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Sample records for method requiring slightly

  1. Phase derivative method for reconstruction of slightly off-axis digital holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng-Shan; Wang, Ben-Yi; Sha, Bei; Lu, Yu-Jie; Xu, Ming-Yuan

    2014-12-15

    A phase derivative (PD) method is proposed for reconstruction of off-axis holograms. In this method, a phase distribution of the tested object wave constrained within 0 to pi radian is firstly worked out by a simple analytical formula; then it is corrected to its right range from -pi to pi according to the sign characteristics of its first-order derivative. A theoretical analysis indicates that this PD method is particularly suitable for reconstruction of slightly off-axis holograms because it only requires the spatial frequency of the reference beam larger than spatial frequency of the tested object wave in principle. In addition, because the PD method belongs to a pure local method with no need of any integral operation or phase shifting algorithm in process of the phase retrieval, it could have some advantages in reducing computer load and memory requirements to the image processing system. Some experimental results are given to demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

  2. A finite-dimensional reduction method for slightly supercritical elliptic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Molle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a finite-dimensional reduction method to find solutions for a class of slightly supercritical elliptic problems. A suitable truncation argument allows us to work in the usual Sobolev space even in the presence of supercritical nonlinearities: we modify the supercritical term in such a way to have subcritical approximating problems; for these problems, the finite-dimensional reduction can be obtained applying the methods already developed in the subcritical case; finally, we show that, if the truncation is realized at a sufficiently large level, then the solutions of the approximating problems, given by these methods, also solve the supercritical problems when the parameter is small enough.

  3. Method validation for determination of heavy metals in wine and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A, E-mail: cezara.voica@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.

  4. Method validation for determination of heavy metals in wine and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A

    2009-01-01

    The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.

  5. Non-whole beat correlation method for the identification of an unbalance response of a dual-rotor system with a slight rotating speed difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. X.; Wang, L. Z.; Jin, Z. J.; Zhang, Q.; Li, X. L.

    2013-08-01

    The efficient identification of the unbalanced responses in the inner and outer rotors from the beat vibration is the key step in the dynamic balancing of a dual-rotor system with a slight rotating speed difference. This paper proposes a non-whole beat correlation method to identify the unbalance responses whose integral time is shorter than the whole beat correlation method. The principle, algorithm and parameter selection of the proposed method is emphatically demonstrated in this paper. From the numerical simulation and balancing experiment conducted on horizontal decanter centrifuge, conclusions can be drawn that the proposed approach is feasible and practicable. This method makes important sense in developing the field balancing equipment based on portable Single Chip Microcomputer (SCMC) with low expense.

  6. Analysis of a PHWR slightly enriched fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, C.; Marajofsky, A.

    1994-01-01

    It is widely known that the use of slightly enriched uranium in PHWR reactors presents economic advantages derived from the fact that less uranium is required for producing the same amount of energy. Several studies related with the use of this alternative in Atucha I NPP have been performed. The fuel assembly geometry considered up to now has been almost identical to the natural uranium one. In this work a modification consisting in the use of annular pellets in the outer ring of the cluster is analyzed. This design produces several performance benefits. The redistribution of the power in the fuel improves the maximum to average bundle power ratio. The improvement achieved depends on the void volume in the pellets which at the same time represents a certain burnup decrease. These parameters (power ratios and burnup loss) are quantified for the Atucha I and Embalse NPPs. This design improves the fuel behaviour with respect to the burnup extension derived from the slight enrichment. It is also interesting in case an overall power increase is considered. (author). 16 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  7. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  8. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  9. Study of comportment of trioctylphosphine oxide by coat slight chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddour, Laaldja; Azzouz Abdelkrim

    1996-04-01

    The synthesis and characterisation process of the extractant agent 'Trioctylphosphine oxide' (TOPO) are not very developped in the literature. However, in order to identify this agent (TOPO) in its synthesis process, we attempt several analysis methods. The coat slight chromatography proves the simple and accessible method, that explains the choice of this study. In the present work, we have analysed the TOPO by coat slight chromatography with the intention of finding a better solvent

  10. Slightly enriched uranium fuel for a PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, C.; Marajofsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    An improved fuel element design for a PHWR using slightly enriched uranium fuel is presented. It maintains the general geometric disposition of the currently used in the argentine NPP's reactors, replacing the outer ring of rods by rods containing annular pellets. Power density reduction is achieved with modest burnup losses and the void volume in the pellets can be used to balance these two opposite effects. The results show that with this new design, the fuel can be operated at higher powers without violating thermohydraulic limits and this means an improvement in fuel management flexibility, particularly in the transition from natural uranium to slightly enriched uranium cycle. (author)

  11. Percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper B

    2005-01-01

    with human skin. A slight damage to the barrier integrity was induced by pre-treatment of the skin with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) before pesticide exposure. The experimental model with 3 h pre-treatment with SLS (0.1% or 0.3%) assured a significant but controlled damage to the barrier integrity, a damage...

  12. Critical requirements of the SSTR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1975-08-01

    Discrepancies have been reported in absolute fission rate measurements observed with Solid State Tract Recorders (SSTR) and fission chambers which lie well outside experimental error. As a result of these comparisons, the reliability of the SSTR method has been seriously questioned, and the fission chamber method has been advanced for sole use in absolute fission rate determinations. In view of the absolute accuracy already reported and well documented for the SSTR method, this conclusion is both surprising and unfortunate. Two independent methods are highly desirable. Moreover, these two methods more than compliment one another, since certain in-core experiments may be amenable to either but not both techniques. Consequently, one cannot abandon the SSTR method without sacrificing crucial advantages. A critical reappraisal of certain aspects of the SSTR method is offered in the hope that the source of the current controversy can be uncovered and a long term beneficial agreement between these two methods can therefore be established. (WHK)

  13. Delay generation methods with reduced memory requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    Modern diagnostic ultrasound beamformers require delay information for each sample along the image lines. In order to avoid storing large amounts of focusing data, delay generation techniques have to be used. In connection with developing a compact beamformer architecture, recursive algorithms were......) For the best parametric approach, the gate count was 2095, the maximum operation speed was 131.9 MHz, the power consumption at 40 MHz was 10.6 mW, and it requires 4 12-bit words for each image line and channel. 2) For the piecewise-linear approximation, the corresponding numbers are 1125 gates, 184.9 MHz, 7...

  14. Cryptanalysis of SFLASH with Slightly Modified Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vivien; Fouque, Pierre-Alain; Stern, Jacques

    SFLASH is a signature scheme which belongs to a family of multivariate schemes proposed by Patarin et al. in 1998 [9]. The SFLASH scheme itself has been designed in 2001 [8] and has been selected in 2003 by the NESSIE European Consortium [6] as the best known solution for implementation on low cost smart cards. In this paper, we show that slight modifications of the parameters of SFLASH within the general family initially proposed renders the scheme insecure. The attack uses simple linear algebra, and allows to forge a signature for an arbitrary message in a question of minutes for practical parameters, using only the public key. Although SFLASH itself is not amenable to our attack, it is worrying to observe that no rationale was ever offered for this "lucky" choice of parameters.

  15. Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilshaw, S.R.

    1987-08-01

    The article discusses the reasons why conventional blasting operations, mainly that of explosive products, drilling and initiation methods are inefficient, and suggests new methods and materials to overcome the problems of the conventional operations. The author suggests that the use of bulk ANFO for casting, instead of high energy and density explosives with high velocity detonation is more effective in producing heave action results. Similarly the drilling of smaller blast holes than is conventional allows better loading distribution of explosives in the rock mass. The author also suggests that casting would be more efficient if the shot rows were loaded differently to produce a variable burden blasting pattern.

  16. Metric-based method of software requirements correctness improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaremchuk Svitlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work highlights the most important principles of software reliability management (SRM. The SRM concept construes a basis for developing a method of requirements correctness improvement. The method assumes that complicated requirements contain more actual and potential design faults/defects. The method applies a newer metric to evaluate the requirements complexity and double sorting technique evaluating the priority and complexity of a particular requirement. The method enables to improve requirements correctness due to identification of a higher number of defects with restricted resources. Practical application of the proposed method in the course of demands review assured a sensible technical and economic effect.

  17. The Sources and Methods of Engineering Design Requirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng; Zhang, Zhinan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    to be defined in a new context. This paper focuses on understanding the design requirement sources at the requirement elicitation phase. It aims at proposing an improved design requirement source classification considering emerging markets and presenting current methods for eliciting requirement for each source...

  18. A Survey of Various Object Oriented Requirement Engineering Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Anandi Mahajan; Dr. Anurag Dixit

    2013-01-01

    In current years many industries have been moving to the use of object-oriented methods for the development of large scale information systems The requirement of Object Oriented approach in the development of software systems is increasing day by day. This paper is basically a survey paper on various Object-oriented requirement engineering methods. This paper contains a summary of the available Object-oriented requirement engineering methods with their relative advantages and disadvantages...

  19. Basic requirements to the methods of personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements to methods of personnel monitoring (PMM) depending on irradiation conditions are given. The irradiation conditions determine subjected to monitoring types of irradiation, measurement ranges, periodicity of monitoring, operativeness of obtaining results and required accuracy. The PMM based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is the main method of the mass monitoring [ru

  20. An Engineering Method of Civil Jet Requirements Validation Based on Requirements Project Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Dan; Mao, Xuming

    2018-03-01

    A method of requirements validation is developed and defined to meet the needs of civil jet requirements validation in product development. Based on requirements project principle, this method will not affect the conventional design elements, and can effectively connect the requirements with design. It realizes the modern civil jet development concept, which is “requirement is the origin, design is the basis”. So far, the method has been successfully applied in civil jet aircraft development in China. Taking takeoff field length as an example, the validation process and the validation method of the requirements are detailed introduced in the study, with the hope of providing the experiences to other civil jet product design.

  1. How to Compare the Security Quality Requirements Engineering (SQUARE) Method with Other Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, Nancy R

    2007-01-01

    The Security Quality Requirements Engineering (SQUARE) method, developed at the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute, provides a systematic way to identify security requirements in a software development project...

  2. Thermodynamic fluctuations of electromagnetic field in slightly absorbing media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A.Veklenko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of thermodynamic fluctuations of electromagnetic field in slightly absorbing media is developed using the quantum electrodynamics - method of $Gamma$-operators - without phenomenology. The hypothesis offered by Yury L. Klimontovich is under consideration. The necessity of correct consideration of photon-photon correlation functions is shown. The results are compared with the ones obtained with the help of standard theory based upon fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT. The latter results are shown to have no field of application at least for the case of thermally excited media of the atoms described with two-level model.

  3. Optimal management of fuel in nuclear reactors with slightly enriched uranium and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serghiuta, D.

    1994-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis presents the general principles guiding the optimal management of the fuel in CANDU type reactors with slightly enriched uranium. A method is devised which is based on the specific physical characteristics of this type of reactors and makes use of the multipurpose mathematical programming satisfying economical and nuclear safety requirements. The main goal of this work was the establishing of a refueling optimal methodology at equilibrium maintaining the reactor critical during operation. It also minimizes the fuel cycle cost through minimization of the utilized fissile material and at the same time by maximizing the reactor duty time through an optimal chain of refilling operations. This work can be considered as a contribution to a future project of CANDU type reactor core based on slightly enriched uranium. 74 Figs., 9 Tabs., 62 Refs

  4. Elimination of slightly radioactive liquid effluent by dilution. Its consequences (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Candillon, C.

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear centres often have to solve problems raised by the elimination of large volumes of slightly radioactive liquid effluent. As things stand at present, the method usually adopted consists in expelling this effluent into the main water system in order to dilute it to a maximum, and thus to lower its radioactive isotope concentration to below the norms imposed by the Public Health Service. This technique requires systematic checking of the water system and its dependences, and demands a thorough knowledge of adsorption and fixation processes. (author) [fr

  5. A Method for Software Requirement Volatility Analysis Using QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunarso Anang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes of software requirements are inevitable during the development life cycle. Rather than avoiding the circumstance, it is easier to just accept it and find a way to anticipate those changes. This paper proposes a method to analyze the volatility of requirement by using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD method and the introduced degree of volatility. Customer requirements are deployed to software functions and subsequently to architectural design elements. And then, after determining the potential for changes of the design elements, the degree of volatility of the software requirements is calculated. In this paper the method is described using a flow diagram and illustrated using a simple example, and is evaluated using a case study.

  6. Quality functions for requirements engineering in system development methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M; Timpka, T

    1996-01-01

    Based on a grounded theory framework, this paper analyses the quality characteristics for methods to be used for requirements engineering in the development of medical decision support systems (MDSS). The results from a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) used to rank functions connected to user value and a focus group study were presented to a validation focus group. The focus group studies take advantage of a group process to collect data for further analyses. The results describe factors considered by the participants as important in the development of methods for requirements engineering in health care. Based on the findings, the content which, according to the user a MDSS method should support is established.

  7. Method for developing cost estimates for generic regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The NRC has established a practice of performing regulatory analyses, reflecting costs as well as benefits, of proposed new or revised generic requirements. A method had been developed to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required for this purpose and for assigning priorities in the resolution of generic safety issues. The cost of a generic requirement is defined as the net present value of total lifetime cost incurred by the public, industry, and government in implementing the requirement for all affected plants. The method described here is for commercial light-water-reactor power plants. Estimating the cost for a generic requirement involves several steps: (1) identifying the activities that must be carried out to fully implement the requirement, (2) defining the work packages associated with the major activities, (3) identifying the individual elements of cost for each work package, (4) estimating the magnitude of each cost element, (5) aggregating individual plant costs over the plant lifetime, and (6) aggregating all plant costs and generic costs to produce a total, national, present value of lifetime cost for the requirement. The method developed addresses all six steps. In this paper, we discuss on the first three

  8. Nonlinear problems of the theory of heterogeneous slightly curved shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, B. Y.

    1973-01-01

    An account if given of the variational method of the solution of physically and geometrically nonlinear problems of the theory of heterogeneous slightly curved shells. Examined are the bending and supercritical behavior of plates and conical and spherical cupolas of variable thickness in a temperature field, taking into account the dependence of the elastic parameters on temperature. The bending, stability in general and load-bearing capacity of flexible isotropic elastic-plastic shells with different criteria of plasticity, taking into account compressibility and hardening. The effect of the plastic heterogeneity caused by heat treatment, surface work hardening and irradiation by fast neutron flux is investigated. Some problems of the dynamic behavior of flexible shells are solved. Calculations are performed in high approximations. Considerable attention is given to the construction of a machine algorithm and to the checking of the convergence of iterative processes.

  9. Scattering from a PEC Slightly Rough Surface in Chiral Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Akhtar Qureshi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of left circularly polarized wave from a perfectly electric conducting (PEC rough surface in isotropic chiral media is investigated. Since a slightly rough interface is assumed, the solution is obtained using perturbation method. Zeroth-order term corresponds to solution for a flat interface which helps in making a comparison with the results reported in the literature. First-order term gives the contribution from the surface perturbations, and it is used to define incoherent bistatic scattering coefficients for a Gaussian rough surface. Higher order solution is obtained in a recursive manner. Numerical results are reported for different values of chirality, correlation length, and rms height of the surface. Diffraction efficiency is defined for a sinusoidal grating.

  10. Determination of material irradiation parameters. Required accuracies and available methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerles, J.M.; Mas, P.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, the author reports some main methods to determine the nuclear parameters of material irradiation in testing reactor (nuclear power, burn-up, fluxes, fluences, ...). The different methods (theoretical or experimental) are reviewed: neutronics measurements and calculations, gamma scanning, thermal balance, ... The required accuracies are reviewed: they are of 3-5% on flux, fluences, nuclear power, burn-up, conversion factor, ... These required accuracies are compared with the real accuracies available which are at the present time of order of 5-20% on these parameters

  11. Rapid methods for jugular bleeding of dogs requiring one technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, C S; Richardson, M R

    1979-06-01

    Two methods were used to collect blood from the jugular vein of dogs. In both techniques, only one technician was required. A rope with a slip knot was placed around the base of the neck to assist in restraint and act as a tourniquet for the vein. The technician used one hand to restrain the dog by the muzzle and position the head. The other hand was used for collecting the sample. One of the methods could be accomplished with the dog in its cage. The bleeding techniques were rapid, requiring approximately 1 minute per dog.

  12. Determination of fuel irradiation parameters. Required accuracies and available methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports on the present point of some main methods to determine the nuclear parameters of fuel irradiation in testing reactors (nuclear power, burn up, ...) The different methods (theoretical or experimental) are reviewed: neutron measurements and calculations, gamma scanning, heat balance, ... . The required accuracies are reviewed: they are of 3-5 % on flux, fluences, nuclear power, burn-up, conversion factor. These required accuracies are compared with the real accuracies available which are the present time of order of 5-20 % on these parameters

  13. Classical Methods and Calculation Algorithms for Determining Lime Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Guarçoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The methods developed for determination of lime requirements (LR are based on widely accepted principles. However, the formulas used for calculation have evolved little over recent decades, and in some cases there are indications of their inadequacy. The aim of this study was to compare the lime requirements calculated by three classic formulas and three algorithms, defining those most appropriate for supplying Ca and Mg to coffee plants and the smaller possibility of causing overliming. The database used contained 600 soil samples, which were collected in coffee plantings. The LR was estimated by the methods of base saturation, neutralization of Al3+, and elevation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents (two formulas and by the three calculation algorithms. Averages of the lime requirements were compared, determining the frequency distribution of the 600 lime requirements (LR estimated through each calculation method. In soils with low cation exchange capacity at pH 7, the base saturation method may fail to adequately supply the plants with Ca and Mg in many situations, while the method of Al3+ neutralization and elevation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents can result in the calculation of application rates that will increase the pH above the suitable range. Among the methods studied for calculating lime requirements, the algorithm that predicts reaching a defined base saturation, with adequate Ca and Mg supply and the maximum application rate limited to the H+Al value, proved to be the most efficient calculation method, and it can be recommended for use in numerous crops conditions.

  14. Methods for ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements: regulators and operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the methods of ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements contained in various radiation protection documents such as Regulations, ICRP Recommendations etc. are considered. These include radiation safety officers and radiation safety committees, personnel monitoring services, dissemination of information, inspection services and legislative power of enforcement. Difficulties in ensuring compliance include outmoded legislation, financial and personnel constraints

  15. Proposed New Method of Interpretation of Infrared Ship Signature Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; Wilson, M.T.; Youern, K.

    2005-01-01

    new method of deriving and defining requirements for the infrared signature of new ships is presented. The current approach is to specify the maximum allowed temperature or radiance contrast of the ship with respect to its background. At present, in most NATO countries, it is the contractor’s

  16. Neural Interfaces for Intracortical Recording: Requirements, Fabrication Methods, and Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Katarzyna M; Grand, Laszlo; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2017-01-01

    Implantable neural interfaces for central nervous system research have been designed with wire, polymer, or micromachining technologies over the past 70 years. Research on biocompatible materials, ideal probe shapes, and insertion methods has resulted in building more and more capable neural interfaces. Although the trend is promising, the long-term reliability of such devices has not yet met the required criteria for chronic human application. The performance of neural interfaces in chronic settings often degrades due to foreign body response to the implant that is initiated by the surgical procedure, and related to the probe structure, and material properties used in fabricating the neural interface. In this review, we identify the key requirements for neural interfaces for intracortical recording, describe the three different types of probes-microwire, micromachined, and polymer-based probes; their materials, fabrication methods, and discuss their characteristics and related challenges.

  17. Neural Interfaces for Intracortical Recording: Requirements, Fabrication Methods, and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna M. Szostak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Implantable neural interfaces for central nervous system research have been designed with wire, polymer, or micromachining technologies over the past 70 years. Research on biocompatible materials, ideal probe shapes, and insertion methods has resulted in building more and more capable neural interfaces. Although the trend is promising, the long-term reliability of such devices has not yet met the required criteria for chronic human application. The performance of neural interfaces in chronic settings often degrades due to foreign body response to the implant that is initiated by the surgical procedure, and related to the probe structure, and material properties used in fabricating the neural interface. In this review, we identify the key requirements for neural interfaces for intracortical recording, describe the three different types of probes—microwire, micromachined, and polymer-based probes; their materials, fabrication methods, and discuss their characteristics and related challenges.

  18. Estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements: Case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhifeng; CUI Baoshan; LIU Jingling

    2005-01-01

    Supplying water to the ecological environment with certain quantity and quality is significant for the protection of diversity and the realization of sustainable development. The conception and connotation of eco-environmental water requirements, including the definition of the conception, the composition and characteristics of eco-environmental water requirements, are evaluated in this paper. The classification and estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements are then proposed. On the basis of the study on the Huang-Huai-Hai Area, the present water use, the minimum and suitable water requirement are estimated and the corresponding water shortage is also calculated. According to the interrelated programs, the eco-environmental water requirements in the coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are estimated. The result indicates that the minimum and suitable eco-environmental water requirements fluctuate with the differences of function setting and the referential standard of water resources, and so as the water shortage. Moreover, the study indicates that the minimum eco-environmental water requirement of the study area ranges from 2.84×1010m3 to 1.02×1011m3, the suitable water requirement ranges from 6.45×1010m3 to 1.78×1011m3, the water shortage ranges from 9.1×109m3 to 2.16×1010m3 under the minimum water requirement, and it is from 3.07×1010m3 to 7.53×1010m3 under the suitable water requirement. According to the different values of the water shortage, the water priority can be allocated. The ranges of the eco-environmental water requirements in the three coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are 4.49×1010m3-1.73×1011m3, 5.99×10m3?2.09×1011m3, and 7.44×1010m3-2.52×1011m3, respectively.

  19. Quantitative methods for developing C2 system requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, K.K.

    1992-06-01

    The US Army established the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Experimentation Site (AES) to provide a place where material and combat developers could experiment with command and control systems. The AES conducts fundamental and applied research involving command and control issues using a number of research methods, ranging from large force-level experiments, to controlled laboratory experiments, to studies and analyses. The work summarized in this paper was done by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under task order from the Army Tactical Command and Control System Experimentation Site. The purpose of the task was to develop the functional requirements for army engineer automation and support software, including MCS-ENG. A client, such as an army engineer, has certain needs and requirements of his or her software; these needs must be presented in ways that are readily understandable to the software developer. A requirements analysis then, such as the one described in this paper, is simply the means of communication between those who would use a piece of software and those who would develop it. The analysis from which this paper was derived attempted to bridge the communications gap'' between army combat engineers and software engineers. It sought to derive and state the software needs of army engineers in ways that are meaningful to software engineers. In doing this, it followed a natural sequence of investigation: (1) what does an army engineer do, (2) with which tasks can software help, (3) how much will it cost, and (4) where is the highest payoff This paper demonstrates how each of these questions was addressed during an analysis of the functional requirements of engineer support software. Systems engineering methods are used in a task analysis and a quantitative scoring method was developed to score responses regarding the feasibility of task automation. The paper discusses the methods used to perform utility and cost-benefits estimates.

  20. Quantitative methods for developing C2 system requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, K.K.

    1992-06-01

    The US Army established the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Experimentation Site (AES) to provide a place where material and combat developers could experiment with command and control systems. The AES conducts fundamental and applied research involving command and control issues using a number of research methods, ranging from large force-level experiments, to controlled laboratory experiments, to studies and analyses. The work summarized in this paper was done by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under task order from the Army Tactical Command and Control System Experimentation Site. The purpose of the task was to develop the functional requirements for army engineer automation and support software, including MCS-ENG. A client, such as an army engineer, has certain needs and requirements of his or her software; these needs must be presented in ways that are readily understandable to the software developer. A requirements analysis then, such as the one described in this paper, is simply the means of communication between those who would use a piece of software and those who would develop it. The analysis from which this paper was derived attempted to bridge the ``communications gap`` between army combat engineers and software engineers. It sought to derive and state the software needs of army engineers in ways that are meaningful to software engineers. In doing this, it followed a natural sequence of investigation: (1) what does an army engineer do, (2) with which tasks can software help, (3) how much will it cost, and (4) where is the highest payoff? This paper demonstrates how each of these questions was addressed during an analysis of the functional requirements of engineer support software. Systems engineering methods are used in a task analysis and a quantitative scoring method was developed to score responses regarding the feasibility of task automation. The paper discusses the methods used to perform utility and cost-benefits estimates.

  1. The slightly-enriched spectral shift control reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Lee, J.C.; Edlund, M.C.

    1990-06-01

    An advanced converter reactor design utilizing mechanical spectral shift control rods in a conventional pressurized water reactor configuration is under investigation. The design is based on the principle that a harder spectrum during the early part of the fuel cycle will result in larger neutron captures in fertile 238 U, which can then be burned in situ in a softer spectrum later in the cycle. Preliminary design calculations performed during FY 89 show that the slightly-enriched spectral shift reactor design offers the benefit of substantially increased fuel resource utilization with the proven safety characteristics of the pressurized water reactor technology retained. Optimization of the fuel design and development of fuel management strategies have been carried out in FY 90, along with effort to develop and validate neutronic methodology for tight-lattice configurations with hard spectra. During FY 91, the final year of the grant, effort will focus on performing the final design calculations and continuing the research to develop improved methods for tight lattice analysis

  2. Effective teaching methods in higher education: requirements and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAHID SHIRANI BIDABADI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teaching is one of the main components in educational planning which is a key factor in conducting educational plans. Despite the importance of good teaching, the outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aimed to investigate effective teaching in higher education in Iran based on the experiences of best professors in the country and the best local professors of Isfahan University of Technology. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted through purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten faculty members (3 of them from the best professors in the country and 7 from the best local professors. Content analysis was performed by MAXQDA software. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process that began from semantic units or direct quotations to general themes. Results: According to the results of this study, the best teaching approach is the mixed method (student-centered together with teacher-centered plus educational planning and previous readiness. But whenever the teachers can teach using this method confront with some barriers and requirements; some of these requirements are prerequisite in professors’ behavior and some of these are prerequisite in professors’ outlook. Also, there are some major barriers, some of which are associated with the professors’ operation and others are related to laws and regulations. Implications of these findings for teachers’ preparation in education are discussed. Conclusion: In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers, as the agents of responsibility for change. But training through this method has some barriers and requirements. To have an effective teaching; the faculty members of the universities

  3. Effective Teaching Methods in Higher Education: Requirements and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani Bidabadi, Nahid; Nasr Isfahani, Ahmmadreza; Rouhollahi, Amir; Khalili, Roya

    2016-10-01

    Teaching is one of the main components in educational planning which is a key factor in conducting educational plans. Despite the importance of good teaching, the outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aimed to investigate effective teaching in higher education in Iran based on the experiences of best professors in the country and the best local professors of Isfahan University of Technology. This qualitative content analysis study was conducted through purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten faculty members (3 of them from the best professors in the country and 7 from the best local professors). Content analysis was performed by MAXQDA software. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process that began from semantic units or direct quotations to general themes. According to the results of this study, the best teaching approach is the mixed method (student-centered together with teacher-centered) plus educational planning and previous readiness. But whenever the teachers can teach using this method confront with some barriers and requirements; some of these requirements are prerequisite in professors' behavior and some of these are prerequisite in professors' outlook. Also, there are some major barriers, some of which are associated with the professors' operation and others are related to laws and regulations. Implications of these findings for teachers' preparation in education are discussed. In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers, as the agents of responsibility for change. But training through this method has some barriers and requirements. To have an effective teaching; the faculty members of the universities should be awarded of these barriers and requirements as a way to

  4. Latency in Visionic Systems: Test Methods and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2005-01-01

    A visionics device creates a pictorial representation of the external scene for the pilot. The ultimate objective of these systems may be to electronically generate a form of Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to eliminate weather or time-of-day as an operational constraint and provide enhancement over actual visual conditions where eye-limiting resolution may be a limiting factor. Empirical evidence has shown that the total system delays or latencies including the imaging sensors and display systems, can critically degrade their utility, usability, and acceptability. Definitions and measurement techniques are offered herein as common test and evaluation methods for latency testing in visionics device applications. Based upon available data, very different latency requirements are indicated based upon the piloting task, the role in which the visionics device is used in this task, and the characteristics of the visionics cockpit display device including its resolution, field-of-regard, and field-of-view. The least stringent latency requirements will involve Head-Up Display (HUD) applications, where the visionics imagery provides situational information as a supplement to symbology guidance and command information. Conversely, the visionics system latency requirement for a large field-of-view Head-Worn Display application, providing a Virtual-VMC capability from which the pilot will derive visual guidance, will be the most stringent, having a value as low as 20 msec.

  5. The safe, economical operation of a slightly subcritical reactor and transmutor with a small proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes methods in which an accelerator can be used to increase the safety and neutron economy of a power reactor and transmutor of long-lived radioactive wastes, such as minor actinides and fission products, by providing neutrons for its subcritical operation. Instead of the rather large subcriticality of k=0.9--0.95 which we originally proposed for such a transmutor, we propose to use a slightly subcritical reactor, such as k=0.99, which will avoid many of the technical difficulties that are associated with large subcriticality, such as localized power peaking, radiation damage due to the injection of medium-energy protons, the high current accelerator, and the requirement for a long beam-expansion section. We analyzed the power drop that occurred in Phoenix reactor, and show that the operating this reactor in subcritical condition improves its safety

  6. A PHWR with slightly enriched uranium about the first core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, C.

    1997-01-01

    Many different studies have been performed in Argentina regarding the use of slightly enriched uranium in the PHWR nuclear plants. These referred mainly to operating plants so that a transition had to be considered from the present natural uranium fuel cycle to the slightly enriched one. In this analysis, technical and economical arguments are presented which favor the use of a natural uranium initial core. The levelized fuel costs are shown to be practically insensitive to the first core and a fast transition is more influential than an initially enriched core. (author)

  7. Reduction in requirements for allogeneic blood products: nonpharmacologic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J F; Bélisle, S; Janvier, G; Samama, M

    1996-12-01

    Various strategies have been proposed to decrease bleeding and allogeneic transfusion requirements during and after cardiac operations. This article attempts to document the usefulness, or lack thereof, of the nonpharmacologic methods available in clinical practice. Blood conservation methods were reviewed in chronologic order, as they become available to patients during the perisurgical period. The literature in support of or against each strategy was reexamined critically. Avoidance of preoperative anemia and adherence to published guidelines for the practice of transfusion are of paramount importance. Intraoperatively, tolerance of low hemoglobin concentrations and use of autologous blood (predonated or harvested before bypass) will reduce allogeneic transfusions. The usefulness of plateletpheresis and retransfusion of shed mediastinal fluid remains controversial. Intraoperatively and postoperatively, maintenance of normothermia contributes to improved hemostasis. Several approaches have been shown to be effective. An efficient combination of methods can reduce, and sometimes abolish, the need for allogeneic blood products after cardiac operations, inasmuch as all those involved in the care of cardiac surgical patients adhere thoughtfully to existing transfusion guidelines.

  8. Organisational reviews - requirements, methods and experience. Progress report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B.; Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U.

    2007-04-01

    Organisational reviews are important instruments in the continuous quest for improved performance. In the nuclear field there has been an increasing regulatory interest in organisational performance, because incidents and accidents often point to organisational deficiencies as one of the major precursors. Many methods for organisational reviews have been proposed, but they are mostly based on ad hoc approaches to specific problems. The absence of well-established techniques for organisational reviews has already shown to cause discussions and controversies on different levels. The aim of the OrRe project is to collect the experiences from organisational reviews carried out so far and to reflect them in a theoretical model of organisational performance. Furthermore, the project aims to reflect on the criteria for the definition of the scope and content of organisational reviews. Finally, recommendations will be made for guidance for people participating in organisational reviews. This progress report describes regulatory practices in Finland and Sweden together with some case examples of organizational reviews and assessment in both countries. Some issues of concern are raised and an outline for the next year's work is proposed. Issues of concern include the sufficient depth of the assessment, the required competence in assessments, data and criteria problems, definition of the boundaries of the system to be assessed, and the necessary internal support and organisational maturity required for successful assessments. Finally, plans for next year's work are outlined. (au)

  9. Organisational reviews - requirements, methods and experience. Progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U. [Maelardalen University (FI)

    2007-04-15

    Organisational reviews are important instruments in the continuous quest for improved performance. In the nuclear field there has been an increasing regulatory interest in organisational performance, because incidents and accidents often point to organisational deficiencies as one of the major precursors. Many methods for organisational reviews have been proposed, but they are mostly based on ad hoc approaches to specific problems. The absence of well-established techniques for organisational reviews has already shown to cause discussions and controversies on different levels. The aim of the OrRe project is to collect the experiences from organisational reviews carried out so far and to reflect them in a theoretical model of organisational performance. Furthermore, the project aims to reflect on the criteria for the definition of the scope and content of organisational reviews. Finally, recommendations will be made for guidance for people participating in organisational reviews. This progress report describes regulatory practices in Finland and Sweden together with some case examples of organizational reviews and assessment in both countries. Some issues of concern are raised and an outline for the next year's work is proposed. Issues of concern include the sufficient depth of the assessment, the required competence in assessments, data and criteria problems, definition of the boundaries of the system to be assessed, and the necessary internal support and organisational maturity required for successful assessments. Finally, plans for next year's work are outlined. (au)

  10. Ponderosa pine seed-tree removal reduces stocking only slightly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1969-01-01

    After ponderosa pine seed trees were removed on the Challenge Experimental Forest, California, seedling stocking fell by 3.8 percent or about 212 seedlings per acre. This loss is slightly less than that incurred from natural mortality, and one that did not reduce regeneration levels below the minimum standard.

  11. A simple coordination complex exhibiting colour change on slight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    structure analysis. In 1979, Grenthe and co-worker. reported thermochromism of bis(NN-diethylethane-. 1,2-diamine) copper(II) perchlorate on the basis of ... ture was allowed to cool when white solid KCl sepa- rated out and it was .... A simple coordination complex exhibits colour change on slight structural modification. 733.

  12. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine Imaging: Concepts, Requirements and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    The absolute quantification of radionuclide distribution has been a goal since the early days of nuclear medicine. Nevertheless, the apparent complexity and sometimes limited accuracy of these methods have prevented them from being widely used in important applications such as targeted radionuclide therapy or kinetic analysis. The intricacy of the effects degrading nuclear medicine images and the lack of availability of adequate methods to compensate for these effects have frequently been seen as insurmountable obstacles in the use of quantitative nuclear medicine in clinical institutions. In the last few decades, several research groups have consistently devoted their efforts to the filling of these gaps. As a result, many efficient methods are now available that make quantification a clinical reality, provided appropriate compensation tools are used. Despite these efforts, many clinical institutions still lack the knowledge and tools to adequately measure and estimate the accumulated activities in the human body, thereby using potentially outdated protocols and procedures. The purpose of the present publication is to review the current state of the art of image quantification and to provide medical physicists and other related professionals facing quantification tasks with a solid background of tools and methods. It describes and analyses the physical effects that degrade image quality and affect the accuracy of quantification, and describes methods to compensate for them in planar, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. The fast paced development of the computational infrastructure, both hardware and software, has made drastic changes in the ways image quantification is now performed. The measuring equipment has evolved from the simple blind probes to planar and three dimensional imaging, supported by SPECT, PET and hybrid equipment. Methods of iterative reconstruction have been developed to allow for

  13. Corrosion inhibitor development for slightly sour environments with oxygen intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.; Wang, H.; Li, J. [Clariant Oil Services North America, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined the effect of oxygen on the inhibition of carbon steel in slightly sour corrosion, and the initiation and propagation of localized attack. Oxygen can enter sour water injection systems through the vapor space in storage tanks and process system. Oxygen aggravates the corrosion attack by participating in the cathodic reaction under full or partial diffusion control. Laboratory testing results were reported in this presentation along with the development of corrosion inhibitors for such a slightly sour system. Bubble testing cells were used with continuous H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture gas sparging and occasional oxygen intrusion of 2 to 4 hours during a week long test. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and weight loss corrosion coupons were used to quantify the corrosion attack. The findings were presented in terms of the magnitude of localized attacks at different oxygen concentrations and intrusion periods, with and without the presence of corrosion inhibitors. tabs., figs.

  14. Conformal bootstrap with slightly broken higher spin symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter,Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Zhiboedov, Alexander [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature,Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-06-16

    We consider conformal field theories with slightly broken higher spin symmetry in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. We analyze the crossing equation in the double light-cone limit and solve for the anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents γ{sub s} with large spin s. The result depends on the symmetries and the spectrum of the unperturbed conformal field theory. We reproduce all known results and make further predictions. In particular we make a prediction for the anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents in the 3d Ising model.

  15. Required doses for projection methods in X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The ideal dose requirement has been stated by Cohen et al. (1981) by a formula basing on parallel beam, maximum quantum yield and Bucky grid effect depending on the signal to noise ratio and object contrast. This was checked by means of contrast detail diagrams measured at the hole phantom, and was additionally compared with measurement results obtained with acrylic glass phantoms. The optimal dose requirement is obtained by the maximum technically possible approach to the ideal requirement level. Examples are given, besides for x-ray equipment with Gd 2 O 2 S screen film systems for grid screen mammography, and new thoracic examination systems for mass screenings. Finally, a few values concerning the dose requirement or the analogous time required for fluorscent screening in angiography and interventional radiology, are stated, as well as for dentistry and paediatric x-ray diagnostics. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Evaluation of Information Requirements of Reliability Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the information needed to perform methods for robustness and reliability, and verify their applicability to early design stages. Several methods were evaluated on their support to synthesis in engineering design. Of those methods, FMEA, FTA and HAZOP were selected...

  17. Defining Requirements and Related Methods for Designing Sensorized Garments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Andreoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing smart garments has strong interdisciplinary implications, specifically related to user and technical requirements, but also because of the very different applications they have: medicine, sport and fitness, lifestyle monitoring, workplace and job conditions analysis, etc. This paper aims to discuss some user, textile, and technical issues to be faced in sensorized clothes development. In relation to the user, the main requirements are anthropometric, gender-related, and aesthetical. In terms of these requirements, the user’s age, the target application, and fashion trends cannot be ignored, because they determine the compliance with the wearable system. Regarding textile requirements, functional factors—also influencing user comfort—are elasticity and washability, while more technical properties are the stability of the chemical agents’ effects for preserving the sensors’ efficacy and reliability, and assuring the proper duration of the product for the complete life cycle. From the technical side, the physiological issues are the most important: skin conductance, tolerance, irritation, and the effect of sweat and perspiration are key factors for reliable sensing. Other technical features such as battery size and duration, and the form factor of the sensor collector, should be considered, as they affect aesthetical requirements, which have proven to be crucial, as well as comfort and wearability.

  18. Robust design requirements specification: a quantitative method for requirements development using quality loss functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Nygaard; Christensen, Martin Ebro; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Product requirements serve many purposes in the product development process. Most importantly, they are meant to capture and facilitate product goals and acceptance criteria, as defined by stakeholders. Accurately communicating stakeholder goals and acceptance criteria can be challenging and more...

  19. Slightly Conductive Transparent Films for Space Applications: Manufacturability and Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, N.; Griffin, J.; Vemulapalli, J.; Hambourger, P. D.

    2001-01-01

    Highly transparent, slightly conductive films of co-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and MgF, have possible applications for environmental protection of exterior surfaces of spacecraft. Reliable preparation of films with the desired sheet resistivity (approximately 10(exp 8) ohms/square) is difficult because the electrical properties of ITO-Mg F, are highly dependent on film composition. We have investigated the use of plasma emission monitoring to improve the reproducibility of films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. While considerable improve ment was observed, it appears that some in-situ electrical or optica l characterization will be needed for reliable production coating wit h ITO-MgF,. We have also done further evaluation of a possibly undesi rable photoconductive effect previously observed in these films.

  20. Disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    With regard to the disposal of solid wastes, nuclear power plants basically have two options, disposal in a Part 61 licensed low-level waste site, or receive approval pursuant to 20.2002 for disposal in a manner not otherwise authorized by the NRC. Since 1981, the staff has reviewed and approved 30 requests for disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive materials pursuant to Section 20.2002 (formerly 20.302) for nuclear power plants located in non-Agreement States. NRC Agreement States have been delegated the authority for reviewing and approving such disposals (whether onsite or offsite) for nuclear power plants within their borders. This paper describes the characteristics of the waste disposed of, the review process, and the staff`s guidelines.

  1. The slightly-enriched spectral shift control reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.R.; Lee, J.C.; Larsen, E.W. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Edlund, M.C. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-11-01

    An advanced converter reactor design utilizing mechanical spectral shift control rods in a conventional pressurized water reactor configuration is under investigation. The design is based on the principle that a harder spectrum during the early part of the fuel cycle will result in large neutron captures in fertile {sup 238}U, which can then be burned in situ in a softer spectrum later in the cycle. Preliminary design calculations performed during FY 89 showed that the slightly-enriched spectral shift reactor design offers the benefit of substantially increased fuel resource utilization with the proven safety characteristics of the pressurized water reactor technology retained. Optimization of the fuel design and development of fuel management strategies were carried out in FY 90, along with effort to develop and validate neutronic methodology for tight-lattice configurations with hard spectra. During FY 91, the final year of the grant, the final Slightly-Enriched Spectral Shift Reactor (SESSR) design was determined, and reference design analyses were performed for the assemblies as well as the global core configuration, both at the beginning of cycle (BOC) and with depletion. The final SESSR design results in approximately a 20% increase in the utilization of uranium resources, based on equilibrium fuel cycle analyses. Acceptable pin power peaking is obtained with the final core design, with assembly peaking factors equal to less than 1.04 for spectral shift control rods both inserted and withdrawn, and global peaking factors at BOC predicted to be 1.4. In addition, a negative Moderation Temperature Coefficient (MTC) is maintained for BOC, which is difficult to achieve with conventional advanced converter designs based on a closed fuel cycle. The SESSR design avoids the need for burnable poison absorber, although they could be added if desired to increase the cycle length while maintaining a negative MTC.

  2. The slightly-enriched spectral shift control reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Lee, J.C.; Larsen, E.W.; Edlund, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    An advanced converter reactor design utilizing mechanical spectral shift control rods in a conventional pressurized water reactor configuration is under investigation. The design is based on the principle that a harder spectrum during the early part of the fuel cycle will result in large neutron captures in fertile 238 U, which can then be burned in situ in a softer spectrum later in the cycle. Preliminary design calculations performed during FY 89 showed that the slightly-enriched spectral shift reactor design offers the benefit of substantially increased fuel resource utilization with the proven safety characteristics of the pressurized water reactor technology retained. Optimization of the fuel design and development of fuel management strategies were carried out in FY 90, along with effort to develop and validate neutronic methodology for tight-lattice configurations with hard spectra. During FY 91, the final year of the grant, the final Slightly-Enriched Spectral Shift Reactor (SESSR) design was determined, and reference design analyses were performed for the assemblies as well as the global core configuration, both at the beginning of cycle (BOC) and with depletion. The final SESSR design results in approximately a 20% increase in the utilization of uranium resources, based on equilibrium fuel cycle analyses. Acceptable pin power peaking is obtained with the final core design, with assembly peaking factors equal to less than 1.04 for spectral shift control rods both inserted and withdrawn, and global peaking factors at BOC predicted to be 1.4. In addition, a negative Moderation Temperature Coefficient (MTC) is maintained for BOC, which is difficult to achieve with conventional advanced converter designs based on a closed fuel cycle. The SESSR design avoids the need for burnable poison absorber, although they could be added if desired to increase the cycle length while maintaining a negative MTC

  3. 40 CFR 136.6 - Method modifications and analytical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... modifications and analytical requirements. (a) Definitions of terms used in this section. (1) Analyst means the..., oil and grease, total suspended solids, total phenolics, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, and.... Except as set forth in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, an analyst may modify an approved test procedure...

  4. A Survey of Requirements Engineering Methods for Pervasive Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolos, L.; van Eck, Pascal; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    Designing and deploying ubiquitous computing systems, such as those delivering large-scale mobile services, still requires large-scale investments in both development effort as well as infrastructure costs. Therefore, in order to develop the right system, the design process merits a thorough

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Hydraulic Methods Regarding Hydromorphologic Data Derivation Methods to Determine Environmental Water Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shokoohi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the accuracy of hydraulic methods in determining environmental flow requirements. Despite the vital importance of deriving river cross sectional data for hydraulic methods, few studies have focused on the criteria for deriving this data. The present study shows that the depth of cross section has a meaningful effect on the results obtained from hydraulic methods and that, considering fish as the index species for river habitat analysis, an optimum depth of 1 m should be assumed for deriving information from cross sections. The second important parameter required for extracting the geometric and hydraulic properties of rivers is the selection of an appropriate depth increment; ∆y. In the present research, this parameter was found to be equal to 1 cm. The uncertainty of the environmental discharge evaluation, when allocating water in areas with water scarcity, should be kept as low as possible. The Manning friction coefficient (n is an important factor in river discharge calculation. Using a range of "n" equal to 3 times the standard deviation for the study area, it is shown that the influence of friction coefficient on the estimation of environmental flow is much less than that on the calculation of river discharge.

  6. Effects of slightly acidic electrolysed drinking water on mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Yoshiko; Obata, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Masami; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sato, Masayoshi; Toida, Kazumi; Kushima, Hidemi; Matsuda, Yukihisa

    2011-10-01

    Slightly acidic electrolysed (SAE) water is a sanitizer with strong bactericidal activity due to hypochlorous acid. We assessed the safety of SAE water as drinking water for mice at a 5 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) concentration to examine the possibility of SAE water as a labour- and energy-saving alternative to sterile water. We provided SAE water or sterile water to mice for 12 weeks, during which time we recorded changes in body weight and weekly water and food intakes. At the end of the experiment, all of the subject animals were sacrificed to assess serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine levels and to examine the main organs histopathologically under a light microscope. In addition, we investigated the bacteria levels of both types of water. We found no difference in functional and morphological health condition indices between the groups. Compared with sterile water, SAE water had a relatively higher ability to suppress bacterial growth. We suggest that SAE water at 5 ppm TRC is a safe and useful alternative to sterile water for use as drinking water in laboratory animal facilities.

  7. Thermal test requirements and their verification by different test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, B.; Wieser, G.; Probst, U.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the parameters influencing the thermal test conditions for type B-packages. Criteria for different test methods (by analytical as well as by experimental means) will be developed. A comparison of experimental results from fuel oil pool and LPG fire tests will be given. (J.P.N.)

  8. Clearance of slightly radioactive material from radiological control in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    1995-01-01

    Clearance from radiological control of slightly radioactive material arising from operation or decommissioning of nuclear installations has been practiced in Germany for nearly two decades. Meanwhile, for the clearance of metal generally approved and applicable recommendations for clearance levels have been issued. For other materials like building waste, case-by-case decisions are made by the state licensing authorities. Efforts to implement consistent sets of clearance levels for all kinds of material are under way. As several decommissioning projects will soon generate large amounts of materials from dismantling, a solution needs to be reached soon. The legal framework in Germany governing the use of atomic energy consists of the Atomic Energy Act and several ordinances. Rules and guidelines including the recommendations of the German Commission for Radiation Protection (SSK) exist on a lower level and are not legally binding. Several generic studies for the derivation of clearance levels for metals and building debris with alpha, beta, and gamma contamination have been performed on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, which oriented themselves on an individual dose of 10 microSv/a in agreement with IAEA recommendations. Stochastic models have been used for establishing the connection between specific activity of the material to be released and the resulting individual doses, with significant advantages over deterministic scenarios. In the future, for new SSK recommendations or an ordinance on clearance, the increase of masses from demolition of installations, higher recycling rates in the conventional sector and harmonization with international regulations and standards have to be taken into account

  9. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B.; Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U.

    2008-03-01

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  10. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Rollenhagen, C. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, (Sweden); Kahlbom, U. [RiskPilot (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  11. Ergonomic requirements to control room design - evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.

    1985-01-01

    The method of evaluation introduced is the result of work carried out by the sub-committee 'Control Room Design' of the Engineering Standards Committee in DIN Standards, Ergonomy. This committee compiles standards for the design of control rooms (instrumentation and control) for the monitoring and operation of process engineering cycles. With the agreement of the committee - whom we wish to take the opportunity of thanking at this point for their constructive collaboration - a planned partial standard will be introduced thematically in the following, in order that knowledge gained from the discussion can be included in further work on the subject. The matter in question is a procedure for the qualitative evaluation of the duties to be performed under the control of operators in order that an assessment can be made of existing control concepts or such concepts as are to be found in the draft phase. (orig./GL) [de

  12. The Videographic Requirements Gathering Method for Adolescent-Focused Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Peyton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method for conducting requirements gathering with adolescent populations. Called videographic requirements gathering, this technique makes use of mobile phone data capture and participant creation of media images. The videographic requirements gathering method can help researchers and designers gain intimate insight into adolescent lives while simultaneously reducing power imbalances. We provide rationale for this approach, pragmatics of using the method, and advice on overcoming common challenges facing researchers and designers relying on this technique.

  13. Investigation of slightly forced buoyant flow in a training reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legradi, G.; Aszodi, A.; Por, G.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement based on the temperature noise analysis method was carried out in the Training Reactor of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The main goals were the estimation of the flow velocity immediately above the reactor core and investigation of the thermal-hydraulical conditions of the reactor, mainly in the core. Subsequently 2D and 3D computations were carried out with the aid of the code CFX- 4.3. The main objective of the 2D calculation was to clarify the thermal-hydraulical conditions of the whole reactor tank with a reasonable computing demand. It was also necessary to accomplish 3D numerical investigations of the reactor core and the space above since three dimensional effects of the flow could only be studied in this way. In addition, obtaining certain boundary conditions of the 3D computations was another significant aim of the 2D investigations. It is important that the results of the noise analysis and the operational measuring system of the reactor gave us a basis for verifying our computations.(author)

  14. Handbook of methods for risk-based analysis of technical specification requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants define the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs) and Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. In general, these requirements were based on deterministic analysis and engineering judgments. Experiences with plant operation indicate that some elements of the requirements are unnecessarily restrictive, while others may not be conducive to safety. Improvements in these requirements are facilitated by the availability of plant specific Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The use of risk and reliability-based methods to improve TS requirements has gained wide interest because these methods can: Quantitatively evaluate the risk and justify changes based on objective risk arguments; Provide a defensible basis for these requirements for regulatory applications. The US NRC Office of Research is sponsoring research to develop systematic risk-based methods to improve various aspects of TS requirements. The handbook of methods, which is being prepared, summarizes such risk-based methods. The scope of the handbook includes reliability and risk-based methods for evaluating allowed outage times (AOTs), action statements requiring shutdown where shutdown risk may be substantial, surveillance test intervals (STIs), defenses against common-cause failures, managing plant configurations, and scheduling maintenances. For each topic, the handbook summarizes methods of analysis and data needs, outlines the insights to be gained, lists additional references, and presents examples of evaluations

  15. Handbook of methods for risk-based analysis of Technical Specification requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants define the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs) and Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. In general, these requirements were based on deterministic analysis and engineering judgments. Experiences with plant operation indicate that some elements of the requirements are unnecessarily restrictive, while others may not be conducive to safety. Improvements in these requirements are facilitated by the availability of plant specific Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The use of risk and reliability-based methods to improve TS requirements has gained wide interest because these methods can: quantitatively evaluate the risk impact and justify changes based on objective risk arguments. Provide a defensible basis for these requirements for regulatory applications. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Office of Research is sponsoring research to develop systematic risk-based methods to improve various aspects of TS requirements. The handbook of methods, which is being prepared, summarizes such risk-based methods. The scope of the handbook includes reliability and risk-based methods for evaluating allowed outage times (AOTs), action statements requiring shutdown where shutdown risk may be substantial, surveillance test intervals (STIs), defenses against common-cause failures, managing plant configurations, and scheduling maintenances. For each topic, the handbook summarizes methods of analysis and data needs, outlines the insights to be gained, lists additional references, and presents examples of evaluations

  16. 42 CFR 84.146 - Method of measuring the power and torque required to operate blowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of measuring the power and torque required... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.146 Method of measuring the power and torque.... These are used to facilitate timing. To determine the torque or horsepower required to operate the...

  17. KidReporter : a method for engaging children in making a newspaper to gather user requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.M.; Beusmans, J.; Keyson, D.V.; Lloyd, P.A.; Bekker, M.M.; Markopoulos, P.; Tsikalkina, M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a design method, called the KidReporter method, for gathering user requirements from children. Two school classes participated in making a newspaper about a zoo, to gather requirements for the design process of an interactive educational game. The educational game was developed to

  18. Natural products phytotoxicity A bioassay suitable for small quantities of slightly water-soluble compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbos, D L; Spencer, G F

    1990-02-01

    A large variety of secondary metabolites that can inhibit germination and/or seedling growth are produced by plants in low quantities. The objective of this study was to develop a bioassay capable of reliably assessing reductions in germination percentage and seedling length of small-seeded plant species caused by exposure to minute quantities of these compounds. The germination and growth of alfalfa (Medicago saliva), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) were evaluated against six known phytotoxins from five chemical classes; cinmethylin (a herbicidal cineole derivative) was selected as a comparison standard. Each phytotoxin, dissolved in a suitable organic solvent, was placed on water-agar in small tissue culture wells. After the solvent evaporated, imbibed seeds were placed on the agar; after three days, germination percentages and seedling lengths were measured. Compared to a commonly used filter paper procedure, this modified agar bioassay required smaller quantities of compound per seed for comparable bioassay results. This bioassay also readily permitted the measurement of seedling length, a more sensitive indicator of phytotoxicity than germination. Seedling length decreased sigmoidally as the toxin concentration increased logarithmically. Phytotoxicity was a function of both compound and plant species. Cinmethylin, a grass herbicide, reduced the length of annual ryegrass seedlings by 90-100%, whereas that of alfalfa and velvetleaf was inhibited slightly. The agar bioassay facilitated the rapid and reliable testing of slightly water-soluble compounds, requiring only minute quantities of each compound to give reproducible results.

  19. Process for the selective cracking of straight-chained and slightly branched hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorring, R L; Shipman, G F

    1975-01-23

    The invention describes a method for the selective (hydro) cracking of petroleum materials, containing normal straight-chained and/or slightly branched-chained hydrocarbons. The mixture is brought into contact with a selective, crystalline alumino silicate zeolite cracking catalyst housing a silicon oxide/aluminum oxide ratio of at least about 12 and a constraint index of about 1 to 12 under cracking conditions. A zeolite catalyst with a crystal size of up to 0.05 ..mu.. is used. Solidification point and viscosity in particular of oils are to be lowered through the catalytic dewaxing.

  20. The influence of slightly different main circulation pumps on PWR coolant pressure pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.; Pecinka, L.

    1989-01-01

    Pressure distribution along the core barrel circumference caused by the simultaneous operation of six main circulating pumps with slightly different revolutions obtained as a result of measurement in operated NPP is determined on the basis of the well-known Penzes method based on the solving of the wave equation with source term using the expansion into the infinite series of eigenfunctions. Results of calculations can be summarized as follows: the pressure distribution and the resulting force acting on the core barrel has a random character. The same is valid for core barrel vibrations and mainly for the joint between core barrel and pressure vessel. (orig.)

  1. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for time-accounting method. An agency that authorizes a flexible work schedule or a compressed work schedule under this...

  2. [Precautions of physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Zi; Wan, Min; Xu, Hui; Yao, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jin-Hong

    2009-09-01

    The major idea of this article is to discuss standardization and normalization for the product standard of medical devices. Analyze the problem related to the physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process and make corresponding suggestions.

  3. The safe, economical operation of a slightly subcritical reactor and transmutor with a small proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    I suggest that an accelerator can be used to increase the safety and neutron economy of a power reactor and a transmutor of long-lived radioactive wastes, such as minor actinides and fission products, by providing neutrons for its subcritical operation. Instead of the large subcriticality k=0.9-0.95 which we originally proposed for such transmutor, we propose to use a slightly subcritical reactor, such as k=0.99, which will avoid many of the technical difficulties that are associated with large subcriticality, such as localized power peaking, radiation damage due to injection of medium-energy protons, the high current accelerator, and the requirement for a long beam-expansion section. We analyze the power drop that occurred in Phenix reactor, and show that the operating this reactor in subcritical conditions improves safety. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs

  4. Software Safety Analysis of Digital Protection System Requirements Using a Qualitative Formal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Kwon, Kee-Choon; Cha, Sung-Deok

    2004-01-01

    The safety analysis of requirements is a key problem area in the development of software for the digital protection systems of a nuclear power plant. When specifying requirements for software of the digital protection systems and conducting safety analysis, engineers find that requirements are often known only in qualitative terms and that existing fault-tree analysis techniques provide little guidance on formulating and evaluating potential failure modes. A framework for the requirements engineering process is proposed that consists of a qualitative method for requirements specification, called the qualitative formal method (QFM), and a safety analysis method for the requirements based on causality information, called the causal requirements safety analysis (CRSA). CRSA is a technique that qualitatively evaluates causal relationships between software faults and physical hazards. This technique, extending the qualitative formal method process and utilizing information captured in the state trajectory, provides specific guidelines on how to identify failure modes and the relationship among them. The QFM and CRSA processes are described using shutdown system 2 of the Wolsong nuclear power plants as the digital protection system example

  5. 40 CFR 63.344 - Performance test requirements and test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electroplating tanks or chromium anodizing tanks. The sampling time and sample volume for each run of Methods 306... Chromium Anodizing Tanks § 63.344 Performance test requirements and test methods. (a) Performance test... Emissions From Decorative and Hard Chromium Electroplating and Anodizing Operations,” appendix A of this...

  6. Adjust the method of the FMEA to the requirements of the aviation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej FELLNER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a summary of current methods used in aviation and rail transport. It also contains a proposal to adjust the method of the FMEA to the latest requirements of the airline industry. The authors suggested tables of indicators Zn, Pr and Dt necessary to implement FMEA method of risk analysis taking into account current achievements aerospace and rail safety. Also proposed acceptable limits of the RPN number which allows you to classify threats.

  7. Is {sup 131}I ablation necessary for patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma and slightly elevated stimulated thyroglobulin after thyroidectomy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Mourao, Gabriela Franco, E-mail: pedrowsrosario@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa

    2016-02-15

    Objective: This prospective study evaluated the recurrence rate in low-risk patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) who presented slightly elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) after thyroidectomy and who did not undergo ablation with {sup 131}I. Subjects and methods: The study included 53 low-risk patients (non aggressive histology; pT1b-3, cN0pNx, M0) with slightly elevated Tg after thyroidectomy (> 1 ng/mL, but ≤ 5 ng/mL after levothyroxine withdrawal or ≤ 2 ng/mL after recombinant human TSH). Results: The time of follow-up ranged from 36 to 96 months. Lymph node metastases were detected in only one patient (1.9%). Fifty-two patients continued to present negative neck ultrasound. None of these patients without apparent disease presented an increase in Tg. Conclusions: Low-risk patients with PTC who present slightly elevated Tg after thyroidectomy do not require ablation with {sup 131}I. (author)

  8. Experimental study of slight temperature rise combustion in trapped vortex combustors for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.C.; Fan, W.J.; Xing, F.; Song, S.W.; Shi, Q.; Tian, G.H.; Tan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Interstage turbine combustion used for improving efficiency of gas turbine was a new type of combustion mode. Operating conditions and technical requirements for this type of combustor were different from those of traditional combustor. It was expected to achieve engineering application in both ground-based and aviation gas turbine in the near future. In this study, a number of modifications in a base design were applied and examined experimentally. The trapped-vortex combustion technology was adopted for flame stability under high velocity conditions, and the preheating-fuel injection technology was used to improve the atomization and evaporation performance of liquid fuel. The experimental results indicated that stable and efficient combustion with slight temperature-rise can be achieved under the high velocity conditions of combustor inlet. Under all experimental conditions, the excess air coefficients of ignition and lean blow-out were larger than 7 and 20, respectively; pollutant emission index of NO x and the maximum wall temperature were below 2.5 g/(kg fuel) and 1050 K, respectively. Moreover, the effects of fuel injection and overall configuration on the combustion characteristics were analyzed in detail. The number increase, area increase and depth increase of fuel injectors had different influences on the stability, combustion characteristic and temperature distribution. - Highlights: • The combustion mode of slight temperature-rise (200 K) was achieved. • Effect of fuel and air injection on stability characteristic was investigated. • Impact of overall configuration on combustion performance was analyzed. • The feasibility of scheme was determined.

  9. The effect of slight thinning of managed coniferous forest on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Saito, Haruo; Fujiwara, Akio; Horiuchi, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence of slight thinning (percentage of woods: 16.6%, basal area: 9.3%) on landscape appreciation and the psychological restorative effect of an on-site setting by exposing respondents to an ordinarily managed coniferous woodland. The experiments were conducted in an experimental plot in the same coniferous woodland in May (unthinned) and October 2013 (thinned). The respondents were the same 15 individuals for both experiments. Respondents were individually exposed to the enclosed plot and the forest-view plot within the same tent for 15 min. In both sessions, respondents were required to answer three questionnaires measuring their mood (Profile of Mood States), emotion (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and feeling of restoration (Restorative Outcome Scale) to investigate the psychological restorative effect before and after the experiment. They completed two other questionnaires measuring appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) and the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale) following the experiments. We first analyzed the difference in landscape appreciation between the unthinned and thinned conditions. We did not find any statistical difference in appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) or the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale); rather, we found that weather conditions had a primary influence on landscape appreciation. With respect to the psychological restorative effect, a two-way repeated analysis of valiance (ANOVA) revealed significant main effects for a selection of indices, depending on the presence or absence of thinning. However, multiple comparison analyses revealed that these effects seemed to be due to the difference in the experimental experience rather than the presence or absence of thinning. In conclusion, the effect of the slight thinning of the managed coniferous forest was too weak to be reflected in the

  10. Functional Mobility Testing: A Novel Method to Create Suit Design Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott A.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to aide in the creation of design requirements for the next generation of space suits that more accurately describe the level of mobility necessary for a suited crewmember through the use of an innovative methodology utilizing functional mobility. A novel method was utilized involving the collection of kinematic data while 20 subjects (10 male, 10 female) performed pertinent functional tasks that will be required of a suited crewmember during various phases of a lunar mission. These tasks were selected based on relevance and criticality from a larger list of tasks that may be carried out by the crew. Kinematic data was processed through Vicon BodyBuilder software to calculate joint angles for the ankle, knee, hip, torso, shoulder, elbow, and wrist. Maximum functional mobility was consistently lower than maximum isolated mobility. This study suggests that conventional methods for establishing design requirements for human-systems interfaces based on maximal isolated joint capabilities may overestimate the required mobility. Additionally, this method provides a valuable means of evaluating systems created from these requirements by comparing the mobility available in a new spacesuit, or the mobility required to use a new piece of hardware, to this newly established database of functional mobility.

  11. Comparison of different methods to extract the required coefficient of friction for level walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) is an important predictor for slip incidents. Despite the wide use of the RCOF there is no standardised method for identifying the RCOF from ground reaction forces. This article presents a comparison of the outcomes from seven different methods, derived from those reported in the literature, for identifying the RCOF from the same data. While commonly used methods are based on a normal force threshold, percentage of stance phase or time from heel contact, a newly introduced hybrid method is based on a combination of normal force, time and direction of increase in coefficient of friction. Although no major differences were found with these methods in more than half the strikes, significant differences were found in a significant portion of strikes. Potential problems with some of these methods were identified and discussed and they appear to be overcome by the hybrid method. No standard method exists for determining the required coefficient of friction (RCOF), an important predictor for slipping. In this study, RCOF values from a single data set, using various methods from the literature, differed considerably for a significant portion of strikes. A hybrid method may yield improved results.

  12. A Cluster of Paralytic Poliomyelitis Cases Due to Transmission of Slightly Diverged Sabin 2 Vaccine Poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Ekaterina A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Yakovenko, Maria L; Ivanova, Olga E; Eremeeva, Tatyana P; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I; Shakaryan, Armen K; Lipskaya, Galina Y; Parshina, Irina L; Loginovskikh, Nataliya V; Morozova, Nadezhda S; Agol, Vadim I

    2016-07-01

    Four cases of acute flaccid paralysis caused by slightly evolved (Sabin-like) vaccine polioviruses of serotype 2 were registered in July to August 2010 in an orphanage of Biysk (Altai Region, Russia). The Biysk cluster of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) had several uncommon, if not unique, features. (i) Until this outbreak, Sabin-like viruses (in distinction to more markedly evolved vaccine-derived polioviruses [VDPVs]) were reported to cause only sporadic cases of VAPP. Consequently, VAPP cases were not considered to require outbreak-type responses. However, the Biysk outbreak completely blurred the borderline between Sabin-like viruses and VDPVs in epidemiological terms. (ii) The outbreak demonstrated a very high disease/infection ratio, apparently exceeding even that reported for wild polioviruses. The viral genome structures did not provide any substantial hints as to the underlying reason(s) for such pathogenicity. (iii) The replacement of intestinal poliovirus lineages by other Sabin-like lineages during short intervals after the disease onsets was observed in two patients. Again, the sequences of the respective genomes provided no clues to explain these events. (iv) The polioviruses isolated from the patients and their contacts demonstrated a striking heterogeneity as well as rapid and uneven evolution of the whole genomes and their parts, apparently due to extensive interpersonal contacts in a relatively small closed community, multiple bottlenecking, and recombination. Altogether, the results demonstrate several new aspects of pathogenicity, epidemiology, and evolution of vaccine-related polioviruses and underscore several serious gaps in understanding these problems. The oral poliovirus vaccine largely contributed to the nearly complete disappearance of poliovirus-caused poliomyelitis. Being generally safe, it can, in some cases, result in a paralytic disease. Two types of such outcomes are distinguished: those caused by slightly

  13. Mission from Mars - a method for exploring user requirements for children in a narrative space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Ludvigsen, Martin; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...... school bag (eBag). The three-hour collaborative session provides a first-hand insight into children's practice in a fun and intriguing way. The method is proposed as a supplement to existing descriptive design methods for interaction design and children....

  14. Proposal for Requirement Validation Criteria and Method Based on Actor Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Noboru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Ajisaka, Tsuneo; Kitani, Tsuyoshi

    We propose requirement validation criteria and a method based on the interaction between actors in an information system. We focus on the cyclical transitions of one actor's situation against another and clarify observable stimuli and responses based on these transitions. Both actors' situations can be listed in a state transition table, which describes the observable stimuli or responses they send or receive. Examination of the interaction between both actors in the state transition tables enables us to detect missing or defective observable stimuli or responses. Typically, this method can be applied to the examination of the interaction between a resource managed by the information system and its user. As a case study, we analyzed 332 requirement defect reports of an actual system development project in Japan. We found that there were a certain amount of defects regarding missing or defective stimuli and responses, which can be detected using our proposed method if this method is used in the requirement definition phase. This means that we can reach a more complete requirement definition with our proposed method.

  15. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  16. 21 CFR 111.320 - What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination? 111.320 Section 111.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...

  17. Design requirements, criteria and methods for seismic qualification of CANDU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Duff, C.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes the requirements and criteria for the seismic design and qualification of systems and equipment in CANDU nuclear power plants. Acceptable methods and techniques for seismic qualification of CANDU nuclear power plants to mitigate the effects or the consequences of earthquakes are also described. (auth)

  18. New concepts, requirements and methods concerning the periodic inspection of the CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Periodic inspection of fuel channels is essential for a proper assessment of the structural integrity of these vital components of the reactor. The development of wet channel technologies for non-destructive examination (NDE) of pressure tubes and the high technical performance and reliability of the CIGAR equipment have led, in less than 1 0 years, to the accumulation of a very significant volume of data concerning the flaw mechanisms and structural behaviour of the CANDU fuel channels. On this basis, a new form of the CAN/CSA-N285.4 Standard for Periodic Inspection of CANDU Nuclear Power Plant components was elaborated, introducing new concepts and requirements, in accord with the powerful NDE methods now available. This paper presents these concepts and requirements, and discusses the NDE methods, presently used or under development, to satisfy these requirements. Specific features regarding the fuel channel inspections of Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 are also discussed. (author)

  19. Fault tree construction of hybrid system requirements using qualitative formal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Cha, Sung-Deok

    2005-01-01

    When specifying requirements for software controlling hybrid systems and conducting safety analysis, engineers experience that requirements are often known only in qualitative terms and that existing fault tree analysis techniques provide little guidance on formulating and evaluating potential failure modes. In this paper, we propose Causal Requirements Safety Analysis (CRSA) as a technique to qualitatively evaluate causal relationship between software faults and physical hazards. This technique, extending qualitative formal method process and utilizing information captured in the state trajectory, provides specific guidelines on how to identify failure modes and relationship among them. Using a simplified electrical power system as an example, we describe step-by-step procedures of conducting CRSA. Our experience of applying CRSA to perform fault tree analysis on requirements for the Wolsong nuclear power plant shutdown system indicates that CRSA is an effective technique in assisting safety engineers

  20. Quality assurance requirements and methods for high level waste package acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This document should serve as guidance for assigning the necessary items to control the conditioning process in such a way that waste packages are produced in compliance with the waste acceptance requirements. It is also provided to promote the exchange of information on quality assurance requirements and on the application of quality assurance methods associated with the production of high level waste packages, to ensure that these waste packages comply with the requirements for transportation, interim storage and waste disposal in deep geological formations. The document is intended to assist both the operators of conditioning facilities and repositories as well as national authorities and regulatory bodies, involved in the licensing of the conditioning of high level radioactive wastes or in the development of deep underground disposal systems. The document recommends the quality assurance requirements and methods which are necessary to generate data for these parameters identified in IAEA-TECDOC-560 on qualitative acceptance criteria, and indicates where and when the control methods can be applied, e.g. in the operation or commissioning of a process or in the development of a waste package design. Emphasis is on the control of the process and little reliance is placed on non-destructive or destructive testing. Qualitative criteria, relevant to disposal of high level waste, are repository dependent and are not addressed here. 37 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  2. A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    In the design of a new space suit it is necessary to have requirements that define what mobility space suit joints should be capable of achieving in both a system and at the component level. NASA elected to divide mobility into its constituent parts-range of motion (ROM) and torque- in an effort to develop clean design requirements that limit subject performance bias and are easily verified. Unfortunately, the measurement of mobility can be difficult to obtain. Current technologies, such as the Vicon motion capture system, allow for the relatively easy benchmarking of range of motion (ROM) for a wide array of space suit systems. The ROM evaluations require subjects in the suit to accurately evaluate the ranges humans can achieve in the suit. However, when it comes to torque, there are significant challenges for both benchmarking current performance and writing requirements for future suits. This is reflected in the fact that torque definitions have been applied to very few types of space suits and with limited success in defining all the joints accurately. This paper discussed the advantages and disadvantages to historical joint torque evaluation methods, describes more recent efforts directed at benchmarking joint torques of prototype space suits, and provides an outline for how NASA intends to address joint torque in design requirements for the Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS).

  3. Potential for recycling of slightly radioactive metals arising from decommissioning within nuclear sector in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncir, Tomas; Strazovec, Roman; Zachar, Matej

    2017-09-07

    The decommissioning of nuclear installations represents a complex process resulting in the generation of large amounts of waste materials containing various concentrations of radionuclides. Selection of an appropriate strategy of management of the mentioned materials strongly influences the effectiveness of decommissioning process keeping in mind safety, financial and other relevant aspects. In line with international incentives for optimization of radioactive material management, concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are widely discussed and applications of these concepts are analysed. Recycling of some portion of these materials within nuclear sector (e.g. scrap metals or concrete rubble) seems to be highly desirable from economical point of view and may lead to conserve some disposal capacity. However, detailed safety assessment along with cost/benefit calculations and feasibility study should be developed in order to prove the safety, practicality and cost effectiveness of possible recycling scenarios. Paper discussed the potential for recycling of slightly radioactive metals arising from decommissioning of NPPs within nuclear sector in Slovakia. Various available recycling scenarios are introduced and method for overall assessment of various recycling scenarios is outlined including the preliminary assessment of safety and financial aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of ultrasound and slightly acidic electrolyzed water as alternative technologies in the meat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, D. R. M.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of meat from different animal species is defined by chemical, physical sensory and microbiological characteristics, which can be influenced by procedures during the slaughter of animals. Technologies such as ultrasound (US and slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW are being studied in order to assist in food processing and in developing methods that are economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between US and SAEW in relation to tenderness, microbiology, and oxidation of meat. The meat industry was a pioneer in the use of the ultrasound, which initially aimed to determine the layer of fat on carcasses and subsequently improve the tenderness of the meat. Recently studies mention that the ultrasound and SAEW can influence the microbiological parameters. The combination of both technologies should also be considered, with the possibility of enhancing the antimicrobial effects. However, there is little information regarding oxidative parameters promoted in meat for these two alternative technologies, where the individual or when interspersed use. Knowing the actions and consequences of ultrasound and SAEW in meat will enable the opening of new perspectives about the application of these technologies in the meat industry.

  5. Comparative analysis of calculations and experiment for uranium-graphite lattices with natural and slightly-enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, N.N.; Shchukin, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Three sets of experiments carried out at different times and in different laboratories on measuring the material parameter for uranium-graphite lattices using natural and slightly enriched uranium are analyzed. Comparison with the calculations by the TRIFOGR and MCU (the Monte Carlo method) codes reveals resonable agreement between the calculation and experiment (of the order of 0.4% in K eff ). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  6. Identifying and prioritizing customer requirements from tractor production by QFD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Taghizadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Discovering and understanding customer needs and expectations are considered as important factors on customer satisfaction and play vital role to maintain the current activity among its competitors, proceeding and obtaining customer satisfaction which are critical factors to design a successful production; thus the successful organizations must meet their needs containing the quality of the products or services to customers. Quality Function Deployment (QFD is a technique for studying demands and needs of customers which is going to give more emphasis to the customer's interests in this way. The QFD method in general implemented various tools and methods for reaching qualitative goals; but the most important and the main tool of this method is the house of quality diagrams. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is a famous and common MADM method based on pair wise comparisons used for determining the priority of understudied factors in various studies until now. With considering effectiveness of QFD method to explicating customer's demands and obtaining customer satisfaction, generally, the researchers followed this question's suite and scientific answer: how can QFD explicate real demands and requirements of customers from tractor final production and what is the prioritization of these demands and requirements in view of customers. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify and prioritize the customer requirements of Massey Ferguson (MF 285 tractor production in Iran tractor manufacturing company with t- student statistical test, AHP and QFD methods. Materials and Methods Research method was descriptive and statistical population included all of the tractor customers of Tractor Manufacturing Company in Iran from March 2011 to March 2015. The statistical sample size was 171 which are determined with Cochran index. Moreover, 20 experts' opinion has been considered for determining product's technical requirements. Literature

  7. A method for determining customer requirement weights based on TFMF and TLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Qingsong; Shu, Ting; Liu, Quan; Zhou, Zude; Xiao, Zheng

    2013-11-01

    'Customer requirements' (CRs) management plays an important role in enterprise systems (ESs) by processing customer-focused information. Quality function deployment (QFD) is one of the main CRs analysis methods. Because CR weights are crucial for the input of QFD, we developed a method for determining CR weights based on trapezoidal fuzzy membership function (TFMF) and 2-tuple linguistic representation (TLR). To improve the accuracy of CR weights, we propose to apply TFMF to describe CR weights so that they can be appropriately represented. Because the fuzzy logic is not capable of aggregating information without loss, TLR model is adopted as well. We first describe the basic concepts of TFMF and TLR and then introduce an approach to compute CR weights. Finally, an example is provided to explain and verify the proposed method.

  8. Performance of methods for estimation of table beet water requirement in Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella P. dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Optimization of water use in agriculture is fundamental, particularly in regions where water scarcity is intense, requiring the adoption of technologies that promote increased irrigation efficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate evapotranspiration models and to estimate the crop coefficients of beet grown in a drainage lysimeter in the Agreste region of Alagoas. The experiment was conducted at the Campus of the Federal University of Alagoas - UFAL, in the municipality of Arapiraca, AL, between March and April 2014. Crop evapotranspiration (ETc was estimated in drainage lysimeters and reference evapotranspiration (ETo by Penman-Monteith-FAO 56 and Hargreaves-Samani methods. The Hargreaves-Samani method presented a good performance index for ETo estimation compared with the Penman-Monteith-FAO method, indicating that it is adequate for the study area. Beet ETc showed a cumulative demand of 202.11 mm for a cumulative reference evapotranspiration of 152.00 mm. Kc values determined using the Penman-Monteith-FAO 56 and Hargreaves-Samani methods were overestimated, in comparison to the Kc values of the FAO-56 standard method. With the obtained results, it is possible to correct the equations of the methods for the region, allowing for adequate irrigation management.

  9. Method for calculating required shielding in medical x-ray rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karppinen, J.

    1997-10-01

    The new annual radiation dose limits - 20 mSv (previously 50 mSv) for radiation workers and 1 mSv (previously 5 mSv) for other persons - implies that the adequacy of existing radiation shielding must be re-evaluated. In principle, one could assume that the thicknesses of old radiation shields should be increased by about one or two half-value layers in order to comply with the new dose limits. However, the assumptions made in the earlier shielding calculations are highly conservative; the required shielding was often determined by applying the maximum high-voltage of the x-ray tube for the whole workload. A more realistic calculation shows that increased shielding is typically not necessary if more practical x-ray tube voltages are used in the evaluation. We have developed a PC-based calculation method for calculating the x-ray shielding which is more realistic than the highly conservative method formerly used. The method may be used to evaluate an existing shield for compliance with new regulations. As examples of these calculations, typical x-ray rooms are considered. The lead and concrete thickness requirements as a function of x-ray tube voltage and workload are also given in tables. (author)

  10. Evaluation of methods to estimate the essential amino acids requirements of fish from the muscle amino acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José de Almeida Bicudo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many methods to estimate amino acid requirement based on amino acid profile of fish have been proposed. This study evaluates the methodology proposed by Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 and by Tacon (1989 to estimate amino acids requirement of fish, which do exempt knowledge on previous nutritional requirement of reference amino acid. Data on amino acid requirement of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, were used to validate de accuracy of those methods. Meyer & Fracalossi's and Tacon's methodology estimated the lysine requirement of pacu, respectively, at 13 and 23% above requirement determined using dose-response method. The values estimated by both methods lie within the range of requirements determined for other omnivorous fish species, the Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 method showing better accuracy.

  11. Process qualification and control in electron beams--requirements, methods, new concepts and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittendorfer, J.; Gratzl, F.; Hanis, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the status of process qualification and control in electron beam irradiation is analyzed in terms of requirements, concepts, methods and challenges for a state-of-the-art process control concept for medical device sterilization. Aspects from process qualification to routine process control are described together with the associated process variables. As a case study the 10 MeV beams at Mediscan GmbH are considered. Process control concepts like statistical process control (SPC) and a new concept to determine process capability is briefly discussed

  12. Flood control design requirements and flood evaluation methods of inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ailing; Wang Ping; Zhu Jingxing

    2011-01-01

    Effect of flooding is one of the key safety factors and environmental factors in inland nuclear power plant sitting. Up to now, the rule of law and standard systems are established for the selection of nuclear power plant location and flood control requirements in China. In this paper flood control standards of China and other countries are introduced. Several inland nuclear power plants are taken as examples to thoroughly discuss the related flood evaluation methods. The suggestions are also put forward in the paper. (authors)

  13. Seismic distortions of a deep circular tunnel in elastic slightly anisotropic ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bobet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tunnels must withstand not only the demands stemming from normal working conditions but also from extreme events such as earthquakes. Indeed, there is consistent evidence in the technical literature that indicates that tunnels are vulnerable to damage and must be designed to adequately support the demand imposed by the earthquake. Such demand should be estimated using dynamic numerical methods that include soil-structure interaction and incorporate realistic models for the support and surrounding ground. For preliminary analysis, however, or when the seismic demand is insufficient to take the ground beyond its elastic regime, analytical solutions may provide a reasonable estimate of the tunnel behavior, especially if the tunnel is sufficiently far from the seismic source such that a pseudo-static analysis is acceptable. Most analytical solutions are based on the assumption that the ground is isotropic, which may not be realistic, as e.g. depositional processes may result in engineering properties that depend on the direction of deposition. The work presented in the paper builds on the results by Bobet (2011, 2016 who provided closed-form solutions for deep tunnels in elastic transversely anisotropic ground; however, the paper provides much simpler solutions for those cases where the ground is slightly anisotropic. A comparison between the approximate and the exact solutions shows that the errors are negligible when the ground anisotropy is small and grow, albeit slowly, as the ground anisotropy increases. The conclusion applies to different loading conditions, drained and undrained, and to different ground-support interfaces, tied or frictionless.

  14. SB certification handout material requirements, test methods, responsibilities, and minimum classification levels for mixture-based specification for flexible base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    A handout with tables representing the material requirements, test methods, responsibilities, and minimum classification levels mixture-based specification for flexible base and details on aggregate and test methods employed, along with agency and co...

  15. Choice and utilization of slightly enriched uranium fuel for high performance research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerles, J.M.; Schwartz, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Problems relating to the replacement of highly enriched (90% or 93% U 235 ) uranium fuel: by moderately enriched (20% or 40% in U 235 ) metallic uranium fuel and slightly enriched (3% or 8% in U 235 ) uranium oxide fuel are discussed

  16. A new spinning reserve requirement forecast method for deregulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Keynia, Farshid

    2010-01-01

    Ancillary services are necessary for maintaining the security and reliability of power systems and constitute an important part of trade in competitive electricity markets. Spinning Reserve (SR) is one of the most important ancillary services for saving power system stability and integrity in response to contingencies and disturbances that continuously occur in the power systems. Hence, an accurate day-ahead forecast of SR requirement helps the Independent System Operator (ISO) to conduct a reliable and economic operation of the power system. However, SR signal has complex, non-stationary and volatile behavior along the time domain and depends greatly on system load. In this paper, a new hybrid forecast engine is proposed for SR requirement prediction. The proposed forecast engine has an iterative training mechanism composed of Levenberg-Marquadt (LM) learning algorithm and Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), implemented on the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network. The proposed forecast methodology is examined by means of real data of Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and the California ISO (CAISO) controlled grid. The obtained forecast results are presented and compared with those of the other SR forecast methods. (author)

  17. A new spinning reserve requirement forecast method for deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjady, Nima; Keynia, Farshid [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    Ancillary services are necessary for maintaining the security and reliability of power systems and constitute an important part of trade in competitive electricity markets. Spinning Reserve (SR) is one of the most important ancillary services for saving power system stability and integrity in response to contingencies and disturbances that continuously occur in the power systems. Hence, an accurate day-ahead forecast of SR requirement helps the Independent System Operator (ISO) to conduct a reliable and economic operation of the power system. However, SR signal has complex, non-stationary and volatile behavior along the time domain and depends greatly on system load. In this paper, a new hybrid forecast engine is proposed for SR requirement prediction. The proposed forecast engine has an iterative training mechanism composed of Levenberg-Marquadt (LM) learning algorithm and Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), implemented on the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network. The proposed forecast methodology is examined by means of real data of Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and the California ISO (CAISO) controlled grid. The obtained forecast results are presented and compared with those of the other SR forecast methods. (author)

  18. Application of spatial methods to identify areas with lime requirement in eastern Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunović, Igor; Kisic, Ivica; Mesic, Milan; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Percin, Aleksandra; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    With more than 50% of acid soils in all agricultural land in Croatia, soil acidity is recognized as a big problem. Low soil pH leads to a series of negative phenomena in plant production and therefore as a compulsory measure for reclamation of acid soils is liming, recommended on the base of soil analysis. The need for liming is often erroneously determined only on the basis of the soil pH, because the determination of cation exchange capacity, the hydrolytic acidity and base saturation is a major cost to producers. Therefore, in Croatia, as well as some other countries, the amount of liming material needed to ameliorate acid soils is calculated by considering their hydrolytic acidity. For this research, several interpolation methods were tested to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity. The purpose of this study was to: test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity; and to determine the possibility of using multivariate geostatistics in order to reduce the number of needed samples for determination the hydrolytic acidity, all with an aim that the accuracy of the spatial distribution of liming requirement is not significantly reduced. Soil pH (in KCl) and hydrolytic acidity (Y1) is determined in the 1004 samples (from 0-30 cm) randomized collected in agricultural fields near Orahovica in eastern Croatia. This study tested 14 univariate interpolation models (part of ArcGIS software package) in order to provide most accurate spatial map of hydrolytic acidity on a base of: all samples (Y1 100%), and the datasets with 15% (Y1 85%), 30% (Y1 70%) and 50% fewer samples (Y1 50%). Parallel to univariate interpolation methods, the precision of the spatial distribution of the Y1 was tested by the co-kriging method with exchangeable acidity (pH in KCl) as a covariate. The soils at studied area had an average pH (KCl) 4,81, while the average Y1 10,52 cmol+ kg-1. These data suggest that liming is necessary

  19. Slightly flexed knee position within a standard knee coil: MR delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of positioning the knee slightly flexed within a standard MR knee coil in delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Within the confined space of a commercially available knee coil, knee could bend as much as 30 , average 17 of flexion. Sets of oblique sagittal MR images were obtained at both fully extended and slightly flexed positions. Twenty-two normal knees and 18 knees with ACL tears were examined and paired MR images were evaluated by two observers. Compared with knee extension, the MR images for knee flexion provided better clarity in 57 % of reviews of full length of the ACL and 53 % of the femoral attachment. In the extended position the anterior margin of the ligament was obscured due to partial averaging with the intercondylar roof. We recommend examining the knee in an achievable flexed position within the standard knee coil. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  20. Slightly uneven electric field trigatron employed in tens of microseconds charging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiajin; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiande; Zhang, Huibo; Yang, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    To solve the issue of operation instability for the trigatron switch in the application of tens of microseconds or even less charging time, a novel trigatron spark gap with slightly uneven electric field was presented. Compared with the conventional trigatron, the novel trigatron was constructed with an obvious field enhancement on the edge of the opposite electrode. The selection of the field enhancement was analyzed based on the theory introduced by Martin. A low voltage trigatron model was constructed and tested on the tens of microseconds charging time platform. The results show that the character of relative range was improved while the trigger character still held a high level. This slightly uneven electric field typed trigatron is willing to be employed in the Tesla transformer - pulse forming line system.

  1. Slightly flexed knee position within a standard knee coil: MR delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y.; Ikeda, K.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of positioning the knee slightly flexed within a standard MR knee coil in delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Within the confined space of a commercially available knee coil, knee could bend as much as 30 , average 17 of flexion. Sets of oblique sagittal MR images were obtained at both fully extended and slightly flexed positions. Twenty-two normal knees and 18 knees with ACL tears were examined and paired MR images were evaluated by two observers. Compared with knee extension, the MR images for knee flexion provided better clarity in 57 % of reviews of full length of the ACL and 53 % of the femoral attachment. In the extended position the anterior margin of the ligament was obscured due to partial averaging with the intercondylar roof. We recommend examining the knee in an achievable flexed position within the standard knee coil. (orig.)

  2. Ratio of sheath thickness to Debye length for a slightly ionized continuum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.

    1980-01-01

    The penetration of plasma sheaths for spherical probes in a slightly ionized continuum plasma has been computed for values of epsilon (the ratio of ion to electron temperature) of 0.01 and 1.0 with rhosub(p) (the ratio of probe radius to plasma Debye length) set at 5.10,20 and 30. Values of the potential drops at the sheath boundaries are presented

  3. Relativistic acceleration of captured particles by a longitudinal wave in a slightly inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, N.S.; Zol'nikova, N.N.; Mikhajlovskaya, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic acceleration of charged particles, captured by a longitudinal wave in a slightly inhomogeneous plasma without an external magnetic field is considered numerically and analytically. It is shown that with the growth of the plasma inhomogeneity parameter the maximum energy of accelerated captured particles exponentially increases. Attention is paid to the possibility of 'eternal' confinement and, respectively, unlimited acceleration of captured particles by an undamped longitudinal wave in a plasma without a magnetic field

  4. High polysilicon TFT field effect mobility reached thanks to slight phosphorus content in the active layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghdoudi, M.; Rogel, R.; Alzaied, N.; Fathallah, M.; Mohammed-Brahim, T.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of slightly phosphorus atoms introduced during deposition of polysilicon films. Polysilicon films are used as an active layer in thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated on glass substrates at a maximum temperature of 600 deg. C.Three phosphorus atoms contents, determined by the value of the phosphine to silane ratio: Γ (3.7 x 10 -7 , 8 x 10 -7 , 26 x 10 -6 ), are used to optimize the active layer quality. The in-situ doped layers induce a better stability of the electrical characteristics, a higher mobility and lower value of the threshold voltage for the slightly doped active layers [M. Zaghdoudi, M.M. Abdelkrim, M. Fathallah, T. Mohammed-Brahim and F. Le-Bihan Control of the weak phosphorus doping in polysilicon, Materials Science and Forum, Vols. 480-481 (2005) pp.305.]. The present work shows that the effect of slightly phosphorus content improves the quality of oxide/polysilicon interface and decreases the defects density. Degradation of electrical properties is shown to originate from the creation of defect at the channel-interface oxide and in the grain boundaries. The effect of temperature change on the electrical properties was studied and the behaviour was also analyzed

  5. Effect of aquatic plants on 95Zr concentration in slightly polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianjun; Yang Ziyin; Chen Hui

    2004-01-01

    Effect of three aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Azolla caroliniana and Eichhornia crassipes) on 95 Zr concentration in slightly polluted water was studied by using isotope tracer techniques. The results showed that the aquatic plants had strong ability of 95 Zr concentration in water. The concentration factor (CF) were from 56.78 to 112.94, so three aquatic plants were suggested be bio-indicators for 95 Zr polluted water. The specific activity of 95 Zr in water decreased with time when the aquatic plants were put in slightly 95 Zr polluted water. The descent of specific activity of 95 Zr in water was very quick during the beginning period (0-3d). The time for the specific activity reduced to 50% was only 3 days, indicating that theres aquatic plants could be used to purge slightly 95 Zr polluted water. The effect of Eichhornia crassipes on purging 95 Zr in water was the best among the three aquatic plants. The specific activity of 95 Zr in bottom clay only decreased 5% after putting aquatic plants in water, indicating that desorption of 95 Zr from bottom clay was not easy. As the bottom clay had strong ability of adsorption and fixation to 95 Zr, the effect of aquatic plant on purging 95 Zr adsorbed by bottom clay was not visible

  6. Parametric analysis and design of a screw extruder for slightly non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. Orisaleye

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extruders have found application in the food, polymer and pharmaceutical industries. Rheological characteristics of materials are important in the specification of design parameters of screw extruders. Biopolymers, which consist of proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, are shear-thinning (pseudoplastic within normal operating ranges. However, analytical models to predict and design screw extruders for non-Newtonian pseudoplastic materials are rare. In this study, an analytical model suitable to design a screw extruder for slightly non-Newtonian materials was developed. The model was used to predict the performance of the screw extruder while processing materials with power law indices slightly deviating from unity (the Newtonian case. Using non-dimensional analysis, the effects of design and operational parameters were investigated. Expressions to determine the optimum channel depth and helix angle were also derived. The model is capable of predicting the performance of the screw extruder within the range of power law indices considered (1/2⩽n⩽1. The power law index influences the choice of optimum channel depth and helix angle of the screw extruder. Keywords: Screw extruder, Slightly non-Newtonian, Shear-thinning, Pseudoplastic, Biopolymer, Power law

  7. RA3: Application of a calculation model for fuel management with SEFE (Slightly Enriched Fuel Elements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estryk, G.; Higa, M.

    1993-01-01

    The RA-3 (5 MW, MTR) reactor is mainly utilized to produce radioisotopes (Mo-99, I-131, etc.). It started operating with Low Enrichment Uranium (LEU) in 1990, and spends around 12 fuels per year. Although this consumption is small compared to a nuclear power station. It is important to do a good management of them. The present report describes: - A reactor model to perform the Fuel Shuffling. - Results of fuel management simulations for 2 and a half years of operation. Some features of the calculations can be summarized as follows: 1) A 3D calculation model is used with the code PUMA. It does not have experimental adjustments, except for some approximations in the reflector representation and predicts: power, flux distributions and reactivity of the core in an acceptable way. 2) Comparisons have been made with the measurements done in the commissioning with LEU fuels, and it has also been compared with the empirical method (the previous one) which had been used in the former times of operation with LEU fuel. 3) The number of points of the model is approximately 13500, an it can be run in 80386 personal computer. The present method has been verified as a good tool to perform the simulations for the fuel management of RA-3 reactor. It is expected to produce some economic advantages in: - Achieving a better utilization of the fuels. - Leaving more time of operation for radioisotopes production. The activation measurements through the whole core required by the previous method can be significantly reduced. (author)

  8. Sample-length dependence of the critical current of slightly and significantly bent-damaged Bi2223 superconducting composite tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, S; Fujimoto, M; Okuda, H; Oh, S S; Ha, D W

    2007-01-01

    The local critical current along a sample length is different from position to position in a long sample, especially when the sample is damaged by externally applied strain. In the present work, we attempted to reveal the relation of the distribution of the local critical current to overall critical current and the sample-length dependence of critical current for slightly and significantly damaged Bi2223 composite tape samples. In the experiment, 48 cm long Bi2223 composite tape samples, composed of 48 local elements with a length of 1 cm and 8 parts with a length 6 cm, were bent by 0.37 and 1.0% to cause slight and significant damage, respectively. The V-I curve, critical current (1 μV cm -1 criterion) and n value were measured for the overall sample as well as for the local elements and parts. It was found that the critical current distributions of the 1 cm elements at 0.37 and 1.0% bending strains are described by the three-parameter- and bimodal Weibull distribution functions, respectively. The critical current of a long sample at both bending strains could be described well by substituting the distributed critical current and n value of the short elements into the series circuit model for voltage generation. Also the measured relation of average critical current to sample length could be reproduced well in the computer by a Monte Carlo simulation method. It was shown that the critical current and n value decrease with increasing sample length at both bending strains. The extent of the decrease in critical current with sample length is dependent on the criterion of the critical current; the critical current decreases only slightly under the 1 μV cm -1 criterion which is not damage-sensitive, while it decreases greatly with increasing sample length under damage-sensitive criteria such as the 1 μV one

  9. Thermal behaviour of the ESR Relaxation time in slightly dirty superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwachheim, G.; Machado, S.F.; Tsallis, C.

    1978-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of the ESR relaxation rate in slightly dirty superconductors is discussed for both exchange and spin-orbit interactions between the conduction electrons and the impurities. The sensibility to the electronic density of states is exhibited by using, in a modified BCS framework, an heuristic analytic form which avoids two of three defects of a previous similar treatment. The sudden increase (decrease) of the relaxation rate immediately below the critical temperature for the exchange (spin-orbit) case is confirmed. Reasonable agreement with experimental data in LaRu 2 ; Gd is obtained [pt

  10. On the possibility of producing alumina ceramic with a slight electrical conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Fritz

    1989-01-01

    Antistatic alumina ceramic is desirable for certain particle accelerator applications. In general, highly insulating surface close to a charged particle beam must be avoided in order to prevent the formation of ion pockets and other unwanted electrical effects. For the AA vacuum chamber (UHV), an antistatic ferrite has been produced and successfully installed. The fabrication of antistatic alumina might be possible in a similar way. By using certain metal oxides in the cement, which holds the alumina particles together, a slight conductivity could be obtained after the firing and sintering process, without deteriorating the mechanical and outgassing properties of the alumina compound.

  11. Economical benefits for the use of slightly enriched fuel elements at the Atucha-I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidelnik, J.I.; Sosa, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fuel represents a very important factor in the operative cost of the Atucha I nuclear power plant. This cost is drastically reduced with the use of fuel elements of slightly enriched uranium. The annual saving is analyzed with actual values for fuel elements with an enrichment of 0.85% by weight of U-235. With the reactor core in equilibrium state the annual saving achieved is approximately 7.5-10 u$s. According to the present irradiation plan, the benefit for the transition period is studied. An analysis of the sensitivity to differential increments in factors determining the cost of fuel elements or to changes in manufacturing losses is also performed, calculating its effect on the waste, the storage of irradiated elements and the amount of UO 2 required. (Author)

  12. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in a Slightly Acidic Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.

    2015-12-01

    A slightly acidic hot spring named "Female Tower" (T=73.5 °C, pH=6.64) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite, aragonite, and sulfur. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses revealed that the microbial mats were formed of various coccoid, rod-shaped, and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the intracellular sulfur granules were commonly associated with these microbes. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the majority of the bacteria in the spring were sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We speculated that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the intracellular formation of sulfur granules. In the meantime, this reaction increased the pH in the micron-scale microdomains, which fostered the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the microbial mats. The results of this study indicated that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in slightly acidic hot spring environments.

  13. Slight conductive hearing loss in children with narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiki, A; Kiliç, N; Oktay, H

    2015-01-01

    PROBLEM/OBJECTIVES: Maxillary constriction and high palatal arch are associated with increased risk of chronic eustachian tube dysfunction and conductive hearing loss (CHL) due to chronic effusion. However, this relationship has not been clearly demonstrated. This study assessed CHL in school children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault. Thirty-two children with maxillary constriction were randomly selected for the study group and 28 children with normal transverse maxillary development were selected for the control group. Pure-tone audiograms were obtained for all children, and hearing levels and air-bone gaps were measured. Air-bone gap measurements in the control group ranged from 5.50 to 14.50 decibels (dB), and in the study group they were between 5.00 and 24.00 dB. In the study group, 14 (43.8%) children had slight CHL, and the remaining 18 (56.2%) children had normal hearing levels. In the control group, all of the children had normal hearing levels. Hearing levels and air-bone gaps were greater in the study group than the control group. This study showed that children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault may have slight CHL. Therefore, the onset of CHL should be followed with hearing screening programs.

  14. Distribution of equilibrium burnup for an homogeneous core with fuel elements of slightly enriched uranium (0.85% U-235) at Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidelnik, J.I.; Perez, R.A.; Salom, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    At Atucha I, the present fuel management with natural uranium comprises three burnup areas and one irradiation path, sometimes performing four steps in the reactor core, according to the requirements. The discharge burnup is 6.0 Mw d/kg U for a waste reactivity of 6.5 m k and a heavy water purity of 99.75%. This is a preliminary study to obtain the distribution of equilibrium burnup of an homogeneous core with slightly enriched uranium (0.85% by weight U-235), using the time-averaged method implemented in the code PUMA and a representative model of one third of core and fixed rod position. It was found a strategy of three areas and two paths that agrees with the present limits of channel power and specific power in fuel rod. The discharge burnup obtained is 11.6 Mw d/kg U. This strategy is calculated with the same method and a full core representation model is used to verify the obtained results. (Author)

  15. Appropriate statistical methods are required to assess diagnostic tests for replacement, add-on, and triage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayen, Andrew; Macaskill, Petra; Irwig, Les; Bossuyt, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    To explain which measures of accuracy and which statistical methods should be used in studies to assess the value of a new binary test as a replacement test, an add-on test, or a triage test. Selection and explanation of statistical methods, illustrated with examples. Statistical methods for

  16. Review of data requirements for groundwater flow and solute transport modelling and the ability of site investigation methods to meet these requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.J.; Chapman, N.A.; Robinson, P.C.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the data requirements for the codes that may be used in the modelling of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport during the assessment of a Nirex site for the deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and also the site investigation methods that exist to supply the data for these codes. The data requirements for eight codes are reviewed, with most emphasis on three of the more significant codes, VANDAL, NAMMU and CHEMTARD. The largest part of the report describes and discusses the site investigation techniques and each technique is considered in terms of its ability to provide the data necessary to characterise the geological and hydrogeological environment around a potential repository. (author)

  17. The elastic T-stress for slightly curved or kinked cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dong-Feng; Li, Chen-Feng; Qing, Hai

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a solution for the elastic T-stress at the tip of a slightly curved or kinked crack based on a perturbation approach. Compared to other exact or numerical solutions the present solution is accurate for considerable deviations from straightness. The T-stress variation as crack...... extends along a curved trajectory is subsequently examined. It is predicted that T-stress always keeps negative during crack extension when the crack has an initial negative T-stress. In the case of a positive T-stress and non-zero first and second stress intensity factors initially accompanying the crack......, the T-stress is not positive with increasing the extension length until a threshold is exceeded. Based on directional stability criterion with respect to the sign of the T-stress, this result implies that for a straight crack with a positive T-stress, the crack extension path will not turn immediately...

  18. Source apportionment of aerosol particles using polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Tianxi [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: stxbeijing@163.com; Liu Zhiguo [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: liuzgbeijing@163.com; Zhu Guanghua; Liu Hui [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Xu Qing [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Yude; Wang Guangpu; Luo Ping; Pan Qiuli; Ding Xunliang [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2009-06-11

    A micro-X-ray fluorescence (Micro-XRF) spectrometer based on a polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens (PSFXRL) and laboratory X-ray source was designed to carry out the source apportionment of aerosol particles. In the distribution curve of the X-ray intensity in the focal spot of PSFXRL, there was a plateau with a diameter of about 65 {mu}m. The uniformity of this plateau was about 3%. This was helpful in measuring the XRF spectrum of a single aerosol particle in which the element distributions are not uniform. The minimum detection limit (MDL) of this Micro-XRF spectrometer was 15 ppm for the Fe-K{sub {alpha}}. The origins of the aerosol particles at the exit of a subway station and a construction site were apportioned. This Micro-XRF spectrometer has potential applications in analysis of single aerosol particles.

  19. Effect of impurity correlation on the density of states in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Nhat Quang; Nguyen Nhu Dat; Dinh Van An

    1993-07-01

    A theory is developed of the electron density of states (DOS) in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors which undergo a thermal treatment. The calculation is carried out within the semiclassical approach to the random impurity field, taking adequately into account high-temperature correlation among the impurities and low temperature screening due to the free carriers as well. Then, a simple analytic expression for the DOS is obtained which exhibits the same energy dependence as in the case of a random impurity distribution, but now with some correlation-induced changes in the coefficients. A numerical estimation on non-compensated n-type sample of GaAs at a doping level of 5 x 10 18 cm -3 shows that in the tail region the correlated DOS turns out to be somewhat larger and cut less sharply than the random one. (author). 45 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. Spectral algorithms for multiple scale localized eigenfunctions in infinitely long, slightly bent quantum waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, John P.; Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.

    2018-03-01

    -channel coordinate, X ∈ [ - ∞ , ∞ ] , Fourier domain truncation using the change of coordinate X = sinh(Lt) is considerably more efficient than rational Chebyshev functions TBn(X ; L) . All the spectral methods, however, yielded the required accuracy on a desktop computer.

  1. Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M.; Picano, F.

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures – the so-called ligaments – in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties

  2. Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Picano, F. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures – the so-called ligaments – in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties.

  3. How does incomplete fusion show up at slightly above barrier energies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the onset of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies are discussed in this paper. Spin-distributions of evaporation residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 12C,16O (Elab ≈ 4–7 MeV with 169Tm have been measured to probe associated ℓ–values. Particle (Z=1,2 – γ – coincidence technique has been used for channel selection. Entirely different entry state spin populations have been observed during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete composites. The complete fusion residues are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While, a narrow range feeding for only high spin states has been observed in case of incomplete fusion residues. In the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high spin states in final reaction products. For better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion have been deduced from the analysis of excitation functions and forward recoil ranges. A significant fraction of ICF has been observed even at energy as low as ≈ 7% above the barrier. The relative strengths of complete and incomplete fusion deduced from the analysis of forward-recoil-ranges and excitation functions complement each other. All the available results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. Incomplete fusion fraction is found to be large for more mass-asymmetric systems for individual projectiles, which points towards the projectile structure effect on incomplete fusion fraction. Experimentally measured forward ranges of recoils complement the existence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies, where more than one linear-momentum-transfer components associated with full- and/or partial-fusion of projectile(s have been observed. Present results conclusively demonstrate the possibility to selectively populate high spin states

  4. The slightly-enriched spectral shift control reactor. Final report, September 30, 1988--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.R.; Lee, J.C.; Larsen, E.W. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Edlund, M.C. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

    1991-11-01

    An advanced converter reactor design utilizing mechanical spectral shift control rods in a conventional pressurized water reactor configuration is under investigation. The design is based on the principle that a harder spectrum during the early part of the fuel cycle will result in large neutron captures in fertile {sup 238}U, which can then be burned in situ in a softer spectrum later in the cycle. Preliminary design calculations performed during FY 89 showed that the slightly-enriched spectral shift reactor design offers the benefit of substantially increased fuel resource utilization with the proven safety characteristics of the pressurized water reactor technology retained. Optimization of the fuel design and development of fuel management strategies were carried out in FY 90, along with effort to develop and validate neutronic methodology for tight-lattice configurations with hard spectra. During FY 91, the final year of the grant, the final Slightly-Enriched Spectral Shift Reactor (SESSR) design was determined, and reference design analyses were performed for the assemblies as well as the global core configuration, both at the beginning of cycle (BOC) and with depletion. The final SESSR design results in approximately a 20% increase in the utilization of uranium resources, based on equilibrium fuel cycle analyses. Acceptable pin power peaking is obtained with the final core design, with assembly peaking factors equal to less than 1.04 for spectral shift control rods both inserted and withdrawn, and global peaking factors at BOC predicted to be 1.4. In addition, a negative Moderation Temperature Coefficient (MTC) is maintained for BOC, which is difficult to achieve with conventional advanced converter designs based on a closed fuel cycle. The SESSR design avoids the need for burnable poison absorber, although they could be added if desired to increase the cycle length while maintaining a negative MTC.

  5. Guidance and methods for satisfying low specific activity material and surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W.; Easton, E.P.; Coodk, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for shippers and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). These requirements represent significant departures in some areas from the manner in which these materials and objects were regulated by the earlier versions of the regulations. The proper interpretation and application of the regulatory criteria can require a fairly complex set of decisions be made. To assist those trying these regulatory requirements, a detailed set of logic-flow diagrams representing decisions related to multiple factors were prepared and included in the draft report for comment on Categorizing and Transporting Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects, (DOT/NRC, 1997). These logic-flow diagrams, as developed, are specific to the U.S. regulations, but were readily adaptable to the IAEA regulations. The diagrams have been modified accordingly and tied directly to specific paragraphs in IAEA Safety Series No. 6. This paper provides the logic-flow diagrams adapted in the IAEA regulations, and demonstrated how these diagrams can be used to assist consignors and inspectors in assessing compliance of shipments with the LSA material and SCO regulatory requirements. (authors)

  6. Understanding your users a practical guide to user requirements methods, tools, and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Today many companies are employing a user-centered design (UCD) process, but for most companies, usability begins and ends with the usability test. Although usability testing is a critical part of an effective user-centered life cycle, it is only one component of the UCD process. This book is focused on the requirements gathering stage, which often receives less attention than usability testing, but is equally as important. Understanding user requirements is critical to the development of a successful product. Understanding Your Users is an easy to read, easy to implement, how-to guide on

  7. Requirements for Participative Management as a Source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage and Tipical Management Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscalu Emanoil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic context in the recent years has undergone major changes in modern methods and techniques used in management. The current competitive environment is characterized by permanent turbulences influencing firstly the managerial act itself. Out of the many methods and techniques applied so far, some turn out to be less adaptable to the current economic and social context.

  8. THE PSTD ALGORITHM: A TIME-DOMAIN METHOD REQUIRING ONLY TWO CELLS PER WAVELENGTH. (R825225)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method is developed for solutions of Maxwell's equations. It uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT), instead of finite differences on conventional finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) methods, to represent spatial derivatives. Because the Fourie...

  9. Adding Timing Requirements to the CODARTS Real-Time Software Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, K.R.

    The CODARTS software design method consideres how concurrent, distributed and real-time applications can be designed. Although accounting for the important issues of task and communication, the method does not provide means for expressing the timeliness of the tasks and communication directly...

  10. Method Verification Requirements for an Advanced Imaging System for Microbial Plate Count Enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Cundell, Tony

    2018-01-01

    The Growth Direct™ System that automates the incubation and reading of membrane filtration microbial counts on soybean-casein digest, Sabouraud dextrose, and R2A agar differs only from the traditional method in that micro-colonies on the membrane are counted using an advanced imaging system up to 50% earlier in the incubation. Based on the recommendations in USP Validation of New Microbiological Testing Methods , the system may be implemented in a microbiology laboratory after simple method verification and not a full method validation. LAY ABSTRACT: The Growth Direct™ System that automates the incubation and reading of microbial counts on membranes on solid agar differs only from the traditional method in that micro-colonies on the membrane are counted using an advanced imaging system up to 50% earlier in the incubation time. Based on the recommendations in USP Validation of New Microbiological Testing Methods , the system may be implemented in a microbiology laboratory after simple method verification and not a full method validation. © PDA, Inc. 2018.

  11. Functional Mobility Testing: A Novel Method to Establish Human System Interface Design Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott A.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    Across all fields of human-system interface design it is vital to posses a sound methodology dictating the constraints on the system based on the capabilities of the human user. These limitations may be based on strength, mobility, dexterity, cognitive ability, etc. and combinations thereof. Data collected in an isolated environment to determine, for example, maximal strength or maximal range of motion would indeed be adequate for establishing not-to-exceed type design limitations, however these restraints on the system may be excessive over what is basally needed. Resources may potentially be saved by having a technique to determine the minimum measurements a system must accommodate. This paper specifically deals with the creation of a novel methodology for establishing mobility requirements for a new generation of space suit design concepts. Historically, the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station vehicle and space hardware design requirements documents such as the Man-Systems Integration Standards and International Space Station Flight Crew Integration Standard explicitly stated that the designers should strive to provide the maximum joint range of motion capabilities exhibited by a minimally clothed human subject. In the course of developing the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) for the new space exploration initiative (Constellation), an effort was made to redefine the mobility requirements in the interest of safety and cost. Systems designed for manned space exploration can receive compounded gains from simplified designs that are both initially less expensive to produce and lighter, thereby, cheaper to launch.

  12. 7 CFR Appendix to Subpart C of... - Accounting Methods and Procedures Required of All Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Television Services 105 Comprehensive Income—108 Consolidated Financial Statements 106 Cushion of Credit... statements even though this financial information is presented in the parent's consolidated statements. 2. In... consolidated financial statements in accordance with the requirements of Statement No. 94. These consolidated...

  13. Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Someya

    Full Text Available Hypertension is developed easily in Asian adults with normal body mass index (BMI (~23 kg/m2, compared with other ethnicities with similar BMI. This study tested the hypothesis that slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men by historical cohort study.The study participants were 636 male alumni of the physical education school. They had available data on their physical examination at college age and follow-up investigation between 2007 and 2011. The participants were categorized into six categories: BMI at college age of <20.0 kg/m2, 20.0-21.0kg/m2, 21.0-22.0kg/m2, 22.0-23.0kg/m2, 23.0-24.0kg/m2, and ≥24.0kg/m2, and the incidence of hypertension was compared.This study covered 27-year follow-up period (interquartile range: IQR: 23-31 which included 17,059 person-years of observation. Subjects were 22 (22-22 years old at graduated college, and 49 (45-53 years old at first follow-up investigation. During the period, 120 men developed hypertension. The prevalence rates of hypertension for lowest to highest BMI categories were 9.4%, 14.6%, 16.1%, 17.5%, 30.3%, and 29.3%, respectively (p<0.001 for trend, and their hazard ratios were 1.00 (reference, 1.80 (95%CI: 0.65-4.94, 2.17 (0.83-5.64, 2.29 (0.89-5.92, 3.60 (1.37-9.47 and 4.72 (1.78-12.48, respectively (p<0.001 for trend. This trend was similar after adjustment for age, year of graduation, smoking, current exercise status and current dietary intake.Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

  14. Workshop on mesons and mesonic states up to slightly above 1 GeV/c2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.

    1991-04-01

    The new accelerator COSY-Juelich will provide protons with momenta up to 3.3 GeV/c. Thus an effective mass slightly above 1 GeV/c 2 can be produced in the pp-interaction. Employing higher mass targets also heavier mesons can be observed. The production of single mesons and of mesonic states with and without strangeness can be investgated at COSY. The structure of some mesons in the mass range of 950 McV/c 2 to 1020 MeV/c 2 is still not well understood. While the Φ(1020) at the upper limit of this range is believed to be of rahter pure santi s nature the content of the η'(958) meson at the lower limit of this range is still under discussion. New results suggest that what is called the f o meson (former notation S*) consists in reality of two close and narrow states; one of them being a santi s - quarks configuration while the other should be a flavour singlet which couples to ππ and Kanti K with similar strengths. Also the discussion on possible gluonium candidates is still alive. It is speculated that some of these mesons - till now supposed to have widths of 30 to 50 MeV/c 2 - could rather be an overlay of structures with much smaller widths. Another features of resonances in this region is their partial decay into the Kanti K channel if their actual mass is large enough. Strong decays in Kanti K could be a signal of a Kanti K 'molecular' nature of the resonance. In particular the atomic K + K - structure should exist. In order to have review of the physics related to these problems there was a workshop held on: MESONS and MESONIC STATES up to slightly above 1 GeV/c 2 at the ZEL - Forschungszentrum - Juelich February 19 to 20, 1990. The following contains copies of the shown transparencies and short write-ups as far as available. (orig.)

  15. Elimination of slightly radioactive liquid effluent by dilution. Its consequences (1960); Elimination par dilution d'effluents liquides faiblement radioactifs. Leurs consequences (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P; Candillon, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Nuclear centres often have to solve problems raised by the elimination of large volumes of slightly radioactive liquid effluent. As things stand at present, the method usually adopted consists in expelling this effluent into the main water system in order to dilute it to a maximum, and thus to lower its radioactive isotope concentration to below the norms imposed by the Public Health Service. This technique requires systematic checking of the water system and its dependences, and demands a thorough knowledge of adsorption and fixation processes. (author) [French] Les centres nucleaires ont frequemment a resoudre des problemes poses par l'elimination de volumes importants d'effluents liquides faiblement radioactifs. Dans l'etat actuel des choses, la solution la plus utilisee consiste a rejeter ces effluents dans le reseau hydrographique de maniere a les diluer au maximum et abaisser ainsi leurs teneurs en isotopes radioactifs au-dessous des normes imposees par la Sante Publique. Cette technique necessite un controle systematique du reseau et de ses dependances et demande une connaissance approfondie des processus d'adsorption et de fixation. (auteur)

  16. A method for determining the spent-fuel contribution to transport cask containment requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Seager, K.D.; Rashid, Y.R.; Barrett, P.R.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Jordan, H.; Reardon, P.C.

    1992-11-01

    This report examines containment requirements for spent-fuel transport containers that are transported under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. A methodology is described that estimates the probability of rod failure and the quantity of radioactive material released from breached rods. This methodology characterizes the dynamic environment of the cask and its contents and deterministically models the peak stresses that are induced in spent-fuel cladding by the mechanical and thermal dynamic environments. The peak stresses are evaluated in relation to probabilistic failure criteria for generated or preexisting ductile tearing and material fractures at cracks partially through the wall in fuel rods. Activity concentrations in the cask cavity are predicted from estimates of the fraction of gases, volatiles, and fuel fines that are released when the rod cladding is breached. Containment requirements based on the source term are calculated in terms of maximum permissible volumetric leak rates from the cask. Calculations are included for representative cask designs

  17. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tai-Sen

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype.* The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use a cyclotron and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the storage ring requirements for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scattering with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reas...

  18. Application of slightly acidic electrolyzed water for inactivating microbes in a layer breeding house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X X; Li, B M; Wang, C Y; Zhang, Q; Cao, W

    2013-10-01

    Lots of microorganisms exist in layer houses can cause bird diseases and worker health concerns. Spraying chemical disinfectants is an effective way to decontaminate pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in poultry houses. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0-6.5) is an ideal, environmentally friendly broad-spectrum disinfectant to prevent and control bacterial or viral infection in layer farms. The purpose of this work was to investigate the cleaning effectiveness of SAEW for inactivating the microbes in layer houses. The effect of SAEW was evaluated by solid materials and surface disinfection in a hen house. Results indicate that SAEW with an available chlorine concentration of 250 mg/L, pH value of 6.19, and oxygen reduction potential of 974 mV inactivated 100% of bacteria and fungi in solid materials (dusts, feces, feather, and feed), which is more efficient than common chemical disinfectant such as benzalkonium chloride solution (1:1,000 vol/vol) and povidone-iodine solution (1:1,000 vol/vol). Also, it significantly reduced the microbes on the equipment or facility surfaces (P < 0.05), including floor, wall, feed trough, and water pipe surfaces. Moreover, SAEW effectively decreased the survival rates of Salmonella and Escherichia coli by 21 and 16 percentage points. In addition, spraying the target with tap water before disinfection plays an important role in spray disinfection.

  19. Moth wing scales slightly increase the absorbance of bat echolocation calls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyao Zeng

    Full Text Available Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40-60 kHz than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5-6%.

  20. Inhibition of cobalt active dissolution by benzotriazole in slightly alkaline bicarbonate aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallant, Danick [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Geographie, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec (Canada); E-mail: danick.gallant.1@ulaval.ca; Pezolet, Michel [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: michel.pezolet@chm.ulaval.ca; Simard, Stephan [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Geographie, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec (Canada); E-mail: stephan_simard@uqar.qc.ca

    2007-04-20

    The efficiency of benzotriazole as inhibiting agent for the corrosion of cobalt was probed at pH ranging from 8.3 to 10.2 in a sodium bicarbonate solution, chosen to simulate mild natural environments. From electrochemical, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry experiments, we have demonstrated that benzotriazole markedly affects the electrodissolution reactions, which become modeled by the formation of a [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} film according to two different mechanisms. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has shown that the polarization of a cobalt electrode at cathodic potentials with respect to its potential of zero charge allows a mechanism of specific adsorption of the neutral form of benzotriazole to take place through a suspected metal-to-molecule electron transfer and which follows Frumkin's adsorption isotherms. At the onset of the anodic dissolution, some experimental evidence suggests that these adsorbed neutral benzotriazole molecules deprotonate to yield a very thin [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} polymer-like and water-insoluble protective film, responsible for the inhibition of active dissolution processes occurring at slightly more anodic potentials. In the anodic dissolution region, deprotonated benzotriazole species present in the bulk solution favors the formation of a multilayered [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} film, which also contributes to the inhibition of any further cobalt dissolution usually observed at higher electrode potentials.

  1. Highly reflective Bragg gratings in slightly etched step-index polymer optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuehao; Pun, Chi-Fung Jeff; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Mégret, Patrice; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2014-07-28

    During the past few years, a strong progress has been made in the photo-writing of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in polymer optical fibers (POFs), animated by the constant wish to enhance the grating reflectivity and improve the sensing performances. In this paper, we report the photo-inscription of highly reflective gratings in step-index POFs, obtained thanks to a slight etching of the cladding. We demonstrate that a cladding diameter decrease of ~12% is an ideal trade-off to produce highly reflective gratings with enhanced axial strain sensitivity, while keeping almost intact their mechanical resistance. For this, we make use of Trans-4-stilbenemethanol-doped photosensitive step-index poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) POFs. FBGs are inscribed at ~1550 nm by the scanning phase mask technique in POFs of different external diameters. Reflectivity reaching 97% is achieved for 6 mm long FBGs, compared to 25% for non-etched POFs. We also report that a cladding decrease enhances the FBG axial tension while keeping unchanged temperature and surrounding refractive index sensitivities. Finally and for the first time, a measurement is conducted in transmission with polarized light, showing that a photo-induced birefringence of 7 × 10(-6) is generated (one order of magnitude higher than the intrinsic fiber birefringence), which is similar to the one generated in silica fiber using ultra-violet laser.

  2. Irradiation program of slightly enriched fuel elements at the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casario, J.A.; Cesario, R.H.; Perez, R.A.; Sidelnik, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    An irradiation program of fuel elements with slightly enriched uranium is implemented, tending to the homogenization of core at Atucha I nuclear power plant. The main benefits of the enrichment program are: a) to extend the average discharge burnup of fuel elements, reducing the number of elements used to generate the same amount of energy. This implies a smaller annual consumption of elements and consequently the reduction of transport and replacement operations and of the storage pool systems as well as that of radioactive wastes; b) the saving of uranium and structural materials (Zircaloy and others). In the initial stage of program an homogeneous core enrichment of 0.85% by weight of U-235 is anticipated. The average discharge burnup of fuel elements, as estimated by previous studies, is approximately 11.6 MW d/kg U. The annual consumption of fuel elements is reduced from 396 of natural uranium to 205, with a load factor of 0.85. It is intended to reach the next equilibrium steps with an enrichment of 1.00 and 1.20% in U-235. (Author)

  3. Activities in Argentina related to the use of slightly enriched uranium in heavy water reactor NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcuera, R.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of activities related to the use of Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) fuel in HWR type NPPs, currently under execution in Argentina, is presented. The activities here described cover certain R and D lines as well as the main aspects of the Project 'Transition from full Natural-U to full SEU core in Atucha-I NPP'. Concerning the R and D lines, a summary is given on investigations related to reduction of void-coefficient using SEU fuel assemblies, annular pellet SEU fuel for bundle power flattening, etc. The main aspects of the above mentioned Project are outlined. At present, Atucha-I core is approaching a 40% of core load with SEU fuel, while the target of full SEU fuel core should be reached in 2-3 years. The expected exit burnup for such a core, namely 11000 MWD/tnU, is already currently obtained for SEU fuel in the present mixed core, while an increase in exit burnup of Natural-U fuel has also been obtained in very good agreement with reactor physics calculations. The comprehensive safety analysis carried out for each phase of the Project showed very moderated changes in plant behaviour under the set of postulated accidents and abnormal transients. A recent development, namely the CARA Project, aimed at unifying manufacturing of fuel assemblies for both operating NPPs in Argentina is presented in an accompanying paper. (author)

  4. Effect of acute, slightly increased intra-abdominal pressure on intestinal permeability and oxidative stress in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Leng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH is known as a common, serious complication in critically ill patients. Bacterial translocation and permeability changes are considered the pathophysiological bases for IAH-induced enterogenic endotoxemia and subsequent multiorgan failure. Nevertheless, the effects of slightly elevated intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs on the intestinal mucosa and the associated mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: To investigate the acute effects of different nitrogen pneumoperitoneum grades on colonic mucosa, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups with different IAPs (0 [control], 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mmHg, n = 6/group. During 90 min of exposure, we dynamically monitored the heart rate and noninvasive hemodynamic parameters. After gradual decompression, arterial blood gas analyses were conducted. Thereafter, structural injuries to the colonic mucosa were identified using light microscopy. Colon permeability was determined using the expression of tight junction proteins, combined with fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD-4 absorption. The pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance was determined based on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidant enzymes. RESULTS: IAH significantly affected the histological scores of the colonic mucosa, tight junction protein expression, mucosal permeability, and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance. Interestingly, elevations of IAP that were lower than the threshold for IAH also showed a similar, undesirable effect. In the 8 mmHg group, mild hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypoxemia occurred, accompanied by reduced blood and abdominal perfusion pressures. Mild microscopic inflammatory infiltration and increased MDA levels were also detected. Moreover, an 8-mm Hg IAP markedly inhibited the expression of tight junction proteins, although no significant differences in FD-4 permeability were observed between the 0- and 8-mmHg groups. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exposure to slightly

  5. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING and SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  6. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  7. Sensor Selection method for IoT systems – focusing on embedded system requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirayama Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various types of sensors have been developed. Using these sensors, IoT systems have become hot topics in embedded system domain. However, sensor selections for embedded systems are not well discussed up to now. This paper focuses on embedded system’s features and architecture, and proposes a sensor selection method which is composed seven steps. In addition, we applied the proposed method to a simple example – a sensor selection for computer scored answer sheet reader unit. From this case study, an idea to use FTA in sensor selection is also discussed.

  8. Methodical investigations on the determination of metabolic lysine requirements in broiler chickens. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, H.; Nguyen Thi Nhan; Wilke, A.

    1987-01-01

    For the estimation of lysine requirement 128 male broiler chickens were used at an age of 7 to 21 days posthatching. They received a lysine-deficient diet composed of wheat and wheat gluten. To this basal diet L-lysine-HCL was supplemented successively resulting in 8 lysine levels ranging from 5.8 to 23.3 g lysine per kg dry matter (DM) (2.2 to 8.7 g lysine per 16 g N). At the end of the two-week feeding period of the experimental diets 14 C-lysine was injected intravenously 1.5 and 5.5 hours after feed withdrawal. During the following 4 hours the exretion of CO 2 and 14 CO 2 was measured. The highest daily gain of 21.5 g was observed in animals fed 13.3 g lysine-kg DM. Lysine concentrations exceeding 18.3 g/kg DM depressed body weight gain. The CO 2 excretion was not influenced by lysine intake. 14 CO 2 excretion was low with diets low in lysine content and increased 3 to 4 times with diets meeting the lysine requirement. Based on measurements 1.5 to 5.5 hours after feed withdrawal the saturation value for lysine was reached at 13.3 g/kg DM. This value was lowered (10.8 g/kg DM), however, if the estimation was carried out 5.5 to 9.5 hours after feed withdrawal. These results suggest a higher metabolic lysine requirement during the earlier period after feed intake. Both, reduced weight gain and non linearity in 14 CO 2 excretion in diets exceeding a lysine content of 18.3 g/kg DM indicate a limited capacity of the organism to degrade excessive lysine. According to the results a lysine requirement betwen 10.8 and 13.3 g/kg DM (27% CP and 660 EFU/sub hen//kg DM) was estimated for broiler chickens 3 weeks posthatching. (author)

  9. RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan: Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) Part 1 – Physics and numerical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Joon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yoo, Jun Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This INL plan comprehensively describes the Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) on main physics and numerical method of the RELAP-7. The plan also describes the testing-based software verification and validation (SV&V) process—a set of specially designed software models used to test RELAP-7.

  10. 30 CFR 48.3 - Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training plans; time of submission; where filed....3 Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method... training plan shall be filed with the District Manager for the area in which the mine is located. (c) Each...

  11. Potential Use of Agile Methods in Selected DoD Acquisitions: Requirements Development and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    guidelines. 9 Kanban is a technique for managing workflow originating from the lean engineering methods pioneered by Toyota. [Reinertsen 2009...Cockburn, Alistair, & Pols, Andy. Patterns for Effective Use Cas- es. Addison-Wesley, 2002. Anderson, David. Kanban . Blue Hole Press, 2010. CMU/SEI-2013

  12. 40 CFR 53.3 - General requirements for an equivalent method determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part. (6) ISO 9001. All designated FEMs for PM2.5 or PM10−2.5 must be manufactured in an ISO 9001... candidate method. (4) All designated FEM for PM2.5 or PM10−2.5 must be manufactured in an ISO 9001...

  13. Methods for calculating energy and current requirements for industrial electron beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.; Farrell, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The practical problems of determining electron beam parameters for industrial irradiation processes are discussed. To assist the radiation engineer in this task, the physical aspects of electron beam absorption are briefly described. Formulas are derived for calculating the surface dose in the treated material using the electron energy, beam current and the area thruput rate of the conveyor. For thick absorbers electron transport results are used to obtain the depth-dose distributions. From these the average dose in the material, anti D, and the beam power utilization efficiency, F/sub p/, can be found by integration over the distributions. These concepts can be used to relate the electron beam power to the mass thruput rate. Qualitatively, the thickness of the material determines the beam energy, the area thruput rate and surface dose determine the beam current while the mass thruput rate and average depth-dose determine the beam power requirements. Graphs are presented showing these relationships as a function of electron energy from 0.2 to 4.0 MeV for polystyrene. With this information, the determination of electron energy and current requirements is a relatively simple procedure

  14. Dietary energy requirements of young adult men, determined by using the doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, S.B.; Heyman, M.B.; Evans, W.J.; Fuss, P.; Tsay, R.; Young, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    The autors examined the hypothesis that current recommendations on dietary energy requirements may underestimate the total energy needs of young adult men, by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 14 weight-maintaining healthy subjects leading unrestricted lives. TEE and body composition were measured by using 2H(2)18O, and REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry. All subjects had sedentary full-time occupations and participated in strenuous leisure activities for 34 ± 6 (SE) min/d. TEE and REE were 14.61 ± 0.76 and 7.39 ± 0.26 MJ/d, respectively, and 202 ± 2 and 122 ± 2 kJ.kg-1.d-1. There were significant relationships between TEE and both body fat-free mass (r = 0.732, P less than 0.005) and measured REE (r = 0.568, P less than 0.05). Measured TEE:REE values were significantly higher than the recommended energy requirement (1.98 ± 0.09, compared with 1.55 or 1.67, P less than 0.005). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the current recommended energy intake for young adult men may underestimate total energy needs

  15. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T. F. (Tai-Sen F.); Kwan, T. J. T. (Thomas J. T.)

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype. The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use an accelerator and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the requirements on the storage ring(s) with external gamma-ray-production target for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scatters with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron-cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reasonable parameter values indicate that it is possible to use no more than a few storage rings per inspection station in a practical NRA luggage inspection complex having more than ten inspection stations.

  16. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-16

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  17. Effects of sulfate and nitrate anions on aluminum corrosion in slightly alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengyi; Church, Benjamin C.

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion mechanisms and kinetics of AA1085 in Li2SO4 and LiNO3 aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery electrolytes were investigated at pH 11 using chronoamperometry. The corrosion kinetics of AA1085 is controlled by the electrolyte concentration level and the anodic potentials. AA1085 is susceptible to crystallographic pitting corrosion in Li2SO4 electrolytes. The rates of pit nucleation and pit growth both decreased at higher Li2SO4 concentrations or at lower anodic potentials. AA1085 passivates against pitting corrosion in LiNO3 electrolytes due to the formation of a thick, uniform corrosion product layer. The growth rate of the passive film was slightly enhanced by increasing the electrolyte concentration and anodic potentials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra showed the formation of a thin sulfate-incorporated passive film on the electrode, which comprises Al2(SO)418H2O, Al(OH)SO4 and Al(OH)3, before the occurrence of pitting growth in 2 M Li2SO4 electrolyte. The thick corrosion product layer formed in 5 M LiNO3 electrolyte was composed of Al(OH)3 and AlOOH. Raman spectroscopy on deionized water, LiOH solution, Li2SO4 and LiNO3 electrolytes depicted changes of solution structure with increasing electrolyte concentration. The influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the corrosion kinetics of AA1085 in Li2SO4 and LiNO3 electrolytes at pH 11 are discussed in detail.

  18. Radiological impact of very slightly radioactive copper and aluminium recovered from dismantled nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbay, H.; Chapuis, A.M.; Cahuzac, O.; Guetat, P.; Haristoy, D.; Renaud, P.

    1991-01-01

    This work is in keeping with a large evaluation of doses likely to be received by public and non nuclear workers when dismantling nuclear installations. A bibliographic study and inquiries are realized, in the nuclear field to evaluate quantities of very slightly radioactive materials, in the conventional copper and aluminium recovery fields: waste recovery, metal refinery and processing, occupational or domestic uses of the metals or their alloys. In fact copper and aluminium waste arising from the dismantling of nuclear installations are mainly electrical cables constituents including insulation material which is mainly polyvinyle chloride (PVC). Estimated quantities are relatively low compared to steel quantities arising from dismantling. The study is based on the hypothesis of two PWRs dismantled per year, estimated quantities are 200 tonnes of copper, 40 tonnes of aluminium and 500 tonnes of PVC. A special case is also studied, which is the dismantling of low and medium uranium enrichment plant in Pierrelatte (France); the plant pipework is mainly made of an aluminium and magnesium alloy: AG3. From these informations, one can define exposure scenarios which may occur with a non negligible probability. The doses likely to be received under the foreseen conditions are calculated. Reference doses are established from recommendations of international organisations as ICRP, IAEA, NEA. Comparing the calculated doses and the reference doses, the activity level of the initial waste can be deduced as to follow the recommendations. The mean specific activity of main beta-gamma emitters in copper, aluminium and PVC are of the same order of magnitude, 10Bq.g -1 . In the case of alpha emitters specific activity levels depend on the material and on the radionuclide, from 2 Bq.g -1 to 10 Bq.g -1 in copper, from 10 Bq.g -1 to 50 Bq.g -1 in aluminium

  19. Urine sodium excretion increased slightly among U.S. adults between 1988 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Hughes, Jeffery P; Cogswell, Mary E; Burt, Vicki L; Lacher, David A; Lavoie, Donna J; Rabinowitz, Daniel J; Johnson, Clifford L; Pirkle, James L

    2014-05-01

    Little information is available on temporal trends in sodium intake in the U.S. population using urine sodium excretion as a biomarker. Our aim was to assess 1988-2010 trends in estimated 24-h urine sodium (24hUNa) excretion among U.S. adults (age 20-59 y) participating in the cross-sectional NHANES. We used subsamples from a 1988-1994 convenience sample, a 2003-2006 one-third random sample, and a 2010 one-third random sample to comply with resource constraints. We estimated 24hUNa excretion from measured sodium concentrations in spot urine samples by use of calibration equations (for men and women) derived from the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure study. Estimated 24hUNa excretion increased over the 20-y period [1988-1994, 2003-2006, and 2010; means ± SEMs (n): 3160 ± 38.4 mg/d (1249), 3290 ± 29.4 mg/d (1235), and 3290 ± 44.4 mg/d (525), respectively; P-trend = 0.022]. We observed significantly higher mean estimated 24hUNa excretion in each survey period (P trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion remained significant (P-trend = 0.004). We observed no temporal trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion among BMI subgroups, nor after adjusting for BMI. Although several limitations apply to this analysis (the use of a convenience sample in 1988-1994 and using estimated 24hUNa excretion as a biomarker of sodium intake), these first NHANES data suggest that mean estimated 24hUNa excretion increased slightly in U.S. adults over the past 2 decades, and this increase may be explained by a shift in the distribution of BMI.

  20. Soil-plant transfer of radiocaesium in slightly contaminated forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarque, S.; Lucot, E.; Badot, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    During Chernobyl's accident, large areas of Western European countries, particularly forests, were contaminated with radiocaesium fallouts. Soil-plant transfer is often the first step by which 137 Cs enters the food chains and flows through the biogeochemical cycle. The present work is devoted to document the soil-plant transfer of radiocaesium in slightly contaminated forest areas. Twelve sites, representative of the various functional features and great diversity of ecological contexts of Franche-Comte region (France), were selected to sample soils and forest trees: three species (Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana) and two organs (leaves or needles and young branches) were measured. Radiocaesium activities in soils have been observed to vary in range of 61 to 280 Bq.kg -1 DW at 0-5 cm depth (8500 to 14280 Bq.m -2 ). A great correlation exists between organic carbon content and soil total radiocaesium concentration (r 2 = 0,60). The studied soils have large organic carbon contents (2,7 to 28%) and large water pH values (3,1 to 6,1). Radiocaesium activities in leaves, needles and branches varied in range of 0 to 128 Bq.kg -1 DW, 0 to 163 Bq.kg -1 DW and 0 to 180 Bq.kg -1 DW respectively. We reported a large variability of Transfer Factors, TFs (0.02 to 0.58) with respect to vegetation type, organ type and soil features. The activity concentration in the leaves and needles were generally found to be greater than those measured in the branches. No correlation was found between soil radiocaesium activity and vegetation radiocaesium activity. TFs values could be related to variations in the radiocaesium bioavailability function of the soil features. (author)

  1. A case of chronic effusive-constrictive pericarditis with slight myocardial involvement caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horimoto, Masashi; Funayama, Naoki; Takenaka, Takashi; Igarashi, Takeki; Sekiguchi, Morie.

    1985-01-01

    A 25-year-old female was admitted with shortness of breath and abdominal swelling. Six years before the admission, she had received resection of 7th to 9th left ribs and subsequent radiation of 5,000 rads to the thorax for the treatment of rib osteoblastoma. One year after the radiation, marked pericardial effusion associated with acute pericarditis was observed and was improved by digitalization and diuretic therapy. Since two years after the radiation, she had felt easy fatigability, swelling of face and foot, and transient faintness on more than 10 meters running. On admission, chest X-ray photograph showed increased pulmonary vascularity without cardiac enlargement. Electrocardiogram indicated systolic right ventricular strain, mitral P, and nonspecific S-T segment depression in left precordial leads. Two-dimensional echocardiography presented pericardial effusion with posterior pericardial thickening, while M-mode echocardiography showed diastolic posterior movement of interventricular septum and diastolic flattening of left ventricular posterior wall. Cardiac catheterization revealed marked elevation of mean right atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure, right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, accompanied with their equalization. In addition, pressure waves of right and left ventricle showed diastolic dip and plateau. Phono-cardiogram and apexcardiogram presented pericardial knock sound and systolic retraction, respectively. Cardiac angiography showed diastolic restriction of left ventricle without any stenosis of coronary artery. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed thickening of anterior and left lateral pericardium with expansion of inferior vena cava, and abdominal CT revealed ascites with slight enlargements of liver and spleen. From above obtained data, chronic effusive-constrictive pericarditis, which was attributed to radiation, was strongly suggested. (J.P.N.)

  2. The Paradox of "Structured" Methods for Software Requirements Management: A Case Study of an e-Government Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Kieran; Lang, Michael

    This chapter outlines the alternative perspectives of "rationalism" and "improvisation" within information systems development and describes the major shortcomings of each. It then discusses how these shortcomings manifested themselves within an e-government case study where a "structured" requirements management method was employed. Although this method was very prescriptive and firmly rooted in the "rational" paradigm, it was observed that users often resorted to improvised behaviour, such as privately making decisions on how certain aspects of the method should or should not be implemented.

  3. A Study on a Control Method with a Ventilation Requirement of a VAV System in Multi-Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jun Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to propose a control method with a ventilation requirement of variable air volume (VAV system in multi-zone. In order to control the VAV system inmulti-zone, it is essential to control the terminal unit installed in each zone. A VAV terminal unit with conventional control method using a fixed minimum air flow can cause indoor air quality (IAQ issues depending on the variation in the number of occupants. This research proposes a control method with a ventilation requirement of the VAV terminal unit and AHU inmulti-zone. The integrated control method with an air flow increase model in the VAV terminal unit, AHU, and outdoor air intake rate increase model in the AHU was based on the indoor CO2 concentration. The conventional and proposed control algorithms were compared through a TRNSYS simulation program. The proposed VAV terminal unit control method satisfies all the conditions of indoor temperature, IAQ, and stratification. An energy comparison with the conventional control method showed that the method satisfies not only the indoor thermal comfort, IAQ, and stratification issue, but also reduces the energy consumption.

  4. COMPARISON OF SPATIAL INTERPOLATION METHODS FOR WHEAT WATER REQUIREMENT AND ITS TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION IN HAMEDAN PROVINCE (IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Nazarifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is the main constraint for production of agricultural crops. The temporal and spatial variations in water requirement for agriculture products are limiting factors in the study of optimum use of water resources in regional planning and management. However, due to unfavorable distribution and density of meteorological stations, it is not possible to monitor the regional variations precisely. Therefore, there is a need to estimate the evapotranspiration of crops at places where meteorological data are not available and then extend the findings from points of measurements to regional scale. Geostatistical methods are among those methods that can be used for estimation of evapotranspiration at regional scale. The present study attempts to investigate different geostatistical methods for temporal and spatial estimation of water requirements for wheat crop in different periods. The study employs the data provided by 16 synoptic and climatology meteorological stations in Hamadan province in Iran. Evapotranspiration for each month and for the growth period were determined using Penman-Mantis and Torrent-White methods for different water periods based on Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. Among the available geostatistical methods, three methods: Kriging Method, Cokriging Method, and inverse weighted distance were selected, and analyzed, using GS+ software. Analysis and selection of the suitable geostatistical method were performed based on two measures, namely Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Mean Bias Error (MBE. The findings suggest that, in general, during the drought period, Kriging method is the proper one for estimating water requirements for the six months: January, February, April, May, August, and December. However, weighted moving average is a better estimation method for the months March, June, September, and October. In addition, Kriging is the best method for July. In normal conditions, Kriging is suitable for April, August, December

  5. Cardiovascular and Energy Requirements of Parents Watching Their Child Compete: A Pilot Mixed-Methods Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lochbaum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Researchers have extensively documented the cardiovascular and metabolic demands for sports participation. To date, researchers have ignored the same requirements of competitor’s parents. Hence, our purpose was to document parent cardiovascular and metabolic responses to watching their child compete while also paying particular attention to their thoughts before and after the competition. Achievement Goal Theory (AGT drove interpretation of parent thoughts. Materials: Parents wore a device, made by Firstbeat Technologies, which continuously monitored heart rate. The parents wore the device the night before the competition to be acclimated to the technology and during the event until later in the day. Parents also completed two open-ended questions, one before the tournament and one after the contest. Results: Before the contest, the dad expected that his son won the event (Croatian National Championships for juniors. Conversely, the mother’s expectations centered more on her son’s enjoyment and competing to the best of his abilities. Parents had differing cardiovascular and energy requirement responses to watching their son compete. In addition, post-competition reflections differed as the father expressed disappointment whereas the mother expressed sadness. Conclusions: The data presented are unique and a first in the sports literature. The parents varied in the intensity of their cardiovascular responses and calories burned while watching their son compete. The father’s cardiovascular response over the course of watching was that of an aerobic workout. Whether this pattern is unique or universal are a critical research question. Last, AGT appears relevant when assessing the parent’s expectations.

  6. Neutronics and thermalhydraulics characteristics of the CANDU core fueled with slightly enriched uranium 0.9% U235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raica, V.; Sindile, A.

    1999-01-01

    The interest concerning the slightly enriched uranium (SEU) fuel cycle is due to the possibility to adapt (to convert) the current reactor design using natural uranium fuel to this cycle. Preliminary evaluations based on discharged fuel burnup estimates versus enrichment and on Canadian experience in fuel irradiation suggest that for a 0.93% U-235 enrichment no design modifications are required, not even for the fuel bundle. The purpose of this paper is to resume the results of the studies carried on in order to clarify this problem. The calculation methodology used in reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics analyses that were performed adapted and developed the AECL suggested methodology. In order to prove the possibility to use the SEU 0.93% without any design modification, all the main elements from the CANDU Reactor Physics Design Manual were studied. Also, some thermal-hydraulics analyses were performed to ensure that the operating and safety parameters were respected. The estimations sustain the assumption that the current reactor and fuel bundle design is compatible to the using of the SEU 0.93% fuel. (author)

  7. Potential application of surfactant systems in formulation of dosage forms with slightly soluble substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Svetlana R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve fast release of ibuprofen, slightly soluble model substance (0.52104 mol/l, surfactant systems for oral use with different PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (C/diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (T ratios were investigated. Comparison between dissolution profiles for ibuprofen from formulated systems and from two commercial products, film tablets and soft capsules, is presented in this paper. Photon correlation spectroscopy has shown that after high dilution with water, surfactant systems were able to form micellar solutions. The size of micelles varies from 14.8 ± 0,075 nm to 16.2 ± 0,021 nm with increasing C/T ratio from 1:2 to 2:1. Although with increasing content of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil larger micelles have formed, lower values of polydispersity index indicated that more homogeneous distribution of micelles size was gained. Conductometric analysis has demonstrated that system composing of C/T ratio 2:1, has shown most pronounced interaction between droplets, which can be seen as high rise of electrical conductivity with increasing water content (% (wwater/wtotal in the sample. No significant difference in percolation threshold between formulations with different C/T ratios was observed. Different surfactant systems were adsorbed on magnesium aluminometasilicate, as adsorbent with high specific active surface (≈300 m2/g, in order to investigate potential influence of adsorbent on ibuprofen dissolution rate. Formulated systems, with or without adsorbent were filled in hard gelatin capsules. The dissolution profiles of ibuprofen from different formulations were obtained in 30 minutes by dissolution apparatus with rotating baskets and compared with dissolution profiles of ibuprofen from commercial products. For formulations without adsorbent faster release of ibuprofen in first minutes of dissolution test, showed formulations with C/T ratio 2:1 and 1:1. Magnesium aluminometasilicate, as adsorbent with high specific

  8. Evaluation of comfort level in desks equipped with two personalized ventilation systems in slightly warm environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Eusebio Z.E. [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia - Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Lucio, Manuela J.R. [Agrupamento Vertical Professor Paula Nogueira, R. Comunidade Lusiada, 8700-000 Olhao (Portugal); Rosa, Silvia P.; Custodio, Ana L.V.; Andrade, Renata L.; Meira, Maria J.P.A. [Faculdade de Ciencias do Mar e do Ambiente - Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-03-15

    In this work the comfort level, namely the thermal comfort, local thermal discomfort and air quality levels, in a classroom with desks equipped with two personalized ventilation systems, in slightly warm environments, is evaluated. A manikin, a ventilated classroom desk, two indoor climate analyzers, a multi-nodal human thermal comfort numerical model and a computational fluid dynamic numerical model, are used. The classroom desk, with double occupation capacity, is used by a student, located in the right side seat. Each personalized ventilation system is equipped with one air terminal device located above the desk writing area, in front to the trunk area, and an other located below the desk writing area, in front to the legs area. The thermal comfort level is evaluated by the developed multi-nodal human thermal comfort numerical model, using a PMV value, the local thermal discomfort level, namely the draught risk and the air velocity fluctuation equivalent frequencies, is evaluated by empirical models, while the air quality level and the detailed airflow around the manikin are evaluated by the computational fluid dynamic numerical model. In the experimental tests the mean air velocity and the turbulence intensity in the upper air terminal device are 3.5 m/s and 9.7%, while in the lower air terminal device are 2.6 m/s and 15.2%. The mean air temperature in the air terminal devices is around 28 C, while the mean radiant temperature in the occupation area, the mean air temperature far from the occupation area and the internal mean air relative humidity were, respectively, 28 C, 28 C and 50%. The air velocity and temperature around the occupant are measured around 15 human body sections. The actual personalized ventilation system, which promotes an ascendant airflow around the occupant with highest air renovation rate in the respiration area, promotes acceptable thermal comfort conditions and air quality in the respiration area in accord to the present standards. The

  9. Medicinal Chemistry Projects Requiring Imaginative Structure-Based Drug Design Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitessier, Nicolas; Pottel, Joshua; Therrien, Eric; Englebienne, Pablo; Liu, Zhaomin; Tomberg, Anna; Corbeil, Christopher R

    2016-09-20

    Computational methods for docking small molecules to proteins are prominent in drug discovery. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of documented examples-and several pertinent cases within our research program. Fifteen years ago, our first docking-guided drug design project yielded nanomolar metalloproteinase inhibitors and illustrated the potential of structure-based drug design. Subsequent applications of docking programs to the design of integrin antagonists, BACE-1 inhibitors, and aminoglycosides binding to bacterial RNA demonstrated that available docking programs needed significant improvement. At that time, docking programs primarily considered flexible ligands and rigid proteins. We demonstrated that accounting for protein flexibility, employing displaceable water molecules, and using ligand-based pharmacophores improved the docking accuracy of existing methods-enabling the design of bioactive molecules. The success prompted the development of our own program, Fitted, implementing all of these aspects. The primary motivation has always been to respond to the needs of drug design studies; the majority of the concepts behind the evolution of Fitted are rooted in medicinal chemistry projects and collaborations. Several examples follow: (1) Searching for HDAC inhibitors led us to develop methods considering drug-zinc coordination and its effect on the pKa of surrounding residues. (2) Targeting covalent prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) inhibitors prompted an update to Fitted to identify reactive groups and form bonds with a given residue (e.g., a catalytic residue) when the geometry allows it. Fitted-the first fully automated covalent docking program-was successfully applied to the discovery of four new classes of covalent POP inhibitors. As a result, efficient stereoselective syntheses of a few screening hits were prioritized rather than synthesizing large chemical libraries-yielding nanomolar inhibitors. (3) In order to study the metabolism of POP inhibitors by

  10. On some exact solutions of slightly variant forms of Yang's equations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which may be integrated once to give. Φv = (1/Φk'. ) √. {k7 − (k2. 3 + k2. 5)Φ2k'. } ... where k8 is an arbitrary constant of integration with a restriction k8 > 0 and k9 is an arbitrary constant of integration. ... fore, we have avoided reporting detailed calculations required for arriving at (3.19). However, the calculations proceed in ...

  11. Management of slightly tritiated wastes and associated tests at the Study Center of Bruyeres le Chatel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, P.; Clerc, H.

    1991-01-01

    Daily degassing rate of drums containing wastes with a low tritium content is a required parameter for removal towards a storage site. Methodology and techniques of increasing sensitivity used for this rate measurement are presented. For 200-liter drums, the degassing range is comprised between 0.1 MBq and 1.85 GBq per day. Equipment has been operating for several years allowing the dispatching of 443 drums and also the testing of on-site storage before disposal

  12. Assessing thermochromatography as a separation method for nuclear forensics. Current capability vis-a-vis forensic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.E.; Garrison, J.R.; Hall, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security. However, many current laboratory analysis techniques are based on methods developed without the imperative for timely analysis that underlies the post-detonation forensics mission requirements. Current analysis of actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials requires time-consuming chemical separation coupled with nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. High-temperature gas-phase separations have been used in the past for the rapid separation of newly created elements/isotopes and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. We are assessing the utility of this method for rapid separation in the gas-phase to accelerate the separations of radioisotopes germane to post-detonation nuclear forensic investigations. The existing state of the art for thermo chromatographic separations, and its applicability to nuclear forensics, will be reviewed. (author)

  13. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Derivations and Verification of Plans. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K, Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques. This recommended procedure would be used as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  14. Simulation of temporal and spatial distribution of required irrigation water by crop models and the pan evaporation coefficient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-min; Yang, Yonghui; Han, Shu-min; Hu, Yu-kun

    2009-07-01

    Hebei Plain is the most important agricultural belt in North China. Intensive irrigation, low and uneven precipitation have led to severe water shortage on the plain. This study is an attempt to resolve this crucial issue of water shortage for sustainable agricultural production and water resources management. The paper models distributed regional irrigation requirement for a range of cultivated crops on the plain. Classic crop models like DSSAT- wheat/maize and COTTON2K are used in combination with pan-evaporation coefficient method to estimate water requirements for wheat, corn, cotton, fruit-trees and vegetables. The approach is more accurate than the static approach adopted in previous studies. This is because the combination use of crop models and pan-evaporation coefficient method dynamically accounts for irrigation requirement at different growth stages of crops, agronomic practices, and field and climatic conditions. The simulation results show increasing Required Irrigation Amount (RIA) with time. RIA ranges from 5.08×109 m3 to 14.42×109 m3 for the period 1986~2006, with an annual average of 10.6×109 m3. Percent average water use by wheat, fruit trees, vegetable, corn and cotton is 41%, 12%, 12%, 11%, 7% and 17% respectively. RIA for April and May (the period with the highest irrigation water use) is 1.78×109 m3 and 2.41×109 m3 respectively. The counties in the piedmont regions of Mount Taihang have high RIA while the central and eastern regions/counties have low irrigation requirement.

  15. Preparation of an ultra-fine, slightly dispersed silver iodide aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poc, Marie-Martine

    1973-01-01

    A silver iodide aerosol was prepared under clean conditions. The method was to react iodine vapor with a silver aerosol in an inert dry atmosphere and in darkness. Great care was taken to avoid contamination from atmosphere air. The ice nucleating properties of the ultrafine AgI aerosol obtained were studied in a cloud mixing chamber: the aerosol was found to be strangely inactive. (author) [fr

  16. International collaboration to study the feasibility of implementing the use of slightly enriched uranium fuel in the Embalse CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouben, B.; Chow, H.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Inch, W.; Fink, J.; Moreno, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years, Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have collaborated on a study of the technical feasibility of implementing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) fuel in the Embalse CANDU reactor in Argentina. The successful conversion to SEU fuel of the other Argentine heavy-water reactor, Atucha 1, served as a good example. SEU presents an attractive incentive from the point of view of fuel utilization: if fuel enriched to 0.9% 235 U were used in Embalse instead of natural uranium, the average fuel discharge burnup would increase significantly (by a factor of about 2), with consequent reduction in fuel requirements, leading to lower fuel-cycle costs and a large reduction in spent-fuel volume per unit energy produced. Another advantage is the change in the axial power shape: with SEU fuel, the maximum bundle power in a channel decreases and shifts towards the coolant inlet end, consequently increasing the thermalhydraulics safety margin. Two SEU fuel carriers, the traditional 37-element bundle and the 43-element CANFLEX bundle, which has enhanced thermalhydraulic characteristics as well as lower peak linear element ratings, have been examined. The feasibility study gave the organizations an excellent opportunity to perform cooperatively a large number of analyses, e.g., in reactor physics, thermalhydraulics, fuel performance, and safety. A Draft Plan for a Demonstration Irradiation of SEU fuel in Embalse was prepared. Safety analyses have been performed for a number of hypothetical accidents, such as Large Loss of Coolant, Loss of Reactivity Control, and an off-normal condition corresponding to introducing 8 SEU bundles in a channel (instead of 2 or 4 bundles). There are concrete safety improvements which result from the reduced maximum bundle powers and their shift towards the inlet end of the fuel channel. Further improvements in safety margins would accrue with CANFLEX. In conclusion, the analyses identified no issues that

  17. Improving allowed outage time and surveillance test interval requirements: a study of their interactions using probabilistic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.A.; Serradell, V.G.; Samanta, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) define the limits and conditions for operating nuclear plants safely. We selected the Limiting Conditions for Operations (LCO) and Surveillance Requirements (SR), both within TS, as the main items to be evaluated using probabilistic methods. In particular, we focused on the Allowed Outage Time (AOT) and Surveillance Test Interval (STI) requirements in LCO and SR, respectively. Already, significant operating and design experience has accumulated revealing several problems which require modifications in some TS rules. Developments in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) allow the evaluation of effects due to such modifications in AOT and STI from a risk point of view. Thus, some changes have already been adopted in some plants. However, the combined effect of several changes in AOT and STI, i.e. through their interactions, is not addressed. This paper presents a methodology which encompasses, along with the definition of AOT and STI interactions, the quantification of interactions in terms of risk using PSA methods, an approach for evaluating simultaneous AOT and STI modifications, and an assessment of strategies for giving flexibility to plant operation through simultaneous changes on AOT and STI using trade-off-based risk criteria

  18. Uranium Anodic Dissolution under Slightly Alkaline Conditions Progress Report Full-Scale Demonstration with DU Foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelis, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brown, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiedmeyer, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is developing an alternative method for digesting irradiated low enriched uranium (LEU) foil targets to produce 99Mo in neutral/alkaline media. This method consists of the electrolytic dissolution of irradiated uranium foil in sodium bicarbonate solution, followed by precipitation of base-insoluble fission and activation products, and uranyl-carbonate species with CaO. The addition of CaO is vital for the effective anion exchange separation of 99MoO42- from the fission products, since most of the interfering anions (e.g., CO32-) are removed from the solution, while molybdate remains in solution. An anion exchange is used to retain and to purify the 99Mo from the filtrate. The electrochemical dissolver has been designed and fabricated in 304 stainless-steel (SS), and tested for the dissolution of a full-size depleted uranium (DU) target, wrapped in Al foil. Future work will include testing with low-burn-up DU foil at Argonne and later with high-burn-up LEU foils at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  19. A Fluorine-18 Radiolabeling Method Enabled by Rhenium(I) Complexation Circumvents the Requirement of Anhydrous Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, Mitchell A; Pascali, Giancarlo; Zhang, Bo; Sia, Tiffany R; Spare, Lawson K; Krause-Heuer, Anwen M; Aldrich-Wright, Janice R; Greguric, Ivan; Guastella, Adam J; Massi, Massimiliano; Fraser, Benjamin H

    2017-05-11

    Azeotropic distillation is typically required to achieve fluorine-18 radiolabeling during the production of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents. However, this time-consuming process also limits fluorine-18 incorporation, due to radioactive decay of the isotope and its adsorption to the drying vessel. In addressing these limitations, the fluorine-18 radiolabeling of one model rhenium(I) complex is reported here, which is significantly improved under conditions that do not require azeotropic drying. This work could open a route towards the investigation of a simplified metal-mediated late-stage radiofluorination method, which would expand upon the accessibility of new PET and PET-optical probes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Alternative methods for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 2c: technical requirements for earth mounded concrete bunker disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Bennett, R.D.

    1985-10-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 2c (Technical Requirements for Earth Mounded Concrete Bunker Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste) of a four-task study entitled ''Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities''. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to potential license applicants. The earth mounded concrete bunker disposal alternative is one of several methods that may be proposed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The name of this alternative is descriptive of the disposal method used in France at the Centre de la Manche. Experience gained with this method at the Centre is described, including unit operations and features and components. Some improvements to the French system are recommended herein, including the use of previous backfill around monoliths and extending the limits of a low permeability surface layer. The applicability of existing criteria developed for near-surface disposal (10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D) to the earth mounded concrete bunker disposal method, as assessed in Task 1, are reassessed herein. With minor qualifications, these criteria were found to be applicable in the reassessment. These conclusions differ slightly from the Task 1 findings

  1. Maternal-fetal transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, a health problem slightly studied in Mexico: case Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Campos-Valdez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the Trypanosoma cruzi infection prevalence in 1125 pregnant women and the transmission frequency to their children from Tapachula and Palenque, Chiapas. Materials and methods. We determined the prevalence by serology tests and the transmission frequency by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and T. cruzi reactivity capacity after 12 months. Results. Total maternal infection prevalence were 23/1 125 (2.04%, 9/600 (1.5% were from Tapachula and 14/525 (2.6% from Palenque. The seropositive women were between 20 and 35 years old, 31.8% have Premature Rapture of Membrane and 9.1% have history of perinatal death. The total percentage of positive newborns by PCR was 9/23 (39.13%, out of those 2/9 (22.2% are from Tapachula and 7/14 (50% from Palenque. The Maternal Fetal transmission frequency was. 2/9 (22.2% in Tapachula and 1/14 (7.14% in Palenque, all positive infants were asynthomatic. Conclusion. The maternal-fetal transmission rate in Chiapas State is variable; the reason could be the maternal immunological status and T. cruzi strain.

  2. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved annular pipe: The impact of the annulus on the flow physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Karahalios, George T.

    2017-02-01

    The motivation of the present study is threefold. Mainly, the etiological explanation of the Womersley number based on physical reasoning. Next, the extension of a previous work [Messaris, Hadjinicolaou, and Karahalios, "Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution," Phys. Fluids 28, 081901 (2016)] to the annular pipe flow. Finally, the discussion of the effect of the additional stresses generated by a catheter in an artery and exerted on the arterial wall during an in vivo catheterization. As it is known, the square of the Womersley number may be interpreted as an oscillatory Reynolds number which equals to the ratio of the inertial to the viscous forces. The adoption of a modified Womersley number in terms of the annular gap width seems therefore more appropriate to the description of the annular flow than an ordinary Womersley number defined in terms of the pipe radius. On this ground, the non-dimensional equations of motion are approximately solved by two analytical methods: a matched asymptotic expansions method and a single. In the first method, which is valid for very large values of the Womersley number, the flow region consists of the main core and the two boundary layers formed at the inner and outer boundaries. In the second, the fluid is considered as one region and the Womersley number can vary from finite values, such that they fit to the blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries, to infinity. The single solution predicts increasing circumferential and decreasing axial stresses with increasing catheter radius at a prescribed value of the Womersley parameter in agreement with analogous results from other theoretical and numerical solutions. It also predicts the formation of pinches on the secondary flow streamlines and a third boundary layer, additional to those formed at the boundary walls. Finally, we show that the insertion of a catheter in an

  3. Some basic requirements for the application of electrokinetic methods for the reconstruction of masonry with rising humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, P; Jacobasch, H J; Boerner, M

    1987-12-01

    Based on some theoretical statements concerning the electro-osmosis the most important requirements for the application of electrokinetic methods for drying masonry with rising humidity are described. Samples of brick masonry (brick and mortar) were examined by means of an electrokinetic measuring system (EKM) with different electrolytes (CaSO/sub 4/ and KCl) being used for different concentrations. It was found for all samples, that the zeta potential is provided with a negative sign and that the absolute value of the zeta potential approaches zero with increasing electrolyte concentration. Based on these measurements, an upper limit of the electrolyte concentration of 0.1 Mol/liter is established for the application of electrokinetic methods for drying masonry.

  4. Slight Hydronephrosis in Newborns and Breast-fed Infants: Can the Presence of Vesicoureteral Reflux Be Predicted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Pablo, T. de; Gutierrez, J.; Prieto, C.; Hoyo, M. L. del

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of slight-to moderate echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in newborns and breast-fed infants that might serve as indicator for Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to evaluate the necessity of performing micturating cystourethrougraphy (MCUG) in these patients. There were reviewed MCUG of 237 patients (174 boys and 63 girls between the ages of 0 and 18 months) with slight echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in order to evaluate the presence of primary VUR. Patients with secondary reflux or those that presented anomalies which made impossible an exact reflux gradind were excluded. However, normal kidneys with reflux which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys were included in the study. For a statistical analysis of the data, each kidney was considered separately, thereby forming a total of 474 kidneys. Slight hydronephrosis was diagnosed when the renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter was observed to measure between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. The International Grading System was used to grade reflux during MCUG. Of the 474 kidneys evaluated, 306 showed slight hydromephrosis in the echography. Only 98 of these presented reflux (32%) (14 grade 1.50 grade II, 32 grade III and 2 grade IV). The echography was normal (i. e. hydronephrosis not present) in 52 kidneys with reflux (31%) which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys, although 38 of these had reflux of grade II or higher. The echography showed slight hydronephrosis in 208 kidneys that did not have reflux during MCUG (68%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of VUR among normal or hydronephrotic kidneys. There is a poor correlation between slight hydronephrosis and presence or grade of reflux in newborns and breast-fed infants. The latter should not, therefore, be considered an indication for MCUC. (Author) 33 refs

  5. No actual measurement … was required: Maxwell and Cavendish's null method for the inverse square law of electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Isobel

    In 1877 James Clerk Maxwell and his student Donald MacAlister refined Henry Cavendish's 1773 null experiment demonstrating the absence of electricity inside a charged conductor. This null result was a mathematical prediction of the inverse square law of electrostatics, and both Cavendish and Maxwell took the experiment as verifying the law. However, Maxwell had already expressed absolute conviction in the law, based on results of Michael Faraday's. So, what was the value to him of repeating Cavendish's experiment? After assessing whether the law was as secure as he claimed, this paper explores its central importance to the electrical programme that Maxwell was pursuing. It traces the historical and conceptual re-orderings through which Maxwell established the law by constructing a tradition of null tests and asserting the superior accuracy of the method. Maxwell drew on his developing 'doctrine of method' to identify Cavendish's experiment as a member of a wider class of null methods. By doing so, he appealed to the null practices of telegraph engineers, diverted attention from the flawed logic of the method, and sought to localise issues around the mapping of numbers onto instrumental indications, on the grounds that 'no actual measurement … was required'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impacts of long-term nitrogen fertilization on acid buffering rates and mechanisms of a slightly calcareous clay soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuting; Vries, de Wim; Thomas, Ben W.; Hao, Xiying; Shi, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Acidification of cropland soils is a serious problem in China that may cause long term pH decline, which threatens the sustainability of soil fertility and crop yields. The objective of this research was to investigate those rates and mechanisms for a slightly calcareous soil. The field data were

  7. Discretization of space and time: a slight modification to the Newtonian gravitation which implies the existence of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, it is shown how deformed space and time cause gravitational attraction, whose law in a discrete context is slightly different from the Newtonian, but to it exactly coincident at large distance. This difference is directly connected to the existence of black holes, which result to have the structure of a hollow sphere.

  8. Paleoecologic Implications of Ichnofossils Associated with Slightly Skeletonized Body Fossils, Middle Cambrian of the Barrandian Area, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Fatka, O.; Szabad, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2012), s. 199-210 ISSN 1042-0940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Middle Cambrian * ichnofossils * slightly skeletonized fauna * Barrandian area Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2012

  9. Data base for a CANDU-PHW operating on a once-through, slightly enriched uranium cycle (AECL-6594)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This report, prepared for INFCE, gives data for an extrapolated 1000 MW(e) CANDU-PHW design operating on a once-through fuel cycle with a feed fuel of slightly enriched uranium - 1.2 weight % U-235 in uranium. The effects of varying fuel enrichment, maximum channel power, and economic parameters are also discussed

  10. Requirements and testing methods for surfaces of metallic bipolar plates for low-temperature PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendras, P.; Lötsch, K.; von Unwerth, T.

    2017-03-01

    To reduce emissions and to substitute combustion engines automotive manufacturers, legislature and first users aspire hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Up to now the focus of research was set on ensuring functionality and increasing durability of fuel cell components. Therefore, expensive materials were used. Contemporary research and development try to substitute these substances by more cost-effective material combinations. The bipolar plate is a key component with the greatest influence on volume and mass of a fuel cell stack and they have to meet complex requirements. They support bending sensitive components of stack, spread reactants over active cell area and form the electrical contact to another cell. Furthermore, bipolar plates dissipate heat of reaction and separate one cell gastight from the other. Consequently, they need a low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) to the gas diffusion layer, high flexural strength, good thermal conductivity and a high durability. To reduce costs stainless steel is a favoured material for bipolar plates in automotive applications. Steel is characterized by good electrical and thermal conductivity but the acid environment requires a high chemical durability against corrosion as well. On the one hand formation of a passivating oxide layer increasing ICR should be inhibited. On the other hand pitting corrosion leading to increased permeation rate may not occur. Therefore, a suitable substrate lamination combination is wanted. In this study material testing methods for bipolar plates are considered.

  11. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  12. Slight respiratory irritation but not inflammation in mice exposed to (1→3-β-D-glucan aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Korpi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway irritation effects after single and repeated inhalation exposures to aerosols of β-glucan (grifolan were investigated in mice. In addition, the effects on serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE production and histopathological inflammation in the respiratory tract were studied. The β-glucan aerosols provoked slight sensory irritation in the airways, but the response was not concentration dependent at the levels studied. Slight pulmonary irritation was observed after repeated exposures. No effect was found on the serum total IgE levels, and no signs of inflammation were seen in the airways 6 h after the final exposure. The results suggest that, irrespective of previous fungal sensitization of the animals, inhaled β-glucan may cause symptoms of respiratory tract irritation but without apparent inflammation. Respiratory tract irritation reported after inhalation of fungi may not be entirely attributed to β-glucan.

  13. Highly sensitive colour change system within slight differences in metal ion concentrations based on homo-binuclear complex formation equilibrium for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, Hitoshi; Atsumi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Keigo; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Yuki; Endo, Masatoshi; Yokota, Fumihiko; Shida, Junichi; Yotsuyanagi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    A new technique of expressing slight differences in metal ion concentrations by clear difference in colour was established for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions. The proposed method is based on rapid change of the mole fraction of the homo-binuclear complex (M 2 L) about a ligand in a narrow range of the total metal ion concentration (M T ) in a small excess, in case the second metal ion is bound to the reagent molecule which can bind two metal ions. Theoretical simulations showed that the highly sensitive colour change within slight differences in metal ion concentrations would be realized under the following conditions: (i) both of the stepwise formation constants of complex species are sufficiently large; (ii) the stepwise formation constant of the 1:1 complex (ML) is larger than that of M 2 L; and (iii) the absorption spectrum of M 2 L is far apart from the other species in the visible region. Furthermore, the boundary of the colour region in M T would be readily controlled by the total ligand concentration (L T ). Based on this theory, the proposed model was verified with the 3,3'-bis[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]methyl derivatives of sulphonephthalein dyes such as xylenol orange (XO), methylthymol blue (MTB), and methylxylenol blue (MXB), which can bind two metal ions at both ends of a π-electron conjugated system. The above-mentioned model was proved with the iron(III)-XO system at pH 2. In addition, MTB and MXB were suitable reagents for the visual threshold detection of trivalent metal ions such as iron(III), aluminium(III), gallium(III) and indium(III) ion in slightly acidic media. The proposed method has been applied successfully as a screening test for aluminium(III) ion in river water sampled at the downstream area of an old mine

  14. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Finkler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32 healthy young men, aged 24–30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise. Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30–60 mL/min/kg. We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.

  15. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24-30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30-60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.

  16. Protein Requirements Are Elevated in Endurance Athletes after Exercise as Determined by the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kato

    Full Text Available A higher protein intake has been recommended for endurance athletes compared with healthy non-exercising individuals based primarily on nitrogen balance methodology. The aim of this study was to determine the estimated average protein requirement and recommended protein intake in endurance athletes during an acute 3-d controlled training period using the indicator amino acid oxidation method. After 2-d of controlled diet (1.4 g protein/kg/d and training (10 and 5km/d, respectively, six male endurance-trained adults (28±4 y of age; Body weight, 64.5±10.0 kg; VO2peak, 60.3±6.7 ml·kg-1·min-1; means±SD performed an acute bout of endurance exercise (20 km treadmill run prior to consuming test diets providing variable amounts of protein (0.2-2.8 g·kg-1·d-1 and sufficient energy. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on the composition of egg protein with [1-13C]phenylalanine provided to determine whole body phenylalanine flux, 13CO2 excretion, and phenylalanine oxidation. The estimated average protein requirement was determined as the breakpoint after biphasic linear regression analysis with a recommended protein intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux (68.8±8.5 μmol·kg-1·h-1 was not affected by protein intake. 13CO2 excretion displayed a robust bi-phase linear relationship (R2 = 0.86 that resulted in an estimated average requirement and a recommended protein intake of 1.65 and 1.83 g protein·kg-1·d-1, respectively, which was similar to values based on phenylalanine oxidation (1.53 and 1.70 g·kg-1·d-1, respectively. We report a recommended protein intake that is greater than the RDA (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1 and current recommendations for endurance athletes (1.2-1.4 g·kg-1·d-1. Our results suggest that the metabolic demand for protein in endurance-trained adults on a higher volume training day is greater than their sedentary peers and current recommendations for athletes based

  17. The methodical approach to determining the heterogeneity of cognitive function in preschool children requiring correction of speech impediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Petrenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been confirmed that children who suffer from speech impediments may experience difficulties in their cognitive activity, limitations in communication, asociality and sense detachment. It is also clear that these children require not only logopedic treatment, but also assistance in developing functions of their cognitive and mental activities. Aims. To identify the case of uniformity lack of cognitive and somatomental functions of 5-6 year old children with speech impediments in a group; to evaluate the method used for this research. Methods. Use estimates of major mental and cognitive activities by means of tests increases the difficulty. Scores from 1 to 10 were given. Such factors as movement coordination, musicality and body plasticity were taken into consideration too. StatSoft STATISTICA10.0. programme was used to run the statistical analysis. Results. The changes of the group with uniformity of physical, cognitive, somatomental and dance abilities were analysed and estimated at the beginning and at the end of the academic year. The results of the claster analysis have shown that the children managed to develop their cognitive and somatomental abilities. Also it was estimated that the level of uniformity has increased in the group. Conclusions. Having done the research we can state that with the help of cluster analysis children with speech impediments can be grouped according to their physical, cognitive, somatomental and dance abilities. With the help of the results of the claster analysis that notifies that the children managed to develop their cognitive and somatomental abilities, we can observe the positivie effects of the suggested dance-cognitive teaching elements in an educational programme.

  18. METHOD FOR SECURITY SPECIFICATION SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS AS A MEANS FOR IMPLEMENTING A SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS SECURE - MERSEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Mecías, L.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Often security incidents that have the object or use the software as a means of causing serious damage and legal, economic consequences, etc. Results of a survey by Kaspersky Lab reflectvulnerabilities in software are the main cause of security incidents in enterprises, the report shows that 85% of them have reported security incidents and vulnerabilities in software are the main reason is further estimated that incidents can cause significant losses estimated from 50,000 to $ 649.000. (1 In this regard academic and industry research focuses on proposals based on reducing vulnerabilities and failures of technology, with a positive influence on how the software is developed. A development process for improved safety practices and should include activities from the initial phases of the software; so that security needs are identified, manage risk and appropriate measures are implemented. This article discusses a method of analysis, acquisition and requirements specification of the software safety analysis on the basis of various proposals and deficiencies identified from participant observation in software development teams. Experiments performed using the proposed yields positive results regarding the reduction of security vulnerabilities and compliance with the safety objectives of the software.

  19. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  20. Electronic Phase Separation in the Slightly Underdoped Iron Pnictide Superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, J.T.; Inosov, D.S.; Niedermayer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Here we present a combined study of the slightly underdoped novel pnictide superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2 by means of x-ray powder diffraction, neutron scattering, muon-spin rotation (µSR), and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Static antiferromagnetic order sets in below Tm70 K as inferred from......-state regions on a lateral scale of several tens of nanometers. Our findings indicate that such mesoscopic phase separation can be considered an intrinsic property of some iron pnictide superconductors....

  1. Relativistic transformation law of quantum fields: A slight generalization consistent with the equivalence of all Lorentz frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingraham, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The well-known relativistic transformation law of quantum fields satisfies the relativity principle, which asserts the complete equivalence of all Lorentz (inertial) frames as far as physical measurements go. We point out a slight generalization which is allowed by the relativity principle, but violates a further, tacit assumption usually made in connection with it but which is actually logically independent of it and subject to a feasible experimental test. The interest of the generalization is that it permits the incorporation of an ultraviolet cutoff in a simple, direct way which avoids the usual difficulties

  2. Velocity and turbulence measurements of oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes using PIV

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara, W.A.S.; Halvorsen, Britt; Melaaen, Morten Christian

    2009-01-01

    Oil-water flows in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes are investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). PIV offers a powerful non-invasive tool to study such flow fields. The experiments are conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (viscosity 1.64 mPa s, density 790 kg/m3) and water (viscosity 1.0 mPa s, density 996 kg/m3) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination is changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. The experiments are ...

  3. Spectral and Spatial UV Sky Radiance Measurements at a Seaside Resort Under Clear Sky and Slightly Overcast Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Henner; Stick, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Spatial measurements of the diffusely scattered sky radiance at a seaside resort under clear sky and slightly overcast conditions have been used to calculate the sky radiance distribution across the upper hemisphere. The measurements were done in the summer season when solar UV radiation is highest. The selected wavelengths were 307, 350 and 550 nm representing the UVB, UVA and VIS band. Absolute values of radiance differ considerably between the wavelengths. Normalizing the measured values by use of direct solar radiance made the spatial distributions of unequal sky radiance comparable. The results convey a spatial impression of the different distributions of the radiance at the three wavelengths. Relative scattered radiance intensity is one order of magnitude greater in UVB than in VIS, whereas in UVA lies roughly in between. Under slightly overcast conditions scattered radiance is increased at all three wavelengths by about one order of magnitude. These measurements taken at the seaside underline the importance of diffuse scattered radiance. The effect of shading parts of the sky can be estimated from the distribution of sky radiance. This knowledge might be useful for sun seekers and in the treatment of people staying at the seaside for therapeutic purposes. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  4. Performances for confocal X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hehe; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stxbeijing@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Yude; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Weigang; Zhao, Guangcui; Luo, Ping; Pan, Qiuli; Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-09-21

    The confocal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology based on a polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens (PSFXRL) in excitation channel and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) with a long input focal distance in detection channel was developed. The output focal spot of the PSFXRL and the input focal spot of the PPXRL were adjusted in confocal configuration, and only the X-rays from the volume overlapped by these foci could be accordingly detected. This confocal configuration was helpful in decreasing background. The convergence of the beam focused by the PSFXRL and divergence of the beam which could be collected by the PPXRL with a long input focal distance were both about 9 mrad at 8 keV. This was helpful in improving the resolution of lattice spacing of this confocal XRD technology. The gain in power density of such PSFXRL and PPXRL was about 120 and 7 at 11 keV, respectively, which was helpful in using the low power source to perform XRD analysis efficiently. The performances of this confocal XRD technology were provided, and some common plastics were analyzed. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal diffraction technology base on polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray optics had wide potential applications.

  5. The effect of slightly warm temperature on work performance and comfort in open-plan offices - a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maula, H; Hongisto, V; Östman, L; Haapakangas, A; Koskela, H; Hyönä, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a temperature of 29°C on performance in tasks involving different cognitive demands and to assess the effect on perceived performance, subjective workload, thermal comfort, perceived working conditions, cognitive fatigue, and somatic symptoms in a laboratory with realistic office environment. A comparison was made with a temperature of 23°C. Performance was measured on the basis of six different tasks that reflect different stages of cognitive performance. Thirty-three students participated in the experiment. The exposure time was 3.5 h in both thermal conditions. Performance was negatively affected by slightly warm temperature in the N-back working memory task. Temperature had no effect on performance in other tasks focusing on psychomotor, working memory, attention, or long-term memory capabilities. Temperature had no effect on perceived performance. However, slightly warm temperature caused concentration difficulties. Throat symptoms were found to increase over time at 29°C, but no temporal change was seen at 23°C. No effect of temperature on other symptoms was found. As expected, the differences in thermal comfort were significant. Women perceived a temperature of 23°C colder than men. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A method of formal requirements analysis for NPP I and C systems based on object-oriented visual modeling with SCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, S. R.; Seong, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, a formal requirements analysis method for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) I and C systems is suggested. This method uses Unified Modeling Language (UML) for modeling systems visually and Software Cost Reduction (SCR) formalism for checking the system models. Since object-oriented method can analyze a document by the objects in a real system, UML models that use object-oriented method are useful for understanding problems and communicating with everyone involved in the project. In order to analyze the requirement more formally, SCR tabular notations is converted from UML models. To help flow-through from UML models to SCR specifications, additional syntactic extensions for UML notation and a converting procedure are defined. The combined method has been applied to Dynamic Safety System (DSS). From this application, three kinds of errors were detected in the existing DSS requirements

  7. Application of mineral fertilizers in Bulgaria and their efficiency on the slightly leached chernozems of the Dobroudja region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Kirchev, H.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past years the agriculture in Bulgaria is undergoing a process of reconstruction and structural changes. The utilization of mineral fertilizers has gradually increased since 1948 and reached its summit in 1981 when about 227 kg/ha NPK have been used. Nowadays these norms have been were and in 1996 they were only 35 kg/ha at the expense of applying N-fertilizers mainly in wheat. The efficiency of the applied nutrients was estimated on slightly leached chernozem in the period 1967-1997. The regular long term fertilization of N 120 P 60 K 0 had a favorable effect on grain yield in an agronomical and economic aspect (5070 kg/ha). The highest grain yield was received at fertilization with N 120 P 120 K 120 (5230 kg/ha). Refs. 4 (author)

  8. Monte Carlo analysis of the slightly enriched uranium-D2O critical experiment LTRIIA (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J. Jr.; Shore, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory LTRIIA slightly-enriched uranium-D 2 O critical experiment was analyzed with ENDF/B-IV data and the RCP01 Monte Carlo program, which modeled the entire assembly in explicit detail. The integral parameters delta 25 and delta 28 showed good agreement with experiment. However, calculated K/sub eff/ was 2 to 3% low, due primarily to an overprediction of U238 capture. This is consistent with results obtained in similar analyses of the H 2 O-moderated TRX critical experiments. In comparisons with the VIM and MCNP2 Monte Carlo programs, good agreement was observed for calculated reeaction rates in the B 2 =0 cell

  9. Safety evaluations required in the safety regulations for Monju and the validity confirmation of safety evaluation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study are to perform the safety evaluations of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju' and to confirm the validity of the safety evaluation methods. In JFY 2012, the following results were obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination achieved for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes, such as a core damage analysis code, were carried out according to the plan. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied. (author)

  10. Cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue method for ERDA/EPRI evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation and maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

  11. Visualization of cross-sectional flow structure during condensation of steam in a slightly inclined horizontal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puseya, Andree; Kim, H. [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, T. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    These flow characteristics called flow patterns still depend on a proper visualization technique in order to identify such local distribution. These proper distributions will have a dependence on the inclination of the tube as well, as it was demonstrated by Lips and Mayer. This work is focused on presenting an experimental investigation to visualize the cross sectional two-phase flow structure for condensation of steam in a horizontal tube and identify the liquid-gas interface using the axial-viewing technique. This innovative technique developed by Hewitt and more recently used in visualization works by Badie, permits the achievement to identify those systems in the area of interest by looking directly into the two-phase flow system during condensation of steam inside a pipe with technology such a high speed camera. An experimental work to visualize and locate the liquid-gas interface for steam condensation in horizontal tubes with slightly inclination was developed on this research The experimental results shows that the axial viewing technique works well with condensation phenomena and can be used for further developments in the field such as determination of liquid film geometry and calculation of void fraction.

  12. Draft genome sequence of Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis DSM 21565T an anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from a Colombian saline spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cárdenas, Carolina; López, Gina; Alzate-Ocampo, José David; González, Laura N; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Restrepo, Silvia; Baena, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    A bacterium belonging to the phylum Synergistetes , genus Dethiosulfovibrio was isolated in 2007 from a saline spring in Colombia. Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis USBA 82 T ( DSM 21565 T = KCTC 5659 T ) is a mesophilic, strictly anaerobic, slightly halophilic, Gram negative bacterium with a diderm cell envelope. The strain ferments peptides, amino acids and a few organic acids. Here we present the description of the complete genome sequencing and annotation of the type species Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis USBA 82 T . The genome consisted of 2.68 Mbp with a 53.7% G + C . A total of 2609 genes were predicted and of those, 2543 were protein coding genes and 66 were RNA genes. We detected in USBA 82 T genome six Synergistetes conserved signature indels (CSIs), specific for Jonquetella, Pyramidobacter and Dethiosulfovibrio . The genome of D. salsuginis contained, as expected, genes related to amino acid transport, amino acid metabolism and thiosulfate reduction. These genes represent the major gene groups of Synergistetes , related with their phenotypic traits, and interestingly, 11.8% of the genes in the genome belonged to the amino acid fermentation COG category. In addition, we identified in the genome some ammonification genes such as nitrate reductase genes. The presence of proline operon genes could be related to de novo synthesis of proline to protect the cell in response to high osmolarity. Our bioinformatics workflow included antiSMASH and BAGEL3 which allowed us to identify bacteriocins genes in the genome.

  13. Corrosion of Cu-xZn alloys in slightly alkaline chloride solutions studied by stripping voltammetry and microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosev, I; Minović, A

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of corrosion of Cu-xZn alloys (x = 10-40 wt %) in slightly alkaline chloride solutions was investigated by analysing solid reaction products by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and dissolved reaction products by differential anodic pulse stripping (DAPS) voltammetry. The corrosion process was studied under open circuit and under potentiostatic conditions at selected potentials. Pure metals were studied comparatively so that an interacting effect of particular metal components in the alloy could be determined. All four Cu-xZn alloys show an improved behaviour compared to pure metals. Under open-circuit condition both components dissolve simultaneously in the solution. With increasing immersion time the preferential, dissolution of zinc in the solution becomes pronounced. It is the highest for Cu-10Zn and the lowest for Cu-30Zn alloy. Under potentiostatic control the dissolution mechanism depends on the electrode potential and changes from exclusive dissolution of zinc to simultaneous dissolution of both components with preferential dissolution of zinc. The latter decreases, as the electrode potential becomes more positive.

  14. Novel Synthesis of Slightly Fluorinated Graphene Quantum Dots with Luminescent and Paramagnetic Properties through Thermal Cutting of Fluorinated Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qian; Xiao, Wenqing; Zheng, Yongping; Lin, Yuda; Li, Jiaxin; Ye, Qingying; Huang, Zhigao

    2018-01-01

    A novel approach has been developed to synthesize slightly fluorinated graphene quantum dots (GQDs-F) through thermal cutting of highly fluorinated graphene. The fluorinated graphene with substantial structure defects is fragile and is readily attacked. The direct evaporation of abundant CFn (n = 2, 3) groups near structure defects lead to the loss of adjacent skelton C atoms, and the fluorinated graphene can be thermally cut into GQDs-F with a relatively uniform nanosize in pyrolysis at 810 K. The GQDs-F with a low F/C atomic ratio of ca. 0.03 exhibit excitation wavelength-dependent properties with multicolor photoluminescence (PL) from blue to green. At the same time, F adatoms that are most likely located at the edges of GQDs-F have a high efficiency of introducing paramagnetic centres, and GQDs-F show a strong paramagnetism because of sp3-type defects and magnetic zigzag edges. The graphene quantum dots with such multimodal capabilities should have great applied value in material science. PMID:29316730

  15. Visualization of two-phase gas-liquid flow regimes in horizontal and slightly-inclined circular tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Livia Alves [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: livia@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr; Su, Jian [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program], Emails: cunhafilho@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio [Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a flow visualization study was performed for two-phase gas-liquid flow in horizontal and slightly inclined tubes. The test section consists of a 2.54 cm inner diameter stainless steel circular tube, followed by a transparent acrylic tube with the same inner diameter. The working fluids were air and water, with liquid superficial velocities ranging from 0:11 to 3:28 m/s and gas superficial velocities ranging from 0:27 to 5:48 m/s. Flow visualization was executed for upward flow at 5 deg and 10 deg and downward flow at 2:5 deg, 5 deg and 10 deg, as well as for horizontal flow. The visualization technique consists of a high-speed digital camera that records images at rates of 125 and 250 frames per second of a concurrent air-water mixture through a transparent part of the tube. From the obtained images, the flow regimes were identified (except for annular flow), observing the effect of inclination angles on flow regime transition boundaries. Finally, the experimental results were compared with empirical and theoretical flow pattern maps available in literature. (author)

  16. Influence of slight microstructural gradients on the surface properties of Ti6Al4V irradiated by UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo-Moreno, A.M.; Multigner, M.; Pacha-Olivenza, M.A.; Lieblich, M.; Jimenez, J.A.; Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L.; Gonzalez-Martin, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy is one of the most widely used materials for biomedical implants. Among its properties, it is remarkable the photoactivity displayed by its passive layer, which is mainly composed by titanium dioxide. However, variations in the processing conditions may yield to differences in the microstructure which can be reflected on the surface properties of the machined product. From contact angle measurements taken on different zones of samples removed from a commercial bar of Ti6Al4V, it has been shown that the modifications of the surface Gibbs energy suffered by the alloy under UV irradiation have a radial dependence. This behaviour is related to slight microstructural changes of the alloy, particularly with an increase in the volume fraction of the β-phase when moving to the interior of the sample, which alters the composition and/or microstructure of the passive layer along its radius. This study shows that gradients in the microstructure and physical properties are sample size dependent and are likely related to thermal gradients during processing.

  17. Effect of long-term fertilization with different norms and rates of nutrients on slightly lashed chernozem fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Kirchev, C.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    As a result from a 30-year fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium applied with different norms and rates, the nutrition regime of slightly leached chernozems was considerably altered. A significant increase of mineral nitrogen, especially of its nitrate form, was observed down the profile (140-200 cm) when applying nitrogen norms of 120 and 180 kg/ha. A high correlation between yield and nitrate nitrogen content was registered under these conditions. During the period of fertilization mentioned above, phosphorus available in soil changed from low to moderate to good and very good depending to the phosphorus fertilization norm. A considerable enrichment of the root-deep layer with available phosphorus was established. A similar tendency was registered for water-soluble and available potassium content in the surface layer in accordance with the potassium dressing. The correlation and path-coefficients calculated for the period of study show a strong relation between yield and the autumn-winter moisture reserve, rainfalls in May and in April-June; these are considered to guarantee the efficiency of mineral fertilization on yield. Refs. 4 (author)

  18. Reduction in the Number of Comparisons Required to Create Matrix of Expert Judgment in the Comet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sałabun Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods are associated with the ranking of alternatives based on expert judgments made using a number of criteria. In the MCDM field, the distance-based approach is one popular method for receiving a final ranking. One of the newest MCDM method, which uses the distance-based approach, is the Characteristic Objects Method (COMET. In this method, the preferences of each alternative are obtained on the basis of the distance from the nearest characteristic ob jects and their values. For this purpose, the domain and fuzzy numbers set for all the considered criteria are determined. The characteristic objects are obtained as the combination of the crisp values of all the fuzzy numbers. The preference values of all the characteristic ob ject are determined based on the tournament method and the principle of indifference. Finally, the fuzzy model is constructed and is used to calculate preference values of the alternatives. In this way, a multi-criteria model is created and it is free of rank reversal phenomenon. In this approach, the matrix of expert judgment is necessary to create. For this purpose, an expert has to compare all the characteristic ob jects with each other. The number of necessary comparisons depends squarely to the number of ob jects. This study proposes the improvement of the COMET method by using the transitivity of pairwise comparisons. Three numerical examples are used to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed improvement with respect to results from the original approach. The proposed improvement reduces significantly the number of necessary comparisons to create the matrix of expert judgment.

  19. Development of test practice requirements for a standard method on fracture toughness testing in the transition range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.E.; Zerbst, U.; Heerens, J.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the resolution of several issues that are relevant to the ductile to brittle transition range of structural steels. One of this issues was to compare a statistical-based weakest-link method to constraint data adjustment methods for modeling the specimen size effects on fracture toughness. Another was to explore the concept of a universal transition temperature curve shape (Master Curve). Data from a Materials Properties Council round robin activity were used to test the proposals empirically. The findings of this study are inclosed in an activity for the development of a draft standard test procedure ''Test Practice for Fracture Toughness in the Transition Range''. (orig.) [de

  20. Seasonal variations of natural ventilation and radon-222 exhalation in a slightly rising dead-end tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Gautam, Umesh; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Shrestha, Prithvi; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2007-01-01

    The concentration activity of radon-222 has been monitored, with some interruptions, from 1997 to 2005 in the end section of a slightly rising, dead-end, 38-m long tunnel located in the Phulchoki hill, near Kathmandu, Nepal. While a high concentration varying from 6 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) to 10 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) is observed from May to September (rainy summer season), the concentration remains at a low level of about 200 Bq m(-3) from October to March (dry winter season). This reduction of radon concentration is associated with natural ventilation of the tunnel, which, contrary to expectations for a rising tunnel, takes place mainly from October to March when the outside air temperature drops below the average tunnel temperature. This interpretation is supported by temperature measurements in the atmosphere of the tunnel, a few meters away from the entrance. The temporal variations of the diurnal amplitude of this temperature indeed follow the ventilation rate deduced from the radon measurements. In the absence of significant ventilation (summer season), the radon exhalation flux at the rock surface into the tunnel atmosphere can be inferred; it exhibits a yearly variation with additional transient reductions associated with heavy rainfall, likely to be due to water infiltration. No effect of atmospheric pressure variations on the radon concentration is observed in this tunnel. This experiment illustrates how small differences in the location and geometry of a tunnel can lead to vastly different behaviours of the radon concentration versus time. This observation has consequences for the estimation of the dose rate and the practicability of radon monitoring for tectonic purposes in underground environments.

  1. Simultaneous intake of beta-glucan and plant stanol esters affects lipid metabolism in slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2007-03-01

    Intake of food products rich in water-soluble fiber beta-glucan and products enriched with plant stanol esters lower serum cholesterol. Combining 2 functional food ingredients into one food product may achieve additional reductions of serum cholesterol. Our objective was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous intake of beta-glucan plus plant stanol esters on lipid metabolism in mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers. In a randomized, controlled, 3-period crossover study, 40 mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women received muesli in random order twice a day for 4 wk, which provided, in total, 5 g control fiber from wheat (control muesli), 5 g oat beta-glucan (beta-glucan muesli), or 5 g oat beta-glucan plus 1.5 g plant stanols (combination muesli). beta-Glucan muesli decreased serum LDL cholesterol by 5.0% compared with control muesli (P = 0.013). Combination muesli reduced LDL cholesterol by 9.6% compared with control muesli (P < 0.001), and by 4.4% compared with beta-glucan muesli (P = 0.036). Serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ after the 3 treatments. Compared with control muesli, beta-glucan muesli increased bile acid synthesis (P = 0.043) and decreased cholesterol absorption (P = 0.011). Addition of plant stanols did not influence bile acid synthesis but decreased cholesterol absorption (P < 0.001) and raised cholesterol synthesis (P = 0.016) compared with control muesli, and the plant stanols decreased cholesterol absorption compared with beta-glucan muesli (P = 0.004). The combination muesli decreased serum concentrations of sitostanol compared with control muesli (P = 0.010). Plasma concentrations of lipid-soluble antioxidants did not differ after the 3 treatments. beta-Glucan muesli effectively lowered serum LDL cholesterol concentrations. The addition of plant stanol esters to beta-glucan-enriched muesli further lowered serum LDL cholesterol, although effects were slightly less than predicted.

  2. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  3. Improving software requirements specification for safety-related systems using the fault tree developed by an object-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1998-01-01

    A modification of the fault tree analysis is presented. The new fault tree integrates structural and behavioral models of a system. Information on the system structure is captured in the name of each gate and basic event of the fault tree. Information on the system behavior is captured in their description. Behavior is expressed using the axiomatic notation based on first order predicate logic. The new fault tree is a useful model for analysis and improvement of software requirements specification. The benefit of such improvements is reduced probability of failures in specification, which in turn results in increased reliability of the software.(author)

  4. 2 CFR 801.437 - What method do I use to communicate to a participant the requirements described in the OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What method do I use to communicate to a participant the requirements described in the OMB guidance at 2 CFR 180.435? 801.437 Section 801.437 Grants... NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Responsibilities of Federal Agency Officials Regarding Transactions § 801...

  5. 2 CFR 801.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 801.332 Section 801.332 Grants... NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Responsibilities of Participants Regarding Transactions § 801.332 What...

  6. Comparative Method for Indirect Sensitivity Measurement of UHF RFID Reader with Respect to Interoperability and Conformance Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kypus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is never-ending race for the competitive advantage that forces RFID technology service integrators to focus more on used technology qualitative aspects and theirs impacts inside RFID ecosystem. This paper contributes to UHF RFID reader qualitative parameters evaluation and assessment problematic. It presents and describes in details indirect method and procedure of sensitivity measurement created for UHF RFID readers. We applied this method on RFID readers within prepared test environment and confirmed long term intention and recognized trend. Due to regulations limitations, there is not possible to increase output power over defined limits, but there are possibilities to influence reader sensitivity. Our proposal is to use customized comparative measurement method with insertion loss compensation for return link. Beside the main goal achievement, results show as well the qualitative status of development snapshot of reader. Method and following experiment helped us to gain an external view, current values of important parameters and motivation we want to follow up on as well as compared developed reader with its commercial competitors.

  7. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs

  8. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs.

  9. International Harmonisation Of Accounting Standards: The Case For A Mandatory Requirement For The Direct Method Of Reporting Operating Cash Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Yap

    2011-01-01

    Even though standard setters have now embraced cash flow statements there remains ambivalence as to the best format (i.e. direct or indirect method) for disclosing cash flow from operations. In 1987 the FASB asserted that information about the gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments is more relevant than information about the net amounts of cash receipts and payments. Yet apart from Australia and New Zealand, most standard setting bodies, including the International Accounting Standa...

  10. Cell mediated lympholysis: CML. A microplate technique requiring few target cells and employing a new method of supernatant collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, A.; Thorsby, E.

    1977-01-01

    A micromethod for the 51 Cr release assay is described. Allogeneically induced cytotoxic lymphocytes are generated in mixed lymphocyte microcultures in the wells of microplates. Their cytotoxic capacity is assayed by adding 51 Cr-labelled PHA derived lymphoblasts directly into the microcultures with no pooling or transfer of the cytotoxic effector cells being required. The 51 Cr isotope released into the cell supernatants is collected by inserting a cellulose acetate absorption cartridge into each well. A glass fiber filter attached to the cartridge effectively separates the supernatant from the cellular elemets. This system allows the simultaneous collection of the supernatant from 96 wells, and can be used with either adherent or non-adherent target cells

  11. Method to control the persons permitted to enter plants with increased security requirements and personnel lock for such plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, E.; Eickhoff, H.; Tretschoks, W.

    1978-01-01

    The personnel lock for a plant with increased security requirements, e.g. a nuclear power plant, has got two lock gates. Only persons whose right to enter has been established by the control equipment will be admitted to the lock chamber. For this purpose an identification recess is built in front of the first access to the lock chamber, where size, weight and the contours of the persons wanting to enter are roughly measured and compared with a code card carried along. The weight is established by a balance forming part of the base of the recess. By means of contact surfaces in the region of knees, upper thigh, chest and shoulder an upright position of the person is guaranteed. Scanning of the physical dimensions is performed with laser, infrared and light barriers. (DG) [de

  12. HIV in hiding: methods and data requirements for the estimation of the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Many people who are HIV positive are unaware of their infection status. Estimation of the number of people with undiagnosed HIV within a country or region is vital for understanding future need for treatment and for motivating testing programs. We review the available estimation approaches which...... are in current use. They can be broadly classified into those based on prevalence surveys and those based on reported HIV and AIDS cases. Estimation based on prevalence data requires data from regular prevalence surveys in different population groups together with estimates of the size of these groups....... The recommended minimal case reporting data needed to estimate the number of patients with undiagnosed HIV are HIV diagnoses, including CD4 count at diagnosis and whether there has been an AIDS diagnosis in the 3 months before or after HIV diagnosis, and data on deaths in people with HIV. We would encourage all...

  13. Experimental study of air-cooled water condensation in slightly inclined circular tube using infrared temperature measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungdae [Nuclear Engineering Department, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Eok, E-mail: dekim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Air-cooled condensation experiments in an inclined Pyrex glass tube were performed. • High-resolution wall temperature data and flow regime formations could be obtained. • The local heat flux was strongly dependent on the air-side heat transfer. • A CFD analysis was conducted for calculating the local heat flux distribution. - Abstract: This study presents the results of an investigation of the air-cooled water condensation heat transfer characteristics inside a slightly inclined circular tube made of transparent Pyrex glass. The high-resolution wall temperature data and stratified film formations could be obtained with the assistance of an infrared (IR) thermometry technique and side-view visualization using a CCD camera. In all experimental cases, the condensation flow patterns were in the fully-stratified flow region. In addition, the experimentally measured void fraction corresponded well with the logarithmic mean void fraction model. The local temperature differences in the cooling air flow across the condenser tube and high-resolution temperature profiles on the tube’s outer wall were obtained in the experimental measurements. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the local heat flux distributions in the longitudinal direction of the test tube were strongly dependent on the cooling air velocity. And, with the help of IR thermometry, the tube outer wall temperature data at 45 local points could be measured. From the data, the asymmetry distribution of the local wall temperatures and the accurate location of the transition from two-phase mixture to single phase liquid inside the tube could be obtained. Also, the analysis of the thermal resistances by condensation, wall conduction and air convection showed that the air convective heat transfer behavior can play a dominant role to the local heat transfer characteristics. Finally, in order to obtain the local heat flux distribution along the tube’s outer wall, a two

  14. Quality requirements for veterinary hematology analyzers in small animals-a survey about veterinary experts' requirements and objective evaluation of analyzer performance based on a meta-analysis of method validation studies: bench top hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrea M; Moritz, Andreas; Freeman, Kathleen P; Bauer, Natali

    2016-09-01

    Scarce information exists about quality requirements and objective evaluation of performance of large veterinary bench top hematology analyzers. The study was aimed at comparing the observed total error (TEobs ) derived from meta-analysis of published method validation data to the total allowable error (TEa ) for veterinary hematology variables in small animals based on experts' opinions. Ideally, TEobs should be hematology analyzers (ADVIA 2120; Sysmex XT2000iV, and CellDyn 3500) was calculated based on method validation studies published between 2005 and 2013 (n = 4). The percent TEobs = 2 * CV (%) + bias (%). The CV was derived from published studies except for the ADVIA 2120 (internal data), and bias was estimated from the regression equation. A total of 41 veterinary experts (19 diplomates, 8 residents, 10 postgraduate students, 4 anonymous specialists) responded. The proposed range of TEa was wide, but generally ≤ 20%. The TEobs was < TEa for all variables and analyzers except for canine and feline HGB (high bias, low CV) and platelet counts (high bias, high CV). Overall, veterinary bench top analyzers fulfilled experts' requirements except for HGB due to method-related bias, and platelet counts due to known preanalytic/analytic issues. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  15. [Validation of an in-house method for the determination of zinc in serum: Meeting the requirements of ISO 17025].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente Ballesteros, M T; Navarro Serrano, I; López Colón, J L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to propose a scheme for validation of an analytical technique according to ISO 17025. According to ISO 17025, the fundamental parameters tested were: selectivity, calibration model, precision, accuracy, uncertainty of measurement, and analytical interference. A protocol has been developed that has been applied successfully to quantify zinc in serum by atomic absorption spectrometry. It is demonstrated that our method is selective, linear, accurate, and precise, making it suitable for use in routine diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. A Study on the Quantitative Assessment Method of Software Requirement Documents Using Software Engineering Measures and Bayesian Belief Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung Seop; Kang, Hyun Gook; Park, Ki Hong; Kwon, Kee Choon; Chang, Seung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    One of the major challenges in using the digital systems in a NPP is the reliability estimation of safety critical software embedded in the digital safety systems. Precise quantitative assessment of the reliability of safety critical software is nearly impossible, since many of the aspects to be considered are of qualitative nature and not directly measurable, but they have to be estimated for a practical use. Therefore an expert's judgment plays an important role in estimating the reliability of the software embedded in safety-critical systems in practice, because they can deal with all the diverse evidence relevant to the reliability and can perform an inference based on the evidence. But, in general, the experts' way of combining the diverse evidence and performing an inference is usually informal and qualitative, which is hard to discuss and will eventually lead to a debate about the conclusion. We have been carrying out research on a quantitative assessment of the reliability of safety critical software using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). BBN has been proven to be a useful modeling formalism because a user can represent a complex set of events and relationships in a fashion that can easily be interpreted by others. In the previous works we have assessed a software requirement specification of a reactor protection system by using our BBN-based assessment model. The BBN model mainly employed an expert's subjective probabilities as inputs. In the process of assessing the software requirement documents we found out that the BBN model was excessively dependent on experts' subjective judgments in a large part. Therefore, to overcome the weakness of our methodology we employed conventional software engineering measures into the BBN model as shown in this paper. The quantitative relationship between the conventional software measures and the reliability of software were not identified well in the past. Then recently there appeared a few researches on a ranking of

  17. Effects of climate change on water requirements and phenological period of major crops in Heihe River basin, China - Based on the accumulated temperature threshold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Xu, Xinyi; Yan, Denghua

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, global climate change has significantly caused a serious crisis of water resources throughout the world. However, mainly through variations in temperature, climate change will affect water requirements of crop. It is obvious that the rise of temperature affects growing period and phenological period of crop directly, then changes the water demand quota of crop. Methods including accumulated temperature threshold and climatic tendency rate were adopted, which made up for the weakness of phenological observations, to reveal the response of crop phenological change during the growing period. Then using Penman-Menteith model and crop coefficients from the United Nations Food& Agriculture Organization (FAO), the paper firstly explored crop water requirements in different growth periods, and further forecasted quantitatively crop water requirements in Heihe River Basin, China under different climate change scenarios. Results indicate that: (i) The results of crop phenological change established in the method of accumulated temperature threshold were in agreement with measured results, and (ii) there were many differences in impacts of climate warming on water requirement of different crops. The growth periods of wheat and corn had tendency of shortening as well as the length of growth periods. (ii)Results of crop water requirements under different climate change scenarios showed: when temperature increased by 1°C, the start time of wheat growth period changed, 2 days earlier than before, and the length of total growth period shortened 2 days. Wheat water requirements increased by 1.4mm. However, corn water requirements decreased by almost 0.9mm due to the increasing temperature of 1°C. And the start time of corn growth period become 3 days ahead, and the length of total growth period shortened 4 days. Therefore, the contradiction between water supply and water demands are more obvious under the future climate warming in Heihe River Basin, China.

  18. Monte Carlo analyses of TRX slightly enriched uranium-H2O critical experiments with ENDF/B-IV and related data sets (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J. Jr.

    1977-12-01

    Four H 2 O-moderated, slightly-enriched-uranium critical experiments were analyzed by Monte Carlo methods with ENDF/B-IV data. These were simple metal-rod lattices comprising Cross Section Evaluation Working Group thermal reactor benchmarks TRX-1 through TRX-4. Generally good agreement with experiment was obtained for calculated integral parameters: the epi-thermal/thermal ratio of U238 capture (rho 28 ) and of U235 fission (delta 25 ), the ratio of U238 capture to U235 fission (CR*), and the ratio of U238 fission to U235 fission (delta 28 ). Full-core Monte Carlo calculations for two lattices showed good agreement with cell Monte Carlo-plus-multigroup P/sub l/ leakage corrections. Newly measured parameters for the low energy resonances of U238 significantly improved rho 28 . In comparison with other CSEWG analyses, the strong correlation between K/sub eff/ and rho 28 suggests that U238 resonance capture is the major problem encountered in analyzing these lattices

  19. Correction of the equilibrium temperature caused by slight evaporation of water in protein crystal growth cells during long-term space experiments at International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Murayama, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seijiro; Hosokawa, Kouhei; Oshi, Kentaro; Ito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Tachibana, Masaru; Miura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The normal growth rates of the {110} faces of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals, R, were measured as a function of the supersaturation σ parameter using a reflection type interferometer under μG at the International Space Station (NanoStep Project). Since water slightly evaporated from in situ observation cells during a long-term space station experiment for several months, equilibrium temperature T(e) changed, and the actual σ, however, significantly increased mainly due to the increase in salt concentration C(s). To correct σ, the actual C(s) and protein concentration C(p), which correctly represent the measured T(e) value in space, were first calculated. Second, a new solubility curve with the corrected C(s) was plotted. Finally, the revised σ was obtained from the new solubility curve. This correction method successfully revealed that the 2.8% water was evaporated from the solution, leading to 2.8% increase in the C(s) and C(p) of the solution.

  20. Development of a traceability analysis method based on case grammar for NPP requirement documents written in Korean language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeong Jae; Seong, Poong Hyun; Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-01-01

    Software inspection is widely believed to be an effective method for software verification and validation (V and V). However, software inspection is labor-intensive and, since it uses little technology, software inspection is viewed upon as unsuitable for a more technology-oriented development environment. Nevertheless, software inspection is gaining in popularity. KAIST Nuclear I and C and Information Engineering Laboratory (NICIEL) has developed software management and inspection support tools, collectively named 'SIS-RT.' SIS-RT is designed to partially automate the software inspection processes. SIS-RT supports the analyses of traceability between a given set of specification documents. To make SIS-RT compatible for documents written in Korean, certain techniques in natural language processing have been studied. Among the techniques considered, case grammar is most suitable for analyses of the Korean language. In this paper, we propose a methodology that uses a case grammar approach to analyze the traceability between documents written in Korean. A discussion regarding some examples of such an analysis will follow

  1. Method of Maintaining the Required Values of Surface Roughness and Prediction of Technological Conditions for Cold Sheet Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valíček J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on results obtained from topography of surfaces of sheets rolled from deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697, non-alloy low-carbon structural steel EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium. The presented results document correctness of the assumption that the rolling force Froll increases with the increasing reduction Δh and the quality of the rolled surface is improved at the simultaneous increasing of strength of rolled sheets and the decreasing of size of structural grains. The experiment was performed on the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa, which enables only non-continuous technology in contrast to the rolling mill with continuous reduction on one sheet in several degrees on rolling trains, in consequence of which the obtained height parameters of the section are in close correlation with the predicted dependence. Contribution of the work consists in the creation of a mathematical model (algorithm for predicting technological parameters of the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa at change of the absolute reduction Δh, for example for a deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697 and non-alloy lowcarbon structural steel PN EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium, and also in the development of a method of calculation applicable to any material being rolled in general, because the authors have found that various materials can be differentiated by a derived analytical criterion IKP. This criterion is a function of ratio between the modulus of elasticity of reference material and that of actually rolled material. The reference material is here deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697. Verification was carried out by measuring changes of final surface roughness profile and final strength of rolled sheets of the stated materials in relation to reductions and those were compared with theoretically predicted values. It is possible to identify and predict on the basis of this algorithm an instant state of surface topography in

  2. SU-E-I-82: Improving CT Image Quality for Radiation Therapy Using Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms and Slightly Increasing Imaging Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noid, G; Chen, G; Tai, A; Li, X

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms are developed to improve CT image quality (IQ) by reducing noise without diminishing spatial resolution or contrast. For CT in radiation therapy (RT), slightly increasing imaging dose to improve IQ may be justified if it can substantially enhance structure delineation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the IQ enhancement as a result of increasing imaging doses and using IR algorithms. Methods: CT images were acquired for phantoms, built to evaluate IQ metrics including spatial resolution, contrast and noise, with a variety of imaging protocols using a CT scanner (Definition AS Open, Siemens) installed inside a Linac room. Representative patients were scanned once the protocols were optimized. Both phantom and patient scans were reconstructed using the Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) and the Filtered Back Projection (FBP) methods. IQ metrics of the obtained CTs were compared. Results: IR techniques are demonstrated to preserve spatial resolution as measured by the point spread function and reduce noise in comparison to traditional FBP. Driven by the reduction in noise, the contrast to noise ratio is doubled by adopting the highest SAFIRE strength. As expected, increasing imaging dose reduces noise for both SAFIRE and FBP reconstructions. The contrast to noise increases from 3 to 5 by increasing the dose by a factor of 4. Similar IQ improvement was observed on the CTs for selected patients with pancreas and prostrate cancers. Conclusion: The IR techniques produce a measurable enhancement to CT IQ by reducing the noise. Increasing imaging dose further reduces noise independent of the IR techniques. The improved CT enables more accurate delineation of tumors and/or organs at risk during RT planning and delivery guidance

  3. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insulin resistance influences weight loss in non-obese women who followed a home-based exercise program and slight caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Sichieri, Rosely

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of insulin resistance status on weight changes in non-obese women who followed a home-based exercise program and slight caloric restriction over a period of 12 months. Middle-aged (25-45 year), non-obese (body mass index of 23-29.9 kg/m(2)) women were randomly assigned to control (CG) or home-based exercise group (HB). The HB group received a booklet explaining the physical exercises to be practiced at home at least three times per week (40 min/session). Both groups were required to follow a small energy restriction of 100-300 calories per day. For the analysis, women were stratified in two groups according to baseline insulin sensitivity: NIR (non-insulin resistant; n = 121) and IR (insulin resistant; n = 64). Women classified as IR at baseline had greater weight loss after 12 months of follow-up (-1.6 kg vs. -1.1 kg; p = 0.01), and HB exercise helped to reduce weight only among NIR women (-1.5 vs. -0.7; p = 0.04); no differences were observed between intervention groups for IR women (-1.5 vs. -1.7; p = 0.24). There were no differences between IR and NIR groups for lipid profile after adjustment for weight changes. Insulin resistance facilitated weight loss, and home-based exercise promoted greater weight loss only in non-insulin resistance women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Slightly Longer History of E=mc 2, Or How I Came to Hate 4/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, Tony [Princeton University

    2012-05-02

    According to popular mythology, the equivalence of mass and energy was suddenly conceived of and proven by Einstein in 1905. In fact, serious attempts to connect mass and energy went back at least to J.J. Thomson in 1881 and over the next two decades became the subject of numerous investigations by Maxwellians such as Heaviside, Abraham and Poincaré. The talk focuses on a 1904 thought experiment of Fritz Hasenöhrl, who first announced that blackbody radiation had an equivalent mass such that E = (3/8)mc2, which he subsequently corrected to E = (3/4)mc2. Why did Hasenöhrl get the wrong answer and Einstein get the right one? What does it mean to prove a law of nature? Stephen Boughn and myself have recently carried out an complete relativistic analysis of Hasenöhrl’s thought experiment and, for the first time in the century since it was proposed, have correctly solved the problem. I will try to keep the mathematics at a reasonable level but it will require familiarity with electrodynamics and special relativity.

  6. Active Radiation Detectors for Use in Space Beyond Low Earth Orbit: Spatial and Energy Resolution Requirements and Methods for Heavy Ion Charge Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Rafe A.

    Space radiation exposure to astronauts will need to be carefully monitored on future missions beyond low earth orbit. NASA has proposed an updated radiation risk framework that takes into account a significant amount of radiobiological and heavy ion track structure information. These models require active radiation detection systems to measure the energy and ion charge Z. However, current radiation detection systems cannot meet these demands. The aim of this study was to investigate several topics that will help next generation detection systems meet the NASA objectives. Specifically, this work investigates the required spatial resolution to avoid coincident events in a detector, the effects of energy straggling and conversion of dose from silicon to water, and methods for ion identification (Z) using machine learning. The main results of this dissertation are as follows: 1. Spatial resolution on the order of 0.1 cm is required for active space radiation detectors to have high confidence in identifying individual particles, i.e., to eliminate coincident events. 2. Energy resolution of a detector system will be limited by energy straggling effects and the conversion of dose in silicon to dose in biological tissue (water). 3. Machine learning methods show strong promise for identification of ion charge (Z) with simple detector designs.

  7. Right to refuse treatment in Turkey: a diagnosis and a slightly less than modest proposal for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Nurbay

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the current state of right to refuse medical treatment in Turkey. Even though there are only a few studies carried out with Turkish physicians on their attitude towards the right to refuse treatment, I argue that recent studies on physicians' views on informed consent and honest disclosure show that Turkish physicians do not tend to recognise their patients' right to decline treatment. This is because the refusal of treatment crucially requires that patients be properly informed and asked for their consent before the treatment. Turkish physicians and healthcare providers' tendency to ignore the right to decline medical treatment cannot be separated from their paternalistic approach to patients and their rights. I argue that part of the problem is the legal framework, which, in essence, is still paternalistic. More specifically, the frequent appearance of the phrase 'medical necessity' in the relevant legislation is conveniently used to justify medical intervention against a patient's will. I conclude the paper by proposing reforms in the legal documents defining and regulating patient rights, including the Constitution of the Turkish Republic, and I will argue that these reforms will help enhance patient rights in Turkey. Turkey has been discussing a new Constitution for the past several years, so my proposal should best be understood as contributing to public discussion of the new Constitution by initiating debate about medical paternalism and patient autonomy in Turkish medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Effect of time of administration on cholesterol-lowering by psyllium: a randomized cross-over study in normocholesterolemic or slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Alun L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of the use of psyllium, largely in hypercholesterolemic men, have suggested that it lowers serum cholesterol as a result of the binding of bile acids in the intestinal lumen. Widespread advertisements have claimed an association between the use of soluble fibre from psyllium seed husk and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Given the purported mechanism of cholesterol-lowering by psyllium, we hypothesized that there would be a greater effect when psyllium is taken with breakfast than when taken at bedtime. Secondarily, we expected to confirm a cholesterol-lowering effect of psyllium in subjects with "average" cholesterol levels. Methods Sixteen men and 47 women ranging in age from 18 to 77 years [mean 53 +/- 13] with LDL cholesterol levels that were normal or slightly elevated but acceptable for subjects at low risk of coronary artery disease were recruited from general gastroenterology and low risk lipid clinics. Following a one month dietary stabilization period, they received an average daily dose of 12.7 g of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, in randomized order, for 8 weeks in the morning and 8 weeks in the evening. Change from baseline was determined for serum total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides. Results Total cholesterol for the "AM first" group at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks was 5.76, 5.77 and 5.80 mmol/L and for the "PM first" group the corresponding values were 5.47, 5.61 and 5.57 mmol/L. No effect on any lipid parameter was demonstrated for the group as a whole or in any sub-group analysis. Conclusion The timing of psyllium administration had no effect on cholesterol-lowering and, in fact, no cholesterol-lowering was observed. Conclusions regarding the effectiveness of psyllium for the prevention of heart disease in the population at large may be premature.

  9. The occurrence of ice production in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds as observed by ground-based remote sensors at the ARM NSA site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Luo, Tao; Yin, Yan; Flynn, Connor

    2017-03-01

    Ice particle formation in slightly supercooled stratiform clouds is not well documented or understood. In this study, 4 years of combined lidar depolarization and radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements are analyzed to distinguish between cold drizzle and ice crystal formations in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility North Slope of Alaska Utqiaġvik ("Barrow") site. Ice particles are detected and statistically shown to be responsible for the strong precipitation in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds at cloud top temperatures as high as -4°C. For ice precipitating Arctic stratiform clouds, the lidar particulate linear depolarization ratio (δpar_lin) correlates well with radar Ze at each temperature range, but the δpar_lin-Ze relationship varies with temperature ranges. In addition, lidar depolarization and radar Ze observations of ice generation characteristics in Arctic stratiform clouds are consistent with laboratory-measured temperature-dependent ice growth habits.

  10. Minerals Intake Distributions in a Large Sample of Iranian at-Risk Population Using the National Cancer Institute Method: Do They Meet Their Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Feizi, Awat; Azadbakht, Leila; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2015-01-01

    Minerals are required for the body's normal function. The current study assessed the intake distribution of minerals and estimated the prevalence of inadequacy and excess among a representative sample of healthy middle aged and elderly Iranian people. In this cross-sectional study, the second follow up to the Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS), 1922 generally healthy people aged 40 and older were investigated. Dietary intakes were collected using 24 hour recalls and two or more consecutive food records. Distribution of minerals intake was estimated using traditional (averaging dietary intake days) and National Cancer Institute (NCI) methods, and the results obtained from the two methods, were compared. The prevalence of minerals intake inadequacy or excess was estimated using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method, the probability approach and the tolerable upper intake levels (UL). There were remarkable differences between values obtained using traditional and NCI methods, particularly in the lower and upper percentiles of the estimated intake distributions. A high prevalence of inadequacy of magnesium (50 - 100 %), calcium (21 - 93 %) and zinc (30 - 55 % for males > 50 years) was observed. Significant gender differences were found regarding inadequate intakes of calcium (21 - 76 % for males vs. 45 - 93 % for females), magnesium (92 % vs. 100 %), iron (0 vs. 15 % for age group 40 - 50 years) and zinc (29 - 55 % vs. 0 %) (all; p < 0.05). Severely imbalanced intakes of magnesium, calcium and zinc were observed among the middle-aged and elderly Iranian population. Nutritional interventions and population-based education to improve healthy diets among the studied population at risk are needed.

  11. Applying WHO's 'workforce indicators of staffing need' (WISN) method to calculate the health worker requirements for India's maternal and child health service guarantees in Orissa State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Amy; Mohanty, Manmath K; Das, Abhijit; House, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    In one district of Orissa state, we used the World Health Organization's Workforce Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method to calculate the number of health workers required to achieve the maternal and child health 'service guarantees' of India's National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). We measured the difference between this ideal number and current staffing levels. We collected census data, routine health information data and government reports to calculate demand for maternal and child health services. By conducting 54 interviews with physicians and midwives, and six focus groups, we were able to calculate the time required to perform necessary health care tasks. We also interviewed 10 new mothers to cross-check these estimates at a global level and get assessments of quality of care. For 18 service centres of Ganjam District, we found 357 health workers in our six cadre categories, to serve a population of 1.02 million. Total demand for the MCH services guaranteed under India's NRHM outpaced supply for every category of health worker but one. To properly serve the study population, the health workforce supply should be enhanced by 43 additional physicians, 15 nurses and 80 nurse midwives. Those numbers probably under-estimate the need, as they assume away geographic barriers. Our study established time standards in minutes for each MCH activity promised by the NRHM, which could be applied elsewhere in India by government planners and civil society advocates. Our calculations indicate significant numbers of new health workers are required to deliver the services promised by the NRHM.

  12. Toward a standard for the evaluation of PET-Auto-Segmentation methods following the recommendations of AAPM task group No. 211: Requirements and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, Beatrice; Spezi, Emiliano; Galavis, Paulina; Shepherd, Tony; Apte, Aditya; Hatt, Mathieu; Fayad, Hadi; De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Soffientini, Chiara D; Ross Schmidtlein, C; El Naqa, Issam; Jeraj, Robert; Lu, Wei; Das, Shiva; Zaidi, Habib; Mawlawi, Osama R; Visvikis, Dimitris; Lee, John A; Kirov, Assen S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to define the requirements and describe the design and implementation of a standard benchmark tool for evaluation and validation of PET-auto-segmentation (PET-AS) algorithms. This work follows the recommendations of Task Group 211 (TG211) appointed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The recommendations published in the AAPM TG211 report were used to derive a set of required features and to guide the design and structure of a benchmarking software tool. These items included the selection of appropriate representative data and reference contours obtained from established approaches and the description of available metrics. The benchmark was designed in a way that it could be extendable by inclusion of bespoke segmentation methods, while maintaining its main purpose of being a standard testing platform for newly developed PET-AS methods. An example of implementation of the proposed framework, named PETASset, was built. In this work, a selection of PET-AS methods representing common approaches to PET image segmentation was evaluated within PETASset for the purpose of testing and demonstrating the capabilities of the software as a benchmark platform. A selection of clinical, physical, and simulated phantom data, including "best estimates" reference contours from macroscopic specimens, simulation template, and CT scans was built into the PETASset application database. Specific metrics such as Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Sensitivity (S), were included to allow the user to compare the results of any given PET-AS algorithm to the reference contours. In addition, a tool to generate structured reports on the evaluation of the performance of PET-AS algorithms against the reference contours was built. The variation of the metric agreement values with the reference contours across the PET-AS methods evaluated for demonstration were between 0.51 and 0.83, 0.44 and 0.86, and 0.61 and 1

  13. Pooling Time Series Based on Slightly Different Questions About the Same Topic Forty Years of Survey Research on Happiness and Life Satisfaction in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. DeJonge (Tineke); R. Veenhoven (Ruut); W.M. Kalmijn (Wim); L.R. Arends (Lidia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSurvey research on subjective wellbeing in The Netherlands started in the early 1970s. The time series happiness and life satisfaction that have emerged since then are unfortunately based on slightly different survey items of which one part uses verbal response scales and another part

  14. EDGA amendment of slightly heavy metal loaded soil affects heavy metal solubility, crop growth and microbivorous nematodes but not bacteria and herbivorous nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.A.; Bloem, J.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Japenga, J.

    2005-01-01

    Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a promising technology to remediate slightly and moderately contaminated soils. To enhance crops' uptake of heavy metals, chelates such as EDGA are being tested as soil additives. Heavy metal loaded EDGA can affect soil organisms such as bacteria and nematodes in

  15. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these results suggest that the whole sequence is treated as one action, which can be corrected if the properties of any of the targets change. The precise nature and timing of the correction depends on how the change influences the task.

  16. Screw scale measurement requirements and test methods%螺旋秤的计量要求和试验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炜

    2012-01-01

    Through to the electronic spiral weighing feeder test, this article describes in detail on the basis of continuous totalizing automatic weighing instrument (belt) national standard (GBfF7721-2007) and test procedures (JJG195-2D02) corresponding to the terms of the screw scale test measurement requirements and test methods.%本文通过对电子螺旋称重给料机进行试验,详细地阐述了依据连续累计自动衡器(皮带秤)的国家标准(GB/T7721—2007)和检定规程~G195—2002)相应的条款对螺旋秤进行试验的计量要求和试验方法。

  17. From basic to applied research to improve outcomes for individuals who require augmentative and alternative communication: potential contributions of eye tracking research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Janice; McNaughton, David

    2014-06-01

    In order to improve outcomes for individuals who require AAC, there is an urgent need for research across the full spectrum--from basic research to investigate fundamental language and communication processes, to applied clinical research to test applications of this new knowledge in the real world. To date, there has been a notable lack of basic research in the AAC field to investigate the underlying cognitive, sensory perceptual, linguistic, and motor processes of individuals with complex communication needs. Eye tracking research technology provides a promising method for researchers to investigate some of the visual cognitive processes that underlie interaction via AAC. The eye tracking research technology automatically records the latency, duration, and sequence of visual fixations, providing key information on what elements attract the individual's attention (and which ones do not), for how long, and in what sequence. As illustrated by the papers in this special issue, this information can be used to improve the design of AAC systems, assessments, and interventions to better meet the needs of individuals with developmental and acquired disabilities who require AAC (e.g., individuals with autism spectrum disorders, Down syndrome, intellectual disabilities of unknown origin, aphasia).

  18. A New Method to Retrieve the Data Requirements of the Remote Sensing Community – Exemplarily Demonstrated for Hyperspectral User NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ils Reusen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available User-driven requirements for remote sensing data are difficult to define,especially details on geometric, spectral and radiometric parameters. Even more difficult isa decent assessment of the required degrees of processing and corresponding data quality. Itis therefore a real challenge to appropriately assess data costs and services to be provided.In 2006, the HYRESSA project was initiated within the framework 6 programme of theEuropean Commission to analyze the user needs of the hyperspectral remote sensingcommunity. Special focus was given to finding an answer to the key question, “What arethe individual user requirements for hyperspectral imagery and its related data products?”.A Value-Benefit Analysis (VBA was performed to retrieve user needs and address openitems accordingly. The VBA is an established tool for systematic problem solving bysupporting the possibility of comparing competing projects or solutions. It enablesevaluation on the basis of a multidimensional objective model and can be augmented withexpert’s preferences. After undergoing a VBA, the scaling method (e.g., Law ofComparative Judgment was applied for achieving the desired ranking judgments. Theresult, which is the relative value of projects with respect to a well-defined main objective,can therefore be produced analytically using a VBA. A multidimensional objective modeladhering to VBA methodology was established. Thereafter, end users and experts wererequested to fill out a Questionnaire of User Needs (QUN at the highest level of detail -the value indicator level. The end user was additionally requested to report personalpreferences for his particular research field. In the end, results from the experts’ evaluationand results from a sensor data survey can be compared in order to understand user needsand the drawbacks of existing data products. The investigation – focusing on the needs of the hyperspectral user

  19. Achieving Accuracy Requirements for Forest Biomass Mapping: A Data Fusion Method for Estimating Forest Biomass and LiDAR Sampling Error with Spaceborne Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, P. M.; Cook, B. D.; Sun, G.; Simard, M.; Zhang, Z.; Nelson, R. F.; Ranson, K. J.; Lutchke, S.; Blair, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    forest AGB sampling errors by 15 - 38%. Furthermore, spaceborne global scale accuracy requirements were achieved. At least 80% of the grid cells at 100m, 250m, 500m, and 1km grid levels met AGB density accuracy requirements using a combination of passive optical and SAR along with machine learning methods to predict vegetation structure metrics for forested areas without LiDAR samples. Finally, using either passive optical or SAR, accuracy requirements were met at the 500m and 250m grid level, respectively.

  20. No effect of anti-inflammatory medication on postprandial and postexercise muscle protein synthesis in elderly men with slightly elevated systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper Juel; Reitelseder, Søren; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolai Mølkjær

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, some individuals develop slightly increased inflammation as they age. In elderly inflamed rats, the muscle response to protein feeding is impaired, whereas it can be maintained by treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...... (NSAIDs). It is unknown whether this applies to elderly humans with increased inflammation. Thus, the muscle response to whey protein bolus ingestion with and without acute resistance exercise was compared between healthy elderly individuals and elderly individuals with slightly increased inflammation......protein synthetic response was measured as the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and p70S6K phosphorylation-to-total protein ratio. RESULTS: The basal myofibrillar FSR and the myofibrillar FSR responses to whey protein bolus ingestion with and without acute resistance exercise were...

  1. Energy requirement assessed by doubly-labeled water method in patients with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis managed by tracheotomy positive pressure ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Noriko; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Sekine, Kazunori; Takase, Mitsunori; Kamada, Yuko; Fujii, Seigo

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the energy requirement in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) undergoing tracheostomy positive pressure ventilation with tracheostomy. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in 10 hospitalized bedridden ALS patients using the doubly-labeled water (DLW) method. The mean TEE/day and TEE/fat- free mass estimated by DLW method were 934 ± 201 kcal/day and 34.8 ± 5.5 kcal/kg/day, respectively. The mean TEE/resting metabolic rate (RMR) was 0.85 when RMR was estimated by the Harris-Benedict equation, 0.91 by Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), and 0.97 by Ganpule's equation using fat-free mass (FFM). The ratios of TEE to measured RMR were 1.05, 1.15 and 1.23 in three patients. In conclusion, multiplying measured RMR by 1.1 to 1.2 is considered to be appropriate to estimate energy need. However, because it is difficult to measure RMR directly in a clinical setting, an appropriate equation for estimating RMR for ALS patient should be developed.

  2. [The new methods to define the staffing requirements for doctors,nurses and nurses aides: an example of their implementation in an Italian hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquintana, Dario; Pazzaglia, Silvia; Demarchi, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    . The new methods to define the staffing requirements for doctors, nurses and nurses aides: an example of their implementation in an Italian hospital. The Italian government, after the transposition of European Union legislation on working hours, made a declaration of commitment to increase the number of staff of the National Health Service (NHS). The method for assessing the staffing needs innovates the old one that dated back a few decades. To implement the method proposed by the Ministry of Health to an Italian hospital and assess its impact on staffing and costs. The model was implemented on all the wards, multiplying the minutes of care expected in 2016, dividing the result by 60 to obtain the hours of care, and further dividing by the number of yearly hours of work of a nurse (1418). Same was done for nurses aides. The minutes of care were related to mean weight of the Diagnosis Related Groups of the ward and the results obtained compared to the actual staffing of nurses and nurses aides. The costs of the differences were calculated. The implementation of the model produced an excess of 23 nurses and a scarcity of 95 nurses aides compared to the actual staffing, with an increase of the costs of € 1.828.562,00. The results obtained and the criticisms received so far show the need of major changes. The data from international studies that associate staffing and patients outcomes and the nurse/patient ratio are macro-indicators already available that may orient choices and investments on the health care professions.

  3. Bioclim Deliverable D6b: application of statistical down-scaling within the BIOCLIM hierarchical strategy: methods, data requirements and underlying assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim of BIOCLIM is to assess the possible long term impacts due to climate change on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep formations. The coarse spatial scale of the Earth-system Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) used in BIOCLIM compared with the BIOCLIM study regions and the needs of performance assessment creates a need for down-scaling. Most of the developmental work on down-scaling methodologies undertaken by the international research community has focused on down-scaling from the general circulation model (GCM) scale (with a typical spatial resolution of 400 km by 400 km over Europe in the current generation of models) using dynamical down-scaling (i.e., regional climate models (RCMs), which typically have a spatial resolution of 50 km by 50 km for models whose domain covers the European region) or statistical methods (which can provide information at the point or station scale) in order to construct scenarios of anthropogenic climate change up to 2100. Dynamical down-scaling (with the MAR RCM) is used in BIOCLIM WP2 to down-scale from the GCM (i.e., IPSL C M4 D ) scale. In the original BIOCLIM description of work, it was proposed that UEA would apply statistical down-scaling to IPSL C M4 D output in WP2 as part of the hierarchical strategy. Statistical down-scaling requires the identification of statistical relationships between the observed large-scale and regional/local climate, which are then applied to large-scale GCM output, on the assumption that these relationships remain valid in the future (the assumption of stationarity). Thus it was proposed that UEA would investigate the extent to which it is possible to apply relationships between the present-day large-scale and regional/local climate to the relatively extreme conditions of the BIOCLIM WP2 snapshot simulations. Potential statistical down-scaling methodologies were identified from previous work performed at UEA. Appropriate station data from the case

  4. Study of the effect of slight variants to a 3-loop pressurized water nuclear reactor design in order to improve the reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiglia, F.; Oliveri, E.; Taibi, S.; Vella, G.

    1992-01-01

    In order to improve the safety features of a 3-loop pressurized water nuclear reactor we propose a slight design variant consisting in the introduction of a bypass hole in the divider plate of the coolant chambers of the steam generators. The aim is to reduce both the extent and the duration of the core exposure and thus the maximum value of the peak cladding temperature, in case of a hypothetical cold leg small break loss of coolant accident. The proposal, as attested by a preliminary RELAP5/MOD3 analysis, seems to deserve some attention. (6 figures) (Author)

  5. Excessive blood pressure elevation upon awakening involves an exaggerated cardiac response to slight physical activity: a possible mechanism underlying the risk of 'morning surge'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Yoshimasa; Takeda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Satoru; Yamamoto, Koji; Yamashita, Sumiyo; Sugiura, Tomonori; Dohi, Yasuaki; Kimura, Genjiro

    2012-10-01

    An exaggerated elevation in blood pressure around waking potentially increases the risk of cardiovascular events, even in individuals with normal blood pressure at other-fold of day. The impact of such a transient blood pressure elevation is disproportionate to its short duration, and the reason has not been elucidated. We hypothesize that individuals with such a blood pressure abnormality receive a cardiovascular overload, even from slight physical activities that are frequently undertaken in daily life. A total of 16 patients with essential hypertension (52 ± 15 years) staying at hospital for lifestyle education participated in this study. Morning blood pressure elevation was assessed with 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Cardiovascular responses to unloaded pedaling, including blood pressure changes, were assessed in a limited maximum exercise test using an electronically braked bicycle ergometer. Changes in the systolic blood pressure caused by unloaded pedaling correlated positively with the elevation in systolic blood pressure around waking (r = 0.52, P = 0.05). Moreover, waking elevation of the systolic blood pressure correlated with changes in all of the following cardiovascular variables during unloaded pedaling: heart rate (r = 0.69, P = 0.003), oxygen consumption (r = 0.73, P = 0.001), oxygen pulse (r = 0.62, P = 0.001), and rate pressure product (r = 0.64, P = 0.008), respectively. These observations indicate that individuals with prominent blood pressure elevation upon awakening also experience cardiovascular overload from slight physical activities.

  6. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    Based on balance and respiration measurements with 60 White Leghorns during the laying period from 27 to 48 wk of age, a factorial method for estimating the energy requirement for egg production is proposed. The present experiment showed that the deposition of fat and energy increased during...... the laying period, but protein deposition slightly decreased. It has been shown that the efficiency of ME utilization for fat energy deposition is higher than for protein energy deposition in the egg. Because the proportions of protein and fat differ during the laying period, and because energy utilization...... is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...

  7. Resveratrol does not influence metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne M van der Made

    Full Text Available In vitro and animal studies have shown positive effects of resveratrol on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, but human studies specifically designed to examine these effects are lacking.The primary outcome parameter of this study in overweight and slightly obese subjects was the effect of resveratrol on apoA-I concentrations. Secondary outcome parameters were effects on other markers of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose metabolism, and markers for inflammation and endothelial function.This randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted in 45 overweight and slightly obese men (n = 25 and women (n = 20 with a mean age of 61 ± 7 years. Subjects received in random order resveratrol (150 mg per day or placebo capsules for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each intervention period.Compliance was excellent as indicated by capsule count and changes in resveratrol and dihydroresveratrol concentrations. No difference between resveratrol and placebo was found in any of the fasting serum or plasma metabolic risk markers (mean ± SD for differences between day 28 values of resveratrol vs. placebo: apoA-I; 0.00 ± 0.12 g/L (P = 0.791, apoB100; -0.01 ± 0.11 g/L (P = 0.545, HDL cholesterol; 0.00 ± 0.09 mmol/L (P = 0.721, LDL cholesterol -0.03 ± 0.57 mmol/L (P = 0.718, triacylglycerol; 0.10 ± 0.54 mmol/L (P = 0.687, glucose; -0.08 ± 0.28 mmol/L (P = 0.064, insulin; -0.3 ± 2.5 mU/L (P = 0.516. Also, no effects on plasma markers for inflammation and endothelial function were observed. No adverse events related to resveratrol intake were observed.150 mg of daily resveratrol intake for 4 weeks does not change metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese men and women. Effects on glucose metabolism warrant further study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01364961.

  8. Balanced conditions or slight mass gain of glaciers in the Lahaul and Spiti region (northern India, Himalaya during the nineties preceded recent mass loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volume change of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (India, 32° 20 N, 77° 30' E between 1988 and 2010 has been determined using in situ geodetic measurements. This glacier has experienced only a slight mass loss between 1988 and 2010 (−3.8 ± 2.0 m w.e. (water equivalent corresponding to −0.17 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1. Using satellite digital elevation models (DEM differencing and field measurements, we measure a negative mass balance (MB between 1999 and 2010 (−4.8 ± 1.8 m w.e. corresponding to −0.44 ± 0.16 m w.e. yr−1. Thus, we deduce a slightly positive or near-zero MB between 1988 and 1999 (+1.0 ± 2.7 m w.e. corresponding to +0.09 ± 0.24 m w.e. yr−1. Furthermore, satellite DEM differencing reveals that the MB of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (−0.39 ± 0.15 m w.e. yr−1 has been only slightly less negative than the MB of a 2110 km2 glaciarized area in the Lahaul and Spiti region (−0.44 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1 during 1999−2011. Hence, we conclude that the ice wastage is probably moderate in this region over the last 22 yr, with near equilibrium conditions during the nineties, and an ice mass loss after. The turning point from balanced to negative mass budget is not known but lies probably in the late nineties and at the latest in 1999. This positive or near-zero MB for Chhota Shigri Glacier (and probably for the surrounding glaciers of the Lahaul and Spiti region during at least part of the 1990s contrasts with a recent compilation of MB data in the Himalayan range that indicated ice wastage since 1975. However, in agreement with this compilation, we confirm more negative balances since the beginning of the 21st century.

  9. Acute exacerbation of subclinical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis triggered by hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in a patient with primary lung cancer and slightly focal honeycombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Takeda, Toshiaki; Kunieda, Etsuo; Nakajima, Takeshi; Sayama, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for pulmonary lesions provides a high local control rate, allows completely painless ambulatory treatment, and is not associated with adverse reactions in most cases. Here we report a 70-year-old lung cancer patient with slight focal pulmonary honeycombing in whom subclinical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was exacerbated by SBRT. This experience has important implications for the development of selection criteria prior to SBRT for pulmonary lesions. For SBRT candidates with lung tumors, attention must be paid to the presence of co-morbid interstitial pneumonia even if findings are minimal. Such patients must be informed of potential risks, and careful decision-making must take place when SBRT is being considered. (author)

  10. Bacterial community succession during pig manure and wheat straw aerobic composting covered with a semi-permeable membrane under slight positive pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuangshuang; Fang, Chen; Sun, Xiaoxi; Han, Lujia; He, Xueqin; Huang, Guangqun

    2018-07-01

    Bacteria play an important role in organic matter degradation and maturity during aerobic composting. This study analyzed composting with or without a membrane cover in laboratory-scale aerobic composting reactor systems. 16S rRNA gene analysis was used to study the bacterial community succession during composting. The richness of the bacterial community decreased and the diversity increased after covering with a semi-permeable membrane and applying a slight positive pressure. Principal components analysis based on operational taxonomic units could distinguish the main composting phases. Linear Discriminant Analysis Effect Size analysis indicated that covering with a semi-permeable membrane reduced the relative abundance of anaerobic Clostridiales and pathogenic Pseudomonas and increased the abundance of Cellvibrionales. In membrane-covered aerobic composting systems, the relative abundance of some bacteria could be affected, especially anaerobic bacteria. Covering could effectively promote fermentation, reduce emissions and ensure organic fertilizer quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of a slight mis-orientation angle of c-plane sapphire substrate on surface and crystal quality of MOCVD grown GaN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Woo; Suzuki, Toshimasa [Nippon Institute of Technology, 4-1 Gakuendai, Miyashiro, Saitama, 345-8501 (Japan); Aida, Hideo [NAMIKI Precision Jewel Co. Ltd., 3-8-22 Shinden, Adachi-ku, Tokyo, 123-8511 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    The effect of a slight mis-orientation of c-plane sapphire substrate on the surface morphology and crystal quality of GaN thin films grown by MOCVD has been investigated. The mis-orientation angle of vicinal c-plane sapphire substrate was changed within the range of 0.00(zero)-1.00(one) degree, and the experimental results were compared with those on just angle (zero degree) c-plane sapphire substrate. The surface morphology and crystal quality were found to be very sensitive to mis-orientation angle. Consequently, the mis-orientation angle was optimized to be 0.15 . (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  13. Converting to increased Tc-99m DTPA renal flow from slight decrease in renal flow following angioplastic procedures in a patient with unequal renal artery stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih Weijen; Mitchell, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Tc-99m DTPA renal flow imaging has increased in importance since the introduction of catheter angioplasty. The high diagnostic accuracy and non-invasive technique as compared to digital subtraction angiography have done much to enhance its usage in the evaluation of renal functional status. This paper reports Tc-99m DTPA renal flow imaging findings before and after angioplasty in a patient with bilateral renal artery stenosis. The slight decrease in Tc-99m DTPA renal flow on the kidney before angioplasty converted to an increase in flow on the right kidney after angioplasty. Post procedural blood flow was much higher on the right, where stenosis was previously more severe. It is hypothesized that the right kidney was protected from elevated aterial pressure by its 90% arterial stenosis while the left kidney was exposed to elevated systemic blood pressure. Because of vascular damage to the unprotected left kidney, post-angioplasty blood flow was less in the left kidney than in the ischemic but protected right kidney. (orig.) [de

  14. The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil in addition to Lifestyle Counselling on Lipid Oxidation and Body Composition in Slightly Overweight Teenage Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiken Højgaard Pedersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs have shown potential to increase lipid oxidation and prevent obesity. Subjects. Seventy-eight boys aged 13–15 y with whole-body fat% of 30±9% were randomly assigned to consume bread with fish oil (FO (1.5 g n-3 LCPUFA/d or vegetable oil for 16 weeks. All boys were counselled to improve diet and exercise habits. Results. Lifestyle counselling resulted in decreased sugar intake but did not change the physical activity level. Whole-body fat% decreased 0.7±2.5% and 0.6±2.2%, resting metabolic rate after the intervention was 7150±1134 kJ/d versus 7150±1042 kJ/d, and the respiratory quotient was 0.89±0.05 versus 0.88±0.05, in the FO and control group, respectively. No group differences were significant. Conclusion. FO-supplementation to slightly overweight teenage boys did not result in beneficial effects on RMR, lipid oxidation, or body composition.

  15. Control of Listeria innocua Biofilms on Food Contact Surfaces with Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and the Risk of Biofilm Cells Transfer to Duck Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hye Ri; Kwon, Mi Jin; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2018-04-01

    Biofilm formation on food contact surfaces is a potential hazard leading to cross-contamination during food processing. We investigated Listeria innocua biofilm formation on various food contact surfaces and compared the washing effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) at 30, 50, 70, and 120 ppm with that of 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) on biofilm cells. The risk of L. innocua biofilm transfer and growth on food at retail markets was also investigated. The viability of biofilms that formed on food contact surfaces and then transferred cells to duck meat was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. L. innocua biofilm formation was greatest on rubber, followed by polypropylene, glass, and stainless steel. Regardless of sanitizer type, washing removed biofilms from polypropylene and stainless steel better than from rubber and glass. Among the various SAEW concentrations, washing with 70 ppm of SAEW for 5 min significantly reduced L. innocua biofilms on food contact surfaces during food processing. Efficiency of transfer of L. innocua biofilm cells was the highest on polypropylene and lowest on stainless steel. The transferred biofilm cells grew to the maximum population density, and the lag time of transferred biofilm cells was longer than that of planktonic cells. The biofilm cells that transferred to duck meat coexisted with live, injured, and dead cells, which indicates that effective washing is essential to remove biofilm on food contact surfaces during food processing to reduce the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks.

  16. Detailed intermolecular structure of molecular liquids containing slightly distorted tetrahedral molecules with C(3v) symmetry: chloroform, bromoform, and methyl-iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoczki, Szilvia; Temleitner, László; Pusztai, László

    2011-01-28

    Analyses of the intermolecular structure of molecular liquids containing slightly distorted tetrahedral molecules of the CXY(3)-type are described. The process is composed of the determination of several different distance-dependent orientational correlation functions, including ones that are introduced here. As a result, a complete structure classification could be provided for CXY(3) molecular liquids, namely for liquid chloroform, bromoform, and methyl-iodide. In the present work, the calculations have been conducted on particle configurations resulting from reverse Monte Carlo computer modeling: these particle arrangements have the advantage that they are fully consistent with structure factors from neutron and x-ray diffraction measurements. It has been established that as the separation between neighboring molecules increases, the dominant mutual orientations change from face-to-face to edge-to-edge, via the edge-to-face arrangements. Depending on the actual liquid, these geometrical elements (edges and faces of the distorted tetrahedra) were found to contain different atoms. From the set of liquids studied here, the structure of methyl-iodide was found to be easiest to describe on the basis of pure steric effects (molecular shape, size, and density) and the structure of liquid chloroform seems to be the furthest away from the corresponding "flexible fused hard spheres" like reference system.

  17. Pressure Dependence of the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition of Nanopore Water Doped Slightly with Hydroxylamine, and a Phase Behavior Predicted for Pure Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoe, Atsushi; Iwaki, Shinji; Oguni, Masaharu; Tôzaki, Ken-ichi

    2014-09-01

    Phase transition behaviors of confined pure water and confined water doped with a small amount of hydroxylamine (HA) with a mole fraction of xHA = 0.03 were examined by high-pressure differential thermal analyses at 0.1, 50, 100, and 150 MPa; the average diameters of silica pores used were 2.0 and 2.5 nm. A liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) of the confined HA-doped water was clearly observed and its pressurization effect could be evaluated, unlike in the experiments on undoped water. It was found that pressurization causes the transition temperature (Ttrs) to linearly decrease, indicating that the low-temperature phase has a lower density than the high-temperature one. Transition enthalpy (ΔtrsH) decreased steeply with increasing pressure. Considering the linear decrease in Ttrs with increasing pressure, the steep decrease in ΔtrsH indicates that the LLPT effect of the HA-doped water attenuates with pressure. We present a new scenario of the phase behavior concerning the LLPT of pure water based on the analogy from the behavior of slightly HA-doped water, where a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) and a coexistence line are located in a negative-pressure regime but not in a positive-pressure one. It is reasonably understood that doping a small amount of HA into water results in negative chemical pressurization and causes the LLPT to occur even at ambient pressure.

  18. Environmental assessment for the recycling of slightly activated copper coil windings from the 184-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-02

    The proposed action is to recycle slightly activated copper that is currently stored in a warehouse leased by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to a scrap metal dealer. Subsequent reutilization of the copper would be unrestricted. This document addresses the potential environmental effects of recycling and reutilizing the activated copper. In addition, the potential environmental effects of possible future uses by the dealer are addressed. Direct environmental effects from the proposed action are assessed, such as air emissions from reprocessing the activated copper, as well as indirect beneficial effects, such as averting air emissions that would result from mining and smelting an equivalent quantity of copper ore. Evaluation of the human health impacts of the proposed action focuses on the pertinent issues of radiological doses and protection of workers and the public. Five alternatives to the proposed action are considered, and their associated potential impacts are addressed. The no-action alternative is the continued storage of the activated copper at the LBL warehouse. Two recycling alternatives are considered: recycling the activated copper at the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) facility for re-use at a DOE facility and selling or giving the activated copper to a foreign government. In addition, two disposal alternatives evaluate the impacts attributable to disposing of the activated copper either at a local sanitary landfill or at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Site. The proposed project and alternatives include no new construction or development of new industry.

  19. A double-blind, randomized clinical study to determine the efficacy of benzocaine 10% on histamine-induced pruritus and UVB-light induced slight sunburn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Schwameis, Richard; Scherzer, Thomas; Lang-Zwosta, Isabelle; Nishino, Kanako; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the efficacy of the topical application of 10% benzocaine for treating pruritus and pain as compared to vehicle ointment. Twenty male subjects were treated in a randomized double-blind fashion with the investigational medicinal product (IMPD) and vehicle. Immediately after the injection of 100 µg histamine on both arms, subjects received topical treatment and pruritus was subsequently assessed with visual analogue scale (VASpruritus) and Eppendorfer questionnaire. Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) was administered on the back to induce slight sunburn. Twelve hours after UVB application again the IMPD was applied on the right or left upper back and vehicle on the other side and pain related to sunburn was measured with VASpain and pressure algometry. A trend towards better reduction of pruritus was shown for benzocaine in VASpruritus. For the VASpain significant differences in group comparison (p = 0.02) were observed. Algometer measurements showed onset of pain reduction in the verum group after 20 min whereas in the vehicle-treated area pain relief occurred only after 60 min after application. The topically administered ointment containing 10% benzocaine was found superior over vehicle for treating pain, but not pruritus.

  20. Late onset of neutral lipid storage disease due to novel PNPLA2 mutations causing total loss of lipase activity in a patient with myopathy and slight cardiac involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaglia, Sara; Maggi, Lorenzo; Mora, Marina; Gibertini, Sara; Blasevich, Flavia; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Moro, Laura; Cassandrini, Denise; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Gerevini, Simonetta; Tavian, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) presents with skeletal muscle myopathy and severe dilated cardiomyopathy in nearly 40% of cases. NLSDM is caused by mutations in the PNPLA2 gene, which encodes the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Here we report clinical and genetic findings of a patient carrying two novel PNPLA2 mutations (c.696+4A>G and c.553_565delGTCCCCCTTCTCG). She presented at age 39 with right upper limb abduction weakness slowly progressing over the years with asymmetric involvement of proximal upper and lower limb muscles. Cardiological evaluation through ECG and heart echo scan was normal until the age 53, when mild left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was detected. Molecular analysis revealed that only one type of PNPLA2 transcript, with exon 5 skipping, was expressed in patient cells. Such aberrant mRNA causes the production of a shorter ATGL protein, lacking part of the catalytic domain. This is an intriguing case, displaying severe PNPLA2 mutations with clinical presentation characterized by slight cardiac impairment and full expression of severe asymmetric myopathy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of UVC Radiation on Hydrated and Desiccated Cultures of Slightly Halophilic and Non-Halophilic Methanogenic Archaea: Implications for Life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Navita; Kral, Timothy A

    2018-05-12

    Methanogens have been considered models for life on Mars for many years. In order to survive any exposure at the surface of Mars, methanogens would have to endure Martian UVC radiation. In this research, we irradiated hydrated and desiccated cultures of slightly halophilic Methanococcus maripaludis and non-halophilic Methanobacterium formicicum for various time intervals with UVC (254 nm) radiation. The survivability of the methanogens was determined by measuring methane concentrations in the headspace gas samples of culture tubes after re-inoculation of the methanogens into their growth-supporting media following exposure to UVC radiation. Hydrated M. maripaludis survived 24 h of UVC exposure, while in a desiccated condition they endured for 16 h. M. formicicum also survived UVC radiation for 24 h in a liquid state; however, in a desiccated condition, the survivability of M. formicicum was only 12 h. Some of the components of the growth media could have served as shielding agents that protected cells from damage caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Overall, these results suggest that limited exposure (12⁻24 h) to UVC radiation on the surface of Mars would not necessarily be a limiting factor for the survivability of M. maripaludis and M. formicicum .

  2. Impact of diatomite on the slightly polluted algae-containing raw water treatment process using ozone oxidation coupled with polyaluminum chloride coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde; Jia, Aiyin; Zhang, Zhilin; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The impact of adding diatomite on the treatment performance of slightly polluted algae-containing raw water using ozone pre-oxidation and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulation was investigated. Results demonstrated that the addition of diatomite is advantageous due to reduction of the PAC dose (58.33%) and improvement of the removal efficiency of algae, turbidity, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in raw water. When the ozone concentration was 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and the PAC dosage was 2.5 mg L⁻¹, the removal rates of algae, turbidity, UV254, and TOC were improved by 6.39%, 7.06%, 6.76%, and 4.03%, respectively, with the addition of 0.4 g L⁻¹ diatomite. It has been found that the DOM presented in the Pearl River raw water mainly consisted of small molecules ( 50 kDa). After adding diatomite (0.4 g L⁻¹), the additional removal of 5.77% TOC and 14.82% UV254 for small molecules (50 kDa) could be achieved, respectively, at an ozone concentration of 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and a PAC dose of 2.5 mg L⁻¹. The growth of anabaena flos-aquae (A.F.) was observed by an atomic force microscope (AFM) before and after adding diatomite. AFM images demonstrate that diatomite may have a certain adsorption on A.F.

  3. Anchorage of equipment - requirements and verification methods with emphasis on equipment of existing and constructed VVER-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    1999-01-01

    Criteria and verification methods which are recommended for use in the capacity evaluation of anchorage of safety-related equipment at WWER-type nuclear power plants are presented. Developed in compliance with the relevant basic standards documents specifically for anchorage of WWER-type equipment components, the criteria and methods cover different types of anchor bolts and other anchorage elements which are typical of existing, constructed, or reconstructed WWER-type nuclear power plants

  4. 40 CFR Table E-1 to Subpart E of... - Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 E Table E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53..., Subpt. E, Table E-1 Table E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53—Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Subpart E procedure Performance test Performance...

  5. Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome with a slight elevation of creatine-kinase levels and respiratory failure in a patient with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Li Wei,1,2 Yinghui Chen1,2 1Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Abstract: Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome (NMLS is a rare but catastrophic complication of drug treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD. Sudden withdrawal and abrupt reduction of antiparkinsonian drugs are major risk factors. Just as its name suggests, the clinical features of NMLS are similar to neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which is a dangerous adverse response to antipsychotic drugs. Both of these conditions can present with hyperthermia, marked muscle rigidity, altered consciousness, autonomic dysfunction, and elevated serum creatine-kinase (CK levels. However, we describe a special NMLS case with a slight elevation of CK levels and respiratory failure in the full course of her treatment. The patient, a 68-year-old woman with a 4-years history of Parkinson's disease, presented with hyperthermia and severe muscular rigidity. During the course of her treatment, her maximum temperature was extremely high (above 41°C. At the beginning, the diagnosis of NMLS secondary to dopamine decrease was difficult to make, because her initial blood examination revealed that her serum CK levels were mildly elevated and decreased to normal range rapidly. Although antiparkinsonian drugs and supportive treatment were applied, the patient developed an acute respiratory failure in the early course of treatment. This case report highlights that when confronted with Parkinson's patients with high body temperature and muscle rigidity, NMLS should be taken into consideration even if there is no CK elevation. Likewise, the need for supportive care is essential, because its complications are severe, even such as respiratory failure. Keywords: antiparkinsonian drugs, creatine kinase, parkinsonism–hyperpyrexia syndrome, respiratory failure

  6. Combined Effect of Thermosonication and Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water to Reduce Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms on Fresh-cut Kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of individual treatments (thermosonication [TS+DW] and slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and their combination on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and spoilage microorganisms (total bacterial counts [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold counts [YMC]) on fresh-cut kale. For comparison, the antimicrobial efficacies of sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L) and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L) were also evaluated. Each 10 g sample of kale leaves was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was then dip treated with deionized water (DW; control), TS+DW, and SAcEW at various treatment conditions (temperature, physicochemical properties, and time) to assess the efficacy of each individual treatment. The efficacy of TS+DW or SAcEW was enhanced at 40 °C for 3 min, with an acoustic energy density of 400 W/L for TS+DW and available chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L for SAcEW. At 40 °C for 3 min, combined treatment of thermosonication 400 W/L and SAcEW 5 mg/L (TS+SAcEW) was more effective in reducing microorganisms compared to the individual treatments (SAcEW, SC, SH, and TS+DW) and combined treatments (TS+SC and TS+SH), which significantly (P 3.24 log CFU/g, respectively. The results suggest that the combined treatment of TS+SAcEW has the potential as a decontamination process in fresh-cut industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Long-term exposure to slightly elevated air temperature alleviates the negative impacts of short term waterlogging stress by altering nitrogen metabolism in cotton leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haimiao; Chen, Yinglong; Xu, Bingjie; Hu, Wei; Snider, John L; Meng, Yali; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhao, Wenqing; Wang, Shanshan; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2018-02-01

    Short-term waterlogging and chronic elevated temperature occur frequently in the Yangtze River Valley, yet the effects of these co-occurring environments on nitrogen metabolism of the subtending leaf (a major source leaf for boll development) have received little attention. In this study, plants were exposed to two temperature regimes (31.6/26.5 °C and 34.1/29.0 °C) and waterlogging events (0 d, 3 d, 6 d) during flowering and boll development. The results showed that the effects of waterlogging stress and elevated temperature in isolation on nitrogen metabolism were quite different. Waterlogging stress not only limited NR (EC 1.6.6.1) and GS (EC 6.3.1.2) activities through the down-regulation of GhNR and GhGS expression for amino acid synthesis, but also promoted protein degradation by enhanced protease activity and peptidase activity, leading to lower organ and total biomass (reduced by 12.01%-27.63%), whereas elevated temperature inhibited protein degradation by limited protease activity and peptidase activity, promoting plant biomass accumulation. Furthermore, 2-3 °C chronic elevated temperature alleviated the negative impacts of a brief (3 d) waterlogging stress on cotton leaves, with the expression of GhNiR up-regulated, the activities of NR, GS and GOGAT (EC 1.4.7.1) increased and the activities of protease and peptidase decreased, leading to higher protein concentration and enhanced leaf biomass for EW 3 relative to AW 3 . The results of the study suggested that exposure to slightly elevated air temperature improves the cotton plants' ability to recover from short-term (3 d) waterlogging stress by sustaining processes associated with nitrogen assimilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary vitamin A intakes of Filipino elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as assessed by the deuterated-retinol-dilution method: implications for dietary requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Florentino S; Fermin, Liza S; Perfecto, Christine S; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    The vitamin A requirements of elderly humans have not been studied. In a cross-sectional study of 60-88-y-old men (n = 31) and women (n = 31) in rural Philippines, we assessed the dietary intakes of elders with adequate (> or = 0.07 micromol/g) or low (value for elders. The mean (+/- SD) vitamin A intakes of the men and women with adequate vitamin A in liver were 135 +/- 86 and 134 +/- 104 microg retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/d, respectively; intakes of the men and women with low vitamin A in liver were 75 +/- 53 and 60 +/- 27 microg RAE/d, respectively. Total-body vitamin A or liver vitamin A but not serum retinol correlated with dietary RAE, preformed vitamin A, beta-carotene, fat, and protein. An estimated acceptable or sufficient dietary vitamin A intake associated with adequate liver vitamin A concentrations in elders is 6.45 microg RAE/kg body wt; for a reference 76-kg man and a 61-kg woman, these values are approximately 500 and 400 microg RAE/d, respectively. The dietary vitamin A intakes of elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as estimated by use of the deuterated-retinol-dilution technique are useful for assessing vitamin A requirements.

  9. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  10. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Karahalios, George T.

    2016-01-01

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α < ∞, a range which includes the values of α that refer to the physiological flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses

  11. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T., E-mail: messaris@upatras.gr [Department of Physics, Division of Theoretical Physics, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece); School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, 11 Sahtouri Street, GR 262 22 Patras (Greece); Hadjinicolaou, Maria [School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, 11 Sahtouri Street, GR 262 22 Patras (Greece); Karahalios, George T. [Department of Physics, Division of Theoretical Physics, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece)

    2016-08-15

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α < ∞, a range which includes the values of α that refer to the physiological flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses

  12. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Karahalios, George T.

    2016-08-01

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses augmented by approximately 100% with respect to the matched asymptotic expansions

  13. Critical experiments in AQUILON with fuels slightly enriched in uranium 235 or in plutonium; Experiences critiques dans aquilon portant sur des combustibles legerement enrichis en uranium 235 et en plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrillac, M; Ledanois, G; Lourme, P; Naudet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Reactivity comparisons have been, made in Aquilon II between geometrically identical lattices differing only by the composition of the fuel. The fuel elements consist in metallic uranium single rods with either slight differences of the isotopic composition (0.69 - 0.71 - 0.83 - 0.86 per cent of uranium 235) or slight additions of plutonium (0.043 per cent). Five lattices pitches have bean used, in order to produce a large variation of spectrum. Two additional sets of plutonium fuels are prepared to be used in the same conditions. The double comparisons: natural enriched 235 versus natural-enriched plutonium are made in such a way that a very precise interpretation is permitted. The results are perfectly consistent which seems to prove that the calculation methods are convenient. Further it can been inferred that the usual data, namely for the ratio of the {eta} of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu seem reliable. (authors) [French] On a compare neutroniquement dans Aquilon II des reseaux geometriquement identiques mais comportant de petites differences de composition du combustible. EL s'agit de barres d'uranium metallique, les unes avec des teneurs differentes en isotopes 235 (0,69 - 0,71 - 0,83 - 0,86 pour cent) les autres comportant une legere addition de plutonium (0,043 pour cent). Les comparaisons ont ete faites a cinq pas differents, de maniere a mettre en jeu une assez large variation de spectre. Deux autres jeux de combustible au plutonium seront utilises ulterieurement dans les memes conditions. Les resultats des mesures se presentent sous forme de doubles comparaisons: naturel-enrichi 235/naturel-enrichi plutonium. On s'est place dans des conditions qui permettent des interpretations tres precises. Les resultats sont remarquablement coherents, ce qui semble montrer que les methodes de calcul sont bien adaptees, Ils tendent d'autre part a prouver que les valeurs numeriques admises dans la litterature, notamment pour le rapport des {eta} de l'U 235 et de Pu 239

  14. Inverse amplitude method and Adler zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Nicola, A.; Pelaez, J. R.; Rios, G.

    2008-01-01

    The inverse amplitude method is a powerful unitarization technique to enlarge the energy applicability region of effective Lagrangians. It has been widely used to describe resonances in hadronic physics, combined with chiral perturbation theory, as well as in the strongly interacting symmetry breaking sector. In this work we show how it can be slightly modified to also account for the subthreshold region, incorporating correctly the Adler zeros required by chiral symmetry and eliminating spurious poles. These improvements produce negligible effects on the physical region.

  15. Study of a Slightly Enriched R Reactor Fuel by Means of a Pulsed Neutron Source; Etude d'un reacteur a combustible legerement enrichi (rubeole) a l'aide de sources pulsees de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagot, M.; Tellier, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-04-01

    A Be O moderated reactor using slightly enriched uranium oxide as fuel was studied by the pulsed neutron source technique. The neutron lifetime was measured in two different cores without reflector, then attempts were made at the measurement of great negative reactivities introduced into the reactor under the following forms: decrease of the volume of the un reflected core, introduction of absorbing cadmium rods, removal of fuel at the periphery of the critical core while maintaining a constant height, and substitution of fuel elements by less reactive elements. In all cases, the results are compared with the data obtained by another type of experiment or by computation. (author) [French] Nous avons applique la methode des sources pulsees de neutrons a un reacteur utilisant de l'oxyde d'uranium legerement enrichi, modere a l'oxyde de beryllium et, apres avoir mesure le temps de vie des neutrons dans deux coeurs differents non reflechis, nous avons porte notre effort, sur la mesure de reactivites negatives importantes introduites dans le reacteur sous differentes formes: - diminution du volume du coeur non reflechi, - introduction de barres absorbantes en cadmium, - enlevement de combustible a la peripherie du coeur critique, tout en conservant une hauteur constante, - substitution d'elements de combustible par des elements moins reactifs. Dans tous les cas, les resultats sont compares aux valeurs obtenues par un autre type d'experience ou par le calcul. (auteur)

  16. Study of a Slightly Enriched R Reactor Fuel by Means of a Pulsed Neutron Source; Etude d'un reacteur a combustible legerement enrichi (rubeole) a l'aide de sources pulsees de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagot, M; Tellier, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-04-01

    A Be O moderated reactor using slightly enriched uranium oxide as fuel was studied by the pulsed neutron source technique. The neutron lifetime was measured in two different cores without reflector, then attempts were made at the measurement of great negative reactivities introduced into the reactor under the following forms: decrease of the volume of the un reflected core, introduction of absorbing cadmium rods, removal of fuel at the periphery of the critical core while maintaining a constant height, and substitution of fuel elements by less reactive elements. In all cases, the results are compared with the data obtained by another type of experiment or by computation. (author) [French] Nous avons applique la methode des sources pulsees de neutrons a un reacteur utilisant de l'oxyde d'uranium legerement enrichi, modere a l'oxyde de beryllium et, apres avoir mesure le temps de vie des neutrons dans deux coeurs differents non reflechis, nous avons porte notre effort, sur la mesure de reactivites negatives importantes introduites dans le reacteur sous differentes formes: - diminution du volume du coeur non reflechi, - introduction de barres absorbantes en cadmium, - enlevement de combustible a la peripherie du coeur critique, tout en conservant une hauteur constante, - substitution d'elements de combustible par des elements moins reactifs. Dans tous les cas, les resultats sont compares aux valeurs obtenues par un autre type d'experience ou par le calcul. (auteur)

  17. 沼泽湿地生态储水量及生态需水量计算方法%Method for calculating ecological water storage and ecological water requirement of marsh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽娟; 李九一; 粱丽乔; 柳玉梅

    2009-01-01

    As one of the most typical wetlands, marsh plays an important role in hydrological and economic aspects, especially in keeping biological diversity. In this study, the definition and connotation of the ecological water storage of marsh is discussed for the first time, and its distinction and relationship with ecological water requirement are also analyzed. Furthermore, the gist and method of calculating ecological water storage and ecological water requirement have been provided, and Momoge wetland has been given as an example of calculation of the two variables. Ecological water use of marsh can be ascertained according to ecological water storage and ecological water requirement. For reasonably spatial and temporal varia-tion of water storage and rational water resources planning, the suitable quantity of water supply to marsh can be calculated according to the hydrological conditions, ecological de-mand and actual water resources.

  18. VO₂ requirements of boxing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneau, Eric; Mekary, Saïd; Léger, Luc A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological requirements of various boxing exercises such as sparring, pad work, and punching bag. Because it was not possible to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) of "true" sparring with a collecting gas valve in the face, we developed and validated a method to measure VO₂ of "true" sparring based on "postexercise" measurements. Nine experienced male amateur boxers (Mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 3.5 years, height = 176.0 ± 8.0 cm, weight = 71.4 ± 10.9 kg, number of fights = 13.0 ± 9.5) of regional and provincial level volunteered to participate in 3 testing sessions: (a) maximal treadmill test in the LAB, (b) standardized boxing training in the GYM, and (c) standardized boxing exercises in the LAB. Measures of VO₂, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [LA], rated perceived exertion level, and punching frequencies were collected. VO₂ values of 43.4 ± 5.9, 41.1 ± 5.1, 24.7 ± 6.1, 30.4 ± 5.8, and 38.3 ± 6.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ were obtained, which represent 69.7 ± 8.0, 66.1 ± 8.0, 39.8 ± 10.4, 48.8 ± 8.5, and 61.7 ± 10.3%VO₂peak for sparring, pad work, and punching bag at 60, 120, and 180 b·min⁻¹, respectively. Except for lower VO₂ values for punching the bag at 60 and 120 b·min⁻¹ (p < 0.05), there was no VO₂ difference between exercises. Similar pattern was obtained for %HRmax with respective values of 85.5 ± 5.9, 83.6 ± 6.3, 67.5 ± 3.5, 74.8 ± 5.9, and 83.0 ± 6.0. Finally, sparring %HRmax and [LA] were slightly higher in the GYM (91.7 ± 4.3 and 9.4 ± 2.2 mmol·L⁻¹) vs. LAB (85.5 ± 5.9 and 6.1 ± 2.3 mmol·L⁻¹). Thus, in this study simulated LAB sparring and pad work required similar VO₂ (43-41 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively), which corresponds to ~70%VO₂peak. These results underline the importance of a minimum of aerobic fitness for boxers and draw some guidelines for the intensity of training.

  19. Temporal trends in pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in Bavaria 2000–2007: slightly decreasing birth weight with increasing weight gain in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schiessl, Barbara; Beyerlein, Andreas; Lack, Nicholas; Kries, Rüdiger von

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To assess temporal trends in birth weight and pregnancy weight gain in Bavaria from 2000 to 2007. Methods: Data on 695,707 mother and infant pairs (singleton term births) were available from a compulsory reporting system for quality assurance, including information on birth weight, maternal weight at delivery and at booking, maternal smoking, age, and further anthropometric and lifestyle factors. Pregnancy weight gain was defined as: weight prior to delivery minus weight at first booki...

  20. IRET: requirements for service platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Baresi, Luciano; Ripa, Gianluca; Pasquale, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper describes IRENE (Indenica Requirements ElicitatioN mEthod), a methodology to elicit and model the requirements of service platforms, and IRET (IREne Tool), the Eclipse-based modeling framework we developed for IRENE

  1. Engineering Requirements for crowds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeiro Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the software project the interested parts are highly distributed and form numerous and heterogeneous groups, online or face, constituting what could be called crowds. The development of social applications and cloud computing and mobile has generated a marked increase in environments based requirements in crowds. Technical Requirements Engineering (RE traditional face these scalability issues, and require the co-presence of interested and engineers in joint meetings that can not be made in common physical environments. While different approaches have been introduced to partially automate RE in these contexts, still is required a multi-method approach to semi-automate all activities related to work with crowds. In this paper is propose an approach that integrates existing elicitation techniques and requirements analysis and is complemented by introducing new concepts. The information is collected through direct interaction and social collaboration, and through data mining techniques.

  2. An advanced probabilistic structural analysis method for implicit performance functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, H. R.; Cruse, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    In probabilistic structural analysis, the performance or response functions usually are implicitly defined and must be solved by numerical analysis methods such as finite element methods. In such cases, the most commonly used probabilistic analysis tool is the mean-based, second-moment method which provides only the first two statistical moments. This paper presents a generalized advanced mean value (AMV) method which is capable of establishing the distributions to provide additional information for reliability design. The method requires slightly more computations than the second-moment method but is highly efficient relative to the other alternative methods. In particular, the examples show that the AMV method can be used to solve problems involving non-monotonic functions that result in truncated distributions.

  3. The effect of a slightly acidic somatomedin peptide (ILAs) on the sulphation of proteoglycans from articular and growth plate chondrocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvol, M.-T.; Dumontier, M.-F.; Rappaport, R.; Guyda, H.; Posner, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    Chondrocyte cultures were prepared from rabbit growth plate (GPC) and articular (ARC) chondrocytes. These two cell types have distinct morphological characteristics. The cells reached maximum numbers by days 10 and 21 for ARC and GPC, respectively. The proteoglycans (PG) contained in the cellular pool were extracted and purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography. The effect of a partially purified somatomedin peptide with insulin-like activity on [ 35 S]sulphate incorporation into PG was evaluated. In both ARC and GPC a significant stimulation of [ 35 S]sulphate uptake into PG subunits was obtained with 1 ng Eq./ml of somatomedin peptide. In order to obtain the same stimulatory effect with porcine insulin, a 1000-fold greater concentration was required. The electrophoretic patterns of the PG subunits on acrylamide-agarose electrophoresis were identical on control incubations and after stimulation with the somatomedin peptide. These data demonstrate in vitro biological activity of this peptide on well differentiated articular and epiphyseal growth plate chondrocytes in culture. These cultures appear to provide a sensitive biological assay for somatomedin peptides. (author)

  4. Replacement method and enhanced replacement method versus the genetic algorithm approach for the selection of molecular descriptors in QSPR/QSAR theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Andrew G; Duchowicz, Pablo R; Fernández, Francisco M; Castro, Eduardo A

    2010-09-27

    We compare three methods for the selection of optimal subsets of molecular descriptors from a much greater pool of such regression variables. On the one hand is our enhanced replacement method (ERM) and on the other is the simpler replacement method (RM) and the genetic algorithm (GA). These methods avoid the impracticable full search for optimal variables in large sets of molecular descriptors. Present results for 10 different experimental databases suggest that the ERM is clearly preferable to the GA that is slightly better than the RM. However, the latter approach requires the smallest amount of linear regressions and, consequently, the lowest computation time.

  5. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  6. FORMAL METHOD TO IMPLEMENT FUZZY REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLENE GONCALVES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Muchos requerimientos de usuario pueden involucrar criterios de preferencia expresados en el lenguaje natural por medio de términos difusos; éstos son llamados requerimientos difusos. Por otro lado, los lenguajes de consulta a bases de datos han sido extendidos incorporando la lógica difusa para manejar las preferencias de usuarios. Pocas de las metodologías conocidas para el desarrollo de aplicaciones sobre base de datos consideran las consultas difusas. En este trabajo, se propone un método para aplicaciones a bases de datos cuyo objetivo es desarrollar sistemas de software con soporte de consultas difusas. Lo novedoso de éste es la extensión al cálculo de tuplas para la especificación formal de consultas difusas. Además, el método incluye reglas de traducción de una especificación formal a una consulta en SQLf (structured query language + fuzzy logic, un lenguaje de consultas difusas sobre bases de datos precisas. Se ilustra su utilidad con la aplicación a un caso de estudio real.

  7. Recent surveys in the forests of Ulu Segama Malua, Sabah, Malaysia, show that orang-utans (P. p. morio can be maintained in slightly logged forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ancrenaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, the "Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project" (KOCP conducted aerial and ground surveys of orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio nests in the commercial forest reserves of Ulu Segama Malua (USM in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Compared with previous estimates obtained in 2002, our recent data clearly shows that orang-utan populations can be maintained in forests that have been lightly and sustainably logged. However, forests that are heavily logged or subjected to fast, successive coupes that follow conventional extraction methods, exhibit a decline in orang-utan numbers which will eventually result in localized extinction (the rapid extraction of more than 100 m(3 ha(-1 of timber led to the crash of one of the surveyed sub-populations. Nest distribution in the forests of USM indicates that orang-utans leave areas undergoing active disturbance and take momentarily refuge in surrounding forests that are free of human activity, even if these forests are located above 500 m asl. Displaced individuals will then recolonize the old-logged areas after a period of time, depending on availability of food sources in the regenerating areas. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that diligent planning prior to timber extraction and the implementation of reduced-impact logging practices can potentially be compatible with great ape conservation.

  8. Slight Hydronephrosis in Newborns and Breast-fed Infants: Can the Presence of Vesicoureteral Reflux Be Predicted?; Hidronefrosis leve en neonatos y lactantes: puede predecirse la presencia del reflujo vesicoureteral?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal, T.; Pablo, T. de; Gutierrez, J.; Prieto, C.; Hoyo, M. L. del [Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of slight-to moderate echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in newborns and breast-fed infants that might serve as indicator for Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to evaluate the necessity of performing micturating cystourethrougraphy (MCUG) in these patients. There were reviewed MCUG of 237 patients (174 boys and 63 girls between the ages of 0 and 18 months) with slight echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in order to evaluate the presence of primary VUR. Patients with secondary reflux or those that presented anomalies which made impossible an exact reflux gradind were excluded. However, normal kidneys with reflux which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys were included in the study. For a statistical analysis of the data, each kidney was considered separately, thereby forming a total of 474 kidneys. Slight hydronephrosis was diagnosed when the renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter was observed to measure between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. The International Grading System was used to grade reflux during MCUG. Of the 474 kidneys evaluated, 306 showed slight hydromephrosis in the echography. Only 98 of these presented reflux (32%) (14 grade 1.50 grade II, 32 grade III and 2 grade IV). The echography was normal (i. e. hydronephrosis not present) in 52 kidneys with reflux (31%) which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys, although 38 of these had reflux of grade II or higher. The echography showed slight hydronephrosis in 208 kidneys that did not have reflux during MCUG (68%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of VUR among normal or hydronephrotic kidneys. There is a poor correlation between slight hydronephrosis and presence or grade of reflux in newborns and breast-fed infants. The latter should not, therefore, be considered an indication for MCUC. (Author) 33 refs.

  9. Requirements in engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, João M

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on various topics related to engineering and management of requirements, in particular elicitation, negotiation, prioritisation, and documentation (whether with natural languages or with graphical models). The book provides methods and techniques that help to characterise, in a systematic manner, the requirements of the intended engineering system.  It was written with the goal of being adopted as the main text for courses on requirements engineering, or as a strong reference to the topics of requirements in courses with a broader scope. It can also be used in vocational courses, for professionals interested in the software and information systems domain.   Readers who have finished this book will be able to: - establish and plan a requirements engineering process within the development of complex engineering systems; - define and identify the types of relevant requirements in engineering projects; - choose and apply the most appropriate techniques to elicit the requirements of a giv...

  10. On-line adaptive battery impedance parameter and state estimation considering physical principles in reduced order equivalent circuit battery models. Part 1. Requirements, critical review of methods and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Christian; Waag, Wladislaw; Heyn, Hans-Martin; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems employed in high power demanding systems such as electric vehicles require a sophisticated monitoring system to ensure safe and reliable operation. Three major states of the battery are of special interest and need to be constantly monitored, these include: battery state of charge (SoC), battery state of health (capcity fade determination, SoH), and state of function (power fade determination, SoF). In a series of two papers, we propose a system of algorithms based on a weighted recursive least quadratic squares parameter estimator, that is able to determine the battery impedance and diffusion parameters for accurate state estimation. The functionality was proven on different battery chemistries with different aging conditions. The first paper investigates the general requirements on BMS for HEV/EV applications. In parallel, the commonly used methods for battery monitoring are reviewed to elaborate their strength and weaknesses in terms of the identified requirements for on-line applications. Special emphasis will be placed on real-time capability and memory optimized code for cost-sensitive industrial or automotive applications in which low-cost microcontrollers must be used. Therefore, a battery model is presented which includes the influence of the Butler-Volmer kinetics on the charge-transfer process. Lastly, the mass transport process inside the battery is modeled in a novel state-space representation.

  11. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for eliminating malodor. The authors of the General Dentistry article feel that future research is necessary to determine what role undetected odorants may play in oral malodor, as well as more well designed, randomized clinical trials to compare the effectiveness of tongue scrapers, ...

  12. A novel ultra-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry method for rapid estimation of total toxic retronecine-type of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbs without requiring corresponding standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Li, Na; Fu, Peter P; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge

    2016-03-01

    Nearly 50% of naturally-occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic, and the majority of hepatotoxic PAs are retronecine-type PAs (RET-PAs). However, quantitative measurement of PAs in herbs/foodstuffs is often difficult because most of reference PAs are unavailable. In this study, a rapid, selective, and sensitive UHPLC-QTOF-MS method was developed for the estimation of RET-PAs in herbs without requiring corresponding standards. This method is based on our previously established characteristic and diagnostic mass fragmentation patterns and the use of retrorsine for calibration. The use of a single RET-PA (i.e. retrorsine) for construction of calibration was based on high similarities with no significant differences demonstrated by the calibration curves constructed by peak areas of extract ion chromatograms of fragment ion at m/z 120.0813 or 138.0919 versus concentrations of five representative RET-PAs. The developed method was successfully applied to measure a total content of toxic RET-PAs of diversified structures in fifteen potential PA-containing herbs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Can liming reduce cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) in slightly acidic soils? A contradictory dynamic equilibrium between Cd uptake capacity of roots and Cd immobilisation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongjie; Chen, Jiangmin; Huang, Qina; Tang, Shaoqing; Wang, Jianlong; Hu, Peisong; Shao, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice is strongly controlled by liming, but information on the use of liming to control Cd accumulation in rice grown in slightly acidic soils is inconsistent. Here, pot experiments were carried out to investigate the mechanisms of liming on Cd accumulation in two rice varieties focusing on two aspects: available/exchangeable Cd content in soils that were highly responsive to liming, and Cd uptake and transport capacity in the roots of rice in terms of Cd accumulation-relative gene expression. The results showed that soil availability and exchangeable iron, manganese, zinc and Cd contents decreased with increased liming, and that genes related to Cd uptake (OsNramp5 and OsIRT1) were sharply up-regulated in the roots of the two rice varieties. Thus, iron, manganese, zinc and Cd contents in rice plants increased under low liming applications but decreased in response to high liming applications. However, yield and rice quantities were only slightly affected. These results indicated that Cd accumulation in rice grown in slightly acidic soils presents a contradictory dynamic equilibrium between Cd uptake capacity by roots and soil Cd immobilisation in response to liming. The enhanced Cd uptake capacity under low liming dosages increases risks to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anticipating requirements changes-using futurology in requirements elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, João Henrique; Santos, Emanuel; Castro, Jaelson; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that requirements changes in a later phase of software developments is a major source of software defects and costs. Thus, the need of techniques to control or reduce the amount of changes during software development projects. The authors advocate the use of foresight methods as a valuable input to requirements elicitation, with the potential to decrease the number of changes that would be required after deployment, by anticipating them. In this paper, the authors define a pr...

  15. Requirements Engineering for Pervasive Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolos, L.; Poulisse, Gert-Jan; van Eck, Pascal; Videira lopes, C.; Schaefer, S.; Clarke, S.; Elrad, T.; Jahnke, J.

    2005-01-01

    Developing pervasive mobile services for a mass market of end customers entails large up-front investments and therefore a good understanding of customer requirements is of paramount importance. This paper presents an approach for developing requirements engineering method that takes distinguishing

  16. Preanalytical requirements of urinalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanghe, Joris; Speeckaert, Marijn

    2014-01-01

    Urine may be a waste product, but it contains an enormous amount of information. Well-standardized procedures for collection, transport, sample preparation and analysis should become the basis of an effective diagnostic strategy for urinalysis. As reproducibility of urinalysis has been greatly improved due to recent technological progress, preanalytical requirements of urinalysis have gained importance and have become stricter. Since the patients themselves often sample urine specimens, urinalysis is very susceptible to preanalytical issues. Various sampling methods and inappropriate specimen transport can cause important preanalytical errors. The use of preservatives may be helpful for particular analytes. Unfortunately, a universal preservative that allows a complete urinalysis does not (yet) exist. The preanalytical aspects are also of major importance for newer applications (e.g. metabolomics). The present review deals with the current preanalytical problems and requirements for the most common urinary analytes. PMID:24627718

  17. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  18. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  19. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  20. Rapid quality assurance with requirements smells

    OpenAIRE

    Femmer, Henning; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan; Eder, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Context: Bad requirements quality can cause expensive consequences during the software development lifecycle, especially if iterations are long and feedback comes late. Objectives: We aim at a light-weight static requirements analysis approach that allows for rapid checks immediately when requirements are written down. Method: We transfer the concept of code smells to Requirements Engineering as Requirements Smells. To evaluate the benefits and limitations, we define Requirements Smells, real...

  1. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  2. Evaluation of direct saponification method for determination of cholesterol in meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M L; Sullivan, D M; Smith, R L; Richter, E F

    1986-01-01

    A gas chromatographic (GC) method has been developed for determination of cholesterol in meats. The method involves ethanolic KOH saponification of the sample material, homogeneous-phase toluene extraction of the unsaponifiables, derivatization of cholesterol to its trimethylsilylether, and quantitation by GC-flame ionization detection using 5-alpha-cholestane as internal standard. This direct saponification method is compared with the current AOAC official method for determination of cholesterol in 20 different meat products. The direct saponification method eliminates the need for initial lipid extraction, thus offering a 30% savings in labor, and requires fewer solvents than the AOAC method. It produced comparable or slightly higher cholesterol results than the AOAC method in all meat samples examined. Precision, determined by assaying a turkey meat sample 16 times over 4 days, was excellent (CV = 1.74%). Average recovery of cholesterol added to meat samples was 99.8%.

  3. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water in killing or reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce and tomatoes under simulated food service operation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangloli, Philipus; Hung, Yen-Con

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed (SAEO) water in killing or removing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce and tomatoes by washing and chilling treatment simulating protocols used in food service kitchens. Whole lettuce leaves and tomatoes were spot-inoculated with 100 μL of a mixture of 5 strains of E. coli O157:H7. Washing lettuce with SAEO water for 15 s reduced the pathogen by 1.4 to 1.6 log CFU/leaf, but the treatments did not completely inactivate the pathogen in the wash solution. Increasing the washing time to 30 s increased the reductions to 1.7 to 2.3 log CFU/leaf. Sequential washing in SAEO water for 15 s and then chilling in SAEO water for 15 min also increased the reductions to 2.0 to 2.4 log CFU/leaf, and no cell survived in chilling solution after treatment. Washing tomatoes with SAEO water for 8 s reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 5.4 to 6.3 log CFU/tomato. The reductions were increased to 6.6 to 7.6 log CFU/tomato by increasing the washing time to 15 s. Results suggested that application of SAEO water to wash and chill lettuce and tomatoes in food service kitchens could minimize cross-contamination and reduce the risk of E. coli O157:H7 present on the produce. SAEO water is equally or slightly better than acidic electrolyzed (AEO) water for inactivation of bacteria on lettuce and tomato surfaces. In addition, SAEO water may have the advantages over AEO water on its stability, no chlorine smell, and low corrosiveness. Therefore, SAEO water may have potential for produce wash to enhance food safety. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  6. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  7. Determination of lithium in rocks: Fluorometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.E.; Fletcher, M.H.; Parks, J.

    1951-01-01

    The gravimetric method in general use for the determination of lithium is tedious, and the final weighed product often contains other alkali metals. A fluorometric method was developed to shorten the time required for the analysis and to assure that the final determination is for lithium alone. This procedure is based on the complex formed between lithium and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The fluorescence is developed in a slightly alkaline solution of 95% alcohol and measurement is made on a photoelectric fluorometer. Separation from the ore is carried out by the wet method or by the distillation procedure. Sodium and potassium are removed by alcohol and ether, but complete separation is not necessary. Comparison of analyzed samples shows excellent agreement with spectrographic and gravimetric methods. The fluorometric method is more rapid than the gravimetric and produces more conclusive results. Another useful application is in the preparation of standard lithium solutions from reagent quality salts when a known standard is available. In this case no separations are necessary.

  8. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  9. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011 experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora K Frisch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The era of Open Access (OA publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. Design: We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF are calculated. After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication, we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Results: Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts. The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P < 0.05 for both. The rates were also slightly higher for OA than non-OA when the meeting abstracts were excluded, but the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.57 and P = 0.45. Conclusion : We observed that for the same author, the publications in the OA journal attained a higher rate of citation than the publications in the

  10. Precision of glucose measurements in control sera by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry: proposed definitive method compared with a reference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, O.; Arratoon, C.

    1987-01-01

    This improved isotope-dilution gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method, in which [ 13 C]glucose is the internal standard, meets the requirements of a Definitive Method. In a first study with five reconstituted lyophilized sera, a nested analysis of variance of GC/MS values indicated considerable among-vial variation. The CV for 32 measurements per serum ranged from 0.5 to 0.9%. However, concentration and uncertainty values (mmol/L per gram of serum) assigned to one serum by the NBS Definitive Method (7.56 +/- 0.28) were practically identical to those obtained with the proposed method (7.57 +/- 0.20). In the second study, we used twice more [ 13 C]glucose diluent to assay four serum pools and two lyophilized sera. The CV ranged from 0.26 to 0.5% for the serum pools and from 0.28 to 0.59% for the lyophilized sera. In comparison, results by the hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase reference method agreed within acceptable limits with those by the Definitive Method but tended to be slightly higher (up to 3%) for lyophilized serum samples or slightly lower (up to 2.5%) for serum pools

  11. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  12. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  13. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  14. Motion simulation of hydraulic driven safety rod using FSI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jaeho; Kim, Sanghaun; Yoo, Yeonsik; Cho, Yeonggarp; Kim, Jong In

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic driven safety rod which is one of them is being developed by Division for Reactor Mechanical Engineering, KAERI. In this paper the motion of this rod is simulated by fluid structure interaction (FSI) method before manufacturing for design verification and pump sizing. A newly designed hydraulic driven safety rod which is one of reactivity control mechanism is simulated using FSI method for design verification and pump sizing. The simulation is done in CFD domain with UDF. The pressure drop is changed slightly by flow rates. It means that the pressure drop is mainly determined by weight of moving part. The simulated velocity of piston is linearly proportional to flow rates so the pump can be sized easily according to the rising and drop time requirement of the safety rod using the simulation results

  15. Understand the Design Requirement in Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    requirements can lead to inappropriate products (Hall, et al., 2002). Understanding the nature of design requirements and the sources, from where they can or should be generated, is critical to before developing methods and processes to support this process. Requirement Engineering research, originated from...

  16. 49 CFR 383.111 - Required knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... importance of proper visual search, and proper visual search methods. (6) Communication. The principles and procedures for proper communications and the hazards of failure to signal properly. (7) Speed management. The... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.111 Required knowledge. All...

  17. Comparison of exertion required to perform standard and active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, J J; Mianulli, M J; Gisch, T M; Coffeen, P R; Haidet, G C; Lurie, K G

    1995-02-01

    Active compression-decompression (ACD) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) utilizes a hand-held suction device with a pressure gauge that enables the operator to compress as well as actively decompress the chest. This new CPR method improves hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters when compared with standard CPR. ACD-CPR is easy to perform but may be more labor intensive. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the work required to perform ACD and standard CPR. Cardiopulmonary testing was performed on six basic cardiac life support- and ACD-trained St. Paul, MN fire-fighter personnel during performance of 10 min each of ACD and standard CPR on a mannequin equipped with a compression gauge. The order of CPR techniques was determined randomly with > 1 h between each study. Each CPR method was performed at 80 compressions/min (timed with a metronome), to a depth of 1.5-2 inches, and with a 50% duty cycle. Baseline cardiopulmonary measurements were similar at rest prior to performance of both CPR methods. During standard and ACD-CPR, respectively, rate-pressure product was 18.2 +/- 3.0 vs. 23.8 +/- 1.7 (x 1000, P CPR compared with standard CPR. Both methods require subanaerobic energy expenditure and can therefore be sustained for a sufficient length of time by most individuals to optimize resuscitation efforts. Due to the slightly higher work requirement, ACD-CPR may be more difficult to perform compared with standard CPR for long periods of time, particularly by individuals unaccustomed to the workload requirement of CPR, in general.

  18. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  19. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  20. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  1. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the elicitation process. Cases and user requirement elements discussed in the book include: User requirements elicitation processes for children, construction workers, and farmers User requirements for personalized services of a broadcast company Variations in user involvement Practical elements of user...

  2. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  3. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal) compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Nora K; Nathan, Romil; Ahmed, Yasin K; Shidham, Vinod B

    2014-01-01

    The era of Open Access (OA) publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal) were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology) using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF) are calculated). After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication), we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts). The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P citation than the publications in the traditional non-OA journals in the field of cytopathology over a 5 year period (2007-2011). However, this increase was statistically insignificant if the meeting abstracts were excluded from the analysis. Overall, the rates of citation for OA and non-OA were slightly higher to comparable.

  4. "They have said that I was slightly depressed but there are circumstances that bring that on": How Middle-Aged and Older African American Men Describe Perceived Stress and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Emily K; Bergner, Erin M; Griffith, Derek M

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have focused on how men perceive stress and depression, and even fewer have examined how men of a specific racial or ethnic group describe their experiences of these conditions. African American men tend to define health in ways that are inclusive of their physical health, health behaviors, and mental health, but research has largely failed to explore how men put their health and mental health in social contexts. The objective of this article is to explore how middle-aged and older African American men who self-identify as having depression: 1) differentiate stress from depression; and 2) describe depression. Using data from semi-structured, individual interviews conducted between March and April 2014, we used a phenomenological approach to examine how men describe, experience, and perceive stress and depression. Nashville, Tennessee. 18 African American men aged 35-76 years who self-reported a previous or current diagnosis of depression. Men talked about the experiences of stress and how many of them viewed chronic stress as expected and depression as a normal part of life. They used phrases like being "slightly depressed" or "I take a light antidepressant" to describe how they feel and what they are doing to feel better. Within these narratives, men had difficulty distinguishing between stress and depression and they primarily explained that depression was the result of external stressors and strains. Men may have difficulty distinguishing between stress and depression and they may frame the causes of depression in ways that decrease their perceived culpability for its causes and limit their perceived control over the causes of depression.

  5. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  6. The JPL functional requirements tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Geoff; Skinner, Judith; Stoller, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are complex vehicles which are built according to many thousands of requirements. Problems encountered in documenting and maintaining these requirements led to the current attempt to reduce or eliminate these problems by a computer automated data base Functional Requirements Tool. The tool developed at JPL and in use on several JPL Projects is described. The organization and functionality of the Tool, together with an explanation of the data base inputs, their relationships, and use are presented. Methods of interfacing with external documents, representation of tables and figures, and methods of approval and change processing are discussed. The options available for disseminating information from the Tool are identified. The implementation of the Requirements Tool is outlined, and the operation is summarized. The conclusions drawn from this work is that the Requirements Tool represents a useful addition to the System Engineer's Tool kit, it is not currently available elsewhere, and a clear development path exists to expand the capabilities of the Tool to serve larger and more complex projects.

  7. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  8. The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method with the Use of l-[1-13C]Leucine Suggests a Higher than Currently Recommended Protein Requirement in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Salvarinova, Ramona; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2017-02-01

    Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth. We determined dietary protein requirements in children with phenylketonuria with the use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, with l-[1- 13 C]Leu as the indicator amino acid. Four children (2 males; 2 females) aged 9-18 y with phenylketonuria [mild hyperphenylalanemia (mHPA); 6-10 mg/dL (360-600 μmol/L)] were recruited to participate in ≥7 separate test protein intakes (range: 0.2-3.2 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ) with the IAAO protocol with the use of l-[1- 13 C]Leu followed by the collection of breath and urine samples over 8 h. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 times the resting energy expenditure. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on an egg protein pattern, except Phe and Leu, which were maintained at a constant across intakes. Protein requirement was determined with the use of a 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the rate of l-[1- 13 C]Leu tracer oxidation. The mean protein requirement was determined to be 1.85 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 (R 2 = 0.66; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.33). This result is substantially higher than the 2014 phenylketonuria recommendations (1.14-1.33 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ; based on 120-140% above the current RDA for age). To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly define a quantitative requirement for protein intake in children with mHPA and indicates that current protein recommendations in children with phenylketonuria may be insufficient. This

  9. Front Loaded Accurate Requirements Engineering (FLARE): A Requirements Analysis Concept for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonard, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    This thesis focuses on ways to apply requirements engineering techniques and methods during the development and evolution of DoD software systems in an effort to reduce changes to system requirements...

  10. Mining Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  11. Application of an efficient Bayesian discretization method to biomedical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several data mining methods require data that are discrete, and other methods often perform better with discrete data. We introduce an efficient Bayesian discretization (EBD method for optimal discretization of variables that runs efficiently on high-dimensional biomedical datasets. The EBD method consists of two components, namely, a Bayesian score to evaluate discretizations and a dynamic programming search procedure to efficiently search the space of possible discretizations. We compared the performance of EBD to Fayyad and Irani's (FI discretization method, which is commonly used for discretization. Results On 24 biomedical datasets obtained from high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic studies, the classification performances of the C4.5 classifier and the naïve Bayes classifier were statistically significantly better when the predictor variables were discretized using EBD over FI. EBD was statistically significantly more stable to the variability of the datasets than FI. However, EBD was less robust, though not statistically significantly so, than FI and produced slightly more complex discretizations than FI. Conclusions On a range of biomedical datasets, a Bayesian discretization method (EBD yielded better classification performance and stability but was less robust than the widely used FI discretization method. The EBD discretization method is easy to implement, permits the incorporation of prior knowledge and belief, and is sufficiently fast for application to high-dimensional data.

  12. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  13. Numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlquist, Germund

    1974-01-01

    ""Substantial, detailed and rigorous . . . readers for whom the book is intended are admirably served."" - MathSciNet (Mathematical Reviews on the Web), American Mathematical Society.Practical text strikes fine balance between students' requirements for theoretical treatment and needs of practitioners, with best methods for large- and small-scale computing. Prerequisites are minimal (calculus, linear algebra, and preferably some acquaintance with computer programming). Text includes many worked examples, problems, and an extensive bibliography.

  14. The effect of processing and preservation methods on the oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    vegetables and consequently the associated food safety problems. Keywords: .... vegetables prepared in slightly two different ... Table 2: Oxalate levels of selected leafy vegetables as a function of cooking method and the interplay of freezing.

  15. [Requirement of standardizing anti-HBs assay methods in Japan for HBV infection-preventing strategy--discrepancy of anti-HBs measurements among three different kits widely used in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norio

    2006-09-01

    The strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by administrating an HB vaccine is changing worldwide; however, this is not the case in Japan. An important concern about the HBV infection-preventing strategy in Japan may be that the assay methods for the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are not standardized. The minimum protective anti-HBs titer against HBV infection has been established as 10 mIU/ml by World Health Organization (WHO) -standardized assay methods worldwide, but that is still determined as a "positive" test result by the passive hemagglutination (PHA) method in Japan. We compared anti-HBs measurements in given samples among PHA(Mycell II, Institute of Immunology), chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) (Lumipulse, Fujirebio), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Architect, Abbott), all of which are currently in wide use in Japan. First, anti-HBs measurements in serum from individuals who received a yeast-derived recombinant HB vaccine composed of the major surface protein of either subtype adr or subtype ayw were compared. The results clearly showed that in subtype adr-vaccinees CLIA underestimated the anti-HBs amount compared with CLEIA and PHA, but in ayw-vaccinees, the discordance in the measurements among the three kits was not prominent. Second, anti-HBs measurements in standard or calibration solutions of each assay kit were compared. Surprisingly, CLEIA showed higher measurements in all three kit-associated standard or calibration solutions than CLIA. Thus, the anti-HBs titer of 10 mIU/ml is difficult to introduce in Japan as the minimum protective level against HBV infection. Efforts to standardize anti-HBs assay methods are expected to share international evidence about the HBV infection-preventing strategy.

  16. Romanian regulatory requirements on nuclear field specific education needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.; Velicu, O.

    2004-01-01

    This work is intended as a general presentation of the educational system and research field, with reference to nuclear sciences, and the legal system, with reference to requirements established by the regulatory body for the professional qualification and periodic training of personnel involved in different activities in the nuclear field. Thus, part 2 and 3 of the work present only public information regarding the education in nuclear sciences and nuclear research in Romania; in part 4 the CNCAN requirements for the personnel training, specific to nuclear activities are slightly detailed; part 5 consists of few words about the public information activities in Romania; and part 6 tries to draw a conclusion. (authors)

  17. Requirements for Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01

    Ion sources produce beams for a large variety of different physical experiments, industrial processes and medical applications. In order to characterize the beam delivered by them, a list of requirements is necessary. In this chapter the list of principal requirements is specified and definitions for them are given. (author)

  18. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  19. Writing testable software requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirk, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial identifies common problems in analyzing requirements in the problem and constructing a written specification of what the software is to do. It deals with two main problem areas: identifying and describing problem requirements, and analyzing and describing behavior specifications.

  20. Distributed and Collaborative Requirements Elicitation Based on Social Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Bin; Luo, Z.; Liang, P.

    2012-01-01

    Requirements is the formal expression of user's needs. Also, requirements elicitation is the process of activity focusing on requirements collection. Traditional acquisition methods, such as interview, observation and prototype, are unsuited for the service-oriented software development featuring in

  1. Puberty menorrhagia Requiring Inpatient Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Khosla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Puberty menorrhagia is a significant health problem in adolescent age group and severe cases may require admission and blood transfusion. Aim of this study was to evaluate the causes, associated complications and management of puberty menorrhagia. METHODS: Hospital records of all patients of puberty menorrhagia requiring admission were analyzed for etiology, duration since menarche, duration of bleeding, investigation profile and management. RESULTS: There were 18 patients of puberty menorrhagia requiring hospital admission. Etiology was anovulatory bleeding in 11 patients, bleeding disorders in five which included idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura in three and one each with Von-Willebrand disease and leukemia. Two patients had hypothyroidism as the cause. Fourteen patients presented with severe anaemia and required blood transfusion. All except one responded to oral hormonal therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Puberty menorrhagia can be associated with severe complications and requiring blood transfusion. Although most common cause is anovulation but bleeding disorder, other medical condition and other organic causes must be ruled out in any patient of Puberty menorrhagia. KEYWORDS: anovulation, bleeding disorder, puberty, menorrhagia, anaemia.

  2. Creativity in Requirement Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Olesen, Henning

    Traditional requirements engineering focuses mainly on analysis and elicitation. However, current trends in new system, device and software are towards involving all stakeholders in the early stages of the engineering process to define the user requirements. Creativity is here seen as a major...... keystone in this process in order to open up stakeholder's mind to new technologies, which do not yet exist. This paper dis-cusses the application of creativity in the requirements process and illustrate through cases from the MAGNET and MAGNET Beyond projects....

  3. FAA Financial Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-04

    In June 1995, the FAA developed a "total requirements" estimate for the period : FY 97-FY 02 to help explain the difficulty of supporting a dynamic, growing : aviation industry under a federal budget picture which projected flat or reduced : funding ...

  4. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  5. Estimating ISABELLE shielding requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.J.; Thorndike, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates were made of the shielding thicknesses required at various points around the ISABELLE ring. Both hadron and muon requirements are considered. Radiation levels at the outside of the shield and at the BNL site boundary are kept at or below 1000 mrem per year and 5 mrem/year respectively. Muon requirements are based on the Wang formula for pion spectra, and the hadron requirements on the hadron cascade program CYLKAZ of Ranft. A muon shield thickness of 77 meters of sand is indicated outside the ring in one area, and hadron shields equivalent to from 2.7 to 5.6 meters in thickness of sand above the ring. The suggested safety allowance would increase these values to 86 meters and 4.0 to 7.2 meters respectively. There are many uncertainties in such estimates, but these last figures are considered to be rather conservative

  6. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  7. 40 CFR 141.74 - Analytical and monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical and monitoring requirements... Analytical and monitoring requirements. (a) Analytical requirements. Only the analytical method(s) specified... as set forth in the article “National Field Evaluation of a Defined Substrate Method for the...

  8. Photometric requirements for portable changeable message signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This project reviewed the performance of pchangeable message signs (PCMSs) and developed photometric standards to establish performance requirements. In addition, researchers developed photometric test methods and recommended them for use in evaluati...

  9. Correcting saturation of detectors for particle/droplet imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalt, Peter A M

    2010-01-01

    Laser-based diagnostic methods are being applied to more and more flows of theoretical and practical interest and are revealing interesting new flow features. Imaging particles or droplets in nephelometry and laser sheet dropsizing methods requires a trade-off of maximized signal-to-noise ratio without over-saturating the detector. Droplet and particle imaging results in lognormal distribution of pixel intensities. It is possible to fit a derived lognormal distribution to the histogram of measured pixel intensities. If pixel intensities are clipped at a saturated value, it is possible to estimate a presumed probability density function (pdf) shape without the effects of saturation from the lognormal fit to the unsaturated histogram. Information about presumed shapes of the pixel intensity pdf is used to generate corrections that can be applied to data to account for saturation. The effects of even slight saturation are shown to be a significant source of error on the derived average. The influence of saturation on the derived root mean square (rms) is even more pronounced. It is found that errors on the determined average exceed 5% when the number of saturated samples exceeds 3% of the total. Errors on the rms are 20% for a similar saturation level. This study also attempts to delineate limits, within which the detector saturation can be accurately corrected. It is demonstrated that a simple method for reshaping the clipped part of the pixel intensity histogram makes accurate corrections to account for saturated pixels. These outcomes can be used to correct a saturated signal, quantify the effect of saturation on a derived average and offer a method to correct the derived average in the case of slight to moderate saturation of pixels

  10. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  11. Comparison of methods for the determination of reduced inorganic sulphur in acid sulphate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santomartino, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The management of acid sulphate soils requires analytical methods that provide accurate data on the quantity of reduced inorganic sulphur within a soil, as it is this fraction that produces acid upon oxidation. This study uses sulphidic Coode Island Silt samples to compare common analytical methods including POCAS (Peroxide Oxidation-Combined Acidity and Sulphate) which consists of TSA (Total Sulphidic Acidity), S pos (Peroxide Oxidisable Sulphur), TOS (Total Oxidisable Sulphur) and chromium-reducible sulphur. The determination of total sulphur by Leco sulphur is strongly correlated with, but slightly less than, that analysed by XRF. Comparison of soil sulphide content by chromium-reducible sulphur, TSA and TOS methods indicates that TOS values are substantially higher than both other methods. The problem with the TOS method lies in the sulphate extraction procedure. Hot distilled water and HCI are commonly used as extractants, however hot distilled water fails to remove organic sulphur, thereby overestimating the sulphide content of the soil. Leco carbon analyses verify that a substantial proportion of organic matter exists within the samples. The HCI extraction process, which uses Ion Chromatography to analyse for sulphate, produces highly inaccurate results due to the interference of the sulphate peak by the chloride peak during analysis. An alternative method involving HCI extraction and XRF analysis of the soil residue is currently being undertaken. The use of KCI to extract sulphate generally produces values similar to the hot distilled water method. The sulphidic content measured by TSA is strongly correlated with, but slightly higher than that determined by the chromium-reducible sulphur method. This is attributed to the use of hydrogen peroxide in the TSA method, which oxidises organic matter to organic acids in addition to oxidising sulphides. These preliminary findings indicate that the chromium-reducible sulphur method is the most suitable

  12. Assessing the accuracy of ancestral protein reconstruction methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Williams

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic inference of ancestral protein sequences is a powerful technique for the study of molecular evolution, but any conclusions drawn from such studies are only as good as the accuracy of the reconstruction method. Every inference method leads to errors in the ancestral protein sequence, resulting in potentially misleading estimates of the ancestral protein's properties. To assess the accuracy of ancestral protein reconstruction methods, we performed computational population evolution simulations featuring near-neutral evolution under purifying selection, speciation, and divergence using an off-lattice protein model where fitness depends on the ability to be stable in a specified target structure. We were thus able to compare the thermodynamic properties of the true ancestral sequences with the properties of "ancestral sequences" inferred by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Surprisingly, we found that methods such as maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood that reconstruct a "best guess" amino acid at each position overestimate thermostability, while a Bayesian method that sometimes chooses less-probable residues from the posterior probability distribution does not. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony apparently tend to eliminate variants at a position that are slightly detrimental to structural stability simply because such detrimental variants are less frequent. Other properties of ancestral proteins might be similarly overestimated. This suggests that ancestral reconstruction studies require greater care to come to credible conclusions regarding functional evolution. Inferred functional patterns that mimic reconstruction bias should be reevaluated.

  13. Assessing the accuracy of ancestral protein reconstruction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul D; Pollock, David D; Blackburne, Benjamin P; Goldstein, Richard A

    2006-06-23

    The phylogenetic inference of ancestral protein sequences is a powerful technique for the study of molecular evolution, but any conclusions drawn from such studies are only as good as the accuracy of the reconstruction method. Every inference method leads to errors in the ancestral protein sequence, resulting in potentially misleading estimates of the ancestral protein's properties. To assess the accuracy of ancestral protein reconstruction methods, we performed computational population evolution simulations featuring near-neutral evolution under purifying selection, speciation, and divergence using an off-lattice protein model where fitness depends on the ability to be stable in a specified target structure. We were thus able to compare the thermodynamic properties of the true ancestral sequences with the properties of "ancestral sequences" inferred by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Surprisingly, we found that methods such as maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood that reconstruct a "best guess" amino acid at each position overestimate thermostability, while a Bayesian method that sometimes chooses less-probable residues from the posterior probability distribution does not. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony apparently tend to eliminate variants at a position that are slightly detrimental to structural stability simply because such detrimental variants are less frequent. Other properties of ancestral proteins might be similarly overestimated. This suggests that ancestral reconstruction studies require greater care to come to credible conclusions regarding functional evolution. Inferred functional patterns that mimic reconstruction bias should be reevaluated.

  14. Chemical decontamination method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Hitoshi.

    1996-01-01

    Metal wastes contaminated by radioactive materials are contained in a rotational decontamination vessel, and the metal wastes are rotated therein while being in contact with a slight amount of a decontamination liquid comprising a mineral acid. As the mineral acid, a mixed acid of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and fluoric acid is preferably used. Alternatively, chemical decontamination can also be conducted by charging an acid resistant stirring medium in the rotational decontamination vessel. The surface of the metal wastes is uniformly covered by the slight amount of decontamination liquid to dissolve the surface layer. In addition, heat of dissolution generated in this case is accumulated in the inside of the rotational decontamination vessel, the temperature is elevated with no particular heating, thereby enabling to obtain an excellent decontamination effect substantially at the same level as in the case of heating the liquid to 70degC in a conventional immersion decontamination method. Further, although contact areas between the metal wastes and the immersion vessel are difficult to be decontaminated in the immersion decontamination method, all of areas can be dissolved uniformly in the present invention. (T.M.)

  15. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  16. Testing Convergence of Different Free-Energy Methods in a Simple Analytical System with Hidden Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alexis Paz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study the influence of hidden barriers on the convergence behavior of three free-energy calculation methods: well-tempered metadynamics (WTMD, adaptive-biasing forces (ABF, and on-the-fly parameterization (OTFP. We construct a simple two-dimensional potential-energy surfaces (PES that allows for an exact analytical result for the free-energy in any one-dimensional order parameter. Then we chose different CV definitions and PES parameters to create three different systems with increasing sampling challenges. We find that all three methods are not greatly affected by the hidden-barriers in the simplest case considered. The adaptive sampling methods show faster sampling while the auxiliary high-friction requirement of OTFP makes it slower for this case. However, a slight change in the CV definition has a strong impact in the ABF and WTMD performance, illustrating the importance of choosing suitable collective variables.

  17. Designing requirements engineering research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Engineering sciences study different topics than natural sciences, and utility is an essential factor in choosing engineering research problems. But despite these differences, research methods for the engineering sciences are no different than research methods for any other kind of science. At most

  18. Spectrum analysis on quality requirements consideration in software design documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Umemura, Masahiro; Ogata, Shinpei; Kaijiri, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    Software quality requirements defined in the requirements analysis stage should be implemented in the final products, such as source codes and system deployment. To guarantee this meta-requirement, quality requirements should be considered in the intermediate stages, such as the design stage or the architectural definition stage. We propose a novel method for checking whether quality requirements are considered in the design stage. In this method, a technique called "spectrum analysis for quality requirements" is applied not only to requirements specifications but also to design documents. The technique enables us to derive the spectrum of a document, and quality requirements considerations in the document are numerically represented in the spectrum. We can thus objectively identify whether the considerations of quality requirements in a requirements document are adapted to its design document. To validate the method, we applied it to commercial software systems with the help of a supporting tool, and we confirmed that the method worked well.

  19. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  20. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  1. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ely, James H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harper, Warren W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heimbigner, Tom R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, Charles W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Humble, Paul H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Madison, Jill C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Panisko, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ripplinger, Mike D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stewart, Timothy L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  2. Requirements for enrichment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; Winkels, R.; Trompper, M.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a high level overview of requirements for Enrichment tools in the Openlaws.eu project. Openlaws.eu aims to initiate a platform and develop a vision for Big Open Legal Data (BOLD): an open framework for legislation, case law, and legal literature from across Europe.

  3. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  4. Ongoing experiments: diagnostics requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the fuel motion diagnostics needs for ongoing LMFBR safety experiments over approximately the next five years, with the discussion centered on TREAT. Brief comments on the direction in which clad motion diagnostics requirements are expected to develop are also presented

  5. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    52 Stratofortress, C/ KC -135 Stratotanker, E-3 Sentry and contractor logistics support aircraft; as well as a substantial jet engine inventory...www.hqda.army.mil/ teo /Sutability%20Terms%20MOA%20Oct%2005.pdf q. ISO 9241-11, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs

  6. Evaluation of the Water Requirements for a Greenhouse Tomato Crop using the Priestley-Taylor Method Evaluación del Consumo de Agua de un Cultivo de Tomate en Invernadero Usando el Método de Priestley-Taylor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Valdés-Gómez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Priestley-Taylor (PT model was evaluated for estimating the real evapotranspiration (ETreal of a drip-irrigated greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. crop. The net radiation incorporated in the PT model was estimated using meteorological variables. For this experiment, an automatic weather station (AWS was installed inside the greenhouse to measure solar radiation (Rgi, net radiation (Rn, air temperature (Ta and relative humidity (RH. Another AWS was installed over a grass cover to measure atmospheric conditions outside the greenhouse. The experiment was carried out at the Panguilemo experimental station (35°23' S, 71°40' W, 110 m.a.s.l. from August to December 2000. The PT model was evaluated using the ETreal obtained from the water balance (WB method. In this case, values of ETreal by PT model were calculated using: a Rgi and soil heat flux (G = 0; b Rgi and G ≠ 0; c solar radiation measured outside the greenhouse (Rge and G = 0; and d Rge and G ≠ 0. For these cases, results indicated that PT model was able to compute ETreal with errors less than 5%. Also, Rn was calculated with a relative absolute error and a mean deviation lower than 6% and 0.07 mm d-1, respectively, using Rgi or Rge. Daily soil heat flux values equal to zero did not affect the calculation of ETreal values. Thus, the PT model evaluated in this study could be used for scheduling irrigation for a greenhouse tomato crop, using internal measurements of air temperature and relative humidity, and external measurements of solar radiation. In this case, PT model predicted the ETreal with an error of 6.1%.Se evaluó el comportamiento del modelo de Priestley-Taylor (PT para la estimación de la evapotranspiración real (ETreal de un cultivo de tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. en condiciones de invernadero. La radiación neta incorporada en el modelo de PT fue calculada usando variables meteorológicas clásicas. Para este experimento, una estación meteorol

  7. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  8. Improving the requirements process in Axiomatic Design Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a model to integrate the traditional requirements process into Axiomatic Design Theory and proposes a method to structure the requirements process. The method includes a requirements classification system to ensure that all requirements information can be included...... in the Axiomatic Design process, a stakeholder classification system to reduce the chances of excluding one or more key stakeholders, and a table to visualize the mapping between the stakeholders and their requirements....

  9. Assessment of environmental flow requirements for river basin planning in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazvimavi, D.; Madamombe, E.; Makurira, H.

    There is a growing awareness and understanding of the need to allocate water along a river to maintain ecological processes that provide goods and services. Legislation in Zimbabwe requires water resources management plans to include the amount of water to be reserved for environmental purposes in each river basin. This paper aims to estimate the amount of water that should be reserved for environmental purposes in each of the 151 sub-basins or water management units of Zimbabwe. A desktop hydrological method is used to estimate the environmental flow requirement (EFR). The estimated EFRs decrease with increasing flow variability, and increase with the increasing contribution of base flows to total flows. The study has established that in order to maintain slightly modified to natural habitats along rivers, the EFR should be 30-60% of mean annual runoff (MAR) in regions with perennial rivers, while this is 20-30% in the dry parts of the country with rivers, which only flow during the wet season. The inclusion of EFRs in water resources management plans will not drastically change the proportion of the available water allocated to water permits, since the amount of water allocated to water permit holders is less than 50% of the MAR on 77% of the sub-basins in the country.

  10. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the by what method the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun, in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of ongoing efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  11. A fuzzy model for exploiting customer requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Javadirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Quality function deployment (QFD is one of the total quality management tools, where customers’ views and requirements are perceived and using various techniques improves the production requirements and operations. The QFD department, after identification and analysis of the competitors, takes customers’ feedbacks to meet the customers’ demands for the products compared with the competitors. In this study, a comprehensive model for assessing the importance of the customer requirements in the products or services for an organization is proposed. The proposed study uses linguistic variables, as a more comprehensive approach, to increase the precision of the expression evaluations. The importance of these requirements specifies the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the requirements relative to competitors. The results of these experiments show that the proposed method performs better than the other methods.

  12. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  13. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  14. Users' requirements for IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, K.; Jitsukawa, S.; Ehrlich, K.; Moeslang, A.

    1998-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a high energy neutron irradiation facility which generates an intense neutron flux with D-Li stripping reactions for fusion materials testing. The role of IFMIF is (1) development of various fusion reactor materials, (2) determination of design-relevant engineering databases for the DEMO fusion reactor, (3) calibration and validation of data generated from fission reactor irradiations and the other simulation experiments, etc. The conceptual design activity (CDA) of IFMIF was initiated in February 1995 as an IEA collaborative activity to complete a reference conceptual design of IFMIF in December 1996. Users' requirements for the conceptual design of IFMIF were developed for materials to be tested, types of experiments, small specimen test technology and irradiation conditions. Furthermore, the neutron irradiation field characteristics (spectrum, flux/volume, etc.) of IFMIF were evaluated for the conceptual design parameters and were shown to meet the essential requirements of the users. (orig.)

  15. LHCb Online Networking Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, B

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the networking requirements of the LHCb online installation. It lists both quantitative aspects such as the number of required switch ports, as well as some qualitative features of the equipment, such as minimum buffer sizes in switches. The document comprises both the data acquisition network and the controls/general-purpose network. While the numbers represent our best current knowledge and are intended to give (in particular) network equipment manufacturers an overview of our needs, this document should not be confused with a market survey questionnaire or a formal tendering document. However the information contained in this document will be the input of any such document. A preliminary schedule for procurement and installation is also given.

  16. Gynecomastia: the horizontal ellipse method for its correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheita, Alaa

    2008-09-01

    Gynecomastia is an extremely disturbing deformity affecting males, especially when it occurs in young subjects. Such subjects generally have no hormonal anomalies and thus either liposuction or surgical intervention, depending on the type and consistency of the breast, is required for treatment. If there is slight hypertrophy alone with no ptosis, then subcutaneous mastectomy is usually sufficient. However, when hypertrophy and/or ptosis are present, then corrective surgery on the skin and breast is mandatory to obtain a good cosmetic result. Most of the procedures suggested for reduction of the male breast are usually derived from reduction mammaplasty methods used for females. They have some disadvantages, mainly the multiple scars, which remain apparent in males, unusual shape, and the lack of symmetry with regard to the size of both breasts and/or the nipple position. The author presents a new, simple method that has proven superior to any previous method described so far. It consists of a horizontal excision ellipse of the breast's redundant skin and deep excess tissue and a superior pedicle flap carrying the areola-nipple complex to its new site on the chest wall. The method described yields excellent shape, symmetry, and minimal scars. A new method for treating gynecomastis is described in detail, its early and late operative results are shown, and its advantages are discussed.

  17. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  18. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all SST and DST waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm ESD implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  1. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  2. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM

  3. Waring's Problem and the Circle Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other interests include classical music and mountaineering. the problems they worked on. Their proof of a slightly. Keywords weaker form of Ramanujan's original formula was pub-. Waring's problem, circle method, ... arc is fairly simple while it is the minor arc estimation that accounts for the 'major' amount of work involved!

  4. Methods and compositions for targeting macromolecules into the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chook, Yuh Min

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes compositions, methods and kits for directing an agent across the nuclear membrane of a cell. The present invention includes a Karyopherin beta2 translocation motif in a polypeptide having a slightly positively charged region or a slightly hydrophobic region and one or more R/K/H-X.sub.(2-5)-P-Y motifs. The polypeptide targets the agent into the cell nucleus.

  5. Management Engineering Team Application of Officer Grade Requirements Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    td l sti h ’tI i I111 I m~ tA fo~i l~vlAld ltllt% 11",1 01i All ipil ll ppi lt d I hC AlAd dIA fact* I 1 IVIICA the 11 Ill* 1 cI 1Al 1. 10110I...tiaftSuperviso OAFSC Date Lt 02 Pop4gI75-o.P.Q-j2Q&A=Ma4-54, l53 AF OFFICER POSITION DESCRIPTION 30 Instructions to Incumbent To: Designated Officer 1. As

  6. The Budget Scoring Alternatives Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Office of Management and Budget (0MB), and the congressional Budget Committees. The current scoring policy that has been applied to many initiatives essentially negates the financial advantage for using alternative forms of financing...

  7. The Budget Scoring Alternatives Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    .... One of the major impediments to using alternative forms of procurement financing for acquiring defense capabilities is in the budgetary treatment, or "scoring," of these initiatives by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO...

  8. Budget Scoring of Alternative Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    .... One of the major impediments to using alternative forms of procurement financing for acquiring defense capabilities is in the budgetary treatment, or scoring, of these initiatives by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO...

  9. Budget Scoring of Alternative Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the congressional Budget Committees. The current scoring policy that has been applied to many initiatives essentially negates the financial advantage for using alternative forms of financing...

  10. Water requirements of selected industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Mussey, Orville D.; Conklin, Howard L.; Durfor, Charles N.; Otts, Louis Ethelbert; Walling, Faulkner B.

    1955-01-01

    The early industries in America generally were established when and where demands for the products of industry arose. Most of the early industries were so located that their increasing requirements for transportation, raw materials, market, labor, and water supply could be satisfied economically. Many of these original plant locations have continued as modern industrial centers and their output has increased manyfold in meeting the demands of our growing Nation. The recent and current industrial expansion and the trend toward the growth of chemical industries, many Of which are heavy users of water, has resulted in a tremendous increase in the total withdrawal of water for industrial use as well as a large increase in the per capita use of water. This increase in industrial water requirement has strained the capacity of the developed water supplies in many areas, and in some instances the adequacy of the potential water supplies is questionable. The Geological Survey is engaged in preparing and publishing a series of reports describing the developed and undeveloped water resources of many important industrial areas. This work was started initially at the request of the National Securities Resources Board as a means to insure that water supplies are adequate for our rapidly expanding industrial development. Although many factors contribute to establishing the feasibility or even the limits of future industrial development, the one relating to available water supply is extremely important. A knowledge of the water requirements of various industries is valuable therefore in planning the logical development in any area where water supply is a critical factor. Thus far very little suitable information on the water requirements of our major industries is available for general planning. An inventory of unit water-use values in industry therefore would be generally helpful and also might tend to stimulate water-conservation methods. To obtain such information

  11. Efficient degradation of sulfamethazine in simulated and real wastewater at slightly basic pH values using Co-SAM-SCS /H2O2 Fenton-like system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Chen; Wan, Jia; Hu, Liang; Zhou, Chengyun; Xiong, Weiping

    2018-07-01

    The presence of antibiotics in aquatic environments has attracted global concern. Fenton process is an attractive yet challenging method for antibiotics degradation, especially when such a reaction can be conducted at neutral pH values. In this study, a novel composite Fe/Co catalyst was synthesized via the modification of steel converter slag (SCS) by salicylic acid-methanol (SAM) and cobalt nitrate (Co(NO 3 ) 2 ). The catalysts were characterized by N 2 -Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results indicated that the Co-SAM-SCS/H 2 O 2 Fenton-like system was very effective for sulfamethazine (SMZ) degradation at a wide pH range. At initial pH of 7.0, the degradation rate of SMZ in Co-SAM-SCS/H 2 O 2 system was 2.48, 3.20, 6.18, and 16.21 times of that in Fe-SAM-SCS/H 2 O 2 , SAM-SCS/H 2 O 2 , Co(NO 3 ) 2 /H 2 O 2 and SCS/H 2 O 2 system, respectively. The preliminary analysis suggested that high surface area of Co-SAM-SCS sample and synergistic effect between introduced Co and SAM-SCS are responsible for the efficient catalytic activity. During the degradation, three main intermediates were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis. Based on this, a possible degradation pathway was proposed. The SEM images, XRD patterns and XPS spectra before and after the reactions demonstrate that the crystal and chemical structure of Co-SAM-SCS after five cycles are almost unchanged. Besides, the Co-SAM-SCS presented low iron and cobalt leaching (0.17 mg/L and 2.36 mg/L, respectively). The studied Fenton-like process also showed high degradation of SMZ in river water and municipal wastewater. The progress will bring valuable insights to develop high-performance heterogeneous Fenton-like catalysts for environmental remediation. Copyright © 2018

  12. Assessing and comparison of different machine learning methods in parent-offspring trios for genotype imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhchi, Abbas; Honarvar, Mahmood; Kashan, Nasser Emam Jomeh; Aminafshar, Mehdi

    2016-06-21

    Genotype imputation is an important tool for prediction of unknown genotypes for both unrelated individuals and parent-offspring trios. Several imputation methods are available and can either employ universal machine learning methods, or deploy algorithms dedicated to infer missing genotypes. In this research the performance of eight machine learning methods: Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbors, Extreme Learning Machine, Radial Basis Function, Random Forest, AdaBoost, LogitBoost, and TotalBoost compared in terms of the imputation accuracy, computation time and the factors affecting imputation accuracy. The methods employed using real and simulated datasets to impute the un-typed SNPs in parent-offspring trios. The tested methods show that imputation of parent-offspring trios can be accurate. The Random Forest and Support Vector Machine were more accurate than the other machine learning methods. The TotalBoost performed slightly worse than the other methods.The running times were different between methods. The ELM was always most fast algorithm. In case of increasing the sample size, the RBF requires long imputation time.The tested methods in this research can be an alternative for imputation of un-typed SNPs in low missing rate of data. However, it is recommended that other machine learning methods to be used for imputation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  14. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  15. Section 4: Requirements Intertwining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucopoulos, Pericles

    Business analysts are being asked to develop increasingly complex and varied business systems that need to cater to the changing and dynamic market conditions of the new economy. This is particularly acute in today’s turbulent business environment where powerful forces such as deregulation, globalisation, mergers, advances in information and telecommunications technologies, and increasing education of people provide opportunities for organising work in ways that have never before been possible. Enterprises attempt to create wealth either by getting better at improving their products and services or by harnessing creativity and human-centred management to create innovative solutions. In these business settings, requirements become critical in bridging system solutions to organisational and societal problems. They intertwine organisational, social, cognitive, and implementation considerations and they can provide unique insights to change in systems and their business context. Such design situations often involve multiple stakeholders from different participating organisations, subcontractors, divisions, etc., who may have a diversity of expertise, come from different organisational cultures and often have competing goals. The success or failure of many projects depends, to a large extent, on understanding the contextual setting of requirements and their interaction amongst a diverse population of stakeholders.

  16. Beauty Requires Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-05-22

    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Requirements for a quality measurement instrument for semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Krukkert, D.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg van, J. van

    2010-01-01

    This study describes requirements for an instrument to measure the quality of semantic standards. A situational requirements engineering method was used, resulting in a goal-tree in which requirements are structured. This structure shows requirements related to the input of the instrument; stating

  18. TRACER - TRACING AND CONTROL OF ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    TRACER (Tracing and Control of Engineering Requirements) is a database/word processing system created to document and maintain the order of both requirements and descriptive material associated with an engineering project. A set of hierarchical documents are normally generated for a project whereby the requirements of the higher level documents levy requirements on the same level or lower level documents. Traditionally, the requirements are handled almost entirely by manual paper methods. The problem with a typical paper system, however, is that requirements written and changed continuously in different areas lead to misunderstandings and noncompliance. The purpose of TRACER is to automate the capture, tracing, reviewing, and managing of requirements for an engineering project. The engineering project still requires communications, negotiations, interactions, and iterations among people and organizations, but TRACER promotes succinct and precise identification and treatment of real requirements separate from the descriptive prose in a document. TRACER permits the documentation of an engineering project's requirements and progress in a logical, controllable, traceable manner. TRACER's attributes include the presentation of current requirements and status from any linked computer terminal and the ability to differentiate headers and descriptive material from the requirements. Related requirements can be linked and traced. The program also enables portions of documents to be printed, individual approval and release of requirements, and the tracing of requirements down into the equipment specification. Requirement "links" can be made "pending" and invisible to others until the pending link is made "binding". Individuals affected by linked requirements can be notified of significant changes with acknowledgement of the changes required. An unlimited number of documents can be created for a project and an ASCII import feature permits existing documents to be incorporated

  19. Knowing requires data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Ramon C.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater-flow models are often calibrated using a limited number of observations relative to the unknown inputs required for the model. This is especially true for models that simulate groundwater surface-water interactions. In this case, subsurface temperature sensors can be an efficient means for collecting long-term data that capture the transient nature of physical processes such as seepage losses. Continuous and spatially dense network of diverse observation data can be used to improve knowledge of important physical drivers, conceptualize and calibrate variably saturated groundwater flow models. An example is presented for which the results of such analysis were used to help guide irrigation districts and water management decisions on costly upgrades to conveyance systems to improve water usage, farm productivity and restoration efforts to improve downstream water quality and ecosystems.

  20. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  1. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  2. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahimana, Didace; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  3. A goal-oriented requirements modelling language for enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Engelsman, W.; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for enterprise architecture, such as TOGAF, acknowledge the importance of requirements engineering in the development of enterprise architectures. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. Current modelling techniques for

  4. Generation of the Data Required by AGNPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于苏俊

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques and geographic information systems offer a good means of collecting and manipulating the data required to assess conservation practices. A method for automatic generation of most of the data required by the agricultural non-point source (AGNPS) erosion model is put forward from three sources: (1) files with contour lines from topographic maps, (2) soil mapping units from soil surveys, and (3) land cover from land-sat TM image classifications.

  5. Etching method employing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, B.N.; Winters, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a method for etching a silicon oxide, carbide, nitride, or oxynitride surface using an electron or ion beam in the presence of a xenon or krypton fluoride. No additional steps are required after exposure to radiation

  6. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  7. Drug Release Mechanism of Slightly Soluble Drug from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theophylline (THP) as drug in drug to clay ratios of 1:2, 3:4 and 1:1. The formulations were characterized for drug release and loading. Dependent and independent kinetic models were employed to analyze the drug release data. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the structural characterization of ...

  8. Management of Slightly Contaminated Materials: Status and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    2001-01-01

    Usually, when values in risk assessment are discussed, e.g., within RISCOM and VALDOR, it is said, that there are values behind the risk assessment by the experts and that these values are hidden within the basic assumptions made and are not easily visible, especially to the higher-level decision-makers. It is shown in this paper, that the opposite can also happen: the decision-makers, those that set the standards, may not be aware of the all the relevant facts or they may ignore them because of how their institutional role and mandate are framed. In particular, it is important to realise that while nuclear power by-products are indeed specifically recognised for their radioactive hazard, radioactive products, by-products and 'wastes' also arise from practices other than nuclear power generation. As the threshold radioactivity levels for classifying a material as waste - or, what is the same, for allowing it for free release - become lower and lower, a larger and larger amount of by-products of human activities become concerned by the question 'is this radioactively dangerous material?' and how to deal with it. A holistic look at radioactivity both of man-made and natural origin needs to be implemented in order to claim and achieve consistency in the protection of public health and avoid issues of intra- and inter-generational equity

  9. Calorimetric measurements on slightly soluble gases in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, G.; Oshodj, A.A.; Qvarnstroem, E.; Wadsoe, I.

    1984-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements have been made of enthalpies of solution Δsub(sol)Hsub(m)sup(infinity) in water of helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, and oxygen at 288.15, 298.15, and 308.15 K. Values of the heat-capacity changes Δsub(sol)Csub(p,m)sup(infinity) have been derived. The found values for both the enthalpy and heat-capacity changes for the rare gases and for oxygen fully confirm the values derived by Benson and Krause, Jr. (1976), and Benson, Krause, Jr., and Peterson (1979) from the results of their very careful gas-solubility measurements. The partial molar heat capacities Csub(p,2)sup(infinity) of the hydrocarbons studied were derived. The group-additivity schemes that have been used successfully for the estimation of values for Csub(p,2)sup(infinity) for various non-ionic organic compounds do not correctly predict values of Csub(p,2)sup(infinity) for the hydrocarbons in the present study. (author)

  10. Fearing Colleges Slight "Traditional Values," Conservatives Back "Free Enterprise" Chairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1987-01-01

    In the last 25 years, 80 to 100 chairs or institutes focusing on the study of capitalism have been established on college campuses, sometimes facing criticism because of potential conflict with the institution's mission. (MSE)

  11. Secondary flows and particle centrifugation in slightly tilted rotating pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented of viscous incompressible laminar flow in a pipe which rotates around an axis held at small angle with respect to its symmetry-axis. Analogous to the results of Barua and Benton [1, 2], solutions in closed-form are given for circulatory flows in the

  12. Requirements of quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture traces the development of nuclear standards, codes, and Federal regulations on quality assurance (QA) for nuclear power plants and associated facilities. The technical evolution of the last twelve years, especially in the area of nuclear technology, led to different activities and regulatory initiatives, and the present result is: several nations have their own homemade standards. The lecture discusses the former and especially current activities in standard development, and gives a description of the requirements of QA-standards used in USA and Europe, especially Western Germany. Furthermore the lecture attempts to give a comparison and an evaluation of the international quality standards from the author's viewpoint. Finally the lecture presents an outlook for the future international implications of QA-standards. There is an urgent need within the nuclear industry for simplification and standardization of QA-standards. The relationship between the various standards, and the applicability of the standards need clarification and a better transparancy. To point out these problems is the purpose of the lecture. (orig.) [de

  13. Emotional Intelligence: Requiring Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tudor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the need for emotional intelligence. Two methods of measurementare presented in this research, in order to better understand the necessity of a correct result. Theresults of research can lead to recommendations for improving levels of emotional intelligence andare useful for obtaining data to better compare past and present result. The papers presented inthis research are significant for future study of this subject. The first paper presents the evolutionof emotional intelligence in the past two years, more specifically its decrease concerning certaincharacteristics. The second one presents a research on the differences between generations. Thethird one shows a difference in emotional intelligence levels of children from rural versus urbanenvironments and the obstacles that they encounter in their own development.

  14. Functional requirements of road lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The functional, technical and visual requirements for public lighting are discussed. The improvement of the presentation of information to the road user is the main functional requirement. The visual requirements can be deduced from the functional requirement of enabling drivers to follow the

  15. Review of nuclear piping seismic design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagis, G.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    Modern-day nuclear plant piping systems are designed with a large number of seismic supports and snubbers that may be detrimental to plant reliability. Experimental tests have demonstrated the inherent ruggedness of ductile steel piping for seismic loading. Present methods to predict seismic loads on piping are based on linear-elastic analysis methods with low damping. These methods overpredict the seismic response of ductile steel pipe. Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code stresses limits for piping systems that are based on considerations of static loads and hence are overly conservative. Appropriate stress limits for seismic loads on piping should be incorporated into the code to allow more flexible piping designs. The existing requirements and methods for seismic design of piping systems, including inherent conservations, are explained to provide a technical foundation for modifications to those requirements. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  17. When Slights Beget Slights: Attachment Anxiety, Subjective Time, and Intrusion of the Relational Past in the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Kassandra; Wilson, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    Every close relationship has a history, but how people manage their relational past varies and can have important implications in the present. The current research investigated the role of subjective representation of time: How feeling subjectively close (vs. distant) to a past relational transgression (vs. kind act) predicted "kitchen thinking"-the tendency to bring to mind relational past memories in new, unrelated contexts. We explored the role of attachment anxiety as a predictor of subjective time perception and kitchen thinking. We found support for our hypothesis that when negative memories felt subjectively closer relative to positive memories, people were more likely to kitchen think (Studies 1-3). Kitchen thinking, in turn, predicted negative relationship outcomes (Study 4). Furthermore, people high (vs. low) in attachment anxiety were less likely to perceive the timing of their relational memories adaptively, accounting for more kitchen thinking and in turn, maladaptive relational outcomes. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Neutrosophy for software requirement prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Barriga Dias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software engineers are involved in complex decisions that require multiples viewpoints. A specific case is the requirement prioritization process. This process is used to decide which software requirement to develop in certain release from a group of candidate requirements. Criteria involved in this process can involve indeterminacy. In this paper a software requirement prioritization model is develop based SVN numbers. Finally, an illustrative example is presented in order to show the proposed model.

  19. 77 FR 33635 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... business rule reflects that the definition of currency used therein is slightly different from the... Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations--Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain Currency...: FinCEN is amending the rules relating to the reporting of certain currency transactions consistent...

  20. Crop succession requirements in agricultural production planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Stegeman, A.

    2005-01-01

    A method is proposed to write crop succession requirements as linear constraints in an LP-based model for agricultural production planning. Crop succession information is given in the form of a set of inadmissible successions of crops. The decision variables represent the areas where a certain

  1. 40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... statement is a complete analysis of the pesticide, the term “analysis” shall not be used as a heading for... treated. (iv) The target pest(s) associated with each site. (v) The dosage rate associated with each site and pest. (vi) The method of application, including instructions for dilution, if required, and type(s...

  2. 40 CFR 264.1064 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Method of compliance with the standard (e.g., “monthly leak detection and repair” or “equipped with dual... Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1064 Recordkeeping requirements. (a)(1) Each owner or... equipment (e.g., a pump or pipeline valve). (iv) Percent-by-weight total organics in the hazardous waste...

  3. Innovative tool for specifying customer requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, A.; Wendrich, Robert E.; Tiainen, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of an App based tool for specification of customer requirements (CR) for product development. The most Quality Function Deployment (QFD) tools and methods are system based or used as an Excel document for specification and evaluation. Nowadays tool

  4. Assessing the accuracy of globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrit, N. G.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Lahimer, A. A.; Elayeb, O. K.

    2017-11-01

    Assessing outdoor human thermal comfort and urban climate quality require experimental investigation of microclimatic conditions and their variations in open urban spaces. For this, it is essential to provide quantitative information on air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and mean radiant temperature. These parameters can be quantified directly except mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). The most accurate method to quantify Tmrt is integral radiation measurements (3-D shortwave and long-wave) which require using expensive radiometer instruments. To overcome this limitation the well-known globe thermometer method was suggested to calculate Tmrt. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using indoor globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate. Globe thermometer method using small and large sizes of black-painted copper globes (50mm, 150mm) were used to estimate Tmrt and compare it with the reference Tmrt estimated by integral radiation method. The results revealed that the globe thermometer method considerably overestimated Tmrt during the middle of the day and slightly underestimated it in the morning and late evening. The difference between the two methods was obvious when the amount of incoming solar radiation was high. The results also showed that the effect of globe size on the estimated Tmrt is mostly small. Though, the estimated Tmrt by the small globe showed a relatively large amount of scattering caused by rapid changes in radiation and wind speed.

  5. A methodology to describe process control requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Ganni, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to describe process control requirements for helium refrigeration plants. The SSC requires a greater level of automation for its refrigeration plants than is common in the cryogenics industry, and traditional methods (e.g., written descriptions) used to describe process control requirements are not sufficient. The methodology presented in this paper employs tabular and graphic representations in addition to written descriptions. The resulting document constitutes a tool for efficient communication among the different people involved in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of the control system. The methodology is not limited to helium refrigeration plants, and can be applied to any process with similar requirements. The paper includes examples

  6. Waste management system requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This volume defines the top level requirements for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1 of the WMSR, General System Requirements. It provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MGDS in Volume 1 and elaborates on each requirement by providing associated performance criteria as appropriate. Volumes 1 and 4 of the WMSR provide a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MGDS design. This document sets forth specific requirements that must be fulfilled. It is not the intent or purpose of this top level document to describe how each requirement is to be satisfied in the final MGDS design. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy must provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements is to be implemented in the design. It is expected that each subsequent level of requirements will be significantly more detailed. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional description of the MGDS. Each function is addressed in terms of requirements, and performance criteria. Section 3 provides a list of controlling documents. Each document cited in a requirement of Chapter 2 is included in this list and is incorporated into this document as a requirement on the final system. The WMSR addresses only federal requirements (i.e., laws, regulations and DOE orders). State and local requirements are not addressed. However, it will be specifically noted at the potentially affected WMSR requirements that there could be additional or more stringent regulations imposed by a state or local requirements or administering agency over the cited federal requirements

  7. Excavation-drier method of energy-peat extraction reduces long-term climatic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, N.; Silvan, K.; Laine, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland)], e-mail: niko.silvan@metla.fi; Vaisanen, S.; Soukka, R. [Lappeenranta Univ.of Techology (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    Climatic impacts of energy-peat extraction are of increasing concern due to EU emissions trading requirements. A new excavation-drier peat extraction method has been developed to reduce the climatic impact and increase the efficiency of peat extraction. To quantify and compare the soil GHG fluxes of the excavation drier and the traditional milling methods, as well as the areas from which the energy peat is planned to be extracted in the future (extraction reserve area types), soil CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured during 2006-2007 at three sites in Finland. Within each site, fluxes were measured from drained extraction reserve areas, extraction fields and stockpiles of both methods and additionally from the biomass driers of the excavation-drier method. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), described at a principal level in ISO Standards 14040:2006 and 14044:2006, was used to assess the long-term (100 years) climatic impact from peatland utilisation with respect to land use and energy production chains where utilisation of coal was replaced with peat. Coal was used as a reference since in many cases peat and coal can replace each other in same power plants. According to this study, the peat extraction method used was of lesser significance than the extraction reserve area type in regards to the climatic impact. However, the excavation-drier method seems to cause a slightly reduced climatic impact as compared with the prevailing milling method. (orig.)

  8. DOE methods compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leasure, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established an analytical methods compendium development program to integrate its environmental analytical methods. This program is administered through DOE's Laboratory Management Division (EM-563). The primary objective of this program is to assemble a compendium of analytical chemistry methods of known performance for use by all DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. This compendium will include methods for sampling, field screening, fixed analytical laboratory and mobile analytical laboratory analyses. It will also include specific guidance on the proper selection of appropriate sampling and analytical methods in using specific analytical requirements

  9. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  10. Waste Management System Requirement document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This volume defines the top level technical requirements for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1, General System Requirements. Volume 3 provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MRS facility in Volume 1 and, when appropriate, elaborates on requirements by providing associated performance criteria. Volumes 1 and 3 together convey a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MRS facility design without unduly constraining individual design efforts. The requirements are derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA), the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (40 CFR 191), NRC Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear and High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR 72), and other federal statutory and regulatory requirements, and major program policy decisions. This document sets forth specific requirements that will be fulfilled. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy will be significantly more detailed and provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements will be implemented in the design. Requirements appearing in Volume 3 are traceable into the MRS Design Requirements Document. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional breakdown for the MRS facility. 1 tab

  11. Is the application of CAD useful for radiologists for passing the official tests required for outpatient breast imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malich, A.; Beier, A.; Gorna, R.; Bank, P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: to analyze whether currently available CAD systems meet the diagnostic requirements for passing screening tests (first reader CAD) and to analyze whether the additional usage of CAD systems provides significant support for the diagnosing radiologist on the basis of official screening test cases (second reading by CAD). Material and methods: 200 images of 100 mammographies of 50 patients of an official screening test case collection were analyzed double-blind with and without CAD printouts (iCAD, U.S.A.) by three radiologists: one experienced in breast analysis and CAD application, one experienced in mammography analysis but inexperienced in CAD usage, one with minimal experience with breast analysis and CAD application. All radiologists measured the largest diameter of any malignant mass. The mean value of these calculations was correlated to the largest diameter given by CAD prompts. Results: the mean sensitivity and specificity increased slightly as a result of the additional usage of CAD (1 and 0.6%, resp.). Both values are not statistically significant. The highest effect was measured for the radiologist with CAD experience, while no effect was measured for the inexperienced radiologist. CAD met the sensitivity requirements but not the specificity criteria (96 and 20.3%, resp.). The sizes given by CAD prompts corresponded significantly with the real sizes (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). (orig.)

  12. Knowledge-based support system for requirement elaboration in design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo; Kondo, Shunsuke

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements are the seeds of every design activity, but elicitation and formalization of them are not easy tasks. This paper proposes a method to support designers in such requirement elaboration process with a computer. In this method the cognitive work space of designers is modeled by abstraction and structural hierarchies, and supporting functions of knowledge-based requirement elaboration, requirement classification and assessment of contentment status of requirements are provided on this framework. A prototype system was developed and tested using fast breeder reactor design. (author)

  13. Visual soil evaluation - future research requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Ball, Bruce; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    A review of Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) techniques (Emmet-Booth et al., 2016) highlighted their established utility for soil quality assessment, though some limitations were identified; (1) The examination of aggregate size, visible intra-porosity and shape forms a key assessment criterion in almost all methods, thus limiting evaluation to structural form. The addition of criteria that holistically examine structure may be desirable. For example, structural stability can be indicated using dispersion tests or examining soil surface crusting, while the assessment of soil colour may indirectly indicate soil organic matter content, a contributor to stability. Organic matter assessment may also indicate structural resilience, along with rooting, earthworm numbers or shrinkage cracking. (2) Soil texture may influence results or impeded method deployment. Modification of procedures to account for extreme texture variation is desirable. For example, evidence of compaction in sandy or single grain soils greatly differs to that in clayey soils. Some procedures incorporate separate classification systems or adjust deployment based on texture. (3) Research into impacts of soil moisture content on VSE evaluation criteria is required. Criteria such as rupture resistance and shape may be affected by moisture content. It is generally recommended that methods are deployed on moist soils and quantification of influences of moisture variation on results is necessary. (4) Robust sampling strategies for method deployment are required. Dealing with spatial variation differs between methods, but where methods can be deployed over large areas, clear instruction on sampling is required. Additionally, as emphasis has been placed on the agricultural production of soil, so the ability of VSE for exploring structural quality in terms of carbon storage, water purification and biodiversity support also requires research. References Emmet-Booth, J.P., Forristal. P.D., Fenton, O., Ball, B

  14. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....

  15. A quantitative study of cerebral blood flow in childhood using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD patlak-plot method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamori, Hiroyuki; Kohira, Ryutaro; Fujita, Yukihiko [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2001-12-01

    Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was measured by SPECT using the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD Patlak-Plot method in 54 subjects (age: 1 to 14 years). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values were obtained using Lassen's correction algorithm. The mCBF values were 52.2 ml/100 g/min in those aged 1-4 years, 49.3 ml/100 g/min in those aged 5-9 years, and 48.1 ml/100 g/min in those aged 10-14 years. There was a slight decrease with advancing age. The rCBF in the frontal region was lower than in other regions in those aged 1-4 years. The Patlak-Plot method is suitable for examination of children, because it does not require arterial blood sampling. (author)

  16. Using NLP Reframing, Metaprograme Methods for Improving the Activity of the Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif Cornel Marian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The new method by increasing the adaptation speed to a context, through a slight transformation of the contextual meaning of words and by the optimization of the phases in which the actual process of reframing provides a closer connection between the person and context, a better adaptation to the language contextual requirements, but also to reduce the steps in which the process of reframing is done, which is a higher efficiency of it and a lower consumption of resources. By improving the programs and filters that are serving to metaprograms, the environmental information will be obtained at a high quality, the redundancy will decrease, and the consumption of resources needed to perform the filtering of information will also be reduced.Keywords: optimization, efficient, reduce, improve, communication

  17. Tool-based requirement traceability between requirement and design artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinkin

  18. Comparative study of radiometric and calorimetric methods for total hemispherical emissivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Hameury, Jacques; Ausset, Patrick; Hay, Bruno; Ibos, Laurent; Candau, Yves

    2018-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of infrared emissivity is important in applications such as surface temperature measurements by infrared thermography or thermal balance for building walls. A comparison of total hemispherical emissivity measurement was performed by two laboratories: the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais (LNE) and the Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Thermique, Environnement et Systèmes (CERTES). Both laboratories performed emissivity measurements on four samples, chosen to cover a large range of emissivity values and angular reflectance behaviors. The samples were polished aluminum (highly specular, low emissivity), bulk PVC (slightly specular, high emissivity), sandblasted aluminum (diffuse surface, medium emissivity), and aluminum paint (slightly specular surface, medium emissivity). Results obtained using five measurement techniques were compared. LNE used a calorimetric method for direct total hemispherical emissivity measurement [1], an absolute reflectometric measurement method [2], and a relative reflectometric measurement method. CERTES used two total hemispherical directional reflectometric measurement methods [3, 4]. For indirect techniques by reflectance measurements, the total hemispherical emissivity values were calculated from directional hemispherical reflectance measurement results using spectral integration when required and directional to hemispherical extrapolation. Results were compared, taking into account measurement uncertainties; an added uncertainty was introduced to account for heterogeneity over the surfaces of the samples and between samples. All techniques gave large relative uncertainties for a low emissive and very specular material (polished aluminum), and results were quite scattered. All the indirect techniques by reflectance measurement gave results within ±0.01 for a high emissivity material. A commercial aluminum paint appears to be a good candidate for producing samples with medium level of emissivity

  19. Nondestructive examination requirements for PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanner, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements for the nondestructive examination of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessel internals in accordance with the requirements of the EPRI Material Reliability Program (MRP) inspection standard for PWR internals (MRP-228) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Section XI In-service Inspection. The MRP vessel internals examinations have been performed at nuclear plants in the USA since 2009. The objective of the inspection standard is to provide the requirements for the nondestructive examination (NDE) methods implemented to support the inspection and evaluation of the internals. The inspection standard contains requirements specific to the inspection methodologies involved as well as requirements for qualification of the NDE procedures, equipment and personnel used to perform the vessel internals inspections. The qualification requirements for the NDE systems will be summarized. Six PWR plants in the USA have completed inspections of their internals using the Inspection and Evaluation Guideline (MRP-227) and the Inspection Standard (MRP-228). Examination results show few instances of service-induced degradation flaws, as expected. The few instances of degradation have mostly occurred in bolting

  20. Requirements Flowdown for Prognostics and Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) principles have considerable promise to change the game of lifecycle cost of engineering systems at high safety levels by providing a reliable estimate of future system states. This estimate is a key for planning and decision making in an operational setting. While technology solutions have made considerable advances, the tie-in into the systems engineering process is lagging behind, which delays fielding of PHM-enabled systems. The derivation of specifications from high level requirements for algorithm performance to ensure quality predictions is not well developed. From an engineering perspective some key parameters driving the requirements for prognostics performance include: (1) maximum allowable Probability of Failure (PoF) of the prognostic system to bound the risk of losing an asset, (2) tolerable limits on proactive maintenance to minimize missed opportunity of asset usage, (3) lead time to specify the amount of advanced warning needed for actionable decisions, and (4) required confidence to specify when prognosis is sufficiently good to be used. This paper takes a systems engineering view towards the requirements specification process and presents a method for the flowdown process. A case study based on an electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (e-UAV) scenario demonstrates how top level requirements for performance, cost, and safety flow down to the health management level and specify quantitative requirements for prognostic algorithm performance.

  1. Marker-based reconstruction of the kinematics of a chain of segments: a new method that incorporates joint kinematic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klous, Miriam; Klous, Sander

    2010-07-01

    The aim of skin-marker-based motion analysis is to reconstruct the motion of a kinematical model from noisy measured motion of skin markers. Existing kinematic models for reconstruction of chains of segments can be divided into two categories: analytical methods that do not take joint constraints into account and numerical global optimization methods that do take joint constraints into account but require numerical optimization of a large number of degrees of freedom, especially when the number of segments increases. In this study, a new and largely analytical method for a chain of rigid bodies is presented, interconnected in spherical joints (chain-method). In this method, the number of generalized coordinates to be determined through numerical optimization is three, irrespective of the number of segments. This new method is compared with the analytical method of Veldpaus et al. [1988, "A Least-Squares Algorithm for the Equiform Transformation From Spatial Marker Co-Ordinates," J. Biomech., 21, pp. 45-54] (Veldpaus-method, a method of the first category) and the numerical global optimization method of Lu and O'Connor [1999, "Bone Position Estimation From Skin-Marker Co-Ordinates Using Global Optimization With Joint Constraints," J. Biomech., 32, pp. 129-134] (Lu-method, a method of the second category) regarding the effects of continuous noise simulating skin movement artifacts and regarding systematic errors in joint constraints. The study is based on simulated data to allow a comparison of the results of the different algorithms with true (noise- and error-free) marker locations. Results indicate a clear trend that accuracy for the chain-method is higher than the Veldpaus-method and similar to the Lu-method. Because large parts of the equations in the chain-method can be solved analytically, the speed of convergence in this method is substantially higher than in the Lu-method. With only three segments, the average number of required iterations with the chain-method

  2. [Screening methods for mild cognitive impairment in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Pérez, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is always clinical and screening methods only indicate that the patient has a higher risk of this condition. In MCI, there is a slight decline in some cognitive abilities that does not affect activities of daily living and therefore does not produce social or occupational disability. The definitive diagnosis of MCI requires a considerable time investment that is very rarely possible to provide in primary care (PC) consultations. Hence the need for PC physicians to employ rapid and simple screening methods (brief cognitive assessment -BCA-) that allow objective identification of patients likely to have MCI in a few minutes. This article reviews the BCA tools that can truly be applied in less than 10 minutes. The phototest is a brief screening tool that is easy to use and interpret by physicians and is well accepted by patients. Consequently, it is one of the most useful tests in PC for screening of both MCI and dementia. In addition to BCA, instrumental activities of daily living scales should also be applied to differentiate MCI from dementia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. On method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis of linguistic reconstruction is the comparative method, which starts from the assumption that there is “a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident”, implying the existence of a common source (thus Sir William Jones in 1786. It follows that there must be a possible sequence of developments from the reconstructed system to the attested data. These developments must have been either phonetically regular or analogical. The latter type of change requires a model and a motivation. A theory which does not account for the data in terms of sound laws and well-motivated analogical changes is not a linguistic reconstruction but philosophical speculation.The pre-laryngealist idea that any Proto-Indo-European long vowel became acute in Balto-Slavic is a typical example of philosophical speculation contradicted by the comparative evidence. Other examples are spontaneous glottalization (Jasanoff’s “acute assignment”, unattested anywhere in the world, Jasanoff’s trimoraic long vowels, Eichner’s law, Osthoff’s law, and Szemerényi’s law, which is an instance of circular reasoning. The Balto-Slavic acute continues the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals and the glottalic feature of the traditional Proto-Indo-European “unaspirated voiced” obstruents (Winter’s law. My reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European glottalic obstruents is based on direct evidence from Indo-Iranian, Armenian, Baltic and Germanic and indirect evidence from Indo-Iranian, Greek, Latin and Slavic.

  4. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline

  5. Identified adjustability dimensions when generating a product specific requirements specification by requirements reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Nielsen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    . An extensive state of the art is included to introduce the presented methods related to each adjustability dimensions. The options for implementing each adjustability dimensions in a requirement reuse approach are illustrated along with a discussion regarding the benefits and issues resulting from each option....... This discussion should help practitioners to better understand the possible methods that can be implemented and to design a user friendly and sustainable approach. A case study, describing how the dimensions are incorporated in two requirements reuse approaches, for Danfoss Solar Inverters (SI) and Danfoss...

  6. UTM TCL2 Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Irene S.; Rios, Joseph L.; McGuirk, Patrick O.; Mulfinger, Daniel G.; Venkatesan, Priya; Smith, David R.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Wang, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Technical Capability Level (TCL) 2 software implements the UTM TCL 2 software requirements described herein. These software requirements are linked to the higher level UTM TCL 2 System Requirements. Each successive TCL implements additional UTM functionality, enabling additional use cases. TCL 2 demonstrated how to enable expanded multiple operations by implementing automation for beyond visual line-of-sight, tracking operations, and operations flying over sparsely populated areas.

  7. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Agur

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

  8. Information requirements for enterprise systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Lock, Russell; Storer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss an approach to system requirements engineering, which is based on using models of the responsibilities assigned to agents in a multi-agency system of systems. The responsibility models serve as a basis for identifying the stakeholders that should be considered in establishing the requirements and provide a basis for a structured approach, described here, for information requirements elicitation. We illustrate this approach using a case study drawn from civil emergenc...

  9. Refinement of boards' role required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business.

  10. World enrichment requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The primary enrichment suppliers-Eurodif, Techsnabexport, Urenco, and the US DOE - are positioning themselves to take advantage of the post - 1995 market. Overall, unfilled requirements represent about 40 percent of world requirements in the year 2000. The USA will be the primary market, as US utilities' unfilled enrichment requirements account for over 60 percent of the world's total unfilled requirements. The enrichment market is moving toward more global competition, as each supplier tries to maintain its current regional market base and then to capture additional market share in other regions

  11. Addressing the Resource Requirements Mismatch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braun, William

    2003-01-01

    ... on the other, appear to be developing a requirements-resource mismatch. The goals and objectives of the transformation rhetoric intuitively resonate with the military's increasingly technologic culture...

  12. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  13. Perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2008-01-01

    1. Introduction 1 2. Straightforward Expansions and Sources of Nonuniformity 23 3. The Method of Strained Coordinates 56 4. The Methods of Matched and Composite Asymptotic Expansions 110 5. Variation of Parameters and Methods of Averaging 159 6. The Method of Multiple Scales 228 7. Asymptotic Solutions of Linear Equations 308 References and Author Index 387 Subject Index 417

  14. Requirements of titanium alloys for aeronautical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiban, Brânduşa; Bran, Dragoş-Teodor; Elefterie, Cornelia Florina

    2018-02-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aeronatical components made from Titanium based alloys. Asignificant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys). For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  15. Aeronautical Industry Requirements for Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran, D. T.; Elefterie, C. F.; Ghiban, B.

    2017-06-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aviation components made from Titanium based alloys. A significant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys).For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  16. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...... of all other project material related to that topic, which allows to easily identify the most pertinent information. Part C lists the project partners and sponsors....

  17. Distillation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.

    1975-01-01

    Two main methods of separation using the distillation method are given and evaluated, namely evaporation and distillation in carrier gas flow. Two basic apparatus are described for illustrating the methods used. The use of the distillation method in radiochemistry is documented by a number of examples of the separation of elements in elemental state, volatile halogenides and oxides. Tables give a survey of distillation methods used for the separation of the individual elements and give conditions under which this separation takes place. The suitability of the use of distillation methods in radiochemistry is discussed with regard to other separation methods. (L.K.)

  18. Potyviruses differ in their requirement for TOR signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouibrahim, Laurence; Rubio, Ana Giner; Moretti, André; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Menand, Benoît; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Caranta, Carole

    2015-09-01

    Potyviruses are important plant pathogens that rely on many plant cellular processes for successful infection. TOR (target of rapamycin) signalling is a key eukaryotic energy-signalling pathway controlling many cellular processes such as translation and autophagy. The dependence of potyviruses on active TOR signalling was examined. Arabidopsis lines downregulated for TOR by RNAi were challenged with the potyviruses watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). WMV accumulation was found to be severely altered while TuMV accumulation was only slightly delayed. In another approach, using AZD-8055, an active site inhibitor of the TOR kinase, WMV infection was found to be strongly affected. Moreover, AZD-8055 application can cure WMV infection. In contrast, TuMV infection was not affected by AZD-8055. This suggests that potyviruses have different cellular requirements for active plant TOR signalling.

  19. REQUIREMENTS FOR IMAGE QUALITY OF EMERGENCY SPACECRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Altukhov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the method for formation of quality requirements to the images of emergency spacecrafts. The images are obtained by means of remote sensing of near-earth space orbital deployment in the visible range. of electromagnetic radiation. The method is based on a joint taking into account conditions of space survey, characteristics of surveillance equipment, main design features of the observed spacecrafts and orbital inspection tasks. Method. Quality score is the predicted linear resolution image that gives the possibility to create a complete view of pictorial properties of the space image obtained by electro-optical system from the observing satellite. Formulation of requirements to the numerical value of this indicator is proposed to perform based on the properties of remote sensing system, forming images in the conditions of outer space, and the properties of the observed emergency spacecraft: dimensions, platform construction of the satellite, on-board equipment placement. For method implementation the authors have developed a predictive model of requirements to a linear resolution for images of emergency spacecrafts, making it possible to select the intervals of space shooting and get the satellite images required for quality interpretation. Main results. To verify the proposed model functionality we have carried out calculations of the numerical values for the linear resolution of the image, ensuring the successful task of determining the gross structural damage of the spacecrafts and identifying changes in their spatial orientation. As input data were used with dimensions and geometric primitives corresponding to the shape of deemed inspected spacecrafts: Resurs-P", "Canopus-B", "Electro-L". Numerical values of the linear resolution images have been obtained, ensuring the successful task solution for determining the gross structural damage of spacecrafts.

  20. Nuclear energy and investment requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeltzel, D.

    1978-01-01

    The author assesses the investment requirements of the French nuclear programme within the framework of the national economy. He then evokes the means of financing these requirements as well as drawing attention to certain constraints which must be taken into account [fr