in Singapore. A descriptive correlational study. A convenience sample of 60 parents having 6- to 14-year-old children undergoing inpatient elective surgery in a public hospital in Singapore was recruited. Data were collected one day after each child's surgery using the Pain Management Knowledge and Attitudes questionnaire and the Parents' Use of Pain Relief Strategies questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for data analyses. Parents displayed moderate levels of knowledge, attitudes and use of pain relief methods in relation to their children's postoperative pain and pain management. They were generally satisfied with the management of their child's postoperative pain. There was significant difference in Parents' Use of Pain Relief Strategies scores between parents with and without previous experience of caring for their hospitalised child. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between parents' knowledge and attitude, knowledge and satisfaction, attitude and satisfaction, knowledge and pain relief strategies, as well as attitude and pain relief strategies. This study indicates the need to provide parents with more information regarding their children's postoperative pain management. Future studies are needed to develop educational interventions for parents to improve their knowledge and attitudes, which will eventually improve their use of pain relief strategies for their children. Health

  11. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  12. Effect of sensory adaptation on anxiety of children with developmental disabilities: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michele; Melmed, Raphael N; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Parush, Shula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a sensory-adapted dental environment (SADE) on anxiety, relaxation, and cooperation of children with developmental disabilities (CDDs). Pharmacological treatment has been widely used to reduce anxiety, but nonpharmacological methods may be similarly effective. The standardized clinical situation chosen was a dental hygiene cleaning. A SADE was structured. Sixteen CDDs participated in an open cross-over intervention trial measuring behavioral and psychophysiological variables. There was a substantial increase in relaxation and cooperation in the SADE as opposed to the regular dental environment (RDE). This was reflected by: mean duration of anxious behaviors (SADE = 9.04 minutes vs. RDE = 23.44 minutes; P RDE = 15.50; P RDE = 1.94; P RDE = 446; P RDE=763; P < .004). The findings indicate the potential importance of considering the sensory-adapted environment as a preferable dental environment for this population.

  13. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  14. FEVER AS KEY SYMPTOM OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AND MODERN METHODS OF THERAPY FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Solntseva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is the key symptom of acute respiratory infections (ARI. An increase in the body temperature is accompanied with phagocytosis activation, increased interferon synthesis, antibody genesis stimulation, lymphocytes activation and differentiation. Nevertheless, significant hyperthermia may result in my unfavourable consequences. It may particularly cause an exacerbation of chronic diseases. Modern therapy for hyperthermia is, therefore, an important aspect of treating children with ARI. The article outlines the modern approach to treating fever in children, identifies key criteria for selecting a medication. It also contains a case study of applying ibuprofen and data from various trials which verify the rationale for applying ibuprofen in children with hyperthermia that developed in conjunction with ARI.Key words: children, acute respiratory infections, hyperthermia, ibuprofen.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(5:80-84

  15. Methods University Health System Can Use to Expand Medicaid Coverage to Uninsured Poor Parents with Medicaid Eligible Children: Policy Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMahon, III, Robert T

    2006-01-01

    Bexar County, low-income, uninsured parents with Medicaid-eligible children have been negatively impacted by reductions in Medicaid eligibility standards made by the Texas State Legislature in 2003...

  16. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  17. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  18. Treatment of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Safety of the Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Combination in Children Based on a Method of Causality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teil, Julie; Dupont, Damien; Charpiat, Bruno; Corvaisier, Stéphane; Vial, Thierry; Leboucher, Gilles; Wallon, Martine; Peyron, François

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of newborns and infants with congenital toxoplasmosis is standard practice. Some observational studies have examined safety in newborns, but most of these failed to provide sufficient details for a provisional assessment of causality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and biological adverse effects of the combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Sixty-five children treated for 1 year with a combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (1 dose every 10 days) for congenital toxoplasmosis were followed up to evaluate abnormal hematological values and potential adverse events using a standardized method of causality assessment. Nine patients (13.8%) presented at least 1 adverse clinical event that was nonspecific, such as diarrhea on the day of drug administration, vomiting and agitation. In 1 patient, erythema appeared at the end of the treatment and resolved within 10 days. None of these events was attributed to the treatment. Six patients (9.2%) developed an adverse hematological event (neutropenia, n = 3; eosinophilia, n = 2 and both anemia and eosinophilia, n = 1) that was considered to be possibly related to the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination. Four treatments were temporarily interrupted, and toxicity was observed after readministration of treatment in 1 case only. However, none of these adverse events was life threatening. According to our results and previously published data, the combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine seems to be well tolerated. However, the sample size of our study was too small to rule out the risk of less frequent, but nevertheless severe, reactions and, in particular, of hypersensitivity reactions.

  19. A school-based interdisciplinary approach to promote health and academic achievement among children in a deprived neighborhood: study protocol for a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E; Jonkman, Caroline S; Harting, Janneke

    2018-04-10

    The large number of children that grow up in poverty is concerning, especially given the negative developmental outcomes that can persist into adulthood. Poverty has been found as a risk factor to negatively affect academic achievement and health outcomes in children. Interdisciplinary interventions can be an effective way to promote health and academic achievement. The present study aims to evaluate a school-based interdisciplinary approach on child health, poverty, and academic achievement using a mixed-method design. Generally taken, outcomes of this study increase the knowledge about effective ways to give disadvantaged children equal chances early in their lives. An observational study with a mixed-methods design including both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods will be used to evaluate the interdisciplinary approach. The overall research project exists of three study parts including a longitudinal study, a cross-sectional study, and a process evaluation. Using a multi-source approach we will assess child health as the primary outcome. Child poverty and child academic achievement will be assessed as secondary outcomes. The process evaluation will observe the program's effects on the school environment and the program's implementation in order to obtain more knowledge on how to disseminate the interdisciplinary approach to other schools and neighborhoods. The implementation of a school-based interdisciplinary approach via primary schools combining the cross-sectoral domains health, poverty, and academic achievement is innovative and a step forward to reach an ethnic minority population. However, the large variety of the interventions and activities within the approach can limit the validity of the study. Including a process evaluation will therefore help to improve the interpretation of our findings. In order to contribute to policy and practice focusing on decreasing the unequal chances of children growing up in deprived neighborhoods, it is

  20. A systematic review on ‘Foveal Crowding’ in visually impaired children and perceptual learning as a method to reduce Crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huurneman Bianca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This systematic review gives an overview of foveal crowding (the inability to recognize objects due to surrounding nearby contours in foveal vision and possible interventions. Foveal crowding can have a major effect on reading rate and deciphering small pieces of information from busy visual scenes. Three specific groups experience more foveal crowding than adults with normal vision (NV: 1 children with NV, 2 visually impaired (VI children and adults and 3 children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI. The extent and magnitude of foveal crowding as well as interventions aimed at reducing crowding were investigated in this review. The twofold goal of this review is : [A] to compare foveal crowding in children with NV, VI children and adults and CVI children and [B] to compare interventions to reduce crowding. Methods Three electronic databases were used to conduct the literature search: PubMed, PsycINFO (Ovid, and Cochrane. Additional studies were identified by contacting experts. Search terms included visual perception, contour interaction, crowding, crowded, and contour interactions. Results Children with normal vision show an extent of contour interaction over an area 1.5–3× as large as that seen in adults NV. The magnitude of contour interaction normally ranges between 1–2 lines on an acuity chart and this magnitude is even larger when stimuli are arranged in a circular configuration. Adults with congenital nystagmus (CN show interaction areas that are 2× larger than those seen adults with NV. The magnitude of the crowding effect is also 2× as large in individuals with CN as in individuals with NV. Finally, children with CVI experience a magnitude of the crowding effect that is 3× the size of that experienced by adults with NV. Conclusions The methodological heterogeneity, the diversity in paradigms used to measure crowding, made it impossible to conduct a meta-analysis. This is the first systematic review to

  1. Mild angle early onset idiopathic scoliosis children avoid progression under FITS method (Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    Physiotherapy for stabilization of idiopathic scoliosis angle in growing children remains controversial. Notably, little data on effectiveness of physiotherapy in children with Early Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis (EOIS) has been published.The aim of this study was to check results of FITS physiotherapy in a group of children with EOIS.The charts of the patients archived in a prospectively collected database were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were:diagnosis of EOIS based on spine radiography, age below 10 years, both girls and boys, Cobb angle between 118 and 308, Risser zero, FITS therapy, no other treatment (bracing), and a follow-up at least 2 years from the initiation of the treatment. The criterion for curve progression were as follows: the Cobb angle increase of 68 or more, for curve stabilization; the Cobb angle was 58 comparing to the initial radiograph,for curve correction; and the Cobb angle decrease of 68 or more at the final follow-up radiograph.There were 41 children with EOIS, 36 girls and 5 boys, mean age 7.71.3 years (range 4 to 9 years) who started FITS therapy. The curve pattern was single thoracic (5 children), single thoracolumbar (22 children) or double thoracic/thoracolumbar (14 children), totally 55 structural curvatures. The minimum follow-up was 2 years after initiation of the FITS treatment, maximum was 16 years, mean 4.8 years). At follow-up the mean age was 12.53.4 years. Out of 41 children, 10 passed pubertal growth spurt at the final follow-up and 31 were still immature and continued FITS therapy. Out of 41 children, 27 improved, 13 were stable, and one progressed. Out of 55 structural curves, 32 improved, 22 were stable and one progressed. For the 55 structural curves, the Cobb angle significantly decreased from 18.085.48 at first assessment to 12.586.38 at last evaluation,pphysiotherapy was effective in preventing curve progression in children with EOIS. Final postpubertal follow-up data is needed.

  2. Activation on occipital lobe in children with abacus mental calculation training: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiaojun; Long Jinfeng; Zhao Kunyuan; Li Lixin; Sun Jining; Wang Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: By exploring the activation on occipital lobe in children with and without abacus mental calculation training when they engaged in different calculation tasks with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to identify the possible mechanism of occipital lobe in abacus mental calculation. Methods: fMRI was performed in children trained with and without (sixteen in each group) abacus mental calculation when they engaged in addition, subtraction. multiplication, division, and number-object control judging tasks. The data processing and statistical analysis were performed on SPM 2.0 (statistical parametric mapping 2.0) and the related-brain functional areas were identified. The activation on occipital lobe was observed carefully. The difference in activated areas of occipital lobe was statistically significant between two groups engaged in different tasks of calculations (P<0.01). Result: Bilateral occipital lobe, especially in the cuneus and lingual gyrus, were activated in children trained with abacus mental calculation. The main activated area was lingual gyrus in children without abacus mental calculation. Conclusion: The occipital lobe participates visuospatial processing in the abacus mental calculations. The neuromechanism maybe account for the specific activation in occipital lobe. (authors)

  3. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  4. Communication with children about a parent's advanced cancer and measures of parental anxiety and depression: a cross-sectional mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Claire E; Yopp, Justin M; Deal, Allison M; Mayer, Deborah K; Hanson, Laura C; Grunfeld, Gili; Rosenstein, Donald L; Park, Eliza M

    2018-01-01

    Parents with advanced cancer are faced with difficult decision-making about communication about their illness with their children. The objectives of this study were to describe how parents communicated with their children about advanced cancer and to explore associations between communication and parental depression and anxiety. This was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study of 42 patients with stage IV solid tumor malignancies who had at least one child less than 18 years of age. Participants completed a semi-structured interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We used multiple linear regression to evaluate the association between extent of communication and HADS Anxiety and Depression scores. Interview data were analyzed using standard qualitative content and thematic techniques and triangulated with survey data. Higher HADS Anxiety scores, but not HADS Depression scores, were cross-sectionally associated with greater extent of parental communication (p = 0.003), even when controlling for performance status and children's ages. In qualitative analyses, parents who acknowledged the terminal nature of their illness or experienced higher symptom burden were more likely to report that they also communicated more extensively with children. A third of parents (n = 14, 33%) described difficulty with illness-related communication with their children. In this pilot study, parents with advanced cancer who reported more illness-related communication with their children also reported more symptoms of general anxiety. Future interventions should address psychological distress relevant to parenting and further assess how parental communication may be linked to parental mood symptoms.

  5. Is air-displacement plethysmography a reliable method of detecting ongoing changes in percent body fat within obese children involved in a weight management program?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewane, Cecile; McConkey, Stacy A; Kreiter, Clarence D

    2010-01-01

    (percent body fat) over time. The gold standard method, hydrodensitometry, has severe limitations for the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the reliability of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in detecting percent body fat changes within obese children over time. METHODS: Percent...... body fat by ADP, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured for eight obese children aged 5-12 years enrolled in a weight management program over a 12-month period. These measurements were taken at initial evaluation, 1.5 months, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months to monitor the progress...... of the subjects and detect any changes in these measures over time. Statistical analysis was used to determine the reliability of the data collected. RESULTS: The reliability estimate for percent body fat by ADP was 0.78. This was much lower than the reliability of BMI, 0.98, and weight measurements, 0...

  6. Validation of the Child Premorbid Intelligence Estimate method to predict premorbid Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ among children with brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Lange, Rael T; Saklofske, Donald H; Suarez, Mariann; Brickell, Tracey A

    2008-12-01

    Determination of neuropsychological impairment involves contrasting obtained performances with a comparison standard, which is often an estimate of premorbid IQ. M. R. Schoenberg, R. T. Lange, T. A. Brickell, and D. H. Saklofske (2007) proposed the Child Premorbid Intelligence Estimate (CPIE) to predict premorbid Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003). The CPIE includes 12 algorithms to predict FSIQ, 1 using demographic variables and 11 algorithms combining WISC-IV subtest raw scores with demographic variables. The CPIE was applied to a sample of children with acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI sample; n = 40) and a healthy demographically matched sample (n = 40). Paired-samples t tests found estimated premorbid FSIQ differed from obtained FSIQ when applied to the TBI sample (ps .02). The demographic only algorithm performed well at a group level, but estimates were restricted in range. Algorithms combining single subtest scores with demographics performed adequately. Results support the clinical application of the CPIE algorithms. However, limitations to estimating individual premorbid ability, including statistical and developmental factors, must be considered. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. A mixed methods study of individual and organizational factors that affect implementation of interventions for children with autism in public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Beidas, Rinad S; Marcus, Steven; Stahmer, Aubyn; Aarons, Gregory A; Lyon, Aaron R; Cannuscio, Carolyn; Barg, Frances; Dorsey, Shannon; Mandell, David S

    2016-10-10

    The significant lifelong impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), combined with the growing number of children diagnosed with ASD, have created urgency in improving school-based quality of care. Although many interventions have shown efficacy in university-based research, few have been effectively implemented and sustained in schools, the primary setting in which children with ASD receive services. Individual- and organizational-level factors have been shown to predict the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for the prevention and treatment of other mental disorders in schools, and may be potential targets for implementation strategies in the successful use of autism EBIs in schools. The purpose of this study is to examine the individual- and organizational-level factors associated with the implementation of EBIs for children with ASD in public schools. We will apply the Domitrovich and colleagues (2008) framework that examines the influence of contextual factors (i.e., individual- and organizational-level factors) on intervention implementation in schools. We utilize mixed methods to quantitatively test whether the factors identified in the Domitrovich and colleagues (2008) framework are associated with the implementation of autism EBIs, and use qualitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors associated with successful implementation and sustainment of these interventions with the goal of tailoring implementation strategies. The results of this study will provide an in-depth understanding of individual- and organizational-level factors that influence the successful implementation of EBIs for children with ASD in public schools. These data will inform potential implementation targets and tailoring of strategies that will help schools overcome barriers to implementation and ultimately improve the services and outcomes for children with ASD.

  8. Magpie Trial in the UK: methods and additional data for women and children at 2 years following pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Nina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Magpie Trial, a randomised trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo for women with pre-eclampsia. This paper describes methods used for follow up in the UK, and presents additional data collected. Methods In the UK 774 women and their 827 children were included; excluded were women discharged without a surviving child and families who opted out. General practitioners were sent a questionnaire when the child was around 18 months old. When the child was two years, or older, questionnaires asking about the health of the women and children were posted to families. A sample of families was offered a home visit, during which the child was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Results Of the women, 12 were lost to follow up and three died. Of the children, 12 were lost to follow up, 5 were excluded and 19 died. General practitioners returned 688/759 (91% questionnaires, as did 619/759 (82% women. Responses were largely comparable. 32 women had serious morbidity potentially related to pre-eclampsia. 30% of children were reported to have been admitted to hospital. There were no clear differences between the randomised groups in the child's behaviour, women's fertility or use of health service resources. Conclusion Data presented here provide further reassurance about the longer term safety of magnesium sulphate when used for women with pre-eclampsia. Postal questionnaires in the UK to assess the longer term health and wellbeing of women and children recruited to trials are feasible, and can achieve a high response rate. Responses from families and general practitioners were comparable Trial registration Trial registration number of the Magpie Trial [ISRCTN86938761

  9. Performance Characteristics of qPCR Assays Targeting Human- and Ruminant-Associated Bacteroidetes for Microbial Source Tracking across Sixteen Countries on Six Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Numerous quantitative PCR assays for microbial fecal source tracking (MST) have been developed and evaluated in recent years. Widespread application has been hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding the geographical stability and hence applicability of such methods beyond the regional level. This study assessed the performance of five previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, cattle-, or ruminant-associated Bacteroidetes populations on 280 human and animal fecal samples from 16 countries across six continents. The tested cattle-associated markers were shown to be ruminant-associated. The quantitative distributions of marker concentrations in target and nontarget samples proved to be essential for the assessment of assay performance and were used to establish a new metric for quantitative source-specificity. In general, this study demonstrates that stable target populations required for marker-based MST occur around the globe. Ruminant-associated marker concentrations were strongly correlated with total intestinal Bacteroidetes populations and with each other, indicating that the detected ruminant-associated populations seem to be part of the intestinal core microbiome of ruminants worldwide. Consequently tested ruminant-targeted assays appear to be suitable quantitative MST tools beyond the regional level while the targeted human-associated populations seem to be less prevalent and stable, suggesting potential for improvements in human-targeted methods. PMID:23755882

  10. Sixteen multidetector row computed tomography of pulmonary veins: 3-months' follow-up after treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with cryothermal ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovic, Ruzica; Cademartiri, Filippo; Pattynama, Peter M.T.; Scholten, Marcoen F.; Jordaens, Luc J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess pulmonary veins (PVs) for the presence of stenosis 3 months after cryothermal ablation (CA) with a new method of electrical isolation of PVs using contrast-enhanced 16 multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT). Twenty four patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation underwent CA in 46 PVs. MDCT of PVs was performed before the treatment and after 3-months' follow-up. Following cryoablation, 13/24 (54%) patients showed clinical improvement and had reduced attacks of atrial fibrillation. The dimensions of the treated PVs remained unchanged: the coronal ostial diameter was 19.1±2.4 preprocedural versus 18.6±2.4 mm at follow-up, p>0.05; the ratio of the coronal and axial diameters at the ostium was 1.2±0.2 versus 1.2±0.1, p>0.05, respectively, and the coronal diameter of the proximal 10 mm was 17.1±2.5 mm versus 16.5±2.2 mm, p>0.05, respectively. CA is a promising technique for electrical isolation of PVs that has not been associated with stenosis at the orifice and the proximal 10 mm of the PVs after 3-months' follow-up. MDCT is a noninvasive, fast and comfortable method for assessment of PVs in a three-dimensional manner prior to ablative treatment and during the follow-up. (orig.)

  11. Sixteen multidetector row computed tomography of pulmonary veins: 3-months' follow-up after treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with cryothermal ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, Ruzica; Cademartiri, Filippo; Pattynama, Peter M.T. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Scholten, Marcoen F.; Jordaens, Luc J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess pulmonary veins (PVs) for the presence of stenosis 3 months after cryothermal ablation (CA) with a new method of electrical isolation of PVs using contrast-enhanced 16 multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT). Twenty four patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation underwent CA in 46 PVs. MDCT of PVs was performed before the treatment and after 3-months' follow-up. Following cryoablation, 13/24 (54%) patients showed clinical improvement and had reduced attacks of atrial fibrillation. The dimensions of the treated PVs remained unchanged: the coronal ostial diameter was 19.1{+-}2.4 preprocedural versus 18.6{+-}2.4 mm at follow-up, p>0.05; the ratio of the coronal and axial diameters at the ostium was 1.2{+-}0.2 versus 1.2{+-}0.1, p>0.05, respectively, and the coronal diameter of the proximal 10 mm was 17.1{+-}2.5 mm versus 16.5{+-}2.2 mm, p>0.05, respectively. CA is a promising technique for electrical isolation of PVs that has not been associated with stenosis at the orifice and the proximal 10 mm of the PVs after 3-months' follow-up. MDCT is a noninvasive, fast and comfortable method for assessment of PVs in a three-dimensional manner prior to ablative treatment and during the follow-up. (orig.)

  12. Development of the pediatric quality of life inventory neurofibromatosis type 1 module items for children, adolescents and young adults: qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutakki, Kavitha; Varni, James W; Steinbrenner, Sheila; Draucker, Claire B; Swigonski, Nancy L

    2017-03-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is arguably one of the most important measures in evaluating effectiveness of clinical treatments. At present, there is no disease-specific outcome measure to assess the HRQOL of children, adolescents and young adults with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). This study aimed to develop the items and support the content validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) NF1 Module for children, adolescents and young adults. The iterative process included multiphase qualitative methods including a literature review, survey of expert opinions, semi-structured interviews, cognitive interviews and pilot testing. Fifteen domains were derived from the qualitative methods, with content saturation achieved, resulting in 115 items. The domains include skin, pain, pain impact, pain management, cognitive functioning, speech, fine motor, balance, vision, perceived physical appearance, communication, worry, treatment, medicines and gastrointestinal symptoms. This study is limited because all participants are recruited from a single-site. Qualitative methods support the content validity for the PedsQL™ NF1 Module for children, adolescents and young adults. The PedsQL™ NF1 Module is now undergoing national multisite field testing for the psychometric validation of the instrument development.

  13. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Retrospective comparison of gradient recalled echo R2* and spin-echo R2 magnetic resonance analysis methods for estimating liver iron content in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serai, Suraj D.; Fleck, Robert J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Quinn, Charles T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Hematology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Podberesky, Daniel J. [Nemours Children' s Health System Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Serial surveillance of liver iron concentration (LIC) provides guidance for chelation therapy in patients with iron overload. The diagnosis of iron overload traditionally relies on core liver biopsy, which is limited by invasiveness, sampling error, cost and general poor acceptance by pediatric patients and parents. Thus noninvasive diagnostic methods such as MRI are highly attractive for quantification of liver iron concentration. To compare two MRI-based methods for liver iron quantification in children. 64 studies on 48 children and young adults (age range 4-21 years) were examined by gradient recalled echo (GRE) R2* and spin-echo R2 MRI at 1.5T to evaluate liver iron concentration. Scatter plots and Bland-Altman difference plots were generated to display and assess the relationship between the methods. With the protocols used in this investigation, Bland-Altman agreement between the methods is best when LIC is <20 mg/g dry tissue. Scatter plots show that all values with LIC <20 mg/g dry tissue fall within the 95% prediction limits. Liver iron concentration as determined by the R2* and R2 MR methods is statistically comparable, with no statistical difference between these methods for LIC <20 mg/g. (orig.)

  15. Delays in seeking and receiving health care services for pneumonia in children under five in the Peruvian Amazon: a mixed-methods study on caregivers' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Mónica J; Anticona Huaynate, Cynthia; Correa, Malena; Mayta Malpartida, Holger; Ramal Asayag, Cesar; Seminario, Juan R; Gilman, Robert H; Murphy, Laura; Oberhelman, Richard A; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A

    2018-03-01

    Delays in receiving adequate care for children suffering from pneumonia can be life threatening and have been described associated with parents' limited education and their difficulties in recognizing the severity of the illness. The "three delays" was a model originally proposed to describe the most common determinants of maternal mortality, but has been adapted to describe delays in the health seeking process for caregivers of children under five. This study aims to explore the caregivers' perceived barriers for seeking and receiving health care services in children under five years old admitted to a referral hospital for community-acquired pneumonia in the Peruvian Amazon Region using the three-delays model framework. There were two parts to this mixed-method, cross-sectional, hospital-based study. First, medical charts of 61 children (1 to 60 months old) admitted for pneumonia were reviewed, and clinical characteristics were noted. Second, to examine health care-seeking decisions and actions, as well as associated delays in the process of obtaining health care services, we interviewed 10 of the children's caregivers. Half of the children in our study were 9 months old or less. Main reasons for seeking care at the hospital were cough (93%) and fever (92%). Difficulty breathing and fast breathing were also reported in more than 60% of cases. In the interviews, caregivers reported delays of 1 to 14 days to go to the closest health facility. Factors perceived as causes for delays in deciding to seek care were apparent lack of skills to recognize signs and symptoms and of confidence in the health system, and practicing self-medication. No delays in reaching a health facility were reported. Once the caregivers reached a health facility, they perceived lack of competence of medical staff and inadequate treatment provided by the primary care physicians. According to caregivers, the main delays to get health care services for pneumonia among young children were

  16. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to evaluate "Animal Fun" - a program designed to enhance physical and mental health in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaren Sue

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with poor motor ability have been found to engage less in physical activities than other children, and a lack of physical activity has been linked to problems such as obesity, lowered bone mineral density and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, if children are confident with their fine and gross motor skills, they are more likely to engage in physical activities such as sports, crafts, dancing and other physical activity programs outside of the school curriculum which are important activities for psychosocial development. The primary objective of this project is to comprehensively evaluate a whole of class physical activity program called Animal Fun designed for Pre-Primary children. This program was designed to improve the child's movement skills, both fine and gross, and their perceptions of their movement ability, promote appropriate social skills and improve social-emotional development. Methods The proposed randomized and controlled trial uses a multivariate nested cohort design to examine the physical (motor coordination and psychosocial (self perceptions, anxiety, social competence outcomes of the program. The Animal Fun program is a teacher delivered universal program incorporating animal actions to facilitate motor skill and social skill acquisition and practice. Pre-intervention scores on motor and psychosocial variables for six control schools and six intervention schools will be compared with post-intervention scores (end of Pre-Primary year and scores taken 12 months later after the children's transition to primary school Year 1. 520 children aged 4.5 to 6 years will be recruited and it is anticipated that 360 children will be retained to the 1 year follow-up. There will be equal numbers of boys and girls. Discussion If this program is found to improve the child's motor and psychosocial skills, this will assist in the child's transition into the first year of school. As a result of these changes

  17. Psychological Adjustment and Levels of Self Esteem in Children with Visual-Motor Integration Difficulties Influences the Results of a Randomized Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Apter, Alan; Ratzon, Navah Z.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates how much the effects of intervention programs are influenced by pre-existing psychological adjustment and self-esteem levels in kindergarten and first grade children with poor visual-motor integration skills, from low socioeconomic backgrounds. One hundred and sixteen mainstream kindergarten and first-grade children, from low…

  18. Feasibility of a Day-Camp Model of Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy with and without Botulinum Toxin A Injection for Children with Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Shaw, Karin; Ponten, Eva; Boyd, Roslyn; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of modified constraint-induced (CI) therapy provided in a 2-week day-camp model with and without intramuscular botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections for children with congenital cerebral palsy. Sixteen children with congenital hemiplegia, Manual Ability Classification System (MACS)…

  19. Promoting Food Security for All Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Sixteen million US children (21%) live in households without consistent access to adequate food. After multiple risk factors are considered, children who live in households that are food insecure, even at the lowest levels, are likely to be sick more often, recover from illness more slowly, and be hospitalized more frequently. Lack of adequate healthy food can impair a child's ability to concentrate and perform well in school and is linked to higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems from preschool through adolescence. Food insecurity can affect children in any community, not only traditionally underserved ones. Pediatricians can play a central role in screening and identifying children at risk for food insecurity and in connecting families with needed community resources. Pediatricians should also advocate for federal and local policies that support access to adequate healthy food for an active and healthy life for all children and their families. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Novel word retention in sequential bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-03-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after either a 2-month or a 4-month delay. Results showed that children retained more words in L1 than in L2 for both of the retention interval conditions. In addition, children's word retention was associated with their existing language knowledge and their fast-mapping performance within and across language. The patterns of association, however, were different between L1 and L2. These findings suggest that children's word retention might be related to the interactions of various components that are operating within a dynamic system.

  1. The relation between young children's cognitive role-taking and mothers' preference for a conflict-inducing childrearing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C; Skevington, S

    1988-06-01

    In this study, we examined children's cognitive role-taking in relation to their mothers' choices of techniques to solve domestic dilemmas involving children's misbehavior, social skills, and logical reasoning. Results showed that a mother's preference for the childrearing strategy known as distancing, which uses a Socratic or dialectical inquiry to create cognitive conflict in the child, bore a significant association to her child's advancement in cognitive role-taking skill. This finding is discussed in relation to theories of cognitive development that postulate that mental conflict or tension stimulates cognitive growth. Practical factors that might inhibit mothers from making effective use of the distancing technique are also considered.

  2. A systematic review of methods to assess intake of fruits and vegetables among healthy European adults and children: a DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Fiona; Ryan, Kathleen; Perry, Ivan J; Schulze, Matthias B; Andersen, Lene Frost; Geelen, Anouk; Van't Veer, Pieter; Eussen, Simone; Dagnelie, Pieter; Wijckmans-Duysens, Nicole; Harrington, Janas M

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that health benefits are associated with consuming recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V), yet standardised assessment methods to measure F&V intake are lacking. The current review aims to identify methods to assess F&V intake among children and adults in pan-European studies and inform the development of the DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) toolbox of methods suitable for use in future European studies. A literature search was conducted using three electronic databases and by hand-searching reference lists. English-language studies of any design which assessed F&V intake were included in the review. Studies involving two or more European countries were included in the review. Healthy, free-living children or adults. The review identified fifty-one pan-European studies which assessed F&V intake. The FFQ was the most commonly used (n 42), followed by 24 h recall (n 11) and diet records/diet history (n 7). Differences existed between the identified methods; for example, the number of F&V items on the FFQ and whether potatoes/legumes were classified as vegetables. In total, eight validated instruments were identified which assessed F&V intake among adults, adolescents or children. The current review indicates that an agreed classification of F&V is needed in order to standardise intake data more effectively between European countries. Validated methods used in pan-European populations encompassing a range of European regions were identified. These methods should be considered for use by future studies focused on evaluating intake of F&V.

  3. Innovation & evaluation of tangible direct manipulation digital drawing pens for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Hua; Wu, Fong-Gong; Chen, Huei-Tsz

    2017-04-01

    Focusing on the theme of direct manipulation, in this study, we proposed a new and innovative tangible user interface (TUI) design concept for a manipulative digital drawing pen. Based on interviews with focus groups brainstorming and experts and the results of a field survey, we selected the most suitable tangible user interface for children between 4 and 7 years of age. Using the new tangible user interface, children could choose between the brush tools after touching and feeling the various patterns. The thickness of the brush could be adjusted by changing the tilt angle. In a subsequent experimental process we compared the differences in performance and subjective user satisfaction. A total of sixteen children, aged 4-7 years participated in the experiment. Two operating system experiments (the new designed tangible digital drawing pen and traditional visual interface-icon-clicking digital drawing pens) were performed at random and in turns. We assessed their manipulation performance, accuracy, brush stroke richness and subjective evaluations. During the experimental process we found that operating functions using the direct manipulation method, and adding shapes and semantic models to explain the purpose of each function, enabled the children to perform stroke switches relatively smoothly. By using direct manipulation digital pens, the children could improve their stroke-switching performance for digital drawing. Additionally, by using various patterns to represent different brushes or tools, the children were able to make selections using their sense of touch, thereby reducing the time required to move along the drawing pens and select icons (The significant differences (p = 0.000, p drawing thick lines using the crayon function of the two (new and old) drawing pens (new 5.8750 drawing operations enhanced the drawing results, thereby increasing the children's enjoyment of drawing with tangible digital drawing pens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. Methods to Assess Adverse Childhood Experiences of Children and Families: Toward Approaches to Promote Child Well-being in Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Christina D; Carle, Adam; Hudziak, James; Gombojav, Narangerel; Powers, Kathleen; Wade, Roy; Braveman, Paula

    Advances in human development sciences point to tremendous possibilities to promote healthy child development and well-being across life by proactively supporting safe, stable and nurturing family relationships (SSNRs), teaching resilience, and intervening early to promote healing the trauma and stress associated with disruptions in SSNRs. Assessing potential disruptions in SSNRs, such as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), can contribute to assessing risk for trauma and chronic and toxic stress. Asking about ACEs can help with efforts to prevent and attenuate negative impacts on child development and both child and family well-being. Many methods to assess ACEs exist but have not been compared. The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) now measures ACEs for children, but requires further assessment and validation. We identified and compared methods to assess ACEs among children and families, evaluated the acceptability and validity of the new NSCH-ACEs measure, and identified implications for assessing ACEs in research and practice. Of 14 ACEs assessment methods identified, 5 have been used in clinical settings (vs public health assessment or research) and all but 1 require self or parent report (3 allow child report). Across methods, 6 to 20 constructs are assessed, 4 of which are common to all: parental incarceration, domestic violence, household mental illness/suicide, household alcohol or substance abuse. Common additional content includes assessing exposure to neighborhood violence, bullying, discrimination, or parental death. All methods use a numeric, cumulative risk scoring methodology. The NSCH-ACEs measure was acceptable to respondents as evidenced by few missing values and no reduction in response rate attributable to asking about children's ACEs. The 9 ACEs assessed in the NSCH co-occur, with most children with 1 ACE having additional ACEs. This measure showed efficiency and confirmatory factor analysis as well as latent class analysis

  5. Why Children Misbehave

    OpenAIRE

    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on why children misbehavior.

  6. Sixteen-row multislice computed tomography in the assessment of pulmonary veins prior to ablative treatment: validation vs conventional pulmonary venography and study of reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, R.; Cademartiri, F.; Pattynama, P.M.T. [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Scholten, M; Jordaens, L.J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Cardiology

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to validate multislice computed tomography (MSCT) venography measurements of pulmonary vein (PV) diameters vs conventional pulmonary venography (CPV), and to assess the reproducibility of MSCT data. The study included 21 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation who were planned for cryothermal ablation of PVs. One day before ablation, all patients underwent CPV and contrast-enhanced non-gated MSCT venography. The MSCT was repeated 3 months after ablation. The CPV images of the treated PVs (n=40) were analyzed and compared with the results of MSCT measurements. Reproducibility of MSCT venography-based data was assessed by interobserver (n=84 PVs) and interexamination (n=44 PVs) variability. Pre-treatment PV diameters on MSCT and CPV showed good correlation (r=0.87, p<0.01; 18.9{+-}2.3 mm, 188.5{+-}2.4 mm, respectively). Interobserver agreement and interexamination reproducibility were good (r=0.91, r=0.82, respectively, p<0.01), with narrow limits of agreement (Bland and Altman method). The MSCT venography allows accurate and reproducible assessment of PVs. It can be used both in non-invasive planning of treatment for ablative therapy and in the follow-up of patients.

  7. Sixteen-year incidence of diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in a nationwide cohort of young Danish type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broe, Rebecca; Rasmussen, Malin Lundberg; Peto, Tunde

    2013-01-01

    Design of study: Prospective cohort-study Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess long-term incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and associated risk factors in a Danish population-based cohort of young type 1 diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty...... percent of all Danish type 1 diabetic patients below the age of 18 (n=1033) were examined in 1986-89. In 1995, baseline retinopathy was graded and other risk factors were assessed in 324 patients (31.4% of the original cohort). Of these, 132 (40.7%) were re-examined at follow-up in 2011. At baseline two...... and diabetes duration. Results: The mean age and diabetes duration at baseline were 21.1±3.1 and 13.3±3.5 years, respectively. At baseline 31.8% had no retinopathy, 67.4% had non-PDR and 0.8% had PDR. At follow-up, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 96.9%. Thirty-eight patients with no DR at baseline...

  8. A Two-dimensional Sixteen Channel Transmit/Receive Coil Array for Cardiac MRI at 7.0 Tesla: Design, Evaluation and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalhammer, Christof; Renz, Wolfgang; Winter, Lukas; Hezel, Fabian; Rieger, Jan; Pfeiffer, Harald; Graessl, Andreas; Seifert, Frank; Hoffmann, Werner; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Tkachenko, Valeriy; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Kellman, Peter; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To design, evaluate and apply a two-dimensional 16 channel transmit/receive coil array tailored for cardiac MRI at 7.0 Tesla. Material and Methods The cardiac coil array consists of 2 sections each using 8 elements arranged in a 2 × 4 array. RF safety was validated by SAR simulations. Cardiac imaging was performed using 2D CINE FLASH imaging, T2* mapping and fat-water separation imaging. The characteristics of the coil array were analyzed including parallel imaging performance, left ventricular chamber quantification and overall image quality. Results RF characteristics were found to be appropriate for all subjects included in the study. The SAR values derived from the simulations fall well in the limits of legal guidelines. The baseline SNR advantage at 7.0 T was put to use to acquire 2D CINE images of the heart with a very high spatial resolution of (1 × 1 × 4) mm3. The proposed coil array supports 1D acceleration factors of up to R=4 without impairing image quality significantly. Conclusions The 16 channel TX/RX coil has the capability to acquire high contrast and high spatial resolution images of the heart at 7.0 Tesla. PMID:22706727

  9. Traumatic diaphragmatic injuries in infants and children: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplewitz, B.Z.; Manson, D.E.; Babyn, P.S.; Ramos, C.; Ein, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. Traumatic diaphragmatic injuries (DI) in infants and children are uncommon and are often associated with multiple severe injuries. Delayed presentation can be life threatening due to organ herniation and strangulation. We present the imaging findings in a relatively large population of children who experienced this rare injury. Methods. Medical records of all patients admitted to our Trauma Service from 1977 to 1998 with DI were retrospectively reviewed recording imaging, clinical and surgical or autopsy findings. Results. Of sixteen patients with DI (7 females, 9 males; age 3 weeks to 15 years), 14 suffered from blunt trauma secondary to high-energy impact, and 2 from penetrating injuries. Unilateral DI occurred equally on each side, with one bilateral injury. Associated injuries, present in 81%, included severe head injuries, visceral, mesenteric and vascular injuries and multiple fractures. Six patients died from multiple organ failure (3), head injury (2), and shock (1). Findings in the initial chest X-ray suggested the diagnosis in 13 (81%) of 16 injuries, and CT demonstrated irregularity and thickening of the diaphragm in 4 out of 7. Conclusions. Plain film findings suggested the diagnosis in most; CT and MR were useful adjuncts. High index of suspicion and awareness of the mechanism of injury can lead to prompt diagnosis, early repair, and decreased morbidity and mortality. (orig.)

  10. Unstable femoral neck fractures in children - A new treatment option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruthi K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Femoral neck fractures in children are an uncommon but difficult situation. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical results of closed reduction internal fixation and primary valgus osteotomy fixed with a tension band wire loop in high angled pediatric femoral neck fractures. Methods : In a prospective nonrandomized study conducted at 2 centres, sixteen children and adolescents with a Pauwel type 2/3 fracture neck femur were taken as participants. The femoral neck fractures were stabilized using closed reduction and internal fixation (6.5 mm noncannulated screw and a primary valgus osteotomy fixed with a tension band wire loop preferably within 24-36 hours of injury. Patients were evaluated to determine complications, clinical and radiological outcome. Results : At a mean post operative follow up of 5 years, union was achieved in all cases. Three patients had AVN and one developed coxavara. Results were evaluated using IOWA hip scores. Thirteen patients had an excellent result while 3 patients had a good result. Conclusion : Use of this technique holds promise in treating these difficult unstable fractures. Although results from a larger series are still awaited yet the use of this technique can safely be extended to stable fractures also, to minimize the incidence of complications as nonunion and AVN.

  11. Garden Counseling Groups and Self-Esteem: A Mixed Methods Study with Children with Emotional and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Shin, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    This research study focused on the use of a garden group counseling intervention to address the self-esteem of children with emotional and behavioral problems. The researchers found higher self-esteem among participants (N = 31) following the gardening group. Additionally, participants discussed feeling calm and happy and learning to working…

  12. Exploring young patients' perspectives on rehabilitation care: methods and challenges of organizing focus groups for children and adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, M.; Sixma, H.; Meerdink, J.; Wiersma, H.; Rademakers, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In research on quality of care, the experiences of children and (pre)adolescents are usually assessed by asking their parents. However, these young patients may have preferences of their own, and their experiences do not necessarily concur with those of their parents. Therefore, our

  13. Teaching to Play Performing a Main Role -- Effective Method of Pretend Play Facilitation in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrova, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    We compared the efficiency of teacher's direct and indirect intervention into pretend play. Three hundred sixty-eight kindergarten children and 92 qualified kindergarten teachers were involved in the study. In the control group, a teacher indirectly initiated a play, creating a playing corner adjusted to the theme of the pretend play and during…

  14. MODERN METHODS OF PRESERVING BREAST FEEDING IN CHILDREN OF THE FIRST MONTHS OF LIFE WITH HEALTH DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Turti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of preserving and prolonging breast feeding is relevant for many countries around the world. It is especially relevant in premature infants and the children born with various perinatal pathologies. Scientific literature features the primary reasons of weaning: work activity resumption by nursing mothers, milk deficiency, breast refusal, insufficient awareness of mothers. The article presents results of two studies performed at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health. Results of a medical-psychological-pedagogical questioning of 85 mothers of premature infants demonstrate insufficient work of medical personnel in the sphere of preserving breast feeding in whole and in the children born with perinatal pathologies in particular; and the need of young women and their families in obtaining information on the benefits of breast feeding, training and assistance in the course of parental performance. The study resulted in formulation of recommendations on breast feeding support. It is important to establish the possibility to return to full breast feeding after enforced weaning and in the event of supplementary/mixed feeding. Results of the second study (n = 33 demonstrated that the use of special medical devices (pacifiers, feeding bottles developed on the basis of thorough research in the sphere of maternal breast sucking physiology in natural feeding termination risk group children helps to preserve children’s need therein and ensures efficient return of children to maternal breast feeding.

  15. Culture and Comprehension: A Mixed Methods Study of Children's Responses to a Fictional Story about Interracial Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Amy J.; Selman, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between early adolescents' understanding of social issues and their comprehension of a fictional story about interracial conflict. It combines qualitative and quantitative analyses to examine the ways in which social awareness and reading comprehension skills may be interrelated when children and adolescents…

  16. Seasonal variation of total particulate matter and children respiratory diseases at Lisbon primary schools using passive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canha, N.; Almeida, M.; Do Carmo Freitas, M.; Almeida, S.M.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, 14 primary schools of Lisbon city, Portugal, followed a questionnaire of the ISAAC - International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Program, in 2009/2010. The questionnaire contained questions to identify children with respiratory diseases (wheeze, asthma and rhinitis). Total

  17. Systematic Social Observation of Children's Neighborhoods Using Google Street View: A Reliable and Cost-Effective Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Bates, Christopher J.; Sampson, Robert J.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children growing up in poor versus affluent neighborhoods are more likely to spend time in prison, develop health problems and die at an early age. The question of how neighborhood conditions influence our behavior and health has attracted the attention of public health officials and scholars for generations. Online tools are now…

  18. Which method of posttraumatic stress disorder classification best predicts psychosocial function in children with traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Greg; Le Brocque, Robyne; Kenardy, Justin; Anderson, Vicki; McKinlay, Lynne

    2010-10-01

    Controversy surrounds the classification of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In these populations, it is difficult to differentiate TBI-related organic memory loss from dissociative amnesia. Several alternative PTSD classification algorithms have been proposed for use with children. This paper investigates DSM-IV-TR and alternative PTSD classification algorithms, including and excluding the dissociative amnesia item, in terms of their ability to predict psychosocial function following pediatric TBI. A sample of 184 children aged 6-14 years were recruited following emergency department presentation and/or hospital admission for TBI. PTSD was assessed via semi-structured clinical interview (CAPS-CA) with the child at 3 months post-injury. Psychosocial function was assessed using the parent report CHQ-PF50. Two alternative classification algorithms, the PTSD-AA and 2 of 3 algorithms, reached statistical significance. While the inclusion of the dissociative amnesia item increased prevalence rates across algorithms, it generally resulted in weaker associations with psychosocial function. The PTSD-AA algorithm appears to have the strongest association with psychosocial function following TBI in children and adolescents. Removing the dissociative amnesia item from the diagnostic algorithm generally results in improved validity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SLC25A13 gene analysis in citrin deficiency: sixteen novel mutations in East Asian patients, and the mutation distribution in a large pediatric cohort in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Zong Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human SLC25A13 gene encodes citrin, the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 2 (AGC2, and SLC25A13 mutations cause citrin deficiency (CD, a disease entity that encompasses different age-dependant clinical phenotypes such as Adult-onset Citrullinemia Type II (CTLN2 and Neonatal Intrahepatic Cholestasis caused by Citrin Deficiency (NICCD. The analyses of SLC25A13 gene and its protein/mRNA products remain reliable tools for the definitive diagnoses of CD patients, and so far, the SLC25A13 mutation spectrum in Chinese CD patients has not been well-characterized yet. METHODS AND RESULTS: By means of direct DNA sequencing, cDNA cloning and SNP analyses, 16 novel pathogenic mutations, including 9 missense, 4 nonsense, 1 splice-site, 1 deletion and 1 large transposal insertion IVS4ins6kb (GenBank accession number KF425758, were identified in CTLN2 or NICCD patients from China, Japan and Malaysia, respectively, making the SLC25A13 variations worldwide reach the total number of 81. A large NICCD cohort of 116 Chinese cases was also established, and the 4 high-frequency mutations contributed a much larger proportion of the mutated alleles in the patients from south China than in those from the north (χ(2 = 14.93, P<0.01, with the latitude of 30°N as the geographic dividing line in mainland China. CONCLUSIONS: This paper further enriched the SLC25A13 variation spectrum worldwide, and formed a substantial contribution to the in-depth understanding of the genotypic feature of Chinese CD patients.

  20. On the use of naturalistic methods to examine safety-relevant behaviours amongst children and evaluate a cycling education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J; Dozza, M; Patton, D A; Maharaj, P; Boufous, S; Eveston, T

    2017-11-01

    School-based cycling education programs aim to improve cycling safety and participation amongst children. Available research suggests that typical programs, which focus on bicycle manoeuvring skills, have limited effects on behaviour observed on a track or planned route. The current study uses theoretically more valid, naturalistic cycling data, to evaluate Safe Cycle, a program that incorporates hazard and self-awareness training. Soon after Safe Cycle was delivered at treatment schools, research bicycles instrumented with a rearward- and a forward-facing camera were loaned to six children from treatment schools and six children from (waitlist) control schools. In each group half the children were in Year 6, and half were in Year 7/8. Each child was instructed to ride the research bicycle instead of their own bicycle for the 1-2 weeks that they had a research bicycle. Video data were reduced using a purpose-designed coding scheme that identified whether participants performed specific safety-relevant behaviours in appropriate circumstances. While the participants controlled their bicycles well, gave way appropriately to traffic at intersections, and stopped at red lights, participants frequently removed one or both hands from the handlebars, and seldom signalled turns, conducted over-shoulder-checks when changing lanes, or looked in multiple directions at intersections (except when crossing a road). While aspects of design and small sample sizes limited evaluation findings, this research demonstrated the feasibility and potential of naturalistic data to support cycling education program evaluation. Further, the study substantially extended available naturalistic study of children's cycling behaviour to highlight behaviours which might be targeted by cycling safety initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of robotic gait training and gait-focused physical therapy programs for children and youth with cerebral palsy: a mixed methods RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiart, Lesley; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Wright, F Virginia

    2016-06-02

    Robot assisted gait training (RAGT) is considered to be a promising approach for improving gait-related gross motor function of children and youth with cerebral palsy. However, RAGT has yet to be empirically demonstrated to be effective. This knowledge gap is particularly salient given the strong interest in this intensive therapy, the high cost of the technology, and the requirement for specialized rehabilitation centre resources. This is a research protocol describing a prospective, multi-centre, concurrent mixed methods study comprised of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and an interpretive descriptive qualitative design. It is a mixed methods study designed to determine the relative effectiveness of three physical therapy treatment conditions (i.e., RAGT, a functional physical therapy program conducted over-ground (fPT), and RAGT + fPT) on gait related motor skills of ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. Children with cerebral palsy aged 5-18 years who are ambulatory (Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels II and III) will be randomly allocated to one of four treatment conditions: 1) RAGT, 2) fPT, 3) RAGT and fPT combined, or 4) a maintenance therapy only control group. The qualitative component will explicate child and parent experiences with the interventions, provide insight into the values that underlie their therapy goals, and assist with interpretation of the results of the RCT. n/a. NCT02391324 Registered March 12, 2015.

  2. 音乐治疗干预自闭症儿童的原理和方法%Music therapy intervention principles and methods of autism children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱天龙

    2012-01-01

    作为一种新兴的自闭症干预方法,音乐治疗对自闭症儿童的生理、心理、社会行为等方面有着独特的作用。在使用音乐对自闭症儿童进行干预时。应根据自闭症儿童的类型和心理、行为特征来选择不同性质的音乐,采取不同的干预方法。为保证治疗效果,在使用音乐治疗对自闭症儿童进行干预时应制定科学的流程,做到干预前进行评估,干预中进行监控,干预后进行总结。%As a new method for autism intervention, music therapy can impact on children vnth autism trom me physical, psychological, social behavior, etc.. Different types of musics and intervention methods in music therapy should be selected according to the type, the psychology and the behavior characteristic of autism children. To ensure treatment effect, scientific process should be established when using music therapy intervene autism children, and be assessed before the intervention, monitored in the intervention and sum up after the intervention.

  3. Fathers' Orientation to Their Children's Autism Diagnosis: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Michael D.; Hannon, LaChan V.

    2017-01-01

    Sixteen fathers of individuals with autism were interviewed to develop a grounded theory explaining how they learned about their children's autism diagnosis. Results suggest the orientation process entails at least two phases: orienting oneself and orienting others. The orienting oneself phase entailed fathers having suspicion of developmental…

  4. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children's physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Jan P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention. Methods This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child's characteristics. Children aged 10–12 years (N = 72, 36 females will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no electronic games', 'traditional' electronic games and 'active' electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins. Discussion This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects

  5. Evaluation of the accuracy of Demirjian method for estimation of dental age among 6-12 years of children in Navi Mumbai: A radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Rahul J; Khare, Sumedh Suhas; Saraf, Tanvi A; Trivedi, Sonal; Naidu, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Dental formation is superior to eruption as a method of dental age (DA) assessment. Eruption is only a brief occurrence, whereas formation may be related at different chronologic age levels, thereby providing a precise index for determining DA. The study was designed to determine the nature of inter-relationship between chronologic and DA. Age estimation depending upon tooth formation was done by Demirjian method and accuracy of Demirjian method was also evaluated. The sample for the study consisted of 197 children of Navi Mumbai. Significant positive correlation was found between chronologic age and DA that is, (r = 0.995), (P Mumbai (Maharashtra - India) population. Demirjian method showed high accuracy when applied to Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra - India) population.

  6. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. METHODS: Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. RESULTS: Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". CONCLUSIONS: Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  7. Exploring a method for evaluation of preschool and school children with autism spectrum disorder through checking their understanding of the speaker's emotions with the help of prosody of the voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Mayumi; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2017-11-01

    We attempted to evaluate the ability of 125 preschool and school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD children) to understand the intentions of those speaking to them using prosody of the voice, by comparing it with that of 119 typically developing children (TDC) and 51 development-age-matched children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD children), and to explore, based on the results, a method for objective evaluation of children with ASD in the early and later periods of childhood. Phrases routinely used by children were employed in the task administered to the children, with the prosody of the voice speaking these phrases changed to express the four emotions (acceptance, rejection, bluff and fooling). The percentage of children with ASD who could correctly identify the emotion of "fooling" was significantly lower than that of TDC, at each developmental age (corresponding to middle kindergarten class to sixth year of elementary school). On the other hand, in the children with ADHD, while the correct answer rate for identifying the emotion of "fooling" was significantly lower than that in the TDC and higher than that in the ASD children at development ages corresponding to the early years of elementary school, it did not differ significantly from that in the TDC and was higher than that ASD children at development ages corresponding to the later years of elementary school. These results indicate that children with ASD find it particularly difficult to understand the emotion of fooling by listening to speech with discrepancy between the meaning of the phrases and the emotion expressed by the voice, although the prosody of the voice may serve as a key to understanding the emotion of the speakers. This finding also suggests that the prosody of the voice expressing this emotion (fooling) may be used for objective evaluation of children with ASD. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Analysis of an automated background correction method for cardiovascular MR phase contrast imaging in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Hilpipre, Nicholas; Boylan, Emma E.; Popescu, Andrada R.; Deng, Jie [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); McNeal, Gary R. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Customer Solutions Group, Cardiovascular MR R and D, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Choi, Grace [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Greiser, Andreas [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for evaluating vessel blood flow. Inherent errors in acquisition, such as phase offset, eddy currents and gradient field effects, can cause significant inaccuracies in flow parameters. These errors can be rectified with the use of background correction software. To evaluate the performance of an automated phase contrast MRI background phase correction method in children and young adults undergoing cardiac MR imaging. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing routine clinical cardiac MRI including phase contrast MRI for flow quantification in the aorta (Ao) and main pulmonary artery (MPA). When phase contrast MRI of the right and left pulmonary arteries was also performed, these data were included. We excluded patients with known shunts and metallic implants causing visible MRI artifact and those with more than mild to moderate aortic or pulmonary stenosis. Phase contrast MRI of the Ao, mid MPA, proximal right pulmonary artery (RPA) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) using 2-D gradient echo Fast Low Angle SHot (FLASH) imaging was acquired during normal respiration with retrospective cardiac gating. Standard phase image reconstruction and the automatic spatially dependent background-phase-corrected reconstruction were performed on each phase contrast MRI dataset. Non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected net flow, forward flow, regurgitant volume, regurgitant fraction, and vessel cardiac output were recorded for each vessel. We compared standard non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected mean flow values for the Ao and MPA. The ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (Qp:Qs) was calculated for the standard non-background and background-phase-corrected data and these values were compared to each other and for proximity to 1. In a subset of patients who also underwent phase contrast MRI of the MPA, RPA, and LPA a comparison was made between standard non

  9. 'Keep fit' exercise interventions to improve health, fitness and well-being of children and young people who use wheelchairs: mixed-method systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas D; Noyes, Jane; Spencer, Llinos Haf; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Hastings, Richard P; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Bray, Nathan; Whitaker, Rhiannon

    2014-12-01

    This mixed-method systematic review aims to establish the current evidence base for 'keep fit', exercise or physical activity interventions for children and young people who use wheelchairs. Nurses have a vital health promotion, motivational and monitoring role in optimizing the health and well-being of disabled children. Children with mobility impairments are prone to have low participation levels in physical activity, which reduces fitness and well-being. Effective physical activity interventions that are fun and engaging for children are required to promote habitual participation as part of a healthy lifestyle. Previous intervention programmes have been trialled, but little is known about the most effective types of exercise to improve the fitness of young wheelchair users. Mixed-method design using Cochrane systematic processes. Evidence regarding physiological and psychological effectiveness, health economics, user perspectives and service evaluations will be included and analysed under distinct streams. The project was funded from October 2012. Multiple databases will be searched using search strings combining relevant medical subheadings and intervention-specific terms. Articles will also be identified from ancestral references and by approaching authors to identify unpublished work. Only studies or reports evaluating the effectiveness, participation experiences or cost of a physical activity programme will be included. Separate analyses will be performed for each data stream, including a meta-analysis if sufficient homogeneity exists and thematic analyses. Findings across streams will be synthesized in an overarching narrative summary. Evidence from the first systematic review of this type will inform development of effective child-centred physical activity interventions and their evaluation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Short-term Clinical Course of Knee Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Feasibility Study Using Electronic Methods of Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Michael S; Kamper, Steven J; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien; Henschke, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders, such as knee pain, are common in children and adolescents, but there is a lack of high quality research that evaluates the clinical course of these conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a prospective study of children and adolescents with knee pain using electronic methods of data collection. Children and adolescents with knee pain that presented to primary care physiotherapy clinics were enrolled and followed-up on a weekly basis via short messaging service (SMS) until their knee pain had recovered (i.e. two consecutive weeks of no pain). Feasibility was assessed in terms of recruitment, retention and response rates to SMS and an online questionnaire. Baseline and 6-month follow-up measures included pain, disability, physical function, physical activity and health related quality of life. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the median time to knee pain recovery. Thirty participants (mean age 13.0 ± 2.2 years, 53% boys) were recruited over 26 months. The overall response rate to weekly SMS follow-up was 71.3% (809 received/1135 sent). One third of participants stopped responding to SMS prior to recovery, and these participants typically had a much lower response rate during the time they remained in the study. At 6-month follow-up, 80% of the cohort completed the final online questionnaire, and 29% of participants still reported current knee pain (≥1/10 VAS). The median time for knee pain recovery was 8 weeks (95%CI: 5, 10). Electronic data collection alone seems insufficient to track pain recovery in young people and may need to be supplemented with more traditional data collection methods. Researchers should consider further measures to address slow recruitment rates and high attrition when designing large prospective studies of children and adolescents in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Monitoring and evaluating the adherence to a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) among young children in rural Qinghai, China: a mixed methods evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chang, Suying; Wang, Wei; Helena van Velthoven, Michelle; Han, Huijun; Xing, Min; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2017-06-01

    Large investments are currently made in community-based complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao, YYB) programs to improve nutrition of young children in rural areas in China. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the experience and challenges of implementing YYB programs in China. We aimed to: 1) monitor distribution of YYB; 2) assess children's adherence to and acceptability of YYB; and 3) evaluate community-based strategies to improve the program. This mixed methods evaluation study combined data from surveys and focus groups that took place during a controlled interventional evaluation trial. The trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based YYB distribution on improving children's health status in rural areas in China. We conducted five cross-sectional surveys with caregivers of children aged 6-23 months (baseline survey (N = 1804) in August 2012 and four follow-up cross-sectional surveys: 1) N = 494 in January 2013; 2) N = 2187 in August 2013; 3) N = 504 in January 2014; and 4) N = 2186 in August 2014) in one rural county in Qinghai Province. We used a two-stage cluster sampling technique to select mothers with eligible children for each survey. Information was collected from caregivers on household characteristics, YYB consumption and acceptability in the surveys. High adherence in each survey was defined as children who consumed at least four YYB sachets during the previous week. A logistic regression model was developed to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals of factors associated with high adherence. Also, we conducted 10 focus groups with73 caregivers and health workers involved in the YYB distribution. Content analysis was used to explore qualitative findings, which were used to gain deeper insight into the quantitative results. Around 90% of caregivers had ever received YYB and more than 80% of children ever took YYB. Caregivers mainly knew about YYB through their village doctors. High

  12. The Use of High Order Thinking Skill in Story Telling Method in Order to Improve Children' Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aisyah, Siti; Setiawan, Denny

    2009-01-01

    Children need to be equipped with the ability to navigate the world and to think independently, not just recite facts. One of the thinking ability dimensions is creating thinking associated with the ability to explore ideas, conclude possibilities, and find correct answers more than one answer. In this era of globalization and advances in technology, where changes rapidly occur in community, creative thinking ability is a need for every human being who want to succeed in a variety of competit...

  13. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of sixteen red beverages containing carminic acid: identification of degradation products by using principal component analysis/discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Mastroianni, Rita; Marengo, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    The study investigates the sunlight photodegradation process of carminic acid, a natural red colourant used in beverages. For this purpose, both carminic acid aqueous standard solutions and sixteen different commercial beverages, ten containing carminic acid and six containing E120 dye, were subjected to photoirradiation. The results show different patterns of degradation, not only between the standard solutions and the beverages, but also from beverage to beverage. Due to the different beverage recipes, unpredictable reactions take place between the dye and the other ingredients. To identify the dye degradation products in a very complex scenario, a methodology was used, based on the combined use of principal component analysis with discriminant analysis and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high resolution mass spectrometry. The methodology is unaffected by beverage composition and allows the degradation products of carminic acid dye to be identified for each beverage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new method to monitor the contribution of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    American adults consume 11.3% of total daily calories from foods and beverages from fast food restaurants. The contribution of different types of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children is unknown. To estimate the consumption of energy, sodium, added sugars, and solid fats among US children ages 4-19 y by fast food restaurant type. Analyses used the first 24-h recall for 12,378 children in the 2003-2010 cycles of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010). NHANES data identify foods by location of origin, including stores and fast food restaurants (FFR). A novel custom algorithm divided FFRs into 8 segments and assigned meals and snacks to each. These included burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican, Asian, fish, and coffee/snack restaurants. The contribution of each restaurant type to intakes of energy and other dietary constituents was then assessed by age group (4-11 y and 12-19 y) and by race/ethnicity. Store-bought foods and beverages provided 64.8% of energy, 61.9% of sodium, 68.9% of added sugars, and 60.1% of solid fats. FFRs provided 14.1% of energy, 15.9% of sodium, 10.4% of added sugars and 17.9% of solid fats. Among FFR segments, burger restaurants provided 6.2% of total energy, 5.8% of sodium, 6.2% of added sugars, and 7.6% of solid fats. Less energy was provided by pizza (3.3%), sandwich (1.4%), Mexican (1.3%), and chicken restaurants (1.2%). Non-Hispanic black children obtained a greater proportion of their total energy (7.4%), sodium (7.1%), and solid fats (9.5%) from burger restaurants as compared to non-Hispanic white children (6.0% of energy, 5.5% of sodium, and 7.3% of solid fat). These novel analyses, based on consumption data by fast food market segment, allow public health stakeholders to better monitor the effectiveness of industry efforts to promote healthier menu options.

  15. A new method to monitor the contribution of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Rehm

    Full Text Available American adults consume 11.3% of total daily calories from foods and beverages from fast food restaurants. The contribution of different types of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children is unknown.To estimate the consumption of energy, sodium, added sugars, and solid fats among US children ages 4-19 y by fast food restaurant type.Analyses used the first 24-h recall for 12,378 children in the 2003-2010 cycles of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010. NHANES data identify foods by location of origin, including stores and fast food restaurants (FFR. A novel custom algorithm divided FFRs into 8 segments and assigned meals and snacks to each. These included burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican, Asian, fish, and coffee/snack restaurants. The contribution of each restaurant type to intakes of energy and other dietary constituents was then assessed by age group (4-11 y and 12-19 y and by race/ethnicity.Store-bought foods and beverages provided 64.8% of energy, 61.9% of sodium, 68.9% of added sugars, and 60.1% of solid fats. FFRs provided 14.1% of energy, 15.9% of sodium, 10.4% of added sugars and 17.9% of solid fats. Among FFR segments, burger restaurants provided 6.2% of total energy, 5.8% of sodium, 6.2% of added sugars, and 7.6% of solid fats. Less energy was provided by pizza (3.3%, sandwich (1.4%, Mexican (1.3%, and chicken restaurants (1.2%. Non-Hispanic black children obtained a greater proportion of their total energy (7.4%, sodium (7.1%, and solid fats (9.5% from burger restaurants as compared to non-Hispanic white children (6.0% of energy, 5.5% of sodium, and 7.3% of solid fat.These novel analyses, based on consumption data by fast food market segment, allow public health stakeholders to better monitor the effectiveness of industry efforts to promote healthier menu options.

  16. Effects of conventional neurological treatment and a virtual reality training program on eye-hand coordination in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Won; Song, Gui-Bin; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of conventional neurological treatment and a virtual reality training program on eye-hand coordination in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] Sixteen children (9 males, 7 females) with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy were recruited and randomly assigned to the conventional neurological physical therapy group (CG) and virtual reality training group (VRG). [Methods] Eight children in the control group performed 45 minutes of therapeutic exercise twice a week for eight weeks. In the experimental group, the other eight children performed 30 minutes of therapeutic exercise and 15 minutes of a training program using virtual reality twice a week during the experimental period. [Results] After eight weeks of the training program, there were significant differences in eye-hand coordination and visual motor speed in the comparison of the virtual reality training group with the conventional neurological physical therapy group. [Conclusion] We conclude that a well-designed training program using virtual reality can improve eye-hand coordination in children with cerebral palsy.

  17. Interest in PSI across Sixteen Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamal, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether interest in the personalized system of instruction (PSI) in the behavioral sciences has waned since 1968, conference papers and poster presentations dealing with PSI were surveyed. The number of papers and posters devoted to PSI peaked in the years 1972-1979 and has since clearly declined. (RM)

  18. Hunterston A: first sixteen years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominey, J.R.; Battle, T.A.; Brow, N.J.; Laing, D.; Leary, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Construction of Hunterston A was started in 1957. Commissioning of both reactors was completed in 1964, and since that date the Station has achieved a life-time load factor of 82.2% based on the original design output of 300MWe sent out. The identification in 1968 of enhanced oxidation rates of certain mild steels in CO 2 at temperatures in excess of 360 0 C led to the decision to operate the reactors at gas outlet temperatures of 360 0 C to maximise reactor component life. A fractured burst cartridge detection pipe was discovered in 1968 during reactor internal photographic surveys. Other problems encountered during the 16 years include 70 fuel element failures from 1964 to date and a number of internal boiler tube failures which occurred between 1964 and 1968. (U.K.)

  19. Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixing Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1 to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC; (2 to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3 to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Context-specific outdoor time and physical activity among school-children across gender and age: Using accelerometers and GPS to advance methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Demant Klinker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being outdoors has a positive influence on health among children. Evidence in this area is limited and many studies have used self-reported measures. Objective context-specific assessment of physical activity patterns and correlates, such as outdoor time, may progress this field.Aims: To employ novel objective measures to assess age and gender differences in context-specific outdoor weekday behavior patterns among school-children (outdoor time and outdoor MVPA and to investigate associations between context-specific outdoor time and MVPA.Methods: A total of 170 children had at least one weekday of nine hours combined accelerometer and GPS data and were included in the analyses. The data were processed using the Personal Activity and Location Measurement System and a purpose-built PostgreSQL database resulting in context-specific measures for outdoor time, outdoor MVPA and overall daily MVPA. In addition, four domains (leisure, school, transport and home and 11 subdomains (e.g. urban green space, sports facilities were created and assessed. Multilevel analyses provided results on age and gender differences and the association between outdoor time and MVPA.Results: Girls compared to boys had fewer outdoors minutes (pConclusion:A new methodology to assess context-specific outdoor time and physical activity patterns has been developed and can be expanded to other populations. Different context-specific patterns were found for gender and age, suggesting different strategies may be needed to promote physical activity

  1. Reformulation of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT): factor structure and scoring method in a non-clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S D; Han, H; Newton, R L; Martin, C K; York-Crowe, E; Stewart, T M; Williamson, D A

    2006-12-01

    The primary aims of this study were to empirically test the factor structure of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and to interpret the factor structure of the ChEAT within the context of a new scoring method. The ChEAT was administered to 728 children in the 2nd through 6th grades (from five schools) at two different time points. Exactly half the students were male and half were female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically test the merits of an alternative 6-point scoring system as compared to the traditionally used 4-point scoring system. With the new scoring procedure, the skewness for all factor scores decreased, which resulted in increased variance in the item scores, as well as the total ChEAT score. Since the internal consistency of two factors in a recently proposed model was not acceptable (ChEAT reported by previous investigations. Intercorrelations among the factors suggested three higher order constructs. These findings indicate that the ChEAT subscales may be sufficiently stable to allow use in non-clinical samples of children.

  2. Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Brown, Nicole; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities. ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey. Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions. ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  3. Children's attachment-related self-worth: a multi-method investigation of postdivorce preschoolers' relationships with their mothers and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge; Gullón-Rivera, Ángel L; Page, Timothy F; Oettel, Barbara J; Corey, Janet M; Golby, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    Three related hypotheses derived from attachment theory were examined in this multi-informant and multi-method study of 71 postdivorce mothers and their preschool children (40 boys, 31 girls): (1) mother-child interactions observed at home will be related to attachment-related representations by children (Attachment Story Completion Task or ASCT) and mothers (Parent Attachment Interview or PAI); and (2) these variables will be inversely correlated with maternal depressive symptoms and positively with social support (from mother's parents and the child's father); and (3) mother-child observations and representations will predict teacher-rated peer behavior. Where appropriate, child gender, maternal income, and child receptive language were statistically controlled. More harmonious observed mother-child interactions were associated with children's sense of self-worth in family relationships (ASCT) and maternal accounts of sensitive-effective guidance (PAI). Observational and representational variables were inversely correlated with maternal depressive symptoms. Mothers' satisfaction with social support from their parents was indirectly linked to the family variables while social support from the child's father had no measurable effect on the mother-child variables. Mother-child variables and teacher ratings were uncorrelated but explained independent variance in ASCT self-worth scores.

  4. A semi-automated method for non-invasive internal organ weight estimation by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, newborns and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayyil, Sudhin; Schievano, Silvia; Robertson, Nicola J.; Jones, Rodney; Chitty, Lyn S.; Sebire, Neil J.; Taylor, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows minimally invasive autopsy, especially when consent is declined for traditional autopsy. Estimation of individual visceral organ weights is an important component of traditional autopsy. Objective: To examine whether a semi-automated can be used for non-invasive internal organ weight measurement using post-mortem MR imaging in fetuses, newborns and children. Methods: Phase 1: In vitro scanning of 36 animal organs (heart, liver, kidneys) was performed to check the accuracy of volume reconstruction methodology. Real volumes were measured by water displacement method. Phase 2: Sixty-five whole body post-mortem MR scans were performed in fetuses (n = 30), newborns (n = 5) and children (n = 30) at 1.5 T using a 3D TSE T2-weighted sequence. These data were analysed offline using the image processing software Mimics 11.0. Results: Phase 1: Mean difference (S.D.) between estimated and actual volumes were -0.3 (1.5) ml for kidney, -0.7 (1.3) ml for heart, -1.7 (3.6) ml for liver in animal experiments. Phase 2: In fetuses, newborns and children mean differences between estimated and actual weights (S.D.) were -0.6 (4.9) g for liver, -5.1 (1.2) g for spleen, -0.3 (0.6) g for adrenals, 0.4 (1.6) g for thymus, 0.9 (2.5) g for heart, -0.7 (2.4) g for kidneys and 2.7 (14) g for lungs. Excellent co-correlation was noted for estimated and actual weights (r 2 = 0.99, p < 0.001). Accuracy was lower when fetuses were less than 20 weeks or less than 300 g. Conclusion: Rapid, accurate and reproducible estimation of solid internal organ weights is feasible using the semi-automated 3D volume reconstruction method.

  5. Mental state talk by Danish preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Knüppel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen 4 to 6-year-old Danish children were video-recorded, while interacting spontaneously with their family in their homes. The mental state talk of the children was identified and analysed with respect to three mental domains: desire, feeling and cognition, and was compared to data from a similar study carried out with Canadian families (Jenkins et al., 2003. Our results suggest some cross-cultural differences in children’s mental state talk. First, Danish children produce a larger variation of mental state talk words than Canadian children do, and second, the distribution of mental state talk across the three domains differed for the two language groups. Semantic variation between Danish and English was identified in the study, which may partly explain the findings. Furthermore we present a usage-based approach to the investigation of children’s development of psychological categories in language as well as cross-linguistically.

  6. Influence of extraction methods on the hepatotoxicity of Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of extraction methods: Cold aqueous (CA) hot aqueous (HA) and alcoholic extraction (AE) methods on the hepatotoxic effect of Azadirachta indica bark extract (ABC) was investigated using albino rats. A total of forty eight rats were divided into three groups of sixteen rats equally for the extraction methods.

  7. Clinical and radiological features of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe diagnosis of pituitary stalk lesion has been based on clinical feature, radiologic assessment for its critical location and role. This study aimed to investigate clinical symptoms, endocrine disturbance, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents and to evaluate differences between neoplastic lesions with the others.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of patients under 18 years old with pituitary stalk lesions diagnosed at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital between 2000 and 2013, by a text search for head MRI reports by using 'pituitary stalk', 'infundibulum', and 'infundibular stalk', as keywords.ResultsFor the 76 patients, sixteen patients (21.1% had congenital lesions, and 52 (68.4% had neoplasms. No inflammatory lesions were found. Diabetes insipidus (DI was the most common endocrine defect, diagnosed in 38 patients (50%. There was male predominance especially in neoplastic group. Thickened pituitary stalk was, but enhancement of lesion was not, associated with neoplasm. DI was more prevalent in neoplastic stalk lesions. Anterior pituitary dysfunction such as growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiencies were less prevalent in neoplastic lesions of pituitary stalk.ConclusionIn conclusion, the etiology of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents is diverse and different from that in adults. Neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions can be differentiated from nonneoplastic lesions by systemic evaluation of clinical, hormonal, radiological findings.

  8. Sensitive multiresidue method by HS-SPME/GC-MS for 10 volatile organic compounds in urine matrix: a new tool for biomonitoring studies on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Arianna; Vitali, Matteo; Avino, Pasquale; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Protano, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    A HS-SPME method coupled with GC-MS analysis has been developed for simultaneously measuring the concentration of 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylene, methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, 2-methyl-2-butyl methyl ether, and diisopropyl ether) in urine matrix as a biomonitoring tool for populations at low levels of exposure to such VOCs. These compounds, potentially toxic for human health, are common contaminants of both outdoor and indoor air, as they are released by autovehicular traffic; some of them are also present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Thus, the exposure to these pollutants cannot be neglected and should be assessed. The low limits of detection and quantification (LODs and LOQs <6.5 and 7.5 ng L(-1), respectively) and the high reproducibility (CVs <4 %) make the developed method suited for biomonitoring populations exposed at low levels such as children. Further, the method is cost-effective and low in time-consumption; therefore, it is useful for investigating large populations. It has been applied to children exposed to traffic pollution and/or ETS; the relevant results are reported, and the relevant implications are discussed.

  9. Factors associated with utilization of long-acting and permanent contraceptive methods among women who have decided not to have more children in Gondar city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebe, Chernet Baye; Adefris, Mulat; Yenit, Melaku Kindie; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa

    2017-09-06

    Despite the fact that long acting family planning methods reduce population growth and improve maternal health, their utilization remains poor. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence of long acting and permanent family planning method utilization and associated factors among women in reproductive age groups who have decided not to have more children in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2015. Three hundred seventeen women who have decided not to have more children were selected consecutively into the study. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. Both bivariate and multi-variable logistic regressions analyses were used to identify factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent family planning methods. The multi-variable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with the utilization of long acting and permanent family planning methods. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with the corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used to show the strength of associations, and variables with a P-value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. In this study, the overall prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive (LAPCM) method utilization was 34.7% (95% CI: 29.5-39.9). According to the multi-variable logistic regression analysis, utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods was significantly associated with women who had secondary school, (AOR: 2279, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.44), college, and above education (AOR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.36, 6.24), history of previous utilization (AOR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.69, 5.38), and information about LAPCM (AOR: 8.85, 95% CI: 2.04, 38.41). In this study the prevalence of long acting and permanent family planning method utilization among women who have decided not to have more children was high compared with previous studies conducted elsewhere. Advanced educational

  10. New method of scoliosis assessment: preliminary results using computerized photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroeira, Rozilene Maria Cota; Leal, Jefferson Soares; de Melo Pertence, Antônio Eustáquio

    2011-09-01

    A new method for nonradiographic evaluation of scoliosis was independently compared with the Cobb radiographic method, for the quantification of scoliotic curvature. To develop a protocol for computerized photogrammetry, as a nonradiographic method, for the quantification of scoliosis, and to mathematically relate this proposed method with the Cobb radiographic method. Repeated exposure to radiation of children can be harmful to their health. Nevertheless, no nonradiographic method until now proposed has gained popularity as a routine method for evaluation, mainly due to a low correspondence to the Cobb radiographic method. Patients undergoing standing posteroanterior full-length spine radiographs, who were willing to participate in this study, were submitted to dorsal digital photography in the orthostatic position with special surface markers over the spinous process, specifically the vertebrae C7 to L5. The radiographic and photographic images were sent separately for independent analysis to two examiners, trained in quantification of scoliosis for the types of images received. The scoliosis curvature angles obtained through computerized photogrammetry (the new method) were compared to those obtained through the Cobb radiographic method. Sixteen individuals were evaluated (14 female and 2 male). All presented idiopathic scoliosis, and were between 21.4 ± 6.1 years of age; 52.9 ± 5.8 kg in weight; 1.63 ± 0.05 m in height, with a body mass index of 19.8 ± 0.2. There was no statistically significant difference between the scoliosis angle measurements obtained in the comparative analysis of both methods, and a mathematical relationship was formulated between both methods. The preliminary results presented demonstrate equivalence between the two methods. More studies are needed to firmly assess the potential of this new method as a coadjuvant tool in the routine following of scoliosis treatment.

  11. Pan-Britain, mixed-methods study of multidisciplinary teams teaching parents to manage children's long-term kidney conditions at home: Study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Care of children and young people (children) with long-term kidney conditions is usually managed by multidisciplinary teams. Published guidance recommends that whenever possible children with long-term conditions remain at home, meaning parents may be responsible for performing the majority of clinical care-giving. Multidisciplinary team members, therefore, spend considerable time promoting parents' learning about care-delivery and monitoring care-giving. However, this parent-educative aspect of clinicians' role is rarely articulated in the literature so little evidence exists to inform professionals' parent-teaching interventions. Methods/Design This ongoing study addresses this issue using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods involving the twelve children's kidney units in England, Scotland and Wales. Phase I involves a survey of multidisciplinary team members' parent-teaching interventions using: i) A telephone-administered questionnaire to determine: the numbers of professionals from different disciplines in each team, the information/skills individual professionals relay to parents and the teaching strategies/interventions they use. Data will be managed using SPSS to produce descriptive statistics ii) Digitally-recorded, qualitative group or individual interviews with multidisciplinary team members to explore their accounts of the parent-teaching component of their role. Interviews will be transcribed anonymously and analysed using Framework Technique. Sampling criteria will be derived from analysis to identify one/two unit(s) for subsequent in-depth study Phase II involves six prospective, ethnographic case-studies of professional-parent interactions during parent-teaching encounters. Parents of six children with a long-term kidney condition will be purposively sampled according to their child's age, diagnosis, ethnicity and the clinical care-giving required; snowball sampling will identify the professionals involved in each case

  12. A televideo exercise and nutrition program for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in maintenance therapy: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson CA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cheryl A Gibson,1 Keith J August,2 Jerry L Greene,3 Stephen D Herrmann,4 Jaehoon Lee,5 Susan P Harvey,6 Kate Lambourne,3 Debra K Sullivan7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General and Geriatric Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, KS, USA; 2Children's Mercy Hospital, MO, USA; 3Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas, KS, USA; 4Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, SD, USA; 5Institute for Measurement, Methodology, Analysis and Policy, Texas Tech University, TX, USA; 6Center for Research on Learning, University of Kansas, KS, USA; 7Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center, KS, USA Abstract: Changes in nutrient intake and decreased exercise resulting from cancer therapies as well as their side effects may be contributing factors in the increased body weight and differences in physical fitness observed in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. This article will describe the study protocol for an intervention program designed to improve the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of ALL survivors. Twenty-four children aged between 4 years and 12 years with ALL will be randomized to a 6-month technology-based exercise and nutrition program (TLC4ALLKids or to enhanced usual care (eUC. The participants randomized to the TLC4ALLKids will participate in weekly, 1-hour coaching sessions on nutrition and physical activity and 1-hour physical activity classes delivered by group video conferencing. Participants will be provided with iPad tablets loaded with video conferencing software and the Healthy Lifestyle Tracking calendar to track daily nutrition and physical activity goals and weight. Both groups will be provided with Fitbit™ Zip to monitor physical activity. To assess feasibility, participant recruitment (achievement of proposed sample size, attendance (per weekly online sessions/assessment sessions, and adherence (number of

  13. Effects of psycho-educational training and stimulant medication on visual perceptual skills in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigone S Papavasiliou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antigone S Papavasiliou, Irene Nikaina, Ioanna Rizou, Stratos AlexandrouDepartment of Neurology, Pendeli Children’s Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is treated with stimulants and psycho-educational remedial programs despite limited literature support for the latter. This study aimed to examine changes in a “Test of Visual Perceptual Skills” (TVPS that has not been previously reported in children with ADHD enrolled in such a program.Methods: Sixteen children, 7–11 years old, with ADHD were involved in occupational therapy and special education geared towards attention training. Six months later methylphenidate 1 mg/kg/day was prescribed. It was not taken by eight children because of family choice. The TVPS was given twice, upon diagnosis, and 8 months post-intervention. The groups were compared by a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA with medication as a between groups factor and test-retest scores as within factor.Results: All children demonstrated increases in total scores in the second measurement. Medicated children scored higher but ANOVA showed a nonsignificant F for the two groups, medicated and unmedicated (F = 0.0031, p = 0.9563, indicating a non-differential effect of the two levels of treatment. It revealed a significant F for the pre- and post-treatment total TVPS scores (F = 30.91, p < 0.0001 indicating a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment tests. The interaction between pre-post treatment and level of treatment (medicated–unmedicated was nonsignificant (F = 2.20, p = 0.1604.Conclusion: TVPS scores improved in all children following intervention. Medicated children did better, but differences were nonsignificant.Keywords: ADHD, stimulants, psycho-educational therapy, TVPS

  14. Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to identify causes of diarrhoea in children: a reanalysis of the GEMS case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Platts-Mills, James A; Juma, Jane; Kabir, Furqan; Nkeze, Joseph; Okoi, Catherine; Operario, Darwin J; Uddin, Jashim; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Alonso, Pedro L; Antonio, Martin; Becker, Stephen M; Blackwelder, William C; Breiman, Robert F; Faruque, Abu S G; Fields, Barry; Gratz, Jean; Haque, Rashidul; Hossain, Anowar; Hossain, M Jahangir; Jarju, Sheikh; Qamar, Farah; Iqbal, Najeeha Talat; Kwambana, Brenda; Mandomando, Inacio; McMurry, Timothy L; Ochieng, Caroline; Ochieng, John B; Ochieng, Melvin; Onyango, Clayton; Panchalingam, Sandra; Kalam, Adil; Aziz, Fatima; Qureshi, Shahida; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Roberts, James H; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O; Stroup, Suzanne E; Sur, Dipika; Tamboura, Boubou; Taniuchi, Mami; Tennant, Sharon M; Toema, Deanna; Wu, Yukun; Zaidi, Anita; Nataro, James P; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Myron M; Houpt, Eric R

    2016-09-24

    Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, but establishing the cause can be complicated by diverse diagnostic approaches and varying test characteristics. We used quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to reassess causes of diarrhoea in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). GEMS was a study of moderate to severe diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years in Africa and Asia. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to test for 32 enteropathogens in stool samples from cases and matched asymptomatic controls from GEMS, and compared pathogen-specific attributable incidences with those found with the original GEMS microbiological methods, including culture, EIA, and reverse-transcriptase PCR. We calculated revised pathogen-specific burdens of disease and assessed causes in individual children. We analysed 5304 sample pairs. For most pathogens, incidence was greater with qPCR than with the original methods, particularly for adenovirus 40/41 (around five times), Shigella spp or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and Campylobactor jejuni o C coli (around two times), and heat-stable enterotoxin-producing E coli ([ST-ETEC] around 1·5 times). The six most attributable pathogens became, in descending order, Shigella spp, rotavirus, adenovirus 40/41, ST-ETEC, Cryptosporidium spp, and Campylobacter spp. Pathogen-attributable diarrhoeal burden was 89·3% (95% CI 83·2-96·0) at the population level, compared with 51·5% (48·0-55·0) in the original GEMS analysis. The top six pathogens accounted for 77·8% (74·6-80·9) of all attributable diarrhoea. With use of model-derived quantitative cutoffs to assess individual diarrhoeal cases, 2254 (42·5%) of 5304 cases had one diarrhoea-associated pathogen detected and 2063 (38·9%) had two or more, with Shigella spp and rotavirus being the pathogens most strongly associated with diarrhoea in children with mixed infections. A quantitative molecular diagnostic approach improved population

  15. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela; Freisling, Heinz; van Rossum, Caroline; Ruprich, Jiri; Slimani, Nadia; Temme, Elisabeth; Trolle, Ellen; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Huybrechts, Inge; de Boer, Evelien

    2015-08-01

    To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot studies for Assessment of Nutrient intake and food Consumption among Kids in Europe. One protocol included a 3-day food diary which was checked with a parent, and data were entered afterwards using EPIC-Soft. The alternative protocol consisted of two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries followed by EPIC-Soft completion interviews. Both protocols included general and food propensity questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The protocols were compared using evaluation questionnaires among the participating parents and study personnel. The parents found the questionnaires and instructions for filling in the food diaries understandable. Food description and food quantification was evaluated as problematic by 29 and 15% of the participants for the 3-day diaries versus 15 and 12% for the 1-day diaries. The protocol with 1-day food diaries was evaluated as less burdensome by the parents and logistically more challenging by the interviewers. Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey in children 0-10 years. The positive evaluation of feasibility of tools and materials is an important step towards harmonised food consumption data at European level among the younger age groups.

  16. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among 5-year-old children in Saint Lucia by three methods of classification and a comparison with historical rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, K; Bird, J; Canning, P M; Frizzell, L M; Smith, L M

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine if child obesity rates have risen in the Caribbean nation of Saint Lucia, as found globally, and whether under-nutrition coexists, as in other developing nations. The average adult in Saint Lucia is overweight, thus considerable child obesity might be expected, but there are no current data. Heights and weights were obtained from a sample (n= 425) of the 2001 birth cohort of Saint Lucian children measured during the nation-wide 2006/2007 Prior to School Entry Five-Year Assessment. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight were estimated by Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Cole et al. and new World Health Organization (WHO) methods. Previously reported 1976 estimates, including children ≤60 months of age only, based on National Centre for Health Statistics curves, were adjusted to new WHO equivalents using an algorithm developed by Yang and de Onis, and compared with rates in our subsample of children ≤60 months of age (n= 99). Regardless of classification method, overweight and obesity rates were high: 14.4% and 9.2% (WHO); 11.3% and 12.0% (CDC); and 9.9% and 7.1% (Cole et al.), respectively. Underweight estimates also varied: 4.7% (WHO); 11.3% (CDC) and 6.6% (Cole et al.). Obesity in our young subsample (15.2%; WHO) was more than 3 times the adjusted 1976 rate (4.3%). Obesity among Saint Lucian pre-schoolers has tripled in 30 years. Our findings also suggest that this country, like many undergoing a 'nutrition transition', faces the dual challenge of over-nutrition and under-nutrition. Routine monitoring of overweight and underweight is needed in Saint Lucia, as is the implementation and evaluation of programmes to address these problems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Music Training Program: A Method Based on Language Development and Principles of Neuroscience to Optimize Speech and Language Skills in Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Dastgheib

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, music has been employed in many intervention and rehabilitation program to enhance cognitive abilities in patients. Numerous researches show that music therapy can help improving language skills in patients including hearing impaired. In this study, a new method of music training is introduced based on principles of neuroscience and capabilities of Persian language to optimize language development in deaf children after implantation.    Materials and Methods: The candidate children are classified in three groups according to their hearing age and language development. The music training program is established and centered on four principles, as follows: hearing and listening to music (with special attention to boost hearing, singing, rhythmic movements with music and playing musical instruments.   Results: Recently much research has demonstrated that even after cochlear implant operation, a child cannot acquire language to the same level of detail as a normal child. As a result of this study music could compensate this developmental delay .It is known that the greater the area of the brain that is activated, the more synaptic learning and plasticity changes occur in that specific area. According to the principles of neural plasticity, music could improve language skills by activating the same areas for language processing in the brain.   Conclusion:  In conclusion, the effects of music on the human brain seem to be very promising and therapeutic in various types of disorders and conditions, including cochlear implantation.

  18. Application of radiochemical neutron activation and atomic absorption spectrometry methods for the study of nutrition-pollution interactions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Bang Diep [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, VAEC, P.O. Box 5T-160, Hanoi (Viet Nam)]. E-mail: tranfbangdiepj@yahoo.com; Tran Dai Nghiep [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, VAEC, P.O. Box 5T-160, Hanoi (Viet Nam)]. E-mail: tdnghiep@vaec.gov.vn

    2005-07-01

    The application of radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is expected to aid in understanding and evaluating the effects of environmental pollution on the nutritional status of children already exposed to marginal malnutrition. Samples of placenta, of low-weight and control newborns groups, were collected for determination of nutritional elements and pollutants. The mean ratios of pollutants and nutrients such as Cd/Zn, Hg/Se and Pb/Ca were evaluated for both groups. All these ratios in the placenta of the low-weight newborns are higher than that of the healthy group. The degree of the nutrient-pollutant interaction is evaluated by quantity R, with mercury considered as the most active pollutant while calcium the most active nutrient among the involved elements in process of the interaction. (author)

  19. Application of radiochemical neutron activation and atomic absorption spectrometry methods for the study of nutrition-pollution interactions in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Bang Diep; Tran Dai Nghiep

    2005-01-01

    The application of radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is expected to aid in understanding and evaluating the effects of environmental pollution on the nutritional status of children already exposed to marginal malnutrition. Samples of placenta, of low-weight and control newborns groups, were collected for determination of nutritional elements and pollutants. The mean ratios of pollutants and nutrients such as Cd/Zn, Hg/Se and Pb/Ca were evaluated for both groups. All these ratios in the placenta of the low-weight newborns are higher than that of the healthy group. The degree of the nutrient-pollutant interaction is evaluated by quantity R, with mercury considered as the most active pollutant while calcium the most active nutrient among the involved elements in process of the interaction. (author)

  20. Forced deflation pulmonary function test: a novel method to evaluate lung function in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rakesh K; Ibrahimova, Azada; Escolar, Maria L; Szabolcs, Paul; Vander Lugt, Mark T.; Windreich, Randy M; Weiner, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    We describe the safety and feasibility of a forced deflation pulmonary function test (dPFT) in infants and young children. Fifty-two dPFT studies were performed in 26 patients (median age, 1.4 years). Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow (FEF 75 ) were normal in all except one case, but respiratory system compliance (Crs) was reduced in 24% patients. There were no significant differences in pre-blood and marrow transplantation FVC, FEF 75 , and Crs between those patients who did and those who did not have posttransplant pulmonary complications. A larger study is needed to determine the prevalence and significance of PFT abnormalities in this age group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Rachel R; Williams, Jane E; Wells, Jonathan C K; Fewtrell, Mary S

    2013-01-01

    Clinical application of body composition (BC) measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. (1) To compare fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) standard deviation scores (SDS) generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C) model; (2) To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy), BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT); and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2)/Z)) in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients). DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement) FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62); FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72)), and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2). BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  2. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel R Atherton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical application of body composition (BC measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. OBJECTIVES: (1 To compare fat mass (FM and fat free mass (FFM standard deviation scores (SDS generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C model; (2 To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. DESIGN: FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy, BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT; and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2/Z in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients. RESULTS: DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62; FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72, and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2. BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  3. The Effect of Various Reinforcement Contingencies on the Accuracy of Children's Self-Reports. Technical Report #46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Gisela E.

    This study, part of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP), investigated the accuracy of children's self reports under various contingencies. Sixteen first grade arithmetic students were randomly assigned to two groups, A and B. It was found that both groups learned to check their own work and report it fairly accurately when no…

  4. Facilitative Communication Strategies of Hearing Mothers with Their Children Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aznan Che; Brown, P. Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the type and duration of early intervention (EI) experience impacts hearing parents' views of the importance of different types of facilitative communication strategies when interacting with their children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Sixteen mothers were involved in the study. Respondents were allocated to…

  5. Wilson's disease: an analysis of 28 Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Truffa Kleine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Clinical-laboratory and evolutionary analysis of twenty-eight patients with Wilson's disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight children (twelve females and sixteen males with Wilson's disease were evaluated retrospectively between 1987 and 2009, with a follow-up of 72 months (1 - 240 months. The clinical, laboratory, and histologic features at diagnosis were recorded at the end of the study. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 11 years (2 - 18 years. Twelve patients were asymptomatic, seven had hepatitis symptoms, five had raised aminotransferase levels, three had hepatomegaly associated with neurological disorders, one had fulminant hepatitis with hemolytic anemia, and six patients presented with a Kayser-Fleischer ring. A histological analysis revealed that six children had chronic hepatitis, seven had cirrhosis, two had steatosis, one had portal fibrosis, and one had massive necrosis. The treatment consisted of D-penicillamine associated with pyridoxine for 26 patients. Adverse effects were observed in the other two patients: one presented with uncontrollable vomiting and the other demonstrated elastosis perforans serpiginosa. At the end of the study, all 26 treated patients were asymptomatic. Twenty-four of the patients were treated with D-penicillamine and pyridoxine, and two were treated with trientine and zinc sulfate. A liver transplant was performed in one patient with fulminant hepatitis, but the final patient died 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Family screenings associated with early treatment are important in preventing Wilson's disease symptoms and potentially fatal disease progression. The study suggests that Wilson's disease must be ruled out in children older than two years presenting with abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes because of the heterogeneity of symptoms and the encouraging treatment results obtained so far.

  6. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-09-18

    Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). 12 UK children's hospitals. Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication and appropriate timing of deferred consent discussions

  7. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Design Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. Participants 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). Setting 12 UK children's hospitals. Results Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication

  8. Lexical and semantic representations of L2 cognate and noncognate words acquisition in children : evidence from two learning methods

    OpenAIRE

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-01-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyze the effect of two learning methods (picture-based vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and noncognates) in early stages of children’s L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age= 10.87 years; SD= 0....

  9. Monte Carlo Method in the calculate of conversion coefficients for dose in children's organs and tissues subjected to dentistric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, E.C.M.; Khoury, H.; Lima, F.R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing utilization of oral X-rays, specially in youngsters and children, prompts the assessment of equivalent doses in their organs and tissues. With this purpose, Monte Carlo code was adopted to simulate an X-ray source irradiating phantoms of the MIRD-5 type with different ages (10, 15 and 40 years old) to calculate the conversion coefficients which transform the exposure at skin to equivalent doses at several organs and tissues of interest. In order to check the computer program, simulations were performed for adult patients using the original code (ADAM,FOR developed by GSF Germany) and the adapted program (MCDRO,PAS). Good agreement between results obtained by both programs was observed. Applications to incisive, canine and molar teeth were simulated. The conversion factors were calculated for the following organs and tissues: thyroid, active bone marrow (head and whole body), bone (facial skeleton, cranium and whole body), skin (head and whole body) and crystalline. Based on the obtained results, it follows that the younger the patient and the langer the field area, the higher the doses in assessed organs and tissues

  10. Influence of the Method of Definition on the Prevalence of Left-Ventricular Hypertrophy in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Data from the Know-Ped CKD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heeyeon; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kang, Hee Gyung; Ha, Il-Soo; Cheong, Hae Il; Han, Kyung Hee; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Min Hyun; Shin, Jae Il; Lee, Joo Hoon; Park, Young Seo

    2017-01-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Left-ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) is an early marker of cardiovascular disease in pediatric CKD, and the prevalence of LVH in pediatric CKD is approximately 20-30% in pre-dialysis CKD patients. However, there is no consensus on the ideal method of defining LVH in pediatric CKD patients. Previous studies have typically used the LV mass index (LVMI), which is calculated as LV mass in grams divided by height in meters to the 2.7th power ≥ 38 g/m2.7, to diagnose LVH in children with CKD. Recently, age-specific reference values for LVMI ≥ 95th percentile and LV wall-thickness z-score > 1.64 in children were addressed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and contributing factors of LVH in pediatric CKD patients according to each measurement and evaluate the concordance between each measurement. We used the baseline data of the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD), which is a nationwide, 10-year, prospective, observational cohort study of pediatric CKD. A total of 469 patients were enrolled, and 458 patients were included in the final analysis. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the association of the variables with LVH. Kappa statistics were used to analyze the concordance. According to an LVH diagnosis of LVMI ≥ 38 g/m2.7, 188 patients (41.0%) were diagnosed with LVH, and the prevalence of LVH was high in younger patients ( 1.64. There is poor concordance between the diagnosis of LVH using the LV wall-thickness z-score and the LVMI method. The results of this study show that there is poor concordance between the diagnosis of LVH using the wall-thickness z-score and the LVMI2.7 criteria. Further investigation is needed to estimate the correlation between LVH and cardiac dysfunction and to find a better method for defining LVH in the pediatric CKD cohort

  11. Methods Matter: Teacher-Trainee Perspectives on Language Teaching Methods in a South Korean TESOL Certificate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbitt, Todd

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to ascertain Korean teacher-trainees' perspectives on the awareness, likability, perceived usefulness and prospective application of varied language teaching methods that they had been taught in a sixteen-week language teaching methodology course. What did the students think about these methods? Will students…

  12. Children's accuracy of portion size estimation using digital food images: effects of interface design and size of image on computer screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Watson, Kathleen B; Martin, Shelby; Beltran, Alicia; Islam, Noemi; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Adame, Su-heyla; Cullen, Karen; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Subar, Amy

    2011-03-01

    To test the effect of image size and presence of size cues on the accuracy of portion size estimation by children. Children were randomly assigned to seeing images with or without food size cues (utensils and checked tablecloth) and were presented with sixteen food models (foods commonly eaten by children) in varying portion sizes, one at a time. They estimated each food model's portion size by selecting a digital food image. The same food images were presented in two ways: (i) as small, graduated portion size images all on one screen or (ii) by scrolling across large, graduated portion size images, one per sequential screen. Laboratory-based with computer and food models. Volunteer multi-ethnic sample of 120 children, equally distributed by gender and ages (8 to 13 years) in 2008-2009. Average percentage of correctly classified foods was 60·3 %. There were no differences in accuracy by any design factor or demographic characteristic. Multiple small pictures on the screen at once took half the time to estimate portion size compared with scrolling through large pictures. Larger pictures had more overestimation of size. Multiple images of successively larger portion sizes of a food on one computer screen facilitated quicker portion size responses with no decrease in accuracy. This is the method of choice for portion size estimation on a computer.

  13. Comparison of caries detection methods using varying numbers of intra-oral digital photographs with visual examination for epidemiology in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This was a method comparison study. The aim of study was to compare caries information obtained from a full mouth visual examination using the method developed by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) for epidemiological surveys with caries data obtained from eight, six and four intra-oral digital photographs of index teeth in two groups of children aged 5 years and 10/11 years. Methods Five trained and calibrated examiners visually examined the whole mouth of 240 5-year-olds and 250 10-/11-year-olds using the BASCD method. The children also had intra-oral digital photographs taken of index teeth. The same 5 examiners assessed the intra-oral digital photographs (in groups of 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs) for caries using the BASCD criteria; dmft/DMFT were used to compute Weighted Kappa Statistic as a measure of intra-examiner reliability and intra-class correlation coefficients as a measure of inter-examiner reliability for each method. A method comparison analysis was performed to determine the 95% limits of agreement for all five examiners, comparing the visual examination method with the photographic assessment method using 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs. Results The intra-rater reliability for the visual examinations ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 in the 5-year-olds and 0.90 to 0.97 in the 10-/11-year-olds. Those for the photographic assessments in the 5-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs, 0.86 to 0.94, for 6 intra-oral photographs, 0.85 to 0.98 and for 4 intra-oral photographs, 0.80 to 0.96; for the 10-/11-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs 0.84 to 1.00, for 6 intra-oral photographs 0.82 to 1.00 and for 4 intra-oral photographs 0.72 to 0.98. The 95% limits of agreement were −1.997 to 1.967, -2.375 to 2.735 and −2.250 to 2.921 respectively for the 5-year-olds and −2.614 to 2.027, -2.179 to 3.887 and −2.594 to 2.163 respectively for the 10-/11-year-olds. Conclusions The photographic

  14. Serious complications after button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krom, Hilde; Visser, Margot; Hulst, Jessie M; Wolters, Victorien M; Van den Neucker, Anita M; de Meij, Tim; van der Doef, Hubert P J; Norbruis, Obbe F; Benninga, Marc A; Smit, Margot J M; Kindermann, Angelika

    2018-05-02

    Serious and fatal complications after button battery ingestion are increasing worldwide. The aim of this study is to describe serious complications after battery ingestion in children in the Netherlands.All pediatric gastroenterologists in the Netherlands performing upper endoscopies were asked to report all serious complications after battery ingestion in children (0-18 years) between 2008 and 2016 retrospectively.Sixteen serious complications were reported: death after massive bleeding through esophageal-aortal fistula (n = 1), esophageal-tracheal fistula (n = 5), stenosis after (suspected) perforation and mediastinitis (n = 5), (suspected) perforation and mediastinitis (n = 3), vocal cord paralysis (n = 1), and required reintubation for dyspnea and stridor (n = 1). The median time interval between ingestion and presentation was 5 (IQR 2-258) h. All children were ≤ 5 (median 1.4; IQR 0.9-2.1) years. Vomiting (31.3%), swallowing/feeding problems (31.3%), and fever (31.3%) were the most common presenting symptoms; however, 18.8% of the patients were asymptomatic (n = 1 missing). All batteries were button batteries (75% ≥ 20 mm; 18.8% batteries were removed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (50%) and rigid endoscopy (37.5%) or surgically (12.5%). Sixteen serious complications occurred after small and large button batteries ingestion between 2008 and 2016 in both symptomatic and asymptomatic children in the Netherlands. Therefore, immediate intervention after (suspected) button battery ingestion is required. What is Known: • Button battery ingestion may result in serious and fatal complications. • Serious and fatal complications after button battery ingestion are increasing worldwide. What is New: • Sixteen serious complications after button battery ingestion occurred during 2008-2016 in children in the Netherlands. • Serious complications were also caused by small batteries (< 20 mm) in the Netherlands and also occurred

  15. A multi-method assessment of satisfaction with services in the medical home by parents of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David L; McCaskill, Quimby E; Winterbauer, Nancy; Jobli, Edessa; Hou, Tao; Wludyka, Peter S; Stowers, Kristi; Livingood, William

    2009-01-01

    To assess satisfaction of parents of children with special health care needs with treatment by office staff, communication with the pediatrician, involvement in decision-making and coordination of services outside the practice. We used a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to collect parental perceptions of the Medical Home services provided by their pediatricians. Six practices were selected to participate in the study based on geographic and patient demographic characteristics. In total, 262 (75% response rate) families completed surveys, and 28 families of these participated in focus groups. The Family Survey collected information (corroborated and enriched with focus group interviews) on parent and child demographics, severity of the child's condition and the burden on parents. We assessed parental satisfaction with treatment by office staff, communication with the pediatrician, involvement in decision-making, and connection to services outside the practice. Survey responses were analyzed using SAS with all associations considered significant at the P special health care needs. Overall, only a small percentage of families reported being dissatisfied with their treatment by office staff (13-14%), communication with the pediatrician (10%), and involvement in decision-making (15-16%). However, a majority of families (approximately 58%) were dissatisfied with the ability of the pediatrician and his/her office to connect the families with resources outside the pediatric office. Families whose children had more severe conditions, or whose conditions had more of an impact on the families, reported being less satisfied with all aspects of communication and care coordination Families of youth with special health care needs (>12 years of age) were less satisfied than families of younger children with the practice's ability to connect them to resources outside the practice. Both the focus groups and surveys demonstrated that families of children with

  16. Rational use of antibiotics by community health workers and caregivers for children with suspected pneumonia in Zambia: a cross-sectional mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie Graham

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic resistance is an issue of growing global concern. One key strategy to minimise further development of resistance is the rational use of antibiotics, by providers and patients alike. Through integrated community case management (iCCM, children diagnosed with suspected pneumonia are treated with antibiotics; one component of an essential package to reduce child mortality and increase access to health care for remote populations. Through the use of clinical algorithms, supportive supervision and training, iCCM also offers the opportunity to improve the rational use of antibiotics and limit the spread of resistance in resource-poor contexts. This study provides evidence on antibiotic use by community health workers (CHWs and caregivers to inform iCCM programmes, safeguarding current treatments whilst maximising access to care. Methods 1497 CHW consultations were directly observed by non-clinical researchers, with measurement of respiratory rate by CHWs recorded by video. Videos were used to conduct a retrospective reference standard assessment of respiratory rate by experts. Fifty-five caregivers whose children were prescribed a 5-day course of antibiotics for suspected pneumonia were followed up on day six to assess adherence through structured interviews and pill counts. Six focus group discussions and nine in depth interviews were conducted with CHWs and caregivers to supplement quantitative findings. Results The findings indicate that CHWs adhered to treatment guidelines for 92 % of children seen, prescribing treatment corresponding to their assessment. However, only 65 % of antibiotics prescribed were given for children with experts’ confirmed fast breathing pneumonia. Qualitative data indicates that CHWs have a good understanding of pneumonia diagnosis, and although caregivers sometimes applied pressure to receive drugs, CHWs stated that treatment decisions were not influenced. 46 % of caregivers were fully

  17. Integration of Psychodrama and Transactional Analysis Methods in psychoeducational work with school-age children in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Solomonovna Sokovnina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with a comparison of the concepts and methods of psychodrama and transactional analysis, the authors identify similarities and present their experiences of combining these approaches in order to conduct workshops for 5th grade (11-12 years students within the Russian educational system.  They provide their rationale for this work, details of the content of the training and an example of the work of the students in the form of an agreement on cooperation between students and teachers.  They provide an analysis of the reported emotions during lessons for 78 students compared to 38 within control groups, showing increased positive emotions and decreased negative emotions for those in the transactional analysis/psychodrama lessons.  They conclude that the role-play method used was more effective than traditional educational methods within Russia for the development of autonomy, motivation and involvement of students.

  18. A Scandinavian approach to designing with children in a developing country - Exploring the applicability of participatory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    the challenges that arise from employing participatory methods in a different socio-cultural setting with participants who have had comparatively limited exposure to digital technologies. We offer a comparative study of two PD projects carried out with school classes in Scandinavia and India. While the setup...... for the two projects was identical, they unfolded in very different ways. We present and discuss this study, which leads us to conclude that PD can be a useful approach in both settings, but that there is a distinct difference as to which methods bring about fruitful results. The most prominent difference...... is the ways in which abstract and manifest participatory methods led to different outcomes in the two settings....

  19. Maternal Insomnia and Children's Family Socialization Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ambler, Antony; Arseneault, Louise; Houts, Renate M.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment. Design: Mothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interviewers evaluated the family socialization environment using the Coder's Inventory. Setting: Assessments were conducted in participants' homes within the U.K. Patients or Participants: One thousand one hundred sixteen mothers of British children enrolled in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study were invited to participate when their children were aged 12 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: After controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with a poorer family socialization environment (β = −0.10, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = −0.16, −0.04], P Ambler A; Arseneault L; Houts RM; Caspi A. Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments. SLEEP 2012;35(4):579-582. PMID:22467996

  20. Results of intraocular lens implantation with capsular tension ring in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pranab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the outcome of intraocular lens (IOL implantation using capsular tension ring (CTR in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children. Setting : Tertiary care setting Materials and Methods : We prospectively studied 18 eyes of 15 children with subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lenses between 90° up to 210° after phacoemulsification, CTR and IOL implantation. Each child was examined for IOL centration, zonular dehiscence and posterior capsular opacification (PCO. Results : Age of the patient ranged between five to 15 years. Out of 18 eyes, seven had traumatic and 11 had spontaneous subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lens. Phacoemulsification was successfully performed with CTR implantation in the capsular bag. Intraoperative zonular dialysis occurred in two eyes. Anterior vitrectomy was performed in six eyes to manage vitreous prolapse. IOL implanted was polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA in eight eyes, hydrophobic acrylic in seven and hydrophilic acrylic in three. Follow-up ranged from 24 months to 72 months. Sixteen eyes had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Nine eyes developed significant PCO and were managed with Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. One eye with acrylic IOL in the capsular bag had IOL dislocation after two years which was managed with vitrectomy and secondary trans-scleral fixation of IOL. Conclusions : Phacoaspiration with CTR implantation makes capsular bag IOL fixation possible in most of the eyes with subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses. PCO still remains a challenge in children with successful phacoaspiration with CTR implantation