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Sample records for method shadow analysis

  1. A cloud shadow detection method combined with cloud height iteration and spectral analysis for Landsat 8 OLI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Liu, Xinyan; Yang, Yikun; Chen, TingTing; Wang, Quan; Zhou, Xueying

    2018-04-01

    Although enhanced over prior Landsat instruments, Landsat 8 OLI can obtain very high cloud detection precisions, but for the detection of cloud shadows, it still faces great challenges. Geometry-based cloud shadow detection methods are considered the most effective and are being improved constantly. The Function of Mask (Fmask) cloud shadow detection method is one of the most representative geometry-based methods that has been used for cloud shadow detection with Landsat 8 OLI. However, the Fmask method estimates cloud height employing fixed temperature rates, which are highly uncertain, and errors of large area cloud shadow detection can be caused by errors in estimations of cloud height. This article improves the geometry-based cloud shadow detection method for Landsat OLI from the following two aspects. (1) Cloud height no longer depends on the brightness temperature of the thermal infrared band but uses a possible dynamic range from 200 m to 12,000 m. In this case, cloud shadow is not a specific location but a possible range. Further analysis was carried out in the possible range based on the spectrum to determine cloud shadow location. This effectively avoids the cloud shadow leakage caused by the error in the height determination of a cloud. (2) Object-based and pixel spectral analyses are combined to detect cloud shadows, which can realize cloud shadow detection from two aspects of target scale and pixel scale. Based on the analysis of the spectral differences between the cloud shadow and typical ground objects, the best cloud shadow detection bands of Landsat 8 OLI were determined. The combined use of spectrum and shape can effectively improve the detection precision of cloud shadows produced by thin clouds. Several cloud shadow detection experiments were carried out, and the results were verified by the results of artificial recognition. The results of these experiments indicated that this method can identify cloud shadows in different regions with correct

  2. Shadow analysis of soil surface roughness compared to the chain set method and direct measurement of micro-relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García Moreno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil surface roughness (SSR expresses soil susceptibility to wind and water erosion and plays an important role in the development and the maintenance of soil biota. Several methods have been developed to characterise SSR based on different methods of acquiring data. Because the main problems related to these methods involve the use and handling of equipment in the field, the present study aims to fill the need for a method for measuring SSR that is more reliable, low-cost and convenient in the field than traditional field methods. Shadow analysis, which interprets micro-topographic shadows, is based on the principle that there is a direct relationship between the soil surface roughness and the shadows cast by soil structures under fixed sunlight conditions. SSR was calculated with shadows analysis in the laboratory using hemispheres of different diameter with a diverse distribution of known altitudes and a surface area of 1 m2.

    Data obtained from the shadow analysis were compared to data obtained with the chain method and simulation of the micro-relief. The results show a relationship among the SSR calculated using the different methods. To further improve the method, shadow analysis was used to measure the SSR in a sandy clay loam field using different tillage tools (chisel, tiller and roller and in a control of 4 m2 surface plots divided into subplots of 1 m2. The measurements were compared to the data obtained using the chain set and pin meter methods. The SSR measured was the highest when the chisel was used, followed by the tiller and the roller, and finally the control, for each of the three methods. Shadow analysis is shown to be a reliable method that does not disturb the measured surface, is easy to handle and analyse, and shortens the time involved in field operations by a factor ranging from 4 to 20 compared to well known techniques such as the chain set and pin meter methods.

  3. Study on Processing Method of Image Shadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively remove disturbance of shadow and enhance robustness of information processing of computer visual image, this paper makes study on inspection and removal of image shadow. It makes study the continual removal algorithm of shadow based on integration, the illumination surface and texture, it respectively introduces their work principles and realization method, it can effectively carrying processing for shadow by test.

  4. Do Elementary Science Methods Textbooks Promote Understanding of Shadows?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd H. Barrow

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elementary science methods textbooks can be an important resource for future elementary teachers of science. Since shadows are a common topic in elementary school and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013. A series of ten shadows concepts were formed into a learning progression by Wizman and Fortus (2007. For this research, ten science methods textbook were read and analyzed about how each of the shadow concepts were addressed. These methods textbooks focused on a limited number of shadow concepts. Consequently, as a future reference, they are very limited in addressing all ten shadow concepts.

  5. SmartShadow models and methods for pervasive computing

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhaohui

    2013-01-01

    SmartShadow: Models and Methods for Pervasive Computing offers a new perspective on pervasive computing with SmartShadow, which is designed to model a user as a personality ""shadow"" and to model pervasive computing environments as user-centric dynamic virtual personal spaces. Just like human beings' shadows in the physical world, it follows people wherever they go, providing them with pervasive services. The model, methods, and software infrastructure for SmartShadow are presented and an application for smart cars is also introduced.  The book can serve as a valuable reference work for resea

  6. Shadow photography method for beam emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashkovskij, V.V.; Lisin, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Improved technique of shadow photography which allows to measure rather simply and accurately the angular distribution of electrons extracted from betatron is described. Measurement accuracy of particle flight angles is determined by setting of rods relatively to the plane of photographic paper sheet, their diameter and shadow trace length. Incidental angle deviation of rod axes contributes mainly into the error. Mean root-square error constituted 2-3% according to the results of several measurements of angles

  7. SHADOW EFFECT ON PHOTOVOLTAIC POTENTIALITY ANALYSIS USING 3D CITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to global warming, green-house effect and various other drawbacks of existing energy sources, renewable energy like Photovoltaic system is being popular for energy production. The result of photovoltaic potentiality analysis depends on data quality and parameters. Shadow rapidly decreases performance of the Photovoltaic system and it always changes due to the movement of the sun. Solar radiation incident on earth's atmosphere is relatively constant but the radiation at earth's surface varies due to absorption, scattering, reflection, change in spectral content, diffuse component, water vapor, clouds and pollution etc. In this research, it is being investigated that how efficiently real-time shadow can be detected for both direct and diffuse radiation considering reflection and other factors in contrast with the existing shadow detection methods using latest technologies and what is the minimum quality of data required for this purpose. Of course, geometric details of the building geometry and surroundings directly affect the calculation of shadows. In principle, 3D city models or point clouds, which contain roof structure, vegetation, thematically differentiated surface and texture, are suitable to simulate exact real-time shadow. This research would develop an automated procedure to measure exact shadow effect from the 3D city models and a long-term simulation model to determine the produced energy from the photovoltaic system. In this paper, a developed method for detecting shadow for direct radiation has been discussed with its result using a 3D city model to perform a solar energy potentiality analysis.

  8. Least Squares Shadowing sensitivity analysis of chaotic limit cycle oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiqi, E-mail: qiqi@mit.edu; Hu, Rui, E-mail: hurui@mit.edu; Blonigan, Patrick, E-mail: blonigan@mit.edu

    2014-06-15

    The adjoint method, among other sensitivity analysis methods, can fail in chaotic dynamical systems. The result from these methods can be too large, often by orders of magnitude, when the result is the derivative of a long time averaged quantity. This failure is known to be caused by ill-conditioned initial value problems. This paper overcomes this failure by replacing the initial value problem with the well-conditioned “least squares shadowing (LSS) problem”. The LSS problem is then linearized in our sensitivity analysis algorithm, which computes a derivative that converges to the derivative of the infinitely long time average. We demonstrate our algorithm in several dynamical systems exhibiting both periodic and chaotic oscillations.

  9. Comparison of Unsupervised Vegetation Classification Methods from Vhr Images after Shadows Removal by Innovative Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movia, A.; Beinat, A.; Crosilla, F.

    2015-04-01

    The recognition of vegetation by the analysis of very high resolution (VHR) aerial images provides meaningful information about environmental features; nevertheless, VHR images frequently contain shadows that generate significant problems for the classification of the image components and for the extraction of the needed information. The aim of this research is to classify, from VHR aerial images, vegetation involved in the balance process of the environmental biochemical cycle, and to discriminate it with respect to urban and agricultural features. Three classification algorithms have been experimented in order to better recognize vegetation, and compared to NDVI index; unfortunately all these methods are conditioned by the presence of shadows on the images. Literature presents several algorithms to detect and remove shadows in the scene: most of them are based on the RGB to HSI transformations. In this work some of them have been implemented and compared with one based on RGB bands. Successively, in order to remove shadows and restore brightness on the images, some innovative algorithms, based on Procrustes theory, have been implemented and applied. Among these, we evaluate the capability of the so called "not-centered oblique Procrustes" and "anisotropic Procrustes" methods to efficiently restore brightness with respect to a linear correlation correction based on the Cholesky decomposition. Some experimental results obtained by different classification methods after shadows removal carried out with the innovative algorithms are presented and discussed.

  10. A method of shadow puppet figure modeling and animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fang HUANG; Shou-qian SUN; Ke-jun ZHANG; Tian-ning XU; Jian-feng WU; Bin ZHU

    2015-01-01

    To promote the development of the intangible cultural heritage of the world, shadow play, many studies have focused on shadow puppet modeling and interaction. Most of the shadow puppet figures are still imaginary, spread by ancients, or carved and painted by shadow puppet artists, without consideration of real dimensions or the appearance of human bodies. This study proposes an algorithm to transform 3D human models to 2D puppet figures for shadow puppets, including automatic location of feature points, automatic segmentation of 3D models, automatic extraction of 2D contours, automatic clothes matching, and animation. Experiment proves that more realistic and attractive figures and animations of the shadow puppet can be generated in real time with this algorithm.

  11. Evaluation of different shadow detection and restoration methods and their impact on vegetation indices using UAV high-resolution imageries over vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutalebi, M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; McKee, M.; Kustas, W. P.; Nieto, H.

    2017-12-01

    Shadows are an unavoidable component of high-resolution imagery. Although shadows can be a useful source of information about terrestrial features, they are a hindrance for image processing and lead to misclassification errors and increased uncertainty in defining surface reflectance properties. In precision agriculture activities, shadows may affect the performance of vegetation indices at pixel and plant scales. Thus, it becomes necessary to evaluate existing shadow detection and restoration methods, especially for applications that makes direct use of pixel information to estimate vegetation biomass, leaf area index (LAI), plant water use and stress, chlorophyll content, just to name a few. In this study, four high-resolution imageries captured by the Utah State University - AggieAir Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system flown in 2014, 2015, and 2016 over a commercial vineyard located in the California for the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Grape Remote sensing Atmospheric Profile and Evapotranspiration Experiment (GRAPEX) Program are used for shadow detection and restoration. Four different methods for shadow detection are compared: (1) unsupervised classification, (2) supervised classification, (3) index-based method, and (4) physically-based method. Also, two different shadow restoration methods are evaluated: (1) linear correlation correction, and (2) gamma correction. The models' performance is evaluated over two vegetation indices: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LAI for both sunlit and shadowed pixels. Histogram and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used as performance indicators. Results indicated that the performance of the supervised classification and the index-based method are better than other methods. In addition, there is a statistical difference between the average of NDVI and LAI on the sunlit and shadowed pixels. Among the shadow restoration methods, gamma correction visually works better than the linear correlation

  12. Method for observing phase objects without halos and directional shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshimasa; Kajitani, Kazuo; Ohde, Hisashi

    2015-03-01

    A new microscopy method for observing phase objects without halos and directional shadows is proposed. The key optical element is an annular aperture at the front focal plane of a condenser with a larger diameter than those used in standard phase contrast microscopy. The light flux passing through the annular aperture is changed by the specimen's surface profile and then passes through an objective and contributes to image formation. This paper presents essential conditions for realizing the method. In this paper, images of colonies formed by induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells using this method are compared with the conventional phase contrast method and the bright-field method when the NA of the illumination is small to identify differences among these techniques. The outlines of the iPS cells are clearly visible with this method, whereas they are not clearly visible due to halos when using the phase contrast method or due to weak contrast when using the bright-field method. Other images using this method are also presented to demonstrate a capacity of this method: a mouse ovum and superimposition of several different images of mouse iPS cells.

  13. Shadow art

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    "To them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the images." - Plato, The Republic Shadow art is a unique form of sculptural art where the 2D shadows cast by a 3D sculpture are essential for the artistic effect. We introduce computational tools for the creation of shadow art and propose a design process where the user can directly specify the desired shadows by providing a set of binary images and corresponding projection information. Since multiple shadow images often contradict each other, we present a geometric optimization that computes a 3D shadow volume whose shadows best approximate the provided input images. Our analysis shows that this optimization is essential for obtaining physically realizable 3D sculptures. The resulting shadow volume can then be modified with a set of interactive editing tools that automatically respect the often intricate shadow constraints. We demonstrate the potential of our system with a number of complex 3D shadow art sculptures that go beyond what is seen in contemporary art pieces. © 2009 ACM.

  14. A robust object-based shadow detection method for cloud-free high resolution satellite images over urban areas and water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Nurollah; Saadatseresht, Mohammad; Arefi, Hossein; Hadavand, Ahmad

    2018-06-01

    Unwanted contrast in high resolution satellite images such as shadow areas directly affects the result of further processing in urban remote sensing images. Detecting and finding the precise position of shadows is critical in different remote sensing processing chains such as change detection, image classification and digital elevation model generation from stereo images. The spectral similarity between shadow areas, water bodies, and some dark asphalt roads makes the development of robust shadow detection algorithms challenging. In addition, most of the existing methods work on pixel-level and neglect the contextual information contained in neighboring pixels. In this paper, a new object-based shadow detection framework is introduced. In the proposed method a pixel-level shadow mask is built by extending established thresholding methods with a new C4 index which enables to solve the ambiguity of shadow and water bodies. Then the pixel-based results are further processed in an object-based majority analysis to detect the final shadow objects. Four different high resolution satellite images are used to validate this new approach. The result shows the superiority of the proposed method over some state-of-the-art shadow detection method with an average of 96% in F-measure.

  15. Least squares shadowing sensitivity analysis of a modified Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonigan, Patrick J.; Wang, Qiqi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Modifying the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation and changing its boundary conditions make it an ergodic dynamical system. •The modified Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation exhibits distinct dynamics for three different ranges of system parameters. •Least squares shadowing sensitivity analysis computes accurate gradients for a wide range of system parameters. - Abstract: Computational methods for sensitivity analysis are invaluable tools for scientists and engineers investigating a wide range of physical phenomena. However, many of these methods fail when applied to chaotic systems, such as the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky (K–S) equation, which models a number of different chaotic systems found in nature. The following paper discusses the application of a new sensitivity analysis method developed by the authors to a modified K–S equation. We find that least squares shadowing sensitivity analysis computes accurate gradients for solutions corresponding to a wide range of system parameters

  16. Asymptotic Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Composite Lognormal Shadowed Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-05-01

    Capacity analysis of composite lognormal (LN) shadowed links, such as Rician-LN, Gamma-LN, and Weibull-LN, is addressed in this work. More specifically, an exact closed-form expression for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single composite link transmission system is presented in terms of well- known elementary functions. Capitalizing on these new moments expressions, we present asymptotically tight lower bounds for the ergodic capacity at high SNR. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. Asymptotic Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Composite Lognormal Shadowed Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Capacity analysis of composite lognormal (LN) shadowed links, such as Rician-LN, Gamma-LN, and Weibull-LN, is addressed in this work. More specifically, an exact closed-form expression for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single composite link transmission system is presented in terms of well- known elementary functions. Capitalizing on these new moments expressions, we present asymptotically tight lower bounds for the ergodic capacity at high SNR. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2015 IEEE.

  18. The close objects buffer : a sharp shadow detection technique for radiosity methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.C.; Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Detecting sharp illumination variations such as shadow boundaries is an important problem for radiosity methods. Such illumination variations are captured using a nonuniform mesh that refines the areas exhibiting high illumination gradients. Nonuniform meshing techniques like discontinuity meshing

  19. The Close Objects Buffer : A Sharp Shadow Detection Technique for Radiosity Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.C.; Overveld, C.W.A.M. van

    1998-01-01

    Detecting sharp illumination variations such as shadow boundaries is an important problem for radiosity methods. Such illumination variations are captured using a nonuniform mesh that refines the areas exhibiting high illumination gradients. Nonuniform meshing techniques like discontinuity meshing

  20. Shadow Analysis Technique for Extraction of Building Height using High Resolution Satellite Single Image and Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Chaudhary, H.; Jha, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    These High resolution satellite data with metadata information is used to extract the height of the building using shadow. Proposed approach divides into two phases 1) rooftop and shadow extraction and 2) height estimation. Firstly the rooftop and shadow region were extracted by manual/ automatic methods using Example - Based and Rule - Based approaches. After feature extraction next step is estimating height of the building by taking rooftop in association with shadow using Ratio Method and by using the relation between sun-satellite geometry. The performance analysis shows the total mean error of height is 0.67 m from ratio method, 1.51 m from Example - Based Approach and 0.96 m from Rule - Based Approach. Analysis concluded that Ratio Method i.e. manual method is best for height estimation but it is time consuming so the automatic Rule Based approach is best for height estimation in comparison to Example Based Approach because it require more knowledge and selection of more training samples as well as slows the processing rate of the method.

  1. Simplified Least Squares Shadowing sensitivity analysis for chaotic ODEs and PDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chater, Mario, E-mail: chaterm@mit.edu; Ni, Angxiu, E-mail: niangxiu@mit.edu; Wang, Qiqi, E-mail: qiqi@mit.edu

    2017-01-15

    This paper develops a variant of the Least Squares Shadowing (LSS) method, which has successfully computed the derivative for several chaotic ODEs and PDEs. The development in this paper aims to simplify Least Squares Shadowing method by improving how time dilation is treated. Instead of adding an explicit time dilation term as in the original method, the new variant uses windowing, which can be more efficient and simpler to implement, especially for PDEs.

  2. Numerical method of applying shadow theory to all regions of multilayered dielectric gratings in conical mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hideaki; Asai, Masamitsu; Matsumoto, Keiji; Yamakita, Jiro

    2016-11-01

    Nakayama's shadow theory first discussed the diffraction by a perfectly conducting grating in a planar mounting. In the theory, a new formulation by use of a scattering factor was proposed. This paper focuses on the middle regions of a multilayered dielectric grating placed in conical mounting. Applying the shadow theory to the matrix eigenvalues method, we compose new transformation and improved propagation matrices of the shadow theory for conical mounting. Using these matrices and scattering factors, being the basic quantity of diffraction amplitudes, we formulate a new description of three-dimensional scattering fields which is available even for cases where the eigenvalues are degenerate in any region. Some numerical examples are given for cases where the eigenvalues are degenerate in the middle regions.

  3. Cloud-shadow removal for Unmanned Aerial System multispectral imagery based on tensor decomposition methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Wang, Sheng; Garcia, Monica

    2017-01-01

    that are mosaicked into larger images to produce ortho-photomaps. Frequently, especially in northern latitudes, the images to be mosaicked have been acquired under varying irradiance conditions due to moving clouds that create artifacts in the detected signal unrelated to physical changes in vegetation properties......, this study succeeded to remove the cloud shadow effects and image noise in UAS imagery providing normalized reflectance. The comparison between the corrected and un-corrected images shows a significant improvement for reflectance estimation in the shadow areas. Further, analysis of vegetation indices e...

  4. Shadow analysis via the C+K Visioline: A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, T; Zerweck, C; Grove, G; Wickett, R

    2017-11-01

    This research investigated the ability of shadow analysis (via the Courage + Khazaka Visioline and Image Pro Premiere 9.0 software) to accurately assess the differences in skin topography associated with photo aging. Analyses were performed on impressions collected from a microfinish comparator scale (GAR Electroforming) as well a series of impressions collected from the crow's feet region of 9 women who represent each point on the Zerweck Crow's Feet classification scale. Analyses were performed using a Courage + Khazaka Visioline VL 650 as well as Image Pro Premiere 9.0 software. Shadow analysis showed an ability to accurately measure the groove depth when measuring impressions collected from grooves of known depth. Several shadow analysis parameters showed a correlation with the expert grader ratings of crow's feet when averaging measurements taken from the North and South directions. The Max Depth parameter in particular showed a strong correlation with the expert grader's ratings which improved when a more sophisticated analysis was performed using Image Pro Premiere. When used properly, shadow analysis is effective at accurately measuring skin surface impressions for differences in skin topography. Shadow analysis is shown to accurately assess the differences across a range of crow's feet severity correlating to a 0-8 grader scale. The Visioline VL 650 is a good tool for this measurement, with room for improvement in analysis which can be achieved through third party image analysis software. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Least Squares Shadowing Sensitivity Analysis of Chaotic Flow Around a Two-Dimensional Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigan, Patrick J.; Wang, Qiqi; Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Gradient-based sensitivity analysis has proven to be an enabling technology for many applications, including design of aerospace vehicles. However, conventional sensitivity analysis methods break down when applied to long-time averages of chaotic systems. This breakdown is a serious limitation because many aerospace applications involve physical phenomena that exhibit chaotic dynamics, most notably high-resolution large-eddy and direct numerical simulations of turbulent aerodynamic flows. A recently proposed methodology, Least Squares Shadowing (LSS), avoids this breakdown and advances the state of the art in sensitivity analysis for chaotic flows. The first application of LSS to a chaotic flow simulated with a large-scale computational fluid dynamics solver is presented. The LSS sensitivity computed for this chaotic flow is verified and shown to be accurate, but the computational cost of the current LSS implementation is high.

  6. On the Shadow Simplex Method for Curved Polyhedra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.N. Dadush (Daniel); N. Hähnle

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the simplex method over polyhedra satisfying certain “discrete curvature” lower bounds, which enforce that the boundary always meets vertices at sharp angles. Motivated by linear programs with totally unimodular constraint matrices, recent results of Bonifas et al

  7. On the Shadow Simplex Method for curved polyhedra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.N. Dadush (Daniel); N. Hähnle

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the simplex method over polyhedra satisfying certain “discrete curvature” lower bounds, which enforce that the boundary always meets vertices at sharp angles. Motivated by linear programs with totally unimodular constraint matrices, recent results of Bonifas et al. (Discrete

  8. Analysis of shadowing effects on MIR photovoltaic and solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently working with RSC-Energia, the Russian Space Agency, and Allied Signal in developing a flight demonstration solar dynamic power system. This type of power system is dependent upon solar flux that is reflected and concentrated into a thermal storage system to provide the thermal energy input to a closed-cycle Brayton heat engine. The solar dynamic unit will be flown on the Russian Mir space station in anticipation of use on the International Space Station Alpha. By the time the power system is launched, the Mir will be a spatially complex configuration which will have, in addition to the three-gimbaled solar dynamic unit, eleven solar array wings that are either fixed or track the Sun along one axis and a variety or repositionable habitation and experiment modules. The proximity of arrays to modules creates a situation which makes it highly probable that there will be varying solar flux due to shadowing on the solar dynamic unit and some of the arrays throughout the orbit. Shadowing causes fluctuations in the power output from the arrays and the solar dynamic power system, thus reducing the energy capabilities of the spacecraft. An assessment of the capabilities of the power system under these conditions is an important part in influencing the design and operations of the spacecraft and predicting its energy performance. This paper describes the results obtained from using the Orbiting Spacecraft Shadowing Analysis Station program that was integrated into the Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) electrical power system computer program. OSSA allows one to consider the numerous complex factors for analyzing the shadowing effects on the electrical power system including the variety of spacecraft hardware geometric configurations, yearly and daily orbital variations in the vehicle attitude and orbital maneuvers (for communications coverage, payload pointing requirements and rendezvous/docking with other

  9. Shadow effect on photovoltaic potentiality analysis using 3D city models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, N.; Coors, V.; Zlatanova, S.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Due to global warming, green-house effect and various other drawbacks of existing energy sources, renewable energy like Photovoltaic system is being popular for energy production. The result of photovoltaic potentiality analysis depends on data quality and parameters. Shadow rapidly decreases

  10. Shadow Soldiering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya

    The thesis is an inquiry into what is at stake for a surplus population of militia soldiers in the aftermaths of the civil war in Sierra Leone. The analysis takes its point of departure in how militarised networks are transformed and gradualy morph into new constellations of soldiering. The central......, or in the margins of official political economies. Rather, shadow soldiering is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly central in the context of security outsourcing and militarisation in a global economy....

  11. Optimization of the recoil-shadow projection method for the investigation of short-lived fission isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmecke, M.; Thirolf, P.G.; Habs, D.; Gartzke, E.; Kolhinen, V.; Lang, C.; Szerypo, J.; Trepl, L. [Fakultaet f. Physik, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies of super- and hyperdeformed actinide nuclei offer the possibility to gain insight into the multiple-humped fission barrier landscape. With the identification of deep third minima in {sup 234}U and {sup 236}U the systematics of fission isomers in light actinides was revisited, especially searching for isomers in light uranium isotopes with half-lives in the pico-second range. Using the recoil-shadow projection method and solid state nuclear track detectors, an experimental search for their observation has been started. This well-established detection technique nowadays benefits from an efficient analysis technology based on a PC-controlled auto-focus microscope and a CCD camera together with pattern recognition software. The flatness and the definition of the shadow edge of the target is the critical point of this method: Due to the energy loss of the beam the target carrier foil (1{mu}m Ni) may develop thermal distortions in the {mu}m range, leading to misinterpretations of isomeric fission fragments. Therefore the flatness of the target foil is continuously monitored via a capacitance measurement. First results applying this method to the search of a fission isomer in {sup 234}U via the {sup 232}Th({alpha},2n) reaction are presented.

  12. Theory and empiricism of shadow economy - an economic analysis example for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntzer, H.-P.

    2000-09-01

    Illegally circulating streams of net output will exist as long as economic events are registered and taxed by state authorities. Since the beginning of the eighties this part of the economic process has been more and more involved in scientific and political discussions not least because of the stagnating officially registered domestic content (as a result of two oil crisis) which lead to a continually financial crisis of all social security systems in Europe. Even if the shadow economic domestic content of GDP in Austria can be seen as relatively low in comparison to international figures, the steady increase of this sector during the last few years gives rise to concerns. In order to approach the phenomenon of shadow economy and especially illegal activities in the Alpine republic this treatise gives an abstract on the state of affairs as far as theoretical researches on the shadow economy is concerned. In this connection the following influencing factors are seen as important. On the one hand the variety of costs that go with the factor work (direct and indirect taxes, social security contributions and regulating costs) and on the other hand the steadily rising offers of illegal activities as a result of decreasing working hours and increasing unemployment. Moreover this development is supported by the growing sullenness towards state authorities (hypotheses of changing values). The interplay of all these factors ends up in an increasing share value of shadow economic activities in the OECD. The effects of this circumstance are evaluated ambivalently by theory because there are negative effects (growing unemployment, low tax receipts) as well as positive effects (induced costs, better supply of consumer demands). Punitive measures to control these activities are also regarded as ineffective. In order to approach the shadow economy - especially in Austria - this treatise first deals with the different methods to measure shadow economic activities, which are all

  13. Shadowing in dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pilyugin, Sergei Yu

    1999-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of shadowing of approximate trajectories in dynamical systems by exact ones. This is the first book completely devoted to the theory of shadowing. It shows the importance of shadowing theory for both the qualitative theory of dynamical systems and the theory of numerical methods. Shadowing Methods allow us to estimate differences between exact and approximate solutions on infinite time intervals and to understand the influence of error terms. The book is intended for specialists in dynamical systems, for researchers and graduate students in the theory of numerical methods.

  14. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  15. Shadow Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  16. Shadow art

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.; Pauly, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "To them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the images." - Plato, The Republic Shadow art is a unique form of sculptural art where the 2D shadows cast by a 3D sculpture are essential for the artistic effect. We

  17. Analysis on Human Blockage Path Loss and Shadow Fading in Millimeter-Wave Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter-wave (Mm-w is the trend of communication development in the future; users who carry mobile communication equipment could be blocked by others in a crowded population environment. Based on Shooting and Bouncing Ray (SBR method and setting up different orientation receivers (RX, population density, and people fabric property at 28 GHz and 38 GHz, simulating experimental scene similar to station square by Wireless Insite software, we use least square method to do linear-regression analysis for path loss and build path loss model. The result shows that the path loss index has a certain change in the different frequency, orientation receivers, population density, and people fabric. The path loss index of RouteC1 and RouteA2 has an obvious change in the central transmitter (TX. Each route shadow fading obeys Gaussian distribution whose mean is 0. This paper’s result has a theoretical guiding for designing the communication system in a crowded population environment.

  18. Simulation of scanning geometry for Shadow Shield counter using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepu, R.; Manohari, M.; Mathiyarasu, R.

    2018-01-01

    The whole body counting facility at RSD, IGCAR employs a Shadow Shield Counter (SSC) for the assessment of internal exposure of radiation workers from fission and activation products. The SSC system is routinely calibrated using an in-house built Masonite cut sheet phantom, loaded with standard point sources, in scanning mode. The system is capable of measuring gamma energy from 200 keV to 3 MeV. The standard sources available have energies in the range of 300 - 1500 keV. In order to extend the energy range, numerical simulation can be carried out. As, numerical methods cannot simulate scanning mode directly, a novel scheme is attempted to generate the efficiency value for scanning mode through the use of multiple static mode. The same method was also verified through measurement. The efficiency values of the simulation as well two measurements techniques were compared

  19. Using Multiple Methods to teach ASTR 101 students the Path of the Sun and Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Noella L.

    2015-01-01

    It seems surprising that non-science major introductory astronomy students find the daily path of the Sun and shadows created by the Sun challenging to learn even though both can be easily observed (provided students do not look directly at the Sun). In order for our students to master the relevant concepts, we have usually used lecture, a lecture tutorial (from Prather, et al.) followed by think-pair-share questions, a planetarium presentation and an animation from the Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project to teach these topics. We cover these topics in a lecture-only, one semester introductory astronomy course at Joliet Junior College. Feedback from our Spring 2014 students indicated that the planetarium presentation was the most helpful in learning the path of the Sun while none of the four teaching methods was helpful when learning about shadows cast by the Sun. Our students did not find the lecture tutorial to be much help even though such tutorials have been proven to promote deep conceptual change. In Fall 2014, we continued to use these four methods, but we modified how we teach both topics so our students could gain more from the tutorial. We hoped our modifications would cause students to have a better overall grasp of the concepts. After our regular lecture, we gave a shorter than usual planetarium presentation on the path of the Sun and we asked students to work through a shadow activity from Project Astro materials. Then students completed the lecture tutorial and some think-pair-share questions. After this, we asked students to predict the Sun's path on certain days of the year and we used the planetarium projector to show them how well their predictions matched up. We ended our coverage of these topics by asking students a few more think-pair-share questions. In our poster, we will present our approach to teaching these topics in Fall 2014, how our Fall 2014 students feel about our teaching strategies and how they fared on related test questions.

  20. An IMU-Aided Body-Shadowing Error Compensation Method for Indoor Bluetooth Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhongliang; Fu, Xiao; Wang, Hanhua

    2018-01-20

    Research on indoor positioning technologies has recently become a hotspot because of the huge social and economic potential of indoor location-based services (ILBS). Wireless positioning signals have a considerable attenuation in received signal strength (RSS) when transmitting through human bodies, which would cause significant ranging and positioning errors in RSS-based systems. This paper mainly focuses on the body-shadowing impairment of RSS-based ranging and positioning, and derives a mathematical expression of the relation between the body-shadowing effect and the positioning error. In addition, an inertial measurement unit-aided (IMU-aided) body-shadowing detection strategy is designed, and an error compensation model is established to mitigate the effect of body-shadowing. A Bluetooth positioning algorithm with body-shadowing error compensation (BP-BEC) is then proposed to improve both the positioning accuracy and the robustness in indoor body-shadowing environments. Experiments are conducted in two indoor test beds, and the performance of both the BP-BEC algorithm and the algorithms without body-shadowing error compensation (named no-BEC) is evaluated. The results show that the BP-BEC outperforms the no-BEC by about 60.1% and 73.6% in terms of positioning accuracy and robustness, respectively. Moreover, the execution time of the BP-BEC algorithm is also evaluated, and results show that the convergence speed of the proposed algorithm has an insignificant effect on real-time localization.

  1. An IMU-Aided Body-Shadowing Error Compensation Method for Indoor Bluetooth Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongliang Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on indoor positioning technologies has recently become a hotspot because of the huge social and economic potential of indoor location-based services (ILBS. Wireless positioning signals have a considerable attenuation in received signal strength (RSS when transmitting through human bodies, which would cause significant ranging and positioning errors in RSS-based systems. This paper mainly focuses on the body-shadowing impairment of RSS-based ranging and positioning, and derives a mathematical expression of the relation between the body-shadowing effect and the positioning error. In addition, an inertial measurement unit-aided (IMU-aided body-shadowing detection strategy is designed, and an error compensation model is established to mitigate the effect of body-shadowing. A Bluetooth positioning algorithm with body-shadowing error compensation (BP-BEC is then proposed to improve both the positioning accuracy and the robustness in indoor body-shadowing environments. Experiments are conducted in two indoor test beds, and the performance of both the BP-BEC algorithm and the algorithms without body-shadowing error compensation (named no-BEC is evaluated. The results show that the BP-BEC outperforms the no-BEC by about 60.1% and 73.6% in terms of positioning accuracy and robustness, respectively. Moreover, the execution time of the BP-BEC algorithm is also evaluated, and results show that the convergence speed of the proposed algorithm has an insignificant effect on real-time localization.

  2. MISLEADING SHADOW

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivas; Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    In a suspected foreign body of bronchus or esophagus a radiograph of chest is essential and sometimes artifacts on radiographs mislead the treating doctor. A round radio opaque shadow on a radiograph of chest in a child who was operated for atrial septal defect mislead for a coin in esophagus and knowledge of the shadow avoided major surgical intervention .

  3. A review of neutron scattering correction for the calibration of neutron survey meters using the shadow cone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang In; Kim, Bong Hwan; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Jung Il [Health Physics Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a {sup 252}Californium ({sup 252}Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1 - 9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered.

  4. A review of neutron scattering correction for the calibration of neutron survey meters using the shadow cone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang In; Kim, Bong Hwan; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Jung Il

    2015-01-01

    The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a 252 Californium ( 252 Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1 - 9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered

  5. Shadow Economy in the Context of Economic Crisis: Circumstance Analysis and the Forecasting of Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sergeyevich Naidenov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of estimating dynamic of shadow economy in the context of socio-economic crisis negative influence. Factors and threats supporting the increase of shadow economy during the economic crisis were studied. Current situation in the Ural Federal District with regard to shadow economic activity for the period from 2006 to 2012 was represented. The results of forecasting shadow activity were given in the article on the example of Ural Federal District regions. Data obtained was used for developing target program activities, aimed at minimization of negative influence of shadow economy during the economic crisis. Special attention was given to the problem of improving the effectiveness of international cooperation concerning counteraction of shadow economic activity

  6. Method and apparatus for shadow aperture backscatter radiography (SABR) system and protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor); Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor); Jacobs, Sharon Auerback (Inventor); Dugan, Edward (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A shadow aperture backscatter radiography (SABR) system includes at least one penetrating radiation source for providing a penetrating radiation field, and at least one partially transmissive radiation detector, wherein the partially transmissive radiation detector is interposed between an object region to be interrogated and the radiation source. The partially transmissive radiation detector transmits a portion of the illumination radiation field. A shadow aperture having a plurality of radiation attenuating regions having apertures therebetween is disposed between the radiation source and the detector. The apertures provide illumination regions for the illumination radiation field to reach the object region, wherein backscattered radiation from the object is detected and generates an image by the detector in regions of the detector that are shadowed by the radiation attenuation regions.

  7. Syndrome of round shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.

    1987-01-01

    Syndrome of round shadow is a traditional determination for a group of spherical, ovoid and similar volumetric formations of more than 1 cm. Differential roentgenodiagnosis of most typical diseases presented by a round shadow as well as dynamics of X-ray pattern of some round formations are presented. Radiological signs of the lung formations and similar ones in diaphragm and mediastinum thoracic wall are given. Ethiology, pathogenesis and pathomorphology of round formations, their clinical picture and investigation methods are discussed

  8. Collision Analysis at 60-GHz mmWave Mesh Networks: The Case With Blockage and Shadowing

    KAUST Repository

    Lyu, Kangjia

    2018-05-01

    This thesis can be viewed as two parts. The first part focuses on performance analysis of millimeter wave (mmWave) communications. We investigate how the interference behaves in the outdoor mesh network operating at 60-GHz when block age and shadowing are present using the probability of collision as a metric, under both the protocol model and the physical model. In contrast with results reported in mmWave mesh networks at 60-GHz that advocates that interference has only a marginal effect, our results show that for a short-range link of 100 m, the collision probability gets considerably larger (beyond 0.1) at the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of interest (for example, the reference value is chosen as 15 dB for uncoded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)). Compensation or compromise should be made in order to maintain a low probability of collision, either by reducing transmitter node density which is to the detriment of the network connectivity, or by switching to a compact linear antenna array with more at-top elements, which places more stringent requirements in device integration techniques. The second part of this thesis focuses on finding the optimal unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) deployment in the sense that it can maximize over specific network connectivity. We have introduced a connectivity measure based on the commonly used network connectivity metric, which is refered to as global soft connectivity. This measure can be easily extended to account for different propagation models, such as Rayleigh fading and Nakagami fading. It can also be modified to incorporate the link state probability and beam alignment errors in highly directional networks. As can be shown, under the line-of-sight (LOS) and Rayleigh fading assumptions, the optimization regarding the global soft connectivity can be expressed as a weighted sum of the square of link distances between the nodes within the network, namely the ground-to-ground links, the UAV-to-UAV links

  9. Analysis of tumor-like shadows on abdominal plain x-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hidehiro; Hiraki, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Keizi

    1986-01-01

    We found tumor-like shadows in the upper abdomen in 93 cases out of 400 abdominal plain films, although none of these 93 cases actually had a tumor. We analyzed these tumor-like shadows by computed tomography. For each of the 400 cases we measured the width of flank stripe on the abdominal plain film. Most of the tumor-like shadows in the left upper abdomen were gastric fundus, but it was significant for evaluating plain abdominal film that other organs such as a part of the left lobe of the liver, the upper pole of the left kidney, and a part of the spleen formed tumor-like shadows. The most important factors forming tumor-like shadows on plain abdominal film are the fat volume of the abdominal cauity as well as the fraciform ligament and alterations in the shape and volume of organs such as occur in liver cirrhosis. (author)

  10. Dostoevsky's Shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristina Nicolae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I bring to light Jung’s Shadow archetype in Dostoevsky’s works and also analyzes their implications in the structure of his characters. Taking into account that the Russian writer’s creation is vast, I shall select a limited number of his works, namely ‘The Possessed’; ‘Crime and Punishment’; ‘The Brothers Karamazov’; ‘Notes from Underground’ and ‘The Double’. We are all burdened with our Shadow and must strive to overcome it, but what happens if we fail or never even try to master it? Raskolnikov’s attempt to free himself from the chains of his Shadow was too late, he had already committed the murder, but not in vain, he succeeded in redeeming himself, and so his effort must be taken into account. This does not help him to avoid the punishment, but offers him a chance after serving it. On the other hand, Smerdyakov’s case is different: he made no attempt to overcome his Shadow, the only argument that he brought in his favor being that he acted fuelled by the desire of fulfilling his brother’s wish. It is clear that, he has no chance for a better future and the fault lies with him because he did not create that chance. Dostoevsky’s characters always seem to be ruled by a tragic destiny, an unlucky fate from which they cannot escape.

  11. Soft bilateral filtering volumetric shadows using cube shadow maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatam H Ali

    Full Text Available Volumetric shadows often increase the realism of rendered scenes in computer graphics. Typical volumetric shadows techniques do not provide a smooth transition effect in real-time with conservation on crispness of boundaries. This research presents a new technique for generating high quality volumetric shadows by sampling and interpolation. Contrary to conventional ray marching method, which requires extensive time, this proposed technique adopts downsampling in calculating ray marching. Furthermore, light scattering is computed in High Dynamic Range buffer to generate tone mapping. The bilateral interpolation is used along a view rays to smooth transition of volumetric shadows with respect to preserving-edges. In addition, this technique applied a cube shadow map to create multiple shadows. The contribution of this technique isreducing the number of sample points in evaluating light scattering and then introducing bilateral interpolation to improve volumetric shadows. This contribution is done by removing the inherent deficiencies significantly in shadow maps. This technique allows obtaining soft marvelous volumetric shadows, having a good performance and high quality, which show its potential for interactive applications.

  12. Identification of Methodology of Indirect Assessment of Economy Shadowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhustyn Ruslan R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the essence of the shadow economy as an objective phenomenon of socio-economic relations and its influence upon national economy security through instruments of pricing, fiscal restrictions, tax control, and banking and insurance regulation. It proves the necessity of use of the indirect method of assessment of the level of economy shadowing along with methods of direct control over the growth of shadowed economic relations, since such an approach would allow rational approach to identification of volumes and level of shadow activity. In the result of the study the article marks out varieties of indirect assessment of economy shadowing (methods of document, accounting and economic analysis, their specific features, advantages and shortcomings and results of practical use. The article reveals approaches and indicators of economic analysis that allow identification of reasons of deviations from the normal economic activity of economic subjects. It provides examples of the indirect method of assessment of the volume of shadowed economy that deal with analysis of demand on money and comparison of rates of the growth of the money supply with the volume of sight drafts with GDP.

  13. Shadows and Silence: Analysis of Social and Environmental Reports of the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício do Nascimento Moreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While it is acknowledged that there has been a rapid growth in the disclosure of social and environmental responsibility reports of companies, it is assumed also that there is a long way to go in that these reports meet their users, stakeholders, considering the characteristics of materiality, consistency, integrity and accountability in the construction of accounting information. So with the need to advance this discussion, some scholars in the field of environmental accounting began to suggest, among other ideas, building models formed by basic reporting accounts silence and shadow, they could identify differences between perceived environmental performance the public interested in the activities and affairs of the entity and performance that corporations claim they have achieved through their accounts and reports publicly available. While the report is constructed from silent speech, vision and corporate positioning, the second shadow report, part of the stakeholder perspective, i.e., the desires of stakeholders in the activities and business of the company. The objective of the study is to explore if the preparation of shadow and silent report can contribute to the improvement of the information quality of corporate environmental performance reports. To achieve this goal, it was prepared the silent and shadow reports of ELETROBRAS system and later confronted. It was found that companies have trouble to expose negative social and environmental impacts in reports; the volume of news published on corporate websites is not as significant as shown by other studies and the companies, over the years, didn’t publish the reports in a regular basis and with the same pattern; among other findings. Finally, it was concluded that the shadow and silent reports could be used to improve the information quality in corporate environmental performance reports.

  14. Determination of the scattered radiation at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory of IPEN using the shadow cone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Tallyson S.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Freitas, Bruno M. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Fonseca, Evaldo S.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: talvarenga@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br, E-mail: bfreitas@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Because of the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for new calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), São Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new test laboratory for neutron detectors. This work evaluated the contribution of dispersed neutron radiation in this laboratory, using the cone shadow method and a Bonner sphere spectrometer to take the measurements at a distance of 100 cm from the neutron source. The dosimetric quantities H⁎(10) and H⁎(10) were obtained at the laboratory, allowing the calibration of detectors. (author)

  15. Determination of Young's modulus of epoxy coated polyethylene micro-cantilever using phase-shift shadow moiré method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. H.; Ratnam, M. M.; Azid, I. A.; Mutharasu, D.

    2011-11-01

    Young's moduli of various epoxy coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) micro-cantilevers were determined from the deflection results obtained using the phase-shift shadow moiré (PSSM) method. The filler materials for epoxy coatings were aluminum and graphite powders that were mixed with epoxy at various percentages. Young's moduli were calculated from theory based on the deflection results. The PET micro-cantilever coated with aluminum-epoxy coating showed increasing value of Young's modulus when the ratios of the aluminum-epoxy were increased. The graphite-epoxy coating on the PET micro-cantilever also showed the same trend. The experimental results also show that Young's modulus of the graphite-epoxy coating is higher than aluminum-epoxy coating in comparison at the same mixing ratio.

  16. Determination of the scattered radiation at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory of IPEN using the shadow cone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Tallyson S.; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Freitas, Bruno M.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for new calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), São Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new test laboratory for neutron detectors. This work evaluated the contribution of dispersed neutron radiation in this laboratory, using the cone shadow method and a Bonner sphere spectrometer to take the measurements at a distance of 100 cm from the neutron source. The dosimetric quantities H⁎(10) and H⁎(10) were obtained at the laboratory, allowing the calibration of detectors. (author)

  17. Dose rate laser simulation tests adequacy: Shadowing and high intensity effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.Y.; Skorobogatov, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    The adequacy of laser based simulation of the flash X-ray effects in microcircuits may be corrupted mainly due to laser radiation shadowing by the metallization and the non-linear absorption in a high intensity range. The numerical joint solution of the optical equations and the fundamental system of equations in a two-dimensional approximation were performed to adjust the application range of laser simulation. As a result the equivalent dose rate to laser intensity correspondence was established taking into account the shadowing as well as the high intensity effects. The simulation adequacy was verified in the range up to 4·10 11 rad(Si)/s with the comparative laser test of a specially designed test structure

  18. Error analysis of the phase-shifting technique when applied to shadow moire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Changwoon; Han Bongtae

    2006-01-01

    An exact solution for the intensity distribution of shadow moire fringes produced by a broad spectrum light is presented. A mathematical study quantifies errors in fractional fringe orders determined by the phase-shifting technique, and its validity is corroborated experimentally. The errors vary cyclically as the distance between the reference grating and the specimen increases. The amplitude of the maximum error is approximately 0.017 fringe, which defines the theoretical limit of resolution enhancement offered by the phase-shifting technique

  19. Building Shadow Detection from Ghost Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Sha, J.; Yue, T.; Wang, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, S.; Pan, Q.; Wei, J.

    2018-05-01

    Shadow is one of the basic features of remote sensing image, it expresses a lot of information of the object which is loss or interference, and the removal of shadow is always a difficult problem to remote sensing image processing. In this paper, it is mainly analyzes the characteristics and properties of shadows from the ghost image (traditional orthorectification). The DBM and the interior and exterior orientation elements of the image are used to calculate the zenith angle of sun. Then this paper combines the scope of the architectural shadows which has be determined by the zenith angle of sun with the region growing method to make the detection of architectural shadow areas. This method lays a solid foundation for the shadow of the repair from the ghost image later. It will greatly improve the accuracy of shadow detection from buildings and make it more conducive to solve the problem of urban large-scale aerial imagines.

  20. BUILDING SHADOW DETECTION FROM GHOST IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Shadow is one of the basic features of remote sensing image, it expresses a lot of information of the object which is loss or interference, and the removal of shadow is always a difficult problem to remote sensing image processing. In this paper, it is mainly analyzes the characteristics and properties of shadows from the ghost image (traditional orthorectification. The DBM and the interior and exterior orientation elements of the image are used to calculate the zenith angle of sun. Then this paper combines the scope of the architectural shadows which has be determined by the zenith angle of sun with the region growing method to make the detection of architectural shadow areas. This method lays a solid foundation for the shadow of the repair from the ghost image later. It will greatly improve the accuracy of shadow detection from buildings and make it more conducive to solve the problem of urban large-scale aerial imagines.

  1. Sovereign ratings in the post-crisis world : an analysis of actual, shadow and relative risk ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kaushik; De, Supriyo; Ratha, Dilip; Timmer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of sovereign credit ratings in the wake of the global financial crisis by studying changes in actual, shadow, and relative ratings between 2008 and 2012. For countries that do not have a rating from the major rating agencies, shadow ratings are estimated as a function of macroeconomic, structural, and governance variables. The shadow rating exercise confir...

  2. Instantaneous Shoreline Extraction Utilizing Integrated Spectrum and Shadow Analysis From LiDAR Data and High-resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.-Chieh

    manually connected, for its length was less than 3% of the total shoreline length in our dataset. Secondly, the parameters for satellite image classification needed to be manually determined. The need for manpower was significantly less compared to the ground surveying or aerial photogrammetry. The first phase of shoreline extraction was to utilize Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Mean-Shift segmentation on the coordinate (X, Y, Z), and attributes (multispectral bands from satellite images) of the LiDAR points to classify each LiDAR point into land or water surface. Boundary of the land points were then traced to create the shoreline. The second phase of shoreline extraction solely from satellite images utilized spectrum, NDVI, and shadow analysis to classify the satellite images into classes. These classes were then refined by mean-shift segmentation on the panchromatic band. By tracing the boundary of the water surface, the shoreline can be created. Since these two shorelines may represent different shoreline instances in time, evaluating the changes of shoreline was the first to be done. Then an independent scenario analysis and a procedure are performed for the shoreline of each of the three conditions: in the process of erosion, in the process of accession, and remaining the same. With these three conditions, we could analysis the actual terrain type and correct the classification errors to obtain a more accurate shoreline. Meanwhile, methods of evaluating the quality of shorelines had also been discussed. The experiment showed that there were three indicators could best represent the quality of the shoreline. These indicators were: (1) shoreline accuracy, (2) land area difference between extracted shoreline and ground truth shoreline, and (3) bias factor from shoreline quality metrics.

  3. Shadow detection of moving objects based on multisource information in Internet of things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhang, De-gan; Chen, Jie; Hou, Yue-xian

    2017-05-01

    Moving object detection is an important part in intelligent video surveillance under the banner of Internet of things. The detection of moving target's shadow is also an important step in moving object detection. On the accuracy of shadow detection will affect the detection results of the object directly. Based on the variety of shadow detection method, we find that only using one feature can't make the result of detection accurately. Then we present a new method for shadow detection which contains colour information, the invariance of optical and texture feature. Through the comprehensive analysis of the detecting results of three kinds of information, the shadow was effectively determined. It gets ideal effect in the experiment when combining advantages of various methods.

  4. FACET, Radiation View Factor with Shadowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes. 2 - Method of solution: Three algorithms are incorporated to integrate the view factor equation for three dimensional geometries. The algorithm used for any two surfaces depends on their geometric relationship and whether third surface obstructions exist. The three algorithms are the area integration (AI) method, the line integration method (LI), and the Mitalas and Stephenson (MS) method. The LI method is used to calculate the view factor between two disjoint surfaces. If the two surfaces have an adjoint edge, the MS method is used. The AI method is used if there is self or third surface shadowing. In two-dimensional planar geometries, the view factor between two surfaces is calculated using Hottel's cross string method. For axisymmetric geometries in the absence of shadowing, the view factor between two surfaces is calculated by view factor algebra using the view factors between parallel coaxial discs. In the presence of self or third surface shadowing, the geometry is represented in three dimensions before calculating the view factors

  5. Method of evaluation of radiant heat transfers for geometries having cast shadows; Methode d`evaluation des echanges radiatifs pour des geometries comportant des ombres portees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lair, P; Millan, P [ONERA-CERT/DERMES, 31 - Toulouse (France); Dumoulin, J [INSA-UPS, LETHEM, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1997-12-31

    Experimental studies on aero-thermal characterization of various flows are carried out by the CERT/DERMES centre of the French national office of aerospace studies and research (ONERA). The measurement is based on the infrared thermography method which requires a correction of surface fluxes. This correction is necessarily based on a radiative statement of the cell where the flow takes place. A numerical method of form factors calculation in complex geometrical configuration has been developed. This method is applicable to surfaces (flat or not) and takes into account the shadow phenomena as they can exist inside an experimental test path. Two methods of radiative statements have been developed and compared. The influence of form factors calculation on the radiative statement is also analyzed and the problem of the sensitivity of the methods with respect to possible measurement errors is evoked. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  6. Method of evaluation of radiant heat transfers for geometries having cast shadows; Methode d`evaluation des echanges radiatifs pour des geometries comportant des ombres portees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lair, P.; Millan, P. [ONERA-CERT/DERMES, 31 - Toulouse (France); Dumoulin, J. [INSA-UPS, LETHEM, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-31

    Experimental studies on aero-thermal characterization of various flows are carried out by the CERT/DERMES centre of the French national office of aerospace studies and research (ONERA). The measurement is based on the infrared thermography method which requires a correction of surface fluxes. This correction is necessarily based on a radiative statement of the cell where the flow takes place. A numerical method of form factors calculation in complex geometrical configuration has been developed. This method is applicable to surfaces (flat or not) and takes into account the shadow phenomena as they can exist inside an experimental test path. Two methods of radiative statements have been developed and compared. The influence of form factors calculation on the radiative statement is also analyzed and the problem of the sensitivity of the methods with respect to possible measurement errors is evoked. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  7. Moving Shadow Detection in Video Using Cepstrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Cogun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving shadows constitute problems in various applications such as image segmentation and object tracking. The main cause of these problems is the misclassification of the shadow pixels as target pixels. Therefore, the use of an accurate and reliable shadow detection method is essential to realize intelligent video processing applications. In this paper, a cepstrum-based method for moving shadow detection is presented. The proposed method is tested on outdoor and indoor video sequences using well-known benchmark test sets. To show the improvements over previous approaches, quantitative metrics are introduced and comparisons based on these metrics are made.

  8. Tax Evasion and the Shadow Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Reimers

    2015-01-01

    Leading scholars examine recent evidence from theoretical and empirical research on tax compliance and tax evasion, and provide an in-depth analysis of underlying methods. Strategies to fight tax evasion are evaluated and the motivations behind it are explored, as are the impact and size of the shadow economy in Europe. As well as promoting a better understanding of the issues, this book intends to stimulate further debate and, in so doing, broaden the exchange of ideas and concepts.

  9. Metal shadowing for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Gregory M

    2014-01-01

    Metal shadowing of bacteria, viruses, isolated molecules, and macromolecular assemblies is another high-resolution method for observing the ultrastructure of biological specimens. The actual procedure for producing a metal shadow is relatively simple; a heavy metal is evaporated from a source at an oblique angle to the specimen. The metal atoms pile up on the surfaces that face the source, but the surfaces away from the source are shielded and receive little metal deposit, creating a "shadow." However, the process of producing biological specimens that are suitable for metal shadowing can be very complex. There are a whole host of specimen preparation techniques that can precede metal shadowing, and all provide superior preservation in comparison to air drying, a required step in negative staining procedures. The physical forces present during air drying (i.e., surface tension of the water-air interface) will literally crush most biological specimens as they dry. In this chapter I explain the development of and procedures for the production of biological specimens from macromolecular assemblies (e.g., DNA and RNA), purified isolated molecules (e.g., proteins), and isolated viruses and bacteria preparations suitable for metal shadowing. A variation on this basic technique is to rotate the specimen during the metal deposition to produce a high-resolution three-dimensional rendering of the specimen.

  10. Casting the Bigger Shadow: The Methods and Business of Petrucci vs. Attaingnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Kisch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The music printing of Ottaviano Petrucci has been largely regarded by historians to be the most elegant and advanced form of music publishing in the Renaissance, while printers such as Pierre Attaingnant are only given an obligatory nod. Through historical research and a study of primary sources such as line-cut facsimiles, I sought to answer the question, how did the triple impression and single impression methods of printing develop, and is one superior to the other? While Petrucci’s triple impression method produced cleaner and more connected staves, a significant number of problems resulted, including pitch accuracy and cost efficiency. Attaingnant’s single impression method solved most of these difficulties, while only sacrificing a small amount of visual aesthetic. Despite these advancements, Petrucci managed to dominate the music publishing industry in Venice during his lifetime while Attaingnant achieved success to a lesser degree. Based on an overview of their business skills, I concluded that Petrucci obtained this success through his twenty-year legal monopoly in Venice, and by staying in tune with his clients' needs and printing music that was in demand. The single impression method of Attaingnant outlasted the triple impression method of Petrucci because his technology was more efficient and accurate, but Petrucci was more successful during his time because of his business skills.

  11. What is shadow banking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ratnovski, L.

    2014-01-01

    There is much confusion about what shadow banking is. Some equate it with securitization, others with non-traditional bank activities, and yet others with non-bank lending. Regardless, most think of shadow banking as activities that can create systemic risk. This paper proposes to describe shadow

  12. eShadow: A tool for comparing closely related sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, Ivan; Boffelli, Dario; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2004-01-15

    Primate sequence comparisons are difficult to interpret due to the high degree of sequence similarity shared between such closely related species. Recently, a novel method, phylogenetic shadowing, has been pioneered for predicting functional elements in the human genome through the analysis of multiple primate sequence alignments. We have expanded this theoretical approach to create a computational tool, eShadow, for the identification of elements under selective pressure in multiple sequence alignments of closely related genomes, such as in comparisons of human to primate or mouse to rat DNA. This tool integrates two different statistical methods and allows for the dynamic visualization of the resulting conservation profile. eShadow also includes a versatile optimization module capable of training the underlying Hidden Markov Model to differentially predict functional sequences. This module grants the tool high flexibility in the analysis of multiple sequence alignments and in comparing sequences with different divergence rates. Here, we describe the eShadow comparative tool and its potential uses for analyzing both multiple nucleotide and protein alignments to predict putative functional elements. The eShadow tool is publicly available at http://eshadow.dcode.org/

  13. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Ana; Atwi, Majed; Barberán, Ramón; Mur, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing economic importance of tourism, and its impact on relative water shortage, little is known about the role that water plays in the productive process of hotels and restaurants and, therefore, the possible implications of water demand management policy for this sector. This study aims to fill this gap. It is based on the microdata of 676 firms in the sector, operating in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) for a 12 year period. Based on the Translog cost function, we estimate the shadow price of water in the short run and, from a long-run perspective, its direct price elasticity, its cross elasticities relative to labor, capital, and supplies, and its elasticity with respect to the level of output. The results obtained show that water provides sector firms returns that are on average higher than its price, although in the case of hotels the margin is really narrow. This situation provides policy makers with a margin for applying price increases without affecting the sector's viability, with some caution in the case of hotels. Water demand elasticity equals -0.38 in the case of hotels, but it is not significant in the case of restaurants and bar-cafes; hence, only in hotels is there potential for influencing water use patterns, encouraging the resource's conservation through pricing policy. Moreover, capital is a substitutive factor of water, and the elasticity of water with respect to output is 0.40, all of which should also be considered by policy makers in water resource management.

  14. Statistical Removal of Shadow for Applications to Gait Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hockersmith, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... The thesis begins with the analysis of videos of solid colored backgrounds. A formulation of the effect of shadow on specified colors will aid in the derivation of a hypothesis test to remove an individual's shadow...

  15. Real-time shadows

    CERN Document Server

    Eisemann, Elmar; Assarsson, Ulf; Wimmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Important elements of games, movies, and other computer-generated content, shadows are crucial for enhancing realism and providing important visual cues. In recent years, there have been notable improvements in visual quality and speed, making high-quality realistic real-time shadows a reachable goal. Real-Time Shadows is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of real-time shadow techniques. It covers a large variety of different effects, including hard, soft, volumetric, and semi-transparent shadows.The book explains the basics as well as many advanced aspects related to the domain

  16. Shadow algorithms data miner

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Digital shadow generation continues to be an important aspect of visualization and visual effects in film, games, simulations, and scientific applications. This resource offers a thorough picture of the motivations, complexities, and categorized algorithms available to generate digital shadows. From general fundamentals to specific applications, it addresses shadow algorithms and how to manage huge data sets from a shadow perspective. The book also examines the use of shadow algorithms in industrial applications, in terms of what algorithms are used and what software is applicable.

  17. Detection of Cast Shadows in Surveillance Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren G.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarne Dissing; Stage, Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    Cast shadows from moving objects reduce the general ability of robust classification and tracking of these objects, in outdoor surveillance applications. A method for segmentation of cast shadows is proposed, combining statistical features with a new similarity feature, derived from a physics...

  18. The Relationship between Shadow Economy and Unemployment Rate. A Ardl Causality Analysis for the Case Of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana AnaMaria DAVIDESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the nature of the relationship between the shadow economy (SE and unemployment rates (both registered and ILO for the case of Romania using Pesaran et al.(2001 bounds tests approach for cointegration. The study uses quarterly data covering the period 2000-2010. The size of Romanian shadow economy is estimated using the currency demand approach based on VECM models, stating that its size is decreasing over the analyzed period, from 36.5% at the end of 2000 to about 31.5% of real GDP at the middle of 2010. To investigate the long-run causal linkages and short-run dynamics between shadow economy and unemployment rate, ARDL cointegration approach is applied. Cointegration test results shows that in short-run both ILO and registered unemployment rate has a negative and statistically significant effect on the size of the shadow economy, while in the long-run the unemployment rates have a positive effect on shadow economy. The ARDL causality results revealed the existence of a long-run unidirectional causality that runs from unemployment rates (registered or ILO to shadow economy. In addition, the CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests confirm the stability of the both causal relationships.

  19. Moravian Shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Keeney

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available For the rapture of the Dionysian state with its annihilation of the ordinary bounds and limits of existence contains, while it lasts, a lethargic element in which all personal experiences of the past become immersed. This chasm of oblivion separates the worlds of everyday reality and of Dionysian reality. But as soon as this everyday reality re-enters consciousness, it is experienced as such, with nausea: an ascetic, will-negating mood is the fruit of these states (Nietzsche, 1967, pp 59-60. [E]very theory is a working hypothesis fostered by our interest in the facts themselves: theory is essential for sorting out the pertinent facts and ordering them in a system – it is for that and no more. The very need for some particular set of facts, the very prerequisite of having some particular conceptual sign - these are conditions dictated by contemporary life with its specific problems. History is, in effect, a science of complex analogies, a science of double vision: the facts of the past have meanings for us that differentiate them and place them, invariably and inevitably, in a system under the sign of contemporary problems. Thus one set of problems supplants another. History in this sense is a special method of studying the present with the aid of the facts of the past (Ejxenbaum, in Matejka and Pomorska, 2002, p 56.

  20. Shadowing and hyperbolicity

    CERN Document Server

    Pilyugin, Sergei Yu

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on the theory of shadowing of approximate trajectories (pseudotrajectories) of dynamical systems, this book surveys recent progress in establishing relations between shadowing and such basic notions from the classical theory of structural stability as hyperbolicity and transversality. Special attention is given to the study of "quantitative" shadowing properties, such as Lipschitz shadowing (it is shown that this property is equivalent to structural stability both for diffeomorphisms and smooth flows), and to the passage to robust shadowing (which is also equivalent to structural stability in the case of diffeomorphisms, while the situation becomes more complicated in the case of flows). Relations between the shadowing property of diffeomorphisms on their chain transitive sets and the hyperbolicity of such sets are also described. The book will allow young researchers in the field of dynamical systems to gain a better understanding of new ideas in the global qualitative theory. It will also be of int...

  1. Moon and Sun shadow observation with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Fabian; Tenholt, Frederik; Becker-Tjus, Julia [Theoretische Physik, Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany); Westerhoff, Stefan [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of the Moon shadow is a standard method in IceCube to determine the angular resolution and absolute pointing capabilities of the IceCube detector at the geographic South Pole. The Sun has not been used as a calibrator thus far, as its shadow is expected to be influenced by the solar magnetic field, which deflects the cosmic rays near the solar surface. This, on the other hand, provides indirect pieces of information on the magnetic field structure of the Sun. This talk shows a first analysis of the Sun shadow with IceCube data. The analysis is based on the data of the detector configurations with 79 (IC79) and 86 strings (IC86) from 2010 through 2012. To examine the shadows, a binned method is used to compare all events from one on-source with two off-source windows. For the IC40 and IC59 configuration a deficit with a statistical significance of more than 6σ was observed.

  2. Boundary Correct Real-Time Soft Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bjarke; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Larsen, Bent Dalgaard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method to determine correct shadow boundaries from an area light source using umbra and penumbra volumes. The light source is approximated by a circular disk as this gives a fast way to extrude the volumes. The method also gives a crude estimate of the visibility of the are...... for implementation on most programmable hardware. Though some crude approximations are used in the visibility function, the method can be used to produce soft shadows with correct boundaries in real time....

  3. Estimating shadow prices and efficiency analysis of productive inputs and pesticide use of vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, Alphonse G.; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Emvalomatis, Grigorios

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes technical efficiency and the value of the marginal product of productive inputs vis-a-vis pesticide use to measure allocative efficiency of pesticide use along productive inputs. We employ the data envelopment analysis framework and marginal cost techniques to estimate

  4. Beyond the Shadow of a Trait: Understanding Discounting through Item-Level Analysis of Personality Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Shawn R.; Gossett, Bradley D.; Charlton, Veda A.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal discounting, the loss in perceived value associated with delayed outcomes, correlates with a number of personality measures, suggesting that an item-level analysis of trait measures might provide a more detailed understanding of discounting. The current report details two studies that investigate the utility of such an item-level…

  5. Automatic Cloud and Shadow Detection in Optical Satellite Imagery Without Using Thermal Bands—Application to Suomi NPP VIIRS Images over Fennoscandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Parmes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In land monitoring applications, clouds and shadows are considered noise that should be removed as automatically and quickly as possible, before further analysis. This paper presents a method to detect clouds and shadows in Suomi NPP satellite’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite satellite images. The proposed cloud and shadow detection method has two distinct features when compared to many other methods. First, the method does not use the thermal bands and can thus be applied to other sensors which do not contain thermal channels, such as Sentinel-2 data. Secondly, the method uses the ratio between blue and green reflectance to detect shadows. Seven hundred and forty-seven VIIRS images over Fennoscandia from August 2014 to April 2016 were processed to train and develop the method. Twenty four points from every tenth of the images were used in accuracy assessment. These 1752 points were interpreted visually to cloud, cloud shadow and clear classes, then compared to the output of the cloud and shadow detection. The comparison on VIIRS images showed 94.2% correct detection rates and 11.1% false alarms for clouds, and respectively 36.1% and 82.7% for shadows. The results on cloud detection were similar to state-of-the-art methods. Shadows showed correctly on the northern edge of the clouds, but many shadows were wrongly assigned to other classes in some cases (e.g., to water class on lake and forest boundary, or with shadows over cloud. This may be due to the low spatial resolution of VIIRS images, where shadows are only a few pixels wide and contain lots of mixed pixels.

  6. Curiosity at Gale Crater, Mars: Characterization and Analysis of the Rocknest Sand Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.; Morris, Richard V.; Kocurek, G.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Bish, D.; Ming, D. W.; Edgett, K. S.; Rubin, D.; Goetz, W.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Rocknest aeolian deposit is similar to aeolian features analyzed by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit and Opportunity. The fraction of sand <150 micron in size contains approx. 55% crystalline material consistent with a basaltic heritage, and approx. 45% X-ray amorphous material. The amorphous component of Rocknest is Fe-rich and Si-poor, and is the host of the volatiles (H2O, O2, SO2, CO2, and Cl) detected by the Surface Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument and of the fine-grained nanophase oxide (npOx) component first described from basaltic soils analyzed by MER. The similarity between soils and aeolian materials analyzed at Gusev crater, Meridiani Planum and Gale crater implies locally sourced, globally similar basaltic materials, or globally and regionally sourced basaltic components deposited locally at all three locations.

  7. Near real-time shadow detection and removal in aerial motion imagery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme F.; Carneiro, Grace B.; Doth, Ricardo; Amaral, Leonardo A.; Azevedo, Dario F. G. de

    2018-06-01

    This work presents a method to automatically detect and remove shadows in urban aerial images and its application in an aerospace remote monitoring system requiring near real-time processing. Our detection method generates shadow masks and is accelerated by GPU programming. To obtain the shadow masks, we converted images from RGB to CIELCh model, calculated a modified Specthem ratio, and applied multilevel thresholding. Morphological operations were used to reduce shadow mask noise. The shadow masks are used in the process of removing shadows from the original images using the illumination ratio of the shadow/non-shadow regions. We obtained shadow detection accuracy of around 93% and shadow removal results comparable to the state-of-the-art while maintaining execution time under real-time constraints.

  8. Shadow Economy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Nikopour, Hesam; Shah Habibullah, Muzafar

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the relationship between shadow economy and poverty by explaining the mechanism through which shadow economy affects poverty via its impact on government size and economic growth, and using the human poverty index (HPI) for developing and developed countries. In order to achieve this objective, the three-way interaction model is utilized using data of 139 developing and 23 developed countries separately during 1999-2007. For developing countries the dynamic ...

  9. Shadow Toll in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    González Ruiz, Juan David; Botero Botero, Sergio; Arboleda, Carlos Alejandro; Duque Grisales, Eduardo Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The growing development in infrastructure projects in Colombia has been linked to legal adjustments and capital markets. These two last factors have provided important elements for project developers to design funding strategies. Based on the shadow toll scheme, this paper proposes a new financing strategy for funding highway projects. This strategy may be implemented in Colombia. Finally, the paper proposes future research on shadow toll schemes as a financial mechanism.

  10. Fading and shadowing in wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, P Mohana

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive overview of fading and shadowing in wireless channels. A number of statistical models including simple, hybrid, compound and cascaded ones are presented along with a detailed discussion of diversity techniques employed to mitigate the effects of fading and shadowing. The effects of co-channel interference before and after the implementation of diversity are also analyzed. To facilitate easy understanding of the models and the analysis, the background on probability and random variables is presented with relevant derivations of densities of the sums, products, ratios as well as order statistics of random variables. The book also provides material on digital modems of interest in wireless systems. The updated edition expands the background materials on probability by offering sections on Laplace and Mellin transforms, parameter estimation, statistical testing and receiver operating characteristics. Newer models for fading, shadowing and shadowed fading are included along with th...

  11. Stress shadows - a controversial topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasocki, Stanislaw; Karakostas, Vassilis G.; Papadimitriou, Eletheria E.; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata

    2010-05-01

    The spatial correlation between the positive Coulomb stress changes and the subsequent seismic activity has been firmly confirmed in many recent studies. If, however, the static stress transfer is a consistent expression of interaction between earthquakes one should also observe a decrease of the activity in the zones of negative stress changes. Instead, the existence of stress shadows is poorly evidenced and may be questioned. We tested the influence of the static stress changes associated with the coseismic slip of the 1995 Mw6.5 Kozani-Grevena (Greece) earthquake on locations of its aftershocks. The study was based on a detailed slip model for the main shock and accurate locations and reliable fault plane solutions of an adequate number of the aftershocks. We developed a statistical testing method, which tested whether the proportions of aftershocks located inside areas determined by a selected criterion on the static stress change could be attained if there were no effect of the stress change due to the main shock on aftershock locations. The areas of stress change were determined at the focus of every aftershock. The distribution of test statistic was constructed with the use of a two-dimensional nonparametric, kernel density estimator of the reference epicenter distribution. The tests highly confidently indicated a rise in probability to locate aftershocks inside areas of positive static stress change, which supported the hypothesis on the triggering effect in these areas. Furthermore, it was evidenced that a larger stress increase caused a stronger triggering effect. The analysis, however, did not evidence the existence of stress shadows inside areas of negative stress change. Contrary to expectations, the tests indicated a significant increase of the probability of event location in the areas of a stress decrease of more than or equal to 5.0 and 10.0 bar. It turned out that for areas of larger absolute stress change this probability increased regardless of

  12. Shadow detection and removal in RGB VHR images for land use unsupervised classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movia, A.; Beinat, A.; Crosilla, F.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, high resolution aerial images are widely available thanks to the diffusion of advanced technologies such as UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) and new satellite missions. Although these developments offer new opportunities for accurate land use analysis and change detection, cloud and terrain shadows actually limit benefits and possibilities of modern sensors. Focusing on the problem of shadow detection and removal in VHR color images, the paper proposes new solutions and analyses how they can enhance common unsupervised classification procedures for identifying land use classes related to the CO2 absorption. To this aim, an improved fully automatic procedure has been developed for detecting image shadows using exclusively RGB color information, and avoiding user interaction. Results show a significant accuracy enhancement with respect to similar methods using RGB based indexes. Furthermore, novel solutions derived from Procrustes analysis have been applied to remove shadows and restore brightness in the images. In particular, two methods implementing the so called "anisotropic Procrustes" and the "not-centered oblique Procrustes" algorithms have been developed and compared with the linear correlation correction method based on the Cholesky decomposition. To assess how shadow removal can enhance unsupervised classifications, results obtained with classical methods such as k-means, maximum likelihood, and self-organizing maps, have been compared to each other and with a supervised clustering procedure.

  13. Perception of shadows in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Becchio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cast shadows in visual scenes can have profound effects on visual perception. Much as they are informative, they also constitute noise as they are salient features of the visual scene potentially interfering with the processing of other features. Here we asked i whether individuals with autism can exploit the information conveyed by cast shadows; ii whether they are especially sensitive to noise aspects of shadows. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty high-functioning children with autism and twenty typically developing children were asked to recognize familiar objects while the presence, position, and shape of the cast shadow were systematically manipulated. Analysis of vocal reaction time revealed that whereas typically developing children used information from cast shadows to improve object recognition, in autistic children the presence of cast shadows--either congruent or incongruent--interfered with object recognition. Critically, vocal reaction times were faster when the object was presented without a cast shadow. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that shadow-processing mechanisms are abnormal in autism. As a result, processing shadows becomes costly and cast shadows interfere rather than help object recognition.

  14. Fully Convolutional Network Based Shadow Extraction from GF-2 Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Cai, G.; Ren, H.

    2018-04-01

    There are many shadows on the high spatial resolution satellite images, especially in the urban areas. Although shadows on imagery severely affect the information extraction of land cover or land use, they provide auxiliary information for building extraction which is hard to achieve a satisfactory accuracy through image classification itself. This paper focused on the method of building shadow extraction by designing a fully convolutional network and training samples collected from GF-2 satellite imagery in the urban region of Changchun city. By means of spatial filtering and calculation of adjacent relationship along the sunlight direction, the small patches from vegetation or bridges have been eliminated from the preliminary extracted shadows. Finally, the building shadows were separated. The extracted building shadow information from the proposed method in this paper was compared with the results from the traditional object-oriented supervised classification algorihtms. It showed that the deep learning network approach can improve the accuracy to a large extent.

  15. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis Michael

    Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites are essential for modern communication networks. If communication to a GEO satellite is lost and a malfunction occurs upon orbit insertion such as a solar panel not deploying there is no direct way to observe it from Earth. Due to the GEO orbit distance of ~36,000 km from Earth's surface, the Rayleigh criteria dictates that a 14 m telescope is required to conventionally image a satellite with spatial resolution down to 1 m using visible light. Furthermore, a telescope larger than 30 m is required under ideal conditions to obtain spatial resolution down to 0.4 m. This dissertation evaluates a method for obtaining high spatial resolution images of GEO satellites from an Earth based system by measuring the irradiance distribution on the ground resulting from the occultation of the satellite passing in front of a star. The representative size of a GEO satellite combined with the orbital distance results in the ground shadow being consistent with a Fresnel diffraction pattern when observed at visible wavelengths. A measurement of the ground shadow irradiance is used as an amplitude constraint in a Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm that produces a reconstruction of the satellite's 2D transmission function which is analogous to a reverse contrast image of the satellite. The advantage of shadow imaging is that a terrestrial based redundant set of linearly distributed inexpensive small telescopes, each coupled to high speed detectors, is a more effective resolved imaging system for GEO satellites than a very large telescope under ideal conditions. Modeling and simulation efforts indicate sub-meter spatial resolution can be readily achieved using collection apertures of less than 1 meter in diameter. A mathematical basis is established for the treatment of the physical phenomena involved in the shadow imaging process. This includes the source star brightness and angular extent, and the diffraction of starlight from the satellite

  16. A flexible method for the preparation of thin film samples for in situ TEM characterization combining shadow-FIB milling and electron-beam-assisted etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebig, J.P., E-mail: jan.p.liebig@fau.de [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Göken, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Richter, G. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Mačković, M.; Przybilla, T.; Spiecker, E. [Institute of Micro, and Nanostructure Research & Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy (CENEM), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Cauerstr. 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Pierron, O.N. [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States); Merle, B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    A new method for the preparation of freestanding thin film samples for mechanical testing in transmission electron microscopes is presented. It is based on a combination of focused ion beam (FIB) milling and electron-beam-assisted etching with xenon difluoride (XeF{sub 2}) precursor gas. The use of the FIB allows for the target preparation of microstructural defects and enables well-defined sample geometries which can be easily adapted in order to meet the requirements of various testing setups. In contrast to existing FIB-based preparation approaches, the area of interest is never exposed to ion beam irradiation which preserves a pristine microstructure. The method can be applied to a wide range of thin film material systems compatible with XeF{sub 2} etching. Its feasibility is demonstrated for gold and alloyed copper thin films and its practical application is discussed. - Highlights: • A new method for the preparation of sub-micron tensile specimens from thin films is presented. • The method is based on the combination of focused ion beam milling and electron-beam-assisted xenon difluoride etching. • It enables the target preparation of individual microstructural defects. • The sample section is protected from ion beam damage by the use of a shadow milling geometry.

  17. The shadow of black holes an analytic description

    CERN Document Server

    Grenzebach, Arne

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces an analytic method to describe the shadow of black holes. As an introduction, it presents a survey of the attempts to observe the shadow of galactic black holes. Based on a detailed discussion of the Plebański–Demiański class of space-times, the book derives analytical formulas for the photon regions and for the boundary curve of the shadow as seen by an observer in the domain of outer communication. It also analyzes how the shadow depends on the motion of the observer. For all cases, the photon regions and shadows are visualized for various values of the parameters. Finally, it considers how the analytical formulas can be used for calculating the horizontal and vertical angular diameters of the shadow, and estimates values for the black holes at the centers of our Galaxy near Sgr A* and of the neighboring galaxy M87.

  18. Shadowing in electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela Mendes, R; Leao, J P [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Av. Gama Pinto 2, Lisbon 4 (Portugal)

    1977-09-01

    The notorious absence of shadowing effects in electroproduction may have either a deep dynamical origin or a very simple geometrical one. We argue in favour of a simple origin for this effect, having to do with the geometrical nature of the source that generates the virtual photons in electroproduction.

  19. Shadows behind the computers

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    EGEE organized a shadowing day to spur female students to take up careers in the IT field. Eleven female staff from CERN’s IT Department were kept under close surveillance last week, shadowed by female students from the Collège du Léman International School as part of the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project Gender Action Plan. The shadowing day was aimed at inspiring young women to think of careers in information technology, by passing on the message that careers in science are open to both men and women and can be rewarding and fun. The students were given a tour of the ATLAS physics experiment and the CERN Computer Centre, as well as the opportunity for one-to-one interaction with CERN IT staff. Traditionally, fewer women work in the IT sector; women currently represent 21% of EGEE staff. The shadowing day was held as part of the EGEE Gender Action Plan, reflecting a commitment to reducing this gender gap. Other initiatives in...

  20. Automated vessel shadow segmentation of fovea-centered spectral-domain images from multiple OCT devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Gerendas, Bianca S.; Waldstein, Sebastian M.; Simader, Christian; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a non-invasive modality for acquiring high reso- lution, three-dimensional (3D) cross sectional volumetric images of the retina and the subretinal layers. SD-OCT also allows the detailed imaging of retinal pathology, aiding clinicians in the diagnosis of sight degrading diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma.1 Disease diagnosis, assessment, and treatment requires a patient to undergo multiple OCT scans, possibly using different scanning devices, to accurately and precisely gauge disease activity, progression and treatment success. However, the use of OCT imaging devices from different vendors, combined with patient movement may result in poor scan spatial correlation, potentially leading to incorrect patient diagnosis or treatment analysis. Image registration can be used to precisely compare disease states by registering differing 3D scans to one another. In order to align 3D scans from different time- points and vendors using registration, landmarks are required, the most obvious being the retinal vasculature. Presented here is a fully automated cross-vendor method to acquire retina vessel locations for OCT registration from fovea centred 3D SD-OCT scans based on vessel shadows. Noise filtered OCT scans are flattened based on vendor retinal layer segmentation, to extract the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer of the retina. Voxel based layer profile analysis and k-means clustering is used to extract candidate vessel shadow regions from the RPE layer. In conjunction, the extracted RPE layers are combined to generate a projection image featuring all candidate vessel shadows. Image processing methods for vessel segmentation of the OCT constructed projection image are then applied to optimize the accuracy of OCT vessel shadow segmentation through the removal of false positive shadow regions such as those caused by exudates and cysts. Validation of segmented vessel shadows uses

  1. Ferromagnetism of MnxSi1-x(x ∼ 0.5 films grown in the shadow geometry by pulsed laser deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Nikolaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a comprehensive study of magnetic, magneto-transport and structural properties of nonstoichiometric MnxSi1-x (x ≈ 0.51-0.52 films grown by the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD technique onto Al2O3(0001 single crystal substrates at T = 340°C are present. A highlight of used PLD method is the non-conventional (“shadow” geometry with Kr as a scattering gas during the sample growth. It is found that the films exhibit high-temperature (HT ferromagnetism (FM with the Curie temperature TC ∼ 370 K accompanied by positive sign anomalous Hall effect (AHE; they also reveal the polycrystalline structure with unusual distribution of grains in size and shape. It is established that HT FM order is originated from the bottom interfacial self-organizing nanocrystalline layer. The upper layer adopted columnar structure with the lateral grain size ≥50 nm, possesses low temperature (LT type of FM order with Tc ≈ 46 K and contributes essentially to the magnetization at T ≤ 50 K. Under these conditions, AHE changes its sign from positive to negative at T ≤ 30K. We attribute observed properties to the synergy of distribution of MnxSi1-x crystallites in size and shape as well as peculiarities of defect-induced FM order in shadow geometry grown polycrystalline MnxSi1-x (x ∼ 0.5 films.

  2. Shadows on the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Diana.

    1984-01-01

    Canadian antinuclear groups, because of their shifting stances and fluid overlapping membership, are compared with shadows on a wall. They can be roughly classified as environmental, pacifist, concerned with energy, religious, or dedicated to nuclear responsibility. The author considers that such groups, despite their arguably unrealistic attitudes, have raised public awareness of the ethical, practical and financial aspects of power development in Canada and the world

  3. Electric moving shadow garden

    OpenAIRE

    Bracey, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Electric Moving Shadow Garden is a multi-directional exploration of the links between artists and cinema, with multiple reference and contextual points. it accompanied the exhibition, UnSpooling: Artists & Cinema, curated by Bracey and Dave Griffiths at Corernhouse, Manchester, who also edited the publication. Published to accompany the Cornerhouse exhibition, UnSpooling: Artists & Cinema, curated by artists Andrew Bracey and Dave Griffiths. This illustrated catalogue explores how internat...

  4. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  5. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Shadow Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Orekhova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently the institutional factors of economic development are updated. The problem of neutralizing the impact of informal institutions is becoming paramount. In order to develop adequate measures to influence the shadow economy and the development of the concept of anti-shadow policies requires a deep and comprehensive study of the shadow socio-economic processes in Russia. It is necessary to recognize the fact that the methods of struggle against the shadow economy have not yet had the desired effect, that implies the conclusion – the causes of the shadow economy have deep roots and are out of the sphere of economic relations. Shadow economic processes are the result of the behavioral characteristics of people, socio-psychological reasons as a consequence of the low cultural level, marginality, inefficient conjugation of institutions and culture, lack of confidence in the society, the specific characteristics of economic mentality, etc. Therefore, if the causes of the shadow relations are rooted in completely different spheres, then the methods of research should also belong to different sciences. The article considers the methodological possibilities in the study of the Russian shadow economy. The logical sequence of the shadow economy research includes empirical and theoretical stages. The level of the empirical phase of gathering facts about the shadow economy has a number of complexities and peculiarities. On a theoretical level there is necessity of multimethodological approach. The authors proved the usefulness of the methodological system and the results of research in the fields of sociology, psychology, criminology, statistics and mathematics, as well as related to the economy of sciences – economic psychology, behavioral economics, economic teratology, and others. The article proposes to carry out studies of the shadow economy at the different levels of architectonics of the institutional structure of shadow economy: the nano

  6. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  7. Simple Impact Crater Shapes From Shadows - The Sequel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelow, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    At the last LPSC meeting I presented the outline of a method for determining simple impact crater shapes from shadows. In theory the shadow cast within a simple crater provides enough information to derive its cross-sectional shape from shadow measurements, at least to the maximum depth to which the shadow extends. Under certain simple assumptions, this can be done analytically. If the crater is conic-section - shaped, then it can be shown that the down-sun bound of any shadow cast within it is elliptical, with one axis along the direction of illumination and the other (perpendicular to it) of semi-length D/2 (where D is diameter). The properties of this shadow-ellipse can be related to the parameters of the crater shape conic-section, thus measurements of the shadow-ellipse yield not only crater depth and diameter but also the approximate crater shape, in terms of conic sections. The method also does not depend upon the shadow crossing near the crater center, which avoids a pitfall of older shadow measurement methods. The technique is also amenable to computer implementation, which has already been largely completed. Once computerized, crater measurements can be made rapidly and repeatably. The program reads in an image, its resolution, and the solar elevation and azimuth. The user then defines the crater rim by 'clicking' on three points, and the shadow ellipse by clicking on two more. The program calculates and outputs the diameter, the depth, and parameters describing the crater's approximating conic-section. It is highly applicable to situations where only single-image photography is available, for example MESSENGER flybys of Mercury. At the meeting I will present the finished math for this method and give some examples of its use.

  8. What Colour Is a Shadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

  9. Shadows of Einstein–dilaton–Gauss–Bonnet black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Pedro V.P., E-mail: pintodacunha@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and Centre for Research and Development in Mathematics and Applications (CIDMA), Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal); CENTRA, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049, Lisboa (Portugal); Herdeiro, Carlos A.R., E-mail: herdeiro@ua.pt [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and Centre for Research and Development in Mathematics and Applications (CIDMA), Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal); Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institute of Physics, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, 26111 (Germany); Kunz, Jutta, E-mail: jutta.kunz@uni-oldenburg.de [Institute of Physics, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, 26111 (Germany); Radu, Eugen, E-mail: eugen.radu@ua.pt [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and Centre for Research and Development in Mathematics and Applications (CIDMA), Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2017-05-10

    We study the shadows of the fully non-linear, asymptotically flat Einstein–dilaton–Gauss–Bonnet (EdGB) black holes (BHs), for both static and rotating solutions. We find that, in all cases, these shadows are smaller than for comparable Kerr BHs, i.e. with the same total mass and angular momentum under similar observation conditions. In order to compare both cases we provide quantitative shadow parameters, observing in particular that the differences in the shadows mean radii are never larger than the percent level. Therefore, generically, EdGB BHs cannot be excluded by (near future) shadow observations alone. On the theoretical side, we find no clear signature of some exotic features of EdGB BHs on the corresponding shadows, such as the regions of negative (Komar, say) energy density outside the horizon. We speculate that this is due to the fact that the Komar energy interior to the light rings (or more precisely, the surfaces of constant radial coordinate that intersect the light rings in the equatorial plane) is always smaller than the ADM mass, and consequently the corresponding shadows are smaller than those of comparable Kerr BHs. The analysis herein provides a clear example that it is the light ring impact parameter, rather than its “size”, that determines a BH shadow.

  10. Reusable High Aspect Ratio 3-D Nickel Shadow Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandhi, M.M.H.; Leber, M.; Hogan, A.; Warren, D.J.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Shadow Mask technology has been used over the years for resistless patterning and to pattern on unconventional surfaces, fragile substrate and biomaterial. In this work, we are presenting a novel method to fabricate high aspect ratio (15:1) three-dimensional (3D) Nickel (Ni) shadow mask with vertical pattern length and width of 1.2 mm and 40 μm respectively. The Ni shadow mask is 1.5 mm tall and 100 μm wide at the base. The aspect ratio of the shadow mask is 15. Ni shadow mask is mechanically robust and hence easy to handle. It is also reusable and used to pattern the sidewalls of unconventional and complex 3D geometries such as microneedles or neural electrodes (such as the Utah array). The standard Utah array has 100 active sites at the tip of the shaft. Using the proposed high aspect ratio Ni shadow mask, the Utah array can accommodate 300 active sites, 200 of which will be along and around the shaft. The robust Ni shadow mask is fabricated using laser patterning and electroplating techniques. The use of Ni 3D shadow mask will lower the fabrication cost, complexity and time for patterning out-of-plane structures. PMID:29056835

  11. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  12. Engineering shadows to fabricate optical metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Gonidec, Mathieu; Fox, Jerome M; Jean-Remy, Philip; Turnage, Evan; Whitesides, George M

    2014-11-25

    Optical metasurfaces-patterned arrays of plasmonic nanoantennas that enable the precise manipulation of light-matter interactions-are emerging as critical components in many nanophotonic materials, including planar metamaterials, chemical and biological sensors, and photovoltaics. The development of these materials has been slowed by the difficulty of efficiently fabricating patterns with the required combinations of intricate nanoscale structure, high areal density, and/or heterogeneous composition. One convenient strategy that enables parallel fabrication of periodic nanopatterns uses self-assembled colloidal monolayers as shadow masks; this method has, however, not been extended beyond a small set of simple patterns and, thus, has remained incompatible with the broad design requirements of metasurfaces. This paper demonstrates a technique-shadow-sphere lithography (SSL)-that uses sequential deposition from multiple angles through plasma-etched microspheres to expand the variety and complexity of structures accessible by colloidal masks. SSL harnesses the entire, relatively unexplored, space of shadow-derived shapes and-with custom software to guide multiangled deposition-contains sufficient degrees of freedom to (i) design and fabricate a wide variety of metasurfaces that incorporate complex structures with small feature sizes and multiple materials and (ii) generate, in parallel, thousands of variations of structures for high-throughput screening of new patterns that may yield unexpected optical spectra. This generalized approach to engineering shadows of spheres provides a new strategy for efficient prototyping and discovery of periodic metasurfaces.

  13. Cryptography with chaos and shadowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaoui, Nejib; Kanso, Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to encrypt a message (a text composed by some alphabets) using chaos and shadowing. First, we generate a numerical chaotic orbit based on the logistic map, and use the shadowing algorithm of Smaoui and Kostelich [Smaoui N, Kostelich E. Using chaos to shadow the quadratic map for all time. Int J Comput Math 1998;70:117-29] to show that there exists a finite number of true orbits that shadow the numerical orbit. Then, the finite number of maps generated is used in Baptista's algorithm [Baptista MS. Cryptography with chaos. Phys Lett A 1998;240:50-4] to encrypt each character of the message. It is shown that the use of chaos and shadowing in the encryption process enhances the security level.

  14. Cryptography with chaos and shadowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smaoui, Nejib [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)], E-mail: nsmaoui64@yahoo.com; Kanso, Ali [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)], E-mail: akanso@hotmail.com

    2009-11-30

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to encrypt a message (a text composed by some alphabets) using chaos and shadowing. First, we generate a numerical chaotic orbit based on the logistic map, and use the shadowing algorithm of Smaoui and Kostelich [Smaoui N, Kostelich E. Using chaos to shadow the quadratic map for all time. Int J Comput Math 1998;70:117-29] to show that there exists a finite number of true orbits that shadow the numerical orbit. Then, the finite number of maps generated is used in Baptista's algorithm [Baptista MS. Cryptography with chaos. Phys Lett A 1998;240:50-4] to encrypt each character of the message. It is shown that the use of chaos and shadowing in the encryption process enhances the security level.

  15. Shadow Corrosion Mechanism of Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullberg, Mats; Lysell, Gunnar; Nystrand, Ann-Charlotte

    2004-02-01

    Local corrosion enhancement appears on zirconium-base alloys in-core in boiling water reactors when the zirconium alloy is in close proximity to another metal. The visual appearance often resembles a shadow of the other component. The phenomenon is therefore referred to as 'shadow corrosion'. Shadow corrosion has been known for more than 25 years. Mechanisms based on either galvanic corrosion or local radiolysis effects have been proposed as explanations. Both types of mechanism have seemed to explain some facets of the phenomenon. Normally, shadow corrosion is of no practical significance. However, an enhanced and potentially serious form of shadow corrosion was discovered in 1996. This discovery stimulated new experiments that fully supported neither of the longstanding theories. Thus, there is till now no generally accepted understanding of the shadow corrosion phenomenon. The aim of the present investigation was to analyse the available data and to identify, if possible, a plausible mechanism of shadow corrosion. It was found that the experimental evidence is, with a few exceptions, remarkably consistent with a galvanic mechanism. The main exception is that shadow corrosion may occur also when the two metals are nominally electrically insulated. One way to account for the main exception could be to invoke the effect of photoconductivity. Photoconductivity results when a semiconductor or an insulator is irradiated with photons of UV or higher energy. The photons elevate electrons from the valence band to the conduction band, thereby raising the electron conductivity of the solid. In particular, photoconductivity lowers the electrical resistance of the normally insulating oxide on zirconium base alloys. Photoconductivity therefore also has the potential to explain why shadow corrosion is only seen in, or in proximity to, a nuclear reactor core. The suggested mechanism of shadow corrosion can be tested in a reasonably simple experiment in a research reactor

  16. Shadow edge lithography for nanoscale patterning and manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, John G; Chang, C-L; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a wafer-scale nanofabrication method using the shadow effect in physical vapor deposition. An analytical model is presented to predict the formation of nanoscale gaps created by the shadow effect of a prepatterned edge on a deposition plane. The theoretical prediction agrees quantitatively with the widths of the fabricated nanogaps and nanochannels. In the diffusion experiments, both λ-DNA and fluorescein molecules were successfully introduced into the nanochannels. The proposed shadow edge lithography has potential to be a candidate for mass-producing nanostructures

  17. Out of shadow / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    "Out of shadow" oli näitus Baltimaade 1990. aastate kunstist Ameerika publikule - sõnumiks iseseisvumisjärgsete aastate materiaalse, sotsiaalse ning vaimuelu peegeldused/tõlgendused visuaalses kunstis

  18. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE DRIFT SHADOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.W. Su; T.J. Kneafsey

    2006-01-01

    A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rock mass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming the existence of the drift shadow have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow--and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sand mine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rock mass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content using a gravimetric technique, as well as analyzed for chemistry. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift

  19. SHADOW BANKING - A Geographical Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Gianfranco Battisti

    2014-01-01

    Basically, shadow banking is an original kind of business organization, or better a set of institutions and markets, finalized to disinvest fixed assets and convey them to the financial markets. Nowadays, tackling the subject means penetrating the hard core of financialization. Shadow banking manifests itself through a variety of activities carried out since time immemorial. Some authors go back to the 17th century, but certain procedures and entire phases were established well before the ins...

  20. Chernobyl: the long shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    Chernobyl: the Long Shadow offers a balanced review of what happened there, why and how it happened, and what the main lessons and implications of the accident are. It looks back on events during and after the disaster, in particular reviewing how it and the radiation fallout were dealt with in different countries, and looks forward to how the incident might affect the nuclear power industry around the world. The book explores the significance of the accident within the Soviet Union, considers its impact on public confidence in nuclear power, and reviews what improvements are necessary in emergency planning throughout the rest of the world. It is written from an inter-disciplinary perspective; based on detailed scientific research, which is described in non-specialist terms, it considers themes like attitudes to nuclear power and political reactions to the accident itself. It sets the Chernobyl accident into a proper context, and will appeal to students and teachers of geography, environmental science, international politics, nuclear physics, and to anyone interested in current affairs and environmental problems. (author)

  1. The surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)

  2. Improving Shadow Suppression for Illumination Robust Face Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wuming

    2017-10-13

    2D face analysis techniques, such as face landmarking, face recognition and face verification, are reasonably dependent on illumination conditions which are usually uncontrolled and unpredictable in the real world. An illumination robust preprocessing method thus remains a significant challenge in reliable face analysis. In this paper we propose a novel approach for improving lighting normalization through building the underlying reflectance model which characterizes interactions between skin surface, lighting source and camera sensor, and elaborates the formation of face color appearance. Specifically, the proposed illumination processing pipeline enables the generation of Chromaticity Intrinsic Image (CII) in a log chromaticity space which is robust to illumination variations. Moreover, as an advantage over most prevailing methods, a photo-realistic color face image is subsequently reconstructed which eliminates a wide variety of shadows whilst retaining the color information and identity details. Experimental results under different scenarios and using various face databases show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to deal with lighting variations, including both soft and hard shadows, in face recognition.

  3. Fading and Shadowing in Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, P Mohana

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, growth in the field of wireless communications has led to an exponential rise in the number of journals catering to the research community. Still unmet, however, is the need to fully and comprehensively understand the effects of channel degradation brought on by the statistical fluctuations in the channel. These fluctuations mainly manifest as variations in signal power observed in the channel generally modeled using a variety of probability distributions, both in straight forms as well as in compound forms. While the former might explain some of the effects, it is the latter, namely, the compound models, which incorporate both short term and long term power fluctuations in the channel, explain the much more complex nature of the signals in these channels. Fading and Shadowing in Wireless Systems offers a pedagogical approach to the topic, with insight into the modeling and analysis of fading and shadowing. Beginning with statistical background and digital communications, the book is formul...

  4. Methods of Multivariate Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rencher, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit

  5. An image-space parallel convolution filtering algorithm based on shadow map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Yang, Huamin; Zhao, Jianping

    2017-07-01

    Shadow mapping is commonly used in real-time rendering. In this paper, we presented an accurate and efficient method of soft shadows generation from planar area lights. First this method generated a depth map from light's view, and analyzed the depth-discontinuities areas as well as shadow boundaries. Then these areas were described as binary values in the texture map called binary light-visibility map, and a parallel convolution filtering algorithm based on GPU was enforced to smooth out the boundaries with a box filter. Experiments show that our algorithm is an effective shadow map based method that produces perceptually accurate soft shadows in real time with more details of shadow boundaries compared with the previous works.

  6. Testing the stress shadow hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2005-05-01

    A fundamental question in earthquake physics is whether aftershocks are predominantly triggered by static stress changes (permanent stress changes associated with fault displacement) or dynamic stresses (temporary stress changes associated with earthquake shaking). Both classes of models provide plausible explanations for earthquake triggering of aftershocks, but only the static stress model predicts stress shadows, or regions in which activity is decreased by a nearby earthquake. To test for whether a main shock has produced a stress shadow, we calculate time ratios, defined as the ratio of the time between the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it and the time between the last earthquake to precede the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it. A single value of the time ratio is calculated for each 10 × 10 km bin within 1.5 fault lengths of the main shock epicenter. Large values of the time ratio indicate a long wait for the first earthquake to follow the main shock and thus a potential stress shadow, whereas small values indicate the presence of aftershocks. Simulations indicate that the time ratio test should have sufficient sensitivity to detect stress shadows if they are produced in accordance with the rate and state friction model. We evaluate the 1989 MW 7.0 Loma Prieta, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge, and 1999 MW 7.1 Hector Mine main shocks. For each main shock, there is a pronounced concentration of small time ratios, indicating the presence of aftershocks, but the number of large time ratios is less than at other times in the catalog. This suggests that stress shadows are not present. By comparing our results to simulations we estimate that we can be at least 98% confident that the Loma Prieta and Landers main shocks did not produce stress shadows and 91% and 84% confident that stress shadows were not generated by the Hector Mine and Northridge main shocks, respectively. We also investigate the long hypothesized existence

  7. Methods for RNA Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe

    of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...

  8. Resonance integral analytical calculation considering shadowing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, M.A.M.; Martinez, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is presented a method for the Resonance Integral Calculation in the fuel and moderator regions, including the shadowing effect. This effect appears due to the presence of several fuel rods in a infinite moderator region. The method is based on the approximations to the J (ξ, β) function and theirs partial derivatives in relation to β. The dependence of the Resonance Integral in the J (ξ, β) comes from the rational approximation to the neutron escape probability. The final results were obtained in a very simple and fast way, and they show the good accuracy of the method. (author)

  9. Analysis of numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  10. Field investigation of the drift shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Grace W.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Marshall, Brian D.; Cook, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rockmass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming its existence have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sandmine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine Formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rockmass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content and chemical constituents. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift. Tensiometers, electrical resistance probes, neutron probes, and ground

  11. Shadow Detection from Very High Resoluton Satellite Image Using Grabcut Segmentation and Ratio-Band Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, N. M. S. M.; Mourshed, M.; Bray, M. T.

    2015-03-01

    Very-High-Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery is a powerful source of data for detecting and extracting information about urban constructions. Shadow in the VHR satellite imageries provides vital information on urban construction forms, illumination direction, and the spatial distribution of the objects that can help to further understanding of the built environment. However, to extract shadows, the automated detection of shadows from images must be accurate. This paper reviews current automatic approaches that have been used for shadow detection from VHR satellite images and comprises two main parts. In the first part, shadow concepts are presented in terms of shadow appearance in the VHR satellite imageries, current shadow detection methods, and the usefulness of shadow detection in urban environments. In the second part, we adopted two approaches which are considered current state-of-the-art shadow detection, and segmentation algorithms using WorldView-3 and Quickbird images. In the first approach, the ratios between the NIR and visible bands were computed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, which allows for disambiguation between shadows and dark objects. To obtain an accurate shadow candidate map, we further refine the shadow map after applying the ratio algorithm on the Quickbird image. The second selected approach is the GrabCut segmentation approach for examining its performance in detecting the shadow regions of urban objects using the true colour image from WorldView-3. Further refinement was applied to attain a segmented shadow map. Although the detection of shadow regions is a very difficult task when they are derived from a VHR satellite image that comprises a visible spectrum range (RGB true colour), the results demonstrate that the detection of shadow regions in the WorldView-3 image is a reasonable separation from other objects by applying the GrabCut algorithm. In addition, the derived shadow map from the Quickbird image indicates significant performance of

  12. SHADOW DETECTION FROM VERY HIGH RESOLUTON SATELLITE IMAGE USING GRABCUT SEGMENTATION AND RATIO-BAND ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. S. M. Kadhim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Very-High-Resolution (VHR satellite imagery is a powerful source of data for detecting and extracting information about urban constructions. Shadow in the VHR satellite imageries provides vital information on urban construction forms, illumination direction, and the spatial distribution of the objects that can help to further understanding of the built environment. However, to extract shadows, the automated detection of shadows from images must be accurate. This paper reviews current automatic approaches that have been used for shadow detection from VHR satellite images and comprises two main parts. In the first part, shadow concepts are presented in terms of shadow appearance in the VHR satellite imageries, current shadow detection methods, and the usefulness of shadow detection in urban environments. In the second part, we adopted two approaches which are considered current state-of-the-art shadow detection, and segmentation algorithms using WorldView-3 and Quickbird images. In the first approach, the ratios between the NIR and visible bands were computed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, which allows for disambiguation between shadows and dark objects. To obtain an accurate shadow candidate map, we further refine the shadow map after applying the ratio algorithm on the Quickbird image. The second selected approach is the GrabCut segmentation approach for examining its performance in detecting the shadow regions of urban objects using the true colour image from WorldView-3. Further refinement was applied to attain a segmented shadow map. Although the detection of shadow regions is a very difficult task when they are derived from a VHR satellite image that comprises a visible spectrum range (RGB true colour, the results demonstrate that the detection of shadow regions in the WorldView-3 image is a reasonable separation from other objects by applying the GrabCut algorithm. In addition, the derived shadow map from the Quickbird image indicates

  13. The impact of economic globalization on the shadow economy in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Hassan, Mai

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the economic globalization and the shadow economy nexus in Egypt. Using time series data from 1976 to 2013, the impulse response analysis shows that the response of the shadow economy in Egypt to positive shocks in economic globalization is negative and statistically significant for the first three years following the shock. This finding is obtained by controlling for several intermediary channels in globalization-shadow economy nexus such as education, government spending...

  14. Theory of Jovian shadow bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalswamy, N

    1986-06-01

    The shadow events in the dynamic spectra of Jovian decametric emission are explained as the result of interaction between electron bunches responsible for S and L emissions. The relevant dispersion relation is derived for the fast extraordinary mode in the cold magnetospheric plasma in the presence of S and L electron bunches. The growth rate of the synchrotron maser instability is studied in the presence and absence of S-electrons. It is shown that the synchrotron maser instability responsible for L-emission can be temporarily quenched by the invasion of S-electrons, thereby stopping the L-emission. The theory accounts for various observed features of the shadow events. (Auth.).

  15. Shadowing in the scaling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, G.

    1989-01-01

    The approximate scaling behaviour of the shadowing effect at small χ, recently observed in deep inelastic muon scattering experiments on nuclei, is shown to arise naturally at very large ν in those hadron dominance models, formulated many years ago, which are dual to the parton model. At smaller ν small scale breaking effects are expected, which sould die away as ν increases. The predicted shadowing decreases rapidly with increasing χ, at a rate which is only weakly dependent on the atomic number A for reasonably large A. (orig.)

  16. Innocent Body-Shadow Mimics Physical Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenri Kodaka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of the rubber hand illusion was applied to a shadow to determine whether the body-shadow is a good candidate for the alternative belonging to our body. Three kinds of shadows, a physical hand, a hand-shaped cloth, and a rectangle cloth, were tested for this purpose. The questionnaire results showed that both anatomical similarity and visuo-proprioception correlation were effective in enhancing illusory ownership of the shadow. According to the proprioceptive drift measurement, whether the shadow purely originated from the physical body was a critical factor in yielding the significantly positive drift. Thus, results demonstrated that the shadow can distort illusory ownership with the rubber hand illusion paradigm, but the proprioception was clearly distorted only when the body-shadow was purely applied. This implies the presence of special cognitive processing to discriminate the self-body shadow from the others.

  17. Methods for Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverbro, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Many decision-making situations today affect humans and the environment. In practice, many such decisions are made without an overall view and prioritise one or other of the two areas. Now and then these two areas of regulation come into conflict, e.g. the best alternative as regards environmental considerations is not always the best from a human safety perspective and vice versa. This report was prepared within a major project with the aim of developing a framework in which both the environmental aspects and the human safety aspects are integrated, and decisions can be made taking both fields into consideration. The safety risks have to be analysed in order to be successfully avoided and one way of doing this is to use different kinds of risk analysis methods. There is an abundance of existing methods to choose from and new methods are constantly being developed. This report describes some of the risk analysis methods currently available for analysing safety and examines the relationships between them. The focus here is mainly on human safety aspects

  18. Shedding Light on Shadow Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2015-01-01

    This essay review examines four different movies that directly or indirectly refer to the theme of private tutoring or, as it is widely called, shadow education. The movies, directed in locations as diverse as India, Turkey, and Cambodia, are all made from a critical perspective. The directors demonstrate challenges in public education systems and…

  19. 47 CFR 80.769 - Shadow loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shadow loss. 80.769 Section 80.769... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.769 Shadow loss. Where the transmission path is obstructed the received signal must be adjusted to include shadow loss. Attenuation due to...

  20. 3D Spatial and Spectral Fusion of Terrestrial Hyperspectral Imagery and Lidar for Hyperspectral Image Shadow Restoration Applied to a Geologic Outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, P. J.; Glennie, C. L.; Hauser, D. L.; Okyay, U.; Khan, S.; Finnegan, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology have expanded the acquisition and fusion of active lidar and passive hyperspectral imagery (HSI) from an exclusively airborne technique to terrestrial modalities. This enables high resolution 3D spatial and spectral quantification of vertical geologic structures for applications such as virtual 3D rock outcrop models for hydrocarbon reservoir analog analysis and mineral quantification in open pit mining environments. In contrast to airborne observation geometry, the vertical surfaces observed by horizontal-viewing terrestrial HSI sensors are prone to extensive topography-induced solar shadowing, which leads to reduced pixel classification accuracy or outright removal of shadowed pixels from analysis tasks. Using a precisely calibrated and registered offset cylindrical linear array camera model, we demonstrate the use of 3D lidar data for sub-pixel HSI shadow detection and the restoration of the shadowed pixel spectra via empirical methods that utilize illuminated and shadowed pixels of similar material composition. We further introduce a new HSI shadow restoration technique that leverages collocated backscattered lidar intensity, which is resistant to solar conditions, obtained by projecting the 3D lidar points through the HSI camera model into HSI pixel space. Using ratios derived from the overlapping lidar laser and HSI wavelengths, restored shadow pixel spectra are approximated using a simple scale factor. Simulations of multiple lidar wavelengths, i.e., multi-spectral lidar, indicate the potential for robust HSI spectral restoration that is independent of the complexity and costs associated with rigorous radiometric transfer models, which have yet to be developed for horizontal-viewing terrestrial HSI sensors. The spectral restoration performance is quantified through HSI pixel classification consistency between full sun and partial sun exposures of a single geologic outcrop.

  1. Method of signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthomier, Charles

    1975-01-01

    A method capable of handling the amplitude and the frequency time laws of a certain kind of geophysical signals is described here. This method is based upon the analytical signal idea of Gabor and Ville, which is constructed either in the time domain by adding an imaginary part to the real signal (in-quadrature signal), or in the frequency domain by suppressing negative frequency components. The instantaneous frequency of the initial signal is then defined as the time derivative of the phase of the analytical signal, and his amplitude, or envelope, as the modulus of this complex signal. The method is applied to three types of magnetospheric signals: chorus, whistlers and pearls. The results obtained by analog and numerical calculations are compared to results obtained by classical systems using filters, i.e. based upon a different definition of the concept of frequency. The precision with which the frequency-time laws are determined leads then to the examination of the principle of the method and to a definition of instantaneous power density spectrum attached to the signal, and to the first consequences of this definition. In this way, a two-dimensional representation of the signal is introduced which is less deformed by the analysis system properties than the usual representation, and which moreover has the advantage of being obtainable practically in real time [fr

  2. Using Shadow Page Cache to Improve Isolated Drivers Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advantage of the reusability property of the virtualization technology, users can reuse various types and versions of existing operating systems and drivers in a virtual machine, so as to customize their application environment. In order to prevent users’ virtualization environments being impacted by driver faults in virtual machine, Chariot examines the correctness of driver’s write operations by the method of combining a driver’s write operation capture and a driver’s private access control table. However, this method needs to keep the write permission of shadow page table as read-only, so as to capture isolated driver’s write operations through page faults, which adversely affect the performance of the driver. Based on delaying setting frequently used shadow pages’ write permissions to read-only, this paper proposes an algorithm using shadow page cache to improve the performance of isolated drivers and carefully study the relationship between the performance of drivers and the size of shadow page cache. Experimental results show that, through the shadow page cache, the performance of isolated drivers can be greatly improved without impacting Chariot’s reliability too much.

  3. Using shadow page cache to improve isolated drivers performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Dong, Xiaoshe; Wang, Endong; Chen, Baoke; Zhu, Zhengdong; Liu, Chengzhe

    2015-01-01

    With the advantage of the reusability property of the virtualization technology, users can reuse various types and versions of existing operating systems and drivers in a virtual machine, so as to customize their application environment. In order to prevent users' virtualization environments being impacted by driver faults in virtual machine, Chariot examines the correctness of driver's write operations by the method of combining a driver's write operation capture and a driver's private access control table. However, this method needs to keep the write permission of shadow page table as read-only, so as to capture isolated driver's write operations through page faults, which adversely affect the performance of the driver. Based on delaying setting frequently used shadow pages' write permissions to read-only, this paper proposes an algorithm using shadow page cache to improve the performance of isolated drivers and carefully study the relationship between the performance of drivers and the size of shadow page cache. Experimental results show that, through the shadow page cache, the performance of isolated drivers can be greatly improved without impacting Chariot's reliability too much.

  4. ANALYZING SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SHADOW AREA FROM ADS-40 HIGH RADIOMETRIC RESOLUTION AERIAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-T. Hsieh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shadows in optical remote sensing images are regarded as image nuisances in numerous applications. The classification and interpretation of shadow area in a remote sensing image are a challenge, because of the reduction or total loss of spectral information in those areas. In recent years, airborne multispectral aerial image devices have been developed 12-bit or higher radiometric resolution data, including Leica ADS-40, Intergraph DMC. The increased radiometric resolution of digital imagery provides more radiometric details of potential use in classification or interpretation of land cover of shadow areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the spectral properties of the land cover in the shadow areas by ADS-40 high radiometric resolution aerial images, and to investigate the spectral and vegetation index differences between the various shadow and non-shadow land covers. According to research findings of spectral analysis of ADS-40 image: (i The DN values in shadow area are much lower than in nonshadow area; (ii DN values received from shadowed areas that will also be affected by different land cover, and it shows the possibility of land cover property retrieval as in nonshadow area; (iii The DN values received from shadowed regions decrease in the visible band from short to long wavelengths due to scattering; (iv The shadow area NIR of vegetation category also shows a strong reflection; (v Generally, vegetation indexes (NDVI still have utility to classify the vegetation and non-vegetation in shadow area. The spectral data of high radiometric resolution images (ADS-40 is potential for the extract land cover information of shadow areas.

  5. Physics of nuclear anti-shadowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, I. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Dept. de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2005-07-01

    Shadowing and anti-shadowing of the electromagnetic nuclear structure functions are produced by the coherence of multi-scattering quark nuclear processes. This picture leads to substantially different anti-shadowing for charged and neutral current processes, particularly in neutrino reactions, thus affecting the extraction of the weak-mixing angle sin{sup 2}({theta}{sub W}). We have found that the shadowing/anti-shadowing effect on the weak-mixing angle is approximately: {delta}sin{sup 2}({theta}{sub W}) = 0.001.

  6. Methods for geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratories for analytical chemistry within the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey are administered by the Office of Mineral Resources. The laboratory analysts provide analytical support to those programs of the Geologic Division that require chemical information and conduct basic research in analytical and geochemical areas vital to the furtherance of Division program goals. Laboratories for research and geochemical analysis are maintained at the three major centers in Reston, Virginia, Denver, Colorado, and Menlo Park, California. The Division has an expertise in a broad spectrum of analytical techniques, and the analytical research is designed to advance the state of the art of existing techniques and to develop new methods of analysis in response to special problems in geochemical analysis. The geochemical research and analytical results are applied to the solution of fundamental geochemical problems relating to the origin of mineral deposits and fossil fuels, as well as to studies relating to the distribution of elements in varied geologic systems, the mechanisms by which they are transported, and their impact on the environment.

  7. COMPUTER METHODS OF GENETIC ANALYSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Osipov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic statistical methods used in conducting the genetic analysis of human traits. We studied by segregation analysis, linkage analysis and allelic associations. Developed software for the implementation of these methods support.

  8. Extended shadow test approach for constrained adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Ariel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Several methods have been developed for use on constrained adaptive testing. Item pool partitioning, multistage testing, and testlet-based adaptive testing are methods that perform well for specific cases of adaptive testing. The weighted deviation model and the Shadow Test approach can be more

  9. Implementing content constraints in alpha-stratified adaptive testing using a shadow test approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2001-01-01

    The methods of alpha-stratified adaptive testing and constrained adaptive testing with shadow tests are combined in this study. The advantages are twofold. First, application of the shadow test allows the researcher to implement any type of constraint on item selection in alpha-stratified adaptive

  10. On Risk Charges and Shadow Account Options in Pension Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; Gatzert, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    to equityholders and our paper develops a model in which the influence of risk charges and shadow account options on stakeholders’ value can be quantified and studied. Our numerical results show that the value of shadow account options can be significant and thus come at the risk of expropriating policyholder......This paper studies the economic implications of regulatory systems which allow equityholders of pension companies to not only charge a specific premium to compensate them for their higher risk (compared to policyholders), but also to accumulate these risk charges in a so-called shadow account...... wealth. However, our analysis also shows that this risk can be remedied if proper attention is given to the specific contract design and to the fixing of fair contract parameters at the outset....

  11. Fabrication of Josephson Junction without shadow evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Ku, Hsiangsheng; Long, Junling; Pappas, David

    We developed a new method of fabricating Josephson Junction (Al/AlOX/Al) without shadow evaporation. Statistics from room temperature junction resistance and measurement of qubits are presented. Unlike the traditional ``Dolan Bridge'' technique, this method requires two individual lithographies and straight evaporations of Al. Argon RF plasma is used to remove native AlOX after the first evaporation, followed by oxidation and second Al evaporation. Junction resistance measured at room temperature shows linear dependence on Pox (oxidation pressure), √{tox} (oxidation time), and inverse proportional to junction area. We have seen 100% yield of qubits made with this method. This method is promising because it eliminates angle dependence during Junction fabrication, facilitates large scale qubits fabrication.

  12. Seizing the Shadow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhiyan; Hu, Yimei

    of a focal firm depends upon the resource profiles of its alliance partners. For example, the focal firm’s innovation rate is positively related to its partners’ technological capabilities; while its sales growth is positively related to partners’ revenues. Saxton (1997) investigates the impact of partner...... leverage benefits from its partner’s nonshared resources without harming the partner. Yet, no systematic and process theories on how a focal firm can benefit from nonshared resources of its partner have yet been developed. Thus, we employs a multiple case study method by combining network and resource...... exploit their network position within an interdependent relationship to leverage partner’s nonshared resource, such as partner’s reputation, to sustain their own competitive advantages. Sunyard and Grundfos, in the process, exploit their access to their partners for acquiring the valuable cooperation...

  13. Assessment of multipath and shadowing effects on UHF band in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the multi-path and shadowing effects on signal impairment were investigated through the use of empirical and semi-empirical path loss models analysis in built-up environments. Electromagnetic field strength measurements were conducted using four television transmitters at UHF bands along four major routes ...

  14. Methods of nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bellman, Richard Ernest

    1970-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  15. Shadows Between the Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard David Brian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following experimental text is drawn from my most recent research project War Machines: Utopia and Allegorical Poetics in the Twenty-First Century. The project is an adaptation of the allegorical poetics developed by the French poet Charles Baudelaire in his scathing attacks on the sweeping transformation of Paris being conducted by Napoleon III’s right-hand man, Baron Haussmann. This small excerpt from my new book is a demonstration of my critical and poetical re-framing of Benjamin’s work that orients itself more towards the overlooked elements of Benjamin’s Marxism, as well as his “weak messianic” perspective, in order to re-assert a more radical orientation of his poetics and critical method with the utopian perspectives found in the work of that other great Marxist outlier of the twentieth century, Ernst Bloch, especially as outlined in his book, The Principle of Hope. Thus, unlike the postmodern appropriation of Baudelaire and Benjamin, I want to propose the possibility of bridging the gap between allegorical poetics, Marxism, and utopianism once again as a rigorous, critical option in the twenty-first century.

  16. Shadows of the Bat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born, Simon Philipp

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The superhero narrative is typically premised on the conflict between the hero and the villain, the mythical struggle between good and evil. It therefore promotes a Manichaean worldview where good and evil are clearly distinguishable quantities. This bipolar model is questioned in the Batman movies of Tim Burton and Christopher Nolan. Since his creation in 1939, Batman has blurred the line between black and white unlike any other classic comic book superhero. As a “floating signifier”, he symbolizes the permeability of boundaries, for his liminal character inhabits a world between light and darkness, order and anarchy, hero and villain. Drawing on the complex ambiguity of the character, Tim Burton and Christopher Nolan deconstruct the traditional dichotomy of good and evil in the superhero narrative by reversing its polarity and emphasizing the fictionality of it all. Although they differ in style and method, both filmmakers invite us to overcome the Manichaean belief in favor of a more ambivalent and sophisticated viewpoint.

  17. The shadow economy in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik H. Enste

    2015-01-01

    The shadow (underground) economy plays a major role in many countries. People evade taxes and regulations by working in the shadow economy or by employing people illegally. On the one hand, this unregulated economic activity can result in reduced tax revenue and public goods and services, lower tax morale and less tax compliance, higher control costs, and lower economic growth rates. But on the other hand, the shadow economy can be a powerful force for advancing institutional change and can b...

  18. The thoracic paraspinal shadow: normal appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, H H; Kolbenstvedt, A

    1982-01-01

    The width of the right and left thoracic paraspinal shadows were measured at all levels in 200 presumably normal individuals. The paraspinal shadow could be identified in nearly all cases on the left side and in approximately one-third on the right. The range of variation was greater on the left side than one the right. The left paraspinal shadow was wider at the upper levels and in individuals above 40 years of age.

  19. Construction of Discrete Time Shadow Price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogala, Tomasz; Stettner, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In the paper expected utility from consumption over finite time horizon for discrete time markets with bid and ask prices and strictly concave utility function is considered. The notion of weak shadow price, i.e. an illiquid price, depending on the portfolio, under which the model without bid and ask price is equivalent to the model with bid and ask price is introduced. Existence and the form of weak shadow price is shown. Using weak shadow price usual (called in the paper strong) shadow price is then constructed

  20. Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures using a nano x-ray shadow mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Seung S

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures (HAR-nano structures) using a nano x-ray shadow mask and deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). The nano x-ray shadow mask is fabricated by depositing an x-ray absorber layer (Au, 3 µm) onto the back side of a nano shadow mask. The nano shadow mask is produced with nano-sized apertures whose dimensions are reduced to several tens of nanometers by the accumulation of low-stress silicon nitride (Si x N y ) using the LPCVD process on the shadow mask. A shadow mask containing apertures with a size of 1 µm is fabricated on a bulk micromachined Si x N y membrane. The thickness of an absorber layer must be in the range of several tens of micrometers in order to obtain a contrast of more than 100 for the conventional DXRL process at the Pohang Light Source (PLS). However, a 3 µm thick absorber layer can provide a sufficient contrast if the modified DXRL of the central beam-stop method is used, which blocks high-energy x-rays. A nano shadow mask with 30 nm sized apertures is fabricated and a nano x-ray shadow mask with 250 nm sized apertures is fabricated by depositing a 3 µm thick absorber layer on a nano shadow mask with 500 nm sized apertures. HAR-nano structures (circles with a diameter of 420 nm and lines with a width of 274 nm) with aspect ratios of over 10:1 on a 3.2 µm SU-8 are successfully fabricated by using the nano x-ray shadow mask and the central beam-stop method

  1. Shadow-Based Vehicle Detection in Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ibarra-Arenado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle detection is a fundamental task in Forward Collision Avoiding Systems (FACS. Generally, vision-based vehicle detection methods consist of two stages: hypotheses generation and hypotheses verification. In this paper, we focus on the former, presenting a feature-based method for on-road vehicle detection in urban traffic. Hypotheses for vehicle candidates are generated according to the shadow under the vehicles by comparing pixel properties across the vertical intensity gradients caused by shadows on the road, and followed by intensity thresholding and morphological discrimination. Unlike methods that identify the shadow under a vehicle as a road region with intensity smaller than a coarse lower bound of the intensity for road, the thresholding strategy we propose determines a coarse upper bound of the intensity for shadow which reduces false positives rates. The experimental results are promising in terms of detection performance and robustness in day time under different weather conditions and cluttered scenarios to enable validation for the first stage of a complete FACS.

  2. Giant atoms cast long shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, I.

    1996-01-01

    Atoms swollen with energy can serve as supersensitive detectors. They also probe the shadow realm where the quantum world of the atom gives way to the familiar classical world. Created in the laboratory, where they live for a few milliseconds inside vacuum chambers, Rydberg atoms acquire their girth when one or sometimes two of their electrons are excited to very high energy levels, displacing them far from the nuclear core. This article describes the atoms, the history of their identification, and future possibilities. 2 figs

  3. Measuring the CO2 shadow price for wastewater treatment: A directional distance function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hanley, Nick; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The shadow price of CO 2 informs about the marginal abatement cost of this pollutant. • It is estimated the shadow price of CO 2 for wastewater treatment plants. • The shadow prices depend on the setting of the directional vectors of the distance function. • Sewage sludge treatment technology affects the CO 2 shadow price. - Abstract: The estimation of the value of carbon emissions has become a major research and policy topic since the establishment of the Kyoto Protocol. The shadow price of CO 2 provides information about the marginal abatement cost of this pollutant. It is an essential element in guiding environmental policy issues, since the CO 2 shadow price can be used when fixing carbon tax rates, in environmental cost-benefit analysis and in ascertaining an initial market price for a trading system. The water industry could play an important role in the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper estimates the shadow price of CO 2 for a sample of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), using a parametric quadratic directional distance function. Following this, in a sensitivity analysis, the paper evaluates the impact of different settings of directional vectors on the shadow prices. Applying the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis non-parametric tests, factors affecting CO 2 prices are investigated. The variation of CO 2 shadow prices across the WWTPs evaluated argues in favour of a market-based approach to CO 2 mitigation as opposed to command-and-control regulation. The paper argues that the estimation of the shadow price of CO 2 for non-power enterprises can provide incentives for reducing GHG emissions

  4. Shadow Formation at Preschool from a Socio-materiality Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impedovo, Maria Antonietta; Delserieys-Pedregosa, Alice; Jégou, Corinne; Ravanis, Konstantinos

    2017-06-01

    The paper is set in socio-material farming to offer a way of conceptualising actions and interactions of children in preschool involved in the understanding of scientific concepts. A model of early science education about the physical phenomena of shadow formation is implemented in group work in a French context. The research involved 44 children (13 females and 31 males) of 5-6 years old. The research design was organised in three video recording steps: pre-test, teaching session and post-test. We focus on the analysis of nine teaching sessions to investigate children's `understanding' of shadow formation. A descriptive and qualitative approach was used. In particular, we have identified three main categories (the interaction of the children with the tools, the embodiment and verbal dimension)—with respective indicators—to perform the analysis. From the results, all the categories explored seem to influence each other: all material, human and social dimensions contribute to the children's understanding of shadow formation. Also we have identified some elements that can serve as a potential source of improvement of the teaching session on shadow formation. Finally, the research provides insights on how to improve science activities in preschool with the aim of supporting early understanding of physical phenomena.

  5. Multivariate analysis: models and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz Perucha, J.

    1990-01-01

    Data treatment techniques are increasingly used since computer methods result of wider access. Multivariate analysis consists of a group of statistic methods that are applied to study objects or samples characterized by multiple values. A final goal is decision making. The paper describes the models and methods of multivariate analysis

  6. Multivariate analysis methods in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, M.

    2007-01-01

    A review of multivariate methods based on statistical training is given. Several multivariate methods useful in high-energy physics analysis are discussed. Selected examples from current research in particle physics are discussed, both from the on-line trigger selection and from the off-line analysis. Also statistical training methods are presented and some new application are suggested [ru

  7. Methods in algorithmic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrushkin, Vladimir A

    2009-01-01

    …helpful to any mathematics student who wishes to acquire a background in classical probability and analysis … This is a remarkably beautiful book that would be a pleasure for a student to read, or for a teacher to make into a year's course.-Harvey Cohn, Computing Reviews, May 2010

  8. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  9. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  10. Information Subsystem of Shadow Economy Deactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Tatyana V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents information subsystem of shadow economy deactivation aimed at minimizing negative effects caused by its reproduction. In Russia, as well as in other countries, efficient implementation of the suggested system of shadow economy deactivation can be ensured by the developed information subsystem.

  11. Devaney chaos plus shadowing implies distributional chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Li, Jie; Tu, Siming

    2016-09-01

    We explore connections among the regional proximal relation, the asymptotic relation, and the distal relation for a topological dynamical system with the shadowing property and show that if a Devaney chaotic system has the shadowing property then it is distributionally chaotic.

  12. Shadowing in inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badelek, B.

    1992-01-01

    Shadowing in inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering is analysed using the double interaction formalism where we relate shadowing to inclusive diffractive processes. Both the vector meson and parton contributions are considered for low and high Q 2 values including QCD corrections with parton recombination for high Q 2 . These Q 2 values were chosen to correspond to existing experimental data and to the possible HERA measurements. Detailed discussion of various shadowing mechanisms is given. As expected the shadowing effects are found to be very small, less then 2% or so, in agreement with the recent precise measurements performed by the New Muon Collaboration. The contribution of shadowing term to the Gottfried sum the region x > 0.004 and for Q 2 = 4 GeV 2 is estimated to be equal to -0.025. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  13. STOCHASTIC METHODS IN RISK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra OSADSKÁ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review basic stochastic methods which can be used to extend state-of-the-art deterministic analytical methods for risk analysis. We can conclude that the standard deterministic analytical methods highly depend on the practical experience and knowledge of the evaluator and therefore, the stochastic methods should be introduced. The new risk analysis methods should consider the uncertainties in input values. We present how large is the impact on the results of the analysis solving practical example of FMECA with uncertainties modelled using Monte Carlo sampling.

  14. "JOB SEEKER"(Job Shadowing for Employee Engagement through Knowledge and Experience Retention).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to explore how to optimally use the particular knowledge : retention/transfer technique of job shadowing as an informal method for knowledge capture and : transfer as well as increasing communication and emp...

  15. A Walk in My Shoes: A Mixed-Method Study of the Role of Interprofessional Job Shadowing in Shaping Staff Attitudes at a Large Acute Care Hospital in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechnik, Melinda; Dempster, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Poor hospital unit culture and staff morale, and dysfunctional multidisciplinary cooperation leads to worse patient safety and satisfaction. The Walk in My Shoes research project aimed to understand how interprofessional job shadowing impacts the attitudes of colleagues. Thirty-three registered nurses at an acute care hospital observed the daily work of social workers. Nurses' attitudes towards social workers were measured by surveys and interviews. Quantitative data indicated a change in nurses' perception of social workers' communication, teamwork and autonomy. Qualitative data indicate that job shadowing helped participants identify personal misperceptions, provided new understanding of roles and gave insight into co-worker job similarities. © 2018 Longwoods Publishing.

  16. Basic methods of isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkin, A.V.; Rozenkevich, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered [ru

  17. A trial of selective imaging for the breast mass shadow by computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yukio; Anan, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Takashi; Matsue, Hiroto; Yamada, Tatsuya

    1990-01-01

    CR has ability to make many kinds of images by several imaging processings. Especially, gradation processing is more important than frequency processing to make images in CR mammography. We developed new method to image breast masses selectively with new gradation processing and tried it for 18 patients over sixty years old with breast cancer. All of breast mass shadows were separated selectively from other parencymal shadow. So, we conclude that the auto-recognition of breast mass shadow can be possible in near future in CR system. (author)

  18. Shadow Detection Based on Regions of Light Sources for Object Extraction in Nighttime Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-beom Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent video surveillance systems detect pre-configured surveillance events through background modeling, foreground and object extraction, object tracking, and event detection. Shadow regions inside video frames sometimes appear as foreground objects, interfere with ensuing processes, and finally degrade the event detection performance of the systems. Conventional studies have mostly used intensity, color, texture, and geometric information to perform shadow detection in daytime video, but these methods lack the capability of removing shadows in nighttime video. In this paper, a novel shadow detection algorithm for nighttime video is proposed; this algorithm partitions each foreground object based on the object’s vertical histogram and screens out shadow objects by validating their orientations heading toward regions of light sources. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed algorithm shows more than 93.8% shadow removal and 89.9% object extraction rates for nighttime video sequences, and the algorithm outperforms conventional shadow removal algorithms designed for daytime videos.

  19. Image research on acetabular teardrop shadow by X-ray plain-film and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoxuan; Zhai Yuejie; Yu Hongguang; Yang Yijun; Zhang Daiwei; Chen Aili; Song Quanjun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anatomical structure of bone in the formation of acetabular teardrop shadow. Methods: The acetabular teardrop shadow of the X-ray plain-film in 100 children and 300 adults, and of CT in 43 cases were analysed, measured and compared. Results: In children, teardrop shadow appeared 'U' in 80.00%, 14.00% in teardrop, 6.00% in line. In adult teardrop shadow appeared 'U' in 41.33%, 53.33% in teardrop, 5.34% in line. There were significant differences between children and adult in the frequency of 'U' and teardrop (x 2 = 43.34, P 2 = 45.62, P < 0.01). In children, inpeduncle of teardrop shadow was formed of middle 1/3 substantia-line of acetabular concavity inside of pelvis; outpeduncle was formed of middle 1/3 substantia-line of bottom of acetabular. In adult, inpeduncle was formed of middle 1/3 or back 1/3 substantia line of acetabular concavity inside of pelvis; outpeduncle was formed of middle 1/3 or back 1/3 substantia-line of bottom of acetabular. Conclusion: In children, acetabular teardrop shadow was mainly formed of middle 1/3 bone of acetabular concavity. In adult, middle 1/3 or back 1/3 bone of acetabular concavity contribute to the shadow. The ahead 1/3 bone of acetabular concavity is not involved

  20. Multiple shadows from distorted static black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Jai; Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Wittig, Alexander; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2018-04-01

    We study the local shadow of the Schwarzschild black hole with a quadrupole distortion and the influence of the external gravitational field on the photon dynamics. The external matter sources modify the light ring structure and lead to the appearance of multiple shadow images. In the case of negative quadrupole moments we identify the most prominent mechanism causing multiple shadow formation. Furthermore, we obtain a condition under which this mechanism can be realized. This condition depends on the quadrupole moment, but also on the position of the observer and the celestial sphere.

  1. Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.

  2. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  3. The effects of shadow banking on the traditional banking system in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virimai Mugobo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of shadow banks changed the face of banking in Zimbabwe. Their inconsistent product nature and complexity of form has been a cause for concern to regulatory authorities. The interrelationship between their financial intermediary role and that of formal banks has made them good substitutes to formal banking. This study conducts a statistical analysis of the country’s monetary aggregates and the total formal bank loan-to-deposits balances. The findings of this analysis show that the shadow banking system has always been a critical element of the formal banking sector which resulted from market needs and it completes the banking system. The shadow banking system does not pose direct threat to the formal banking system but it was a result of failure to attract savers who found shadow banks as a good alternative.

  4. Analysis apparatus and method of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous streaming method developed for the excution of immunoassays is described in this patent. In addition, a suitable apparatus for the method was developed whereby magnetic particles are automatically employed for the consecutive analysis of a series of liquid samples via the RIA technique

  5. Convolutional Neural Network-Based Shadow Detection in Images Using Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Seop Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in intelligence surveillance camera systems have enabled more research on the detection, tracking, and recognition of humans. Such systems typically use visible light cameras and images, in which shadows make it difficult to detect and recognize the exact human area. Near-infrared (NIR light cameras and thermal cameras are used to mitigate this problem. However, such instruments require a separate NIR illuminator, or are prohibitively expensive. Existing research on shadow detection in images captured by visible light cameras have utilized object and shadow color features for detection. Unfortunately, various environmental factors such as illumination change and brightness of background cause detection to be a difficult task. To overcome this problem, we propose a convolutional neural network-based shadow detection method. Experimental results with a database built from various outdoor surveillance camera environments, and from the context-aware vision using image-based active recognition (CAVIAR open database, show that our method outperforms previous works.

  6. Shadow corrosion phenomenon. An out-of-pile study on electrochemical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Nadine

    2017-04-28

    The focus of the present thesis was the study of the enhanced corrosion phenomenon named ''Shadow Corrosion''. Within the context of researching based on the corrosion mechanism as well as the influencing parameters and driving forces, which cause or even intensify the corrosion, a variety of electrochemical characterization and surface analysis techniques were used. The first part of this thesis gives a short introduction with the definition of the term Shadow Corrosion and of the specific type called ''Enhanced Spacer Shadow Corrosion'' (ESSC). This is followed by a description of the involved materials being Zircaloy and Inconel 718. Chapter 2 introduces the background knowledge including fundamentals about environ-mental conditions under which Shadow Corrosion occurs as well as the oxidation behavior of Zircaloy and Inconel 718. Furthermore, the state of the art about the Shadow Corrosion mechanism is presented and a description of the influencing effects on the enhanced corrosion phenomenon, like galvanic corrosion, water radiolysis, and photo-effect, is given. Further information and parameters on the part of AREVA GmbH concerning water impurities and a used coating layer on Inconel 718 are listed, which are of interest for the issue concerning the phenomenon Shadow Corrosion. The last part of this chapter contains the experimental conditions and parameters for the laboratory experiments with focus on water chemistry, specimen geometry, and UV-light exposure for photoexcitation and water radiolysis. Three different working hypotheses of this thesis are described in chapter 3. One hypothesis regarding the Shadow Corrosion Phenomenon is based on a galvanic corrosion mechanism between Zircaloy and Inconel 718. In addition, it is supposed that the galvanic corrosion could be influenced by the deposition of silver on Zircaloy and Inconel 718 in the form of an increased galvanic current. A further assumption is that the

  7. Shadow corrosion phenomenon. An out-of-pile study on electrochemical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    The focus of the present thesis was the study of the enhanced corrosion phenomenon named ''Shadow Corrosion''. Within the context of researching based on the corrosion mechanism as well as the influencing parameters and driving forces, which cause or even intensify the corrosion, a variety of electrochemical characterization and surface analysis techniques were used. The first part of this thesis gives a short introduction with the definition of the term Shadow Corrosion and of the specific type called ''Enhanced Spacer Shadow Corrosion'' (ESSC). This is followed by a description of the involved materials being Zircaloy and Inconel 718. Chapter 2 introduces the background knowledge including fundamentals about environ-mental conditions under which Shadow Corrosion occurs as well as the oxidation behavior of Zircaloy and Inconel 718. Furthermore, the state of the art about the Shadow Corrosion mechanism is presented and a description of the influencing effects on the enhanced corrosion phenomenon, like galvanic corrosion, water radiolysis, and photo-effect, is given. Further information and parameters on the part of AREVA GmbH concerning water impurities and a used coating layer on Inconel 718 are listed, which are of interest for the issue concerning the phenomenon Shadow Corrosion. The last part of this chapter contains the experimental conditions and parameters for the laboratory experiments with focus on water chemistry, specimen geometry, and UV-light exposure for photoexcitation and water radiolysis. Three different working hypotheses of this thesis are described in chapter 3. One hypothesis regarding the Shadow Corrosion Phenomenon is based on a galvanic corrosion mechanism between Zircaloy and Inconel 718. In addition, it is supposed that the galvanic corrosion could be influenced by the deposition of silver on Zircaloy and Inconel 718 in the form of an increased galvanic current. A further assumption is that the galvanic current could be decreased by a Cr

  8. Nonlinear programming analysis and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avriel, Mordecai

    2012-01-01

    This text provides an excellent bridge between principal theories and concepts and their practical implementation. Topics include convex programming, duality, generalized convexity, analysis of selected nonlinear programs, techniques for numerical solutions, and unconstrained optimization methods.

  9. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  10. Glacial isostatic stress shadowing by the Antarctic ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.; James, T. S.; Klemann, V.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous examples of fault slip that offset late Quaternary glacial deposits and bedrock polish support the idea that the glacial loading cycle causes earthquakes in the upper crust. A semianalytical scheme is presented for quantifying glacial and postglacial lithospheric fault reactivation using contemporary rock fracture prediction methods. It extends previous studies by considering differential Mogi-von Mises stresses, in addition to those resulting from a Coulomb analysis. The approach utilizes gravitational viscoelastodynamic theory and explores the relationships between ice mass history and regional seismicity and faulting in a segment of East Antarctica containing the great Antarctic Plate (Balleny Island) earthquake of 25 March 1998 (Mw 8.1). Predictions of the failure stress fields within the seismogenic crust are generated for differing assumptions about background stress orientation, mantle viscosity, lithospheric thickness, and possible late Holocene deglaciation for the D91 Antarctic ice sheet history. Similar stress fracture fields are predicted by Mogi-von Mises and Coulomb theory, thus validating previous rebound Coulomb analysis. A thick lithosphere, of the order of 150-240 km, augments stress shadowing by a late melting (middle-late Holocene) coastal East Antarctic ice complex and could cause present-day earthquakes many hundreds of kilometers seaward of the former Last Glacial Maximum grounding line.

  11. Creating cloud-free Landsat ETM+ data sets in tropical landscapes: cloud and cloud-shadow removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    Clouds and cloud shadows are common features of visible and infrared remotelysensed images collected from many parts of the world, particularly in humid and tropical regions. We have developed a simple and semiautomated method to mask clouds and shadows in Landsat ETM+ imagery, and have developed a recent cloud-free composite of multitemporal images for Puerto Rico and...

  12. Gaining Control of Iraq's Shadow Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramirez, David S

    2007-01-01

    .... These conditions fuel a sprawling, decades-old shadow economy manipulated by elements of organized crime, militias, and insurgents to fund attacks on Coalition forces, infrastructure and innocent Iraqi civilians...

  13. The little book of light and shadow

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Encourage your Early Learners to becom investigators by exploring the concept of light and shadow. These simple and effective activities can be carried out independently with the focus on natural resources.

  14. Gaining Control of Iraq's Shadow Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramirez, David S

    2007-01-01

    .... The shadow economy is also used extensively by the poor and women for subsistence living. The combined effect for Iraqi citizens is they have to survive in a country without adequate institutions and poor governance...

  15. Automatic shadowing device for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, F W; Bogitch, S

    1960-01-01

    For the past ten years in the laboratory of the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology at the University of California, and before that at Rochester, New York, every evaporation was done with the aid of an automatic shadowing device. For several months the automatic shadowing device has been available at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) Hiroshima, Japan with the modifications described. 1 reference.

  16. Effect of shadow economy - country's tax losses

    OpenAIRE

    Krumplytė, Jolita

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the content of shadow economy through the prism of the tax administration. The author provides the limitations of the study and methodologically based relationship between the shadow economy and the tax revenue not to be received to the national consolidate budget. Country's tax losses (tax gap) is the amount of the tax revenue that is not received to the country's consolidated budget in the tax non-payment effects: tax avoidance and tax evasion. Tax losses (tax gap) is t...

  17. Investigation of the Stability via Shadowing Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Heejeong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The shadowing property is to find an exact solution to an iterated map that remains close to an approximate solution. In this article, using shadowing property, we show the stability of the following equation in normed group: , where , and is a mapping. And we prove that the even mapping which satisfies the above equation is quadratic and also the Hyers-Ulam stability of the functional equation in Banach spaces.

  18. Event horizon image within black hole shadow

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Nazarova, N. O.

    2018-01-01

    The external border of the black hole shadow is washed out by radiation from matter plunging into black hole and approaching the event horizon. This effect will crucially influence the results of future observations by the Event Horizon Telescope. We show that gravitational lensing of the luminous matter plunging into black hole provides the event horizon visualization within black hole shadow. The lensed image of the event horizon is formed by the last highly red-shifted photons emitted by t...

  19. Soft Shadow Removal and Image Evaluation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gryka, M.

    2016-01-01

    High-level image manipulation techniques are in increasing demand as they allow users to intuitively edit photographs to achieve desired effects quickly. As opposed to low-level manipulations, which provide complete freedom, but also require specialized skills and significant effort, high-level editing operations, such as removing objects (inpainting), relighting and material editing, need to respect semantic constraints. As such they shift the burden from the user to the algorithm to only al...

  20. Coupled orbit-attitude motion of high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) objects including efficient self-shadowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Früh, Carolin; Jah, Moriba K.

    2014-02-01

    This paper shows the effect of self-shadowing on the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics of objects with high area-to-mass ratios (HAMR) in simulating standard multi layer insulation materials (MLI) as tilted single rigid sheets. Efficient and computationally fast self-shadowing methods have been developed. This includes an approximate self-shadowing method and a rapid exact self-shadowing method. Accuracy considerations are made and the effect of a chosen tessellation is shown. The coupled orbit-attitude perturbations of solar radiation pressure and Earth gravity field are taken into account. The results are compared to the attitude-orbit dynamics, when neglecting self-shadowing effects. An averaged physical shadow-map model is developed and compared to the full self-shadowing simulation. The combined effect of solar radiation pressure and self-shadowing leads to a rapid spin-up of the objects, even though they have uniform reflection properties. As a result, the observed brightness of these objects is subject to rapid changes.

  1. Seismic design and analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpasuo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Seismic load is in many areas of the world the most important loading situation from the point of view of structural strength. Taking this into account it is understandable, that there has been a strong allocation of resources in the seismic analysis during the past ten years. In this study there are three areas of the center of gravity: (1) Random vibrations; (2) Soil-structure interaction and (3) The methods for determining structural response. The solution of random vibration problems is clarified with the aid of applications in this study and from the point of view of mathematical treatment and mathematical formulations it is deemed sufficient to give the relevant sources. In the soil-structure interaction analysis the focus has been the significance of frequency dependent impedance functions. As a result it was obtained, that the description of the soil with the aid of frequency dependent impedance functions decreases the structural response and it is thus always the preferred method when compared to more conservative analysis types. From the methods to determine the C structural response the following four were tested: (1) The time history method; (2) The complex frequency-response method; (3) Response spectrum method and (4) The equivalent static force method. The time history appeared to be the most accurate method and the complex frequency-response method did have the widest area of application. (orig.). (14 refs., 35 figs.)

  2. Reduction of implantation shadowing effect by dual-wavelength exposure photo process

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Yiming; Lee Sang Yun; Roche, William; Sturtevant, John

    2003-01-01

    As transistor engineering continues to well below 100 nm length devices, ion implantation process tolerances are making these formerly "non-critical" lithography levels more and more difficult. In order to minimize the channeling effect and to obtain a controllable profile of dopant, an angle implantation is often required. However, a shadow area of resist pattern is always accompanied with an angle implantation. This shadowing effect consumes silicon real estate, and reduces the line edge placement (LEP) tolerances. Therefore, methodologies to reduce the shadowing effect in angled implantation become a critical consideration not only for device engineering but also for photolithography. Based on the model analysis, simulation and experiments, this paper presents an effective novel process utilizing dual-wavelength exposure (DWE) to reduce the shadowing effect. The DWE process is realized by two consecutive exposures for an I-line resist with a DUV stepper/scanner and an I-line stepper. The process leverages ...

  3. Measuring the residual stress of transparent conductive oxide films on PET by the double-beam shadow Moiré interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Yen-Ming; Chiu, Hsuan-Yi; Chen, Guan-Jhen

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to construct a measurement system which can fast and accurately analyze the residual stress of the flexible electronics. The transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), were deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering using corresponding oxide targets on PET substrate. As we know that the shadow Moiré interferometry is a useable way to measure the large deformation. So we set up a double beam shadow Moiré interferometer to measure and analyze the residual stress of TCO films on PET. The feature was to develop a mathematical model and combine the image processing software. By the LabVIEW graphical software, we could measure the distance which is between the left and right fringe on the pattern to solve the curvature of deformed surface. Hence, the residual stress could calculate by the Stoney correction formula for the flexible electronics. By combining phase shifting method with shadow Moiré, the measurement resolution and accuracy have been greatly improved. We also had done the error analysis for the system whose relative error could be about 2%. Therefore, shadow Moiré interferometer is a non-destructive, fast, and simple system for the residual stress on TCO/PET films.

  4. Shadow Areas Robust Matching Among Image Sequence in Planetary Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoyan, Wei; Xiaogang, Ruan; Naigong, Yu; Xiaoqing, Zhu; Jia, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an approach for robust matching shadow areas in autonomous visual navigation and planetary landing is proposed. The approach begins with detecting shadow areas, which are extracted by Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER). Then, an affine normalization algorithm is applied to normalize the areas. Thirdly, a descriptor called Multiple Angles-SIFT (MA-SIFT) that coming from SIFT is proposed, the descriptor can extract more features of an area. Finally, for eliminating the influence of outliers, a method of improved RANSAC based on Skinner Operation Condition is proposed to extract inliers. At last, series of experiments are conducted to test the performance of the approach this paper proposed, the results show that the approach can maintain the matching accuracy at a high level even the differences among the images are obvious with no attitude measurements supplied.

  5. Analytical estimation of control rod shadowing effect for excess reactivity measurement of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masaaki; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    1999-01-01

    The fuel addition method is generally used for the excess reactivity measurement of the initial core. The control rod shadowing effect for the excess reactivity measurement has been estimated analytically for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). 3-dimensional whole core analyses were carried out. The movements of control rods in measurements were simulated in the calculation. It was made clear that the value of excess reactivity strongly depend on combinations of measuring control rods and compensating control rods. The differences in excess reactivity between combinations come from the control rod shadowing effect. The shadowing effect is reduced by the use of plural number of measuring and compensating control rods to prevent deep insertion of them into the core. The measured excess reactivity in the experiments is, however, smaller than the estimated value with shadowing effect. (author)

  6. Software phantom with realistic speckle modeling for validation of image analysis methods in echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yuen C.; Tenbrinck, Daniel; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    Computer-assisted processing and interpretation of medical ultrasound images is one of the most challenging tasks within image analysis. Physical phenomena in ultrasonographic images, e.g., the characteristic speckle noise and shadowing effects, make the majority of standard methods from image analysis non optimal. Furthermore, validation of adapted computer vision methods proves to be difficult due to missing ground truth information. There is no widely accepted software phantom in the community and existing software phantoms are not exible enough to support the use of specific speckle models for different tissue types, e.g., muscle and fat tissue. In this work we propose an anatomical software phantom with a realistic speckle pattern simulation to _ll this gap and provide a exible tool for validation purposes in medical ultrasound image analysis. We discuss the generation of speckle patterns and perform statistical analysis of the simulated textures to obtain quantitative measures of the realism and accuracy regarding the resulting textures.

  7. In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchy Leslie A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. Methods This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health care providers, both professionals and paraprofessionals, in relation to their roles in tobacco control in the community mental health system. Tobacco control is best conceptualised as a suite of policies and practices directed at supporting smoke free premises, smoking cessation counselling and limiting access to tobacco products. The study took place following the establishment of a new policy that restricted tobacco smoking inside all mental health facilities and on their grounds. Ninety one health care providers participated in open-ended interviews in which they described their role in tobacco control. The interview data were analyzed discursively by asking questions such as: what assumptions underlie what is being said about tobacco? Results Five separate yet overlapping discursive frames were identified in which providers described their roles. Managing a smoke free environment emphasised the need to police and monitor the smoke free environment. Tobacco is therapeutic was a discourse that underscored the putative value of smoking for clients. Tobacco use is an individual choice located the decision to smoke with individual clients thereby negating a role in tobacco control for providers. It's someone else's role was a discourse that placed responsibility for tobacco control with others. Finally, the discourse of tobacco control as health promotion located tobacco control in a range of activities that are used to support the health of clients. Conclusions This study provides insights into the complex

  8. COMPUTER-AIDED DETECTION OF ACINAR SHADOWS IN CHEST RADIOGRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the technological advances in medical diagnosis, accurate detection of infectious tuberculosis (TB still poses challenges due to complex image features and thus infectious TB continues to be a public health problem of global proportions. Currently, the detection of TB is mainly conducted visually by radiologists examining chest radiographs (CXRs. To reduce the backlog of CXR examination and provide more precise quantitative assessment, computer-aided detection (CAD systems for potential lung lesions have been increasingly adopted and commercialized for clinical practice. CADs work as supporting tools to alert radiologists on suspected features that could have easily been neglected. In this paper, an effective CAD system aimed for acinar shadow regions detection in CXRs is proposed. This system exploits textural and photometric features analysis techniques which include local binary pattern (LBP, grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG to analyze target regions in CXRs. Classification of acinar shadows using Adaboost is then deployed to verify the performance of a combination of these techniques. Comparative study in different image databases shows that the proposed CAD system delivers consistent high accuracy in detecting acinar shadows.

  9. Interconnectedness between shadow and traditional banking systems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that emerged in the US quickly spread across Europe, causing a severe banking and sovereign debt crisis. That revealed the importance of short-term financing for traditional banks, which increased their exposure to the financial conditions on the interbank market. Financial innovations, especially the securitization process led to the growing importance of different institutions within the shadow banking system - which undergo a credit, liquidity and maturity transformation, without accessing the central bank liquidity or other forms of guarantees. The European banks had an active role in the US securitization process, but also securitized the products from the European market. The authors used the available data from the ECB statistics on shadow bank entities, broadly and narrowly defined, in order to analyze the various measures of interconnectedness between the shadow and traditional banking systems. The analysis showed that non-regulated financial institutions pose severe systemic risks, not just because of their size, but also due to the strong web of interconnectedness with the regulated banking sector.

  10. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  11. SWOT ANALYSIS ON SAMPLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIS ANCA OANA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  12. Flows method in global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Minh Duc.

    1994-12-01

    We study the gradient flows method for W r,p (M,N) where M and N are Riemannian manifold and r may be less than m/p. We localize some global analysis problem by constructing gradient flows which only change the value of any u in W r,p (M,N) in a local chart of M. (author). 24 refs

  13. The Hero and His Shadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Micali

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Abstract (E: This essay traces the literary theme of the ‘disobedient shadow’ from the Romantic archetype to its adaptation nineteenth- and twentieth-century fantastic fiction. Focusing on texts in which the shadow takes up its own identity, becoming an uncanny double of its master, it is argued that the development of this theme is closely linked with the evolution of the human subject through the epistemological and cultural revolutions of the last two centuries.

    Abstract (F:

     

    Cet article retrace l’évolution du thème littéraire de l’ « ombre désobéissante », de l’archétype romantique aux mutations ultérieures dans la fiction fantastique des 19e et 20e siècles. Il examine un corpus où l’ombre assume son indépendance, devenant un double de son maître dans un esprit que l’on sait être maintenant celui de l

  14. Clustered deep shadow maps for integrated polyhedral and volume rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Bornik, Alexander; Knecht, Wolfgang; Hadwiger, Markus; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hardware-accelerated approach for shadow computation in scenes containing both complex volumetric objects and polyhedral models. Our system is the first hardware accelerated complete implementation of deep shadow maps, which

  15. Enhancement of bone shadow region using local phase-based ultrasound transmission maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacihaliloglu, Ilker

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound is increasingly being employed in different orthopedic procedures as an imaging modality for real-time guidance. Nevertheless, low signal-to-noise-ratio and different imaging artifacts continue to hamper the success of ultrasound-based procedures. Bone shadow region is an important feature indicating the presence of bone/tissue interface in the acquired ultrasound data. Enhancement and automatic detection of this region could improve the sensitivity of ultrasound for imaging bone and result in improved guidance for various orthopedic procedures. In this work, a method is introduced for the enhancement of bone shadow regions from B-mode ultrasound data. The method is based on the combination of three different image phase features: local phase tensor, local weighted mean phase angle, and local phase energy. The combined local phase image features are used as an input to an [Formula: see text] norm-based contextual regularization method which emphasizes uncertainty in the shadow regions. The enhanced bone shadow images are automatically segmented and compared against expert segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative validation was performed on 100 in vivo US scans obtained from five subjects by scanning femur and vertebrae bones. Validation against expert segmentation achieved a mean dice similarity coefficient of 0.88. The encouraging results obtained in this initial study suggest that the proposed method is promising enough for further evaluation. The calculated bone shadow maps could be incorporated into different ultrasound bone segmentation and registration approaches as an additional feature.

  16. Hunting the Shadow, Catching the Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    From 28 October to 6 November 2009 twenty-one 3rd year students in interior design from Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA), School of Architecture, Beijing participated in the workshop Hunting the Shadow - Catching the Light. The workshop was conceived and led by the Danish architects Torben Nie...

  17. Shadow mask evaporation through monolayer modified nanostencils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolbel, M.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Brugger, J.P.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    Gradual clogging of the apertures of nanostencils used as miniature shadow masks in metal evaporations can be reduced by coating the stencil with self-assembled monolayers (SAM). This is quantified by the dimensions (height and volume) of gold features obtained by nanostencil evaporation as measured

  18. Data Analysis Methods for Paleogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    (Danmarks Grundforskningfond) 'Centre of Excellence in GeoGenetics' grant, with additional funding provided by the Danish Council for Independent Research 'Sapere Aude' programme. The thesis comprises five chapters, all of which represent different projects that involved the analysis of massive amounts......, thanks to the introduction of NGS and the implementation of data analysis methods specific for each project. Chapters 1 to 3 have been published in peer-reviewed journals and Chapter 4 is currently in review. Chapter 5 consists of a manuscript describing initial results of an ongoing research project......The work presented in this thesis is the result of research carried out during a three-year PhD at the Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, under supervision of Professor Tom Gilbert. The PhD was funded by the Danish National Research Foundation...

  19. A New Boron Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitman, J; Daaverhoeg, N; Farvolden, S

    1970-07-01

    In connection with fast neutron (n, {alpha}) cross section measurements a novel boron analysis method has been developed. The boron concentration is inferred from the mass spectrometrically determined number of helium atoms produced in the thermal and epithermal B-10 (n, {alpha}) reaction. The relation between helium amount and boron concentration is given, including corrections for self shielding effects and background levels. Direct and diffusion losses of helium are calculated and losses due to gettering, adsorption and HF-ionization in the release stage are discussed. A series of boron determinations is described and the results are compared with those obtained by other methods, showing excellent agreement. The lower limit of boron concentration which can be measured varies with type of sample. In e.g. steel, concentrations below 10-5 % boron in samples of 0.1-1 gram may be determined.

  20. Radioisotope imaging using gamma-ray shadow hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Kazuhiko; Itaya, Gensei; Hisada, Kin-ichi.

    1975-01-01

    Use of holography for the imaging of radioisotope distribution, reported by Barrett, H.H. in 1972, has been marked as a new γ-ray imaging. Generally, in optical fields, holography was often used for recording and processing three dimensional images by coherent waves such as laser beams. However, γ-rays are incoherent and are not condensed by optical lenses. So it was necessary that the holograms of incoherent sources were formed without optical lenses. A method which records the shadows of on axis zone plate with a Fresnnel diffraction pattern was used for obtaining an incoherent hologram. This method has the advantages of improved resolution and γ-ray detection efficiency, and also has a constitution of this system which is simple and economical. But, the disadvantage is, that the process consists of two steps, forming holograms and reconstructing images. The fundamental problems of γ-ray holograms and the practicabilities of γ-ray imaging of this method were discussed. In this system medical x-ray films combined with industrial intensifying screens were used as detectors, and γ-ray shadow holograms were obtained for about 3 minutes. From the shadow holograms, images were reconstructed, using a parallel laser beams, (He-Ne laser, single mode, 6328 A, 1mW). The zone plate consisted of coaxial lead rings with 10 open zones. The aperture area of this zone plate collimator was several hundreds times larger than the pinhole, so the detection efficiency, of γ-rays was improved. Using sup(99m)Tc 10 mCi as a γ-ray source, an attempt was made to image points, English characters and thyroid phantoms, and these reconstructed images were shown. An image resolution of 3-5 mm was obtained in the reconstructed image of an object at a distance of 10 cm from the collimator. (auth.)

  1. Shadows Alter Facial Expressions of Noh Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers’ recognition of the emotional expressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Conclusions/Significance Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa’s smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art “yugen (profound grace and subtlety)”, which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness. PMID:23940748

  2. Trinary optical logic processors using shadow casting with polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amal K.; Basuray, A.

    1990-10-01

    An optical implementation is proposed of the modified trinary number (MTN) system (Datta et al., 1989) in which any binary number can have arithmetic operations performed on it in parallel without the need for carry and borrow steps. The present method extends the lensless shadow-casting technique of Tanida and Ichioka (1983, 1985). Three kinds of spatial coding are used for encoding the trinary input states, whereas in the decoding plane three states are identified by no light and light with two orthogonal states of polarization.

  3. X-ray shadow projection microscopy of microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasatkin, Yu.I.; Kasyuga, L.Z.; Kasyuga, P.I.; Kozyrev, A.S.; Khanonkin, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The X-ray shadow projection microscopy as a method for testing geometrical parameters of microwires is considered. Two X-ray-optical circuits for measuring geometrical parameters of wires are described. It is shown that the coefficient of increase of the circuits does not depend on geometrical parameters of the wire under testing, and it is determined solely by the construction peculiarities of the circuits. The testability of geometric parameters of a wire, using DRON-2.0 X-ray diffractometer or its like, is discussed [ru

  4. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  5. What do the shadow rates tell us about future inflation?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusela, Annika; Hännikäinen, Jari

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates whether shadow interest rates contain predictive power for U.S. inflation in a data-rich environment. We find that shadow rates are useful leading indicators of inflation. Shadow rates contain substantial in-sample and out-of-sample predictive power for inflation in both the zero lower bound (ZLB) and non-ZLB periods. We find that the shadow rate suggested by Wu and Xia (2016) contains more information about future inflation than the shadow rate suggested by Krippner (...

  6. Reanalysing children's responses on shadow formation: a comparative approach to bodily expressions and verbal discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Herakleioti, Evagelia; Chachlioutaki, Maria-Eleni

    2017-12-01

    The present article contains a reanalysis of data resulting from a research project carried out on a group of five preschool-aged children. The data were collected from a class of 16 children participating in a pre/post research design that focused on the shadow formation phenomenon. The findings of the previous research project, based on a speech plus deictic gesture analysis, indicated that the five children had shown regression or no change in their reasoning. In the light of an embodied perspective into science teaching and learning, the current study examines whether we should use a bodily analysis to reassess the extent of knowledge about shadows among these five students. It demonstrates that most of the children selected improved their reasoning about shadow formation by using iconic gestures. Such conflicting results indicate that bodily expression has its own grammar and, to some extent, communicates a meaning that differs from that of verbal discourse.

  7. Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, R.D.; Bruks, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis are considered. Methods of complexometric titration are mentioned, as well as methods of increasing sensitivity in titrimetry. Gravimetry and titrimetry are applied during analysis for traces of geological materials

  8. An Efficient and Robust Moving Shadow Removal Algorithm and Its Applications in ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou Yu-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient algorithm for removing shadows of moving vehicles caused by non-uniform distributions of light reflections in the daytime. This paper presents a brand-new and complete structure in feature combination as well as analysis for orientating and labeling moving shadows so as to extract the defined objects in foregrounds more easily in each snapshot of the original files of videos which are acquired in the real traffic situations. Moreover, we make use of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM for background removal and detection of moving shadows in our tested images, and define two indices for characterizing non-shadowed regions where one indicates the characteristics of lines and the other index can be characterized by the information in gray scales of images which helps us to build a newly defined set of darkening ratios (modified darkening factors based on Gaussian models. To prove the effectiveness of our moving shadow algorithm, we carry it out with a practical application of traffic flow detection in ITS (Intelligent Transportation System—vehicle counting. Our algorithm shows the faster processing speed, 13.84 ms/frame, and can improve the accuracy rate in 4%~10% for our three tested videos in the experimental results of vehicle counting.

  9. Illumination robust face recognition using spatial adaptive shadow compensation based on face intensity prior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Kae-Horng; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Han, Chin-Chuan; Fan, Kuo-Chin

    2017-12-01

    Robust face recognition under illumination variations is an important and challenging task in a face recognition system, particularly for face recognition in the wild. In this paper, a face image preprocessing approach, called spatial adaptive shadow compensation (SASC), is proposed to eliminate shadows in the face image due to different lighting directions. First, spatial adaptive histogram equalization (SAHE), which uses face intensity prior model, is proposed to enhance the contrast of each local face region without generating visible noises in smooth face areas. Adaptive shadow compensation (ASC), which performs shadow compensation in each local image block, is then used to produce a wellcompensated face image appropriate for face feature extraction and recognition. Finally, null-space linear discriminant analysis (NLDA) is employed to extract discriminant features from SASC compensated images. Experiments performed on the Yale B, Yale B extended, and CMU PIE face databases have shown that the proposed SASC always yields the best face recognition accuracy. That is, SASC is more robust to face recognition under illumination variations than other shadow compensation approaches.

  10. Shadow Wars: An Analysis of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dogan, Osman

    2005-01-01

    ... of the current strategic approaches to counterinsurgency warfare. Toward this end, a systems model approach, which views insurgent organizations as open systems, is adapted to the insurgent environment...

  11. Sur la prise en compte du mode de financement dans les calculs de rentabilité. La méthode des intérêts seulement déductibles Financing Mix and Capital Budgeting Techniques. the Shadow Interest Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babusiaux D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La pratique des calculs de rentabilité avec shadow interest se développe depuis quelques années dans les entreprises pétrolières, principalement dans le secteur exploration et développement des gisements. L'objet de cet article est de replacer cette approche parmi les méthodes classiques (calculs de rentabilité globale et de rentabilité des capitaux propres. Une relation simple entre les revenus actualisés relatifs à chacune des approches est obtenue sous certaines hypothèses simplificatrices. Capital budgeting techniques with shadow interesthave been gaining credence in the petroleum industry in recent years, particularly in the oil-field prospection and development sector. The aim of this article is to situate this approach among conventional methods (overall return and return on equity. A simple relation between net present value concerning each approach is obtained provided some simplifying assumptions are made.

  12. Clinical value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in differentiation between benign lesions and lung cancer for large shadows in patients with pneumoconiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value ofF-FDG PET/CT in the differentiation between benign lesions and lung cancer for large shadows in patients with pneumoconiosis.Methods A retrospective study was conducted in21 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pneumoconiosis who had a total of 37 large shadows in the lung fields as

  13. Integral transport multiregion geometrical shadowing factor for the approximate collision probability matrix calculation of infinite closely packed lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jowzani-Moghaddam, A.

    1981-01-01

    An integral transport method of calculating the geometrical shadowing factor in multiregion annular cells for infinite closely packed lattices in cylindrical geometry is developed. This analytical method has been programmed in the TPGS code. This method is based upon a consideration of the properties of the integral transport method for a nonuniform body, which together with Bonalumi's approximations allows the determination of the approximate multiregion collision probability matrix for infinite closely packed lattices with sufficient accuracy. The multiregion geometrical shadowing factors have been calculated for variations in fuel pin annular segment rings in a geometry of annular cells. These shadowing factors can then be used in the calculation of neutron transport from one annulus to another in an infinite lattice. The result of this new geometrical shadowing and collision probability matrix are compared with the Dancoff-Ginsburg correction and the probability matrix using constant shadowing on Yankee fuel elements in an infinite lattice. In these cases the Dancoff-Ginsburg correction factor and collision probability matrix using constant shadowing are in difference by at most 6.2% and 6%, respectively

  14. Shadow fields and local supersymmetric gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulieu, L.; Bossard, G.; Sorella, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    To control supersymmetry and gauge invariance in super-Yang-Mills theories we introduce new fields, called shadow fields, which enable us to enlarge the conventional Faddeev-Popov framework and write down a set of useful Slavnov-Taylor identities. These identities allow us to address and answer the issue of the supersymmetric Yang-Mills anomalies, and to perform the conventional renormalization programme in a fully regularization-independent way

  15. Automatic Detection of Clouds and Shadows Using High Resolution Satellite Image Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Detecting clouds and their shadows is one of the primaries steps to perform when processing satellite images because they may alter the quality of some products such as large-area orthomosaics. The main goal of this paper is to present the automatic method developed at IGN-France for detecting clouds and shadows in a sequence of satellite images. In our work, surface reflectance orthoimages are used. They were processed from initial satellite images using a dedicated software. The cloud detection step consists of a region-growing algorithm. Seeds are firstly extracted. For that purpose and for each input ortho-image to process, we select the other ortho-images of the sequence that intersect it. The pixels of the input ortho-image are secondly labelled seeds if the difference of reflectance (in the blue channel) with overlapping ortho-images is bigger than a given threshold. Clouds are eventually delineated using a region-growing method based on a radiometric and homogeneity criterion. Regarding the shadow detection, our method is based on the idea that a shadow pixel is darker when comparing to the other images of the time series. The detection is basically composed of three steps. Firstly, we compute a synthetic ortho-image covering the whole study area. Its pixels have a value corresponding to the median value of all input reflectance ortho-images intersecting at that pixel location. Secondly, for each input ortho-image, a pixel is labelled shadows if the difference of reflectance (in the NIR channel) with the synthetic ortho-image is below a given threshold. Eventually, an optional region-growing step may be used to refine the results. Note that pixels labelled clouds during the cloud detection are not used for computing the median value in the first step; additionally, the NIR input data channel is used to perform the shadow detection, because it appeared to better discriminate shadow pixels. The method was tested on times series of Landsat 8 and Pl

  16. AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CLOUDS AND SHADOWS USING HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGE TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Champion

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Detecting clouds and their shadows is one of the primaries steps to perform when processing satellite images because they may alter the quality of some products such as large-area orthomosaics. The main goal of this paper is to present the automatic method developed at IGN-France for detecting clouds and shadows in a sequence of satellite images. In our work, surface reflectance orthoimages are used. They were processed from initial satellite images using a dedicated software. The cloud detection step consists of a region-growing algorithm. Seeds are firstly extracted. For that purpose and for each input ortho-image to process, we select the other ortho-images of the sequence that intersect it. The pixels of the input ortho-image are secondly labelled seeds if the difference of reflectance (in the blue channel with overlapping ortho-images is bigger than a given threshold. Clouds are eventually delineated using a region-growing method based on a radiometric and homogeneity criterion. Regarding the shadow detection, our method is based on the idea that a shadow pixel is darker when comparing to the other images of the time series. The detection is basically composed of three steps. Firstly, we compute a synthetic ortho-image covering the whole study area. Its pixels have a value corresponding to the median value of all input reflectance ortho-images intersecting at that pixel location. Secondly, for each input ortho-image, a pixel is labelled shadows if the difference of reflectance (in the NIR channel with the synthetic ortho-image is below a given threshold. Eventually, an optional region-growing step may be used to refine the results. Note that pixels labelled clouds during the cloud detection are not used for computing the median value in the first step; additionally, the NIR input data channel is used to perform the shadow detection, because it appeared to better discriminate shadow pixels. The method was tested on times series of Landsat 8

  17. Analysis methods (from 301 to 351)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis methods of materials used in the nuclear field (uranium, plutonium and their compounds, zirconium, magnesium, water...) and determination of impurities. Only reliable methods are selected [fr

  18. DTI analysis methods : Voxel-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; Emsell, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based analysis (VBA) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data permits the investigation of voxel-wise differences or changes in DTI metrics in every voxel of a brain dataset. It is applied primarily in the exploratory analysis of hypothesized group-level alterations in DTI parameters, as it does

  19. Bayesian methods for data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    2009-01-01

    Approaches for statistical inference Introduction Motivating Vignettes Defining the Approaches The Bayes-Frequentist Controversy Some Basic Bayesian Models The Bayes approach Introduction Prior Distributions Bayesian Inference Hierarchical Modeling Model Assessment Nonparametric Methods Bayesian computation Introduction Asymptotic Methods Noniterative Monte Carlo Methods Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Model criticism and selection Bayesian Modeling Bayesian Robustness Model Assessment Bayes Factors via Marginal Density Estimation Bayes Factors

  20. Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry Using Colored Shadow Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Alarfaj, Meshal K.

    2016-02-01

    Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry Using Colored Shadow Imaging by Meshal K Alarfaj, Master of Science King Abdullah University of Science & Technology, 2015 Tomographic Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a recent PIV method capable of reconstructing the full 3D velocity field of complex flows, within a 3-D volume. For nearly the last decade, it has become the most powerful tool for study of turbulent velocity fields and promises great advancements in the study of fluid mechanics. Among the early published studies, a good number of researches have suggested enhancements and optimizations of different aspects of this technique to improve the effectiveness. One major aspect, which is the core of the present work, is related to reducing the cost of the Tomographic PIV setup. In this thesis, we attempt to reduce this cost by using an experimental setup exploiting 4 commercial digital still cameras in combination with low-cost Light emitting diodes (LEDs). We use two different colors to distinguish the two light pulses. By using colored shadows with red and green LEDs, we can identify the particle locations within the measurement volume, at the two different times, thereby allowing calculation of the velocities. The present work tests this technique on the flows patterns of a jet ejected from a tube in a water tank. Results from the images processing are presented and challenges discussed.

  1. Substoichiometric method in the simple radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The substoichiometric method is applied to simple radiometric analysis. Two methods - the standard reagent method and the standard sample method - are proposed. The validity of the principle of the methods is verified experimentally in the determination of silver by the precipitation method, or of zinc by the ion-exchange or solvent-extraction method. The proposed methods are simple and rapid compared with the conventional superstoichiometric method. (author)

  2. Clustered deep shadow maps for integrated polyhedral and volume rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Bornik, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hardware-accelerated approach for shadow computation in scenes containing both complex volumetric objects and polyhedral models. Our system is the first hardware accelerated complete implementation of deep shadow maps, which unifies the computation of volumetric and geometric shadows. Up to now such unified computation was limited to software-only rendering . Previous hardware accelerated techniques can handle only geometric or only volumetric scenes - both resulting in the loss of important properties of the original concept. Our approach supports interactive rendering of polyhedrally bounded volumetric objects on the GPU based on ray casting. The ray casting can be conveniently used for both the shadow map computation and the rendering. We show how anti-aliased high-quality shadows are feasible in scenes composed of multiple overlapping translucent objects, and how sparse scenes can be handled efficiently using clustered deep shadow maps. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  3. PRECONDITIONS AND DETERMINING CAUSES OF THE SHADOW ECONOMY IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varnalii

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main processes that led to the high level of the economy shadowing. The historical aspects of the formation of the shadow economy in Ukraine are highlighted. The socio-economic aspects of the shadow economy of Ukraine causality are discussed. The theoretical contribution of foreign and domestic researchers on the preconditions of formation of the shadow economy in transition economies is studied. Theoretical perspective on the factors of the shadowing processes in the economy of Ukraine from the standpoint of modern scientific researches is analyzed. The paper also provides scientific vectors for further development of researches aimed at studying the causes and preconditions of the shadow economy.

  4. Power fluctuation and power loss of wind turbines due to wind shear and tower shadow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binrong WEN; Sha WEI; Kexiang WEI; Wenxian YANG; Zhike PENG; Fulei CHU

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude and stability of power output are two key indices of wind turbines.This study investigates the effects of wind shear and tower shadow on power output in terms of power fluctuation and power loss to estimate the capacity and quality of the power generated by a wind turbine.First,wind speed models,particularly the wind shear model and the tower shadow model,are described in detail.The widely accepted tower shadow model is modified in view of the cone-shaped towers of modem large-scale wind turbines.Power fluctuation and power loss due to wind shear and tower shadow are analyzed by performing theoretical calculations and case analysis within the framework of a modified version of blade element momentum theory.Results indicate that power fluctuation is mainly caused by tower shadow,whereas power loss is primarily induced by wind shear.Under steady wind conditions,power loss can be divided into wind farm loss and rotor loss.Wind farm loss is constant at 3α(3α-1)R2/(8H2).By contrast,rotor loss is strongly influenced by the wind turbine control strategies and wind speed.That is,when the wind speed is measured in a region where a variable-speed controller works,the rotor loss stabilizes around zero,but when the wind speed is measured in a region where the blade pitch controller works,the rotor loss increases as the wind speed intensifies.The results of this study can serve as a reference for accurate power estimation and strategy development to mitigate the fluctuations in aerodynamic loads and power output due to wind shear and tower shadow.

  5. Studying Practices of Leading--Qualitative Shadowing in Early Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hognestad, Karin; Bøe, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This article considers qualitative shadowing as a fruitful method to investigate leadership practices. We propose that an approach to practice that takes into account the activities of "sayings, doings and relatings" offers a fresh perspective on how to obtain rich data on practices of leading. The value of this idea is illustrated from…

  6. An Analysis of Shadow Price of Carbon Dioxide in China:Based on a Regional Perspective%中国各省份二氧化碳影子价格研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文若; 魏楚

    2012-01-01

    本文利用环境方向性距离函数估计了中国29个省(市、区)1995-2007年间的二氧化碳影子价格与包含环境因素在内的生产率。测算结果表明,经济发展水平较高地区的二氧化碳影子价格与环境生产率值都要显著高于经济欠发达地区。二氧化碳影子价格在制定碳税政策方面有着重要的参考价值。在充分考虑各地区二氧化碳减排成本及全国减排总成本的基础上,政府部门需根据不同的政策意图来制定相应的减排措施:在以碳排减数量为目标时,考虑到大部分的碳排放集中在经济发达地区,应对高影子价格地区实行较为严格的限制措施;在以最小化碳减排带来的经济损失为目标时,应让低影子价格地区承担更多的减排指标,并由高影子价格地区对其进行补贴;而不同地区间二氧化碳影子价格的差异性,说明"一刀切"的碳税税率无法完全实现其政策意图。%By using environmental directional distance function and data from 29 provinces(cities or districts) of China between 1995-2007,the shadow price of carbon dioxide and productivity including environmental factors are estimated.The results show that the highly developed regions seem to have higher shadow price of carbon dioxide and be more effective than the less developed regions.Shadow price of carbon dioxide plays an important role in the formulation of tax policy.Governments should focus on their main targets.If they want to reduce the amount of carbon emission,they could put more stringent restrictions on areas with high shadow price of carbon dioxide because most carbon emissions come from there;when it comes to minimizing the economic losses caused by the reduction of carbon emission,they should let the low shadow price of carbon emission areas take more responsibility.Considering the differences among regions of China about their shadow price of carbon dioxide,its policy intentions can not be

  7. How do Institutions Affect Corruption and the Shadow Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Axel Dreher; Christos Kotsogiannis; Steve McCorriston

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes a simple model that captures the relationship between institutional quality, the shadow economy and corruption. It shows that an improvement in institutional quality reduces the shadow economy and affects the corruption market. The exact relationship between corruption and institutional quality is, however, ambiguous and depends on the relative effectiveness of the institutional quality in the shadow and corruption markets. The predictions of the model are empirically test...

  8. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    .... Such methods include those based upon spectrophotometry, flame emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, as well as gravimetry, titrimetry and the use of ion-selective electrodes...

  9. The Dark Shadow of Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Su-Yeon Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality (VR technology are entering nursing education at a rapid speed (Foronda et al., 2017. VR has been reported in the nursing literature to significantly improve students’ performance (Jenson & Forsyth, 2012; Park, 2016; Foronda et al., 2017 even though the body of evidence in terms of the number and research quality of peer reviewed research papers is not yet substantial enough to identify VR technology’s effectiveness. However, VR is not actually reality. VR may not actually reflect reality. Young people (and even adults may not perceive the different between reality and VR. They may not yet be mature enough to distinguish the difference. However, VR technology are going much further than traditional educational methods by allowing humans to experience a much higher level of immersion through a virtual image. Even the gap between advances in VR technology and its application to education science is widening, causing serious concern. The advance in VR technology is value-neutral. As with all things, whether something is good or bad depends on how humans use it. VR can be useful, for example, when it enables scholars to attend an international conference without traveling to the physical convention center. VR provides the ability to speak, listen, and discuss in real time. Those using VR can choose to view a featured or real-time image of the other participants as if they were actually at the conference. Further, remote participants can feel touch through electronic sensors attached to their body. How amazing! The problem with VR lies in the fact that we are not ready to cope with any possible harmful influences caused by advances in VR technology. But what is the “Dark Shadow of VR,” and why does it cause concern, particularly in pedagogy? Luc Besson’s 2017 film Valerian and the City of a Thousand Plants showed an exceptional VR world, “Big Market,” a shopping-focused VR platform. But such a world is no longer strictly

  10. Shadow Segmentation and Augmentation Using á-overlay Models that Account for Penumbra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael; Madsen, Claus B.

    2006-01-01

    that an augmented virtual object can cast an exact shadow. The penumbras (half-shadows) must be taken into account so that we can model the soft shadows.We hope to achieve this by modelling the shadow regions (umbra and penumbra alike) with a transparent overlay. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art shadow...

  11. Automatic Shadow Detection and Removal from a Single Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salman H; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Sohel, Ferdous; Togneri, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    We present a framework to automatically detect and remove shadows in real world scenes from a single image. Previous works on shadow detection put a lot of effort in designing shadow variant and invariant hand-crafted features. In contrast, our framework automatically learns the most relevant features in a supervised manner using multiple convolutional deep neural networks (ConvNets). The features are learned at the super-pixel level and along the dominant boundaries in the image. The predicted posteriors based on the learned features are fed to a conditional random field model to generate smooth shadow masks. Using the detected shadow masks, we propose a Bayesian formulation to accurately extract shadow matte and subsequently remove shadows. The Bayesian formulation is based on a novel model which accurately models the shadow generation process in the umbra and penumbra regions. The model parameters are efficiently estimated using an iterative optimization procedure. Our proposed framework consistently performed better than the state-of-the-art on all major shadow databases collected under a variety of conditions.

  12. Applications of a shadow camera system for energy meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Pascal; Wilbert, Stefan; Prahl, Christoph; Garsche, Dominik; Schüler, David; Haase, Thomas; Ramirez, Lourdes; Zarzalejo, Luis; Meyer, Angela; Blanc, Philippe; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Downward-facing shadow cameras might play a major role in future energy meteorology. Shadow cameras directly image shadows on the ground from an elevated position. They are used to validate other systems (e.g. all-sky imager based nowcasting systems, cloud speed sensors or satellite forecasts) and can potentially provide short term forecasts for solar power plants. Such forecasts are needed for electricity grids with high penetrations of renewable energy and can help to optimize plant operations. In this publication, two key applications of shadow cameras are briefly presented.

  13. Various appearances of rib companion shadow mimicking a pathologic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yo Won; Yoo, Shi Joon; Im, Jung Gil

    1992-01-01

    We have observed that the companion shadow of the upper rib may be misinterpreted as a small pneumothorax or pleural plaque associated with asbestosis. To observe the radiographic characteristics of the normal companion shadow, we analyzed, on the posteroanterior(PA) chest radiographs, the companion shadow of 50 normal cases. Factors such as occurrence on each rib, the sharpness of the margin, the relative position to the rib, the shape and the thickness were observed. Also, we analyzed the displaced pleura of 4 pneumothorax cases to differentiate their findings from the findings of normal companion shadows. On 50 normal chest radiographs, 192 companion shadows were observed on the first to fourth ribs. In 173 of those shadows, the visceral margin of the companion shadow on the second rib simulated pneumothorax more closely than those on any other ribs due to its apical location and thinness. In six of 50 normal cases, the companion shadow in the first or second rib showed an inwardly convex lower margin, mimicking pleural plaque. The companion shadow was suggested on the plain chest radiograph by the following characteristics imultiplicity (47/50), thicker than normal pleura (3/4), persistent on serial films with the same shape and specific location(4/4)

  14. The Effect of Topographic Shadowing by Ice on Irradiance in the Greenland Ice Sheet Ablation Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidman, S. Z.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Ryan, J.; Cooper, M. G.; Smith, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately predicting runoff contributions to global sea level rise requires more refined surface mass balance (SMB) models of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). Topographic shadowing has shown to be important in the SMB of snow-covered regions, yet SMB models for the GrIS generally ignore how surface topography affects spatial variability of incoming solar radiation on a surface. In the ablation zone of Southwest Greenland, deeply incised supraglacial drainage features, fracturing, and large-scale bed deformation result in extensive areas of rough surface topography. This topography blocks direct radiation such that shadowed areas receive less energy for melting while other topographic features such as peaks recieve more energy. In this study, we quantify how shadowing from local topography features changes incoming solar radiation. We apply the ArcGIS Pro Solar Radiation Toolset to calculate the direct and diffuse irradiance in sunlit and shadowed areas by determining the sun's movement for every half hour increment of 2016. Multiple digital elevation models (DEMs) with spatial resolutions ranging from 0.06 to 5m were derived from fixed wing and quadcopter UAV imagery collected in summer 2016 and the ArcticDEM dataset. Our findings show that shadowing significantly decreases irradiance compared to smoothed surfaces where local topography is removed. This decrease is exponentially proportional to the DEM pixel sized with 5m DEMs only able to capture a small percentage of the effect. Applying these calculations to the ArcticDEM to cover a larger study area indicates that decreases in irradiance are nonlinearly proportional to elevation with highly crevassed areas showing a larger effect from shadowing. Even so, shading at higher elevations reduces irradiance enough to result in several centimeters snow water equivalence (SWE) per year of over-prediction of runoff in SMB models. Furthermore, analysis of solar radiation products shows that shadowing predicts albedo

  15. Probabilistic methods in combinatorial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sachkov, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    This 1997 work explores the role of probabilistic methods for solving combinatorial problems. These methods not only provide the means of efficiently using such notions as characteristic and generating functions, the moment method and so on but also let us use the powerful technique of limit theorems. The basic objects under investigation are nonnegative matrices, partitions and mappings of finite sets, with special emphasis on permutations and graphs, and equivalence classes specified on sequences of finite length consisting of elements of partially ordered sets; these specify the probabilist

  16. Methods in quantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, M; Ostreicher, M; Christen, H; Brühlmann, M

    1996-05-01

    The main steps of image analysis are image capturing, image storage (compression), correcting imaging defects (e.g. non-uniform illumination, electronic-noise, glare effect), image enhancement, segmentation of objects in the image and image measurements. Digitisation is made by a camera. The most modern types include a frame-grabber, converting the analog-to-digital signal into digital (numerical) information. The numerical information consists of the grey values describing the brightness of every point within the image, named a pixel. The information is stored in bits. Eight bits are summarised in one byte. Therefore, grey values can have a value between 0 and 256 (2(8)). The human eye seems to be quite content with a display of 5-bit images (corresponding to 64 different grey values). In a digitised image, the pixel grey values can vary within regions that are uniform in the original scene: the image is noisy. The noise is mainly manifested in the background of the image. For an optimal discrimination between different objects or features in an image, uniformity of illumination in the whole image is required. These defects can be minimised by shading correction [subtraction of a background (white) image from the original image, pixel per pixel, or division of the original image by the background image]. The brightness of an image represented by its grey values can be analysed for every single pixel or for a group of pixels. The most frequently used pixel-based image descriptors are optical density, integrated optical density, the histogram of the grey values, mean grey value and entropy. The distribution of the grey values existing within an image is one of the most important characteristics of the image. However, the histogram gives no information about the texture of the image. The simplest way to improve the contrast of an image is to expand the brightness scale by spreading the histogram out to the full available range. Rules for transforming the grey value

  17. Quarkonium plus prompt photon and shadowing extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, M.V.T.; Brenner Mariotto, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution we investigate the influence of nuclear effects in hadroproduction of quarkonium associated with a photon. At high energies, such processes provide a probe of the QCD dynamics as it is dependent on the nuclear gluon distribution, and could be usefull in constraining the behavior of the nuclear gluon distribution in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Here we study the influence of the shadowing effect, in the production of J/ψ(orY)+γ at the LHC and estimate the p T dependence of the nuclear modification factors. The theoretical framework considered for quarkonium production is the non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization formalism.

  18. Innovation as improvisation 'in the shadow'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    processes of innovation, with a particular emphasis on the improvisational nature of interaction. Through an abductive approach, by iterating actual experiences and our understanding of them, we show that such processes are collective efforts that take place as informal, highly improvised conversations......, they can be induced by invitations – conscious or unconscious moves that encourage those involved to make spontaneous moves together in a mutually improvised context. Our experience shows that the emergence of shadow themes can have a long-term impact on the organization and the people involved...

  19. Long-term hydroclimatic variability in monsoon shadow zone of western Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R.

    2011-04-01

    Tree-ring-width data of Himalayan cedar [ Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don] from 11 homogeneous moisture stressed sites in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya were used to develop a mean chronology extending back to ad 1353. The chronology developed using Regional Curve Standardization method is the first from the Himalayan region of India showing centennial-scale variations. The calibration of ring-width chronology with instrumental precipitation data available from stations close to the tree ring sampling sites showed strong, direct relationship with March-April-May-June (MAMJ) precipitation. This strong relationship was used to supplement the instrumental precipitation data back to ad 1410. The precipitation reconstruction showed extended period of drought in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Increasingly pluvial conditions were recorded since eighteenth century, with the highest precipitation in the early part of the nineteenth century. The decreasing trend in reconstructed precipitation in the last decade of the twentieth century, consistent with the instrumental records, is associated with the decreasing trend in frequency of western disturbances. MAMJ precipitation over the monsoon shadow zone in the western Himalaya is directly associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and NINO3-SST index of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the leading modes of climate variability influencing climate over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the relationship between ENSO and MAMJ precipitation collapsed completely during 1930-1960. The breakdown in this relationship is associated with the warm phase of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). A spectral analysis of reconstructed MAMJ precipitation indicates frequencies in the range of the variability associated with modes of NAO, ENSO and AMO.

  20. Moyer's method of mixed dentition analysis: a meta-analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The applicability of tables derived from the data Moyer used to other ethnic groups has ... This implies that Moyer's method of prediction may have population variations. ... Key Words: meta-analysis, mixed dentition analysis, Moyer's method

  1. The Hare and the Tortoise. How Older Generations Are Replaced By Young One on the Labour Market: Signals and Insights from the Relationship between Shadow Economy and Active Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana AnaMaria DAVIDESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the relationship between the size of Romanian shadow economy expressed as % of official GDP and active ageing in order to see if the shadow economy represents a social buffer for active ageing phenomena using Granger causality analysis. The size of Romanian shadow economy is estimated previously using a revised version of the currency demand approach based on autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL approach to cointegration analysis. Using Granger causality tests, we examine the relationship between employment rate for older people and the size of Romanian shadow economy covering the period between 2000 and 2010. The empirical results revealed the existence of a long-run unidirectional causality that runs shadow economy to employment rate for elderly and do not support the existence of any short-run relationship between employment rate for older people and shadow economy.

  2. Applying critical analysis - main methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araujo Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the usefulness of critical appraisal of literature? Critical analysis is a fundamental condition for the correct interpretation of any study that is subject to review. In epidemiology, in order to learn how to read a publication, we must be able to analyze it critically. Critical analysis allows us to check whether a study fulfills certain previously established methodological inclusion and exclusion criteria. This is frequently used in conducting systematic reviews although eligibility criteria are generally limited to the study design. Critical analysis of literature and be done implicitly while reading an article, as in reading for personal interest, or can be conducted in a structured manner, using explicit and previously established criteria. The latter is done when formally reviewing a topic.

  3. Control rod shadowing and anti-shadowing effects in a large gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.; Rimpault, G.; Coddington, P.

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of control rod shadowing and anti-shadowing (interaction) effects has been carried out in the context of a design study of the control rod pattern for the large 2400 MWth Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). For the calculations, the deterministic code system ERANOS-2.0 has been used, in association with a full core model including a European Fast Reactor (EFR)-type pattern for the control rods. More specifically, the core contains a total of 33 control (CSD) and safety (DSD) rods implemented in three banks: -1) a first bank of 6 CSD rods, placed at 64 cm from core centre in the inner fuel zone (Pu content 16.3 % vol.), -2) a safety bank consisting of 9 DSD rods, at an average distance of 118 cm, and -3) a third bank with 18 CSD rods, placed at 171 cm, i.e. at the interface between the inner and outer (Pu content 19.2 % vol.) core regions. Each control rod has been modelled as a homogeneous material containing 90%-enriched B 4 C, steel and helium. Considerable shadowing effects have been observed between the first bank and the safety bank, as also between individual rods within the first bank. Large anti-shadowing effects take place in an even greater number of the studied rod configurations. The largest interaction is between the two CSD banks, the anti-shadowing value being 46% in this case, implying that the total rod worth is increased by a factor of almost 2 when compared to the sum of the individual bank values. Additional investigations have been performed, in particular the computation of the first order eigenvalue and the eigenvalue separation. The main finding is that the interactions are lower when one of the control rod banks is located at a radial position corresponding to half the core radius. (authors)

  4. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  5. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  6. Microparticle analysis system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A device for analyzing microparticles is provided which includes a chamber with an inlet and an outlet for respectively introducing and dispensing a flowing fluid comprising microparticles, a light source for providing light through the chamber and a photometer for measuring the intensity of light transmitted through individual microparticles. The device further includes an imaging system for acquiring images of the fluid. In some cases, the device may be configured to identify and determine a quantity of the microparticles within the fluid. Consequently, a method for identifying and tracking microparticles in motion is contemplated herein. The method involves flowing a fluid comprising microparticles in laminar motion through a chamber, transmitting light through the fluid, measuring the intensities of the light transmitted through the microparticles, imaging the fluid a plurality of times and comparing at least some of the intensities of light between different images of the fluid.

  7. An example of a vector field with the oriented shadowing property

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhomirov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    We consider shadowing properties for vector fields corresponding to different type of reparametrisations. We give an example of a vector field which has the oriented shadowing properties, but does not have the standard shadowing property.

  8. Infinitesimal methods of mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, J S

    2004-01-01

    This modern introduction to infinitesimal methods is a translation of the book Métodos Infinitesimais de Análise Matemática by José Sousa Pinto of the University of Aveiro, Portugal and is aimed at final year or graduate level students with a background in calculus. Surveying modern reformulations of the infinitesimal concept with a thoroughly comprehensive exposition of important and influential hyperreal numbers, the book includes previously unpublished material on the development of hyperfinite theory of Schwartz distributions and its application to generalised Fourier transforms and harmon

  9. Development of advanced MCR task analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, E. S.; Cho, S. B.; Kang, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes task analysis methodology for advanced HSI designs. Task analyses was performed by using procedure-based hierarchical task analysis and task decomposition methods. The results from the task analysis were recorded in a database. Using the TA results, we developed static prototype of advanced HSI and human factors engineering verification and validation methods for an evaluation of the prototype. In addition to the procedure-based task analysis methods, workload estimation based on the analysis of task performance time and analyses for the design of information structure and interaction structures will be necessary

  10. Does the black hole shadow probe the event horizon geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Pedro V. P.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2018-04-01

    There is an exciting prospect of obtaining the shadow of astrophysical black holes (BHs) in the near future with the Event Horizon Telescope. As a matter of principle, this justifies asking how much one can learn about the BH horizon itself from such a measurement. Since the shadow is determined by a set of special photon orbits, rather than horizon properties, it is possible that different horizon geometries yield similar shadows. One may then ask how sensitive is the shadow to details of the horizon geometry? As a case study, we consider the double Schwarzschild BH and analyze the impact on the lensing and shadows of the conical singularity that holds the two BHs in equilibrium—herein taken to be a strut along the symmetry axis in between the two BHs. Whereas the conical singularity induces a discontinuity of the scattering angle of photons, clearly visible in the lensing patterns along the direction of the strut's location, it produces no observable effect on the shadows, whose edges remain everywhere smooth. The latter feature is illustrated by examples including both equal and unequal mass BHs. This smoothness contrasts with the intrinsic geometry of the (spatial sections of the) horizon of these BHs, which is not smooth, and provides a sharp example on how BH shadows are insensitive to some horizon geometry details. This observation, moreover, suggests that for the study of their shadows, this static double BH system may be an informative proxy for a dynamical binary.

  11. Current status of methods for shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed

  12. MPPT-Based Control Algorithm for PV System Using iteration-PSO under Irregular shadow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulkadir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT techniques can hardly track the global maximum power point (GMPP because the power-voltage characteristics of photovoltaic (PV exhibit multiple local peaks in irregular shadow, and therefore easily fall into the local maximum power point. These conditions make it very challenging, and to tackle this deficiency, an efficient Iteration Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO has been developed to improve the quality of solution and convergence speed of the traditional PSO, so that it can effectively track the GMPP under irregular shadow conditions. This proposed technique has such advantages as simple structure, fast response and strong robustness, and convenient implementation. It is applied to MPPT control of PV system in irregular shadow to solve the problem of multi-peak optimization in partial shadow. In order to verify the rationality of the proposed algorithm, however, recently the dynamic MPPT performance under varying irradiance conditions has been given utmost attention to the PV society. As the European standard EN 50530 which defines the recommended varying irradiance profiles, was released lately, the corresponding researchers have been required to improve the dynamic MPPT performance. This paper tried to evaluate the dynamic MPPT performance using EN 50530 standard. The simulation results show that iterative-PSO method can fast track the global MPP, increase tracking speed and higher dynamic MPPT efficiency under EN 50530 than the conventional PSO.

  13. Calibration of UAS imagery inside and outside of shadows for improved vegetation index computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Elizabeth; Salvaggio, Carl; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron D.

    2016-05-01

    Vegetation health and vigor can be assessed with data from multi- and hyperspectral airborne and satellite- borne sensors using index products such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) technology have created the opportunity to access these same image data sets in a more cost effective manner with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Another advantage of these systems includes the ability to gather data in almost any weather condition, including complete cloud cover, when data has not been available before from traditional platforms. The ability to collect in these varied conditions, meteorological and temporal, will present researchers and producers with many new challenges. Particularly, cloud shadows and self-shadowing by vegetation must be taken into consideration in imagery collected from UAS platforms to avoid variation in NDVI due to changes in illumination within a single scene, and between collection flights. A workflow is presented to compensate for variations in vegetation indices due to shadows and variation in illumination levels in high resolution imagery collected from UAS platforms. Other calibration methods that producers may currently be utilizing produce NDVI products that still contain shadow boundaries and variations due to illumination, whereas the final NDVI mosaic from this workflow does not.

  14. Shadow Replication: An Energy-Aware, Fault-Tolerant Computational Model for Green Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Cui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for cloud computing continues to increase, cloud service providers face the daunting challenge to meet the negotiated SLA agreement, in terms of reliability and timely performance, while achieving cost-effectiveness. This challenge is increasingly compounded by the increasing likelihood of failure in large-scale clouds and the rising impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the environment. This paper proposes Shadow Replication, a novel fault-tolerance model for cloud computing, which seamlessly addresses failure at scale, while minimizing energy consumption and reducing its impact on the environment. The basic tenet of the model is to associate a suite of shadow processes to execute concurrently with the main process, but initially at a much reduced execution speed, to overcome failures as they occur. Two computationally-feasible schemes are proposed to achieve Shadow Replication. A performance evaluation framework is developed to analyze these schemes and compare their performance to traditional replication-based fault tolerance methods, focusing on the inherent tradeoff between fault tolerance, the specified SLA and profit maximization. The results show that Shadow Replication leads to significant energy reduction, and is better suited for compute-intensive execution models, where up to 30% more profit increase can be achieved due to reduced energy consumption.

  15. Does body shadow improve the efficacy of virtual reality-based training with BTS NIRVANA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Margherita; De Luca, Rosaria; Naro, Antonino; Sciarrone, Francesca; Aragona, Bianca; Silvestri, Giuseppe; Manuli, Alfredo; Bramanti, Alessia; Casella, Carmela; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the presence of body shadows during virtual reality (VR) training with BTS NIRVANA (BTs-N) may lead to a better functional recovery. Methods: We enrolled 20 poststroke rehabilitation inpatients, who underwent a neurocognitive-rehabilitative training consisting of 24 sessions (3 times a week for 8 weeks) of BTs-N. All the patients were randomized into 2 groups: semi-immersive virtual training with (S-IVTS group) or without (S-IVT group) body shadows. Each participant was evaluated before (T0) and immediately (T1) after the end of the training (Trial Registration Number: NCT03095560). Results: The S-IVTS group showed a greater improvement in visuo-constructive skills and sustained attention, as compared with the S-IVT group. The other measures showed nonsignificant within-group and between-group differences. Conclusion: Our results showed that body shadow may represent a high-priority class of stimuli that act by “pushing” attention toward the body itself. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of body shadow in promoting the internal representation construction and thus self-recognition. PMID:28930852

  16. The effects of segmentation-based shadow removal on across-date settlement type classification of panchromatic QuickBird images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luus, FPS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Settlement classifiers for multitemporal satellite image analysis have to overcome numerous difficulties related to across-date variances in viewing- and illumination geometry. Shadow anisotropy is a prominent contributing factor in classifier...

  17. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-09-27

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  18. Parametric Methods for Order Tracking Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm

    2017-01-01

    Order tracking analysis is often used to find the critical speeds at which structural resonances are excited by a rotating machine. Typically, order tracking analysis is performed via non-parametric methods. In this report, however, we demonstrate some of the advantages of using a parametric method...

  19. Automated Detection of Cloud and Cloud Shadow in Single-Date Landsat Imagery Using Neural Networks and Spatial Post-Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joseph Hughes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of Landsat data to answer ecological questions is greatly increased by the effective removal of cloud and cloud shadow from satellite images. We develop a novel algorithm to identify and classify clouds and cloud shadow, SPARCS: Spatial Procedures for Automated Removal of Cloud and Shadow. The method uses a neural network approach to determine cloud, cloud shadow, water, snow/ice and clear sky classification memberships of each pixel in a Landsat scene. It then applies a series of spatial procedures to resolve pixels with ambiguous membership by using information, such as the membership values of neighboring pixels and an estimate of cloud shadow locations from cloud and solar geometry. In a comparison with FMask, a high-quality cloud and cloud shadow classification algorithm currently available, SPARCS performs favorably, with substantially lower omission errors for cloud shadow (8.0% and 3.2%, only slightly higher omission errors for clouds (0.9% and 1.3%, respectively and fewer errors of commission (2.6% and 0.3%. Additionally, SPARCS provides a measure of uncertainty in its classification that can be exploited by other algorithms that require clear sky pixels. To illustrate this, we present an application that constructs obstruction-free composites of images acquired on different dates in support of a method for vegetation change detection.

  20. An experimental study of pressure shadows in partially molten rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Zhao, Yong-Hong; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2013-11-01

    As a two-phase, solid-melt material flows around rigid particles, melt-depleted and melt-enriched regions (i.e., pressure shadows) develop due to the coupled fluxes of melt and solid driven by pressure gradients around the particles. To study this compaction-decompaction process, samples composed of fine-grained San Carlos olivine plus mid-ocean ridge basalt containing dispersed sub-millimeter-sized, single crystal beads of olivine were deformed in torsion at a temperature of 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa. Indicated by melt distribution maps obtained from reflected-light optical and backscattered electron microscopy, melt-enriched and melt-depleted regions around the beads became observable at a local shear strain of γ≈1 in samples with an initially homogeneously distributed melt fraction of ϕ≈0.05. The melt-enriched regions (ϕbarhigh≈0.06 to 0.10) and the melt-depleted regions (ϕbarlow≈0.02 to 0.04), extending as far as one radius of the bead, were symmetrically distributed around the bead. The flow field of the olivine matrix determined from crystallographic preferred orientations agrees with theoretical predictions based on two-phase flow analysis. These experiments are the first to produce pressure shadows in partially molten rocks. One implication of this study is that it will be possible to constrain the ratio of bulk to shear viscosity, which is inferred from the distribution of melt using a combination of experimental observations and numerical simulations.

  1. The delayed neutron method of uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of delayed neutron analysis (DNA) is discussed. The DNA rig installed on the MOATA reactor, the assay standards and the types of samples which have been assayed are described. Of the total sample throughput of about 55,000 units since the uranium analysis service began, some 78% has been concerned with analysis of uranium ore samples derived from mining and exploration. Delayed neutron analysis provides a high sensitivity, low cost uranium analysis method for both uranium exploration and other applications. It is particularly suitable for analysis of large batch samples and for non-destructive analysis over a wide range of matrices. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Moon and sun shadowing effect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Michelle Mesquita de; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The deficit due to the absorption of cosmic rays by the Moon and the Sun can be observed detecting the muon flux generated in extensive air showers. This phenomenon, known as cosmic ray shadow, can be used to study the behaviour of the geomagnetic, solar and interplanetary magnetic fields, to measure the antiproton-proton ratio and to determine the angular resolution and alignment of the detectors to confirm its accuracy and precision. Many experiments using surface or underground detectors have measured the Moon and Sun shadow: MINOS, CYGNUS, CASA, Tibet, MACRO, Soudan2, L3+C, Milagro, BUST, GRAPE and HEGRA. The MINOS experiment (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) uses two layered steel and plastic scintillator detectors (Near Detector and Far Detector) along with a muon neutrino beam (NuMI - Neutrinos at the Main Injector) to search for ν μ disappearance, and thus neutrino oscillations. However the magnetic field and the fiducial volume of the underground Far Detector at Soudan Underground Mine State Park (Minnesota, USA) allow a great opportunity to investigate cosmic rays at TeV surface energy. The deficit caused by the Moon and the Sun was detected by the MINOS Far Detector and this could also be done using the Near Detector. In this report we describe the motivation of measuring this effect. We present the recent results from MINOS along with its experimental apparatus and, in addition, the main results from the various experiments. We also make considerations about the possibility of doing such a measurement with the MINOS Near Detector. (author)

  3. Radiochemistry and nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides both the fundamentals of radiochemistry as well as specific applications of nuclear techniques to analytical chemistry. It includes such areas of application as radioimmunoassay and activation techniques using very short-lined indicator radionuclides. It emphasizes the current nuclear methods of analysis such as neutron activation PIXE, nuclear reaction analysis, Rutherford backscattering, isotope dilution analysis and others

  4. Computational methods in power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Idema, Reijer

    2014-01-01

    This book treats state-of-the-art computational methods for power flow studies and contingency analysis. In the first part the authors present the relevant computational methods and mathematical concepts. In the second part, power flow and contingency analysis are treated. Furthermore, traditional methods to solve such problems are compared to modern solvers, developed using the knowledge of the first part of the book. Finally, these solvers are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally, clearly showing the benefits of the modern approach.

  5. Correcting the relationship between PRI and shadow fraction for the blue sky effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, Matti

    2016-04-01

    The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) is defined as the normalized difference ratio of leaf reflectance at two specific wavelengths in the green spectral region. Its value depends on the status of leaf carotenoid content, and especially that of the xanthophyll cycle pigments. Due to the dependence on the xanthophyll cycle, when the photosynthetic apparatus of green leaves is close to the saturation limit, their PRI becomes dependent on light conditions. Therefore, by measuring the PRI of leaves in the same canopy under different local irradiance conditions on a sunny day, it should be possible to determine the saturation level of the leaves. In turn, this gives information on the light use efficiency (LUE) of the vegetation canopy. The average light conditions of visible foliage elements are often quantified with the shadow fraction -- the fraction of visible foliage not lit by direct sunlight. The dependence of PRI on the shadow fraction has been used to remotely measure canopy LUE on clear days. Variations in shadow fraction have been achieved with multiangular measurement. However, besides photosynthetic downregulation, the dependence of canopy PRI on shadow fraction is affected by the blue sky radiation caused by scattering in the atmosphere. To quantify this effect on remotely sensed PRI, we present the underlying definitions relating leaf and canopy PRI and perform the required calculations for typical midsummer conditions in Central Finland. We demonstrate that the effect of blue sky radiation on the variation of PRI with canopy shadow fraction is similar in shape and magnitude to that of LUE variations reported in literature. Next, we propose a new method to assess these PRI variations in structured vegetation. We investiagate this blue sky effect on the PRI -- shadow fraction relationship with high spatial (60 cm) and spectral (9.8 nm) resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy data from Hyytiälä, Finland. We evaluate the spectral irradiance in

  6. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  7. Market Pressure on Currencies in Crises. Shadow Exchange Rate Experience of Argentina and Switzerland 2011-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Gruszczyński

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The aim of this article is to present two cases of exchange rate controls in Switzerland and Argentina. The paper also examines the problem of presence and evaluation of shadow exchange rate in both countries. Design/methodology/approach - The shadow exchange rates are estimated using speculative pressure index concept that emphasizes the importance of not only exchange rate movements but also changes in foreign exchange reserves as well as interest rate differentials. The research sample covers Switzerland 2001-2016 and Argentina 2006-2016 (for shadow exchange rate simulation: 2011-2014 and 2011-2015, respectively. Findings - The conclusions drawn from international experience and conducted empirical analysis are positive. In both cases, shadow exchange rates were close to market rates after the removal of controls. During the restrictions periods shadow rates followed the intuition given by speculative pressure index concept (and by monetary approach, simultaneously. Research implications/limitations - The research suggests that market forces in both countries were still able to restore exchange rates to market values after the period of control. However, it is obvious that it is very difficult to prove that shadow rates were always determined by economical forces and close to their long-term equilibrium values. Originality/value/contribution - The original approach combines two important economic concepts - the idea of shadow exchange rate and the methodology of index of speculative pressure. Combined together they can help to analyze two interesting and relatively new cases of foreign exchange controls in Switzerland and Argentina. The results can be valuable for economists, researchers and politicians who support or reject the idea of controlling macroeconomic parameters in modern, open economy.

  8. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  9. Analysis Method for Laterally Loaded Pile Groups Using an Advanced Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Stacul

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A Boundary Element Method (BEM approach was developed for the analysis of pile groups. The proposed method includes: the non-linear behavior of the soil by a hyperbolic modulus reduction curve; the non-linear response of reinforced concrete pile sections, also taking into account the influence of tension stiffening; the influence of suction by increasing the stiffness of shallow portions of soil and modeled using the Modified Kovacs model; pile group shadowing effect, modeled using an approach similar to that proposed in the Strain Wedge Model for pile groups analyses. The proposed BEM method saves computational effort compared to more sophisticated codes such as VERSAT-P3D, PLAXIS 3D and FLAC-3D, and provides reliable results using input data from a standard site investigation. The reliability of this method was verified by comparing results from data from full scale and centrifuge tests on single piles and pile groups. A comparison is presented between measured and computed data on a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group composed by reinforced concrete bored piles. The results of the proposed method are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained in situ.

  10. Analysis Method for Laterally Loaded Pile Groups Using an Advanced Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacul, Stefano; Squeglia, Nunziante

    2018-02-15

    A Boundary Element Method (BEM) approach was developed for the analysis of pile groups. The proposed method includes: the non-linear behavior of the soil by a hyperbolic modulus reduction curve; the non-linear response of reinforced concrete pile sections, also taking into account the influence of tension stiffening; the influence of suction by increasing the stiffness of shallow portions of soil and modeled using the Modified Kovacs model; pile group shadowing effect, modeled using an approach similar to that proposed in the Strain Wedge Model for pile groups analyses. The proposed BEM method saves computational effort compared to more sophisticated codes such as VERSAT-P3D, PLAXIS 3D and FLAC-3D, and provides reliable results using input data from a standard site investigation. The reliability of this method was verified by comparing results from data from full scale and centrifuge tests on single piles and pile groups. A comparison is presented between measured and computed data on a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group composed by reinforced concrete bored piles. The results of the proposed method are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained in situ.

  11. Nuclear analysis methods. Rudiments of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear analysis methods are generally used to analyse radioactive elements but they can be used also for chemical analysis, with fields such analysis and characterization of traces. The principles of radiation protection are explained (ALARA), the biological effects of ionizing radiations are given, elements and units used in radiation protection are reminded in tables. A part of this article is devoted to how to use radiation protection in a nuclear analysis laboratory. (N.C.)

  12. Chromatic Shadow Detection and Tracking for Moving Foreground Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huerta, Ivan; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    are usually detected as part of moving objects, thus affecting the performance of the final detection. In this paper we address the detection of both penumbra and umbra shadow regions. First, a novel bottom-up approach is presented based on gradient and colour models, which successfully discriminates between...... chromatic moving cast shadow regions and those regions detected as moving objects. In essence, those regions corresponding to potential shadows are detected based on edge partitioning and colour statistics. Subsequently (i) temporal similarities between textures and (ii) spatial similarities between...

  13. A locally adaptive algorithm for shadow correction in color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukhov, Victor; Kober, Vitaly

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with correction of color images distorted by spatially nonuniform illumination. A serious distortion occurs in real conditions when a part of the scene containing 3D objects close to a directed light source is illuminated much brighter than the rest of the scene. A locally-adaptive algorithm for correction of shadow regions in color images is proposed. The algorithm consists of segmentation of shadow areas with rank-order statistics followed by correction of nonuniform illumination with human visual perception approach. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to that of common algorithms for correction of color images containing shadow regions.

  14. On Risk Charges and Shadow Account Options in Pension Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; Gatzert, Nadine

    to equityholders and our paper develops a model in which the influence of risk charges and shadow account options on stakeholders' value can be quantified and studied. Our numerical results show that the value of shadow account options can be significant and thus come at the risk of expropriating policyholder......This paper studies the economic implications of regulatory systems which allow equityholders of pension companies to not only charge a specific premium to compensate them for their higher risk (compared to policyholders), but also to accumulate these risk charges in a so-called shadow account...

  15. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Yilmaz, Ahmet Oǧuz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kucur, Oǧuz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Microlocal methods in the analysis of the boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The application of the boundary element method in numerical analysis is based upon the use of boundary integral operators stemming from multiple layer potentials. The regularity properties of these operators are vital in the development of boundary integral equations and error estimates. We show...

  18. Statistical methods for categorical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to methods and models for categorical data analysis and their applications in social science research. Companion website also available, at https://webspace.utexas.edu/dpowers/www/

  19. Development of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Method for Analysis of Lornoxicam in Solid Dosage. Forms. Sunit Kumar Sahoo ... testing. Mean recovery was 100.82 % for tablets. Low values of % RSD indicate .... Saharty E, Refaat YS, Khateeb ME. Stability-. Indicating. Spectrophotometric.

  20. An introduction to numerical methods and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Epperson, James F

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . outstandingly appealing with regard to its style, contents, considerations of requirements of practice, choice of examples, and exercises.""-Zentralblatt MATH "". . . carefully structured with many detailed worked examples.""-The Mathematical Gazette The Second Edition of the highly regarded An Introduction to Numerical Methods and Analysis provides a fully revised guide to numerical approximation. The book continues to be accessible and expertly guides readers through the many available techniques of numerical methods and analysis. An Introduction to

  1. Magnitude of Solar Radiation Torque in the Transition Region from the Umbra to the Dark Shadow of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabette, R E S; Kolesnikov, I; Zanardi, M C

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of solar radiation pressure force and its influence on the motion of artificial satellites has been developed by researchers. Accurate models to describe the influence of the Earth's shadow on the torque and force due to solar radiation pressure have been presented. In this work the solar radiation torque (SRT) and its influence on the attitude of an artificial satellite are taken into account by the introduction of the Earth's shadow function in the equations of motion. This function assumes a unitary value when the satellite is in the fully illuminated region of its orbit, and the value zero for the full shade region. The main objective of this study is to analyze the magnitude of SRT using the equations described by quaternions during a 35 day period and to compare the results with the satellite transition through the shadow region and the time interval in this region. The duration and transition through the shadow region were obtained using the software 'Shadow Conditions of Earth Satellites'. The formulation is applied to the Brazilian Data Collection Satellites SCD1 and SCD2, and the torque model is presented in terms of the satellite attitude quaternion, distance of the satellite to the Sun, orbital elements, right ascension and declination of the Sun. (paper)

  2. Preliminary results of the Moon shadow using ARGO-YBJ detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yungang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences 19B Yuquan Lu, Shijingshan, Beijing, 100049 (China)], E-mail: wangyg@mail.ihep.ac.cn

    2008-01-15

    ARGO-YBJ is a 'full coverage' air shower detector consisting of Resistive Plate Chambers(RPCs) at the Yangbajing High Altitude Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, China) at 4300 m a.s.l. (lat=30.11{sup o} N, long=90.53{sup o} E). Using the data collected with a carpet of RPCs (1900 m{sup 2}, about 1/3 of the whole ARGO-YBJ detector), the cosmic ray shadowing effect due to the Moon was studied. The 50% angular resolution is found to be {approx}1.2{sup o} with the Chess-board method and the Moon shadow with a significance of 4.9 {sigma} is found displaced by 0.7{sup o} westward and 0.5{sup o} northward with respect to the expected position by the equi-zenith angle Method.

  3. Observation of the Moon shadow using a new reconstruction technique in the CLUE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Malakhov, N.; Menzione, A.; Smogailov, E.; Marsella, G.; Bartoli, B.; Bastieri, D.; Cresti, M.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Saggion, A.; Mariotti, M.; Biral, R.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F.; Ciocci, M. A.; Scribano, A.; Paoletti, R.; Turini, N.; Stammerra, A.; Liello, F.

    2001-01-01

    The CLUE experiment, located in La Palma island at 2200 m a.s.l., is an array of 3 x 3 telescope, detecting the UV (190-230 nm) Cerenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Due to the higher atmospheric absorption in the UV range than in the visible one, CLUE cannot apply existing algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic ray direction. In this paper it is presented a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. CLUE experiment collected data in the last two years pointing to AGN sources and to Moon. The preliminary results obtained using the new technique on Crab Nebula and on Markarian 421 were presented in a previous paper. Here, it is presented the preliminary observation of Moon Shadow employing the new method. As described in the paper, it is expected in a near future improvements on AGN sources and on Moon Shadow measurement

  4. Observation of the Moon shadow using a new reconstruction technique in the CLUE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Malakhov, N.; Menzione, A.; Smogailov, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Marsella, G. [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Bartoli, B. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Cresti, M.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Saggion, A.; Mariotti, M. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy); Biral, R.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Ciocci, M. A.; Scribano, A.; Paoletti, R.; Turini, N. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Siena (Italy); Stammerra, A. [Turin Univ., Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Liello, F. [Trieste Univ., Trieste (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    The CLUE experiment, located in La Palma island at 2200 m a.s.l., is an array of 3 x 3 telescope, detecting the UV (190-230 nm) Cerenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Due to the higher atmospheric absorption in the UV range than in the visible one, CLUE cannot apply existing algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic ray direction. In this paper it is presented a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. CLUE experiment collected data in the last two years pointing to AGN sources and to Moon. The preliminary results obtained using the new technique on Crab Nebula and on Markarian 421 were presented in a previous paper. Here, it is presented the preliminary observation of Moon Shadow employing the new method. As described in the paper, it is expected in a near future improvements on AGN sources and on Moon Shadow measurement.

  5. A Physics-Based Deep Learning Approach to Shadow Invariant Representations of Hyperspectral Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrim, Lloyd; Ramakrishnan, Rishi; Melkumyan, Arman; Murphy, Richard J

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes the Relit Spectral Angle-Stacked Autoencoder, a novel unsupervised feature learning approach for mapping pixel reflectances to illumination invariant encodings. This work extends the Spectral Angle-Stacked Autoencoder so that it can learn a shadow-invariant mapping. The method is inspired by a deep learning technique, Denoising Autoencoders, with the incorporation of a physics-based model for illumination such that the algorithm learns a shadow invariant mapping without the need for any labelled training data, additional sensors, a priori knowledge of the scene or the assumption of Planckian illumination. The method is evaluated using datasets captured from several different cameras, with experiments to demonstrate the illumination invariance of the features and how they can be used practically to improve the performance of high-level perception algorithms that operate on images acquired outdoors.

  6. Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P [Richland, WA; Cowell, Andrew J [Kennewick, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Baddeley, Robert L [Richland, WA; Paulson, Patrick R [Pasco, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA

    2012-03-20

    Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a hypothesis analysis method includes providing a hypothesis, providing an indicator which at least one of supports and refutes the hypothesis, using the indicator, associating evidence with the hypothesis, weighting the association of the evidence with the hypothesis, and using the weighting, providing information regarding the accuracy of the hypothesis.

  7. Partial shadowing detection based on equivalent thermal voltage monitoring for PV module diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Partial shadowing of photovoltaic systems can overproportionally reduce the energy yield and lead to early ageing and failure of the shadowed cells. Large area shadows are relatively easy to detect due to the eminent power reduction and decrease of fill factor. However, small area partial shadows...

  8. Rural-to-urban migration and the shadow wage in LDCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, R

    1984-04-01

    "This paper discusses the amount of rural-to-urban migration which will be forthcoming when a new urban job is created for which an institutionally fixed wage above the market-clearing level is offered. A simple formula is proposed to estimate migration response. It can be used to calculate the shadow wage in cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in less developed countries (LDCs)." excerpt

  9. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  10. Resource-Aware Navigation for Shadowed and Uncertain Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Discovery of off-Earth ice will transform space exploration. Volatiles that exist primarily in shadowed polar latitudes of planetary bodes could be harvested to...

  11. Shadow Libraries: Access to Knowledge in Global Higher Education ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-04

    May 4, 2018 ... Shadow Libraries: Access to Knowledge in Global Higher Education ... that are emerging in middle- and low-income countries as opportunities for higher education expand but funding for materials shrinks. ... Innovation.

  12. Testing General Relativity with the Shadow Size of Sgr A(*).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Tim; Broderick, Avery E; Plewa, Philipp M; Chatzopoulos, Sotiris; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Eisenhauer, Frank; Fish, Vincent L; Genzel, Reinhard; Gerhard, Ortwin; Johnson, Michael D

    2016-01-22

    In general relativity, the angular radius of the shadow of a black hole is primarily determined by its mass-to-distance ratio and depends only weakly on its spin and inclination. If general relativity is violated, however, the shadow size may also depend strongly on parametric deviations from the Kerr metric. Based on a reconstructed image of Sagittarius A^{*} (Sgr A^{*}) from a simulated one-day observing run of a seven-station Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) array, we employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to demonstrate that such an observation can measure the angular radius of the shadow of Sgr A^{*} with an uncertainty of ∼1.5  μas (6%). We show that existing mass and distance measurements can be improved significantly when combined with upcoming EHT measurements of the shadow size and that tight constraints on potential deviations from the Kerr metric can be obtained.

  13. The average-shadowing property and topological ergodicity for flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Rongbao; Guo Wenjing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the transitive property for a flow without sensitive dependence on initial conditions is studied and it is shown that a Lyapunov stable flow with the average-shadowing property on a compact metric space is topologically ergodic

  14. Nodal method for fast reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shober, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, a nodal method applicable to fast reactor diffusion theory analysis has been developed. This method has been shown to be accurate and efficient in comparison to highly optimized finite difference techniques. The use of an analytic solution to the diffusion equation as a means of determining accurate coupling relationships between nodes has been shown to be highly accurate and efficient in specific two-group applications, as well as in the current multigroup method

  15. Spot-shadowing optimization to mitigate damage growth in a high-energy-laser amplifier chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Seung-Whan; Zuegel, Jonathan D; Fienup, James R; Widmayer, C Clay; Heebner, John

    2008-12-10

    A spot-shadowing technique to mitigate damage growth in a high-energy laser is studied. Its goal is to minimize the energy loss and undesirable hot spots in intermediate planes of the laser. A nonlinear optimization algorithm solves for the complex fields required to mitigate damage growth in the National Ignition Facility amplifier chain. The method is generally applicable to any large fusion laser.

  16. Inelastic analysis methods for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.T.; Spence, J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of pipework systems which operate in an environment where local inelastic strains are evident is one of the most demanding problems facing the stress analyst in the nuclear field. The spatial complexity of even the most modest system makes a detailed analysis using finite element techniques beyond the scope of current computer technology. For this reason the emphasis has been on simplified methods. It is the aim of this paper to provide a reasonably complete, state-of-the-art review of inelastic pipework analysis methods and to attempt to highlight areas where reliable information is lacking and further work is needed. (orig.)

  17. A historical note on illusory contours in shadow writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Stefano; Marino, Barbara F M

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that illusory contours have been first displayed and discussed by Schumann (1900, Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane 23 1-32). Here we show that, before him, Jastrow (1899, Popular Science Monthly 54 299-312) produced illusory contours consisting of a shadow word. A brief history of shadow writing in psychological literature from Jastrow to Brunswik is presented, in which the contributions of Pillsbury, Warren, Koffka, and Benussi are examined.

  18. Nuclear shadowing and the optics of hadronic fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankiewicz, L. E-mail: lech_mankiewicz@camk.edu.pl; Piller, G.; Vaenttinen, M.; Weise, W

    2001-06-04

    A coordinate-space description of shadowing in deep-inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering is presented. The picture in the laboratory frame is that of quark-gluon fluctuations of the high-energy virtual photon, propagating coherently over large light-cone distances in the nuclear medium. We discuss the detailed dependence of the coherence effects on the invariant mass of the fluctuation. We comment on the issue of possible saturation in the shadowing effects at very small Bjorken-x.

  19. Shadow Cost of Public Funds and Privatization Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Susumu; Matsumura, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the optimal privatization policy in mixed oligopolies with shadow cost of public funds (excess burden of taxation). The government is concerned with both the total social surplus and the revenue obtained by the privatization of a public firm. We find that the relationship between the shadow cost of public funds and the optimal privatization policy is non-monotone. When the cost is moderate, then higher the cost is, the lower is the optimal degree of privatization. ...

  20. Observation of the moon shadow in deep underground muon flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Cobb, J. H.; Fields, T. H.; Goodman, M. C.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Marshak, M. L.; Price, L. E.; Seidlein, R.; Thron, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    A shadow of the moon, with a statistical significance of 5σ, has been observed in the underground muon flux at a depth of 2090 mwe using the Soudan 2 detector. The angular resolution of the detector is well described by a Gaussian with σ le0.3degree. The position of the shadow confirms the alignment of the detector to better than 0.15degree. This alignment has remained stable during 10 years of data taking from 1989 through 1998

  1. Excitation methods for energy dispersive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaklevic, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid development in recent years of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis has been based primarily on improvements in semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometers. However, the whole analysis system performance is critically dependent on the availability of optimum methods of excitation for the characteristic x rays in specimens. A number of analysis facilities based on various methods of excitation have been developed over the past few years. A discussion is given of the features of various excitation methods including charged particles, monochromatic photons, and broad-energy band photons. The effects of the excitation method on background and sensitivity are discussed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Recent developments such as pulsed excitation and polarized photons are also discussed

  2. Celestial shadows eclipses, transits, and occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Westfall, John

    2015-01-01

    Much of what is known about the universe comes from the study of celestial shadows—eclipses, transits, and occultations.  The most dramatic are total eclipses of the Sun, which constitute one of the most dramatic and awe-inspiring events of nature.  Though once a source of consternation or dread, solar eclipses now lead thousands of amateur astronomers and eclipse-chasers to travel to remote points on the globe to savor their beauty and the adrenaline-rush of experiencing totality, and were long the only source of information about the hauntingly beautiful chromosphere and corona of the Sun.   Long before Columbus, the curved shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse revealed that we inhabit a round world. The rare and wonderful transits of Venus, which occur as it passes between the Earth and the Sun, inspired eighteenth century expeditions to measure the distance from the Earth to the Sun, while the recent transits of 2004 and 2012 were the most widely observed ever--and still produced re...

  3. Secondary ion shadow-cone enhanced desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chechen Chang (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-02-01

    The incident angle dependence of the secondary particle emission process under keV ion bombardment has been investigated. The results from the full molecular dynamics calculations indicate that the flux anisotropy of the incident beam, resulting from the non-uniform impact parameters for the surface atom of a single crystal, affects the particle desorption in a systematic fashion. The enhanced desorption at certain angles of incidence corresponds to the intensive focusing of the incident beam to the near-surface atom and the extended dissipation of momentum by large-angle scattering. This observation has let us to develop a new theoretical model in which the enhanced desorption is described by the distance of closest encounter along the trajectory of the incident particle to the surface atom. The computer time for the simulation of the incident-angle-dependent emission process is significantly reduced. The results from the calculation based on this model are in good agreement both with the results from the full dynamics calculation and with the experimental results. The new model also allows a complementary evaluation of the microscopic dynamics involved in the shadow-cone enhanced desorption. (author).

  4. The multisensory body revealed through its cast shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Francesco; Galfano, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    One key issue when conceiving the body as a multisensory object is how the cognitive system integrates visible instances of the self and other bodies with one's own somatosensory processing, to achieve self-recognition and body ownership. Recent research has strongly suggested that shadows cast by our own body have a special status for cognitive processing, directing attention to the body in a fast and highly specific manner. The aim of the present article is to review the most recent scientific contributions addressing how body shadows affect both sensory/perceptual and attentional processes. The review examines three main points: (1) body shadows as a special window to investigate the construction of multisensory body perception; (2) experimental paradigms and related findings; (3) open questions and future trajectories. The reviewed literature suggests that shadows cast by one's own body promote binding between personal and extrapersonal space and elicit automatic orienting of attention toward the body-part casting the shadow. Future research should address whether the effects exerted by body shadows are similar to those observed when observers are exposed to other visual instances of their body. The results will further clarify the processes underlying the merging of vision and somatosensation when creating body representations.

  5. The multisensory body revealed through its cast shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco ePavani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One key issue when conceiving the body as a multisensory object is how the cognitive system integrates visible instances of the self and other bodies with one’s own somatosensory processing, to achieve self-recognition and body ownership. Recent research has strongly suggested that shadows cast by our own body have a special status for cognitive processing, directing attention to the body in a fast and highly specific manner. The aim of the present article is to review the most recent scientific contributions addressing how body shadows affect both sensory/perceptual and attentional processes. The review examines three main points: (1 body shadows as a special window to investigate the construction of multisensory body perception; (2 experimental paradigms and related findings; (3 open questions and future trajectories. The reviewed literature suggests that shadows cast by one’s own body promote binding between personal and extrapersonal space and elicit automatic orienting of attention toward the body-part casting the shadow. Future research should address whether the effects exerted by body shadows are similar to those observed when observers are exposed to other visual instances of their body. The results will further clarify the processes underlying the merging of vision and somatosensation when creating body representations.

  6. Shadows of Kerr Black Holes with Scalar Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Pedro V P; Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen; Rúnarsson, Helgi F

    2015-11-20

    Using backwards ray tracing, we study the shadows of Kerr black holes with scalar hair (KBHSH). KBHSH interpolate continuously between Kerr BHs and boson stars (BSs), so we start by investigating the lensing of light due to BSs. Moving from the weak to the strong gravity region, BSs-which by themselves have no shadows-are classified, according to the lensing produced, as (i) noncompact, which yield not multiple images, (ii) compact, which produce an increasing number of Einstein rings and multiple images of the whole celestial sphere, and (iii) ultracompact, which possess light rings, yielding an infinite number of images with (we conjecture) a self-similar structure. The shadows of KBHSH, for Kerr-like horizons and noncompact BS-like hair, are analogous to, but distinguishable from, those of comparable Kerr BHs. But for non-Kerr-like horizons and ultracompact BS-like hair, the shadows of KBHSH are drastically different: novel shapes arise, sizes are considerably smaller, and multiple shadows of a single BH become possible. Thus, KBHSH provide quantitatively and qualitatively new templates for ongoing (and future) very large baseline interferometry observations of BH shadows, such as those of the Event Horizon Telescope.

  7. A strategy for evaluating pathway analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenggang; Woo, Hyung Jun; Yu, Xueping; Oyama, Tatsuya; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2017-10-13

    Researchers have previously developed a multitude of methods designed to identify biological pathways associated with specific clinical or experimental conditions of interest, with the aim of facilitating biological interpretation of high-throughput data. Before practically applying such pathway analysis (PA) methods, we must first evaluate their performance and reliability, using datasets where the pathways perturbed by the conditions of interest have been well characterized in advance. However, such 'ground truths' (or gold standards) are often unavailable. Furthermore, previous evaluation strategies that have focused on defining 'true answers' are unable to systematically and objectively assess PA methods under a wide range of conditions. In this work, we propose a novel strategy for evaluating PA methods independently of any gold standard, either established or assumed. The strategy involves the use of two mutually complementary metrics, recall and discrimination. Recall measures the consistency of the perturbed pathways identified by applying a particular analysis method to an original large dataset and those identified by the same method to a sub-dataset of the original dataset. In contrast, discrimination measures specificity-the degree to which the perturbed pathways identified by a particular method to a dataset from one experiment differ from those identifying by the same method to a dataset from a different experiment. We used these metrics and 24 datasets to evaluate six widely used PA methods. The results highlighted the common challenge in reliably identifying significant pathways from small datasets. Importantly, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed dual-metric strategy by showing that previous comparative studies corroborate the performance evaluations of the six methods obtained by our strategy. Unlike any previously proposed strategy for evaluating the performance of PA methods, our dual-metric strategy does not rely on any ground truth

  8. Instrumental methods of analysis, 7th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, H.H.; Merritt, L.L. Jr.; Dean, J.A.; Settle, F.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have prepared an organized and generally polished product. The book is fashioned to be used as a textbook for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course, a supporting textbook for graduate-level courses, and a general reference work on analytical instrumentation and techniques for professional chemists. Four major areas are emphasized: data collection and processing, spectroscopic instrumentation and methods, liquid and gas chromatographic methods, and electrochemical methods. Analytical instrumentation and methods have been updated, and a thorough citation of pertinent recent literature is included

  9. On the performance of transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ahmet Oǧuz; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kucur, Oǧuz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a transmit antenna selection scheme, which is based on shadowing side information, is investigated. In this scheme, the selected single transmit antenna provides the highest shadowing coefficient between a transmitter and a receiver. By the proposed technique, the frequency of the usage of the feedback channel from the receiver to the transmitter and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We study the performance of our proposed technique, and in the analysis, we consider an independent but not identically distributed generalized-K composite fading model. More specifically, exact and closed-form expressions for the outage probability, the moment-generating function, the moments of signal-to-noise ratio, and the average symbol error probability (SEP) are derived. In addition, asymptotic outage probability and SP expressions are also presented to investigate the diversity order and the array gain. Finally, our theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. An Overview on Base Real-Time Hard Shadow Techniques in Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahrizal Sunar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Shadows are elegant to create a realistic scene in virtual environments variety type of shadow techniques encourage us to prepare an overview on all base shadow techniques. Non real-time and real-time techniques are big subdivision of shadow generation. In non real-time techniques ray tracing, ray casting and radiosity are well known and are described deeply. Radiosity is implemented to create very realistic shadow on non real-time scene. Although traditional radiosity algorithm is difficult to implement, we have proposed a simple one. The proposed pseudo code is easier to understand and implement. Ray tracing is used to prevent of collision of movement objects. Projection shadow, shadow volume and shadow mapping are used to create real-time shadow in virtual environments. We have used projection shadow for some objects are static and have shadow on flat surface. Shadow volume is used to create accurate shadow with sharp outline. Shadow mapping that is the base of most recently techniques is reconstructed. The reconstruct algorithm gives some new idea to propose another algorithm based on shadow mapping.

  11. THE OBJECTIFICATION OF DEFINITION OF THE PURCHASING POWER OF CONSUMERS IN SHADOW ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tyukhtenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed the level of truthfulness of information as to actual volume revenues of workers of the shadow economy. Revealed results of actual solvency of the local population by goods production, work execution, services rendering. Discovered action of currency fluctuation. Analyzed sales of new cars in Ukraine for 2010-2014. Proposed the method of calculating the correction coefficient with a view to determining the level of objectification purchasing power of consumers in a shadow economy and the potential capacity of the sale market of new cars. Defined the optimal selling price of new vehicles in Kherson. Calculated potential market volume of new vehicles and optimal logistic route of their realization in the Kherson region.

  12. Making sense of the shadows: priorities for creating a learning healthcare system based on routinely collected data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeny, Sarah R; Steventon, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Socrates described a group of people chained up inside a cave, who mistook shadows of objects on a wall for reality. This allegory comes to mind when considering 'routinely collected data'-the massive data sets, generated as part of the routine operation of the modern healthcare service. There is keen interest in routine data and the seemingly comprehensive view of healthcare they offer, and we outline a number of examples in which they were used successfully, including the Birmingham OwnHealth study, in which routine data were used with matched control groups to assess the effect of telephone health coaching on hospital utilisation.Routine data differ from data collected primarily for the purposes of research, and this means that analysts cannot assume that they provide the full or accurate clinical picture, let alone a full description of the health of the population. We show that major methodological challenges in using routine data arise from the difficulty of understanding the gap between patient and their 'data shadow'. Strategies to overcome this challenge include more extensive data linkage, developing analytical methods and collecting more data on a routine basis, including from the patient while away from the clinic. In addition, creating a learning health system will require greater alignment between the analysis and the decisions that will be taken; between analysts and people interested in quality improvement; and between the analysis undertaken and public attitudes regarding appropriate use of data. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Limitations of systemic accident analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra Venera BALAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of system theory, the description of complex accidents is not limited to the analysis of the sequence of events / individual conditions, but highlights nonlinear functional characteristics and frames human or technical performance in relation to normal functioning of the system, in safety conditions. Thus, the research of the system entities as a whole is no longer an abstraction of a concrete situation, but an exceeding of the theoretical limits set by analysis based on linear methods. Despite the issues outlined above, the hypothesis that there isn’t a complete method for accident analysis is supported by the nonlinearity of the considered function or restrictions, imposing a broad vision of the elements introduced in the analysis, so it can identify elements corresponding to nominal parameters or trigger factors.

  14. Application of Software Safety Analysis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, G. Y.; Hur, S.; Cheon, S. W.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, S. J.; Koo, Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    A fully digitalized reactor protection system, which is called the IDiPS-RPS, was developed through the KNICS project. The IDiPS-RPS has four redundant and separated channels. Each channel is mainly composed of a group of bistable processors which redundantly compare process variables with their corresponding setpoints and a group of coincidence processors that generate a final trip signal when a trip condition is satisfied. Each channel also contains a test processor called the ATIP and a display and command processor called the COM. All the functions were implemented in software. During the development of the safety software, various software safety analysis methods were applied, in parallel to the verification and validation (V and V) activities, along the software development life cycle. The software safety analysis methods employed were the software hazard and operability (Software HAZOP) study, the software fault tree analysis (Software FTA), and the software failure modes and effects analysis (Software FMEA)

  15. Spatial analysis statistics, visualization, and computational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Oyana, Tonny J

    2015-01-01

    An introductory text for the next generation of geospatial analysts and data scientists, Spatial Analysis: Statistics, Visualization, and Computational Methods focuses on the fundamentals of spatial analysis using traditional, contemporary, and computational methods. Outlining both non-spatial and spatial statistical concepts, the authors present practical applications of geospatial data tools, techniques, and strategies in geographic studies. They offer a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to spatial analysis-containing hands-on problem-sets that can be worked out in MS Excel or ArcGIS-as well as detailed illustrations and numerous case studies. The book enables readers to: Identify types and characterize non-spatial and spatial data Demonstrate their competence to explore, visualize, summarize, analyze, optimize, and clearly present statistical data and results Construct testable hypotheses that require inferential statistical analysis Process spatial data, extract explanatory variables, conduct statisti...

  16. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  17. Review of strain buckling: analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report represents an attempt to review the mechanical analysis methods reported in the literature to account for the specific behaviour that we call buckling under strain. In this report, this expression covers all buckling mechanisms in which the strains imposed play a role, whether they act alone (as in simple buckling under controlled strain), or whether they act with other loadings (primary loading, such as pressure, for example). Attention is focused on the practical problems relevant to LMFBR reactors. The components concerned are distinguished by their high slenderness ratios and by rather high thermal levels, both constant and variable with time. Conventional static buckling analysis methods are not always appropriate for the consideration of buckling under strain. New methods must therefore be developed in certain cases. It is also hoped that this review will facilitate the coding of these analytical methods to aid the constructor in his design task and to identify the areas which merit further investigation

  18. Analysis of mixed data methods & applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive source on mixed data analysis, Analysis of Mixed Data: Methods & Applications summarizes the fundamental developments in the field. Case studies are used extensively throughout the book to illustrate interesting applications from economics, medicine and health, marketing, and genetics. Carefully edited for smooth readability and seamless transitions between chaptersAll chapters follow a common structure, with an introduction and a concluding summary, and include illustrative examples from real-life case studies in developmental toxicolog

  19. Scope-Based Method Cache Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Benedikt; Hepp, Stefan; Schoeberl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The quest for time-predictable systems has led to the exploration of new hardware architectures that simplify analysis and reasoning in the temporal domain, while still providing competitive performance. For the instruction memory, the method cache is a conceptually attractive solution, as it req......The quest for time-predictable systems has led to the exploration of new hardware architectures that simplify analysis and reasoning in the temporal domain, while still providing competitive performance. For the instruction memory, the method cache is a conceptually attractive solution...

  20. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  1. Piping dynamic analysis by the synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Curreri, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Since piping systems are a frequent source of noise and vibrations, their efficient dynamic analysis is imperative. As an alternate to more conventional analyses methods, an application of the synthesis method to piping vibrations analyses is demonstrated. Specifically, the technique is illustrated by determining the normal modes and natural frequencies of a composite bend from the normal mode and natural frequency data of two component parts. A comparison of the results to those derived for the composite bend by other techniques is made

  2. Probabilistic Analysis Methods for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper discusses a general approach for the application of probabilistic analysis methods in the design of ventilation systems. The aims and scope of probabilistic versus deterministic methods are addressed with special emphasis on hybrid ventilation systems. A preliminary application...... of stochastic differential equations is presented comprising a general heat balance for an arbitrary number of loads and zones in a building to determine the thermal behaviour under random conditions....

  3. Chemical analysis by nuclear methods. v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfassi, Z.B.

    1998-01-01

    'Chemical analysis by Nuclear Methods' is an effort of some renowned authors in field of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry which is compiled by Alfassi, Z.B. and translated into Farsi version collected in two volumes. The second volume consists of the following chapters: Detecting ion recoil scattering and elastic scattering are dealt in the eleventh chapter, the twelfth chapter is devoted to nuclear reaction analysis using charged particles, X-ray emission is discussed at thirteenth chapter, the fourteenth chapter is about using ion microprobes, X-ray fluorescence analysis is discussed in the fifteenth chapter, alpha, beta and gamma ray scattering in chemical analysis are dealt in chapter sixteen, Moessbauer spectroscopy and positron annihilation are discussed in chapter seventeen and eighteen; The last two chapters are about isotope dilution analysis and radioimmunoassay

  4. Doctoring Undercover: updating the educational tradition of shadowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Claire D

    2017-01-01

    Premedical students are educated in basic biological and health sciences. As a complement to traditional premedical coursework, medical school applicants are encouraged to shadow practitioners, with the hope that observation will introduce students to the culture and practice of healthcare. Yet the shadowing experience varies widely across practitioners and institutions; resources that guide students' critical reflection and structure the experience are scarce. A pilot experiential learning course, Doctoring Undercover: Shadowing and the Culture of Medicine, was developed to fill this gap. The course consisted of three parts: an introduction to medical culture through the disciplines of medical sociology, history, anthropology, and bioethics; a site placement in which students applied these fields' analytical techniques to the study of medical culture and practice; and the development of an online activity guide that other premedical students may adapt to their shadowing circumstances. Students reported that they were exposed to new disciplinary perspectives and interprofessional environments that they would not traditionally encounter. Students' contributions to the shadowing guide encouraged active learning and reflection on the dynamics of effective patient-provider relationships and shadowing experiences. Locally, the class may be scaled for a larger group of premedical students and incorporated into a formal pathway program for premedical students; the content will also be integrated into the clinical medicine course for first-year medical students. Online, the guide will be promoted for use by other institutions and by individuals planning extracurricular shadowing experiences; feedback will be solicited. Tools for evaluating the short- and long-term impact of the course and guide will be developed and validated. Observational and experimental studies of the course's impact should be conducted. ICM: Introduction to Clinical Medicine; SCE: Selective Clinical

  5. Monitoring of Shadow Cash Flows Using Computer Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Vladimirovna Baturina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The computer simulation of economic systems is a promising tool in the development of the theory of the country’s economic security. We have examined the Russian banking legislation and synthesized judicial economic expertise. This has allowed to develop an algorithm for the investigation of the marker pattern of shadow cash flows. The authors’ algorithm of marker monitoring of cash flow consists of the following sequences. Firstly, we set the time of the first receipt of money and the first withdrawals. Secondly, we compare cash balance of an organization at the beginning of the period with the first withdrawals. Thirdly, under the given condition, the minimum value of interested money flow in these withdrawals is calculated. This value is characterized by the marker parameters and forms a table containing data on the cash flow, recipients and payers, spheres of their activity. And last, on the basis of this table, we build a graph of relationships between the subjects of the shadow economy. The graph’s vertices represent these subjects. The visual representation of the graph is a marker pattern of shadow cash flow. The practical importance of this algorithm is due to its applicability in the investigation of economic crimes both at the stage of intelligence operations, and when obtaining proofs of the brought criminal cases in the form of the conclusions of expertseconomists. In addition, marker patterns of shadow cash flows can describe the state of the shadow economy of a region as a whole including its dynamics. This expands its parameterization. The created database of the shadow flows of the economy can be also useful for the scientific community. On the basis of the received results, we have developed management decisions to create and administer the information resource of the Bank of Russia “Shadow economy of a region”. This information resource ensures tracking the marker trace of cash flow in the bank environment by the

  6. Numerical methods in software and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, John R

    1992-01-01

    Numerical Methods, Software, and Analysis, Second Edition introduces science and engineering students to the methods, tools, and ideas of numerical computation. Introductory courses in numerical methods face a fundamental problem-there is too little time to learn too much. This text solves that problem by using high-quality mathematical software. In fact, the objective of the text is to present scientific problem solving using standard mathematical software. This book discusses numerous programs and software packages focusing on the IMSL library (including the PROTRAN system) and ACM Algorithm

  7. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new formulation termed the Integrated Force Method (IFM) was proposed by Patnaik ... nated ``Structure (nY m)'' where (nY m) are the force and displacement degrees of ..... Patnaik S N, Yadagiri S 1976 Frequency analysis of structures.

  8. Modern methods of wine quality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Зуфарівна Гайда

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper physical-chemical and enzymatic methods of quantitative analysis of the basic wine components were reviewed. The results of own experiments were presented for the development of enzyme- and cell-based amperometric sensors on ethanol, lactate, glucose, arginine

  9. Search for TeV-Antiprotons in Space from the Shadowing of Cosmic Rays by the Moon with the L3+C Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yupeng

    2005-01-01

    A search for antiprotons in the primary cosmic ray flux has been performed by observing the Moon shadow with the muon data collected by the L3+C experiment at CERN during 1999 and 2000. The angular resolution of the detector and its dependences on the muon energy and zenith angle are obtained at the event level with a Monte Carlo simulation and the analysis of real double muon data using a maximum likelihood method. The Moon shadow effect is observed in three muon momentum bands > 100GeV/c, 65 - 100 GeV/c and 30 - 65 GeV/c with a significance of 7.0 cr, 5.8 cr and 5.2 cr respectively. Two dimensional maximum likelihood analyses are performed, both with binned data and unbinned data. The unbinned method gives a smaller uncertainty on the measurement of the antiproton to proton ratio. For a muon momentum cut at 70 GeV/c, the antiproton to proton ratio is measured to be -0.12 + 0.11 and an upper limit of this ratio is estimated to be 0.08 (at 90% confidence level) for primary energies in the range 0.8 TeV to 2.4...

  10. Shadowing of gluons in perturbative QCD: A comparison of different models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the different perturbative QCD-based models for nuclear shadowing of gluons. We show that, in the kinematic region appropriate to the BNL relativistic heavy ion collider experiment, all models give similar estimates for the magnitude of gluon shadowing. At scales relevant to CERN large hadron collider (LHC), there is a sizable difference between the predictions of the different models. However, the uncertainties in gluon shadowing coming from a different parametrization of the gluon distribution in nucleons, are larger than those due to different perturbative QCD models of gluon shadowing. We also investigate the effect of initial nonperturbative shadowing on the magnitude of perturbative shadowing and show that the magnitudes of perturbative and nonperturbative shadowing are comparable at RHIC but perturbative shadowing dominates over nonperturbative shadowing at smaller values of x reached at LHC

  11. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES IN TOURISM. APOSSIBLE MODEL BY FOSTERING SHADOW FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Mirela TOMESCU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the result of an empirical research, a study that includes a theoretical framework. The data used to test our hypotheses come from 60 small tourism firms from Bihor County, Romania. The research conducted has revealed that actions focusing on innovation must be based on a solid analysis, supported by the knowledge and the understanding of the contextual factors (environment, culture as a mental programming, values also based on the organizational factors (the management commitment, systemic perspective, learning and practice of experimentation, rapid transfer of knowledge within the organization. For the purpose of this work, the contextual factors that are exogenous represent the shadow factors. The studies performed in three European projects implemented in tourism SMEs of Bihor County have allowed us to advance the idea that contextual and organizational factors, that are identified as the source of innovation are based on rationality, which is enlarged by affectivity and imagination. The identified correlations may be considered, in our opinion an element of novelty and originality. Finally, the purpose of this paper is to provide a possible model, based on the idea of building an innovative firm, the one that has learned how to determine their own employees to be innovative. O03, L2, L26

  12. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  13. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  14. Reliability and risk analysis methods research plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This document presents a plan for reliability and risk analysis methods research to be performed mainly by the Reactor Risk Branch (RRB), Division of Risk Analysis and Operations (DRAO), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. It includes those activities of other DRAO branches which are very closely related to those of the RRB. Related or interfacing programs of other divisions, offices and organizations are merely indicated. The primary use of this document is envisioned as an NRC working document, covering about a 3-year period, to foster better coordination in reliability and risk analysis methods development between the offices of Nuclear Regulatory Research and Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It will also serve as an information source for contractors and others to more clearly understand the objectives, needs, programmatic activities and interfaces together with the overall logical structure of the program

  15. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-08-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

  16. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  17. The Contribution of the Human Body in Young Children's Explanations About Shadow Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakleioti, Evagelia; Pantidos, Panagiotis

    2016-02-01

    This paper begins with the view that the generation of meaning is a multimodal process. Props, drawings, graphs, gestures, as well as speech and written text are all mediators through which students construct new knowledge. Each semiotic context makes a unique contribution to the conceptualization of scientific entities. The human body, in particular, can function as a factor in both representation and explanation, serving as a link between verbal discourse and setting. Considering this perspective, a body-based activity was designed for kindergarten children, involving the concept of a shadow. The 3-D arrangement of the light from the light source, the human body (the obstacle), and the resulting shadow plays a central role. Using their own bodies as obstacles to the light, the children were able to explore the direction of the light and to change the relative positions of the light source and the obstacle. They formed hypotheses and were able to test them by moving on the stage. This body-centered activity explicitly incorporates the rectilinear movement of light into the process of shadow formation, while also providing learning through direct experience. Positive effects on learning were achieved for the group of children who participated in the activity, while the video analysis showed that many of the children were able to use their bodies to transfer to a different setting the embodied knowledge they acquired. This, according to researchers in the field of science education, is a powerful indication of conceptual change.

  18. K Coverage Probability of 5G Wireless Cognitive Radio Network under Shadow Fading Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur S. Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Land mobile communication is burdened with typical propagation constraints due to the channel characteristics in radio systems.Also,the propagation characteristics vary form place to place and also as the mobile unit moves,from time to time.Hence,the tramsmission path between transmitter and receiver varies from simple direct LOS to the one which is severely obstructed by buildings,foliage and terrain.Multipath propagation and shadow fading effects affect the signal strength of an arbitrary Transmitter-Receiver due to the rapid fluctuations in the phase and amplitude of signal which also determines the average power over an area of tens or hundreds of meters.Shadowing introduces additional fluctuations,so the received local mean power varies around the area –mean.The present section deals with the performance analysis of fifth generation wireless cognitive radio network on the basis of signal and interference level based k coverage probability under the shadow fading effects.

  19. Computational methods for nuclear criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragni, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear criticality safety analyses require the utilization of methods which have been tested and verified against benchmarks results. In this work, criticality calculations based on the KENO-IV and MCNP codes are studied aiming the qualification of these methods at the IPEN-CNEN/SP and COPESP. The utilization of variance reduction techniques is important to reduce the computer execution time, and several of them are analysed. As practical example of the above methods, a criticality safety analysis for the storage tubes for irradiated fuel elements from the IEA-R1 research has been carried out. This analysis showed that the MCNP code is more adequate for problems with complex geometries, and the KENO-IV code shows conservative results when it is not used the generalized geometry option. (author)

  20. Training Classifiers with Shadow Features for Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Song, Wei; Cho, Kyungeun; Wong, Raymond; Wong, Kelvin K L

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, a novel training/testing process for building/using a classification model based on human activity recognition (HAR) is proposed. Traditionally, HAR has been accomplished by a classifier that learns the activities of a person by training with skeletal data obtained from a motion sensor, such as Microsoft Kinect. These skeletal data are the spatial coordinates (x, y, z) of different parts of the human body. The numeric information forms time series, temporal records of movement sequences that can be used for training a classifier. In addition to the spatial features that describe current positions in the skeletal data, new features called 'shadow features' are used to improve the supervised learning efficacy of the classifier. Shadow features are inferred from the dynamics of body movements, and thereby modelling the underlying momentum of the performed activities. They provide extra dimensions of information for characterising activities in the classification process, and thereby significantly improve the classification accuracy. Two cases of HAR are tested using a classification model trained with shadow features: one is by using wearable sensor and the other is by a Kinect-based remote sensor. Our experiments can demonstrate the advantages of the new method, which will have an impact on human activity detection research.

  1. Training Classifiers with Shadow Features for Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel training/testing process for building/using a classification model based on human activity recognition (HAR is proposed. Traditionally, HAR has been accomplished by a classifier that learns the activities of a person by training with skeletal data obtained from a motion sensor, such as Microsoft Kinect. These skeletal data are the spatial coordinates (x, y, z of different parts of the human body. The numeric information forms time series, temporal records of movement sequences that can be used for training a classifier. In addition to the spatial features that describe current positions in the skeletal data, new features called ‘shadow features’ are used to improve the supervised learning efficacy of the classifier. Shadow features are inferred from the dynamics of body movements, and thereby modelling the underlying momentum of the performed activities. They provide extra dimensions of information for characterising activities in the classification process, and thereby significantly improve the classification accuracy. Two cases of HAR are tested using a classification model trained with shadow features: one is by using wearable sensor and the other is by a Kinect-based remote sensor. Our experiments can demonstrate the advantages of the new method, which will have an impact on human activity detection research.

  2. PIXE - a new method for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.A.E.

    1983-01-01

    With elemental analysis we mean the determination of which chemical elements are present in a sample and of their concentration. This is an old and important problem in chemistry. The earliest methods were purely chemical and many such methods are still used. However, various methods based on physical principles have gradually become more and more important. One such method is neutron activation. When the sample is bombarded with neutrons it becomes radioactive and the various radioactive isotopes produced can be identified by the radiation they emit. From the measured intensity of the radiation one can calculate how much of a certain element that is present in the sample. Another possibility is to study the light emitted when the sample is excited in various ways. A spectroscopic investigation of the light can identify the chemical elements and allows also a determination of their concentration in the sample. In the same way, if a sample can be brought to emit X-rays, this radiation is also characteristic for the elements present and can be used to determine the elemental concentration. One such X-ray method which has been developed recently is PIXE. The name is an acronym for Particle Induced X-ray Emission and indicates the principle of the method. Particles in this context means heavy, charged particles such as protons and a-particles of rather high energy. Hence, in PIXE-analysis the sample is irradiated in the beam of an accelerator and the emitted X-rays are studied. (author)

  3. Numerical simulation of seismic low-frequency shadows and its application%地震低频伴影的数值模拟与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺振华; 熊晓军; 边立恩

    2008-01-01

    Strong low-frequency energy beneath a hydrocarbon reservoir is called a seismic low-frequency shadow and can be used as a hydrocarbon indicator (Taner et al., 1979) but the physical mechanism of the observed low-frequency shadow is still unclear. To study the mechanism, we performed seismic numerical simulation of geological models with a hydrocarbon-bearing zone using the 2-D diffusive-viscous wave equation which can effectively model the characteristics of velocity dispersion and transform the seismic data centered in a target layer slice within a time window to the time-frequency domain by using time-frequency signal analysis and sort the frequency gathers to common frequency cubes. Then, we observe the characteristics of the seismic low-frequency shadow in the common frequency cubes. The numerical simulations reveal that the main mechanism of seismic low-frequency shadows is attributed to high attenuation of the medium to high seismic frequency components caused by absorption in the hydrocarbon-filled reservoir. Results from a practical example of seismic low-frequency shadows show that it is possible to identify the reservoir by the low-frequency shadow with high S/N seismic data.

  4. Abnormal chest shadow on CT in immunosuppressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    An abnormal chest shadow was observed on CT scans in 25 cases of 23 immunosuppressed patients. Pulmonary disease was pathologically confirmed to be pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PC pneumonia) in four patients, cytomegalovirus pneumonia (CMV pneumonia) in one, bacterial pneumonia in seven, fungal infection in three, miliary tuberculosis in one, leukemic infiltration in two, lymphangitis carcinomatosa in three, drug-induced pneumonitis in three, and ARDS in one. In almost all patients, especially those with infectious diseases such as PC pneumonia, CMV pneumonia, and bacterial pneumonia, the abnormal shadow was wide and visible in the bilateral lung fields. We presumed that such findings as lobular shadow, centrilobular shadow, and mosaic pattern reflected the extension of disease via the respiratory tract, and that those findings are typical of infectious diseases. Because such findings as abnormal linear shadow and swelling of a broncho-vascular bundle were very frequently recognized in patients with lymphangitis carcinomatosa and frequently recognized in those with drug-induced pneumonitis, these diseases may be distinguished from other diseases. An area of slightly increased density was frequently recognized in patients with PC pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, and drug-induced pneumonitis. Such lesions were pathologically confirmed to be located in the interstitium and/or alveolus. CT was extremely useful in comprehending the character and extension of particular diseases among various diseases. As the number of patients studied was small, the utility of CT in immunosuppressed patients requires further investigation in a larger number of patients. (author)

  5. The interrupted power law and the size of shadow banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is "interrupted" by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an "interrupted" Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate-which we propose as a shadow banking index-compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity.

  6. Dependability Analysis Methods For Configurable Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahll, Gustav; Pulkkinen, Urho

    1996-01-01

    Configurable software systems are systems which are built up by standard software components in the same way as a hardware system is built up by standard hardware components. Such systems are often used in the control of NPPs, also in safety related applications. A reliability analysis of such systems is therefore necessary. This report discusses what configurable software is, and what is particular with respect to reliability assessment of such software. Two very commonly used techniques in traditional reliability analysis, viz. failure mode, effect and criticality analysis (FMECA) and fault tree analysis are investigated. A real example is used to illustrate the discussed methods. Various aspects relevant to the assessment of the software reliability in such systems are discussed. Finally some models for quantitative software reliability assessment applicable on configurable software systems are described. (author)

  7. The inclusion of shadowing effect in the reaction-rates calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, M.A.M.

    1990-03-01

    A method for the Resonance Integral calculation in the fuel and moderator regions is presented including the Shadowing effect. This effect appears due to the presence of several fuel rods in a infinite moderator region. The method is based on the approximations to the J (ζ, β) function and theirs partial derivatives in relation to β. The dependence of the Resonance Integral in the J (ζ, β) comes from the rational approximation to the neutron escape probability. The final results are obtained in a very simple and fast way, and show the good accuracy of the method. (author)

  8. Cask crush pad analysis using detailed and simplified analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST). This facility, located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a US Department of Energy site. The basis for this study is an analysis by Uldrich and Hawkes. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate various hypothetical cask drop orientations to ensure that the crush pad design was adequate and the cask deceleration at impact was less than 100 g. It is demonstrated herein that a large spent fuel shipping cask, when dropped onto a foam crush pad, can be analyzed by either hand methods or by sophisticated dynamic finite element analysis using computer codes such as ABAQUS. Results from the two methods are compared to evaluate accuracy of the simplified hand analysis approach

  9. Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushpalatha C. Bhat

    2001-10-03

    During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.

  10. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  11. Simple gas chromatographic method for furfural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Elvira M S M; Lopes, João F

    2009-04-03

    A new, simple, gas chromatographic method was developed for the direct analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furfural (2-F) and 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) in liquid and water soluble foods, using direct immersion SPME coupled to GC-FID and/or GC-TOF-MS. The fiber (DVB/CAR/PDMS) conditions were optimized: pH effect, temperature, adsorption and desorption times. The method is simple and accurate (RSDfurfurals will contribute to characterise and quantify their presence in the human diet.

  12. A uniform geometrical optics and an extended uniform geometrical theory of diffraction for evaluating high frequency EM fields near smooth caustics and composite shadow boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    A uniform geometrical optics (UGO) and an extended uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (EUTD) are developed for evaluating high frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields within transition regions associated with a two and three dimensional smooth caustic of reflected rays and a composite shadow boundary formed by the caustic termination or the confluence of the caustic with the reflection shadow boundary (RSB). The UGO is a uniform version of the classic geometrical optics (GO). It retains the simple ray optical expressions of classic GO and employs a new set of uniform reflection coefficients. The UGO also includes a uniform version of the complex GO ray field that exists on the dark side of the smooth caustic. The EUTD is an extension of the classic uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) and accounts for the non-ray optical behavior of the UGO reflected field near caustics by using a two-variable transition function in the expressions for the edge diffraction coefficients. It also uniformly recovers the classic UTD behavior of the edge diffracted field outside the composite shadow boundary transition region. The approach employed for constructing the UGO/EUTD solution is based on a spatial domain physical optics (PO) radiation integral representation for the fields which is then reduced using uniform asymptotic procedures. The UGO/EUTD analysis is also employed to investigate the far-zone RCS problem of plane wave scattering from two and three dimensional polynomial defined surfaces, and uniform reflection, zero-curvature, and edge diffraction coefficients are derived. Numerical results for the scattering and diffraction from cubic and fourth order polynomial strips are also shown and the UGO/EUTD solution is validated by comparison to an independent moment method (MM) solution. The UGO/EUTD solution is also compared with the classic GO/UTD solution. The failure of the classic techniques near caustics and composite shadow boundaries is clearly

  13. Neutron activation analysis: principle and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful isotope specific nuclear analytical technique for simultaneous determination of elemental composition of major, minor and trace elements in diverse matrices. The technique is capable of yielding high analytical sensitivity and low detection limits (ppm to ppb). Due to high penetration power of neutrons and gamma rays, NAA experiences negligible matrix effects in the samples of different origins. Depending on the sample matrix and element of interest NAA technique is used non-destructively, known as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), or through chemical NAA methods. The present article describes principle of NAA, different methods and gives a overview some applications in the fields like environment, biology, geology, material sciences, nuclear technology and forensic sciences. (author)

  14. Digital dream analysis: a revised method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2014-10-01

    This article demonstrates the use of a digital word search method designed to provide greater accuracy, objectivity, and speed in the study of dreams. A revised template of 40 word search categories, built into the website of the Sleep and Dream Database (SDDb), is applied to four "classic" sets of dreams: The male and female "Norm" dreams of Hall and Van de Castle (1966), the "Engine Man" dreams discussed by Hobson (1988), and the "Barb Sanders Baseline 250" dreams examined by Domhoff (2003). A word search analysis of these original dream reports shows that a digital approach can accurately identify many of the same distinctive patterns of content found by previous investigators using much more laborious and time-consuming methods. The results of this study emphasize the compatibility of word search technologies with traditional approaches to dream content analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical methods and analysis of multiscale problems

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Alexandre L

    2017-01-01

    This book is about numerical modeling of multiscale problems, and introduces several asymptotic analysis and numerical techniques which are necessary for a proper approximation of equations that depend on different physical scales. Aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, engineering and physics – or researchers seeking a no-nonsense approach –, it discusses examples in their simplest possible settings, removing mathematical hurdles that might hinder a clear understanding of the methods. The problems considered are given by singular perturbed reaction advection diffusion equations in one and two-dimensional domains, partial differential equations in domains with rough boundaries, and equations with oscillatory coefficients. This work shows how asymptotic analysis can be used to develop and analyze models and numerical methods that are robust and work well for a wide range of parameters.

  16. Qualitative data analysis a methods sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Matthew B; Saldana, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    The Third Edition of Miles & Huberman's classic research methods text is updated and streamlined by Johnny SaldaNa, author of The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. Several of the data display strategies from previous editions are now presented in re-envisioned and reorganized formats to enhance reader accessibility and comprehension. The Third Edition's presentation of the fundamentals of research design and data management is followed by five distinct methods of analysis: exploring, describing, ordering, explaining, and predicting. Miles and Huberman's original research studies are profiled and accompanied with new examples from SaldaNa's recent qualitative work. The book's most celebrated chapter, "Drawing and Verifying Conclusions," is retained and revised, and the chapter on report writing has been greatly expanded, and is now called "Writing About Qualitative Research." Comprehensive and authoritative, Qualitative Data Analysis has been elegantly revised for a new generation of qualitative r...

  17. An exergy method for compressor performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, J A; Harte, S [Trinity Coll., Dublin (Ireland)

    1995-07-01

    An exergy method for compressor performance analysis is presented. The purpose of this is to identify and quantify defects in the use of a compressor`s shaft power. This information can be used as the basis for compressor design improvements. The defects are attributed to friction, irreversible heat transfer, fluid throttling, and irreversible fluid mixing. They are described, on a common basis, as exergy destruction rates and their locations are identified. The method can be used with any type of positive displacement compressor. It is most readily applied where a detailed computer simulation program is available for the compressor. An analysis of an open reciprocating refrigeration compressor that used R12 refrigerant is given as an example. The results that are presented consist of graphs of the instantaneous rates of exergy destruction according to the mechanisms involved, a pie chart of the breakdown of the average shaft power wastage by mechanism, and a pie chart with a breakdown by location. (author)

  18. Shadow corrosion evaluation in the Studsvik R2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Ch.; Lysell, G.

    2000-01-01

    Post-irradiation examination has shown that increased corrosion occurs when zirconium alloys are in contact with or in proximity to other metallic objects. The observations indicate an influence of irradiation from the adjacent component as the enhanced corrosion occurs as a 'shadow' of the metallic object on the zirconium surface. This phenomenon could ultimately limit the lifetime of certain zirconium alloy components in the reactor. The Studsvik R2 materials test reactor has an In-Core Autoclave (INCA) test facility especially designed for water chemistry and materials research. The INCA facility has been evaluated and found suitable for shadow corrosion studies. The R2 reactor core containing the INCA facility was modeled with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code in order to evaluate the electron deposition in various materials and to develop a hypothesis of the shadow corrosion mechanism. (authors)

  19. Deposition and erosion in local shadow regions of TEXTOR-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienhold, P.; Mayer, M.; Kirschner, A.; Rubel, M.; Hildebrandt, D.; Schneider, W.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon erosion and deposition were investigated on the surface of a flat target covered with an a-C:H film and exposed for 197 s in the SOL of TEXTOR-94. The target was declined by 20 with respect to the toroidal direction and partly protected by an aluminum (3 mm) plate which created an 8 mm wide local shadow. Thickness changes were measured by colorimetry after each plasma discharge. Carbon is eroded from surface areas near the plasma edge (LCFS +1 cm) and transported into the local shadow regions. Accumulation rates up to ∼7 nm/s were found. The erosion in the local shadow regions (about -0.1 nm/s) is due to charge exchange neutrals. The observations are confirmed by ion beam analyses and by preliminary calculations with the B2-EIRENE and ERO-TEXTOR code. (orig.)

  20. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies.

    OpenAIRE

    Feingold, E; Lamb, N E; Sherman, S L

    1995-01-01

    Certain genetic disorders are rare in the general population, but more common in individuals with specific trisomies. Examples of this include leukemia and duodenal atresia in trisomy 21. This paper presents a linkage analysis method for using trisomic individuals to map genes for such traits. It is based on a very general gene-specific dosage model that posits that the trait is caused by specific effects of different alleles at one or a few loci and that duplicate copies of "susceptibility" ...

  1. Machine Learning Methods for Production Cases Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Nataliya V.; Mokrov, Alexander M.; Safonova, Alexandra V.; Vishnyakov, Igor V.

    2018-03-01

    Approach to analysis of events occurring during the production process were proposed. Described machine learning system is able to solve classification tasks related to production control and hazard identification at an early stage. Descriptors of the internal production network data were used for training and testing of applied models. k-Nearest Neighbors and Random forest methods were used to illustrate and analyze proposed solution. The quality of the developed classifiers was estimated using standard statistical metrics, such as precision, recall and accuracy.

  2. Safety relief valve alternate analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.H.; Javid, A.; Khatua, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental test program was started in the United States in 1976 to define and quantify Safety Relief Valve (SRV) phenomena in General Electric Mark I Suppression Chambers. The testing considered several discharged devices and was used to correlate SRV load prediction models. The program was funded by utilities with Mark I containments and has resulted in a detailed SRV load definition as a portion of the Mark I containment program Load Definition Report (LDR). The (USNRC) has reviewed and approved the LDR SRV load definition. In addition, the USNRC has permitted calibration of structural models used for predicting torus response to SRV loads. Model calibration is subject to confirmatory in-plant testing. The SRV methodology given in the LDR requires that transient dynamic pressures be applied to a torus structural model that includes a fluid added mass matrix. Preliminary evaluations of torus response have indicated order of magnitude conservatisms, with respect to test results, which could result in unrealistic containment modifications. In addition, structural response trends observed in full-scale tests between cold pipe, first valve actuation and hot pipe, subsequent valve actuation conditions have not been duplicated using current analysis methods. It was suggested by others that an energy approach using current fluid models be utilized to define loads. An alternate SRV analysis method is defined to correct suppression chamber structural response to a level that permits economical but conservative design. Simple analogs are developed for the purpose of correcting the analytical response obtained from LDR analysis methods. Analogs evaluated considered forced vibration and free vibration structural response. The corrected response correlated well with in-plant test response. The correlation of the analytical model at test conditions permits application of the alternate analysis method at design conditions. (orig./HP)

  3. Analysis and comparison of biometric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Zatloukal, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with biometrics and biometric systems and the possibility to use these systems in the enterprise. Aim of this study is an analysis and description of selected types of biometric identification methods and their advantages and shortcomings. The work is divided into two parts. The first part is theoretical, describes the basic concepts of biometrics, biometric identification criteria, currently used identification systems, the ways of biometric systems use, performance measurem...

  4. Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Poern, K.

    1997-04-01

    We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods

  5. Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, (Finland); Poern, K. [Poern Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods. 14 refs, 10 figs.

  6. HEDONIC DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR BEEF IN BENIN METROPOLIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIUAGRIC2

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... implicit demand for beef within the framework of a hedonic analysis, and the implicit or shadow price of beef were examined. Primary data ... results of the Hedonic analysis showed that, with an average unit price of N836.57 for beef, a consumer is strongly willing to pay ... method and strategies. Lancaster ...

  7. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun Ho [Inzest Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun Sang [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  8. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun Ho; Lee, Kun Sang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  9. Probabilistic methods in fire-risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandyberry, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this work outlines a method for assessing the frequency of ignition of a consumer product in a building and shows how the method would be used in an example scenario utilizing upholstered furniture as the product and radiant auxiliary heating devices (electric heaters, wood stoves) as the ignition source. Deterministic thermal models of the heat-transport processes are coupled with parameter uncertainty analysis of the models and with a probabilistic analysis of the events involved in a typical scenario. This leads to a distribution for the frequency of ignition for the product. In second part, fire-risk analysis as currently used in nuclear plants is outlines along with a discussion of the relevant uncertainties. The use of the computer code COMPBRN is discussed for use in the fire-growth analysis along with the use of response-surface methodology to quantify uncertainties in the code's use. Generalized response surfaces are developed for temperature versus time for a cable tray, as well as a surface for the hot gas layer temperature and depth for a room of arbitrary geometry within a typical nuclear power plant compartment. These surfaces are then used to simulate the cable tray damage time in a compartment fire experiment

  10. An unconventional method of quantitative microstructural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastani, M.

    1995-01-01

    The experiment described here introduces a simple methodology which could be used to replace the time-consuming and expensive conventional methods of metallographic and quantitative analysis of thermal treatment effect on microstructure. The method is ideal for the microstructural evaluation of tungsten filaments and other wire samples such as copper wire which can be conveniently coiled. Ten such samples were heat treated by ohmic resistance at temperatures which were expected to span the recrystallization range. After treatment, the samples were evaluated in the elastic recovery test. The normalized elastic recovery factor was defined in terms of these deflections. Experimentally it has shown that elastic recovery factor depends on the degree of recrystallization. In other words this factor is used to determine the fraction of unrecrystallized material. Because the elastic recovery method examines the whole filament rather than just one section through the filament as in metallographical method, it more accurately measures the degree of recrystallization. The method also takes a considerably shorter time and cost compared to the conventional method

  11. Homotopy analysis method for neutron diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavdar, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), proposed in 1992 by Shi Jun Liao and has been developed since then, is based on a fundamental concept in differential geometry and topology, the homotopy. It has proved useful for problems involving algebraic, linear/non-linear, ordinary/partial differential and differential-integral equations being an analytic, recursive method that provides a series sum solution. It has the advantage of offering a certain freedom for the choice of its arguments such as the initial guess, the auxiliary linear operator and the convergence control parameter, and it allows us to effectively control the rate and region of convergence of the series solution. HAM is applied for the fixed source neutron diffusion equation in this work, which is a part of our research motivated by the question of whether methods for solving the neutron diffusion equation that yield straightforward expressions but able to provide a solution of reasonable accuracy exist such that we could avoid analytic methods that are widely used but either fail to solve the problem or provide solutions through many intricate expressions that are likely to contain mistakes or numerical methods that require powerful computational resources and advanced programming skills due to their very nature or intricate mathematical fundamentals. Fourier basis are employed for expressing the initial guess due to the structure of the problem and its boundary conditions. We present the results in comparison with other widely used methods of Adomian Decomposition and Variable Separation.

  12. Detector Simulation: Data Treatment and Analysis Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, J

    2011-01-01

    Detector Simulation in 'Data Treatment and Analysis Methods', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '4.1 Detector Simulation' of Chapter '4 Data Treatment and Analysis Methods' with the content: 4.1 Detector Simulation 4.1.1 Overview of simulation 4.1.1.1 Uses of detector simulation 4.1.2 Stages and types of simulation 4.1.2.1 Tools for event generation and detector simulation 4.1.2.2 Level of simulation and computation time 4.1.2.3 Radiation effects and background studies 4.1.3 Components of detector simulation 4.1.3.1 Geometry modeling 4.1.3.2 External fields 4.1.3.3 Intro...

  13. Data Analysis Methods for Library Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Toshiro; Kim, Eunja

    Our society is rapidly changing to information society, where the needs and requests of the people on information access are different widely from person to person. Library's mission is to provide its users, or patrons, with the most appropriate information. Libraries have to know the profiles of their patrons, in order to achieve such a role. The aim of library marketing is to develop methods based on the library data, such as circulation records, book catalogs, book-usage data, and others. In this paper we discuss the methodology and imporatnce of library marketing at the beginning. Then we demonstrate its usefulness through some examples of analysis methods applied to the circulation records in Kyushu University and Guacheon Library, and some implication that obtained as the results of these methods. Our research is a big beginning towards the future when library marketing is an unavoidable tool.

  14. Estimating Outdoor Illumination Conditions Based on Detection of Dynamic Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus B.; Lal, Brajesh Behari

    2013-01-01

    into the image stream to achieve realistic Augmented Reality where the shading and the shadowing of virtual objects is consistent with the real scene. Other techniques require the presence of a known object, a light probe, in the scene for estimating illumination. The technique proposed here works in general......The paper proposes a technique for estimation outdoor illumination conditions in terms of sun and sky radiances directly from pixel values of dynamic shadows detected in video sequences produved by a commercial stereo camera. The technique is applied to the rendering of virtual object...

  15. Ferromagnetic shadow mask for spray coating of polymer patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Bosco, Filippo; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We present the fabrication of a wafer-scale shadow mask with arrays of circular holes with diameters of 150–400 μm. Standard UV photolithography is used to define 700 μm thick SU-8 structures followed by electroplating of nickel and etching of the template. The ferromagnetic properties of the sha......We present the fabrication of a wafer-scale shadow mask with arrays of circular holes with diameters of 150–400 μm. Standard UV photolithography is used to define 700 μm thick SU-8 structures followed by electroplating of nickel and etching of the template. The ferromagnetic properties...

  16. Medium Access Control for Opportunistic Concurrent Transmissions under Shadowing Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Min Hur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of how to alleviate the exposed terminal effect in multihop wireless networks in the presence of log-normal shadowing channels. Assuming node location information, we propose an extension of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol that schedules concurrent transmissions in the presence of log-normal shadowing, thus mitigating the exposed terminal problem and improving network throughput and delay performance. We observe considerable improvements in throughput and delay achieved over the IEEE 802.11 MAC under various network topologies and channel conditions in ns-2 simulations, which justify the importance of considering channel randomness in MAC protocol design for multihop wireless networks.

  17. Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)

  18. Industrial Ecology and Environmental Lean Management: Lights and Shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ioppolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Current industrial production is driven by increasing globalization, which has led to a steady increase in production volumes and complexity of products aimed at the pursuit of meeting the needs of customers. In this context, one of the main tools in the management of customer value is Lean Manufacturing or Production, though it is considered primarily as a set of tools to reduce the total cost of the resources needed to achieve such needs. This philosophy has recently been enriched in the literature with case studies that link Lean Management (LM with the improvement of environmental sustainability. The consequence is an expansion of the Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM; indeed, CIM, currently, combining and integrating the key business functions (e.g., business, engineering, manufacturing, and information management with a view of the life cycle, does not highlight the strategic role of the environmental aspects. In order to deal with the increasingly rapid environmental degradation that is reflected in society, in terms of both economy and quality of life, Industrial Ecology (IE introduced a new paradigm of principles and instruments of analysis and decision support (e.g., Life Cycle Assessment—LCA, Social Life Cycle Assessment -SLCA, Material Flow Account—MFA, etc. that can be considered as the main basis for integrating the environmental aspects in each strategy, design, production, final product, and end of life management, through the re-engineering of processes and activities towards the development of an eco-industrial system. This paper presents the preliminary observations based on a analysis of both theories (LM-IE and provides a possible assessment of the key factors relevant to their integration in a “lean environmental management”, highlighting both positives (lights and possible barriers (shadows.

  19. The "shadow sign": a radiographic differentiation of stainless steel versus titanium spinal instrumentation in spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Quaidoo, Sean M; Novicoff, Wendy; Park, Andrew; Arlet, Vincent

    2011-12-01

    the "shadow sign" indicator. The method proposed to differentiate titanium from stainless steel falls within the diagnostic studies domain. As unaltered randomization was used to enroll radiographs and the procedure was systematic, this study may be classified in the Level II category.

  20. Evaluation and comparison of signal to noise ratio according to histogram equalization of heart shadow on chest image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eul Kyu [Inje Paik University Hospital at Jeo-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [The Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Sam; Kim, Hyun Soo; Min, Jung Whan; Son, Jin Hyun [The Shingu University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to measure signal to noise ratio (SNR) according to change of equalization from region of interest (ROI) of heart shadow in chest image. We examined images of chest image of 87 patients in a University-affiliated hospital, Seoul, Korea. Chest images of each patient were calculated by using Image. We have analysis socio-demographical variables, SNR according to images, 95% confidence according to SNR of difference in a mean of SNR. Differences of SNR among change of equalization were tested by SPSS Statistics21 ANOVA test for there was statistical significance 95%(p < 0.05). In SNR results, with the quality of distributions in the order of original chest image, original chest image heart shadow and equalization chest image, equalization chest image heart shadow(p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study would be that quantitative evaluation of heart shadow on chest image can be used as an adjunct to the histogram equalization chest image.

  1. Evaluation and comparison of signal to noise ratio according to histogram equalization of heart shadow on chest image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Won; Lee, Eul Kyu; Jeong, Hoi Woun; Kang, Byung Sam; Kim, Hyun Soo; Min, Jung Whan; Son, Jin Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure signal to noise ratio (SNR) according to change of equalization from region of interest (ROI) of heart shadow in chest image. We examined images of chest image of 87 patients in a University-affiliated hospital, Seoul, Korea. Chest images of each patient were calculated by using Image. We have analysis socio-demographical variables, SNR according to images, 95% confidence according to SNR of difference in a mean of SNR. Differences of SNR among change of equalization were tested by SPSS Statistics21 ANOVA test for there was statistical significance 95%(p < 0.05). In SNR results, with the quality of distributions in the order of original chest image, original chest image heart shadow and equalization chest image, equalization chest image heart shadow(p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study would be that quantitative evaluation of heart shadow on chest image can be used as an adjunct to the histogram equalization chest image

  2. Methods of charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar; Chaudhri, M. Nasir; Jabbar, Q.; Nadeem, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of Chaudhri's method for charged-particle activation analysis published in J. Radioanal. Chem. (1977) v. 37 p. 243 has been further demonstrated by extensive calculations. The nuclear reactions 12 C(d,n) 13 N, 63 Cu( 3 He,p) 65 Zn, 107 Ag(α,n) 110 In and 208 Pb(d,p) 209 Pb, the cross sections of which were easily available, have been examined for the detection of 12 C, 63 Cu, 107 Ag and 208 Pb, respectively, in matrices of Cu, Zr and Pb, at the bombarding energies of 4 - 22 MeV. The 'standard' is assumed to be in a carbon matrix. It has been clearly demonstrated that Chaudhri's method, which makes the charged particle activation analysis as simple as neutron activation analysis, provides results which are almost identical to, or only about 1-2 % different, from the results obtained using the full 'Activity Equation' involving solving complex integrals. It is valid even when the difference in the average atomic weights of matrices of the standard and the sample is large. (author)

  3. Development and analysis of finite volume methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, P.

    2010-05-01

    This document is a synthesis of a set of works concerning the development and the analysis of finite volume methods used for the numerical approximation of partial differential equations (PDEs) stemming from physics. In the first part, the document deals with co-localized Godunov type schemes for the Maxwell and wave equations, with a study on the loss of precision of this scheme at low Mach number. In the second part, discrete differential operators are built on fairly general, in particular very distorted or nonconforming, bidimensional meshes. These operators are used to approach the solutions of PDEs modelling diffusion, electro and magneto-statics and electromagnetism by the discrete duality finite volume method (DDFV) on staggered meshes. The third part presents the numerical analysis and some a priori as well as a posteriori error estimations for the discretization of the Laplace equation by the DDFV scheme. The last part is devoted to the order of convergence in the L2 norm of the finite volume approximation of the solution of the Laplace equation in one dimension and on meshes with orthogonality properties in two dimensions. Necessary and sufficient conditions, relatively to the mesh geometry and to the regularity of the data, are provided that ensure the second-order convergence of the method. (author)

  4. Creep analysis by the path function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, J.E.; Pardue, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The finite element method has become a common analysis procedure for the creep analysis of structures. The most recent programs are designed to handle a general class of material properties and are able to calculate elastic, plastic, and creep components of strain under general loading histories. The constant stress approach is too crude a model to accurately represent the actual behaviour of the stress for large time steps. The true path of a point in the effective stress-effective strain (sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c)) plane is often one in which the slope is rapidly changing. Thus the stress level quickly moves away from the initial stress level and then gradually approaches the final one. The result is that the assumed constant stress level quickly becomes inaccurate. What is required is a better method of approximation of the true path in the sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c) space. The method described here is called the path function approach because it employs an assumed function to estimate the motion of points in the sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c) space. (Auth.)

  5. Earthquake Hazard Analysis Methods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, A. M.; Fakhrurrozi, A.

    2018-02-01

    One of natural disasters that have significantly impacted on risks and damage is an earthquake. World countries such as China, Japan, and Indonesia are countries located on the active movement of continental plates with more frequent earthquake occurrence compared to other countries. Several methods of earthquake hazard analysis have been done, for example by analyzing seismic zone and earthquake hazard micro-zonation, by using Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (N-DSHA) method, and by using Remote Sensing. In its application, it is necessary to review the effectiveness of each technique in advance. Considering the efficiency of time and the accuracy of data, remote sensing is used as a reference to the assess earthquake hazard accurately and quickly as it only takes a limited time required in the right decision-making shortly after the disaster. Exposed areas and possibly vulnerable areas due to earthquake hazards can be easily analyzed using remote sensing. Technological developments in remote sensing such as GeoEye-1 provide added value and excellence in the use of remote sensing as one of the methods in the assessment of earthquake risk and damage. Furthermore, the use of this technique is expected to be considered in designing policies for disaster management in particular and can reduce the risk of natural disasters such as earthquakes in Indonesia.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of the Two Geometry Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichers, V.A.

    1993-09-01

    The Two Geometry Method (TGM) was designed specifically for the verification of the uranium enrichment of low enriched UF 6 gas in the presence of uranium deposits on the pipe walls. Complications can arise if the TGM is applied under extreme conditions, such as deposits larger than several times the gas activity, small pipe diameters less than 40 mm and low pressures less than 150 Pa. This report presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the TGM. The impact of the various sources of uncertainty on the performance of the method is discussed. The application to a practical case is based on worst case conditions with regards to the measurement conditions, and on realistic conditions with respect to the false alarm probability and the non detection probability. Monte Carlo calculations were used to evaluate the sensitivity for sources of uncertainty which are experimentally inaccessible. (orig.)

  7. Blood proteins analysis by Raman spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, D. N.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Khristoforova, Yu. A.; Lykina, A. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Kuzmina, T. P.; Davydkin, I. L.; Zakharov, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    This work is devoted to study the possibility of plasma proteins (albumin, globulins) concentration measurement using Raman spectroscopy setup. The blood plasma and whole blood were studied in this research. The obtained Raman spectra showed significant variation of intensities of certain spectral bands 940, 1005, 1330, 1450 and 1650 cm-1 for different protein fractions. Partial least squares regression analysis was used for determination of correlation coefficients. We have shown that the proposed method represents the structure and biochemical composition of major blood proteins.

  8. Moessbauer lineshape analysis by the DISPA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the Moessbauer spectral parameters and hence, the structural and magnetic properties the lineshape should be known. A plot of dispersion versus absorption (DISPA plot) for a pure Lorentzian gives a perfect circle. Directions and magnitudes of DISPA distortions from this reference circle point out the kind of line-broadening mechanism observed. A possibility of the application of the DISPA technique in the Moessbauer lineshape analysis is dealt with in this paper. The method is verified on Moessbauer spectra of sodium nitroprusside, natural iron, and stainless steel. The lineshape of an amorphous metallic alloy Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 is studied by means of the DISPA plots. (author)

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility methods, analysis, circuits, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2016-01-01

    Revised, updated, and expanded, Electromagnetic Compatibility: Methods, Analysis, Circuits, and Measurement, Third Edition provides comprehensive practical coverage of the design, problem solving, and testing of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in electrical and electronic equipment and systems. This new edition provides novel information on theory, applications, evaluations, electromagnetic computational programs, and prediction techniques available. With sixty-nine schematics providing examples for circuit level electromagnetic interference (EMI) hardening and cost effective EMI problem solving, this book also includes 1130 illustrations and tables. Including extensive data on components and their correct implementation, the myths, misapplication, misconceptions, and fallacies that are common when discussing EMC/EMI will also be addressed and corrected.

  10. Method and apparatus for simultaneous spectroelectrochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Bryan, Samuel A; Schroll, Cynthia A; Heineman, William R

    2013-11-19

    An apparatus and method of simultaneous spectroelectrochemical analysis is disclosed. A transparent surface is provided. An analyte solution on the transparent surface is contacted with a working electrode and at least one other electrode. Light from a light source is focused on either a surface of the working electrode or the analyte solution. The light reflected from either the surface of the working electrode or the analyte solution is detected. The potential of the working electrode is adjusted, and spectroscopic changes of the analyte solution that occur with changes in thermodynamic potentials are monitored.

  11. RpA ratio: total shadowing due to running coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Iancu, E.; Triantafyllopoulos, D. N.

    2007-01-01

    We predict that the RpA ratio at the most forward rapidities to be measured at LHC should be strongly suppressed, close to "total shadowing'' (RpA = A^(-1/3)), as a consequence of running coupling effects in the nonlinear QCD evolution.

  12. Perspective: Dynamic Shadowing Growth and its Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping eZhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The unique features of dynamic shadowing growth (DSG in structural and compositional design of nanomaterials are discussed. Their recent applications in energy storage, fuel cell, and solar energy conversion have been reviewed briefly. Future directions for applying DSG nanostructures in renewable energy applications are presented.

  13. Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry using Smartphones and Colored Shadows

    KAUST Repository

    Aguirre-Pablo, Andres A.; Alarfaj, Meshal K.; Li, Erqiang; Hernandez Sanchez, Jose Federico; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the viability of using four low-cost smartphone cameras to perform Tomographic PIV. We use colored shadows to imprint two or three different time-steps on the same image. The back-lighting is accomplished with three sets

  14. Home-to-home communication using 3D shadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatta, T.T.; Härmä, A.; Aghajan, H.

    2009-01-01

    In some visual communication applications it is not possible or even desired to aim at a photorealistic representation of the remote person. One possibility is to aim at stylized visual representations of remote persons, e.g., as avatars shown on a display device or as shadows in lighting. In this

  15. Seri Rama: converting a shadow play puppet to Street Fighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, D B A

    2012-01-01

    Shadow puppet plays, a traditional Malaysian theater art, is slowly losing its appeal to adolescents, who prefer computer games. To help reverse this decline, the authors incorporated the traditional Seri Rama character into the Street Fighter video game. Using modeling, texturing, and animation, they developed a 3D Seri Rama prototype. Users can control Seri Rama with a PlayStation game controller.

  16. Shadow Capital: The Democratization of College Preparatory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Kristin; Stich, Amy E.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine the manifestation and consequences of shadow capital within two public, urban, nonselective, college preparatory-designated high schools serving exclusively nondominant students. Informed by three years of ethnographic data, we argue that the transference of a historically elite college preparatory education from…

  17. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Optical System Using Shadows Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, J. Leiner; Vargas, Q. Lorena; Torres, M. Cesar; Mattos, V. Lorenzo

    2008-04-01

    In this work is developed a three-dimensional reconstruction system using the Shades3D tool of the Matlab® Programming Language and materials of low cost, such as webcam camera, a stick, a weak structured lighting system composed by a desk lamp, and observation plane in which the object is located. The reconstruction is obtained through a triangulation process that is executed after acquiring a sequence of images of the scene with a shadow projected on the object; additionally an image filtering process is done for obtaining only the part of the scene that will be reconstructed. Previously, it is necessary to develop a calibration process for determining the internal camera geometric and optical characteristics (intrinsic parameters), and the 3D position and orientation of the camera frame relative to a certain world coordinate system (extrinsic parameters). The lamp and the stick are used to produce a shadow which scans the object; in this technique, it is not necessary to know the position of the light source, instead the triangulation is obtained using shadow plane produced by intersection between the stick and the illumination pattern. The webcam camera captures all images with the shadow scanning the object, and Shades3D tool processes all information taking into account captured images and calibration parameters. Likewise, this technique is evaluated in the reconstruction of parts of the human body and its application in the detection of external abnormalities and elaboration of prosthesis or implant.

  18. Shadow Formation at Preschool from a Socio-Materiality Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impedovo, Maria Antonietta; Delserieys-Pedregosa, Alice; Jégou, Corinne; Ravanis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    The paper is set in socio-material farming to offer a way of conceptualising actions and interactions of children in preschool involved in the understanding of scientific concepts. A model of early science education about the physical phenomena of shadow formation is implemented in group work in a French context. The research involved 44 children…

  19. Intuitive optics: what great apes infer from mirrors and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, Christoph J; Call, Josep

    2018-05-02

    There is ongoing debate about the extent to which nonhuman animals, like humans, can go beyond first-order perceptual information to abstract structural information from their environment. To provide more empirical evidence regarding this question, we examined what type of information great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans) gain from optical effects such as shadows and mirror images. In an initial experiment, we investigated whether apes would use mirror images and shadows to locate hidden food. We found that all examined ape species used these cues to find the food. Follow-up experiments showed that apes neither confused these optical effects with the food rewards nor did they merely associate cues with food. First, naïve chimpanzees used the shadow of the hidden food to locate it but they did not learn within the same number of trials to use a perceptually similar rubber patch as indicator of the hidden food reward. Second, apes made use of the mirror images to estimate the distance of the hidden food from their own body. Depending on the distance, apes either pointed into the direction of the food or tried to access the hidden food directly. Third, apes showed some sensitivity to the geometrical relation between mirror orientation and mirrored objects when searching hidden food. Fourth, apes tended to interpret mirror images and pictures of these mirror images differently depending on their prior knowledge. Together, these findings suggest that apes are sensitive to the optical relation between mirror images and shadows and their physical referents.

  20. Shadowing: Who Benefits and How? Uncovering a Booming EFL Teaching Technique for Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yo

    2016-01-01

    This study examines common claims associated with shadowing. Studies in Japan conclude that shadowing is effective for improving learners' listening skills. Two common claims are that shadowing is effective for lower-proficiency learners and that it enhances learners' phoneme perception, thus improving listening comprehension skills. The former…

  1. The stress shadow induced by the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting episode

    KAUST Repository

    Maccaferri, F.; Rivalta, E.; Passarelli, L.; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2013-01-01

    of several magnitude 6–7 earthquakes. This compelling case of the existence of a stress shadow has never been studied in detail, and the implications of such a stress shadow remain an open question. According to rate-state models, intense stress shadows cause

  2. Investigating shadows: a pedagogical intervention project with primary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noversa, Silvana; Abreu, Cátia; Varela, Paulo; Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2014-07-01

    This communication results from a pedagogical intervention project, carried out at a primary school in the district of Braga - Portugal. The intervention took place in a class of the 3rd year, composed of 16 students, and it incorporated the practice of inquiry-based science teaching addressing the theme "Light Experiments", which is part of the "Environmental Studies" curricular area. Various class activities were planned and implemented concerning some of the factors that influence the shadow of an object, in order to find answers to the following three questions: a) will 3rd year students, aged 7/8 years, be able to construct and execute an investigation strategy that involves manipulating and controlling variables? b) what are the main difficulties experienced by students in the designing and execution of such a strategy? c) how will students, in interaction with the teacher and with their peers, gradually design and execute their investigation strategy in order to respond to the problem formulated? The project adopted an action research methodology. A careful record was kept of the events most relevant to the questions under study in each class. This data was used to prepare the class diaries - descriptive and reflective narratives prepared based on recorded audio and field notes made during participant observation in the context of the classroom. A content analysis of the diaries has identified a few elements that provide answers to the research questions raised. In order to plan and implement a research project with children in the 7/8 years old range require a high level of scaffolding to allow students to gradually build a coherent strategy to tackle the research problem. Teacher's role is crucial. The teacher, by questioning and inducing reasoning and discussion, promotes encourages and regulates the cognitive activity of students. Some level of autonomy should be given to the students in large group collaborative work.

  3. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 2, Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    ideas behind the analysis methods are described as well as the mathematics on which they are based and also how the methods are supported by computer tools. Some parts of the volume are theoretical while others are application oriented. The purpose of the volume is to teach the reader how to use......This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets (CP-nets). The second volume contains a detailed presentation of the analysis methods for CP-nets. They allow the modeller to investigate dynamic properties of CP-nets. The main...... the formal analysis methods, which does not require a deep understanding of the underlying mathematical theory....

  4. Upgrading of analytical method of general sensitivity for feature evaluation of land disposal system. 3. Abstract of report on research entrusted by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    In this research, a method to evaluate features of searching type system was analyzed statistically and deterministically by expanding it to nuclide transport in near-field host rocks. Here was described on abstract of methodology by summarizing fundamental concept on procedure and shadow-model of the feature evaluation based on investigation progress in last fiscal year, details on the nuclide transport in near-field host rocks and analytical method of sensitivity using this research, contents of statistical analysis using the shadow-model of nuclide transport, and summaries of contents and results on the deterministic analysis. (G.K.)

  5. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.; Queenan, C.J. III

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  6. Analysis of methods. [information systems evolution environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J. (Editor); Ackley, Keith A.; Wells, M. Sue; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Decker, Louis P.; Toland, Joel A.; Crump, J. Wesley; Menzel, Christopher P.; Bodenmiller, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Information is one of an organization's most important assets. For this reason the development and maintenance of an integrated information system environment is one of the most important functions within a large organization. The Integrated Information Systems Evolution Environment (IISEE) project has as one of its primary goals a computerized solution to the difficulties involved in the development of integrated information systems. To develop such an environment a thorough understanding of the enterprise's information needs and requirements is of paramount importance. This document is the current release of the research performed by the Integrated Development Support Environment (IDSE) Research Team in support of the IISEE project. Research indicates that an integral part of any information system environment would be multiple modeling methods to support the management of the organization's information. Automated tool support for these methods is necessary to facilitate their use in an integrated environment. An integrated environment makes it necessary to maintain an integrated database which contains the different kinds of models developed under the various methodologies. In addition, to speed the process of development of models, a procedure or technique is needed to allow automatic translation from one methodology's representation to another while maintaining the integrity of both. The purpose for the analysis of the modeling methods included in this document is to examine these methods with the goal being to include them in an integrated development support environment. To accomplish this and to develop a method for allowing intra-methodology and inter-methodology model element reuse, a thorough understanding of multiple modeling methodologies is necessary. Currently the IDSE Research Team is investigating the family of Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) DEFinition (IDEF) languages IDEF(0), IDEF(1), and IDEF(1x), as well as ENALIM, Entity

  7. The Shadow Knows: Using Shadows to Investigate the Structure of the Pretransitional Disk of HD 100453

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Zachary C.; Fernandes, Rachel B.; Sitko, Michael [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Wagner, Kevin [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 163-8677 (Japan); Hashimoto, Jun; Oh, Daehyon; Tamura, Motohide; Yang, Yi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Follette, Katherine [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland CA 96402 (United States); Fukagawa, Misato [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Hasegawa, Yasuhiro [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kluska, Jacques; Kraus, Stefan [University of Exeter Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, Stocker Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Mayama, Satoshi [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); McElwain, Michael W. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Uyama, Taichi [Department of Astronomy and RESCUE, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73071 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We present Gemini Planet Imager polarized intensity imagery of HD 100453 in Y , J , and K 1 bands that reveals an inner gap (9–18 au), an outer disk (18–39 au) with two prominent spiral arms, and two azimuthally localized dark features that are also present in Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) total intensity images. Spectral energy distribution fitting further suggests that the radial gap extends to 1 au. The narrow, wedge-like shape of the dark features appears similar to predictions of shadows cast by an inner disk that is misaligned with respect to the outer disk. Using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code HOCHUNCK3D, we construct a model of the disk that allows us to determine its physical properties in more detail. From the angular separation of the features, we measure the difference in inclination between the disks (45°) and their major axes, PA = 140° east of north for the outer disk, and 100° for the inner disk. We find an outer-disk inclination of 25° ± 10° from face-on, in broad agreement with the Wagner et al. measurement of 34°. SPHERE data in J and H bands indicate a reddish disk, which indicates that HD 100453 is evolving into a young debris disk.

  8. The Shadow Knows: Using Shadows to Investigate the Structure of the Pretransitional Disk of HD 100453

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zachary C.; Fernandes, Rachel B.; Sitko, Michael; Wagner, Kevin; Muto, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Follette, Katherine; Grady, Carol A.; Fukagawa, Misato; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Kluska, Jacques; Kraus, Stefan; Mayama, Satoshi; McElwain, Michael W.; Oh, Daehyon; Tamura, Motohide; Uyama, Taichi; Wisniewski, John P.; Yang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager polarized intensity imagery of HD 100453 in Y, J, and K1 bands that reveals an inner gap (9-18 au), an outer disk (18-39 au) with two prominent spiral arms, and two azimuthally localized dark features that are also present in Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) total intensity images. Spectral energy distribution fitting further suggests that the radial gap extends to 1 au. The narrow, wedge-like shape of the dark features appears similar to predictions of shadows cast by an inner disk that is misaligned with respect to the outer disk. Using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code HOCHUNCK3D, we construct a model of the disk that allows us to determine its physical properties in more detail. From the angular separation of the features, we measure the difference in inclination between the disks (45°) and their major axes, PA = 140° east of north for the outer disk, and 100° for the inner disk. We find an outer-disk inclination of 25° ± 10° from face-on, in broad agreement with the Wagner et al. measurement of 34°. SPHERE data in J and H bands indicate a reddish disk, which indicates that HD 100453 is evolving into a young debris disk.

  9. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  11. Cleanup standards and pathways analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Remediation of a radioactively contaminated site requires that certain regulatory criteria be met before the site can be released for unrestricted future use. Since the ultimate objective of remediation is to protect the public health and safety, residual radioactivity levels remaining at a site after cleanup must be below certain preset limits or meet acceptable dose or risk criteria. Release of a decontaminated site requires proof that the radiological data obtained from the site meet the regulatory criteria for such a release. Typically release criteria consist of a composite of acceptance limits that depend on the radionuclides, the media in which they are present, and federal and local regulations. In recent years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a pathways analysis model to determine site-specific soil activity concentration guidelines for radionuclides that do not have established generic acceptance limits. The DOE pathways analysis computer code (developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the DOE) is called RESRAD (Gilbert et al. 1989). Similar efforts have been initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and use dose-related criteria based on genetic pathways analyses rather than simplistic numerical limits on residual radioactivity. The focus of this paper is radionuclide contaminated soil. Cleanup standards are reviewed, pathways analysis methods are described, and an example is presented in which RESRAD was used to derive cleanup guidelines

  12. 3D analysis methods - Study and seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daaviittila, A.

    2003-10-01

    The first part of the report results from a study that was performed as a Nordic co-operation activity with active participation from Studsvik Scandpower and Westinghouse Atom in Sweden, and VTT in Finland. The purpose of the study was to identify and investigate the effects rising from using the 3D transient com-puter codes in BWR safety analysis, and their influence on the transient analysis methodology. One of the main questions involves the critical power ratio (CPR) calculation methodology. The present way, where the CPR calculation is per-formed with a separate hot channel calculation, can be artificially conservative. In the investigated cases, no dramatic minimum CPR effect coming from the 3D calculation is apparent. Some cases show some decrease in the transient change of minimum CPR with the 3D calculation, which confirms the general thinking that the 1D calculation is conservative. On the other hand, the observed effect on neutron flux behaviour is quite large. In a slower transient the 3D effect might be stronger. The second part of the report is a summary of a related seminar that was held on the 3D analysis methods. The seminar was sponsored by the Reactor Safety part (NKS-R) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS). (au)

  13. Generalized Analysis of a Distribution Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Separating two probability distributions from a mixture model that is made up of the combinations of the two is essential to a wide range of applications. For example, in information retrieval (IR, there often exists a mixture distribution consisting of a relevance distribution that we need to estimate and an irrelevance distribution that we hope to get rid of. Recently, a distribution separation method (DSM was proposed to approximate the relevance distribution, by separating a seed irrelevance distribution from the mixture distribution. It was successfully applied to an IR task, namely pseudo-relevance feedback (PRF, where the query expansion model is often a mixture term distribution. Although initially developed in the context of IR, DSM is indeed a general mathematical formulation for probability distribution separation. Thus, it is important to further generalize its basic analysis and to explore its connections to other related methods. In this article, we first extend DSM’s theoretical analysis, which was originally based on the Pearson correlation coefficient, to entropy-related measures, including the KL-divergence (Kullback–Leibler divergence, the symmetrized KL-divergence and the JS-divergence (Jensen–Shannon divergence. Second, we investigate the distribution separation idea in a well-known method, namely the mixture model feedback (MMF approach. We prove that MMF also complies with the linear combination assumption, and then, DSM’s linear separation algorithm can largely simplify the EM algorithm in MMF. These theoretical analyses, as well as further empirical evaluation results demonstrate the advantages of our DSM approach.

  14. Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Efforts and Observations at the Rocknest Eolian Sand Shadow in Curiosity's Gale Crater Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, K. S.; Yingst, R. A.; Minitti, M. E.; Goetz, W.; Kah, L. C.; Kennedy, M. R.; Lipkaman, L. J.; Jensen, E. H.; Anderson, R. C.; Beegle, L. W.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission is focused on assessing the past or present habitability of Mars, through interrogation of environment and environmental records at the Curiosity rover field site in Gale crater. The MSL team has two methods available to collect, process and deliver samples to onboard analytical laboratories, the Chemistry and Mineralogy instrument (CheMin) and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. One approach obtains samples by drilling into a rock, the other uses a scoop to collect loose regolith fines. Scooping was planned to be first method performed on Mars because materials could be readily scooped multiple times and used to remove any remaining, minute terrestrial contaminants from the sample processing system, the Collection and Handling for In-Situ Martian Rock Analysis (CHIMRA). Because of this cleaning effort, the ideal first material to be scooped would consist of fine to very fine sand, like the interior of the Serpent Dune studied by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit team in 2004 [1]. The MSL team selected a linear eolian deposit in the lee of a group of cobbles they named Rocknest (Fig. 1) as likely to be similar to Serpent Dune. Following the definitions in Chapter 13 of Bagnold [2], the deposit is termed a sand shadow. The scooping campaign occurred over approximately 6 weeks in October and November 2012. To support these activities, the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) acquired images for engineering support/assessment and scientific inquiry.

  15. Voices from the Shadows: Living with Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, Sheila H.; Bonner, Candace M.; Deng, Jie; Sinclair, Vaughn G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer survivors with lymphedema face a lifetime of stressful physical and emotional symptoms and challenging self-care demands. An in-depth understanding of the perceptions and feelings surrounding life with lymphedema is critical to developing effective supportive care approaches. Objective To explore perceptions and feelings related to lymphedema in breast cancer survivors. Method The expressive writings of 39 individuals were evaluated for this descriptive qualitative study. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results Qualitative analyses produced four major themes: (1) marginalization and minimization; (2) multiplying losses; (3) yearning to return to normal; (4) uplifting resources. Sub-themes for each major theme were also identified. Conclusion The lymphedema experiences of breast cancer survivors reveal perceptions of marginalization from healthcare providers who are not well informed about lymphedema management and minimize its impact. Multiple distressing losses confront these patients on a daily basis, including body image disturbances, loss of functionality and control over time, permanent uncertainty, and adverse effects on relationships. The daily challenges of lymphedema often result in cumulative frustration and resentment that contribute to failure to perform self-care. Normalcy has been lost, never to return. These women find solace, encouragement and hope to meet the challenges of lymphedema through support from others and their spiritual beliefs. Implication for Practice Healthcare providers need greater awareness of the physical and psychosocial effects of lymphedema in breast cancer survivors. Nurses have unique opportunities to serve as advocates for reducing perceived marginalization and promoting effective self-care and other activities that promote psychological well-being and reduce physical deterioration. PMID:21558848

  16. Method development for trace and ultratrace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Method development, that is, selection of a mode of chromatography and the right column and mobile-phase combination for trace and ultratrace analysis, requires several main considerations. The method should be useful for resolving various trace and ultratrace components present in the sample. If the nature of these components is known, the choice of method may be straightforward, that is, a selection can be made from the following modes of HPLC: (1) adsorption chromatography; (2) normal-phase chromatography; (3) reversed-phase chromatography; (4) ion-pair chromatography; (5) ion-exchange chromatography; (6) ion chromatography. Unfortunately, the nature of all of the components is frequently unknown. However, several intelligent judgments can be made on the nature of impurities. This chapter deals with some basic approaches to mobile-phase selection and optimization. More detailed information may be found in basic texts. Techniques for separation of high-molecular-weight compounds (macromolecules) and chiral compounds may be found elsewhere. Mainly compounds with molecular weight lower than 2,000 are discussed here. 123 refs

  17. Novel Method of Production Decline Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan; Lan, Yifei; He, Lei; Jiao, Yang; Wu, Yong

    2018-02-01

    ARPS decline curves is the most commonly used in oil and gas field due to its minimal data requirements and ease application. And prediction of production decline which is based on ARPS analysis rely on known decline type. However, when coefficient index are very approximate under different decline type, it is difficult to directly recognize decline trend of matched curves. Due to difficulties above, based on simulation results of multi-factor response experiments, a new dynamic decline prediction model is introduced with using multiple linear regression of influence factors. First of all, according to study of effect factors of production decline, interaction experimental schemes are designed. Based on simulated results, annual decline rate is predicted by decline model. Moreover, the new method is applied in A gas filed of Ordos Basin as example to illustrate reliability. The result commit that the new model can directly predict decline tendency without needing recognize decline style. From arithmetic aspect, it also take advantage of high veracity. Finally, the new method improves the evaluation method of gas well production decline in low permeability gas reservoir, which also provides technical support for further understanding of tight gas field development laws.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony and likelihood methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z

    1996-02-01

    The assumptions underlying the maximum-parsimony (MP) method of phylogenetic tree reconstruction were intuitively examined by studying the way the method works. Computer simulations were performed to corroborate the intuitive examination. Parsimony appears to involve very stringent assumptions concerning the process of sequence evolution, such as constancy of substitution rates between nucleotides, constancy of rates across nucleotide sites, and equal branch lengths in the tree. For practical data analysis, the requirement of equal branch lengths means similar substitution rates among lineages (the existence of an approximate molecular clock), relatively long interior branches, and also few species in the data. However, a small amount of evolution is neither a necessary nor a sufficient requirement of the method. The difficulties involved in the application of current statistical estimation theory to tree reconstruction were discussed, and it was suggested that the approach proposed by Felsenstein (1981, J. Mol. Evol. 17: 368-376) for topology estimation, as well as its many variations and extensions, differs fundamentally from the maximum likelihood estimation of a conventional statistical parameter. Evidence was presented showing that the Felsenstein approach does not share the asymptotic efficiency of the maximum likelihood estimator of a statistical parameter. Computer simulations were performed to study the probability that MP recovers the true tree under a hierarchy of models of nucleotide substitution; its performance relative to the likelihood method was especially noted. The results appeared to support the intuitive examination of the assumptions underlying MP. When a simple model of nucleotide substitution was assumed to generate data, the probability that MP recovers the true topology could be as high as, or even higher than, that for the likelihood method. When the assumed model became more complex and realistic, e.g., when substitution rates were

  19. Influence of shadow effect on the strength of steel beams exposed to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virdi, Kuldeep; Wickström, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    in or in direct contact with concrete are not considered appropriately - only the reduction of the exposed area is taken into account. In addition, the shadow effect is rarely considered in structures with both concrete and asteel elements such as composite floors. It has been mainly used for stand-alone columns...... COMPSEF for the mechanical response. The differences in failure times reflect the savings that can be made using such ‘advanced calculation models’ permitted in Eurocode 3, when compared with the prescriptive methods included in the code....

  20. External event analysis methods for NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, M.P.; Lambright, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring probabilistic risk assessments of six operating commercial nuclear power plants as part of a major update of the understanding of risk as provided by the original WASH-1400 risk assessments. In contrast to the WASH-1400 studies, at least two of the NUREG-1150 risk assessments will include an analysis of risks due to earthquakes, fires, floods, etc., which are collectively known as eternal events. This paper summarizes the methods to be used in the external event analysis for NUREG-1150 and the results obtained to date. The two plants for which external events are being considered are Surry and Peach Bottom, a PWR and BWR respectively. The external event analyses (through core damage frequency calculations) were completed in June 1989, with final documentation available in September. In contrast to most past external event analyses, wherein rudimentary systems models were developed reflecting each external event under consideration, the simplified NUREG-1150 analyses are based on the availability of the full internal event PRA systems models (event trees and fault trees) and make use of extensive computer-aided screening to reduce them to sequence cut sets important to each external event. This provides two major advantages in that consistency and scrutability with respect to the internal event analysis is achieved, and the full gamut of random and test/maintenance unavailabilities are automatically included, while only those probabilistically important survive the screening process. Thus, full benefit of the internal event analysis is obtained by performing the internal and external event analyses sequentially

  1. Spectral Analysis Methods of Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks (such as Facebook, Twitter, VKontakte, etc. being an important channel for disseminating information are often used to arrange an impact on the social consciousness for various purposes - from advertising products or services to the full-scale information war thereby making them to be a very relevant object of research. The paper reviewed the analysis methods of social networks (primarily, online, based on the spectral theory of graphs. Such methods use the spectrum of the social graph, i.e. a set of eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix, and also the eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix.Described measures of centrality (in particular, centrality based on the eigenvector and PageRank, which reflect a degree of impact one or another user of the social network has. A very popular PageRank measure uses, as a measure of centrality, the graph vertices, the final probabilities of the Markov chain, whose matrix of transition probabilities is calculated on the basis of the adjacency matrix of the social graph. The vector of final probabilities is an eigenvector of the matrix of transition probabilities.Presented a method of dividing the graph vertices into two groups. It is based on maximizing the network modularity by computing the eigenvector of the modularity matrix.Considered a method for detecting bots based on the non-randomness measure of a graph to be computed using the spectral coordinates of vertices - sets of eigenvector components of the adjacency matrix of a social graph.In general, there are a number of algorithms to analyse social networks based on the spectral theory of graphs. These algorithms show very good results, but their disadvantage is the relatively high (albeit polynomial computational complexity for large graphs.At the same time it is obvious that the practical application capacity of the spectral graph theory methods is still underestimated, and it may be used as a basis to develop new methods.The work

  2. Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Albuquerque, NM; Phillips, Cynthia A [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-03-14

    A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

  3. Quantitative Risk Analysis: Method And Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass BAYAGA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent and past studies (King III report, 2009: 73-75; Stoney 2007;Committee of Sponsoring Organisation-COSO, 2004, Bartell, 2003; Liebenberg and Hoyt, 2003; Reason, 2000; Markowitz 1957 lament that although, the introduction of quantifying risk to enhance degree of objectivity in finance for instance was quite parallel to its development in the manufacturing industry, it is not the same in Higher Education Institution (HEI. In this regard, the objective of the paper was to demonstrate the methods and process of Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA through likelihood of occurrence of risk (phase I. This paper serves as first of a two-phased study, which sampled hundred (100 risk analysts in a University in the greater Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.The analysis of likelihood of occurrence of risk by logistic regression and percentages were conducted to investigate whether there were a significant difference or not between groups (analyst in respect of QRA.The Hosmer and Lemeshow test was non-significant with a chi-square(X2 =8.181; p = 0.300, which indicated that there was a good model fit, since the data did not significantly deviate from the model. The study concluded that to derive an overall likelihood rating that indicated the probability that a potential risk may be exercised within the construct of an associated threat environment, the following governing factors must be considered: (1 threat source motivation and capability (2 nature of the vulnerability (3 existence and effectiveness of current controls (methods and process.

  4. The Shadow Price of Aircraft Noise Nuisance

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard M.S. van Praag; B.E. Baarsma

    2000-01-01

    This paper has a twofold objective. First, we develop a new method toassess the monetary value for individuals of external effects (viz., aircraftnoise nuisance) which are not or only partly internalized in market prices. The method makes use of an ordinal index of life satisfaction as scored by individual respondents who are subjected in varying intensity to the external effect. Our second objective is to assess, with this method, to what extent noise nuisance effects around Amsterdam Airpor...

  5. Preliminary hazard analysis using sequence tree method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huiwen; Shih Chunkuan; Hung Hungchih; Chen Minghuei; Yih Swu; Lin Jiinming

    2007-01-01

    A system level PHA using sequence tree method was developed to perform Safety Related digital I and C system SSA. The conventional PHA is a brainstorming session among experts on various portions of the system to identify hazards through discussions. However, this conventional PHA is not a systematic technique, the analysis results strongly depend on the experts' subjective opinions. The analysis quality cannot be appropriately controlled. Thereby, this research developed a system level sequence tree based PHA, which can clarify the relationship among the major digital I and C systems. Two major phases are included in this sequence tree based technique. The first phase uses a table to analyze each event in SAR Chapter 15 for a specific safety related I and C system, such as RPS. The second phase uses sequence tree to recognize what I and C systems are involved in the event, how the safety related systems work, and how the backup systems can be activated to mitigate the consequence if the primary safety systems fail. In the sequence tree, the defense-in-depth echelons, including Control echelon, Reactor trip echelon, ESFAS echelon, and Indication and display echelon, are arranged to construct the sequence tree structure. All the related I and C systems, include digital system and the analog back-up systems are allocated in their specific echelon. By this system centric sequence tree based analysis, not only preliminary hazard can be identified systematically, the vulnerability of the nuclear power plant can also be recognized. Therefore, an effective simplified D3 evaluation can be performed as well. (author)

  6. CARBON SEQUESTRATION: A METHODS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher J. Koroneos; Dimitrios C. Rovas

    2008-01-01

    All human activities are related with the energy consumption. Energy requirements will continue to rise, due to the modern life and the developing countries growth. Most of the energy demand emanates from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels combustion has negative environmental impacts, with the CO 2 production to be dominating. The fulfillment of the Kyoto protocol criteria requires the minimization of CO 2 emissions. Thus the management of the CO 2 emissions is an urgent matter. The use of appliances with low energy use and the adoption of an energy policy that prevents the unnecessary energy use, can play lead to the reduction of carbon emissions. A different route is the introduction of ''clean'' energy sources, such as renewable energy sources. Last but not least, the development of carbon sequestration methods can be promising technique with big future potential. The objective of this work is the analysis and comparison of different carbon sequestration and deposit methods. Ocean deposit, land ecosystems deposit, geological formations deposit and radical biological and chemical approaches will be analyzed

  7. Recent improvement of the resonance analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirakov, I.; Lukyanov, A.

    2000-01-01

    By the use of a two-step method called Combined, the R-matrix Wigner-Eisenbud representation in the resonance reaction theory has been converted into other equivalent representations (parameterizations) of the collision matrix with Poles in E domain. Two of them called Capture Elimination (CE) and Reaction Elimination (RE) representation respectively, have energy independent parameters and are both rigorous and applicable. The CE representation is essentially a generalization of the Reich-Moore (RM) formalism. The RE representation, in turn, offers some distinct advantages when analyzing fissile nuclei. The latter does not require any approximation for the capture channels and does not need any assumption about the number of fission channels in contrast to the RM representation. Unlike the RM parameters the RE ones are uniquely determined for applications in the resonance analysis. When given in the RE representation, neutron cross sections of fissile nuclei in the resolved resonance region are presented through simple scalar expressions without the need of matrix inversion. Various computer codes have been developed to demonstrate the viability of the new method. The RM parameters of the fissile nuclei have been converted into equivalent RE parameters implying the RM assumptions (REFINE code). Conversely, the RE parameters have been converted into corresponding RM parameters when one fission channel is present and the RM parameter set is unique, e.g. Pu-239, J =1 (REVERSE code). To further enhance the flexibility of the proposed method the obtained RE parameters have been converted into equivalent Generalized Pole parameters (REFILE code), which are parameters of the rigorous pole expansion of the collision matrix in √E domain. equi valent sets of RM, RE and GP parameters of 239 Pu are given as an example. It has been pointed out that all the advantages of the newly proposed representation can be implemented through an independent evaluation of the RE resonance

  8. The shadow price of aircraft noise nuisance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, B.M.S.; Baarsma, B.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper has a twofold objective. First, we develop a new method to assess the monetary valuefor individuals of external effects. The method makes use of an ordinal index of life satisfaction asscored by individual respondents who are subjected in varying intensity to the external effect.

  9. The shadow price of aircraft noise nuisance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, B.M.S.; Baarsma, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper has a twofold objective. First, we develop a new method toassess the monetary value for individuals of external effects (viz., aircraftnoise nuisance) which are not or only partly internalized in market prices. The method makes use of an ordinal index of life satisfaction as scored by

  10. Shadow casted by a Konoplya-Zhidenko rotating non-Kerr black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingzhi; Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: wmz9085@126.com, E-mail: csb3752@hunnu.edu.cn, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the shadow of a Konoplya-Zhidenko rotating non-Kerr black hole with an extra deformation parameter. The spacetime structure arising from the deformed parameter affects sharply the black hole shadow. With the increase of the deformation parameter, the size of the shadow of black hole increase and its shape becomes more rounded for arbitrary rotation parameter. The D-shape shadow of black hole emerges only in the case a <2√3/3\\, M with the proper deformation parameter. Especially, the black hole shadow possesses a cusp shape with small eye lashes in the cases with a >M, and the shadow becomes less cuspidal with the increase of the deformation parameter. Our result show that the presence of the deformation parameter yields a series of significant patterns for the shadow casted by a Konoplya-Zhidenko rotating non-Kerr black hole.

  11. Determinants of the Shadow Economy in the Czech Regions: A Region-Level Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buček Jakub

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the size and development of the shadow economy in the Czech Republic on the state-level base over the 2005-2014 period. The multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC model is used to assess the estimation of the shadow economy size. I investigate how labour market, number of people with at least one distraint, and the burden of taxation might contribute to the existence of the shadow economy. While the former two are important determinants of the shadow economy, I find no evidence to prove any significant impact of distraints on the shadow economy size. As for the country’s particular regions, I find that those surrounding big cities, especially Prague, have, on average, a smaller shadow economy size, whereas regions in the borderlands (former Sudetenland suffer from a larger shadow economy.

  12. Analysis of thermal power calibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.; Persic, A.

    2000-01-01

    The methods for determining fuel element burnup have recently become interesting because of activities related to the shipment of highly enriched fuel elements back to the United States for final disposal before 2009. The most common and practical method for determining fuel element burnup in research reactors is reactor calculation. Experience has shown that burnup calculations become complicated and biased with uncertainties if a long period of reactor operation must be reproduced. Besides this, accuracy of calculated burnup is always limited with accuracy of reactor power calibration, since burnup calculation is based on calculated power density distribution, which is usually expressed in terms of power released per fuel element and normalised to the reactor power It is obvious that reactor thermal power calibration is very important for precise fuel element burnup calculation. Calculated fuel element burnup is linearly dependent on the thermal reactor power. The reactor power level may be determined from measured absolute thermal flux distribution across the core in the horizontal and vertical planes. Flux distributions are measured with activation of cadmium covered and bare foils irradiated by the steady reactor power. But it should be realised that this method is time consuming and not accurate. This method is practical only for zero power reactors and is in practice very seldom performed for other reactors (e.g. for TRIGA reactor in Ljubljana absolute thermal flux distribution was not performed since reactor reconstruction in 1991). In case of power reactors and research reactors in which a temperature rise across the core is produced and measured than a heat balance method is the most common and accurate method of determining the power output of the core. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the accuracy of calorimetric reactor power calibration method and to analyse the influence of control rod position on nuclear detector reading for TRIGA reactors

  13. A source of illumination for low-noise ‘Violin-Mode’ shadow sensors, intended for use in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Strain, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    A low-noise source of illumination is described for shadow sensors having a displacement sensitivity of (69  ±  13) picometres (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm. These sensors were designed to detect ‘Violin-Mode’ resonances in the suspension fibres of the test-masses/mirrors for the Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) gravitational wave detectors. The source of illumination (emitter) described here used a single column of 8 × miniature near infrared LEDs (λ = 890 nm). These emitters cast the shadows of 400 μm diameter fused silica suspension fibres onto their complementary shadow-displacement detectors, located at a distance of 74 fibre diameters (29.6 mm) behind the axes of the fibres themselves. Violin-Mode vibrations of each fibre were sensed as differential ac photocurrents in the corresponding ‘split-photodiode’ detector. This paper describes the design, construction, noise analysis, and measures that were taken in the conception of the emitters, in order to produce high-contrast shadows at such distant detectors. In this way it proved possible to obtain, simultaneously, a very high transfer sensitivity to Violin-Mode vibration of the fibres, and a very low level of detection noise—close to the fundamental shot noise limit—whilst remaining within the constraints of this simple design of emitter. The shadow detector is described in an accompanying paper.

  14. Learning from “Shadow Security”: Why understanding non-compliance provides the basis for effective security

    OpenAIRE

    Kirlappos, I.; Parkin, S.; Sasse, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, security researchers and practitioners have tried to understand why employees do not comply with organizational security policies and mechanisms. Past re-search has treated compliance as a binary decision: people comply, or they do not. From our analysis of 118 in-depth interviews with individuals (employees in a large multinational organization) about security non-compliance, a 3rd response emerges: shadow security. This describes the instances where security-conscious ...

  15. DORIAN, Bayes Method Plant Age Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DORIAN is an integrated package for performing Bayesian aging analysis of reliability data; e.g. for identifying trends in component failure rates and/or outage durations as a function of time. The user must specify several alternative hypothesized 'aging models' (i.e., possible trends) along prior probabilities indicating the subject probability that each trend is actually the correct one. DORIAN then uses component failure and/or repair data over time to update these prior probabilities and develop a posterior probability for each aging model, representing the probability that each model is the correct one in light of the observed data rather than a priori. Mean, median, and 5. and 95. percentile trends are also compiled from the posterior probabilities. 2 - Method of solution: DORIAN carries out a Bayesian analysis of failure data and a prior distribution on a time-dependent failure rate to obtain a posterior distribution on the failure rate. The form of the time-dependent failure rate is arbitrary, because DORIAN approximates the form by a step-function, constant within specified time intervals. Similarly, the parameters may have any prior distribution, because DORIAN uses a discrete distribution to approximate this. Likewise, the database file produced by DORIAN approximates the entire range of possible failure rates or outage durations developed by means of a discrete probability distribution containing no more than 20 distinct values with their probabilities. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Prior distribution is discrete with up to 25 values. Up to 60 times are accommodated in the discrete time history

  16. Politics, Time and Space in the Era of Shadow Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryan, Dick; Rafferty, Michael; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    the transformation of assets and financial claims. It has also been established that fiscal and regulatory arbitrage occurs through shadow banking, and associated offshore financial activities. The article develops the argument that together these are transforming the times and spaces of modern finance, and directly...... challenging earlier spatio-temporal concepts of finance, and the regulatory/jurisdictional order built on them. The article suggests that the longer term significance of shadow banking may not just be its role in financial crisis, or even tax and regulatory arbitrage, but that it was here that innovative...... forms of capital were produced and generalised which transcended the spaces and times of earlier institutional, transactional and jurisdictional concepts of capital and wealth....

  17. The Permanently Shadowed Regions of Dwarf Planet Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorghofer, Norbert; Mazarico, Erwan; Platz, Thomas; Preusker, Frank; Schroeder, Stefan E.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Ceres has only a small spin axis tilt (4 deg), and craters near its rotational poles can experience permanent shadow and trap volatiles, as is the case on Mercury and on Earth's Moon. Topography derived from stereo imaging by the Dawn spacecraft is used to calculate direct solar irradiance that defines the extent of the permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). In the northern polar region, PSRs cover approximately 1800 sq km or 0.13% of the hemisphere, and most of the PSRs are cold enough to trap water ice over geological time periods. Based on modeling of the water exosphere, water molecules seasonally reside around the winter pole and ultimately an estimated 0.14% of molecules get trapped. Even for the lowest estimates of the amount of available water, this predicts accumulation rates in excess of loss rates, and hence, there should be fresh ice deposits in the cold traps.

  18. The Effect of Shadow Economy – Country'S Tax Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Krumplytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the content of shadow economy through the prism of the tax administration. The author provides the limitations of the study and methodologically based relationship between the shadow economy and the tax revenue not to be received to the national consolidate budget. Country’s tax losses (tax gap is the amount of the tax revenue that is not received to the country's consolidated budget in the tax non-payment effects: tax avoidance and tax evasion. Tax losses (tax gap is treated as the difference between the amount of potential taxes and contributions that could be collected if the taxpayers correctly calculated and paid on time in accordance with the provisions of the legislation and actually paid taxes and contributions.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Wake models developed during the Wind Shadow project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.; Ott, S.; Pena, A.; Berg, J.; Nielsen, M.; Rathmann, O.; Joergensen, H.

    2011-11-15

    The Wind Shadow project has developed and validated improved models for determining the wakes losses, and thereby the array efficiency of very large, closely packed wind farms. The rationale behind the project has been that the existing software has been covering these types of wind farms poorly, both with respect to the densely packed turbines and the large fetches needed to describe the collective shadow effects of one farm to the next. Further the project has developed the necessary software for the use of the models. Guidelines with recommendations for the use of the models are included in the model deliverables. The project has been carried out as a collaborative project between Risoe DTU, DONG, Vattenfall, DNV and VESTAS, and it has been financed by energinet.dk grant no. 10086. (Author)

  20. Valuing ecosystem services. A shadow price for net primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, Amy; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the contribution of ecosystem services to GDP and use this contribution to calculate an empirical price for ecosystem services. Net primary production is used as a proxy for ecosystem services and, along with capital and labor, is used to estimate a Cobb Douglas production function from an international panel. A positive output elasticity for net primary production probably measures both marketed and nonmarketed contributions of ecosystems services. The production function is used to calculate the marginal product of net primary production, which is the shadow price for ecosystem services. The shadow price generally is greatest for developed nations, which have larger technical scalars and use less net primary production per unit output. The rate of technical substitution indicates that the quantity of capital needed to replace a unit of net primary production tends to increase with economic development, and this rate of replacement may ultimately constrain economic growth. (author)

  1. Medium Access Control for Opportunistic Concurrent Transmissions under Shadowing Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, In Keun; Mao, Shiwen; Hur, Seung Min

    2009-01-01

    We study the problem of how to alleviate the exposed terminal effect in multi-hop wireless networks in the presence of log-normal shadowing channels. Assuming node location information, we propose an extension of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol that sched-ules concurrent transmissions in the presence of log-normal shadowing, thus mitigating the exposed terminal problem and improving network throughput and delay performance. We observe considerable improvements in throughput and delay achieved over the IEEE 802.11 MAC under various network topologies and channel conditions in ns-2 simulations, which justify the importance of considering channel randomness in MAC protocol design for multi-hop wireless networks.

  2. Corruption, shadow economy and income inequality: evidence from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Saibal; Saha, Shrabani

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent studies for Latin America show that as the size of the informal economy grows, corruption is less harmful to inequality. We investigate if this relationship is equally compelling for developing countries in Asia where corruption, inequality and shadow economies are considerably large. We use Panel Least Square and Fixed Effects Models for Asia to find that both 'Corruption Perception Index' and 'ICRG' index are sensitive to a number of important macroeconomic variables. We ...

  3. "Shadow security" as a tool for the learning organization

    OpenAIRE

    Kirlappos, I.; Parkin, S.; Sasse, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, organizations manage information security through policies and mechanisms that employees are expected to comply with. Non-compliance with security is regarded as undesirable, and often sanctions are threatened to deter it. But in a recent study, we identified a third category of employee security behavior: shadow security. This consists of workarounds employees devise to ensure primary business goals are achieved; they also devise their own security measures to counter the risk...

  4. A 1K shadow RAM for circumvention applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that circumvention applications require a memory that retains data through radiation (total dose and transient) and loss of power. Various memory technologies have been reviewed and none, as yet, can meet, these requirements. However, if complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) and silicon nitride oxide silicon (SNOS) memories are combined in a shadow RAM (random access memory) configuration, the requirements can be fulfilled

  5. A Hierarchical Volumetric Shadow Algorithm for Single Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, Ilya; Chen, Jiawen; Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan Millar; Durand, Fredo; Lehtinen, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    Volumetric effects such as beams of light through participating media are an important component in the appearance of the natural world. Many such effects can be faithfully modeled by a single scattering medium. In the presence of shadows, rendering these effects can be prohibitively expensive: current algorithms are based on ray marching, i.e., integrating the illumination scattered towards the camera along each view ray, modulated by visibility to the light source at each sample. Visibility...

  6. Diffractive production off nuclei-shadow of hadronic bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.; Czyz, W.

    1974-01-01

    Diffractive production on nuclei is calculated using as an input a specific model for diffractive production on nucleons. In this model diffractive production is described as a shadow of non-diffractive multiple production of particles. The mechanism for non-diffractive production is taken to be hadronic bremsstrahlung of independently produced clusters. It is shown that such a model naturally explains the strikingly simple pattern of absorption observed in coherent production on nuclei. Possible generalizations of these results are indicated. (author)

  7. Leaking privacy and shadow profiles in online social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction and data integration in the digital society can affect the control that individuals have on their privacy. Social networking sites can access data from other services, including user contact lists where nonusers are listed too. Although most research on online privacy has focused on inference of personal information of users, this data integration poses the question of whether it is possible to predict personal information of nonusers. This article tests the shadow profile ...

  8. Shadow Banking – Developments in Times of Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Munteanu

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the following entities and activities, without limitation to or completenessof viewpoints: finance companies, asset backed financial instruments, structured investments,financing vehicles, money market funds, asset managers, credit hedge funds and venture capital,providing characteristics of shadow banking and their economic functions relative to the classicbanking system, as they pose a systemic risk due to asymmetric information and gaps created inmatching liquidity tenures with duration, by using synthetic leverage finance.

  9. An Analysis of the SURF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Oyallon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SURF method (Speeded Up Robust Features is a fast and robust algorithm for local, similarity invariant representation and comparison of images. Similarly to many other local descriptor-based approaches, interest points of a given image are defined as salient features from a scale-invariant representation. Such a multiple-scale analysis is provided by the convolution of the initial image with discrete kernels at several scales (box filters. The second step consists in building orientation invariant descriptors, by using local gradient statistics (intensity and orientation. The main interest of the SURF approach lies in its fast computation of operators using box filters, thus enabling real-time applications such as tracking and object recognition. The SURF framework described in this paper is based on the PhD thesis of H. Bay [ETH Zurich, 2009], and more specifically on the paper co-written by H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars and L. Van Gool [Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 110 (2008, pp. 346–359]. An implementation is proposed and used to illustrate the approach for image matching. A short comparison with a state-of-the-art approach is also presented, the SIFT algorithm of D. Lowe [International Journal of Computer Vision, 60 (2004, pp. 91–110], with which SURF shares a lot in common.

  10. Vehicle detection based on the use of shadow region and edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangheon; Kang, Seongkoo; Kim, Joongkyu

    2013-07-01

    Automotive and advanced driver assistance systems have attracted a great deal of attention lately. In these systems, effective and reliable vehicle detection is important because such systems can reduce the number of accidents and save human' lives. This paper describes an approach to detecting a forward vehicle using a camera mounted on the moving vehicle. In this paper, we describe two methods to detect a vehicle on the road. First, by using the vehicle's shadow, we can obtain the general location of the vehicular candidate. Second, we can identify the strong vertical edges at the left and right position of a vehicle. By combining the shadows and the edge, we can detect the vehicle's location. But other regions may also be detected, such as car windows, reflections, and illumination by the sun. In order to remove these other factors, defined as noises, we need to use a filter. After using the filter, we can calculate the exact location of the vehicle. Additionally, by using connected component labeling, we can obtain coordinates and establish the vehicle's location. Connected component labeling find all connected components in an image and assigns a unique label to all points in the same component. These methods are very useful for vehicle detection and the development of the driving assistance systems, and they can protect drivers' safety from having an accident.

  11. Further explorations of cosmogonic shadow effects in the Saturnian rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.; Axnaes, I.; Brenning, N.; Lindqvist, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The mass distribution in the Saturnian ring system is investigated and compared with predictions from the cosmogonic theory by Alfven and Arrhenius. According to this theory, the matter in the rings has once been in the form of a magnetized plasma, in which the gravitation is balanced partly by the centrifugal force and partly by the magnetic field. As the plasma is neutralized, the magnetic force disappears and the matter can be shown to fall in to a distance 2/3 of the original. This gives cause to the so called 'cosmogonic shadow effect', which has been demonstrated earlier for the astroidal belt and in the large scale structure of the Saturnian ring system. The relevance of the cosmogonic shadow effect is investigated for parts of the finer structures of the Saturnian ring system. It is shown that many structures of the present ring system can be understood as shadows and antishadows of cosmogonic origin. These appear in the form of double rings centered around a position a factor 0.64 (slightly less than 2/3) closer to Saturn than the causing feature. (author)

  12. Analysis methods used by the geochemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthollet, P.

    1958-06-01

    This note presents various analytical techniques which are respectively used for the dosing of uranium in soils (fluorescence method, chromatographic method), for the dosing of uranium in natural waters (ion exchange method, evaporation method), and for the dosing of uranium in plants. Principles, equipment and products, reactant preparation, operation mode, sample preparation and measurements, expression of results and calculations) are indicated for each of these methods

  13. Wave Height Estimation from Shadowing Based on the Acquired X-Band Marine Radar Images in Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the retrieving significant wave height from X-band marine radar images based on shadow statistics is investigated, since the retrieving accuracy can not be seriously affected by environmental factors and the method has the advantage of without any external reference to calibrate. However, the accuracy of the significant wave height estimated from the radar image acquired at the near-shore area is not ideal. To solve this problem, the effect of water depth is considered in the theoretical derivation of estimated wave height based on the sea surface slope. And then, an improved retrieving algorithm which is suitable for both in deep water area and shallow water area is developed. In addition, the radar data are sparsely processed in advance in order to achieve high quality edge image for the requirement of shadow statistic algorithm, since the high resolution radar images will lead to angle-blurred for the image edge detection and time-consuming in the estimation of sea surface slope. The data acquired from Pingtan Test Base in Fujian Province were used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the improved method which takes into account the water depth is more efficient and effective and has better performance for retrieving significant wave height in the shallow water area, compared to the in situ buoy data as the ground truth and that of the existing shadow statistic method.

  14. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  16. Basic methods of linear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pryce, John D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to the themes of mathematical analysis, geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Topics include operators, function spaces, Hilbert spaces, and elementary Fourier analysis. Numerous exercises and worked examples.1973 edition.

  17. SOCIO-ECONOMIC NATURE OF SHADOW ECONOMY AND CAUSES OF ITS DEVELOPMENT IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mazur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic nature of the shadow economy is revealed. The shadow economy has both positive and negative signs for the society; the possibility for the population to survive in conditions of economic crisis, reducing transaction costs authors refer to positive signs, and the destructive economic development to negative. The common (prohibitions and restrictions and partial (high tax burden and inefficient system of its administration; numerous bureaucratic procedures; mistrust to the government institutions and the judiciary; corruption in all levels of the governance, etc. causes of the shadow economy in entrepreneurship are disclosed. It is argued that the shadow economy is neither a sector nor a certain part of the legal economy, it can be in any sector of the legal economy closely interlaced with it, and therefore its limits cannot be clearly identified (determine in the formal economy. The shadow economy is not possible to determine especially in the information society. The categories of the shadow economy and its structuring are suggested. It has been researched the historical roots of the shadow economy spread in entrepreneurship, and lie in the shadow of public-private partnership which carries interests of "civil servant-entrepreneurs" and allows to manage state resources and control market. Therefore, the shadow policy creates favorable conditions for the entrepreneurs to work in the shadow. At the same time, access to the shadow entails stricter regulation by the state. It is proved that corruption is a part of the shadow economy, not an independent phenomenon, so they should be research comprehensively and systematically. Instead of overcoming the shadow economy and its component - corruption has been suggested to establish favorable business environment for their unfavorable existence, that is to carry out deshadowing of the economy.

  18. Sur la prise en compte du mode de financement dans les calculs de rentabilité. La méthode des intérêts seulement déductibles Financing Mix and Capital Budgeting Techniques. the Shadow Interest Method

    OpenAIRE

    Babusiaux D.; Karnik J. L.

    2006-01-01

    La pratique des calculs de rentabilité avec shadow interest se développe depuis quelques années dans les entreprises pétrolières, principalement dans le secteur exploration et développement des gisements. L'objet de cet article est de replacer cette approche parmi les méthodes classiques (calculs de rentabilité globale et de rentabilité des capitaux propres). Une relation simple entre les revenus actualisés relatifs à chacune des approches est obtenue sous certaines hypothèses simplificatrice...

  19. Applying homotopy analysis method for solving differential-difference equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Zou Li; Zhang Hongqing

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, we apply the homotopy analysis method to solving the differential-difference equations. A simple but typical example is applied to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the generalized homotopy analysis method in solving differential-difference equation. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. The results show that the homotopy analysis method is an attractive method in solving the differential-difference equations

  20. Gnomon shadow lengths recorded in the Zhoubi Suanjing: the earliest meridian observations in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Sun Xiaochun

    2009-01-01

    The Zhoubi Suanjing, one of the most important ancient Chinese books on mathematical astronomy, was compiled about 100 BC in the Western Han dynasty (BC 206 - AD 23). We study the gnomon shadow lengths for the 24 solar terms as recorded in the book. Special attention is paid to the so-called law of 'cun qian li', which says the shadow length of a gnomon of 8 chi (about 1.96 m) high will increase (or decrease) 1 cun (1/10 chi) for every 1000 li (roughly 400 km) the gnomon moves northward (or southward). From these data, one can derive the time and location of the observations. The results, however, do not fit historical facts. We suggest that compilers of the Zhoubi Suanjing must have modified the original data according to the law of 'cun qian li'. Through reversing the situation, we recovered the original data, our analysis of which reveals the best possible observation time as 564 BC and the location of observation as 35.78 deg. N latitude. We conclude that this must be the earliest records of solar meridian observations in China. In the meantime, we give the errors of solar altitudes for the 24 solar terms. The average deviation is 5.22 deg., and the mean absolute deviation is 5.52 deg., signifying the accuracy of astronomical calculations from that time.

  1. 2. Methods of elemental analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The principles of activation analysis are outlined including the preparation of samples and reference materials, the choice of suitable activation sources, interfering effects, detection of radiation emitted and analysis of mixtures of emitters, and the potential of activation analysis in various fields of science and technology. The principles of X-ray fluorescence analysis and the associated instrumentation are also dealt with, and examples of applications are given. Described are also the physical nature of the Moessbauer effect, Moessbauer sources and spectrometers, and the applicability of this effect in physical research and in the investigation of iron-containing materials. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 20 figs., 90 refs

  2. Extension and Validation of UNDEX Analysis Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahue, L

    2004-01-01

    .... Adaptive grid schemes for underwater shock and bubble analysis, hydrostatic pressure and airwater/seafloor boundaries, underwater explosion profiles, and fluid-backed shapes were also implemented...

  3. Response matrix method for large LMFBR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.J.

    1977-06-01

    The feasibility of using response matrix techniques for computational models of large LMFBRs is examined. Since finite-difference methods based on diffusion theory have generally found a place in fast-reactor codes, a brief review of their general matrix foundation is given first in order to contrast it to the general strategy of response matrix methods. Then, in order to present the general method of response matrix technique, two illustrative examples are given. Matrix algorithms arising in the application to large LMFBRs are discussed, and the potential of the response matrix method is explored for a variety of computational problems. Principal properties of the matrices involved are derived with a view to application of numerical methods of solution. The Jacobi iterative method as applied to the current-balance eigenvalue problem is discussed

  4. Climate Action Benefits: Methods of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides detailed information on the methods used in the CIRA analyses, including the overall framework, temperature projections, precipitation projections, sea level rise projections, uncertainty, and limitations.

  5. Numerical analysis in electromagnetics the TLM method

    CERN Document Server

    Saguet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this book is to give a broad overview of the TLM (Transmission Line Matrix) method, which is one of the "time-domain numerical methods". These methods are reputed for their significant reliance on computer resources. However, they have the advantage of being highly general.The TLM method has acquired a reputation for being a powerful and effective tool by numerous teams and still benefits today from significant theoretical developments. In particular, in recent years, its ability to simulate various situations with excellent precision, including complex materials, has been

  6. Human milk banks: lights and shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Aceti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the most appropriate source of nutrition also for preterm infants. When mother’s own milk is not available, donor human milk (DHM, provided from a human milk bank (HMB, or formula can be used. Infants fed DHM grow at a slower rate than formula-fed infants. However, DHM has the advantage over formula to retain some of the bioactive properties of naïve human milk. Given the wide variability of DHM content and its generally low macronutrient content, individualised fortification represents a more valid option than standard fortification in order to meet the high nutritional requirements of preterm infants. Pasteurization is necessary to reduce bacterial count in DHM. Holder pasteurization, which is recommended in most HMB guidelines, has several limitations, because it impairs macronutrient and functional components of DHM. Alternative methods of pasteurization, which would be capable of retaining the bioactive properties of DHM with the highest level of microbiological safety, are currently under investigation. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou 

  7. Methods for Mediation Analysis with Missing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite wide applications of both mediation models and missing data techniques, formal discussion of mediation analysis with missing data is still rare. We introduce and compare four approaches to dealing with missing data in mediation analysis including list wise deletion, pairwise deletion, multiple imputation (MI), and a two-stage maximum…

  8. Development of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeng-Hoi

    2002-01-01

    KAERI's contributions to the project entitled Development of Analysis Methods for Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structures under IAEA CRP of the intercomparison of analysis methods for predicting the behaviour of seismically isolated nuclear structures during 1996-1999 in effort to develop the numerical analysis methods and to compare the analysis results with the benchmark test results of seismic isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures provided by participating countries are briefly described. Certain progress in the analysis procedures for isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures has been made throughout the IAEA CRPs and the analysis methods developed can be improved for future nuclear facility applications. (author)

  9. A novel micromachined shadow mask system with self-alignment and gap control capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jung Moo; Zou Jun

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel micromachined shadow mask system, which is capable of accurate self-alignment and mask-substrate gap control. The shadow mask system consists of a silicon shadow mask and a silicon carrier wafer with pyramidal cavities fabricated with bulk micromachining. Self-alignment and gap control of the shadow mask and the fabrication substrate can readily be achieved by using matching pairs of pyramidal cavities and steel spheres placed between. The layer-to-layer alignment accuracy of the new shadow mask system has been experimentally characterized and verified using both optical and atomic force microscopic measurements. As an application of this new shadow mask system, an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) using pentacene as the semiconductor layer has been successfully fabricated and tested

  10. Estimating the shadow prices of SO2 and NOx for U.S. coal power plants: A convex nonparametric least squares approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekaroonreung, Maethee; Johnson, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Weak disposability between outputs and pollutants, defined as a simultaneous proportional reduction of both outputs and pollutants, assumes that pollutants are byproducts of the output generation process and that a firm can “freely dispose” of both by scaling down production levels, leaving some inputs idle. Based on the production axioms of monotonicity, convexity and weak disposability, we formulate a convex nonparametric least squares (CNLS) quadratic optimization problem to estimate a frontier production function assuming either a deterministic disturbance term consisting only of inefficiency, or a composite disturbance term composed of both inefficiency and noise. The suggested methodology extends the stochastic semi-nonparametric envelopment of data (StoNED) described in Kuosmanen and Kortelainen (2011). Applying the method to estimate the shadow prices of SO 2 and NO x generated by U.S. coal power plants, we conclude that the weak disposability StoNED method provides more consistent estimates of market prices. - Highlights: ► Develops methodology to estimate shadow prices for SO 2 and NO x in the U.S. coal power plants. ► Extends CNLS and StoNED methods to include the weak disposability assumption. ► Estimates the range of SO 2 and NO x shadow prices as 201–343 $/ton and 409–1352 $/ton. ► StoNED method provides more accurate estimates of shadow prices than deterministic frontier.

  11. Persistence in the Shadow of Killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michael Sinclair

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Killing is perhaps the most definite form of communication possible. Microbes such as yeasts and gutbacteria have been shown to exhibit killer phenotypes. The killer strains are able to kill othermicrobes occupying the same ecological niche, and do so with impunity. It would therefore beexpected that, wherever a killer phenotype has arisen, all members of the population would soon bekillers or dead. Surprisingly, (i one can find both killer and sensitive strains in coexistence, both inthe wild and in in-vitro experiments, and (ii the absolute fitness cost of the killer phenotype oftenseems to be very small. We present an explicit model of such coexistence in a fragmented or discreteenvironment. A killer strain may kill all sensitive cells in one patch (one piece of rotting fruit, onecave or one human gut, for example, allowing sensitives to exist only in the absence of killer strainson the same patch. In our model, populations spread easily between patches, but in a stochasticmanner: One can imagine spores borne by the wind over a field of untended apple trees, or entericdisease transmission in a region in which travel is effectively unrestricted. What we show is thatcoexistence is not only possible, but that it is possible even if the absolute fitness advantage of thesensitive strain over the killer strain is arbitrarily small. We do this by performing a specificallytargeted mathematical analysis on our model, rather than via simulations. Our model does not assumelarge population densities, and may thus be useful in the context of understanding the ecology ofextreme environments.

  12. Methods of stability analysis in nonlinear mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.D.; Gabella, W.; Ecklund, K.

    1989-01-01

    We review our recent work on methods to study stability in nonlinear mechanics, especially for the problems of particle accelerators, and compare our ideals to those of other authors. We emphasize methods that (1) show promise as practical design tools, (2) are effective when the nonlinearity is large, and (3) have a strong theoretical basis. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Nuclear analysis methods in monitoring occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.

    1985-01-01

    With the increasing industrialisation of the world has come an increase in exposure to hazardous chemicals. Their effect on the body depends upon the concentration of the element in the work environment; its chemical form; the possible different routes of intake; and the individual's biological response to the chemical. Nuclear techniques of analysis such as neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), have played an important role in understanding the effects hazardous chemicals can have on occupationally exposed workers. In this review, examples of their application, mainly in monitoring exposure to heavy metals is discussed

  14. Experimental test of the shadowing effect in Smith-Purcell radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumenko, G.A.; Potylitsyn, A.P.; Popov, Yu.A.; Shevelev, M.V

    2011-01-01

    The observation of a shadowing effect of a relativistic electron Coulomb field for the Smith-Purcell radiation generation is presented in this paper. For this purpose the surface current from the closest surface of grating element to the electron beam was measured for a downstream one shadowed by upstream element. The experimental results showed that shadowing effect for Smith-Purcell radiation depends on grating geometry.

  15. Computational methods for corpus annotation and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews computational tools for lexical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic and discourse analysis, with instructions on how to obtain, install and use each tool. Covers studies using Natural Language Processing, and offers ideas for better integration.

  16. Progress in spatial analysis methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Páez, Antonio; Buliung, Ron N; Dall'erba, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    This book brings together developments in spatial analysis techniques, including spatial statistics, econometrics, and spatial visualization, and applications to fields such as regional studies, transportation and land use, population and health.

  17. Analysis of queues methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gautam, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Analysis of Queues: Where, What, and How?Systems Analysis: Key ResultsQueueing Fundamentals and Notations Psychology in Queueing Reference Notes Exercises Exponential Interarrival and Service Times: Closed-Form Expressions Solving Balance Equations via Arc CutsSolving Balance Equations Using Generating Functions Solving Balance Equations Using Reversibility Reference Notes ExercisesExponential Interarrival and Service Times: Numerical Techniques and Approximations Multidimensional Birth and Death ChainsMultidimensional Markov Chains Finite-State Markov ChainsReference Notes Exerci

  18. Analysis of Non Local Image Denoising Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Álvaro

    Image denoising is probably one of the most studied problems in the image processing community. Recently a new paradigm on non local denoising was introduced. The Non Local Means method proposed by Buades, Morel and Coll attracted the attention of other researches who proposed improvements and modifications to their proposal. In this work we analyze those methods trying to understand their properties while connecting them to segmentation based on spectral graph properties. We also propose some improvements to automatically estimate the parameters used on these methods.

  19. Analysis of the sweeped actuator line method

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Jörn; Masson Christian; Dufresne Louis; Churchfield Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The actuator line method made it possible to describe the near wake of a wind turbine more accurately than with the actuator disk method. Whereas the actuator line generates the helicoidal vortex system shed from the tip blades, the actuator disk method sheds a vortex sheet from the edge of the rotor plane. But with the actuator line come also temporal and spatial constraints, such as the need for a much smaller time step than with actuator disk. While the latter one only has to obey the Cour...

  20. Contributions to robust methods of creep analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    Robust methods for the predictions of deformations and lifetimes of components operating in the creep range are presented. The ingredients used for this are well-tried numerical techniques combined with the concepts of continuum damage and so-called reference stresses. The methods described are derived in order to obtain the maximum benefit during the early stages of design where broad assessments of the influences of material choice, loadings and geometry need to be made quickly and with economical use of computers. It is also intended that the same methods will be of value during operation if estimates of damage or if exercises in life extension or inspection timing are required. (orig.)