WorldWideScience

Sample records for method photographing apparatus

  1. X-ray photographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray photographic system is designed for medical applications. Two detectors are used for surveys in different planes, and produce electrical signals which are supplied to a comparator. The electron beams are examined according to a system of reference time steps. The apparatus includes a light source and a photo-detector and enables a reference signal to be produced against which the detected signals are compared. The beam source is formed from an electron gun, an extractor electrode and an anode; beam then passes through a collimator. (G.C.)

  2. Laboratory EXAFS using photographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S K; Gaur, A; Johari, A; Shrivastava, B D

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory EXAFS facilities have been used since long. However, EXAFS data analysis has not been reported as yet for the spectra recorded photographically. Though from our laboratory we have been reporting various studies employing X-ray spectrographs using the photographic method of registration of EXAFS spectra, but the data has never been analyzed using the Fourier transformation method and fitting with standards. This paper reports the study of copper metal EXAFS spectra at the K-edge recorded photographically employing a 400 mm curved mica crystal Cauchois type spectrograph with 0.5 kW tungsten target X-ray tube. The data obtained in digital form with the help of a microphotometer has been processed using EXAFS data analysis programs Athena and Artemis. The experimental data for copper metal foil have been fitted with the theoretical standards. The results have been compared with those obtained from another laboratory EXAFS set up employing 12 kW Rigaku rotating anode, Johansson-type spectrometer with Si(311) monochromator crystal and scintillation counter. The results have also been compared with those obtained from SSRL. The parameters obtained for the first two shells from the photographic method are comparable with those obtained from the other two methods. The present work shows that the photographic method of registering EXAFS spectra in laboratory set up using fixed target X-ray tubes can also be used for getting structural information at least for the first two coordination shells.

  3. Laboratory EXAFS using photographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, S K [Government College, Badnawar (Dhar)-454660 (India); Gaur, A; Johari, A; Shrivastava, B D, E-mail: joshisantoshk@yahoo.co [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Laboratory EXAFS facilities have been used since long. However, EXAFS data analysis has not been reported as yet for the spectra recorded photographically. Though from our laboratory we have been reporting various studies employing X-ray spectrographs using the photographic method of registration of EXAFS spectra, but the data has never been analyzed using the Fourier transformation method and fitting with standards. This paper reports the study of copper metal EXAFS spectra at the K-edge recorded photographically employing a 400 mm curved mica crystal Cauchois type spectrograph with 0.5 kW tungsten target X-ray tube. The data obtained in digital form with the help of a microphotometer has been processed using EXAFS data analysis programs Athena and Artemis. The experimental data for copper metal foil have been fitted with the theoretical standards. The results have been compared with those obtained from another laboratory EXAFS set up employing 12 kW Rigaku rotating anode, Johansson-type spectrometer with Si(311) monochromator crystal and scintillation counter. The results have also been compared with those obtained from SSRL. The parameters obtained for the first two shells from the photographic method are comparable with those obtained from the other two methods. The present work shows that the photographic method of registering EXAFS spectra in laboratory set up using fixed target X-ray tubes can also be used for getting structural information at least for the first two coordination shells.

  4. CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-10-01

    An improved apparatus for the melting and casting of uranium is described. A vacuum chamber is positioned over the casting mold and connected thereto, and a rod to pierce the oxide skin of the molten uranium is fitted into the bottom of the melting chamber. The entire apparatus is surrounded by a jacket, and operations are conducted under a vacuum. The improvement in this apparatus lies in the fact that the top of the melting chamber is fitted with a plunger which allows squeezing of the oxide skin to force out any molten uranium remaining after the skin has been broken and the molten charge has been cast.

  5. Imaging Apparatus And Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manohar, Srirang; van Leeuwen, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A thermoacoustic imaging apparatus comprises an electromagnetic radiation source configured to irradiate a sample area and an acoustic signal detection probe arrangement for detecting acoustic signals. A radiation responsive acoustic signal generator is added outside the sample area. The detection

  6. IMAGING APPARATUS AND METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manohar, Srirang; van Leeuwen, A.G.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A thermoacoustic imaging apparatus comprises an electromagnetic radiation source configured to irradiate a sample area and an acoustic signal detection probe arrangement for detecting acoustic signals. A radiation responsive acoustic signal generator is added outside the sample area. The detection

  7. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Jansen, G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  8. Electroplating method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, R.B.; Smith, W.E.L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for high speed electroplating or anodizing tubular members such as nuclear reactor fuel elements. A loading arm positions the member on a base for subsequent support by one of two sets of electrical contacts. A carriage assembly positions electrodes into and around the member. Electrolyte is pumped between the electrodes and the member while electric current is applied. Programmed controls sequentially employ each of the two sets of contacts to expose all surfaces of the member to the electrolyte. The member is removed from the apparatus by an unloading arm

  9. Electroplating method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Robert B.; Smith, William E. L.

    1978-06-20

    An apparatus for high speed electroplating or anodizing tubular members such as nuclear reactor fuel elements. A loading arm positions the member on a base for subsequent support by one of two sets of electrical contacts. A carriage assembly positions electrodes into and around the member. Electrolyte is pumped between the electrodes and the member while electric current is applied. Programmed controls sequentially employ each of the two sets of contacts to expose all surfaces of the member to the electrolyte. The member is removed from the apparatus by an unloading arm.

  10. Method of making stepped photographic density standards of radiographic photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovin, I.V.; Kondina, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In industrial radiography practice the need often arises for a prompt evaluation of the photographic density of an x-ray film. A method of making stepped photographic density standards for industrial radiography by contact printing from a negative is described. The method is intended for industrial radiation flaw detection laboratories not having specialized sensitometric equipment

  11. Electrolysis apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure in which electrolysis is combined with radiolysis to improve the reaction yield is proposed for the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water. An apparatus for this procedure is disclosed. High-energy electric pulses are applied between the anode and kathode of an electrolytical cell in such a way that short-wave electromagnetic radiation is generated at the same time

  12. Semiconductor apparatus and method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor apparatus (1) and a method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus (1), wherein the semiconductor apparatus (1) comprises a semiconductor layer (2) and a passivation layer (3), arranged on a surface of the semiconductor layer (2), for passivating the

  13. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  14. Scanning apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnett, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    A novel method is described for processing the analogue signals from the photomultiplier tubes in a tomographic X-ray scanner. The system produces a series of pulses whose instantaneous frequency depends on the detected intensity of the X-radiation. A timer unit is used to determine the segment scan intervals and also to deduce the average radiation intensity detected during this interval. The overall system is claimed to possess the advantageous properties of low time delay, wide bandwidth and relative low cost. (U.K.)

  15. Lubrication method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, R.S.

    1988-05-03

    In a combustion turbine engine comprising a bearing member journaling a rotatable component, and compressor means providing pressurized air, the method of providing liquid lubricant to the bearing member is described comprising the steps of: providing the liquid lubricant sealed within a collapsible and penetrable bladder member; enclosing the bladder member and lubricant within a substantially closed housing sealingly cooperating with the bladder member to define a pair of chambers; arranging a penetrating lance member in one of the pair of chambers in confronting relationship with the bladder member; providing communication of the pressurized air with the other of the pair of chambers to force the bladder member into impaled sealing relationship with the lance member; communicating the lubricant to the bearing member via the lance member; and utilizing the pressurized air within the other chamber to collapse the bladder member, simultaneously flowing the lubricant to the bearing member.

  16. Radiation scatter apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molbert, J. L.; Riddle, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    A radiation scatter gauge includes multiple detector locations for developing separate and independent sets of data from which multiple physical characteristics of a thin material and underlying substrate may be determined. In an illustrated embodiment, the apparatus and method of the invention are directed to determining characteristics of resurfaced pavement by nondestructive testing. More particularly, the density and thickness of a thin asphalt overlay and the density of the underlying pavement may be determined

  17. Vibration damping method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.

  18. Strip casting apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  19. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  20. Isotope separation method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are specified for separating a mixture of isotopes present in a compound, preferably a gaseous compound, into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes differ from the natural abundances of the isotopes in the compound. The invention particularly relates to carrying out a laser induced, isotopically selective conversion of gaseous molecules in such a manner as to achieve more than one stage of isotope separation along the length of the laser beam. As an example, the invention is applied to the separation of the isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , in which either the U-235 or U-238 isotope is selectively excited by means of irradiation from an infrared laser, and the selectively excited isotope converted into a product that can be recovered from UF 6 by one of a variety of methods that are described. (U.K.)

  1. Molecular separation method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for separating a gaseous mixture of chemically identical but physically different molecules based on their polarities. The gaseous mixture of molecules is introduced in discrete quantities into the proximal end of a porous glass molecular sieve. The molecular sieve is exposed to microwaves to excite the molecules to a higher energy state from a lower energy state, those having a higher dipole moment being excited more than those with a lower energy state. The temperature of the sieve kept cold by a flow of liquid nitrogen through a cooling jacket so that the heat generated by the molecules colliding with the material is transferred away from the material. The molecules thus alternate between a higher energy state and a lower one, with the portion of molecules having the higher dipole moment favored over the others. The former portion can then be extracted separately from the distal end of the molecular sieve. 2 figs

  2. Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

  3. Method and apparatus for producing microspherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egli, W.; Bailey, W.H.; Leary, D.F.; Lansley, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for producing microspherical particles and more particularly to a method and apparatus which are particularly useful in connection with the sol-gel process for the production of nuclear fuel kernels. (U.K.)

  4. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferable substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. The laser beam comprises pi-pulses of a selected wavelength which excite unexcited molecules, or cause stimulated emission of excited molecules of one of the isotopes. Excitation caused by first direction pi-pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning pi-pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement is accomplished by a large number of pi-pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam

  5. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferably substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. Because the molecules in the beam occupy various degenerate energy levels, if the laser beam comprises chirped pulses comprising selected wavelengths, the laser beam will very efficiently excite substantially all unexcited molecules and will cause stimulated emission of substantially all excited molecules of a selected one of the isotopes in the beam which such pulses encounter. Excitation caused by first direction chirped pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning chirped pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement of essentially all the molecules containing the one isotope is accomplished by a large number of chirped pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam

  6. Cask handling method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoli, A.H.; Husain, I.

    1977-01-01

    The method of transferring radioactive material into and out of the cask comprises positioning a tank with an open end in a well. Then a cask having a passage for moving radioactive material into and out of the cask is placed in the tank through the opening in the tank. The tank opening is then sealed to the cask relative to the well without sealing the passage relative to the well to prevent water filled into the well from leaking into the tank. Then the well is filled with water above the seal, and radioactive material is then moved through the water in the well through the passage into the cask. The tank may be filled with demineralized water from a separate source to pressurize the space in the tank on the other side of the seal from the well to prevent water in the well from entering the tank. The water level in the well and in the tank is then lowered, the tank opening to the cask seal is removed, and a cover is attached to the cask passage to maintain the radioactive material and contaminated water in the cask. The apparatus which accomplishes the above method comprises a tank in a well for receiving a cask therein. A seal between the tank and the cask prevents water in the well from flowing into the tank about the cask and permits water in the well to flow through the cask opening into the cask. A first water supply means raises and lowers the water level in the well, and a second water supply means supplies clean demineralized water to the tank under pressure to prevent water in the well from leaking into the tank. The seal is annularly shaped and is attached to the top of the tank. The central portion of the annular seal is aligned with the cask opening and it has means to seal the annular seal to the cask

  7. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  8. Apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.; Mousa, Mustafa; Abdulaal, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitory can have a Lagrangian inertial measurement unit. The Lagrangian inertial measurement unit can have a processor, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and/or a wireless transmitter. The processor can

  9. Photographic inspection apparatus and process to know the shape and the dimensions of the end parts of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Before any inspection or repair operation of the tubes of a steam generator, one needs to know the shape and the dimension of the hole of the tube in the near the primary face of the tube plate. The photographic inspection apparatus is moved parallel with the tube plate, inside the water box, such as its optical axis keeps parallel to a determined direction during its displacement. One takes successively photographs of the primary face of the tube plate with the photographic apparatus in different positions, to obtain at least two photographs of each tube to be inspected, under different angles. Photographs are developed at a determined scale of the primary face of the tube plate and of the tube ends. The photographs are oriented two by two to obtain a stereophotogrammetric view of the end parts of each tube. Measurements and examinations are done from the stereophotogrammetric view obtained for each tube, outside the steam generator zone. The invention concerns the process and also the photographic apparatus described in the present patent [fr

  10. Apparatus, System, And Method For Roadway Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-06-02

    An apparatus, system, and method for monitoring traffic and roadway water conditions. Traffic flow and roadway flooding is monitored concurrently through a wireless sensor network. The apparatus and system comprises ultrasound rangefinders monitoring traffic flow, flood water conditions, or both. Routing information may be calculated from the traffic conditions, such that routes are calculated to avoid roadways that are impassable or are slow due to traffic conditions.

  11. Apparatus, System, And Method For Roadway Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for monitoring traffic and roadway water conditions. Traffic flow and roadway flooding is monitored concurrently through a wireless sensor network. The apparatus and system comprises ultrasound rangefinders monitoring traffic flow, flood water conditions, or both. Routing information may be calculated from the traffic conditions, such that routes are calculated to avoid roadways that are impassable or are slow due to traffic conditions.

  12. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  13. Method and apparatus for calibrating spectrophotometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreutelkamp, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of calibrating spectrophotometers by placing one or more filters in the light path of the spectrophotometer and measuring the amount of radiation by means of a detector. The present invention furthermore relates to an apparatus to be used with such a method.

  14. Apparatus and method for reconstructing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for constructing a two-dimensional picture of an object slice from linear projections of radiation not absorbed or scattered by the object, using convolution methods of data reconstruction, useful in the fields of medical radiology, microscopy, and non-destructive testing. (U.K.)

  15. Analysis apparatus and method of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous streaming method developed for the excution of immunoassays is described in this patent. In addition, a suitable apparatus for the method was developed whereby magnetic particles are automatically employed for the consecutive analysis of a series of liquid samples via the RIA technique

  16. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-06-05

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  17. Superconducting magnetic shielding apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, John R.; Clem, John R.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for providing magnetic shielding around a working volume. The apparatus includes a hollow elongated superconducting shell or cylinder having an elongated low magnetic pinning central portion, and two high magnetic pinning end regions. Transition portions of varying magnetic pinning properties are interposed between the central and end portions. The apparatus further includes a solenoid substantially coextensive with and overlying the superconducting cylinder, so as to be magnetically coupled therewith. The method includes the steps passing a longitudinally directed current through the superconducting cylinder so as to depin magnetic reservoirs trapped in the cylinder. Next, a circumferentially directed current is passed through the cylinder, while a longitudinally directed current is maintained. Depinned magnetic reservoirs are moved to the end portions of the cylinder, where they are trapped.

  18. Superconducting magnetic shielding apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, J.R.

    1982-07-09

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for providing magnetic shielding around a working volume. The apparatus includes a hollow elongated superconducting shell or cylinder having an elongated low magnetic pinning central portion, and two high magnetic pinning end regions. Transition portions of varying magnetic pinning properties are interposed between the central and end portions. The apparatus further includes a solenoid substantially coextensive with and overlying the superconducting cylinder, so as to be magnetically coupled therewith. The method includes the steps passing a longitudinally directed current through the superconducting cylinder so as to depin magnetic reservoirs trapped in the cylinder. Next, a circumferentially directed current is passed through the cylinder, while a longitudinally directed current is maintained. Depinned magnetic reservoirs are moved to the end portions of the cylinder, where they are trapped.

  19. [Acoustic Levitation Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Jacobi, N. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Methods are described for acoustically levitating objects within chambers of spherical and cylindrical shape. The wavelengths for chambers of particular dimensions are given, for generating standing wave patterns of any of a variety of modes within the chambers. For a spherical chamber the lowest resonant mode is excited by applying a wavelength of 3.02R, where R is the chamber radius. The two lowest pure radial modes for that chamber, are excited by applying wavelengths of 1.40R and 0.814R. For a cylindrical chamber of radius R, the lowest mode is at a wavelength of 3.41R, and the lowest pure radial modes are at wavelengths of 1.64R and 0.896R.

  20. Method and apparatus for wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, H; Treadway, B R

    1968-12-17

    A method of making the permeable portion of a prepacked sand control liner consists of first mixing a heat curable bonding material and particulate matter together in predetermined amounts. The mixture is immersed in a liquid wax bath having a temperature at least as great as the curing temperature of the bonding material. The bonding material is allowed to cure in order to bond the particulate matter together to form a consolidated permeable portion for use in a prepacked sand control liner, while maintaining the temperature of the bath at least the same as the curing temperature of the bonding material. The liquid wax is allowed to cool to solidify the consolidated permeable portion. The amount of the heat curable bonding material which is used varies from 3-1/2 to 10% by wt. (15 claims)

  1. Acoustic agglomeration methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Methods are described for using acoustic energy to agglomerate fine particles on the order of one micron diameter that are suspended in gas, to provide agglomerates large enough for efficient removal by other techniques. The gas with suspended particles, is passed through the length of a chamber while acoustic energy at a resonant chamber mode is applied to set up one or more acoustic standing wave patterns that vibrate the suspended particles to bring them together so they agglomerate. Several widely different frequencies can be applied to efficiently vibrate particles of widely differing sizes. The standing wave pattern can be applied along directions transversed to the flow of the gas. The particles can be made to move in circles by applying acoustic energy in perpendicular directions with the energy in both directions being of the same wavelength but 90 deg out of phase.

  2. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  3. Apparatus and Methods for Mitigating Electromagnetic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M. (Inventor); Niedra, Janis M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Apparatus, methods, and other embodiments associated with mitigation of magnetic fields are described herein. In an embodiment, a method for mitigating an electromagnetic field includes positioning a mitigating coil around a linear alternator of linear motor so that the mitigating coil is coaxially located with an alternator coil; arranging the mitigating coil to generate a field to mitigate an electromagnetic field generated by the alternator coil; and passing an induced current from the alternator coil through the mitigating coil.

  4. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  5. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  6. Apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-08-25

    An apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitory can have a Lagrangian inertial measurement unit. The Lagrangian inertial measurement unit can have a processor, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and/or a wireless transmitter. The processor can have an integrated direction cosine matrix. The accelerometer can be configured to measure linear accelerations of a vehicle and/or can communicate measured linear acceleration to the processor. The gyroscope can be configured to measure rotational accelerations of the vehicle and/or can communicate measured rotational acceleration to the processor. The processor can be configured to calculate estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The wireless transmitter can be configured to wirelessly transmit estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The apparatus, system, and method can be integrated with a wireless sensor network.

  7. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water

  8. Apparatus and method for assembling fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element assembling method and apparatus is preferably operable under programmed control unit to receive fuel rods from storage, arrange them into axially aligned stacks of closely monitored length, and transfer the stacks of fuel rods to a loading device for insertion into longitudinal passages in the fuel elements. In order to handle large numbers of one or more classifications of fuel rods or other cylindrical parts, the assembling apparatus includes at least two feed troughs each formed by a pair of screw members with a movable table having a plurality of stacking troughs for alignment with the feed troughs and with a conveyor for delivering the stacks to the loading device, the fuel rods being moved along the stacking troughs upon a fluid cushion. 23 claims, 6 figures

  9. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  10. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus for mounting a photovoltaic (PV) module on a surface, including a support with an upper surface, a lower surface, tabs, one or more openings, and a clip comprising an arm and a notch, where the apparatus resists wind forces and seismic forces and creates a grounding electrical bond between the PV module, support, and clip. The invention further includes a method for installing PV modules on a surface that includes arranging supports in rows along an X axis and in columns along a Y axis on a surface such that in each row the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the longest side of a PV module and in each column the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the shortest side of a PV module.

  11. Apparatus and method for radiation processing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberg, W.B.; Luniewski, R.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiation degradation processing of polytetrafluoroethylene makes use of a simultaneous irradiation, agitation and cooling. The apparatus is designed to make efficent use of radiation in the processing. (author)

  12. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1983-01-01

    In a method of investigating the distribution of a quantity in a chosen region of a body (E) by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques movement of the body during the investigation is monitored by probes (A, B C) (C extends orthogonally to A and B) attached to the body and responsive to magnetic fields applied to the body during the investigation. An apparatus for carrying out the method is also described. If movement is detected, due compensation may be made during processing of the collected data, or the latter may be re-ascertained after appropriate adjustment e.g. a change in the RF excitation frequency. (author)

  14. Apparatus and method for detecting explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, B.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for use in situations such as airports to detect explosives hidden in containers (for eg. suitcases). The method involves the evaluation of the quantities of oxygen and nitrogen within the container by neutron activation analysis and the determination of whether these quantities exceed predetermined limits. The equipment includes a small sub-critical lower powered reactor for thermal (0.01 to 0.10 eV) neutron production, a radium beryllium primary source, a deuterium-tritium reactor as a high energy (> 1.06 MeV) neutron source and Geiger counter detector arrays. (UK)

  15. Method and apparatus for injecting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, W E

    1966-07-05

    A method and apparatus are described for injecting grouting material into porous, fractured, unconsolidated, or other formations, whose cohesion is to be increased and/or whose permeability is to be decreased. A tool for injecting the fluid consists of a packer and valves through which the pressurized fluid may pass from the interior of the tool to the packer to expand it. Another valve allows pressure fluid to be vented so as to allow contraction of the packer. A third valve allows a flow of pressurized flow out of the tool and into the material when a predetermined pressure within the tool has been attained. (9 claims)

  16. Method and apparatus for computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for examining a plane through a body by detecting the absorption of X- or gamma ray beams directed tangent to concentric rings defined in the body plane as the beams are rotated three hundred sixty degrees around the outside of the body. Signals proportional to the detected beams are used to generate signals proportional to absorption or transmission coefficients of defined concentric ring elements. These coefficients are useful in describing the interior of the body at the plane under examination

  17. Method and apparatus for continuous sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcussen, C.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuously sampling a pulverous material flow includes means for extracting a representative subflow from a pulverous material flow. A screw conveyor is provided to cause the extracted subflow to be pushed upwardly through a duct to an overflow. Means for transmitting a radiation beam transversely to the subflow in the duct, and means for sensing the transmitted beam through opposite pairs of windows in the duct are provided to measure the concentration of one or more constituents in the subflow. (author)

  18. Method and apparatus for simultaneous spectroelectrochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Bryan, Samuel A; Schroll, Cynthia A; Heineman, William R

    2013-11-19

    An apparatus and method of simultaneous spectroelectrochemical analysis is disclosed. A transparent surface is provided. An analyte solution on the transparent surface is contacted with a working electrode and at least one other electrode. Light from a light source is focused on either a surface of the working electrode or the analyte solution. The light reflected from either the surface of the working electrode or the analyte solution is detected. The potential of the working electrode is adjusted, and spectroscopic changes of the analyte solution that occur with changes in thermodynamic potentials are monitored.

  19. Single beam pass migmacell method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglich, B.C.; Nering, J.E.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Miller, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The invention provides improvements in migmacell apparatus and method by dispensing with the need for metastable confinement of injected molecular ions for multiple precession periods. Injected molecular ions undergo a 'single pass' through the reaction volume. By preconditioning the injected beam such that it contains a population distribution of molecules in higher vibrational states than in the case of a normal distribution, injected molecules in the single pass exper-ience collisionless dissociation in the migmacell under magnetic influence, i.e., so-called Lorentz dissociation. Dissociationions then form atomic migma

  20. Switched-mode power supply apparatus and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a switched-mode power supply apparatus and a corresponding method. For an effective compensation of non-linearities caused by dead- time and voltage drops in the switching power amplifier of the apparatus, an apparatus is proposed comprising a switching power

  1. Switched-mode power supply apparatus and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a switched-mode power supply apparatus and a corresponding method. For an effective compensation of non-linearities caused by dead-time and voltage drops in the switching power amplifier of the apparatus, an apparatus is proposed comprising a switching power

  2. Front lighted optical tooling method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical tooling method and apparatus uses a front lighted shadowgraphic technique to enhance visual contrast of reflected light. The apparatus includes an optical assembly including a fiducial mark, such as cross hairs, reflecting polarized light with a first polarization, a polarizing element backing the fiducial mark and a reflective surface backing the polarizing element for reflecting polarized light bypassing the fiducial mark and traveling through the polarizing element. The light reflected by the reflecting surface is directed through a second pass of the polarizing element toward the frontal direction with a polarization differing from the polarization of the light reflected by the fiducial mark. When used as a tooling target, the optical assembly may be mounted directly to a reference surface or may be secured in a mounting, such as a magnetic mounting. The optical assembly may also be mounted in a plane defining structure and used as a spherometer in conjunction with an optical depth measuring instrument. A method of measuring a radius of curvature of an unknown surface includes positioning the spherometer on a surface between the surface and a depth measuring optical instrument. As the spherometer is frontally illuminated, the distance from the depth measuring instrument to the fiducial mark and the underlying surface are alternately measured and the difference in these measurements is used as the sagittal height to calculate a radius of curvature

  3. Seal Apparatus and Methods to Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    In some implementations, apparatus and methods are provided through which a dynamic cryogenic seal is manufactured. In some implementations, the seal includes a retainer and a spring-seal assembly, the assembly being comprised of a main spring housing and fluorine-containing polymer seals. In some implementations, either a radial seal, or an axial (or "piston seal") is provided. In some implementations, methods of manufacturing the dynamic cryogenic seal are also provided. In some implementations, the methods include assembling the components while either heated or cooled, taking advantage of thermal expansion and contraction, such that there is a strong interference fit between the components at room temperature. In some implementations, this process ensures that the weaker fluorine-containing polymer seal is forced to expand and contract with the stronger retainer and spring and is under constant preload. In some implementations, the fluorine-containing polymer is therefore fluidized and retained, and can not lift off.

  4. Data eye monitor method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Marcella, James A [Rochester, MN; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-01-31

    An apparatus and method for providing a data eye monitor. The data eye monitor apparatus utilizes an inverter/latch string circuit and a set of latches to save the data eye for providing an infinite persistent data eye. In operation, incoming read data signals are adjusted in the first stage individually and latched to provide the read data to the requesting unit. The data is also simultaneously fed into a balanced XOR tree to combine the transitions of all incoming read data signals into a single signal. This signal is passed along a delay chain and tapped at constant intervals. The tap points are fed into latches, capturing the transitions at a delay element interval resolution. Using XORs, differences between adjacent taps and therefore transitions are detected. The eye is defined by segments that show no transitions over a series of samples. The eye size and position can be used to readjust the delay of incoming signals and/or to control environment parameters like voltage, clock speed and temperature.

  5. Method and apparatus for biological sequence comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, T.G.; Chang, W.I.

    1997-12-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for comparing biological sequences from a known source of sequences, with a subject (query) sequence. The apparatus takes as input a set of target similarity levels (such as evolutionary distances in units of PAM), and finds all fragments of known sequences that are similar to the subject sequence at each target similarity level, and are long enough to be statistically significant. The invention device filters out fragments from the known sequences that are too short, or have a lower average similarity to the subject sequence than is required by each target similarity level. The subject sequence is then compared only to the remaining known sequences to find the best matches. The filtering member divides the subject sequence into overlapping blocks, each block being sufficiently large to contain a minimum-length alignment from a known sequence. For each block, the filter member compares the block with every possible short fragment in the known sequences and determines a best match for each comparison. The determined set of short fragment best matches for the block provide an upper threshold on alignment values. Regions of a certain length from the known sequences that have a mean alignment value upper threshold greater than a target unit score are concatenated to form a union. The current block is compared to the union and provides an indication of best local alignment with the subject sequence. 5 figs.

  6. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2017-09-12

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil. A method includes contacting a pyrolysis oil with a deoxygenation catalyst in a first reactor at deoxygenation conditions to produce a first reactor effluent. The first reactor effluent has a first oxygen concentration and a first hydrogen concentration, based on hydrocarbons in the first reactor effluent, and the first reactor effluent includes an aromatic compound. The first reactor effluent is contacted with a dehydrogenation catalyst in a second reactor at conditions that deoxygenate the first reactor effluent while preserving the aromatic compound to produce a second reactor effluent. The second reactor effluent has a second oxygen concentration lower than the first oxygen concentration and a second hydrogen concentration that is equal to or lower than the first hydrogen concentration, where the second oxygen concentration and the second hydrogen concentration are based on the hydrocarbons in the second reactor effluent.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burl, M.; Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the rate of flow of a liquid in a selected region of a body by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are described. The method includes a sequence of applying a first magnetic pulse effective to excite nuclear magnetic resonance of a chosen nucleus within the liquid preferentially in a slice of the body which includes the selected region. A period of time (tsub(D)) is waited and then a second magnetic pulse is applied which is effective to excite nuclear magnetic resonance of the nuclei preferentially in the slice, and the free induction decay signal is measured. The whole sequence is repeated for different values of the period of time (tsub(D)). The variation in the value of the measured signal with tsub(D) is then related to the rate of flow of the liquid through the slice. (author)

  8. Apparatus for making an X-ray photograph of an object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.-H.; Gruenke, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for ion-valve radiography allowing a multiplicity of copies to be made responsive to a single radiographic exposure. Radiation, differentially-absorbed by passage through an object to be studied, enters an exposure chamber having a foraminate film or mesh structure surrounded by a high pressure gas or radio-conductive liquid of a type which converts the impingent radiation into electrostatic charge. The chamber is bounded by a pair of electrodes establishing electric fields therein to cause a charge image of the object to form upon an insulating layer contained upon the mesh structure. After exposure, the charge-image-bearing member is moved to a printing chamber and a charge image is deposited upon an insulative material sheet by ion flow techniques, for subsequent development by xerographic techniques. (Auth.)

  9. Method and apparatus for analyzing ionizable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, B.J.; Hall, R.C.; Thiede, P.W.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing a solution of ionizable compounds in a liquid. The solution is irradiated with electromagnetic radiation to ionize the compounds and the electrical conductivity of the solution is measured. The radiation may be X-rays, ultra-violet, infra-red or microwaves. The solution may be split into two streams, only one of which is irradiated, the other being used as a reference by comparing conductivities of the two streams. The liquid must be nonionizable and is preferably a polar solvent. The invention provides an analysis technique useful in liquid chromatography and in gas chromatography after dissolving the eluted gases in a suitable solvent. Electrical conductivity measurements performed on the irradiated eluent provide a quantitative indication of the ionizable materials existing within the eluent stream and a qualitative indication of the purity of the eluent stream. (author)

  10. Methods And Apparatus For Acoustic Fiber Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Pierre

    1999-11-09

    Methods and apparatus for acoustic fiber fractionation using a plane ultrasonic wave field interacting with water suspended fibers circulating in a channel flow using acoustic radiation forces to separate fibers into two or more fractions based on fiber radius, with applications of the separation concept in the pulp and paper industry. The continuous process relies on the use of a wall-mounted, rectangular cross-section piezoelectric ceramic transducer to selectively deflect flowing fibers as they penetrate the ultrasonic field. The described embodiment uses a transducer frequency of approximately 150 kHz. Depending upon the amount of dissolved gas in water, separation is obtained using a standing or a traveling wave field.

  11. Method and apparatus for inspecting tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for inspecting tires by the use of x-rays is disclosed in which a tire is advanced to an inspection station, engaged along opposite bead rims and inflated to axially spread the bead rims and side walls. An x-ray source is advanced axially into the tire and the tire is eccentrically rotated relative to the x-ray source to enable radial positioning of the source relative to the tire near the tire bead rim diameter without requiring radial movement of the x-ray source. The x-ray source produces an x-ray beam which sweeps about the interior of the expanded tire from bead rim to bead rim while the tire is rotated about its centerline. An x-ray detection system detects x-rays which have penetrated the wall and produces inspection information concerning the tire construction. (Patent Office Record)

  12. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  13. Method and apparatus for altering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Regan W.; Greenly, John B.

    2002-02-05

    Methods and apparatus for thermally altering the near surface characteristics of a material are described. In particular, a repetitively pulsed ion beam system comprising a high energy pulsed power source and an ion beam generator are described which are capable of producing single species high voltage ion beams (0.25-2.5 MeV) at 1-1000 kW average power and over extended operating cycles (10.sup.8). Irradiating materials with such high energy, repetitively pulsed ion beams can yield surface treatments including localized high temperature anneals to melting, both followed by rapid thermal quenching to ambient temperatures to achieve both novel and heretofore commercially unachievable physical characteristics in a near surface layer of material.

  14. Method and apparatus for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, John William; Bonnell, Leo; Robinson, Earl T.

    2010-03-03

    A method and apparatus for reacting a hydrocarbon containing feed stream by steam methane reforming reactions to form a synthesis gas. The hydrocarbon containing feed is reacted within a reactor having stages in which the final stage from which a synthesis gas is discharged incorporates expensive high temperature materials such as oxide dispersed strengthened metals while upstream stages operate at a lower temperature allowing the use of more conventional high temperature alloys. Each of the reactor stages incorporate reactor elements having one or more separation zones to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing feed to support combustion of a fuel within adjacent combustion zones, thereby to generate heat to support the endothermic steam methane reforming reactions.

  15. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  16. SCANNING AND TRACKING MONITORING APPARATUS AND METHOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed is a scanning monitoring apparatus for medical imaging, the scanning monitoring apparatus comprising a controller unit and a display, wherein the controller unit during a scanning session is configured to obtain tracking data (102) of a subject in a medical scanner, obtain scanner data ...

  17. Method and apparatus for dismantling mechanical anchors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovskiy, Yu P; Chendev, F S; Gritsayuk, B I; Gubin, N I; Osipov, S P

    1982-01-01

    This apparatus is designed to reduce the amount of labor required to dismantle mechanical anchors while at the same time lowering expenditures for lumber. Longwall beams and timber skips are used to support the cap and any fractured rock faces. The apparatus itself has grooves, vertical guides, and a drive system to position the longwall beams.

  18. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  19. Continuously rotating cat scanning apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    A tomographic scanner with a continuously rotating source of radiation is energized by converting inertial mechanical energy to electrical energy. The mechanical-to-electrical conversion apparatus is mounted with the x-ray source to be energized on a rotating flywheel. The inertial mechanical energy stored in the rotating conversion apparatus, flywheel and x-ray source is utilized for generating electrical energy used, in turn, to energize the x-ray source

  20. A transfer method and apparatus therefore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.J.; Brown, S.C.N.; Snelson, B.; Drayton, J.H.; Wood, S.A.; Desborough, P.H.; Slater, S.

    1990-01-01

    In a method and apparatus for transferring relatively light objects, such as nuclear fuel pellets, the objects are supported on a cushion element having a multiplicity of extremely fine and relatively short flexible fibres packed at an ultra high density pile in a backing. The fibres are aligned at an angle or inclination with respect to the base so that when the cushion element or the object is vibrated the objects are transferred in the direction of lay of the fibres. The cushion element may be supported by a base with the object resting on the fibres, or the cushion element may be secured to the underside of the object so that the fibres rest on the base. The pile may have (68-80) x 10 6 fibres per square metre, with a fibre length/thickness ratio of about 50:1. The fibres may be 43-45 microns thick and up to 2.5 mm in length. The support may be in the form of a V-section track and used in conjunction with an inspection device, or have an orienting function. (author)

  1. Apparatus and method for reconstructing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavkovich, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The apparatus and method for reconstructing data are described. A fan beam of radiation is passed through an object, the beam lying in the same quasi-plane as the object slice to be examined. Radiation not absorbed in the object slice is recorded on oppositely situated detectors aligned with the source of radiation. Relative rotation is provided between the source-detector configuration and the object. Reconstruction means are coupled to the detector means, and may comprise a general purpose computer, a special purpose computer, and control logic for interfacing between said computers and controlling the respective functioning thereof for performing a convolution and back projection based upon non-absorbed radiation detected by said detector means, whereby the reconstruction means converts values of the non-absorbed radiation into values of absorbed radiation at each of an arbitrarily large number of points selected within the object slice. Display means are coupled to the reconstruction means for providing a visual or other display or representation of the quantities of radiation absorbed at the points considered in the object. (Auth.)

  2. Methods and apparatus for cooling electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Shawn Anthony; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent

    2014-12-02

    Methods and apparatus are provided for choosing an energy-efficient coolant temperature for electronics by considering the temperature dependence of the electronics' power dissipation. This dependence is explicitly considered in selecting the coolant temperature T.sub.0 that is sent to the equipment. To minimize power consumption P.sub.Total for the entire system, where P.sub.Total=P.sub.0+P.sub.Cool is the sum of the electronic equipment's power consumption P.sub.0 plus the cooling equipment's power consumption P.sub.Cool, P.sub.Total is obtained experimentally, by measuring P.sub.0 and P.sub.Cool, as a function of three parameters: coolant temperature T.sub.0; weather-related temperature T.sub.3 that affects the performance of free-cooling equipment; and computational state C of the electronic equipment, which affects the temperature dependence of its power consumption. This experiment provides, for each possible combination of T.sub.3 and C, the value T.sub.0* of T.sub.0 that minimizes P.sub.Total. During operation, for any combination of T.sub.3 and C that occurs, the corresponding optimal coolant temperature T.sub.0* is selected, and the cooling equipment is commanded to produce it.

  3. Method and apparatus for generating neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranberg, L.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus and method for generating high-energy neutrons are disclosed. Neutron emissive target material is deposited on one or more surfaces on a rotatable, hollow, toroidal target support. The surfaces are bombarded by beams of ions of generally rectangular cross section, so that when the bombarded surfaces are viewed end-wise, a compact, generally square source of neutrons is provided, such as is required for collimation. A combination of molecular and atomic ions emitted from at least one conventional accelerator are passed through a magnetic field for the purpose of separating the ions into one homogeneous group of atomic and one homogeneous group of molecular ions before the ions are allowed to impinge on the target surfaces. One accelerator directs ions to each target surface as the target rotates. Coolant is directed through a cavity within the toroidal support for the purpose of cooling the target support and target material. A refrigerated surface is placed in close proximity to the target surface to condense vapors which might prove harmful to the target and for thermally cooling said target

  4. Apparatus and method for transverse tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-16

    An improved apparatus and method for generating the two-dimensional filtered back-projected image of a slice of an object is described. In accordance with the invention a photodetector means and illluminating means directed toward the photodetector means are provided. A carrier means is disposed between the illuminating means and the photodetector means, the carrier means having a plurality of substantially parallel elongated projections on the surface thereof. Each projection has an optical characteristic (transmissivity or reflectivity) representing the density characteristic of the slice of the object as measured at a particular relative rotational angle. A mask means, comprising a plurality of cycles of a substantially sinusoidally shaped pattern of varying amplitude, is disposed between the illuminating means and the photodetector. Means are provided for moving the carrier means and the mask means with respect to each other. Finally, a display or recording means, synchronized with the moving means, is responsive to the output of the photodetector for displaying the back-projected image.

  5. Method and apparatus for enhancing radiometric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R. H.; Paradish, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for enhancing target detection, particularly in the millimeter wave frequency range, through the utilization of an imaging radiometer. The radiometer, which is a passive thermal receiver, detects the reflected and emitted thermal radiation of targets within a predetermined antenna/receiver beamwidth. By scanning the radiometer over a target area, a thermal image is created. At millimeter wave frequencies, the received emissions from the target area are highly dependent on the emissivity of the target of interest. Foliage will appear ''hot'' due to its high emissivity and metals will appear cold due to their low emissivities. A noise power illuminator is periodically actuated to illuminate the target of interest. When the illuminator is actuated, the role of emissivity is reversed, namely poorly emissive targets will generally be good reflectors which in the presence of an illuminator will appear ''hot''. The highly emissive targets (such as foliage and dirt) which absorb most of the transmitted energy will appear almost the same as in a nonilluminated, passive image. Using a data processor, the intensity of the passive image is subtracted from the intensity of the illuminated, active image which thereby cancels the background foliage, dirt, etc. and the reflective metallic targets are enhanced

  6. Faraday rotation measurement method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, M. H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method and device for measuring Faraday rotation of a received RF signal is described. A simultaneous orthogonal polarization receiver compensates for a 3 db loss due to splitting of a received signal into left circular and right circular polarization channels. The compensation is achieved by RF and modulation arraying utilizing a specific receiver array which also detects and measures Faraday rotation in the presence or absence of spin stabilization effects on a linear polarization vector. Either up-link or down-link measurement of Faraday rotation is possible. Specifically, the Faraday measurement apparatus utilized in conjunction with the specific receiver array provides a means for comparing the phase of a reference signal in the receiver array to the phase of a tracking loop signal related to the incoming signal, and comparing the phase of the reference signal to the phase of the tracking signal shifted in phase by 90 degrees. The averaged and unaveraged signals, are compared, the phase changes between the two signals being related to Faraday rotation.

  7. Method for Surface Scanning in Medical Imaging and Related Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for surface scanning in medical imaging is provided. The surface scanning apparatus comprises an image source, a first optical fiber bundle comprising first optical fibers having proximal ends and distal ends, and a first optical coupler for coupling an image from the image...

  8. Uranium dioxide calcining apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, E.A.; Peterson, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved continuous calcining apparatus for consistently and controllably producing from calcinable reactive solid compounds of uranium, such as ammonium diuranate, uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) having an oxygen to uranium ratio of less than 2.2. The apparatus comprises means at the outlet end of a calciner kiln for receiving hot UO 2 , means for cooling the UO 2 to a temperature of below 100 0 C and conveying the cooled UO 2 to storage or to subsequent UO 2 processing apparatus where it finally comes into contact with air, the means for receiving, cooling and conveying being sealed to the outlet end of the calciner and being maintained full of UO 2 and so operable as to exclude atmospheric oxygen from coming into contact with any UO 2 which is at elevated temperatures where it would readily oxidize, without the use of extra hydrogen gas in said means

  9. Methods and apparatus for controlling rotary machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Barnes, Gary R [Delanson, NY; Fric, Thomas Frank [Greer, SC; Lyons, James Patrick Francis [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Holley, William Edwin [Greer, SC; Barbu, Corneliu [Guilderland, NY

    2009-09-01

    A control system for a rotary machine is provided. The rotary machine has at least one rotating member and at least one substantially stationary member positioned such that a clearance gap is defined between a portion of the rotating member and a portion of the substantially stationary member. The control system includes at least one clearance gap dimension measurement apparatus and at least one clearance gap adjustment assembly. The adjustment assembly is coupled in electronic data communication with the measurement apparatus. The control system is configured to process a clearance gap dimension signal and modulate the clearance gap dimension.

  10. Improved cold neutron radiographic apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An improved cold neutron radiography technique is described in which the neutron temperature is matched to the specific material to be analyzed. In addition to a beam source and detector the apparatus incorporates a cryogenic refrigerator which enables the moderator material to be cooled to a predetermined adjustable temperature below the Bragg edge temperature of the sample. (U.K.)

  11. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  12. Apparatus and method for treating waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the packaging of waste material in a vessel, comprising: a vessel entry station having inlet and outlet doors; a filling station downstream of the vessel entry station and having a filling position to which vessels are transferred from the entry station through the outlet door, the filling station having filling means for introducing radioactive waste into the vessel; a mixing station having a mixing position to which a vessel is transferred from the filling position; a capping station having a capping position to which a vessel is transferred from the mixing position; and means for effecting transfer of a vessel through the apparatus. Radiation shielding is provided. (U.K.)

  13. Dual-polarized feed antenna apparatus and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarehraz, Mohammed (Inventor); Buckle, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Stefanakos, Elias (Inventor); Weller, Thomas (Inventor); Goswami, D. Yogi (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An antenna apparatus and method for the interception of randomly polarized electromagnetic waves utilizing a dual polarized antenna which is excited through a cross-slot aperture using two well-isolated orthogonal feeds.

  14. Remote Blood Pressure Waveform Sensing Method and Apparatus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonelli, Lynn T

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is a non-contact method and apparatus for continuously monitoring a physiological event in a human or animal, such as blood pressure, which involves utilizing a laser-based...

  15. Apparatus, System, and Method for Forward Osmosis in Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Amy, Gary

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for desalinating water is presented. The invention relates to recovery of water from impaired water sources by using FO and seawater as draw solution (DS). The seawater becomes diluted over time and can be easily

  16. Active magnetic regenerator method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregoria, Anthony J.; Zimm, Carl B.; Janda, Dennis J.; Lubasz, Richard A.; Jastrab, Alexander G.; Johnson, Joseph W.; Ludeman, Evan M.

    1993-01-01

    In an active magnetic regenerator apparatus having a regenerator bed of material exhibiting the magnetocaloric effect, flow of heat transfer fluid through the bed is unbalanced, so that more fluid flows through the bed from the hot side of the bed to the cold side than from the cold side to the hot side. The excess heat transfer fluid is diverted back to the hot side of the bed. The diverted fluid may be passed through a heat exchanger to draw heat from a fluid to be cooled. The apparatus may be operated at cryogenic temperatures, and the heat transfer fluid may be helium gas and the fluid to be cooled may be hydrogen gas, which is liquified by the device. The apparatus can be formed in multiple stages to allow a greater span of cooling temperatures than a single stage, and each stage may be comprised of two bed parts. Where two bed parts are employed in each stage, a portion of the fluid passing from the hot side to the cold side of a first bed part which does not have a magnetic field applied thereto is diverted back to the cold side of the other bed part in the stage, where it is passed through to the hot side. The remainder of the fluid from the cold side of the bed part of the first stage is passed to the hot side of the bed part of the second stage.

  17. Method and apparatus for vibrating a substrate during material formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jeffrey A [Richland, WA; Roger, Johnson N [Richland, WA; John, Munley T [Benton City, WA; Walter, Park R [Benton City, WA

    2008-10-21

    A method and apparatus for affecting the properties of a material include vibrating the material during its formation (i.e., "surface sifting"). The method includes the steps of providing a material formation device and applying a plurality of vibrations to the material during formation, which vibrations are oscillations having dissimilar, non-harmonic frequencies and at least two different directions. The apparatus includes a plurality of vibration sources that impart vibrations to the material.

  18. Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY; Sugavanam, Krishnan [Mahopac, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Seebruck-Seeon, DE

    2012-01-24

    Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.

  19. Combustion engine variable compression ratio apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence,; Keith, E [Peoria, IL; Strawbridge, Bryan E [Dunlap, IL; Dutart, Charles H [Washington, IL

    2006-06-06

    An apparatus and method for varying a compression ratio of an engine having a block and a head mounted thereto. The apparatus and method includes a cylinder having a block portion and a head portion, a piston linearly movable in the block portion of the cylinder, a cylinder plug linearly movable in the head portion of the cylinder, and a valve located in the cylinder plug and operable to provide controlled fluid communication with the block portion of the cylinder.

  20. Apparatus, System, and Method for Forward Osmosis in Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2013-01-03

    An apparatus, system, and method for desalinating water is presented. The invention relates to recovery of water from impaired water sources by using FO and seawater as draw solution (DS). The seawater becomes diluted over time and can be easily desalinated at very low pressures. Thus, a device consumes less energy when recovering water. The apparatus, system and method comprise an immersed forward osmosis cell.

  1. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-02-14

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water or other cleaning liquids in the whole cleaning process, which makes them prominent well suited in for water-deficit environments such as deserts. In one embodiment, the solar panel cleaning apparatus comprises one or more rotatable brushes each having a rotational axis and a drive configured to move each of the one or more rotatable brushes in a direction that is not perpendicular to the rotational axis. The solar panel cleaning apparatus is may be configured such that the angle of the rotational axis of at least one of the one or more rotatable brushes is adjustable relative to the direction of travel.

  2. Apparatus and Method for Communication over Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor); Greer, III, Lawrence C. (Inventor); Nappier, Jennifer M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for communicating over power lines. The apparatus includes a coupling modem that is situated between a power line and a device. The coupling modem is configured to demodulate a signal received from the power line into a sine signal and a cosine signal. The coupling modem is also configured to modulate a communicated bit stream received from the device into a transmitted signal in order to impose the transmitted signal onto the power line.

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling gas evolution from chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorpik, James R.; Dodson, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward monitoring a thermally driven gas evolving chemical reaction with an acoustic apparatus. Signals from the acoustic apparatus are used to control a heater to prevent a run-away condition. A digestion module in combination with a robotic arm further automate physical handling of sample material reaction vessels. The invention is especially useful for carrying out sample procedures defined in EPA Methods SW-846.

  4. Study of the radioactivity of rocks by the photographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picciotto, E E

    1949-08-16

    The use of photographic plates, and especially of the new Ilford and Kodak plates, in nuclear physics is briefly described. In particular, the application of these methods to the study of the radioactivity of rocks is discussed. In a series of studies made by the authors, the photographic plates were placed in close contact with a thin, highly polished sheet of the rock sample and then developed under specified conditions. This method was used to determine the concentration of U and Th in two radioactive rock samples and the results are given. The samples were then reduced to powder form and the concentrations were again determined. Work on dissolved samples has not yet been completed. In conclusion, the relative merits of these different techniques are indicated.

  5. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Smith, Robbie E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus (10) is constructed having a cylindrical enclosure (16) within which a disc-shaped wicking element (18) is positioned. A well or recess (22) is cut into an upper side (24) of this wicking element, and a glass cover plate or slip (28) having a protein drop disposed thereon is sealably positioned on the wicking element (18), with drop (12) being positioned over well or recess (22). A flow of control fluid is generated by a programmable gradient former (16), with this control fluid having a vapor pressure that is selectively variable. This flow of control fluid is coupled to the wicking element (18) where control fluid vapor diffusing from walls (26) of the recess (22) is exposed to the drop (12), forming a vapor pressure gradient between the drop (12) and the control fluid vapor. Initially, this gradient is adjusted to draw solvent from the drop (12) at a relatively high rate, and as the critical supersaturation point is approached (the point at which crystal nucleation occurs), the gradient is reduced to more slowly draw solvent from the drop (12). This allows discrete protein molecules more time to orient themselves into an ordered crystalline lattice, producing protein crystals which, when processed by X-ray crystallography, possess a high degree of resolution.

  6. Method and apparatus for manufacturing gas tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    For use in the manufacture of gas tags employed in a gas tagging failure detection system for a nuclear reactor, a plurality of commercial feed gases each having a respective noble gas isotopic composition are blended under computer control to provide various tag gas mixtures having selected isotopic ratios which are optimized for specified defined conditions such as cost. Using a new approach employing a discrete variable structure rather than the known continuous-variable optimization problem, the computer controlled gas tag manufacturing process employs an analytical formalism from condensed matter physics known as stochastic relaxation, which is a special case of simulated annealing, for input feed gas selection. For a tag blending process involving M tag isotopes with N distinct feed gas mixtures commercially available from an enriched gas supplier, the manufacturing process calculates the cost difference between multiple combinations and specifies gas mixtures which approach the optimum defined conditions. The manufacturing process is then used to control tag blending apparatus incorporating tag gas canisters connected by stainless-steel tubing with computer controlled valves, with the canisters automatically filled with metered quantities of the required feed gases. 4 figs

  7. Multidimensional structured data visualization method and apparatus, text visualization method and apparatus, method and apparatus for visualizing and graphically navigating the world wide web, method and apparatus for visualizing hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, John S [Kennewick, WA; Dowson, Scott T [West Richland, WA; Hart, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Hatley, Wes L [Kennewick, WA

    2008-05-13

    A method of displaying correlations among information objects comprises receiving a query against a database; obtaining a query result set; and generating a visualization representing the components of the result set, the visualization including one of a plane and line to represent a data field, nodes representing data values, and links showing correlations among fields and values. Other visualization methods and apparatus are disclosed.

  8. Power control apparatus and methods for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Qiu, Li

    2016-03-22

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging apparatus and methods are described which allow the sharing of charge current between multiple vehicles connected to a single source of charging energy. In addition, this charge sharing can be performed in a grid-friendly manner by lowering current supplied to EVs when necessary in order to satisfy the needs of the grid, or building operator. The apparatus and methods can be integrated into charging stations or can be implemented with a middle-man approach in which a multiple EV charging box, which includes an EV emulator and multiple pilot signal generation circuits, is coupled to a single EV charge station.

  9. Apparatus and method for magnetically unloading a rotor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Seth Robert

    2018-02-13

    An apparatus and method for unloading a rotor bearing is described. The apparatus includes an electromagnet for levitating the rotor. In one embodiment, a sensor of the magnetic field near the electromagnet is used to control the current to levitate the rotor. In another embodiment, a method is provided that includes rotating the rotor, increasing the current to levitate the rotor and decrease the gap between electromagnet and rotor, and then reducing the current to levitate the rotor with a minimal amount of electric power to the electromagnet.

  10. Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  11. Method And Apparatus For Atomizing And Vaporizing Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Lal, Amit

    2014-09-18

    A method and apparatus for atomizing and vaporizing liquid is described. An apparatus having an ejector configured to eject one or more droplets of liquid may be inserted into a reservoir containing liquid. The ejector may have a vibrating device that vibrates the ejector and causes liquid to move from the reservoir up through the ejector and out through an orifice located on the top of the ejector. The one or more droplets of liquid ejected from the ejector may be heated and vaporized into the air.

  12. Method And Apparatus For Atomizing And Vaporizing Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Lal, Amit; Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for atomizing and vaporizing liquid is described. An apparatus having an ejector configured to eject one or more droplets of liquid may be inserted into a reservoir containing liquid. The ejector may have a vibrating device that vibrates the ejector and causes liquid to move from the reservoir up through the ejector and out through an orifice located on the top of the ejector. The one or more droplets of liquid ejected from the ejector may be heated and vaporized into the air.

  13. Single photon imaging and timing array sensor apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Clayton

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating a three-dimension image of an object or target. The apparatus is comprised of a photon source for emitting a photon at a target. The emitted photons are received by a photon receiver for receiving the photon when reflected from the target. The photon receiver determines a reflection time of the photon and further determines an arrival position of the photon on the photon receiver. An analyzer is communicatively coupled to the photon receiver, wherein the analyzer generates a three-dimensional image of the object based upon the reflection time and the arrival position.

  14. Apparatus and method for oxidation and stabilization of polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; White, Terry L [Knoxville, TN; Sherman, Daniel M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-05-19

    An apparatus for treating polymeric materials comprises a treatment chamber adapted to maintain a selected atmosphere; a means for supporting the polymeric material within the chamber; and, a source of plasma-derived gas containing at least one reactive oxidative species whereby the polymer is stabilized and cross linked through exposure to the oxidative species in the chamber at a selected temperature. The polymer may be directly exposed to the plasma, or alternatively, the plasma may be established in a separate volume from which the reactive species may be extracted and introduced into the vicinity of the polymer. The apparatus may be configured for either batch-type or continuous-type processing. The apparatus and method are especially useful for preparing polymer fibers, particularly PAN fibers, for later carbonization treatments.

  15. Apparatus and method for stabilization or oxidation of polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; Sherman, Daniel M [Knoxville, TN

    2010-01-19

    An apparatus for treating polymeric materials comprises a treatment chamber adapted to maintain a selected atmosphere at a selected temperature; a means for supporting the polymeric material within the chamber; and, a source of ozone-containing gas, which decomposes at the selected temperature yielding at least one reactive oxidative species whereby the polymer is stabilized and cross linked through exposure to the oxidative species in the chamber at the selected temperature. The ozone may be generated by a plasma discharge or by various chemical processes. The apparatus may be configured for either batch-type or continuous-type processing. The apparatus and method are especially useful for preparing polymer fibers, particularly PAN fibers, for later carbonization treatments as well as to make flame-retardant fabrics.

  16. Method and apparatus for dismantling and disposing of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuschke, R.E.; Schulties, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to apparatus and a method for dismantling, shearing, and compacting a fuel assembly frame skeleton. It uses an apparatus capable of hanging or being supported in the transfer canal of the spent fuel pit of the fuel handling building. This apparatus includes a bottom nozzle shear which is held under water to shear off the bottom nozzle and convey it to a scrap transfer bin. Then the remaining portion is brought to a skeleton compactor and shear, also held under water. The compacted skeleton is sheared into a number of smaller portions. After compacting and shearing, the individual portions are fed to the scrap transfer bin. The compacted and sheared skeleton assembly may be placed into a container that is adapted to hold four skeletons for off-site removal

  17. Method and apparatus for improving the alignment of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, P.D.; Hatcher, D.C.; Caelli, T.M.; Eggert, F.M.; Yuzyk, J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the field of radiology, and has to do particularly with a method and apparatus for improving the alignment of radiographic images taken at different times of the same tissue structure, so that the images can be sequentially shown in aligned condition, whereby changes in the structure can be noted. (author). 10 figs

  18. Method and apparatus for filling cryogenic liquid cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remes, S.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for filling a portable cryogenic liquid cylinder from a large stand tank. The invention employs a regulator valve to perform an automatic throttling function whereby the pressure in the liquid cylinder is maintained at a value slightly lower than the upstream pressure in the stand tank. This significantly reduces filling losses due to flashing

  19. Method and apparatus to monitor a beam of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brandon W.; Chichester, David L.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Kinlaw, Mathew T.

    2015-06-02

    Methods and apparatus to capture images of fluorescence generated by ionizing radiation and determine a position of a beam of ionizing radiation generating the fluorescence from the captured images. In one embodiment, the fluorescence is the result of ionization and recombination of nitrogen in air.

  20. Apparatus and method for handling magnetic particles in a fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for handling magnetic particles suspended in a fluid, relying upon the known features of a magnetic flux conductor that is permeable thereby permitting the magnetic particles and fluid to flow therethrough; and a controllable magnetic field for the handling. The present invention is an improvement wherein the magnetic flux conductor is a monolithic porous foam.

  1. Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

    2012-09-04

    An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

  2. Method and apparatus for information carrier authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of enabling authentication of an information carrier, the information carrier comprising a writeable part and a physical token arranged to supply a response upon receiving a challenge, the method comprising the following steps; applying a first challenge to

  3. Photographic and drafting techniques simplify method of producing engineering drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provisor, H.

    1968-01-01

    Combination of photographic and drafting techniques has been developed to simplify the preparation of three dimensional and dimetric engineering drawings. Conventional photographs can be converted to line drawings by making copy negatives on high contrast film.

  4. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, Karl Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  5. Apparatus and methods for purifying lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunison, Harmon M.

    2016-01-12

    Disclosed is an exemplary method of purifying lead which includes the steps of placing lead and a fluoride salt blend in a container; forming a first fluid of molten lead at a first temperature; forming a second fluid of the molten fluoride salt blend at a second temperature higher than the first temperature; mixing the first fluid and the second fluid together; separating the two fluids; solidifying the molten fluoride salt blend at a temperature above a melting point of the lead; and removing the molten lead from the container. In certain exemplary methods the molten lead is removed from the container by decanting. In still other exemplary methods the molten salt blend is a Lewis base fluoride eutectic salt blend, and in yet other exemplary methods the molten salt blend contains sodium fluoride, lithium fluoride, and potassium fluoride.

  6. Method and apparatus for wind turbine braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Corneliu [Laguna Hills, CA; Teichmann, Ralph [Nishkayuna, NY; Avagliano, Aaron [Houston, TX; Kammer, Leonardo Cesar [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Pesetsky, David Samuel [Greenville, SC; Gauchel, Peter [Muenster, DE

    2009-02-10

    A method for braking a wind turbine including at least one rotor blade coupled to a rotor. The method includes selectively controlling an angle of pitch of the at least one rotor blade with respect to a wind direction based on a design parameter of a component of the wind turbine to facilitate reducing a force induced into the wind turbine component as a result of braking.

  7. Method and apparatus for wavefront sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Seung-Whan

    2018-03-20

    A method for performing optical wavefront sensing includes providing an amplitude transmission mask having a light input side, a light output side, and an optical transmission axis passing from the light input side to the light output side. The amplitude transmission mask is characterized by a checkerboard pattern having a square unit cell of size .LAMBDA.. The method also includes directing an incident light field having a wavelength $ \\lamda $ to be incident on the light input side and propagating the incident light field through the amplitude transmission mask. The method further includes producing a plurality of diffracted light fields on the light output side and detecting, at a detector disposed a distance L from the amplitude transmission mask, an interferogram associated with the plurality of diffracted light fields.

  8. Novel hyperspectral prediction method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Gabor J.; Crothers, Natalie A.; Groth, Gard A.; Speck, Kathy A.; Marbach, Ralf

    2009-05-01

    Both the power and the challenge of hyperspectral technologies is the very large amount of data produced by spectral cameras. While off-line methodologies allow the collection of gigabytes of data, extended data analysis sessions are required to convert the data into useful information. In contrast, real-time monitoring, such as on-line process control, requires that compression of spectral data and analysis occur at a sustained full camera data rate. Efficient, high-speed practical methods for calibration and prediction are therefore sought to optimize the value of hyperspectral imaging. A novel method of matched filtering known as science based multivariate calibration (SBC) was developed for hyperspectral calibration. Classical (MLR) and inverse (PLS, PCR) methods are combined by spectroscopically measuring the spectral "signal" and by statistically estimating the spectral "noise." The accuracy of the inverse model is thus combined with the easy interpretability of the classical model. The SBC method is optimized for hyperspectral data in the Hyper-CalTM software used for the present work. The prediction algorithms can then be downloaded into a dedicated FPGA based High-Speed Prediction EngineTM module. Spectral pretreatments and calibration coefficients are stored on interchangeable SD memory cards, and predicted compositions are produced on a USB interface at real-time camera output rates. Applications include minerals, pharmaceuticals, food processing and remote sensing.

  9. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component

  10. Apparatus and method for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Redding, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation is described which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant

  11. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  12. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  13. Patent data mining method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Grafe, V. Gerald; Johnson, David K.; Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related patents in a multidimensional space. Distance between patents in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the patents. The relationship between pairings of patents can be expressed based on weighted combinations of several predicates. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the patents.

  14. Gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, William R; Policke, Timothy A

    2017-05-16

    The present invention relates generally to the field of gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring and a system for accomplishing same to monitor one or more aspects of various isotope production processes. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a monitoring system, and method of utilizing same, for monitoring one or more aspects of an isotope production process where the monitoring system comprises: (A) at least one sample cell; (B) at least one measuring port; (C) at least one adjustable collimator device; (D) at least one shutter; and (E) at least one high resolution gamma ray spectrometer.

  15. Neutron lifetime well logging methods and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paap, H.J.; Pitts, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    A method for investigating the earth formations surrounding a well borehole, comprising the steps of: continuously generating high energy neutrons in the borehole and bombarding the surrounding media with such neutrons to develop a cloud of thermal neutrons therein; modulating the intensity of said high energy neutrons harmonically as a function of time in order to intensity modulate said cloud of thermal neutrons as a function of time; and measuring a time-dependant thermal neutron characteristic of said intensity modulated cloud of thermal neutrons

  16. Method and apparatus for processing oily wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torline, W.N.; Williams, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    A method of treating oily wastewater is described comprising the steps of passing oily wastewater through a coalescer to coalesce dispersed oil droplets; separating a free oil fraction as a liquid stream having a lower specific gravity from a contaminated water stream having a higher specific gravity; filtering particulate material from said contaminated water stream; passing the filtered water stream under pressure across an ultrafiltration membrane to separate a retentate fraction enriched in residual emulsified oil from an aqueous permeate fraction; recycling said substantially only retentate fraction to said coalescer; filtering said aqueous permeate through an activated carbon filter to remove low molecular weight organic materials; subjecting the filtrate from said activated carbon filter to cation exchange to remove heavy metal ions; and periodically flushing said ultra filter with filtrate from said particulate filter to maintain the permeability of said ultrafiltration membrane

  17. Apparatus and method X-ray image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for X-ray image processing. The radiation passed through the object is transformed into an electric image signal from which the logarithmic value is determined and displayed by a display device. Its main objective is to provide a method and apparatus that renders X-ray images or X-ray subtraction images with strong reduction of stray radiation. (Auth.)

  18. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  19. Method and apparatus for imaging volume data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drebin, R.; Carpenter, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    An imaging system projects a two dimensional representation of three dimensional volumes where surface boundaries and objects internal to the volumes are readily shown, and hidden surfaces and the surface boundaries themselves are accurately rendered by determining volume elements or voxels. An image volume representing a volume object or data structure is written into memory. A color and opacity is assigned to each voxel within the volume and stored as a red (R), green (G), blue (B), and opacity (A) component, three dimensional data volume. The RGBA assignment for each voxel is determined based on the percentage component composition of the materials represented in the volume, and thus, the percentage of color and transparency associated with those materials. The voxels in the RGBA volume are used as mathematical filters such that each successive voxel filter is overlayed over a prior background voxel filter. Through a linear interpolation, a new background filter is determined and generated. The interpolation is successively performed for all voxels up to the front most voxel for the plane of view. The method is repeated until all display voxels are determined for the plane of view. (author)

  20. Method and apparatus for solidifying radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Hiroko; Kikuchi, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Tamada, Shin.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of solidifying radioactive wastes that generate heat with water curing solidifying material and the object there of is suppress the effect of heat generation of the wastes given on the solidification material. That is, it is a feature of the invention to inject water content contained in the water curable solidification material in the form of ice into the wastes. Thus, since the water content in the water curable solidification material is ice, the solidification products can be obtained by way of the following three steps: (1) ice is dissolved into water, (2) solid content of the solidification material is dissolved into water, and(3) curing reaction of the solidification material is started. Acccordingly, since the heat generated from the wastes contributes as heat of reaction when ice is dissolved into water till the solidification material has been completely filled, promotion for the curing reaction causing problems so far can be suppressed to enable easy filling. Then, after the completion of the filling of the solidification material, the heat of the wastes has an effect of promoting the second and the third steps described above to accelerate the curing reaction. (K.M.)

  1. NMR blood vessel imaging method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riederer, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    A high speed method of forming computed images of blood vessels based on measurements of characteristics of a body is described comprising the steps of: subjecting a predetermined body area containing blood vessels of interest to, successively, applications of a short repetition time (TR) NMR pulse sequence during the period of high blood velocity and then to corresponding applications during the period of low blood velocity for successive heart beat cycles; weighting the collected imaging data from each application of the NMR pulse sequence according to whether the data was acquired during the period of high blood velocity or a period of low blood velocity of the corresponding heart beat cycle; accumulating weighted imaging data from a plurality of NMR pulse sequences corresponding to high blood velocity periods and from a plurality of NMR pulse sequences corresponding to low blood velocity periods; subtracting the weighted imaging data corresponding to each specific phase encoding acquired during the high blood velocity periods from the weighted imaging data for the same phase encoding corresponding to low blood velocity periods in order to compute blood vessel imaging data; and forming an image of the blood vessels of interest from the blood vessel imaging data

  2. Method of stabilizing a laser apparatus with wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    and to output the frequency-converted radiation (213), the frequency-converted radiation having at least a second wavelength different from the first wavelength, the diode laser (10) comprising at least a first and a second section (222,223), a first contact (220) for injecting a first current (I1......) into the first section (222), a second contact (221) for injecting a second current (I2) into the second section (223), and means for controlling a temperature of the diode laser; wherein the method comprises monitoring a first parameter indicative of the power content of a dominant lobe of the first radiation......A method of controlling beam quality and stability of a laser apparatus, the laser apparatus comprising, a diode laser (10) providing first radiation of at least a first wavelength, and a frequency conversion unit (12) configured to frequency-convert the first radiation from the diode laser...

  3. Apparatus and method for mapping an area of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Torsten A. Cohen, Daniel L.; Feller, Samuel [Fairfax, VA

    2009-12-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for mapping an area of interest using polar coordinates or Cartesian coordinates. The apparatus includes a range finder, an azimuth angle measuring device to provide a heading and an inclinometer to provide an angle of inclination of the range finder as it relates to primary reference points and points of interest. A computer is provided to receive signals from the range finder, inclinometer and azimuth angle measurer to record location data and calculate relative locations between one or more points of interest and one or more primary reference points. The method includes mapping of an area of interest to locate points of interest relative to one or more primary reference points and to store the information in the desired manner. The device may optionally also include an illuminator which can be utilized to paint the area of interest to indicate both points of interest and primary points of reference during and/or after data acquisition.

  4. Apparatus and method for solid fuel chemical looping combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Weber, Justin M

    2015-04-14

    The disclosure provides an apparatus and method utilizing fuel reactor comprised of a fuel section, an oxygen carrier section, and a porous divider separating the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section. The porous divider allows fluid communication between the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section while preventing the migration of solids of a particular size. Maintaining particle segregation between the oxygen carrier section and the fuel section during solid fuel gasification and combustion processes allows gases generated in either section to participate in necessary reactions while greatly mitigating issues associated with mixture of the oxygen carrier with char or ash products. The apparatus and method may be utilized with an oxygen uncoupling oxygen carrier such as CuO, Mn.sub.3O.sub.4, or Co.sub.3O.sub.4, or utilized with a CO/H.sub.2 reducing oxygen carrier such as Fe.sub.2O.sub.3.

  5. Method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow. [PWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.

    1975-12-19

    A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.

  6. Method and apparatus for animal positioning in imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjioannou, Arion-Xenofon; Stout, David B.; Silverman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for imaging an animal includes a first mounting surface, a bed sized to support the animal and releasably secured to or integral with the first mounting surface. The apparatus also includes a plurality of straps, each having a first end in a fixed position relative to the bed and a second end for tightening around a limb of the animal. A method for in-vivo imaging of an animal includes providing an animal that has limbs, providing a first mounting surface, and providing a bed removably secured to or integral with the mounting surface and sized to support the animal as well as being coupled to a plurality of straps. The method also includes placing the animal on the bed between the plurality of straps and tightening at least two of the plurality of straps around at least two of the limbs such that the animal is substantially secured in place relative to the bed.

  7. Apparatus and method for nuclear magnetic resonance scanning and mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damadian, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method is disclosed for analyzing the chemical and structural composition of a specimen including whole-body specimens which may include, for example, living mammals, utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. A magnetic field space necessary to obtain an NMR signal characteristic of the chemical structure of the specimen is focused to provide a resonance domain of selectable size, which may then be moved in a pattern with respect to the specimen to scan the specimen

  8. Method and apparatus for enrichment or upgrading heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.P.; Hammerli, M.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for upgrading and final enrichment of heavy water are described, comprising means for contacting partially enriched heavy water feed in a catalyst column with hydrogen gas (essentially D 2 ) originating in an electrolysis cell so as to enrich the feed water with deuterium extracted from the electrolytic hydrogen gas and means for passing the deuterium enriched water to the electrolysis cell. (author)

  9. Gas measuring apparatus with standardization means, and method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typpo, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for standardizing a gas measuring device has a source capable of emitting a beam of radiation aligned to impinge a detector. A housing means encloses the beam. The housing means has a plurality of apertures permitting the gas to enter the housing means, to intercept the beam, and to exit from the housing means. The device further comprises means for closing the apertures and a means for purging said gas from the housing means

  10. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang [Los Alamos, NM; Cao, Wenqing [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  11. Method and apparatus for control of a magnetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challenger, Michael P.; Valla, Arthur S.

    1996-06-18

    A method and apparatus for independently adjusting the spacing between opposing magnet arrays in charged particle based light sources. Adjustment mechanisms between each of the magnet arrays and the supporting structure allow the gap between the two magnet arrays to be independently adjusted. In addition, spherical bearings in the linkages to the magnet arrays permit the transverse angular orientation of the magnet arrays to also be adjusted. The opposing magnet arrays can be supported above the ground by the structural support.

  12. Method and apparatus for isotope separation from a gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoke, A.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for isotope separation and in particular for separating the desired isotope from the gas in which it is contained by irradiating it with a laser. The laser selectively provides kinetic energy to the isotope through inelastic events, monomolecular or bimolecular, in order to cause it to segregate within or fly out of the gas stream in which it is contained

  13. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  14. Apparatus and method for generating high density pulses of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Oettinger, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for the production of high density pulses of electrons using a laser energized emitter. Caesium atoms from a low pressure vapour atmosphere are absorbed on and migrate from a metallic target rapidly heated by a laser to a high temperature. Due to this heating time being short compared with the residence time of the caesium atoms adsorbed on the target surface, copious electrons are emitted which form a high current density pulse. (U.K.)

  15. Apparatus and method for defect testing of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Soden, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for defect and failure-mechanism testing of integrated circuits (ICs) is disclosed. The apparatus provides an operating voltage, V.sub.DD, to an IC under test and measures a transient voltage component, V.sub.DDT, signal that is produced in response to switching transients that occur as test vectors are provided as inputs to the IC. The amplitude or time delay of the V.sub.DDT signal can be used to distinguish between defective and defect-free (i.e. known good) ICs. The V.sub.DDT signal is measured with a transient digitizer, a digital oscilloscope, or with an IC tester that is also used to input the test vectors to the IC. The present invention has applications for IC process development, for the testing of ICs during manufacture, and for qualifying ICs for reliability.

  16. Centrifuge-operated specimen staining method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Feeback, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method of staining preselected, mounted specimens of either biological or nonbiological material enclosed within a staining chamber where the liquid staining reagents are applied and removed from the staining chamber using hypergravity as the propelling force. In the preferred embodiment, a spacecraft-operated centrifuge and method of diagnosing biological specimens while in orbit, characterized by hermetically sealing a shell assembly. The assembly contains slide stain apparatus with computer control therefor, the operative effect of which is to overcome microgravity, for example on board an International Space Station.

  17. Methods and apparatus for managing corrosion in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chey, S Jay; Hamann, Hendrik F; Klein, Levente Ioan; Schappert, Michael Alan; Stepanchuk, Andriy

    2015-02-03

    Principles of the invention provide methods and apparatus for providing corrosion management in buildings. In one aspect, an exemplary method includes the step of receiving first data relating corrosion rate to a plurality of environmental conditions. This first data is subsequently utilized to determine a quantitative relationship between corrosion rate and the plurality of environmental conditions. In another step, second data indicative of one or more environmental conditions within a building is received. A corrosion rate in the building is then determined at least in part by applying the determined quantitative relationship to this second data.

  18. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  19. Method and apparatus for preventing overspeed in a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William E.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for preventing overspeed in a gas turbine in response to the rapid loss of applied load is disclosed. The method involves diverting gas from the inlet of the turbine, bypassing the same around the turbine and thereafter injecting the diverted gas at the turbine exit in a direction toward or opposing the flow of gas through the turbine. The injected gas is mixed with the gas exiting the turbine to thereby minimize the thermal shock upon equipment downstream of the turbine exit.

  20. Apparatus and method for motion tracking in brain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is apparatus and method for motion tracking of a subject in medical brain imaging. The method comprises providing a light projector and a first camera; projecting a first pattern sequence (S1) onto a surface region of the subject with the light projector, wherein the subject is positioned......2,1) based on the detected first pattern sequence (S1'); projecting the second pattern sequence (S2) onto a surface region of the subject with the light projector; detecting the projected second pattern sequence (S2') with the first camera; and determining motion tracking parameters based...

  1. Ultra compact spectrometer apparatus and method using photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of photonic crystal formation, and to methods and apparatus for using such photonic crystals, particularly in conjunction with detector arrays. Photonic crystal parameters and detector array parameters are compared to optimize the selection and orientation of a photonic crystal shape. A photonic crystal is operatively positioned relative to a plurality of light sensors. The light sensors can be separated by a pitch distance and positioned within one half of the pitch distance of an exit surface of the photonic crystals.

  2. Method And Apparatus For Evaluatin Of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Ilya M.; Kino, Gordon S.

    1996-11-12

    A technique for evaluation of high-T.sub.c superconducting films and single crystals is based on measurement of temperature dependence of differential optical reflectivity of high-T.sub.c materials. In the claimed method, specific parameters of the superconducting transition such as the critical temperature, anisotropy of the differential optical reflectivity response, and the part of the optical losses related to sample quality are measured. The apparatus for performing this technique includes pump and probe sources, cooling means for sweeping sample temperature across the critical temperature and polarization controller for controlling a state of polarization of a probe light beam.

  3. Methods and apparatus for radially compliant component mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, David Edward [Cincinnati, OH; Darkins, Jr., Toby George; Stumpf, James Anthony [Columbus, IN; Schroder, Mark S [Greenville, SC; Lipinski, John Joseph [Simpsonville, SC

    2012-03-27

    Methods and apparatus for a mounting assembly for a liner of a gas turbine engine combustor are provided. The combustor includes a combustor liner and a radially outer annular flow sleeve. The mounting assembly includes an inner ring surrounding a radially outer surface of the liner and including a plurality of axially extending fingers. The mounting assembly also includes a radially outer ring coupled to the inner ring through a plurality of spacers that extend radially from a radially outer surface of the inner ring to the outer ring.

  4. Methods, Systems and Apparatuses for Radio Frequency Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Brown, Dewey T. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system for radio frequency identification (RFID) includes an enclosure defining an interior region interior to the enclosure, and a feed for generating an electromagnetic field in the interior region in response to a signal received from an RFID reader via a radio frequency (RF) transmission line and, in response to the electromagnetic field, receiving a signal from an RFID sensor attached to an item in the interior region. The structure of the enclosure may be conductive and may include a metamaterial portion, an electromagnetically absorbing portion, or a wall extending in the interior region. Related apparatuses and methods for performing RFID are provided.

  5. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  6. Method and apparatus to trigger superconductors in current limiting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing; Hazelton, Drew Willard; Walker, Michael Stephen

    2004-10-26

    A method and apparatus for magnetically triggering a superconductor in a superconducting fault current limiter to transition from a superconducting state to a resistive state. The triggering is achieved by employing current-carrying trigger coil or foil on either or both the inner diameter and outer diameter of a superconductor. The current-carrying coil or foil generates a magnetic field with sufficient strength and the superconductor is disposed within essentially uniform magnetic field region. For superconductor in a tubular-configured form, an additional magnetic field can be generated by placing current-carrying wire or foil inside the tube and along the center axial line.

  7. Method and apparatus for managing transactions with connected computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Phillips, Laurence R.; Spires, Shannon V.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus that make use of existing computer and communication resources and that reduce the errors and delays common to complex transactions such as international shipping. The present invention comprises an agent-based collaborative work environment that assists geographically distributed commercial and government users in the management of complex transactions such as the transshipment of goods across the U.S.-Mexico border. Software agents can mediate the creation, validation and secure sharing of shipment information and regulatory documentation over the Internet, using the World-Wide Web to interface with human users.

  8. Method and apparatus for Doppler frequency modulation of radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, J. S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Shumate, M. S.; Seaman, C. H. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for frequency modulating radiation, such as from a laser, for optoacoustic detectors, interferometers, heterodyne spectrometers, and similar devices. Two oppositely reciprocating cats-eye retroreflectors are used to Doppler modulate the radiation. By reciprocally moving both retroreflectors, the center of mass is maintained constant to permit smooth operation at many Hertz. By slightly offsetting the axis of one retroreflector relative to the other, multiple passes of a light beam may be achieved for greater Doppler shifts with the same reciprocating motion of the retroreflectors.

  9. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Fahad, Hossain M.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  10. Method and apparatus for scheduling broadcasts in social networks

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad Ahmed

    2016-08-25

    A method, apparatus, and computer readable medium are provided for maximizing consumption of broadcasts by a producer. An example method includes receiving selection of a total number of time slots to use for scheduling broadcasts, and receiving information regarding the producer\\'s followers. The example method further 5 includes identifying, by a processor and based on the received information, discount factors associated with the producer\\'s followers, and calculating, by the processor and based on the received information, a predicted number of competitor broadcasts during each time slot of the total number of time slots. Finally, the example method includes determining, by the processor and based on the discount factors and the predicted 10 number of competitor broadcasts during each time slot, a number of broadcasts for the producer to transmit in each time slot of the total number of time slots.

  11. Method and apparatus for modeling, visualization and analysis of materials

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, Amal

    2016-08-25

    A method, apparatus, and computer readable medium are provided for modeling of materials and visualization of properties of the materials. An example method includes receiving data describing a set of properties of a material, and computing, by a processor and based on the received data, geometric features of the material. The example method further includes extracting, by the processor, particle paths within the material based on the computed geometric features, and geometrically modeling, by the processor, the material using the geometric features and the extracted particle paths. The example method further includes generating, by the processor and based on the geometric modeling of the material, one or more visualizations regarding the material, and causing display, by a user interface, of the one or more visualizations.

  12. Method and apparatus for detecting micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsky, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the presence and quantity of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and yeast, in a given sample. The apparatus includes two sealed containers, a portion of which may be penetrated by a sharp instrument, as for example, glass vials with flexible septum tops. One container includes a radioactive nutrient medium which is capable of supporting the life process of the microorganism whose presence is being tested. The second container includes a liquid scintillation solution which absorbs the product of metabolism of the organisms. The sample is introduced into the first sealed container, for example, by means of a standard syringe. Any microorganisms present will consume the radioactive nutrient and as a result produce radioactive waste. Means are then applied to penetrate the containers and allow the flow of the radioactive metabolic product from the first container to the second container while preventing any contamination from the ambient. The liquid scintillation solution will emit light in proportion to the amount of the product of metabolism collected from the first container. This light may be detected by standard liquid scintillation counters, thus providing a qualitative and quantitative measure of the microorganism in the tested sample

  13. Apparatus and method for comparing corresponding acoustic resonances in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method for comparing corresponding acoustic resonances in liquids. The present invention permits the measurement of certain characteristics of liquids which affect the speed of sound therein. For example, a direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the speed of sound in a gasoline sample has been experimentally observed. Therefore, changes in the speed of sound therein can be utilized as a sensitive parameter for determining changes in composition of a liquid sample. The present apparatus establishes interference patterns inside of a liquid without requiring the use of very thin, rigorously parallel ceramic discs, but rather uses readily available piezoelectric transducers attached to the outside surface of the usual container for the liquid and located on the same side thereof in the vicinity of one another. That is, various receptacle geometries may be employed, and the driving and receiving transducers may be located on the same side of the receptacle. The cell may also be constructed of any material that is inert to the liquid under investigation. A single-transducer embodiment, where the same transducer provides the excitation to the sample container and receives signals impressed therein, is also described.

  14. Radiographic apparatus and method for monitoring film exposure time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatne, R.S.; Woodmansee, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    In connection with radiographic inspection of structural and industrial materials, method and apparatus are disclosed for automatically determining and displaying the time required to expose a radiographic film positioned to receive radiation passed by a test specimen, so that the finished film is exposed to an optimum blackening (density) for maximum film contrast. A plot is made of the variations in a total exposure parameter (representing the product of detected radiation rate and time needed to cause optimum film blackening) as a function of the voltage level applied to an X-ray tube. An electronic function generator storing the shape of this plot is incorporated into an exposure monitoring apparatus, such that for a selected tube voltage setting, the function generator produces an electrical analog signal of the corresponding exposure parameter. During the exposure, another signal is produced representing the rate of radiation as monitored by a diode detector positioned so as to receive the same radiation that is incident on the film. The signal representing the detected radiation rate is divided, by an electrical divider circuit into the signal representing total exposure, and the resulting quotient is an electrical signal representing the required exposure time. (author)

  15. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L.D.; Cerni, T.A.

    1989-10-17

    Apparatus and method are disclosed which determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to an equation given in the patent where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4) + K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation. 11 figs.

  16. Method and Apparatus for Creating a Topography at a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David P.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Mayer, Thomas M.; Vasile, Michael J.; Sweatt, William C.

    2008-11-11

    Methods and apparatus whereby an optical interferometer is utilized to monitor and provide feedback control to an integrated energetic particle column, to create desired topographies, including the depth, shape and/or roughness of features, at a surface of a specimen. Energetic particle columns can direct energetic species including, ions, photons and/or neutral particles to a surface to create features having in-plane dimensions on the order of 1 micron, and a height or depth on the order of 1 nanometer. Energetic processes can include subtractive processes such as sputtering, ablation, focused ion beam milling and, additive processes, such as energetic beam induced chemical vapor deposition. The integration of interferometric methods with processing by energetic species offers the ability to create desired topographies at surfaces, including planar and curved shapes.

  17. Method and apparatus for physical separation of different sized nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher B.; Saunders, Steven R.

    2012-07-10

    The present application provides apparatuses and methods for the size-selective fractionation of ligand-capped nanoparticles that utilizes the tunable thermophysical properties of gas-expanded liquids. The nanoparticle size separation processes are based on the controlled reduction of the solvent strength of an organic phase nanoparticle dispersion through increases in concentration of the antisolvent gas, such as CO.sub.2, via pressurization. The method of nanomaterial separation contains preparing a vessel having a solvent and dispersed nanoparticles, pressurizing the chamber with a gaseous antisolvent, and causing a first amount of the nanoparticles to precipitate, transporting the solution to a second vessel, pressurizing the second vessel with the gaseous antisolvent and causing further nanoparticles to separate from the solution.

  18. Methods and apparatus of analyzing electrical power grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Gibson, Tara D.

    2017-09-05

    Apparatus and methods of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid are described. According to one aspect, a method of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid includes accessing a large-scale data set comprising information regarding an electrical power grid; processing data of the large-scale data set to identify a filter which is configured to remove erroneous data from the large-scale data set; using the filter, removing erroneous data from the large-scale data set; and after the removing, processing data of the large-scale data set to identify an event detector which is configured to identify events of interest in the large-scale data set.

  19. System, method, and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick W [Jefferson, MD

    2011-04-12

    A system, method, and/or apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest, are provided. The method includes providing an airborne VHF radar system in combination with a LiDAR system, overflying the area of interest while directing energy toward the area of interest, using the VHF radar system to collect backscatter data from the trees as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and determining a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data and data from the laser radar system for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon. In certain preferred embodiments, a single frequency is used with a linear array antenna.

  20. Standard test method for liquid impingement erosion using rotating apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers tests in which solid specimens are eroded or otherwise damaged by repeated discrete impacts of liquid drops or jets. Among the collateral forms of damage considered are degradation of optical properties of window materials, and penetration, separation, or destruction of coatings. The objective of the tests may be to determine the resistance to erosion or other damage of the materials or coatings under test, or to investigate the damage mechanisms and the effect of test variables. Because of the specialized nature of these tests and the desire in many cases to simulate to some degree the expected service environment, the specification of a standard apparatus is not deemed practicable. This test method gives guidance in setting up a test, and specifies test and analysis procedures and reporting requirements that can be followed even with quite widely differing materials, test facilities, and test conditions. It also provides a standardized scale of erosion resistance numbers applicab...

  1. CFT and RTD methods for wastewater treatment plants apparatus investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palige, J.; Owczarczyk, A.; Dobrowolski, A.; Ptaszek, S.

    2006-01-01

    Two methods, residence time distributions (RTD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are most effective for solid and wastewater phases investigations of flow dynamics. On the basis of measured (in tracer experiment) RTD function, the model of flow can be proposed for the unit under investigation. The experimental and numerical RTD functions were compared for different technological parameters values of processes (apparatus geometry, flow rate, location and construction of input and output). Numerical RTD function was obtained by DRW (discrete random walk) technique - determination of residence times of many liquid particles. The usefulness of these techniques was checked on a large scale laboratory model of settler. Satisfactory agreement of the data obtained by both methods - tracer and CFD - was observed

  2. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1991-12-24

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the solid material.

  3. Method and apparatus for inspection of nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the inspection of nuclear fuel rods to detect defects or failures in such rods. Assemblies of fuel rods are immersed in water and means are provided for causing a change in the relative pressures in the water and within the fuel rod such that fluid is expelled from the rod through any defects that may exist. Means are also provided for thereafter vibrating the rods to cause additional internal fluid or other material that may be trapped in the rod to be expelled. Sensors are provided for detecting the emission of bubbles of fluid or other material from the rod and for locating the position of the defective rod in the assembly. 5 figures

  4. Method and apparatus for logging inclined earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved technique is provided for comparing the velocity of an elongated well logging instrument traversing an inclined earth borehole with the playout velocity of the well logging cable at the earth's surface to control both the cable hoist drum rotation and the rate of movement of the subsurface instrument and thus insure cable playout is in equilibrium with the logging instrument movement. Method and apparatus are described for detecting any reduction in movement of the logging instrument through the borehole and for reducing the velocity of the logging cable playout in response thereto by reducing drum rotation. Further, when the velocity of cable playout slows to a preselected value, a monitoring circuit generates control signals which actuate a means of power attached to or integral with the logging instrument which, upon initiation, apply a force to move the logging instrument upward or downward within the borehole

  5. Method and apparatus for a self-cleaning filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, James P.; Lilley, Arthur; Browne, III, Kingsbury; Walt, Robb Ray; Duncan, Dustin; Walker, Michael; Steele, John; Fields, Michael

    2010-11-16

    A method and apparatus for removing fine particulate matter from a fluid stream without interrupting the overall process or flow. The flowing fluid inflates and expands the flexible filter, and particulate is deposited on the filter media while clean fluid is permitted to pass through the filter. This filter is cleaned when the fluid flow is stopped, the filter collapses, and a force is applied to distort the flexible filter media to dislodge the built-up filter cake. The dislodged filter cake falls to a location that allows undisrupted flow of the fluid after flow is restored. The shed particulate is removed to a bin for periodic collection. A plurality of filter cells can operate independently or in concert, in parallel, or in series to permit cleaning the filters without shutting off the overall fluid flow. The self-cleaning filter is low cost, has low power consumption, and exhibits low differential pressures.

  6. Method and apparatus for releasably connecting first and second objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The apparatus and method are disclosed for releasably connecting first and second objects, where a magnetic end effector may include at least one elongated pin number, a proximal end of which is connected to the first object and the distal end of which may be inserted into a receiving portion in the second object. Latch members are carried by the pin member for radial movement between retracted and expanded positions for releasing and locking, respectively, first and second objects. A plunger member carried by the pin member is axially moveable between first and second positions. In the first plunger position, the latch members are located in the expanded (locked) position and in the second plunger position the latch members are released for movement to retracted or unlocked position. The magnetic end effector is provided for releasable attachment to the first object and for moving the plunger member to the second position, releasing the first object.

  7. Method and apparatus for a self-cleaning filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, James P.; Lilley, Arthur; Browne, III, Kingsbury; Walt, Robb Ray; Duncan, Dustin; Walker, Michael; Steele, John; Fields, Michael

    2013-09-10

    A method and apparatus for removing fine particulate matter from a fluid stream without interrupting the overall process or flow. The flowing fluid inflates and expands the flexible filter, and particulate is deposited on the filter media while clean fluid is permitted to pass through the filter. This filter is cleaned when the fluid flow is stopped, the filter collapses, and a force is applied to distort the flexible filter media to dislodge the built-up filter cake. The dislodged filter cake falls to a location that allows undisrupted flow of the fluid after flow is restored. The shed particulate is removed to a bin for periodic collection. A plurality of filter cells can operate independently or in concert, in parallel, or in series to permit cleaning the filters without shutting off the overall fluid flow. The self-cleaning filter is low cost, has low power consumption, and exhibits low differential pressures.

  8. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Byers, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  9. Method and apparatus for waste destruction using supercritical water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldsen, Brent Lowell; Wu, Benjamin Chiau-pin

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved apparatus and method for initiating and sustaining an oxidation reaction. A hazardous waste, is introduced into a reaction zone within a pressurized containment vessel. An oxidizer, preferably hydrogen peroxide, is mixed with a carrier fluid, preferably water, and the mixture is heated until the fluid achieves supercritical conditions of temperature and pressure. The heating means comprise cartridge heaters placed in closed-end tubes extending into the center region of the pressure vessel along the reactor longitudinal axis. A cooling jacket surrounds the pressure vessel to remove excess heat at the walls. Heating and cooling the fluid mixture in this manner creates a limited reaction zone near the center of the pressure vessel by establishing a steady state density gradient in the fluid mixture which gradually forces the fluid to circulate internally. This circulation allows the fluid mixture to oscillate between supercritical and subcritical states as it is heated and cooled.

  10. Apparatus and method for carbon fiber surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L; Sherman, Daniel M

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus and method for enhancing the surface energy and/or surface chemistry of carbon fibers involves exposing the fibers to direct or indirect contact with atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a background gas containing at least some oxygen or other reactive species. The fiber may be exposed directly to the plasma, provided that the plasma is nonfilamentary, or the fiber may be exposed indirectly through contact with gases exhausting from a plasma discharge maintained in a separate volume. In either case, the process is carried out at or near atmospheric pressure, thereby eliminating the need for vacuum equipment. The process may be further modified by moistening the fibers with selected oxygen-containing liquids before exposure to the plasma.

  11. Apparatus and methods for controlling electron microscope stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duden, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    Methods and apparatus for generating an image of a specimen with a microscope (e.g., TEM) are disclosed. In one aspect, the microscope may generally include a beam generator, a stage, a detector, and an image generator. A plurality of crystal parameters, which describe a plurality of properties of a crystal sample, are received. In a display associated with the microscope, an interactive control sphere based at least in part on the received crystal parameters and that is rotatable by a user to different sphere orientations is presented. The sphere includes a plurality of stage coordinates that correspond to a plurality of positions of the stage and a plurality of crystallographic pole coordinates that correspond to a plurality of polar orientations of the crystal sample. Movement of the sphere causes movement of the stage, wherein the stage coordinates move in conjunction with the crystallographic coordinates represented by pole positions so as to show a relationship between stage positions and the pole positions.

  12. Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T greater than or equal to 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  13. Method and apparatus to characterize ultrasonically reflective contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A., III (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for characterizing the time and frequency response of an ultrasonically reflective contrast agent is disclosed. An ultrasonically reflective contrast agent is injected, under constant pressure, into a fluid flowing through a pump flow circuit. The fluid and the ultrasonically reflective contrast agent are uniformly mixed in a mixing chamber, and the uniform mixture is passed through a contrast agent chamber. The contrast agent chamber is acoustically and axially interposed between an ultrasonic transducer chamber and an acoustic isolation chamber. A pulse of ultrasonic energy is transmitted into the contrast agent chamber from the ultrasonic transducer chamber. An echo waveform is received from the ultrasonically reflective contrast agent, and it is analyzed to determine the time and frequency response of the ultrasonically reflective contrast agent.

  14. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

    1992-06-16

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

  15. Method and Apparatus of Implementing a Magnetic Shield Flux Sweeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John E. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus of protecting magnetically sensitive devices with a shield, including: a non-superconducting metal or lower transition temperature (T.sub.c) material compared to a higher transition temperature material, disposed in a magnetic field; means for creating a spatially varying order parameter's |.PSI.(r,T)|.sup.2 in a non-superconducting metal or a lower transition temperature material; wherein a spatially varying order parameter is created by a proximity effect, such that the non-superconducting metal or the lower transition temperature material becomes superconductive as a temperature is lowered, creating a flux-free Meissner state at a center thereof, in order to sweep magnetic flux lines to the periphery.

  16. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TRAPPING IONS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.

    1962-04-17

    A method and apparatus are described for trapping ions within an evacuated container and within a magnetic field utilizing dissociation and/or ionization of molecular ions to form atomic ions and energetic neutral particles. The atomic ions are magnetically trapped as a result of a change of charge-to- mass ratio. The molecular ions are injected into the container and into the path of an energetic carbon arc discharge which dissociates and/or ionizes a portion of the molecular ions into atomic ions and energetic neutrals. The resulting atomic ions are trapped by the magnetic field to form a circulating beam of atomic ions, and the energetic neutrals pass out of the system and may be utilized in a particle accelerator. (AEC)

  17. Apparatus and method for reprocessing and separating spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Parrish, W.H.; Coops, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for separating and reprocessing spent nuclear fuels includes a separation vessel housing a molten metal solvent in a reaction region, a reflux region positioned above and adjacent to the reaction region, and a porous filter member defining the bottom of the separation vessel in a supporting relationship with the metal solvent. Spent fuels are added to the metal solvent. A non-oxidizing nitrogen-containing gas is introduced into the separation vessel, forming solid actinide nitrides in the metal solvent from actinide fuels, while leaving other fission products in solution. A pressure of about 1.1 to 1.2 atm is applied in the reflux region, forcing the molten metal solvent and soluble fission products out of the vessel, while leaving the solid actinide nitrides in the separation vessel. (author)

  18. Apparatus, system, and method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, Jr., Andrew J; Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R

    2014-11-18

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an apparatus includes a pulsed laser configured to generate a pulsed laser signal toward a sample, a constructive interference object and an optical element, each located in a path of light from the sample. The constructive interference object is configured to generate constructive interference patterns of the light. The optical element is configured to disperse the light. A LIBS system includes a first and a second optical element, and a data acquisition module. The data acquisition module is configured to determine an isotope measurement based, at least in part, on light received by an image sensor from the first and second optical elements. A method for performing LIBS includes generating a pulsed laser on a sample to generate light from a plasma, generating constructive interference patterns of the light, and dispersing the light into a plurality of wavelengths.

  19. Method and apparatus for hydrogen production from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method, apparatuses and chemical compositions are provided for producing high purity hydrogen from water. Metals or alloys capable of reacting with water and producing hydrogen in aqueous solutions at ambient conditions are reacted with one or more inorganic hydrides capable of releasing hydrogen in aqueous solutions at ambient conditions, one or more transition metal compounds are used to catalyze the reaction and, optionally, one or more alkali metal-based compounds. The metal or alloy is preferably aluminum. The inorganic hydride is from a family of complex inorganic hydrides; most preferably, NaBH.sub.4. The transition metal catalyst is from the groups VIII and IB; preferably, Cu and Fe. The alkali metal-based compounds are preferably NaOH, KOH, and the like. Hydrogen generated has a purity of at least 99.99 vol. % (dry basis), and is used without further purification in all types of fuel cells, including the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell.

  20. Method and apparatus for managing access to a memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBenedictis, Erik

    2017-08-01

    A method and apparatus for managing access to a memory of a computing system. A controller transforms a plurality of operations that represent a computing job into an operational memory layout that reduces a size of a selected portion of the memory that needs to be accessed to perform the computing job. The controller stores the operational memory layout in a plurality of memory cells within the selected portion of the memory. The controller controls a sequence by which a processor in the computing system accesses the memory to perform the computing job using the operational memory layout. The operational memory layout reduces an amount of energy consumed by the processor to perform the computing job.

  1. Apparatus and Methods for Fluid Storage and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott E. (Inventor); Bue, Grant C. (Inventor); Schaefbauer, Mark E. (Inventor); Urban, Kase C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus and method for storing and delivering fluid to a person comprises, in at least one specific embodiment, a fluid reservoir having an internal volume therein with an opening disposed through a first wall or a second wall of the fluid reservoir and located toward a first end of the fluid reservoir. A first portion of a tube can be exterior to the fluid reservoir and a second portion of the tube can be disposed through the opening and within the internal volume. At least one insulation layer can be disposed about the exterior of the first wall of the fluid reservoir. The second wall of the fluid reservoir can be configured for transferring heat from or to the internal volume or from the person. At least one baffle is disposed within the internal volume and connected to the first wall and the second wall of the fluid reservoir.

  2. Method and apparatus for induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for inducing beta decay transition that are normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations. According to one aspect of this invention a method of inducing nuclear beta decay transition comprises providing a medium which includes atomic nuclei that have forbidden beta decay transition in which the initial and final nuclear states do not have the same intrinsic parity or have total angular momenta which differ by more than one quantum unit of angular momentum, and applying to the medium an electromagnetic field which has an intensity sufficient to provide the angular momentum or intrinsic parity necessary to overcome the forbiddenness of the beta decay transition of the atomic nuclei, thereby to induce the beta decay transitions. According to another aspect of this invention an apparatus for inducing beta decay transition comprises a medium which includes atomic nuclei that have forbidden beta decay transitions in which the initial and final nuclear states do not have the same intrinsic parity or have total angular momenta which differ by more than one quantum unit of angular momentum, field producing means for producing an electromagnetic field in the medium and means for energising the field producing means to establish the field at an intensity sufficient to provide the angular momentum or intrinsic parity necessary to overcome the forbiddenness of the beta decay transitions of the atomic nuclei. The energy released in these induced nuclear transition is useful for the controlled production of power. The induced beta dacay transitions are also useful to reduce the halflives of long-lived fission product wastes from conventional nuclear fission power plants

  3. Accelerometer method and apparatus for integral display and control functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-06-01

    Vibration analysis has been used for years to provide a determination of the proper functioning of different types of machinery, including rotating machinery and rocket engines. A determination of a malfunction, if detected at a relatively early stage in its development, will allow changes in operating mode or a sequenced shutdown of the machinery prior to a total failure. Such preventative measures result in less extensive and/or less expensive repairs, and can also prevent a sometimes catastrophic failure of equipment. Standard vibration analyzers are generally rather complex, expensive, and of limited portability. They also usually result in displays and controls being located remotely from the machinery being monitored. Consequently, a need exists for improvements in accelerometer electronic display and control functions which are more suitable for operation directly on machines and which are not so expensive and complex. The invention includes methods and apparatus for detecting mechanical vibrations and outputting a signal in response thereto. The apparatus includes an accelerometer package having integral display and control functions. The accelerometer package is suitable for mounting upon the machinery to be monitored. Display circuitry provides signals to a bar graph display which may be used to monitor machine condition over a period of time. Control switches may be set which correspond to elements in the bar graph to provide an alert if vibration signals increase over the selected trip point. The circuitry is shock mounted within the accelerometer housing. The method provides for outputting a broadband analog accelerometer signal, integrating this signal to produce a velocity signal, integrating and calibrating the velocity signal before application to a display driver, and selecting a trip point at which a digitally compatible output signal is generated. The benefits of a vibration recording and monitoring system with controls and displays readily

  4. System, methods and apparatus for program optimization for multi-threaded processor architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastoul, Cedric; Lethin, Richard A; Leung, Allen K; Meister, Benoit J; Szilagyi, Peter; Vasilache, Nicolas T; Wohlford, David E

    2015-01-06

    Methods, apparatus and computer software product for source code optimization are provided. In an exemplary embodiment, a first custom computing apparatus is used to optimize the execution of source code on a second computing apparatus. In this embodiment, the first custom computing apparatus contains a memory, a storage medium and at least one processor with at least one multi-stage execution unit. The second computing apparatus contains at least two multi-stage execution units that allow for parallel execution of tasks. The first custom computing apparatus optimizes the code for parallelism, locality of operations and contiguity of memory accesses on the second computing apparatus. This Abstract is provided for the sole purpose of complying with the Abstract requirement rules. This Abstract is submitted with the explicit understanding that it will not be used to interpret or to limit the scope or the meaning of the claims.

  5. High speed phototimer and biplane II blanking method in 105 mm RSC photographing of circulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaga, Yuji; Kiuchi, Shigeo; Sato, Masami; Komatsuda, Yasushi; Nishio, Kosaku.

    1979-01-01

    A high speed phototimer as an autoexposure mechanism was developed for 105 mm II indirect continuous photographing of circulatory system. The phototimer can give repeated response of 12 times/sec and the shortest X-ray shut out of 1 m sec. The proper lighting field for the phototimer is 7 mm diameter (12%) of the II input area, equivalent to 80 mm in diameter), and the tube voltage, object property and the focus-II distance characteristics are all well corrected to give good photographs of optimal density. The mutual fog in biplane photographing can be removed by adopting II blanking method. As blanking can respond quite rapidly, photographing time plus 2 m sec is enough for blanking time. That means the positive phase can be brought close to 3 m sec. This mechanism can be applied for biplane cine-photographing. (Kobatake, H.)

  6. A comparison of photographic, replication and direct clinical examination methods for detecting developmental defects of enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakshir Hamid-Reza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different methods have been used for detecting developmental defects of enamel (DDE. This study aimed to compare photographic and replication methods with the direct clinical examination method for detecting DDE in children's permanent incisors. Methods 110 8-10-year-old schoolchildren were randomly selected from an examined sample of 335 primary Shiraz school children. Modified DDE index was used in all three methods. Direct examinations were conducted by two calibrated examiners using flat oral mirrors and tongue blades. Photographs were taken using a digital SLR camera (Nikon D-80, macro lens, macro flashes, and matt flash filters. Impressions were taken using additional-curing silicon material and casts made in orthodontic stone. Impressions and models were both assessed using dental loupes (magnification=x3.5. Each photograph/impression/cast was assessed by two calibrated examiners. Reliability of methods was assessed using kappa agreement tests. Kappa agreement, McNemar's and two-sample proportion tests were used to compare results obtained by the photographic and replication methods with those obtained by the direct examination method. Results Of the 110 invited children, 90 were photographed and 73 had impressions taken. The photographic method had higher reliability levels than the other two methods, and compared to the direct clinical examination detected significantly more subjects with DDE (P = 0.002, 3.1 times more DDE (P Conclusion The photographic method was much more sensitive than direct clinical examination in detecting DDE and was the best of the three methods for epidemiological studies. The replication method provided less information about DDE compared to photography. Results of this study have implications for both epidemiological and detailed clinical studies on DDE.

  7. Apparatus and method for plasma processing of SRF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, J.; Im, Do; Peshl, J.; Bašović, M.; Popović, S.; Valente-Feliciano, A.-M.; Phillips, L.; Vušković, L.

    2016-05-01

    An apparatus and a method are described for plasma etching of the inner surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Accelerator SRF cavities are formed into a variable-diameter cylindrical structure made of bulk niobium, for resonant generation of the particle accelerating field. The etch rate non-uniformity due to depletion of the radicals has been overcome by the simultaneous movement of the gas flow inlet and the inner electrode. An effective shape of the inner electrode to reduce the plasma asymmetry for the coaxial cylindrical rf plasma reactor is determined and implemented in the cavity processing method. The processing was accomplished by moving axially the inner electrode and the gas flow inlet in a step-wise way to establish segmented plasma columns. The test structure was a pillbox cavity made of steel of similar dimension to the standard SRF cavity. This was adopted to experimentally verify the plasma surface reaction on cylindrical structures with variable diameter using the segmented plasma generation approach. The pill box cavity is filled with niobium ring- and disk-type samples and the etch rate of these samples was measured.

  8. Apparatus and method for tracking a molecule or particle in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, James H [Los Alamos, NM; Goodwin, Peter M [Los Alamos, NM; Lessard, Guillaume [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-03-03

    An apparatus and method were used to track the movement of fluorescent particles in three dimensions. Control software was used with the apparatus to implement a tracking algorithm for tracking the motion of the individual particles in glycerol/water mixtures. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the tracking algorithms in combination with the apparatus may be used for tracking the motion of single fluorescent or fluorescently labeled biomolecules in three dimensions.

  9. Thickness measuring apparatus and method for tire ply and similar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, B.Y.; Utt, O.L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to method and apparatus for measuring the amount of material on opposite sides of the reinforcing cord of a tire ply, and more particularly relates to a backscatter X-ray radiation gauging apparatus and method for obtaining the aforesaid measurements. (author)

  10. Gaussian beam profile shaping apparatus, method therefore and evaluation thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus maps a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile by exploiting the Fourier transform properties of lenses. A phase element imparts a design phase onto an input beam and the output optical field from a lens is then the Fourier transform of the input beam and the phase function from the phase element. The phase element is selected in accordance with a dimensionless parameter which is dependent upon the radius of the incoming beam, the desired spot shape, the focal length of the lens and the wavelength of the input beam. This dimensionless parameter can also be used to evaluate the quality of a system. In order to control the radius of the incoming beam, optics such as a telescope can be employed. The size of the target spot and the focal length can be altered by exchanging the transform lens, but the dimensionless parameter will remain the same. The quality of the system, and hence the value of the dimensionless parameter, can be altered by exchanging the phase element. The dimensionless parameter provides design guidance, system evaluation, and indication as to how to improve a given system. 27 figs

  11. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1991-12-03

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a material (16, 42) by applying a cooling medium (20, 54) to cool a thin surface layer portion of the material and to transiently generate a temperature differential between the thin surface layer portion and the lower portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material. The altered thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material is detected by a spectrometer/detector (28, 50) while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of the emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation, so that the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of the characteristics relating to the molecular composition of the material.

  12. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1987-01-01

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  13. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibler, Jane P.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  14. Method and apparatus for epithermal neutron decay logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelligan, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    The nature of hydrogenous fluids filling the pore spaces in formations surrounding a well bore are determined by irradiating the formations with bursts of high energy neutrons and using the ratio of time-dependent parameters related to the decay of epithermal neutron populations above two different energy levels to provide values indicative of the kind of fluid present, independent of porosity. The measurement above the higher of these energy levels, appr. 0.4eV, indicates the existence of hydrogenous fluid, water and hydrocarbons in the formations. The lower threshold measurement, above appr. 0.15eV, is indicative of the structure of the molecule in which the hydrogen molecule is bound and of the porosity. A pulsed neutron generator in a sonde irradiates the formations with 14meV neutrons and a pair of detectors, one shielded by cadmium, to establish the 0.4eV threshold energy level and the other, shielded by gadolinium, to establish the 0.15eV threshold energy level. Time related parameters of the count rate information, e.g. the decay constants, provided by each detector are derived. The ratio of the respective parameters is used to identify the type of fluid in the information, independent of porosity. The method and apparatus can determine water saturation, i.e. percentage of water in the formation fluid and can identify specific types of hydrocarbons under 100% hydrocarbon saturation conditions. 8 figs

  15. Filtering apparatus and method for mixing, extraction and/or separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a filtering apparatus and method for mixing a compound of solid and fluid phases, separating the phases and/or extracting fluid from the compound. One embodiment of the invention discloses a filtering apparatus comprising a first filter section accommodating a fir...... in a beer brewing procedure....

  16. Apparatus and method for the electrolysis of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    2015-04-21

    An apparatus for the electrolytic splitting of water into hydrogen and/or oxygen, the apparatus comprising: (i) at least one lithographically-patternable substrate having a surface; (ii) a plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes embedded in said surface; (iii) at least one counter electrode in proximity to but not on said surface; (iv) means for collecting evolved hydrogen and/or oxygen gas; (v) electrical powering means for applying a voltage across said plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes and said at least one counter electrode; and (vi) a container for holding an aqueous electrolyte and housing said plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes and said at least one counter electrode. Electrolytic processes using the above electrolytic apparatus or functional mimics thereof are also described.

  17. Apparatus and method for enhancing tissue repair in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus is introduced for the use of enhancing tissue repair in mammals. The apparatus includes a sleeve; an electrically conductive coil; a sleeve support; an electrical circuit configured to supply the coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.5 gauss. When in use, the sleeve of the apparatus is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.5 gauss is generated on the mammalian body for an extended period of time so that the tissue is encouraged to be regenerated in the mammalian body part at a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate relative to regeneration without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.

  18. Mass transfer apparatus and method for separation of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blount, Gerald C.; Gorensek, Maximilian Boris; Hamm, Luther L.

    2018-01-16

    A process and apparatus for separating components of a source gas is provided in which more soluble components of the source gas are dissolved in an aqueous solvent at high pressure. The system can utilize hydrostatic pressure to increase solubility of the components of the source gas. The apparatus includes gas recycle throughout multiple mass transfer stages to improve mass transfer of the targeted components from the liquid to gas phase. Separated components can be recovered for use in a value added application or can be processed for long-term storage, for instance in an underwater reservoir.

  19. Lithographic linear motor, lithographic apparatus, and device manufacturing method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    A linear motor having a high driving force, high efficiency and low normal force comprises two opposed magnet tracks and an armature comprising three open coil sets. The linear motor may be used to drive a stage, such as, for example, a mask or wafer stage, in a lithographic apparatus.

  20. A photographic method to measure food item intake. Validation in geriatric institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyet, Virginie; Cuvelier, Gérard; Benattar, Linda; Giboreau, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    From both a clinical and research perspective, measuring food intake is an important issue in geriatric institutions. However, weighing food in this context can be complex, particularly when the items remaining on a plate (side dish, meat or fish and sauce) need to be weighed separately following consumption. A method based on photography that involves taking photographs after a meal to determine food intake consequently seems to be a good alternative. This method enables the storage of raw data so that unhurried analyses can be performed to distinguish the food items present in the images. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to validate a photographic method to measure food intake in terms of differentiating food item intake in the context of a geriatric institution. Sixty-six elderly residents took part in this study, which was performed in four French nursing homes. Four dishes of standardized portions were offered to the residents during 16 different lunchtimes. Three non-trained assessors then independently estimated both the total and specific food item intakes of the participants using images of their plates taken after the meal (photographic method) and a reference image of one plate taken before the meal. Total food intakes were also recorded by weighing the food. To test the reliability of the photographic method, agreements between different assessors and agreements among various estimates made by the same assessor were evaluated. To test the accuracy and specificity of this method, food intake estimates for the four dishes were compared with the food intakes determined using the weighed food method. To illustrate the added value of the photographic method, food consumption differences between the dishes were explained by investigating the intakes of specific food items. Although they were not specifically trained for this purpose, the results demonstrated that the assessor estimates agreed between assessors and among various estimates made by the same

  1. Method and apparatus for preventing agglomeration within fluid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodbridge, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for treating a fluid hydrocarbon fuel for retarding the agglomeration between particles thereof and for retarding the growth of bacteria and fungi therein. The process includes that steps of transporting a plurality of unit volumes of said fluid hydrocarbon fuel through an irradiating location and irradiating each unit of the plurality of unit volumes at the irradiating location with either neutron or gamma radiation. An apparatus for treating the fluid hydrocarbon fuels with the nuclear radiation also is provided. The apparatus includes a generally conical central irradiating cavity which is surrounded by a spiral outer irradiating cavity. The fluid hydrocarbon fuel is transported through the cavities while being irradiated by the nuclear radiation

  2. A testing apparatus and a method of operating the same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    by other sample holders, and each comprising a first abutment being fixed with respect to the sample holder. The testing apparatus comprises at least one second abutment, and each of the multiple first abutments or the second abutment comprises two separate abutment surfaces. Furthermore either each...... of the multiple first abutments or the second abutment is fixed with respect to the support structure (11), and the testing apparatus further comprises a transport mechanism (7, 12) adapted for relatively moving the other of the multiple first abutments or the second abutment in such a way that each of the first...... abutments on the multiple sample holders sequentially passes the second abutment and so that the two abutment surfaces on either each of the multiple first abutments or the second abutment passes on each side of at least a part of the other abutment....

  3. Method of and apparatus for decontaminating radioactive garments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, J.A.; Morrison, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Garments are deposited in a cleaning drum which is agitated during a wash cycle. A dry cleaning solvent is continuously added to the drum during the wash cycle and continuously removed from the drum during the wash cycle to flush the radioactive particulate material separated from the garments into a sump. The solvent is pumped from the sump for addition to the drum during the wash cycle and the pumped solvent is filtered to remove substantially all of the radioactive particulate material suspended in the solvent. Radiation sensors permit monitoring of the recycled solvent to ensure satisfactory operation of filters. The solvent is cleaned by a distilling apparatus, a condenser and a moisture separating apparatus. A fan dryer is provided. (author)

  4. Application of the personnel photographic monitoring method to determine equivalent radiation dose beyond proton accelerator shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, E.K.; Komochkov, M.M.; Man'ko, B.V.; Salatskaya, M.I.; Sychev, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of regularities to form radiation dose beyond proton accelerator shielding are carried out. Numerical data on photographic monitoring dosemeter in radiation fields investigated are obtained. It was shown how to determine the total equivalent dose of radiation fields beyond proton accelerator shielding by means of the photographic monitoring method by introduction into the procedure of considering nuclear emulsions of division of particle tracks into the black and grey ones. A comparison of experimental and calculational data has shown the applicability of the used calculation method for modelling dose radiation characteristics beyond proton accelerator shielding [ru

  5. Improvement in or relating to methods and apparatus for refuelling nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumyakin, E.P.; Sabir-de-Ribas, K.I.; Druzhinsky, I.A.; Kondratiev, P.V.; Andreichikov, B.I.; Slepov, L.M.; Borisjuk, E.V.; Smirnov, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to improvements in the methods and in the apparatus used for refuelling liquid metal cooled fast reactors and in particular to systems for cooling the fuel assemblies as they are removed from the reactor. (UK)

  6. Method of producing a pseudo-color photograph with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Mataichi.

    1965-01-01

    Conventional black and white X-ray photography cannot simultaneously produce an image on photographic film of a subject having regions of high and low X-ray absorption due to the limitation of photographic density range, gradation and exposure tolerance. This invention records both regions as images of different colors on the same color photographic film. According to a method of this invention for making an X-ray pseudo-color photograph, the subject is directly irradiated by an X-ray beam emergent from an X-ray beam generator, and an X-ray permeation image of the subject is converted into and displayed as a visible light image by means of a fluorescent screen. In one aspect of this invention, there is used a color photographic film which has at least two kinds of sensitive and coloring layers exhibiting the same sensitivity. During the period in which the visible image is displayed, the film is exposed to the visible light in such a way that at least two color filters differing in color and density are successively interposed between the film and the fluorescent screen. In another aspect, a color photographic film is employed having at least two kinds of sensitive and coloring layers exhibiting different sensitivities. During the period in which the visible image is displayed, the film is exposed to visible light by sequentially interposing at least two color filters of different color but of equal density. In this manner, regions comparatively low in X-ray absorption, such as the lungs, and regions comparatively high in absorption, such as the heart, appear as, for example, a blue image and a red image on the color photographic film, respectively. (Takasuka, S.)

  7. Method of producing a pseudo-color photograph with X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, M

    1965-05-08

    Conventional black and white X-ray photography cannot simultaneously produce an image on photographic film of a subject having regions of high and low X-ray absorption due to the limitation of photographic density range, gradation and exposure tolerance. This invention records both regions as images of different colors on the same color photographic film. According to a method of this invention for making an X-ray pseudo-color photograph, the subject is directly irradiated by an X-ray beam emergent from an X-ray beam generator, and an X-ray permeation image of the subject is converted into and displayed as a visible light image by means of a fluorescent screen. In one aspect of this invention, there is used a color photographic film which has at least two kinds of sensitive and coloring layers exhibiting the same sensitivity. During the period in which the visible image is displayed, the film is exposed to the visible light in such a way that at least two color filters differing in color and density are successively interposed between the film and the fluorescent screen. In another aspect, a color photographic film is employed having at least two kinds of sensitive and coloring layers exhibiting different sensitivities. During the period in which the visible image is displayed, the film is exposed to visible light by sequentially interposing at least two color filters of different color but of equal density. In this manner, regions comparatively low in X-ray absorption, such as the lungs, and regions comparatively high in absorption, such as the heart, appear as, for example, a blue image and a red image on the color photographic film, respectively.

  8. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  9. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio [Richland, WA; Calapristi, Augustin J [West Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  10. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  11. Method of photo-etching and photogravure using fission fragment and/or alpha ray etch tracks from toned photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackray, M.

    1973-01-01

    A method is described for reproducing a photographic image on a normally non-photo-receptive surface comprising the steps of: 1) toning the photograph with substances which combine with or replace the silver grains so that the photograph emits either spontaneously or indirectly fission fragments or alpha particles in amounts related to the distribution of the silver grains in the photograph; 2) placing the toned photograph contiguous with the surface on which the image is to be reproduced, for sufficient time for the emissions from the photograph to reproduce the image as a radiation-damage image on the surface, the damage areas having a close positional relationship to the silver grains in the original photograph. (author)

  12. Method of reproducing images using fission fragments and/or alpha ray etch tracks from toned photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackray, M.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing a photographic image on a normally non-photo-receptive surface comprising the steps of 1) toning the photograph with substances which combine with or replace the silver grains so that the photograph emits either spontaneously or indirectly fission fragments or alpha particles in amounts related to the distribution of the silver grains in the photograph, 2) placing the toned photograph contiguous with the surface on which the image is to be reproduced, for sufficient time for the emissions from the photograph to reproduce the image as a radiation-damage image on the surface, the damage areas having a close positional relationship to the silver grains in the original photograph. (author)

  13. Apparatus and test method for characterizing the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, De-Pin

    2017-05-01

    In order to evaluate the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials such as fabrics treated with phase change material microcapsules, a new apparatus was developed. The apparatus and the test method can measure the heat flux, temperature, and displacement signals during the dynamic contact and then quickly give an evaluation for the temperature regulating properties by simulating the dynamic heat transfer and temperature regulating process when the materials contact the body skin. A series of indices including the psychosensory intensity, regulating capability index, and relative regulating index were defined to characterize the temperature regulating properties. The measurement principle, the evaluation criteria and grading method, the experimental setup and the test results discussion, and the gage capability analysis of the apparatus are presented. The new apparatus provides a method for the objective measurement and evaluation of the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

  14. Method and apparatus for scanning a transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan-field imaging apparatus is described for use in scanning with particular reference to the brain. It comprises a plurality of highly focussed collimators surrounding and being focussed inwardly with respect to the scan-field and means for imparting movement to the collimators. Adjacent collimators can be stepped in radially opposite directions after each tangential scan, so that the focal point of each collimator scans at least one half of the scan-field. Each collimator is associated with a scintillator crystal and photodetector whose output is used to calculate the radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  15. Methods and apparatus for measuring the density of geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, B.

    1975-01-01

    A tool for measuring the density of the geological formations traversed by a borehole is described. An apparatus corrects the effects of barite on the count rate of the pulses which are used for the density measurement and have an amplitude higher than a given threshold, by determining the deformations in the amplitude spectrum of these pulses and adjusting this threshold so as to compensate by the variation in the number of pulses taken into account, resulting from the adjustment for the variation in the number of counted pulses resulting from the said deformations

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring underground fluid flow characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paap, H.J.; Richter, A.P.; Peelman, H.E.; Arnold, D.M.; Scot, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of neutron activation techniques to measure the azimuth and speed of the horizontal fluid flow in earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole and the analysis of the resultant gamma radiation based on count rate data obtained as functions of horizontal direction and time. The apparatus consisting of a sonde (a downhole well logging tool) equipped with a neutron source, a gamma detector and a rotatable shield with collimator slot and the data processing equipment located at the surface, are described. (UK)

  17. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF A SOLAR CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    ; and estimating variations in the solar cell, thereby electrically characterizing the solar cell. The disclosure further relates to a solar cell characterization apparatus for characterization of a solar cell, comprising: a light source for generating an optical probe light; a modulation unit, configured...... to produce modulated probe light by modulating the optical probe light with a modulation frequency of between 100 kHz and 0 MHz; a light scanning unit for scanning the modulated probe light such that said modulated probe light is incident on at least a part of the surface of the solar cell; and a 1 signal...

  18. Scalable polylithic on-package integratable apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, Surhud; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Borkar, Shekhar Y.

    2017-12-05

    Described is an apparatus which comprises: a first die including: a processing core; a crossbar switch coupled to the processing core; and a first edge interface coupled to the crossbar switch; and a second die including: a first edge interface positioned at a periphery of the second die and coupled to the first edge interface of the first die, wherein the first edge interface of the first die and the first edge interface of the second die are positioned across each other; a clock synchronization circuit coupled to the second edge interface; and a memory interface coupled to the clock synchronization circuit.

  19. Schinus terebinthifolius countercurrent chromatography (Part II): Intra-apparatus scale-up and inter-apparatus method transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda das Neves; Vieira, Mariana Neves; Garrard, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Jerz, Gerold; Leitão, Gilda Guimarães; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2016-09-30

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is being widely used across the world for purification of various materials, especially in natural product research. The predictability of CCC scale-up has been successfully demonstrated using specially designed instruments of the same manufacturer. The reality is that the most of CCC users do not have access to such instruments and do not have enough experience to transfer methods from one CCC column to another. This unique study of three international teams is based on innovative approach to simplify the scale-up between different CCC machines using fractionation of Schinus terebinthifolius berries dichloromethane extract as a case study. The optimized separation methodology, recently developed by the authors (Part I), was repeatedly performed on CCC columns of different design available at most research laboratories across the world. Hexane - ethyl acetate - methanol - water (6:1:6:1, v/v/v/v) was used as solvent system with masticadienonic and 3β-masticadienolic acids as target compounds to monitor stationary phase retention and calculate peak resolution. It has been demonstrated that volumetric, linear and length scale-up transfer factors based on column characteristics can be directly applied to different i.d., volume and length columns independently on instrument make in an intra-apparatus scale-up and inter-apparatus method transfer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance method and apparatus for reducing motion artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailes, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus for imaging a region of a body in which part of the region is moving with a motion such that its displacement with respect to time is a nonmonotonic function during a time period over which a plurality of NMR data signals, which together define an image, are collected. The apparatus is described comprising: excitation means arranged to excite nuclear magnetic spins preferentially in the region; encoding means arranged to encode the magnetic spins; data collection means arranged to collect data signals representative of encoded magnetic spins; display means responsive to collected data signals to display an image of the region; measuring means arranged to produce an output indicative of the displacement of the moving part of the region; and control means for controlling the encoding means during the time period in dependence on the output of the measuring means so that data signals collected during the time period are collected in an order dependent on the motion such that motion artifacts are reduced

  1. Nuclear fuel rod helium leak inspection apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an inspection apparatus for testing nuclear fuel rods for helium leaks. It comprises a test chamber being openable and closable for receiving at least one nuclear fuel rod; means separate from the fuel rod for supplying helium and constantly leaking helium at a predetermined known positive value into the test chamber to constantly provide an atmosphere of helium at the predetermined known positive value in the test chamber; and means for sampling the atmosphere within the chamber and measuring the helium in the atmosphere such that a measured helium value below a preset minimum helium value substantially equal to the predetermined known positive value of the atmosphere of helium being constantly provided in the test chamber indicates a malfunction in the inspection apparatus, above a preset maximum helium value greater than the predetermined known positive in the test chamber indicates the existence of a helium leak from the fuel rod, or between the preset minimum and maximum helium values indicates the absence of a helium leak from the fuel rod

  2. Investigation of the radioactivity of rocks by the photographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, J H.J.; Bremner, J W

    1948-06-05

    The method employed is to place an Ilford Nuclear Research plate at a distance of about 0.1 mm from a flat surface of the specimen cut with a diamond saw, and expose it for one to three weeks, depending or the probable activity of the specimen. In more recent experiments the plate has been placed in contact with the cut surface, as this makes easier the identification of ..cap alpha..-rays tracks, which all originate from one nucleus. Theoretically, from the frequencies of two-, three-, four-, and five-ray stars, it should be possible to estimate the separate amounts of uranium and thorium present. Enough data have not yet been obtained to determine whether this method will prove possible. The results of some experiments are reviewed briefly.

  3. Through the Students’ Lens: Photographic Methods for Research in Library Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailoo Bedi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – As librarians and researchers, we are deeply curious about how our library users navigate and experience our library spaces. Although we have some data about users’ experiences and wayfinding strategies at our libraries, including anecdotal evidence, statistics, surveys, and focus group discussions, we lacked more in-depth information that reflected students’ real-time experiences as they move through our library spaces. Our objective is to address that gap by using photographic methods for studying library spaces. Methods – We present two studies conducted in two academic libraries that used participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE methods. Described simply, photo-elicitation methods involve the use of photographs as discussion prompts in interviews. In both studies presented here, we asked participants to take photographs that reflected their experiences using and navigating our library spaces. We then met with participants for an interview using their photos as prompts to discuss their experiences. Results – Our analysis of students’ photos and interviews provided rich descriptions of student experiences in library spaces. This analysis resulted in new insights into the ways that students navigate the library as well as the ways that signage, furniture, technology, and artwork in the library can shape student experiences in library spaces. The results have proven productive in generating answers to our research questions and supporting practical improvements to our libraries. Additionally, when comparing the results from our two studies we identified the importance of detailed spatial references for understanding student experiences in library spaces, which has implications beyond our institutions. Conclusion – We found that photographic methods were very productive in helping us to understand library users’ experiences and supporting decision-making related to library spaces. In addition, engaging with

  4. Apparatus and method for loading pellets into fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widener, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for feeding a column of aligned cylindrical pellets along a longitudinal path of travel and while identifying a pellet of improper size. It comprises guide surface means adapted for supporting a plurality of serially arranged and longitudinally oriented cylindrical pellets, and such that the pellets are adapted to be slidably and longitudinally advanced along the guide surface means to define an advancing column of pellets, and pellet segregation means positioned adjacent one end of the guide surface means for permitting each advancing pellet having a cross-sectional diameter equal to a predetermined minimum diameter to advance thereacross while permitting each advancing pellet having a cross-sectional diameter less than the predetermined minimum diameter to drop to a level below the level of the remaining pellets in the advancing column

  5. Method and apparatus for performing digital intravenous subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to digital intravenous subtraction angiography (DISA), and more particularly concerns novel apparatus and techniques for providing high resolution angiograms with equipment that coacts with existing standard medical X-ray equipment. A typical medical X-ray generator provides low mA, continuous X-ray exposures illuminating a standard image intensifier producing an image scanned by a conventional television camera to produce a video signal. An analog-to-digital converter digitizes the signal, and adding means adds the digital frame signals together in real time to provide an intermediate digital signal representing the addition of 5 to 20 frames. Digital storage means store the intermediate image signals. Preferably there are two system memories with means for summing a subsequent intermediate image in the second memory while a previously-formed intermediate image is being transferred to disk storage

  6. Nuclear fusion apparatus and method for operating the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Daizaburo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a nuclear fusion apparatus in which a magnetic limiter is disposed within a vacuum vessel, the magnetic limiter having a limiter coil whose outer periphery is vacuumized to thereby facilitate insulating treatment of the coil and to prevent the coil from lowering of insulation, and to minimize the force applied to a protective pipe for the limiter coil and the bellows. Structure: A lengthwise exhaust groove is provided in the outer periphery of a coil conductor of the magnetic limiter disposed within the vacuum vessel and a lateral exhaust groove in communication with the first-mentioned exhaust groove is provided, said exhaust grooves being connected to an exhaust pipe. Since operation is performed so as to produce nuclear fusion reaction while exhausted by the exhaust pipe, the coil is not required to be vacuum-impregnated with resin or the like, thus facilitating insulating treatment. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Apparatus and method for inspecting a sealed container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, J Frank [Pocatello, ID; Jones, James L [Idaho Falls, ID; Hunt, Alan W [Pocatello, ID; Spaulding, Randy J [Pocatello, ID; Smith, Michael [Phoenix, AZ

    2009-03-24

    An apparatus for inspecting a sealed container is disclosed and which includes a pulsed electron accelerator which is positioned in spaced relation relative to a first side of the sealed container, and which produces a pulsed beam of photons which passes through the sealed container and any contents enclosed within the sealed container; a detector positioned in spaced relation relative to a second, opposite side of the sealed container, and which receives the pulsed beam of photons which passes through the contents of the sealed container, and which produces an output signal; and a computer for developing a visible image from the output signal of the detector which depicts the contents of the sealed container.

  8. Radiant energy collection and conversion apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A.J.

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting to alternate energy forms includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past the window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  9. Method and apparatus for generating highly luminous flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, G.M.

    1992-05-12

    A combustion process and apparatus are provided for generating a variable high temperature, highly luminous flame with low NOx emission by burning gaseous and liquid materials with oxygen and air. More particularly, the invention provides a process in which there is initial control of fuel, oxygen, and air flows and the delivery of the oxidizers to a burner as two oxidizing gases having different oxygen concentrations (for example, pure oxygen and air, or oxygen and oxygen-enriched air). A first oxidizing gas containing a high oxygen concentration is injected as a stream into the central zone of a combustion tunnel or chamber, and part of the fuel (preferably the major part) is injected into the central pyrolysis zone to mix with the first oxidizing gas to create a highly luminous high-temperature flame core containing microparticles of carbon of the proper size for maximum luminosity and high temperature, and a relatively small amount of hydrocarbon radicals. In addition, part of the fuel (preferably the minor part) is injected in a plurality of streams about the flame core to mix with a second oxidizing gas (containing a lower oxygen concentration than the first oxidizing gas) and injecting the second oxidizing mixture about the flame core and the minor fuel flow to mix with the minor fuel flow. This creates a plurality of fuel-lean (oxygen-rich) flames which are directed toward the luminous flame core to form a final flame pattern having high temperature, high luminosity, and low NOx content. 6 figs.

  10. Apparatus and method for inhibiting the generation of excessive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, F.; Chamberlain, J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating electron radiation or X-ray radiation. It comprises accelerator means for generating and accelerating electrons to form an electron beam which has a predetermined low intensity level for the generation of the electron radiation or a predetermined high intensity level for the generation of the X-ray radiation; supporting means for supporting a scattering foil and a target and for selectively moving either the foil into the trajectory of the electron beam having the low intensity level for generating the electron radiation upon impingement of the electrons there or on the target into the trajectory of the electron beam having the high intensity level for generating the X-ray radiation upon impingement of the electrons thereon; detecting means operable by the supporting means for sensing the position of the target relative to the trajectory of the electron beam; and inhibiting means coupled to the accelerator means and to the detecting means for preventing the generation of an electron beam having the high intensity level if the foil and not the target is positioned in the trajectory of the electron beam

  11. Method and apparatus for protection of pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngborg, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear power plant having a fluid-filler reactor vessel with a vapor outflow line for removing vapor from the reactor vessel, and liquid inflow means for injecting liquid to the reactor vessel. The inflow means includes an inflow line, a centrifugal pump disposed along the inflow line having an inlet and an outlet, an induction motor to drive the pump, flow control means along the inflow line between the pump and the reactor vessel from the pump. A means is included for generating a first control signal in response to liquid level in the reactor vessel and net vapor outflow versus liquid inflow with respect to the reactor vessel, the first control signal generating means being effective to generate a first signal to open and a second signal to close the flow control means to maintain liquid level in the vessel within predetermined limits. A pump and pump motor protection apparatus is described comprising: means for measuring the pressure of the liquid in the inlet of the pump; means for measuring the temperature of the liquid in the inlet of the pump; means for determining a required subcooling for the pump at the instantaneous temperature of the liquid in the inlet of the pump; and means for determining the enthalpy of the liquid in the inlet of the pump from the pressure and temperature of the liquid

  12. Method and apparatus for removing volatile hydrocarbons from particulate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendenhall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for heating solid particulate mineral compositions. It comprises: a counterflow ratable drum having a first end and an opposite second end, a first portion of the drum extending from the first end for a first length and having a first diameter along the first length, and a second portion of the drum secured to and extending from the first portion to the second end for a second length and having a second diameter along the second length, the second diameter being less than the first diameter, a burner adjacent the first end for introducing and directing hot gases of combustion into the first portion of the drum toward the second end, means for introducing particulate composition into the drum at the second end, means for directing the particulate composition along the drum from the second end toward the first end, and means for recovering composition at the first end, means for removing a gaseous mixture of organic volatiles, gases of combustion and fine particles of the particulate composition adjacent the second drum end, means for separating fine particles of the particulate composition from the gaseous mixture, and means for returning the separated fine particulate composition particles to the first portion of the drum

  13. The simple method to co-register planar image with photograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung June; Kim, Seok Ki; Kang, Keon Wook

    2005-01-01

    Generally scintigraphic image presents the highly specific functional information. Sometimes, there can be limited information of patients anatomical landmark required to identify the lesion in planar nuclear medicine image. In this study, we applied the simple fusion method of planar scintigraphy and plain photography and validated the techniques with our own software. We used three fiducial marks which were comprised with Tc-99m. We obtained planar image with single head gamma camera (ARGUS ADAC laboratory, USA) and photograph using a general digital camera (CANON JAPAN). The coordinates of three marks were obtained in photograph and planar scintigraphy image. Based on these points, we took affine transformation and then fused these two images. To evaluate the precision, we compared with different depth. To find out the depth of lesion, the images were acquired in different angles and we compared the real depth and the geometrically calculated depth. At the same depth with mark, the each discordance was less than 1 mm. When the photograph were taken at the distance with 1 m and 2 m, the point 30 cm off the center were discordant in 5 mm and 2 mm each. We used this method in the localization of the remnant thyroid tissue on I-131 whole body scan with photo image. The simple method to co-register planar image with photography was reliable and easy to use. By this method, we could localize the lesion on the planar scintigraphy more accurately with other planar images (i.e. photograph) and predict the depth of the lesion without tomographic image

  14. Improvements in or relating to a method of exposing and developing a photographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loprest, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification claims on behalf of Gaf Corporation, Delaware, U.S.A., a method of exposing and developing a composite photographic reproduction material for use in industrial and medical radiography. The material carries an X-ray-sensitive silver halide emulsion with a considerably reduced amount of silver halide, in combination with a second light sensitive layer containing a light-sensitive composition selected from diazotype compositions which form azo dyes, vesicular compositions and photosensitive polymers. (U.K.)

  15. Method and apparatus for controlling LCL converters using asymmetric voltage cancellation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee Devro; Sharp, Bryan Thomas; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-01-26

    A method and apparatus for LCL resonant converter control utilizing Asymmetric Voltage Cancellation is described. The methods to determine the optimal trajectory of the control variables are discussed. Practical implementations of sensing load parameters are included. Simple PI, PID and fuzzy logic controllers are included with AVC for achieving good transient response characteristics with output current regulation.

  16. Electro-Optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-Space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Libelo, Louis Francis; Wu, Qi

    1999-09-14

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric field and a laser beam in an electro-optic crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field--optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  17. Dual initiation strip charge apparatus and methods for making and implementing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos [Albuquerque, NM; Todd,; Steven, N [Rio Rancho, NM; Polisar, Stephen [Albuquerque, NM; Hughs, Chance [Tijeras, NM

    2011-03-22

    A Dual Initiation Strip Charge (DISC) apparatus is initiated by a single initiation source and detonates a strip of explosive charge at two separate contacts. The reflection of explosively induced stresses meet and create a fracture and breach a target along a generally single fracture contour and produce generally fragment-free scattering and no spallation. Methods for making and implementing a DISC apparatus provide numerous advantages over previous methods of creating explosive charges by utilizing steps for rapid prototyping; by implementing efficient steps and designs for metering consistent, repeatable, and controlled amount of high explosive; and by utilizing readily available materials.

  18. The suitability of visual taphonomic methods for digital photographs: An experimental approach with pig carcasses in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribéreau-Gayon, Agathe; Rando, Carolyn; Morgan, Ruth M; Carter, David O

    2018-05-01

    In the context of increased scrutiny of the methods in forensic sciences, it is essential to ensure that the approaches used in forensic taphonomy to measure decomposition and estimate the postmortem interval are underpinned by robust evidence-based data. Digital photographs are an important source of documentation in forensic taphonomic investigations but the suitability of the current approaches for photographs, rather than real-time remains, is poorly studied which can undermine accurate forensic conclusions. The present study aimed to investigate the suitability of 2D colour digital photographs for evaluating decomposition of exposed human analogues (Sus scrofa domesticus) in a tropical savanna environment (Hawaii), using two published scoring methods; Megyesi et al., 2005 and Keough et al., 2017. It was found that there were significant differences between the real-time and photograph decomposition scores when the Megyesi et al. method was used. However, the Keough et al. method applied to photographs reflected real-time decomposition more closely and thus appears more suitable to evaluate pig decomposition from 2D photographs. The findings indicate that the type of scoring method used has a significant impact on the ability to accurately evaluate the decomposition of exposed pig carcasses from photographs. It was further identified that photographic taphonomic analysis can reach high inter-observer reproducibility. These novel findings are of significant importance for the forensic sciences as they highlight the potential for high quality photograph coverage to provide useful complementary information for the forensic taphonomic investigation. New recommendations to develop robust transparent approaches adapted to photographs in forensic taphonomy are suggested based on these findings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis. 20 figs.

  20. Method and Apparatus for Characterizing Pressure Sensors using Modulated Light Beam Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Embodiments of apparatuses and methods are provided that use light sources instead of sound sources for characterizing and calibrating sensors for measuring small pressures to mitigate many of the problems with using sound sources. In one embodiment an apparatus has a light source for directing a beam of light on a sensing surface of a pressure sensor for exerting a force on the sensing surface. The pressure sensor generates an electrical signal indicative of the force exerted on the sensing surface. A modulator modulates the beam of light. A signal processor is electrically coupled to the pressure sensor for receiving the electrical signal.

  1. Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2016-05-03

    Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.

  2. Apparatus and method for implementing power saving techniques when processing floating point values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Moon; Park, Sang Phill

    2017-10-03

    An apparatus and method are described for reducing power when reading and writing graphics data. For example, one embodiment of an apparatus comprises: a graphics processor unit (GPU) to process graphics data including floating point data; a set of registers, at least one of the registers of the set partitioned to store the floating point data; and encode/decode logic to reduce a number of binary 1 values being read from the at least one register by causing a specified set of bit positions within the floating point data to be read out as 0s rather than 1s.

  3. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  4. Method and apparatus for combination catalyst for reduction of NO.sub.x in combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Richard F.; Vartuli, James C.; El-Malki, El-Mekki; Kalyanaraman, Mohan; Park, Paul W.

    2010-09-28

    A method and apparatus for catalytically processing a gas stream passing therethrough to reduce the presence of NO.sub.x therein, wherein the apparatus includes a first catalyst composed of a silver containing alumina that is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a first temperature range, and a second catalyst composed of a copper containing zeolite located downstream from the first catalyst, wherein the second catalyst is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a lower second temperature range relative to the first temperature range.

  5. Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1981-10-26

    In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

  6. Method and apparatus for implementing material thermal property measurement by flash thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiangang

    2017-11-14

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing measurement of material thermal properties including measurement of thermal effusivity of a coating and/or film or a bulk material of uniform property. The test apparatus includes an infrared camera, a data acquisition and processing computer coupled to the infrared camera for acquiring and processing thermal image data, a flash lamp providing an input of heat onto the surface of a two-layer sample with an enhanced optical filter covering the flash lamp attenuating an entire infrared wavelength range with a series of thermal images is taken of the surface of the two-layer sample.

  7. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial......Apparatus for treating raw water in a biofilter The present invention relates to an apparatus in which raw water is treated through microbial activity where microbial activity is controlled by nutrients and other parameters. Some of the nutrients controlling the microbial activity are trace...... elements such as certain metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Zn or a mixture thereof). The apparatus comprising - a volume provided with an inlet (2) for raw water and an outlet (3) for water having been subjected to microbial activity, a filter and a trace element dosage device (13) are placed in this volume...

  8. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  9. Method and apparatus for the separation of solid particles having different densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for separating solid particles of different densities, using a magnetic process fluid. The solid particles are thoroughly mixed in a small partial flow of the process fluid. The small turbulent partial flow is added to a large laminar partial flow of the process fluid, after

  10. Method and apparatus for sensorless operation of brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, T.V.

    1998-04-14

    A sensorless method and apparatus for providing commutation timing signals for a brushless permanent magnet motor extracts the third harmonic back-emf of a three-phase stator winding and independently cyclically integrates the positive and negative half-cycles thereof and compares the results to a reference level associated with a desired commutation angle. 23 figs.

  11. Air method measurements of apple vessel length distributions with improved apparatus and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtal Cohen; John Bennink; Mel Tyree

    2003-01-01

    Studies showing that rootstock dwarfing potential is related to plant hydraulic conductance led to the hypothesis that xylem properties are also related. Vessel length distribution and other properties of apple wood from a series of varieties were measured using the 'air method' in order to test this hypothesis. Apparatus was built to measure and monitor...

  12. Method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on an alternating current power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Alexander; Hofmann, Ronald

    2017-04-11

    A method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on remotely-operable elements of an alternating current distribution grid. Two state estimates of the distribution grid are prepared, one of which uses micro-synchrophasors. A difference between the two state estimates indicates a possible cyber attack.

  13. Method and apparatus for sensorless operation of brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Tillasthanam V.

    1998-01-01

    A sensorless method and apparatus for providing commutation timing signals for a brushless permanent magnet motor extracts the third harmonic back-emf of a three-phase stator winding and independently cyclically integrates the positive and negative half-cycles thereof and compares the results to a reference level associated with a desired commutation angle.

  14. Methods and apparatus for multi-parameter acoustic signature inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A [Richland, WA; Samuel, Todd J [Pasco, WA; Valencia, Juan D [Kennewick, WA; Gervais, Kevin L [Richland, WA; Tucker, Brian J [Pasco, WA; Kirihara, Leslie J [Richland, WA; Skorpik, James R [Kennewick, WA; Reid, Larry D [Benton City, WA; Munley, John T [Benton City, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA; Wright, Bob W [West Richland, WA; Panetta, Paul D [Richland, WA; Thompson, Jason S [Richland, WA

    2007-07-24

    A multiparameter acoustic signature inspection device and method are described for non-invasive inspection of containers. Dual acoustic signatures discriminate between various fluids and materials for identification of the same.

  15. Method and apparatus for scheduling broadcasts in social networks

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad Ahmed; Kalnis, Panos

    2016-01-01

    information regarding the producer's followers. The example method further 5 includes identifying, by a processor and based on the received information, discount factors associated with the producer's followers, and calculating, by the processor and based

  16. Method and apparatus for modeling, visualization and analysis of materials

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, Amal; Hadwiger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    processor and based on the received data, geometric features of the material. The example method further includes extracting, by the processor, particle paths within the material based on the computed geometric features, and geometrically modeling

  17. Method and apparatus for measuring nuclear magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitekamp, Daniel P.; Bielecki, Anthony; Zax, David B.; Zilm, Kurt W.; Pines, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A method for studying the chemical and structural characteristics of materials is disclosed. The method includes placement of a sample material in a high strength polarizing magnetic field to order the sample nucleii. The condition used to order the sample is then removed abruptly and the ordering of the sample allowed to evolve for a time interval. At the end of the time interval, the ordering of the sample is measured by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

  18. Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.

    2017-12-26

    Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.

  19. Apparatus and method for determining solids circulation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, J Christopher [Morgantown, WV; Spenik, James L [Morgantown, WV

    2012-02-14

    The invention relates to a method of determining bed velocity and solids circulation rate in a standpipe experiencing a moving packed bed flow, such as the in the standpipe section of a circulating bed fluidized reactor The method utilizes in-situ measurement of differential pressure over known axial lengths of the standpipe in conjunction with in-situ gas velocity measurement for a novel application of Ergun equations allowing determination of standpipe void fraction and moving packed bed velocity. The method takes advantage of the moving packed bed property of constant void fraction in order to integrate measured parameters into simultaneous solution of Ergun-based equations and conservation of mass equations across multiple sections of the standpipe.

  20. Method and apparatus for semi-solid material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyou [Knoxville, TN; Jian, Xiaogang [Knoxville, TN; Xu, Hanbing [Knoxville, TN; Meek, Thomas T [Knoxville, TN

    2009-02-24

    A method of forming a material includes the steps of: vibrating a molten material at an ultrasonic frequency while cooling the material to a semi-solid state to form non-dendritic grains therein; forming the semi-solid material into a desired shape; and cooling the material to a solid state. The method makes semi-solid castings directly from molten materials (usually a metal), produces grain size usually in the range of smaller than 50 .mu.m, and can be easily retrofitted into existing conventional forming machine.

  1. Method and apparatus to image biological interactions in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberger, Andrew; Bonito, Gregory M.; Reid, Chantal D.; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2015-12-22

    A method to dynamically image the actual translocation of molecular compounds of interest in a plant root, root system, and rhizosphere without disturbing the root or the soil. The technique makes use of radioactive isotopes as tracers to label molecules of interest and to image their distribution in the plant and/or soil. The method allows for the study and imaging of various biological and biochemical interactions in the rhizosphere of a plant, including, but not limited to, mycorrhizal associations in such regions.

  2. Apparatus and method for determining characteristics of subsurface formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method for the determination of a composite parameter of the formation water in formations surrounding a borehole using capture cross section data (or the conductivity) of the formation water is described and its use for the accurate determination of characteristics such as water saturation even in shaly regions, is demonstrated. (UK)

  3. Method and Apparatus for Computed Imaging Backscatter Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor); Meng, Christopher (Inventor); Sabri, Nissia (Inventor); Dugan, Edward T. (Inventor); Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods of x-ray backscatter radiography are provided. A single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing x-ray radiation to image subsurface features is disclosed, capable of scanning a region using a fan beam aperture and gathering data using rotational motion.

  4. Word aligned bitmap compression method, data structure, and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie; Otoo, Ekow

    2004-12-14

    The Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression method and data structure is a relatively efficient method for searching and performing logical, counting, and pattern location operations upon large datasets. The technique is comprised of a data structure and methods that are optimized for computational efficiency by using the WAH compression method, which typically takes advantage of the target computing system's native word length. WAH is particularly apropos to infrequently varying databases, including those found in the on-line analytical processing (OLAP) industry, due to the increased computational efficiency of the WAH compressed bitmap index. Some commercial database products already include some version of a bitmap index, which could possibly be replaced by the WAH bitmap compression techniques for potentially increased operation speed, as well as increased efficiencies in constructing compressed bitmaps. Combined together, this technique may be particularly useful for real-time business intelligence. Additional WAH applications may include scientific modeling, such as climate and combustion simulations, to minimize search time for analysis and subsequent data visualization.

  5. Word aligned bitmap compression method, data structure, and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie; Otoo, Ekow

    2004-12-14

    The Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression method and data structure is a relatively efficient method for searching and performing logical, counting, and pattern location operations upon large datasets. The technique is comprised of a data structure and methods that are optimized for computational efficiency by using the WAH compression method, which typically takes advantage of the target computing system's native word length. WAH is particularly apropos to infrequently varying databases, including those found in the on-line analytical processing (OLAP) industry, due to the increased computational efficiency of the WAH compressed bitmap index. Some commercial database products already include some version of a bitmap index, which could possibly be replaced by the WAH bitmap compression techniques for potentially increased operation speed, as well as increased efficiencies in constructing compressed bitmaps. Combined together, this technique may be particularly useful for real-time business intelligence. Additional WAH applications may include scientific modeling, such as climate and combustion simulations, to minimize search time for analysis and subsequent data visualization.

  6. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS INCLUDING A ROLLER WITH PORES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention offers a method for separating dry matter from a medium. A separation chamber is at least partly defined by a plurality of rollers (2,7) and is capable of being pressure regulated. At least one of the rollers is a pore roller (7) having a surface with pores allowing permeabi...

  7. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INSPECTION OF COMPRESSED DATA PACKAGES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    to be transferred over the data network. The method comprises the steps of: a) extracting payload data from the payload part of the package, b) appending the extracted payload data to a stream of data, c) probing the data package header so as to determine the compression scheme that is applied to the payload data...

  8. Apparatus and method for a gas turbine nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Intile, John Charles; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-02-05

    A nozzle includes an inlet, an outlet, and an axial centerline. A shroud surrounding the axial centerline extends from the inlet to the outlet and defines a circumference. The circumference proximate the inlet is greater than the circumference at a first point downstream of the inlet, and the circumference at the first point downstream of the inlet is less than the circumference at a second point downstream of the first point. A method for supplying a fuel through a nozzle directs a first airflow along a first path and a second airflow along a second path separate from the first path. The method further includes injecting the fuel into at least one of the first path or the second path and accelerating at least one of the first airflow or the second airflow.

  9. Methods, apparatus and system for notification of predictable memory failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cher, Chen-Yong; Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2017-01-03

    A method for providing notification of a predictable memory failure includes the steps of: obtaining information regarding at least one condition associated with a memory; calculating a memory failure probability as a function of the obtained information; calculating a failure probability threshold; and generating a signal when the memory failure probability exceeds the failure probability threshold, the signal being indicative of a predicted future memory failure.

  10. Nuclear power generating station equipment qualification method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fero, A.H.; Potochnik, L.M.; Riling, R.W.; Semethy, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method of monitoring an object piece of qualified equipment in a nuclear power plant. It comprises providing a first passive mimic means for mimicking the effect of radiation received by the object piece on the object piece; providing a second mimic means for mimicking the effect of a thermal history of the object piece on the object piece and mounting the first passive mimic means and the second mimic means in close proximity to the object piece

  11. Methods and apparatus for hydrogen based biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic process for biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization comprising the use of acidic waste as co-substrate.In this process,H2 and CO2 will be converted to CH4, which will result in lower CO2 content in the biogas. The invention relates to both in situ...... and ex situ methods of biogas upgrading. The invention further relates to a bioreactor comprising hollow fibre membranes....

  12. Methods, apparatus, and systems for monitoring transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Robert E [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID; West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Heath, Gail L [Iona, ID; Scott, Clark L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-31

    A sensing platform for monitoring a transmission system, and method therefor, may include a sensor that senses one or more conditions relating to a condition of the transmission system and/or the condition of an environment around the transmission system. A control system operatively associated with the sensor produces output data based on an output signal produced by the sensor. A transmitter operatively associated with the control system transmits the output data from the control system.

  13. Method and apparatus for controlled condensation isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.A.; Lee, J.T. Jr.; Kim, K.C.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a method for producing controlled homogeneous condensation of a molecular feed gas containing several isotopes. The feed gas flows at supersonic rates through an expansion nozzle under conditions at which the gas would normally condense. The gas is irradiated with laser radiation of a wavelength that selectively excites those molecules in the feed gas that contain a particular isotope, thus preventing their condensation. Condensate particles may be aerodynamically separated from the flowing gas stream

  14. Method of multiplanar emission tomography and apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, S.C.; Smith, K.A.; Wake, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    A method of emission tomography using a gamma camera and a rotating collimator having an array of a large number of slanted, small diameter holes. A planar projection corresponding to each angular orientation assumed by the collimator is recorded. From these series of planar projections, a three-dimensional simulation model is reconstructed by an iterative algorithm which approximates the emitting object. The simulated model comprises multiple separable planes

  15. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  16. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  17. Apparatus and method for vibrating a casing string during cementing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.E.; Rankin, K.T.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of cementing a string of casing in a well. It comprises: securing a vibrating device into the string of casing near the lower end of the string of casing; lowering the string of casing into the well to the desired depth; pumping a cement slurry down the string of casing; causing a portion of the cement slurry being pumped down the string of casing to vibrate the vibrating device; and wherein the vibrating device is secured in the string of casing by cementing the vibrating device within a sub, then securing the sub into the string of casing prior to lowering the string of casing into the well

  18. Locking screw apparatus and method for underwater remote replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for locking in place a screw which secures together first and second structures in the internal region of a nuclear reactor core. The first structure has a screw bore with a counterbore portion formed in an outer surface. The method comprises the steps of: forming a lateral recess in the counterbore portion and spaced from the outer surface, providing an elongated screw having an enlarged shoulder flange and an angular drive head with a lateral width substantially less than that of the counterbore portion, disposing the screw through the screw bore in threaded engagement with the second structure and with the shoulder rotatably seated in the counterbore portion. This provides a locking member having an angular opening and disposing it in the counterbore portion against the flange with the drive head received in the opening for engagement with the locking member to prevent rotation. This deforms a portion of the locking member into the recess for engagement to prevent movement of the locking member with respect to the first structure

  19. Hooked differential mobility spectrometry apparatus and method therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A [Richland, WA; Tang, Keqi [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    Disclosed are a device and method for improved interfacing of differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) or field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzers of substantially planar geometry to subsequent or preceding instrument stages. Interfacing is achieved using curved DMS elements, where a thick ion beam emitted by planar DMS analyzers or injected into them for ion filtering is compressed to the gap median by DMS ion focusing effect in a spatially inhomogeneous electric field. Resulting thinner beams are more effectively transmitted through necessarily constrained conductance limit apertures to subsequent instrument stages operated at a pressure lower than DMS, and/or more effectively injected into planar DMS analyzers. The technology is synergetic with slit apertures, slit aperture/ion funnels, and high-pressure ion funnel interfaces known in the art which allow for increasing cross-sectional area of MS inlets. The invention may be used in integrated analytical platforms, including, e.g., DMS/MS, LC/DMS/MS, and DMS/IMS/MS that could replace and/or enhance current LC/MS methods, e.g., for proteomics research.

  20. Apparatus and method for controlling a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musick, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    A control system and method for a nuclear steam supply system for calculating the appropriate operating limits of the system based on the system's design limits are described. The control system monitors the appropriate parameters of the nuclear steam supply system, modifies one of the parameters, and calculates the desired operating limit on the basis of the unmodified and modified parameters. The parameter selected to be modified is adjusted in such a way as to account for the possible occurrence of all anticipated operational occurrences. The degree of adjustment encompasses the factors of the possibility of the occurrence of a worst case accident; axial power distribution; and the delay times of the protection system which include sensing, calculating, and activation time delays. The operating limit thus generated includes a margin which allows sufficient time for the termination of operation or for control of the system such that the design limits are not violated

  1. Methods and apparatuses for low-noise magnetic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic sensors are disclosed, as well as methods for fabricating and using the same. In some embodiments, an EMR effect sensor includes a semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a conductive layer substantially coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a first voltage lead coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the first voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a second voltage lead coupled to the conductive layer. In some embodiments, the second voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. Embodiments of a Hall effect sensor having the same or similar structure are also disclosed.

  2. Method and apparatus for determining the dose value of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgkhardt, B.; Piesch, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method is provided for determining the dose value of neutrons leaving a body as thermal and intermediate neutrons after having been scattered in the body. A first dose value of thermal and intermediate neutrons is detected on the surface of the body by means of a first detector for neutrons which is shielded against thermal and intermediate neutrons not emerging from the body. A second detector is used to measure a second dose value of the thermal and intermediate neutrons not emerging from the body. A first correction factor based on the first and second values is obtained from a calibration diagram and is applied to the first dose value to determine a first corrected first dose value. 21 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures

  3. Methods and apparatuses for low-noise magnetic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2015-10-20

    Magnetic sensors are disclosed, as well as methods for fabricating and using the same. In some embodiments, an EMR effect sensor includes a semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a conductive layer substantially coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a first voltage lead coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the first voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a second voltage lead coupled to the conductive layer. In some embodiments, the second voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. Embodiments of a Hall effect sensor having the same or similar structure are also disclosed.

  4. Method and apparatus for measuring enrichment of UF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas Roy [Santa Fe, NM; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-06-07

    A system and method are disclosed for determining the enrichment of .sup.235U in Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) utilizing synthesized X-rays which are directed at a container test zone containing a sample of UF6. A detector placed behind the container test zone then detects and counts the X-rays which pass through the container and the UF6. In order to determine the portion of the attenuation due to the UF6 gas alone, this count rate may then be compared to a calibration count rate of X-rays passing through a calibration test zone which contains a vacuum, the test zone having experienced substantially similar environmental conditions as the actual test zone. Alternatively, X-rays of two differing energy levels may be alternately directed at the container, where either the container or the UF6 has a high sensitivity to the difference in the energy levels, and the other having a low sensitivity.

  5. Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

    2013-03-05

    A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

  6. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    1999-06-22

    A permanent magnet assembly for assembly in large permanent magnet motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier that can be slid into a slot in the rotor and then secured in place using a set screw. The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device with guide rails that line up with the teeth of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly can be pushed first into a slot, and then down the slot to its proper location. An auxiliary tool is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly into position in the slot before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies in the rotor are also disclosed. 2 figs.

  7. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Matthew F.; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2010-10-12

    Preferred embodiments of the invention provide for methods and systems of 2D spectroscopy using ultrafast, first light and second light beams and a CCD array detector. A cylindrically-focused second light beam interrogates a target that is optically interactive with a frequency-dispersed excitation (first light) pulse, whereupon the second light beam is frequency-dispersed at right angle orientation to its line of focus, so that the horizontal dimension encodes the spatial location of the second light pulse and the first light frequency, while the vertical dimension encodes the second light frequency. Differential spectra of the first and second light pulses result in a 2D frequency-frequency surface equivalent to double-resonance spectroscopy. Because the first light frequency is spatially encoded in the sample, an entire surface can be acquired in a single interaction of the first and second light pulses.

  8. Apparatus and method for continuous production of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-hung; Jin, Hyungdae

    2014-08-12

    Embodiments of a continuous-flow injection reactor and a method for continuous material synthesis are disclosed. The reactor includes a mixing zone unit and a residence time unit removably coupled to the mixing zone unit. The mixing zone unit includes at least one top inlet, a side inlet, and a bottom outlet. An injection tube, or plurality of injection tubes, is inserted through the top inlet and extends past the side inlet while terminating above the bottom outlet. A first reactant solution flows in through the side inlet, and a second reactant solution flows in through the injection tube(s). With reference to nanoparticle synthesis, the reactant solutions combine in a mixing zone and form nucleated nanoparticles. The nucleated nanoparticles flow through the residence time unit. The residence time unit may be a single conduit, or it may include an outer housing and a plurality of inner tubes within the outer housing.

  9. Method and apparatus for scanning x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    In a method of producing a tomographic image of a subject that includes the steps of generating X-rays at a moving origin point by directing a charged particle beam to a target surface, deflecting the charged particle beam to travel the origin point through a predetermined raster scan at the surface, detecting variations of X-ray intensity during the course of the raster scan at spaced apart detection points situated at the opposite side of the subject from the origin point, generating a first sequence of data values that is indicative of variations of X-ray intensity at a first of the detection points at successive times during the course of the raster scan and generating at least a second sequence of data values that is indicative of variations of X-ray intensity at a second of the detection points at successive times during the course of the same raster scan, the improvement is described comprising: combining successive individual data values of the first sequence that are generated by X-rays from successive particular locations in the raster scan with at least individual data values of the second sequence that are generated by X-rays from predetermined successive different locations in the same raster scan in order to produce a composite sequence of data values, and producing an image corresponding to at least a portion of the raster scan which depicts variations of the magnitude of successive data values of the composite sequence

  10. Method and apparatus for compacting spent nuclear reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor system requiring periodic physical manipulation of spent fuel rods, the method of compacting fuel rods from a fuel rod assembly is described comprising the steps of: (1) removing the top end from pulling members having electrodes of weld elements in leading ends thereof in sequence through a fuel rod container and thence through respective consolidating passages in a fuel-rod directing chamber; (3) welding the weld elements of the pulling members to the top end of respective fuel rods corresponding to the respective pulling members; (4) drawing each of the pulling members axially to draw the respective engaged fuel rods in one axial direction through the respective passages in the chamber to thereby consolidate the fuel rods into a compacted configuration of a cross-sectional area smaller than the cross-sectional area occupied thereby within the fuel rod assembly; and (5) drawing all of the engaged fuel rods concurrently and substantially parallel to one another to the one axial direction into the fuel rod container while maintaining the compacting configuration in a fuel rod density which is greater than that of the fuel rod density of the fuel rod assembly

  11. Method and apparatus for epithermal neutron porosity well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.; Loomis, W.A.; Wraight, P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for investigating the porosity of a subsurface earth formation surrounding a borehole. It comprises repetitively irradiating the borehole and earth formation with discrete bursts of high energy neutrons from a neutron source, which neutrons interact with nuclei of the materials in the borehole and the formation to produce therein populations of epithermal neutrons; detecting the populations of epithermal neutrons at near and far locations in the borehole spaced apart longitudinally by different distances from the neutron source; generating count signals indicative of the magnitudes of the detected epithermal neutron populations at the respective near and far locations; detecting the decay of the epithermal neutron populations following the neutron bursts at least at one location in the borehole and generating signals representative thereof; deriving from the decay signals a signal indicative of the slowing down time of epithermal neutrons in the formation of the at least one location; and deriving from the near and far count signals and the slowing down time signal a measurement signal representative of the porosity of the formation surrounding the borehole inherently compensated for the effects of tool standoff on the responses of the logging tool

  12. Nuclear fuel pellet sintering boat unloading apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, T.B.; Widener, W.H.; Klapper, K.K.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for unloading nuclear fuel pellets from a sintering boat having an open top. It comprises: pivoting a transfer housing loaded with the boat filled with nuclear fuel pellets about a generally horizontal axis from an upright position remote from a pellet deposit surface to an inverted position adjacent to the deposit surface to move the boat from an upright to inverted orientation with the pellets retained within the boat by a latched lid in a closed condition on the housing; unlatching the lid of the housing as the housing reaches its inverted position but engaging the unlatched lid with the deposit surface to retain it in its closed condition; and reverse pivoting the housing from its inverted position back toward its upright position to permit the unlatched lid to pivot from the closed condition to an opened condition thereby allowing pellets to slide out of the open top of the inverted boat and down the opened lid of the housing to the deposit site

  13. Methods and apparatuses for the development of microstructured nuclear fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos, NM; Carroll, David W [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David J [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-04-21

    Microstructured nuclear fuel adapted for nuclear power system use includes fissile material structures of micrometer-scale dimension dispersed in a matrix material. In one method of production, fissile material particles are processed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) fluidized-bed reactor including a gas inlet for providing controlled gas flow into a particle coating chamber, a lower bed hot zone region to contain powder, and an upper bed region to enable powder expansion. At least one pneumatic or electric vibrator is operationally coupled to the particle coating chamber for causing vibration of the particle coater to promote uniform powder coating within the particle coater during fuel processing. An exhaust associated with the particle coating chamber and can provide a port for placement and removal of particles and powder. During use of the fuel in a nuclear power reactor, fission products escape from the fissile material structures and come to rest in the matrix material. After a period of use in a nuclear power reactor and subsequent cooling, separation of the fissile material from the matrix containing the embedded fission products will provide an efficient partitioning of the bulk of the fissile material from the fission products. The fissile material can be reused by incorporating it into new microstructured fuel. The fission products and matrix material can be incorporated into a waste form for disposal or processed to separate valuable components from the fission products mixture.

  14. Method and apparatus for automatic control of a humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot having a plurality of joints adapted for force control with respect to an object acted upon by the robot, a graphical user interface (GUI) for receiving an input signal from a user, and a controller. The GUI provides the user with intuitive programming access to the controller. The controller controls the joints using an impedance-based control framework, which provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot in response to the input signal. A method for controlling the robotic system includes receiving the input signal via the GUI, e.g., a desired force, and then processing the input signal using a host machine to control the joints via an impedance-based control framework. The framework provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot, and allows for functional-based GUI to simplify implementation of a myriad of operating modes.

  15. Apparatus and method for detecting contraband using fast neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.; Sawa, Z.P.; Shea, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of detecting contraband within an object under investigation. It comprises: generating a beam of case neutrons; irradiating the object with the beam of fast neutrons, the fast neutrons interacting with atomic nuclei of the elements contained within the object to produce a gamma-ray spectrum having spectral lines characteristic of the elements contained within the object; measuring the spectral lines of the gamma-ray spectrum using a multiplicity of gamma-ray detectors judiciously positioned around the object; detecting the number of neutrons that pass through the object without interacting substantially with atomic nuclei within the object; determining the spatial and density distributions of the atomic nuclei of the elements contained within the object from the measured gamma-ray spectrum obtained from the multiplicity of gamma-ray detectors and the number of neutrons that pass through the object; comparing the measured spatial and density distributions of the atomic nuclei of the elements within the object with known spatial and density distributions of atomic nuclei for elements characteristic of contraband; and determining that contraband is present within the object when the comparison indicates a substantial match

  16. Method and apparatus for producing food grade carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobles, J.E.; Swenson, L.K.

    1984-01-01

    A method is disclosed of producing food grade carbon dioxide from an impure carbon dioxide source stream containing contaminants which may include light and heavy hydrocarbons (at least C 1 to C 3 ) and light sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well as heavier sulfur constituents in the nature of mercaptans (RSH) and/or organic mono and disulfides (RSR and RSSR). Nitrogen, water and/or oxygen may also be present in varying amounts in the impure feed stream. The feed gas is first rectified with liquid carbon dioxide condensed from a part of the feed stream to remove heavy hydrocarbons and heavy sulfur compounds, then passed through an absorber to effect removal of the light sulfur compounds, next subjected to an oxidizing atmosphere capable of converting all of the C 2 hydrocarbons and optionally a part of the methane to carbon oxides and water, chilled to condense the water in the remaining gas stream without formation of hydrates, liquefied for ease of handling and storage and finally stripped to remove residual contaminants such as methane, carbon monoxide and nitrogen to produce the final food grade carbon dioxide product

  17. Ultra-low pollutant emission combustion method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khinkis, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for ultra-low pollutant emission combustion of fossil fuel. It comprises: introducing into a primary combustion chamber a first fuel portion of about 1 percent to about 20 percent of a total fuel to be combusted; introducing primary combustion air into the primary combustion chamber; introducing a first portion of water into the primary combustion chamber, having a first water heat capacity equivalent to a primary combustion air heat capacity of one of a primary combustion air amount of about 10 percent to about 60 percent of the first stoichiometirc requirement for complete combustion of the first fuel portion and an excess primary combustion air amount of about 20 percent to about 150 percent of the first stoichiometric requirement for complete combustion of the first fuel portion; burning the first fuel portion with the primary combustion air in the primary combustion chamber at a temperature abut 2000 degrees F to about 2700 degrees F producing initial combustion products; passing the initial combustion products into a secondary combustion chamber; introducing into the secondary combustion chamber a second fuel portion of about 80 percent to about 99 percent of the total fuel to be combusted; introducing secondary combustion air into the secondary combustion chamber in an amount of about 105 percent to about 130 percent of a second stoichiometric requirement for complete combustion of the second fuel portion; introducing a second portion of water into the secondary combustion chamber; burning the second fuel portion and any remaining fuel in the initial combustion products; passing the final combustion products into a dilution chamber; introducing dilution air into the dilution chamber; discharging the ultra-low pollutant emission vitiated air form the dilution chamber

  18. Method and apparatus for high-efficiency direct contact condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, Desikan; Parent, Yves; Hassani, A. Vahab

    1999-01-01

    A direct contact condenser having a downward vapor flow chamber and an upward vapor flow chamber, wherein each of the vapor flow chambers includes a plurality of cooling liquid supplying pipes and a vapor-liquid contact medium disposed thereunder to facilitate contact and direct heat exchange between the vapor and cooling liquid. The contact medium includes a plurality of sheets arranged to form vertical interleaved channels or passageways for the vapor and cooling liquid streams. The upward vapor flow chamber also includes a second set of cooling liquid supplying pipes disposed beneath the vapor-liquid contact medium which operate intermittently in response to a pressure differential within the upward vapor flow chamber. The condenser further includes separate wells for collecting condensate and cooling liquid from each of the vapor flow chambers. In alternate embodiments, the condenser includes a cross-current flow chamber and an upward flow chamber, a plurality of upward flow chambers, or a single upward flow chamber. The method of use of the direct contact condenser of this invention includes passing a vapor stream sequentially through the downward and upward vapor flow chambers, where the vapor is condensed as a result of heat exchange with the cooling liquid in the contact medium. The concentration of noncondensable gases in the resulting condensate-liquid mixtures can be minimized by controlling the partial pressure of the vapor, which depends in part upon the geometry of the vapor-liquid contact medium. In another aspect of this invention, the physical and chemical performance of a direct contact condenser can be predicted based on the vapor and coolant compositions, the condensation conditions. and the geometric properties of the contact medium.

  19. Automatic Detection of Acromegaly From Facial Photographs Using Machine Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Gong, Shun; Su, Lijuan; Howard, Newton; Kong, Yanguo

    2018-01-01

    Automatic early detection of acromegaly is theoretically possible from facial photographs, which can lessen the prevalence and increase the cure probability. In this study, several popular machine learning algorithms were used to train a retrospective development dataset consisting of 527 acromegaly patients and 596 normal subjects. We firstly used OpenCV to detect the face bounding rectangle box, and then cropped and resized it to the same pixel dimensions. From the detected faces, locations of facial landmarks which were the potential clinical indicators were extracted. Frontalization was then adopted to synthesize frontal facing views to improve the performance. Several popular machine learning methods including LM, KNN, SVM, RT, CNN, and EM were used to automatically identify acromegaly from the detected facial photographs, extracted facial landmarks, and synthesized frontal faces. The trained models were evaluated using a separate dataset, of which half were diagnosed as acromegaly by growth hormone suppression test. The best result of our proposed methods showed a PPV of 96%, a NPV of 95%, a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 96%. Artificial intelligence can automatically early detect acromegaly with a high sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Method and apparatus for generating and utilizing a compound plasma configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koloc, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for generating and utilizing a compound plasma configuration is disclosed. The plasma configuration includes a central toroidal plasma with electrical currents surrounded by a generally ellipsoidal mantle of ionized particles or electrically conducting matter. The preferred methods of forming this compound plasma configuration include the steps of forming a helical ionized path in a gaseous medium and simultaneously discharging a high potential through the ionized path to produce a helical or heliform current which collapses on itself to produce a toroidal current, or generating a toroidal plasmoid, supplying magnetic energy to the plasmoid, and applying fluid pressure external to the plasmoid. The apparatus of the present invention includes a pressure chamber wherein the compound plasma configuration can be isolated or compressed by fluid or other forms of mechanical or magnetic pressure. 47 claims, 10 figures

  1. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr,; Jeffrey, W [Livermore, CA

    2009-03-31

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  2. Apparatus and method for optimal phase balancing using dynamic programming with spatial consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertazzi, Thomas G.; Skiena, Steven; Wang, Kai

    2017-08-08

    Provided are an apparatus and method for load-balancing of a three-phase electric power distribution system having a multi-phase feeder, including obtaining topology information of the feeder identifying supply points for customer loads and feeder sections between the supply points, obtaining customer information that includes peak customer load at each of the points between each of the feeder sections, performing a phase balancing analysis, and recommending phase assignment at the customer load supply points.

  3. Method and apparatus for real time imaging and monitoring of radiotherapy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA; Macey, Daniel J [Birmingham, AL; Weisenberger, Andrew G [Yorktown, VA

    2011-11-01

    A method and apparatus for real time imaging and monitoring of radiation therapy beams is designed to preferentially distinguish and image low energy radiation from high energy secondary radiation emitted from a target as the result of therapeutic beam deposition. A detector having low sensitivity to high energy photons combined with a collimator designed to dynamically image in the region of the therapeutic beam target is used.

  4. Apparatus and Method for Elimination of Polarization-Induced Fading in Fiber-optic Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method of eliminating polarization-induced fading in interferometric fiber-optic sensor system having a wavelength-swept laser optical signal. The interferometric return signal from the sensor arms are combined and provided to a multi-optical path detector assembly and ultimately to a data acquisition and processing unit by way of a switch that is time synchronized with the laser scan sweep cycle.

  5. Method and apparatus for checking the stability of a setup for making reflection type holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, H. G. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for checking the stability of a setup for recording reflection-type (white light) holograms. Two sets of interference fringes are simultaneously obtained, one giving information about coherence and stability of the setup alone and the other demonstrating coherence of the entire system, including the holographic recording plate. Special emphasis is given to the stability of the plate, due to the fact that any minute vibration might severely degrade or completely destroy the recording.

  6. Systems, methods and apparatus for developing and maintaining evolving systems with software product lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Pena, Joaquin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which an evolutionary system is managed and viewed as a software product line. In some embodiments, the core architecture is a relatively unchanging part of the system, and each version of the system is viewed as a product from the product line. Each software product is generated from the core architecture with some agent-based additions. The result may be a multi-agent system software product line.

  7. Apparatus and method for using radar to evaluate wind flow fields for wind energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, John; Hirth, Brian; Guynes, Jerry

    2017-02-21

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method for obtaining data to determine one or more characteristics of a wind flow field using one or more radars. Data is collected from the one or more radars, and analyzed to determine the one or more characteristics of the wind flow field. The one or more radars are positioned to have a portion of the wind flow field within a scanning sector of the one or more radars.

  8. Method and apparatus for improving the quality and efficiency of ultrashort-pulse laser machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Nguyen, Hoang T.; Perry, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the quality and efficiency of machining of materials with laser pulse durations shorter than 100 picoseconds by orienting and maintaining the polarization of the laser light such that the electric field vector is perpendicular relative to the edges of the material being processed. Its use is any machining operation requiring remote delivery and/or high precision with minimal collateral dames.

  9. Method and apparatus for optimizing operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, David [Mentor, OH; Katrompas, Alexander M [Concord, OH; Parikh, Neel J [Richmond Heights, OH

    2009-09-01

    A method and apparatus for optimizing the operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques. One or more decisions D are determined for at least one consecutive time increment, where at least one of the decisions D is associated with a discrete variable for the operation of a power plant device in the power generating plant. In an illustrated embodiment, the power plant device is a soot cleaning device associated with a boiler.

  10. Method, apparatus, and system for utilizing augmented reality to improve surgery

    KAUST Repository

    Cali, Corrado

    2016-10-13

    A method, apparatus, and computer readable medium are provided for utilizing augmented reality visualization to assist surgery. An example method includes generating a three dimensional reconstruction of an image stack representing a target area of a patient, and superimposing, by a head-mounted display, a projection of the three dimensional reconstruction onto a field of view of a user. The method further includes maintaining alignment between the projection and the user\\'s actual view of the target area using a plurality of fiducial markers associated with the target area. In some embodiments, the method further includes scanning the target area to generate the image stack.

  11. Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure for determining the wear of materials during sliding using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Materials are tested in pairs under nominally non-abrasive conditions. The principal areas of experimental attention in using this type of apparatus to measure wear are described. The coefficient of friction may also be determined. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Method and apparatus for producing average magnetic well in a reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic well reversed field plasma pinch method and apparatus produces hot magnetically confined pinch plasma in a toroidal chamber having a major toroidal axis and a minor toroidal axis and a small aspect ratio, e.g. < 6. A pinch current channel within the plasma and at least one hyperbolic magnetic axis outside substantially all of the plasma form a region of average magnetic well in a region surrounding the plasma current channel. The apparatus is operated so that reversal of the safety factor q and of the toroidal magnetic field takes place within the plasma. The well-producing plasma cross section shape is produced by a conductive shell surrounding the shaped envelope and by coils. A shell is of copper or aluminium with non-conductive breaks, and is bonded to a thin aluminium envelope by silicone rubber. (author)

  13. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  14. Apparatus and method for pulsed laser deposition of materials on wires and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Felix E.

    2003-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed which allow uniform coatings to be applied by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on inner and outer surfaces of cylindrical objects, such as rods, pipes, tubes, and wires. The use of PLD makes this technique particularly suitable for complex multicomponent materials, such as superconducting ceramics. Rigid objects of any length, i.e., pipes up to a few meters, and with diameters from less than 1 centimeter to over 10 centimeters can be coated using this technique. Further, deposition is effected simultaneously onto an annular region of the pipe wall. This particular arrangement simplifies the apparatus, reduces film uniformity control difficulties, and can result in faster operation cycles. In addition, flexible wires of any length can be continuously coated using the disclosed invention.

  15. Substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for univeristies students with muscular skeletal apparatuse affections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San. Zhen Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for universities students, who have disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus. Material: in experimental researches 126 students of 18-24 years’ age, having disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus, participated. With the help of testing we registered changes of students’ functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness indicators. Results: optimal correlation of specific and non specific loads was found: 60% of specific and 40% of non specific. It is recommended to follow certain correlation of exercises in easy and complicated conditions: for first year students - 3:2; for second year students - 3:2; for third year - 2:3; for forth year - 2:3; for fifth year students - 1:3. Specific only for power lifting conditions and temps of students’ (with muscular skeletal apparatus affections functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness improvement were determined. Conclusions: The requirements of the training methodic envisage correction of loads for bringing every indicator on proper level.

  16. Ion-beam apparatus and method for analyzing and controlling integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ann N.; Soden, Jerry M.

    1998-01-01

    An ion-beam apparatus and method for analyzing and controlling integrated circuits. The ion-beam apparatus comprises a stage for holding one or more integrated circuits (ICs); a source means for producing a focused ion beam; and a beam-directing means for directing the focused ion beam to irradiate a predetermined portion of the IC for sufficient time to provide an ion-beam-generated electrical input signal to a predetermined element of the IC. The apparatus and method have applications to failure analysis and developmental analysis of ICs and permit an alteration, control, or programming of logic states or device parameters within the IC either separate from or in combination with applied electrical stimulus to the IC for analysis thereof. Preferred embodiments of the present invention including a secondary particle detector and an electron floodgun further permit imaging of the IC by secondary ions or electrons, and allow at least a partial removal or erasure of the ion-beam-generated electrical input signal.

  17. Leakage detecting method and device for water tight vessel of wet-type container apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshimi.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for detecting leakage of a water tight vessel of a wet-type container apparatus for containing a reactor pressure vessel while immersing it water in a reactor container. Namely, in the wet-type container apparatus, the periphery of the pressure vessel is coated with a heat insulation material and the periphery of the heat insulation material is coated with a water tight vessel. The water tight vessel is immersed under water in the reactor container. As a method of detecting leakage of the wet-type container apparatus, gases mixed with helium are supplied into the water tight vessel at a pressure higher than the inner pressure of the reactor container at a lowest position of the reactor pressure vessel. A water level in the reactor container is determined so as to form a space at the top portion of the inside of the reactor container. The helium at the top portion is detected to monitor the leakage of the water tight vessel. With such procedures, even if the water tight vessel is ruptured at any position, helium mixed to the gases is released to water in the reactor container and rise up to the top space and detected by a helium leakage detection device. (I.S.)

  18. Study of a large rapid ashing apparatus and a rapid dry ashing method for biological samples and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Meisun; Wang Benli; Liu Wencang

    1988-04-01

    A large rapid-dry-ashing apparatus and a rapid ashing method for biological samples are described. The apparatus consists of specially made ashing furnace, gas supply system and temperature-programming control cabinet. The following adventages have been showed by ashing experiment with the above apparatus: (1) high speed of ashing and saving of electric energy; (2) The apparatus can ash a large amount of samples at a time; (3) The ashed sample is pure white (or spotless), loose and easily soluble with few content of residual char; (4) The fresh sample can also be ashed directly. The apparatus is suitable for ashing a large amount of the environmental samples containing low level radioactivity trace elements and the medical, food and agricultural research samples

  19. Method and apparatus for ultrasonic characterization through the thickness direction of a moving web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Theodore; Hall, Maclin S.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the caliper and/or the ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web of material using ultrasonic pulses generated by a rotatable wheel ultrasound apparatus. The apparatus includes a first liquid-filled tire and either a second liquid-filled tire forming a nip or a rotatable cylinder that supports a thin moving web of material such as a moving web of paper and forms a nip with the first liquid-filled tire. The components of ultrasonic transit time through the tires and fluid held within the tires may be resolved and separately employed to determine the separate contributions of the two tire thicknesses and the two fluid paths to the total path length that lies between two ultrasonic transducer surfaces contained within the tires in support of caliper measurements. The present invention provides the benefit of obtaining a transit time and caliper measurement at any point in time as a specimen passes through the nip of rotating tires and eliminates inaccuracies arising from nonuniform tire circumferential thickness by accurately retaining point-to-point specimen transit time and caliper variation information, rather than an average obtained through one or more tire rotations. Morever, ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web may be determined independent of small variations in the wheel axle spacing, tire thickness, and liquid and tire temperatures.

  20. Tomographic apparatus and method for reconstructing planar slices from non-absorbed and non-scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus is described which can be used in computerized tomographic systems for constructing a representation of an object and which uses a fan-shaped beam source, detectors and a convolution method of data reconstruction. (U.K.)

  1. Method and apparatus for the treatment of radioactive or toxic waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstaetter, K; Glock, J; Jakusch, H

    1976-05-26

    A method is described which proposes to store radioactive or toxic waste water in a binder, e.g. bitumen, for disposal. First of all, the liquid contained in the waste water is evaporated so that the radioactive or toxic part remains in solid form. This solid, whose specific gravity must be higher than that of the binder, is put on the surface of the binder, e.g. bitumen. Due to gravity it is embedded by sedimentation and completely covered by the binder. An apparatus with two variants to carry out the process is described, with particular emphasis on the advantages as compared to conventional methods.

  2. Investigation of gas discharge by schlieren method and interferometry with automated processing of schlieren photographs and interferograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, V.I.; Dushin, L.A.; Privezentsev, V.S.; Taran, V.S.

    1974-01-01

    The principles are clarified of two optical plasma diagnostics techniques, viz., the interferometric method permitting the determination of electron density and the schlieren method determining the gradient of electron density. Both techniques in combination were used in investigating the plasma in a hydrogen hollow-cathode spark discharge. In the schlieren technique, a pulsed xenon laser, in the interference technique a helium-neon laser were used as the light sources. Schlieren photographs were processed automatically using an electronic computer. A detailed description is presented of the equipment for the automatic photograph evaluation. (A.K.)

  3. An apparatus comprising a waveguide-modulator and laser-diode and a method of manufacture thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.; Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Eldesouki, Munir M.

    2017-01-01

    Example apparatuses are provided for simultaneous generation of high intensity light and modulated light signals at low modulation bias operating characteristics. An example apparatus includes a semipolar or nonpolar GaN-based substrate, a reverse- biased waveguide modulator section, and a forward-biased gain section based on InGaN/GaN quantum-well active regions, wherein the forward-biased gain section is grown on the semipolar or nonpolar GaN-based substrate. Methods of manufacturing the apparatuses described herein are also contemplated and described herein.

  4. An apparatus comprising a waveguide-modulator and laser-diode and a method of manufacture thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-04-13

    Example apparatuses are provided for simultaneous generation of high intensity light and modulated light signals at low modulation bias operating characteristics. An example apparatus includes a semipolar or nonpolar GaN-based substrate, a reverse- biased waveguide modulator section, and a forward-biased gain section based on InGaN/GaN quantum-well active regions, wherein the forward-biased gain section is grown on the semipolar or nonpolar GaN-based substrate. Methods of manufacturing the apparatuses described herein are also contemplated and described herein.

  5. Cameras for Public Health Surveillance: A Methods Protocol for Crowdsourced Annotation of Point-of-Sale Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Tacelosky, Michael; Ivey, Keith C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2014-04-09

    Photographs are an effective way to collect detailed and objective information about the environment, particularly for public health surveillance. However, accurately and reliably annotating (ie, extracting information from) photographs remains difficult, a critical bottleneck inhibiting the use of photographs for systematic surveillance. The advent of distributed human computation (ie, crowdsourcing) platforms represents a veritable breakthrough, making it possible for the first time to accurately, quickly, and repeatedly annotate photos at relatively low cost. This paper describes a methods protocol, using photographs from point-of-sale surveillance studies in the field of tobacco control to demonstrate the development and testing of custom-built tools that can greatly enhance the quality of crowdsourced annotation. Enhancing the quality of crowdsourced photo annotation requires a number of approaches and tools. The crowdsourced photo annotation process is greatly simplified by decomposing the overall process into smaller tasks, which improves accuracy and speed and enables adaptive processing, in which irrelevant data is filtered out and more difficult targets receive increased scrutiny. Additionally, zoom tools enable users to see details within photographs and crop tools highlight where within an image a specific object of interest is found, generating a set of photographs that answer specific questions. Beyond such tools, optimizing the number of raters (ie, crowd size) for accuracy and reliability is an important facet of crowdsourced photo annotation. This can be determined in a systematic manner based on the difficulty of the task and the desired level of accuracy, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Usability tests of the zoom and crop tool suggest that these tools significantly improve annotation accuracy. The tests asked raters to extract data from photographs, not for the purposes of assessing the quality of that data, but rather to

  6. Adaptive Motor Resistance Video Game Exercise Apparatus and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Alton (Inventor); Shaw, James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention comprises a method and/or an apparatus using computer configured exercise equipment and an electric motor provided physical resistance in conjunction with a game system, such as a video game system, where the exercise system provides real physical resistance to a user interface. Results of user interaction with the user interface are integrated into a video game, such as running on a game console. The resistance system comprises: a subject interface, software control, a controller, an electric servo assist/resist motor, an actuator, and/or a subject sensor. The system provides actual physical interaction with a resistance device as input to the game console and game run thereon.

  7. Method and apparatus for debris mitigation for an electrical discharge source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Leonard E [San Clemente, CA; Rader, Daniel J [Albuquerque, NM; Silfvast, William T [Helena, CA

    2006-01-24

    Method and apparatus for mitigating the transport of debris generated and dispersed from electric discharge sources by thermophoretic and electrostatic deposition. A member is positioned adjacent the front electrode of an electric discharge source and used to establish a temperature difference between it and the front electrode. By flowing a gas between the member and the front electrode a temperature gradient is established that can be used for thermophoretic deposition of particulate debris on either the member or front electrode depending upon the direction of the thermal gradient. Establishing an electric field between the member and front electrode can aid in particle deposition by electrostatic deposition.

  8. Apparatus and method for applying an end plug to a fuel rod tube end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieben, S.L.; Wylie, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus is described for applying an end plug to a hollow end of a nuclear fuel rod tube, comprising: support means mounted for reciprocal movement between remote and adjacent positions relative to a nuclear fuel rod tube end to which an end plug is to be applied; guide means supported on the support means for movement; and drive means coupled to the support means and being actuatable for movement between retracted and extended positions for reciprocally moving the support means between its respective remote and adjacent positions. A method for applying an end plug to a hollow end of a nuclear fuel rod tube is also described

  9. Method and apparatus for evaluating structural weakness in polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for evaluating structural weaknesses in polymer matrix composites is described. An object to be studied is illuminated with laser radiation and fluorescence emanating therefrom is collected and filtered. The fluorescence is then imaged and the image is studied to determine fluorescence intensity over the surface of the object being studied and the wavelength of maximum fluorescent intensity. Such images provide a map of the structural integrity of the part being studied and weaknesses, particularly weaknesses created by exposure of the object to heat, are readily visible in the image.

  10. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Tudor N.; Martin, John C.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method simultaneously measures a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation. A modulatable birefringent optical element is employed to divide a polarized light beam into two components, thereby producing a phase difference in two resulting light beams such that the two beams can be made to interfere with one another when recombined, the interference pattern providing the wavelength information required for the analysis of the incident light. The interferometer thus created performs in a similar manner to a Michelson interferometer, but with no moving parts, and with a resolution dependent on the degree of phase shift introduced by the modulator.

  11. Apparatus and method for the measurement of neutron moderating or absorbing properties of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untermyer, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the neutron moderating or absorbing properties of objects or materials is disclosed in which a fast neutron source cooperates with a neutron absorbing material which reduces the energy of the fast neutrons by inelastic scattering so that they can be readily thermalized by a moderator. A thermal neutron detector is disposed adjacent the material and serves to detect thermal neutrons emitted by a moderator placed to receive and thermalize the reduced energy neutrons. A material whose absorption is to be measured is placed between a moderator and the detector

  12. Method and apparatus for remote tube crevice detection by current and voltage probe resistance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikta, Thomas J.; Mitchell, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the extent of contact between an electrically conducting tube and an electrically conductive tubesheet surrounding the tube, based upon the electrical resistance of the tube and tubesheet. A constant current source is applied to the interior of the electrically conducting tube by probes and a voltmeter is connected between other probes to measure the voltage at the point of current injection, which is inversely proportional to the amount of contact between the tube and tubesheet. Namely, the higher the voltage measured by the voltmeter, the less contact between the tube and tubesheet.

  13. Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan

    2015-07-14

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.

  14. Method and apparatus for continuously detecting and monitoring the hydrocarbon dew-point of gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G.J.; Pritchard, F.R.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a method and apparatus for continuously detecting and monitoring the hydrocarbon dew-point of a gas. A gas sample is supplied to a dew-point detector and the temperature of a portion of the sample gas stream to be investigated is lowered progressively prior to detection until the dew-point is reached. The presence of condensate within the flowing gas is detected and subsequently the supply gas sample is heated to above the dew-point. The procedure of cooling and heating the gas stream continuously in a cyclical manner is repeated.

  15. Method and apparatus for monitoring oxygen partial pressure in air masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mark E. (Inventor); Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring an oxygen partial pressure in an air mask and providing a tactile warning to the user. The oxygen partial pressure in the air mask is detected using an electrochemical sensor, the output signal from which is provided to a comparator. The comparator compares the output signal with a preset reference value or range of values representing acceptable oxygen partial pressures. If the output signal is different than the reference value or outside the range of values, the air mask is vibrated by a vibrating motor to alert the user to a potentially hypoxic condition.

  16. Apparatus and method for non-contact, acoustic resonance determination of intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D.N.; Wray, W.O.

    1994-12-27

    The apparatus and method for measuring intraocular pressure changes in an eye under investigation by detection of vibrational resonances therein. An ultrasonic transducer operating at its resonant frequency is amplitude modulated and swept over a range of audio frequencies in which human eyes will resonate. The output therefrom is focused onto the eye under investigation, and the resonant vibrations of the eye observed using a fiber-optic reflection vibration sensor. Since the resonant frequency of the eye is dependent on the pressure therein, changes in intraocular pressure may readily be determined after a baseline pressure is established. 3 figures.

  17. Apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R.G.

    1987-03-23

    Apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom. Differential phase measurements on scattered light from particles are possible using the two-frequency Zeeman effect laser which emits two frequencies of radiation 250 kHz apart. Excellent discrimination and reproducibility for various pure pollen and bacterial samples in suspension have been observed with a single polarization element. Additionally, a 250 kHz beat frequency was recorded from an individual particle traversing the focused output from the laser in a flow cytometer. 13 figs.

  18. Method and apparatus for nuclear heating of oil-bearing formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alspaw, D.I.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for using heat generated by absorption of radiation from nuclear waste materials to reduce the viscosity of petroleum products contained within a subsurface earth formation. The nuclear waste material is positioned in a salt water formation underlying the subsurface earth formation so that the radiation emitted by the material heats the salt water formation. conduction and convection transfer the heat to the subsurface earth formation, raising the temperature and thereby reducing the viscosity of the petroleum products. To prevent radioactive contamination within the salt water formation, the nuclear waste material may be encapsulated in a material selected to absorb alpha and beta radiation

  19. Apparatuses and methods of determining if a person operating equipment is experiencing an elevated cognitive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Keller, Paul Edwin; Amaya, Ivan A.

    2015-06-16

    A method of, and apparatus for, determining if a person operating equipment is experiencing an elevated cognitive load, wherein the person's use of a device at a first time is monitored so as to set a baseline signature. Then, at a later time, the person's use of the device is monitored to determine the person's performance at the second time, as represented by a performance signature. This performance signature can then be compared against the baseline signature to predict whether the person is experiencing an elevated cognitive load.

  20. Apparatus and methods for investigations into acoustic properties of electronic melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, V.M.; Timoshenko, V.I.; Kim, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and highly sensitive methods of systematic investigations into acoustic properties of electronic melts are described. A variant of a measuring cell to investigate agressive melts is presented. A new technique for the reception of an acoustic contact with high transmission capacity of ultrasonic wave based on utilization of clarified layers of liquid boron anhydride is described. Results of calibration tests on lead and aluminium melts point to a good agreement with literature data. High sensitivity of the above technique allows one to reveal thin structural effects in melts

  1. Method and apparatus for measuring neutron characteristics of material surrounding a borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to methods and apparatus for determining the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of the formations surrounding a borehole as determined by radiation measurements using optimized measurement intervals. A measurement of the decline of the thermal neutron population in the formation is derived by counting the detected radiation within a first pair of measurement intervals occurring at a fixed time after the neutron burst. A ratio of the two counting rates provides the rate of change over the selected time interval. The counting ratio is converted into a natural logarithm representative of the Sigma calculation

  2. Method and Apparatus for Thermal Spraying of Metal Coatings Using Pulsejet Resonant Pulsed Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thermal spraying a metal coating on a substrate is accomplished with a modified pulsejet and optionally an ejector to assist in preventing oxidation. Metal such as Aluminum or Magnesium may be used. A pulsejet is first initiated by applying fuel, air, and a spark. Metal is inserted continuously in a high volume of metal into a combustion chamber of the pulsejet. The combustion is thereafter controlled resonantly at high frequency and the metal is heated to a molten state. The metal is then transported from the combustion chamber into a tailpipe of said pulsejet and is expelled therefrom at high velocity and deposited on a target substrate.

  3. Methods of Developing User-Friendly Keys to Identify Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas L. from Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R. Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying individual animals is important in understanding their ecology and behaviour, as well as providing estimates of population sizes for conservation efforts. We produce identification keys from photographs of green sea turtles to identify them while foraging in Akumal Bay, Mexico. We create three keys, which (a minimise the length of the key, (b present the most obvious differential characteristics first, and (c remove the strict dichotomy from key b. Keys were capable of identifying >99% of turtles in >2500 photographs during the six-month study period. The keys differed significantly in success rate for students to identify individual turtles, with key (c being the best with >70% success and correctly being followed further than other keys before making a mistake. User-friendly keys are, therefore, a suitable method for the photographic identification of turtles and could be used for other large marine vertebrates in conservation or behavioural studies.

  4. Innovative method and apparatus for the deep cleaning of soluble salts from mortars and lithic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Laura; Ferretti, Maurizio; Torrielli, Giulia; Caratto, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    Porous materials (e.g. plasters, mortars, concrete, and the like) used in the building industry or in artworks fail to develop, after their genesis, salts such as nitrates, carbonates (e.g. potassium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate), chlorides (e.g. sodium chloride) and/or others, which are a concurrent cause of material deterioration phenomena. In the case of ancient or cultural heritage buildings, severe damage to structures and works of art, such as fresco paintings are possible. In general, in situ alteration pattern in mortars and frescoes by crystallization of soluble salts from solutions is caused by capillar rise or circulation in damp walls. Older buildings can be more subject to capillary rise of ion-rich waters, which, as water evaporates, create salt crystals inside the walls. If this pattern reveals overwhelming upon other environmental decay factors, the extraction of salts is the first restoration to recover the artpiece after the preliminary assessment and mitigation of the causes of soaking. A new method and apparatus, patented by University of Genoa [1] improves the quality and durability of decontamination by soluble salts, compared with conventional application of sepiolite or cellulose wraps. The conventional application of cellulose or sepiolite requires casting a more or less thick layer of wrap on the mortar, soaking with distilled water, and waiting until dry. The soluble salts result trapped within the wrap. A set of artificial samples reproducing the stratigraphy of frescoes was contaminated with saline solution of known concentration. The higher quality of the extraction was demonstrated by trapping the salts within layers of Japanese paper juxtaposed to the mortar; the extraction with the dedicated apparatus was operated in a significantly shorter time than with wraps (some hours vs. several days). Two cycles of about 15 minutes are effective in the deep cleaning from contaminant salts. The decontamination was

  5. Multistage method and apparatus for separating substances of different atomic weights using a plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshfield, J.L.; Krishnan, M.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides a method and apparatus for separating isotopes using a plasma centrifuge; in particular, it provides a multistage method and apparatus wherein a laser-initiated vacuum arc is used to fully ionize and form a plasma of the substances to be separated. The substances to be separated are positioned in an evacuated vessel which has a longitudinal axis. A magnetic field is generated in the vessel parallel to the axis of the vessel, and a target comprised of the substances to be separated is positioned at one end of the vessel. Pulsed laser energy is focused on the substances, thereby completely ionizing at least a portion of the substances and forming a plasma. Immediately following the arrival of the laser energy, a current is passed through the substances to be separated, which causes further complete ionization. The plasma is rotated and moved from the target to the collector by the application of a magnetic field. A plurality of skimmers is positioned in the vessel between the target and the collector such that a portion of the rotating plasma strikes the skimmer and is collected thereon. The remainder of the plasma continues moving towards the collector. The material which finally strikes the collector is only a percentage of the starting material, but it is highly enriched or concentrated

  6. Method and apparatus to debug an integrated circuit chip via synchronous clock stop and scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E [Ridgefield, CT; Ellavsky, Matthew R [Rochester, MN; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Gooding, Thomas M [Rochester, MN; Haring, Rudolf A [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hehenberger, Lance G [Leander, TX; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-03-20

    An apparatus and method for evaluating a state of an electronic or integrated circuit (IC), each IC including one or more processor elements for controlling operations of IC sub-units, and each the IC supporting multiple frequency clock domains. The method comprises: generating a synchronized set of enable signals in correspondence with one or more IC sub-units for starting operation of one or more IC sub-units according to a determined timing configuration; counting, in response to one signal of the synchronized set of enable signals, a number of main processor IC clock cycles; and, upon attaining a desired clock cycle number, generating a stop signal for each unique frequency clock domain to synchronously stop a functional clock for each respective frequency clock domain; and, upon synchronously stopping all on-chip functional clocks on all frequency clock domains in a deterministic fashion, scanning out data values at a desired IC chip state. The apparatus and methodology enables construction of a cycle-by-cycle view of any part of the state of a running IC chip, using a combination of on-chip circuitry and software.

  7. Method and apparatus for reconstructing in-cylinder pressure and correcting for signal decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2013-03-12

    A method comprises steps for reconstructing in-cylinder pressure data from a vibration signal collected from a vibration sensor mounted on an engine component where it can generate a signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio, and correcting the vibration signal for errors introduced by vibration signal charge decay and sensor sensitivity. The correction factors are determined as a function of estimated motoring pressure and the measured vibration signal itself with each of these being associated with the same engine cycle. Accordingly, the method corrects for charge decay and changes in sensor sensitivity responsive to different engine conditions to allow greater accuracy in the reconstructed in-cylinder pressure data. An apparatus is also disclosed for practicing the disclosed method, comprising a vibration sensor, a data acquisition unit for receiving the vibration signal, a computer processing unit for processing the acquired signal and a controller for controlling the engine operation based on the reconstructed in-cylinder pressure.

  8. Method and Apparatus for Predicting Unsteady Pressure and Flow Rate Distribution in a Fluid Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method and apparatus for analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex fluid network, modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal force and conjugate heat transfer. In some embodiments, a graphical user interface provides for the interactive development of a fluid network simulation having nodes and branches. In some embodiments, mass, energy, and specific conservation equations are solved at the nodes, and momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. In some embodiments, contained herein are data objects for computing thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for fluids. In some embodiments, the systems of equations describing the fluid network are solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods.

  9. System, apparatus and methods to implement high-speed network analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezick, James; Lethin, Richard; Ros-Giralt, Jordi; Szilagyi, Peter; Wohlford, David E

    2015-11-10

    Systems, apparatus and methods for the implementation of high-speed network analyzers are provided. A set of high-level specifications is used to define the behavior of the network analyzer emitted by a compiler. An optimized inline workflow to process regular expressions is presented without sacrificing the semantic capabilities of the processing engine. An optimized packet dispatcher implements a subset of the functions implemented by the network analyzer, providing a fast and slow path workflow used to accelerate specific processing units. Such dispatcher facility can also be used as a cache of policies, wherein if a policy is found, then packet manipulations associated with the policy can be quickly performed. An optimized method of generating DFA specifications for network signatures is also presented. The method accepts several optimization criteria, such as min-max allocations or optimal allocations based on the probability of occurrence of each signature input bit.

  10. Measurement of circumsolar ratio in high dust loading regions using a photographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansary, Hany; Shafiq, Talha; Rizvi, Arslan; El-Leathy, Abdelrahman

    2017-06-01

    Performance of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is highly affected by direct normal irradiance (DNI). However, it is also important to consider circumsolar radiation in any simulation of a CSP plant, especially in desert regions where dust loading in the atmosphere is expected. There are a number of methods to measure circumsolar radiation. However, most of them require expensive instrumentation. This work introduces a simple method to estimate circumsolar radiation. It involves taking high-resolution photographs of the sun and processing them using a computer code that identifies the sun's disk. The code then uses pixel intensities to obtain the solar intensity distribution across the sun's disk and in the aureole region. The solar intensity distribution is then used to obtain the circumsolar ratio (CSR) which represents the shape of the sun. To test this method, numerous photos of the sun were taken during the month of April and September 2016 at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Riyadh is a region that is well known for high dust-loading, especially during the summer. Two days of different atmospheric conditions were selected in September for comparative analysis. Results show that this method produces repeatable results, and that the CSR can increase significantly due to high dust loading and passing clouds. The CSR is found to be a strong function of DNI, ranging from about 4.5% at DNI values above 800 W/m2 and increasing to as much as 8.5% when DNI drops to about 400 W/m2, due to passing clouds. Furthermore, the results show that circumsolar ratio tends to be high in the early morning and late afternoon due to the high air mass, while its values tend to be lowest around solar noon when the air mass is lowest.

  11. Analysis of methods of providing anonymity in facial photographs; a randomised controlled study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clover, A J P

    2010-09-01

    Clinical images are invaluable in medical teaching and research publications. In the past efforts to conceal patient identity, if any, were limited to a black bar concealing the eyes. However, there is no consensus on this among major journals and publishing houses. This research analyses the effectiveness of blacking out the eyes in facial photographs and evaluates alternative techniques. 126 questionnaires were completed. The average numbers of correct responses out of 30 was 24.64 (82.13%) in the control group, 20.59 (68.63%) in the eyes, 20.42 (68.07%) in the eyes and nose group, and 17.53 (58.43%) in the T-shaped group (eyes, nose and mouth). The traditional method of covering the eyes does significantly decrease recognition, however it is only as effective as covering the nose and mouth. The more of the face that is covered the less likely it is that the person is recognised. However, there are people who remain identifiable no matter how much of the face is covered. This work highlights the importance of obtaining consent prior to publication as well as attempting to hide identity.

  12. A simple photographical method for analyzing the radiation interception by an individual tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsacker, P. van; Keppens, H.; Impens, I.

    1983-01-01

    A method for analyzing radiation interception by an individual tree is presented. The use of a whole set of expensive radiation instruments is eliminated, the work-intensive field experiments are reduced to half a day for a large tree (9 m), and neither clear sky conditions nor diffuse radiation data are necessary. It is assumed that for a given azimuth and solar elevation the shading caused by a tree can be estimated photographically by taking a slide in the opposite direction. From slides taken of the whole tree in different directions and from different distances (i.e., different view angles), gap frequencies for certain heights are measured. At each height, gap frequency decreases significantly with increasing solar elevation. By calculating the mean path length within the crown (s) corresponding with each gap frequency (g), a highly significant exponential relationship between both is obtained [g = exp(−0.42s)]. With this equation and by knowing the tree dimensions calculated from the slides, direct and diffuse radiation interception of the whole tree can be estimated. Total leaf area and leaf area density are also calculated. These values agree very well with direct measurements on similar cut trees

  13. Apparatus and method for locating and quantifying or directing a source of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.L.; Wainstock, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and method for locating or directing a source of ionizing radiation such as X-rays, gamma rays, alpha particles, beta particles, etc. are described. The preferred embodiment detects and locates abnormalities of the body such as ocular melanomas by detecting the emission of radiation from a melanoma which has absorbed a radioactive medium. The apparatus includes an ultrasound probe which emits ultrasonic waves along a first axis and detects a returned portion of the waves. The ultrasound probe is associated with a display which displays the returned portion of the waves in the time domain so that suspected abnormalities can be located. The ultrasound probe is used to guide a directional probe for detecting and quantifying ionizing radiation which is equipped with a focusing collimator having a focal point along a second axis. The two probes are supported so that the first and second axes converge at the focal point of the collimator. A range marker is associated with the ultrasonic detector which indicates the point of convergence of the axes on the ultrasonic display permitting guidance of the radiation detecting probe to the suspected abnormality

  14. The Use of the Nelder-Mead Method in Determining Projection Parameters for Globe Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gede, M.

    2009-04-01

    A photo of a terrestrial or celestial globe can be handled as a map. The only hard issue is its projection: the so-called Tilted Perspective Projection which, if the optical axis of the photo intersects the globe's centre, is simplified to the Vertical Near-Side Perspective Projection. When georeferencing such a photo, the exact parameters of the projections are also needed. These parameters depend on the position of the viewpoint of the camera. Several hundreds of globe photos had to be georeferenced during the Virtual Globes Museum project, which made necessary to automatize the calculation of the projection parameters. The author developed a program for this task which uses the Nelder-Mead Method in order to find the optimum parameters when a set of control points are given as input. The Nelder-Mead method is a numerical algorithm for minimizing a function in a many-dimensional space. The function in the present application is the average error of the control points calculated from the actual values of parameters. The parameters are the geographical coordinates of the projection centre, the image coordinates of the same point, the rotation of the projection, the height of the perspective point and the scale of the photo (calculated in pixels/km). The program reads the Global Mappers Ground Control Point (.GCP) file format as input and creates projection description files (.PRJ) for the same software. The initial values of the geographical coordinates of the projection centre are calculated as the average of the control points, while the other parameters are set to experimental values which represent the most common circumstances of taking a globe photograph. The algorithm runs until the change of the parameters sinks below a pre-defined limit. The minimum search can be refined by using the previous result parameter set as new initial values. This paper introduces the calculation mechanism and examples of the usage. Other possible other usages of the method are

  15. Computer aided method for colour calibration and analysis of digital rock photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods used in geology to determine colour and colour coverage are expensive, time consuming, and/ or subjective. Estimates of colour coverage can only be approximate since they are based on rough comparisonbased measuring etalons and subjective estimation, which is dependent upon the skill and experience of the person performing the estimation. We present a method which accelerates, simplifis, and objectifis these tasks using a computer application. It automatically calibrates the colours of a digital photo, and enables the user to read colour values and coverage, even after returning from fild work. Colour identifiation is based on the Munsell colour system. For the purposes of colour calibration we use the X-Rite ColorChecker Passport colour chart placed onto the photographed scene. Our computer application detects the ColorChecker colour chart, and fids a colour space transformation to calibrate the colour in the photo. The user can then use the application to read colours within selected points or regions of the photo. The results of the computerised colour calibration were compared to the reference values of the ColorChecker chart. The values slightly deviate from the exact values, but the deviation is around the limit of human capability for visual comparison. We have devised an experiment, which compares the precision of the computerised colour analysis and manual colour analysis performed on a variety of rock samples with the help of geology students using Munsell Rock-color Chart. The analysis showed that the precision of manual comparative identifiation on multicoloured samples is somewhat problematic, since the choice of representative colours and observation points for a certain part of a sample are subjective. The computer based method has the edge in verifibility and repeatability of the analysis since the application the original photo to be saved with colour calibration, and tagging of colouranalysed points and regions.

  16. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  17. Method and apparatus for determining characteristics of clay-bearing formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertl, W.H.; Ruhovets, N.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to methods and apparatus for determining characteristics of clay-bearing geological formations by radioactivity well logging. In its broadest aspect, the invention comprises the steps of determining the volume of clay contained in the earth formations; determining a first property of the formations functionally related to the volume of clay; and determining a second property functionally related to the first property, the second property indicating potential clay swelling. In particular, the volume of clay is determined using electrical signals generated in response to the energy and frequency of detected radiations. The method is carried out with a well logging instrument that includes a high-resolution gamma ray spectrometer that traverses a borehole, whereby natural radiation strikes a scintillation crystal contained therein

  18. Computer-implemented method and apparatus for autonomous position determination using magnetic field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, Eleanor A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A computer-implemented method and apparatus for determining position of a vehicle within 100 km autonomously from magnetic field measurements and attitude data without a priori knowledge of position. An inverted dipole solution of two possible position solutions for each measurement of magnetic field data are deterministically calculated by a program controlled processor solving the inverted first order spherical harmonic representation of the geomagnetic field for two unit position vectors 180 degrees apart and a vehicle distance from the center of the earth. Correction schemes such as a successive substitutions and a Newton-Raphson method are applied to each dipole. The two position solutions for each measurement are saved separately. Velocity vectors for the position solutions are calculated so that a total energy difference for each of the two resultant position paths is computed. The position path with the smaller absolute total energy difference is chosen as the true position path of the vehicle.

  19. Method and apparatus for disposing a radioactive waste container to submarine bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Shoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To completely eliminate a danger occurred by the rolling of a hull in the ocean in a method and apparatus for disposing radioactive waste container to submarine bottom by independently handling the radioactive waste containers when loading the container in a compartment carried on a barge and sinking the containers together with the compartment to the submarine bottom at its disposing time. Method: Radioactive waste containers are carried into a compartment loaded on a barge floating completely, and the barge is then applied with external force thereto by a ship or the like and sailed to the marine disposal area. Then, water is filled in the ballast tank of the barge to submerge the barge, the compartment is floated and separated from the containers, and water is charged into the compartment to sink the compartment. (Aizawa, K.)

  20. Data visualization methods, data visualization devices, data visualization apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alan E.; Crow, Vernon L.; Payne, Deborah A.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Cook, Kristin A.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2015-06-30

    Data visualization methods, data visualization devices, data visualization apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a data visualization method includes accessing a plurality of initial documents at a first moment in time, first processing the initial documents providing processed initial documents, first identifying a plurality of first associations of the initial documents using the processed initial documents, generating a first visualization depicting the first associations, accessing a plurality of additional documents at a second moment in time after the first moment in time, second processing the additional documents providing processed additional documents, second identifying a plurality of second associations of the additional documents and at least some of the initial documents, wherein the second identifying comprises identifying using the processed initial documents and the processed additional documents, and generating a second visualization depicting the second associations.

  1. ROLLER FILTRATION APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter and liquid from a m...

  2. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  3. Gamma apparatuses for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sul'kin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific and technical achievements in development and application of gamma therapeutic apparatuses for external and intracavity irradiations are generalized. Radiation-physical parameters of apparatuses providing usability of progressive methods in radiotherapy of onclogical patients are given. Optimization of main apparatus elements, ensurance of its operation reliability, reduction of errors of irradiation plan reproduction are considered. Attention is paid to radiation safety

  4. Grinding assembly, grinding apparatus, weld joint defect repair system, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Eric D.; Watkins, Arthur D.; Bitsoi, Rodney J.; Pace, David P.

    2005-09-27

    A grinding assembly for grinding a weld joint of a workpiece includes a grinder apparatus, a grinder apparatus includes a grinding wheel configured to grind the weld joint, a member configured to receive the grinding wheel, the member being configured to be removably attached to the grinder apparatus, and a sensor assembly configured to detect a contact between the grinding wheel and the workpiece. The grinding assembly also includes a processing circuitry in communication with the grinder apparatus and configured to control operations of the grinder apparatus, the processing circuitry configured to receive weld defect information of the weld joint from an inspection assembly to create a contour grinding profile to grind the weld joint in a predetermined shape based on the received weld defect information, and a manipulator having an end configured to carry the grinder apparatus, the manipulator further configured to operate in multiple dimensions.

  5. A method for visual inspection of welding by means of image processing of x-ray photograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, Hiroyasu; Yoshida, Tohru.

    1983-01-01

    Computer image processing is becoming a helpful tool even in industrial inspections. A computerized method for welding visual inspection is proposed in this paper. This method is based on computer image processing of X-ray photograph of welding, in which the appearance information of weldments such as shape of weld bead really exists. Structural patterns are extracted at first and seven computer measures for inspection are calculated using those patterns. Software system for visual inspection is constructed based on these seven measures. It was experimentally made clear that this system can provide a performance of more than 0.85 correlation to human visual inspection. As a result, the visual inspection by computer using X-ray photograph became a promising tool to realize objectivity and quantitativity of welding inspection. Additionally, the consistency of the system, the possibility to reduce computing costs, and so on are discussed to improve the proposed method. (author)

  6. Method and apparatus for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases and allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for uniformly coating the airways of the lung of a patient with a mist formed by aspirating a liquid. The maximum size of the particles of the mist is restricted to about 1.2 microns with the major portion of the particles being in the range of 0.056 microns to 1 micron causing the mist to behave as a gas. Conduits are used for feeding the mist together with a gas containing oxygen to a patient to be inhaled during the normal breathing process, and valves are connected to the conduits for diverting the exhaled mist and gas through a discharge path. By radioactively tagging the liquid prior to production of the mist, the uniform deposition of the mist throughout the entire lung without encountering heavy accumulations in the large airways and at branch points, enables the production of high definition image scans of the lung. (author)

  7. Method and apparatus for in-situ characterization of energy storage and energy conversion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Jon P [Idaho Falls, ID; Motloch, Chester G [Idaho Falls, ID; Morrison, John L [Butte, MT; Albrecht, Weston [Layton, UT

    2010-03-09

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for determining an impedance of an energy-output device using a random noise stimulus applied to the energy-output device. A random noise signal is generated and converted to a random noise stimulus as a current source correlated to the random noise signal. A bias-reduced response of the energy-output device to the random noise stimulus is generated by comparing a voltage at the energy-output device terminal to an average voltage signal. The random noise stimulus and bias-reduced response may be periodically sampled to generate a time-varying current stimulus and a time-varying voltage response, which may be correlated to generate an autocorrelated stimulus, an autocorrelated response, and a cross-correlated response. Finally, the autocorrelated stimulus, the autocorrelated response, and the cross-correlated response may be combined to determine at least one of impedance amplitude, impedance phase, and complex impedance.

  8. Method and apparatus for shape and end position determination using an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of determining the shape of an unbound optical fiber includes collecting strain data along a length of the fiber, calculating curvature and bending direction data of the fiber using the strain data, curve-fitting the curvature and bending direction data to derive curvature and bending direction functions, calculating a torsion function using the bending direction function, and determining the 3D shape from the curvature, bending direction, and torsion functions. An apparatus for determining the 3D shape of the fiber includes a fiber optic cable unbound with respect to a protective sleeve, strain sensors positioned along the cable, and a controller in communication with the sensors. The controller has an algorithm for determining a 3D shape and end position of the fiber by calculating a set of curvature and bending direction data, deriving curvature, bending, and torsion functions, and solving Frenet-Serret equations using these functions.

  9. Tomographic apparatus and method for reconstructing planar slices from non-absorbed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    In a tomographic apparatus and method for reconstructing two-dimensional planar slices from linear projections of non-absorbed radiation useful in the fields of medical radiology, microscopy, and non-destructive testing, a beam of radiation in the shape of a fan is passed through an object lying in the same quasi-plane as the object slice and non-absorbtion thereof is recorded on oppositely-situated detectors aligned with the source of radiation. There is relative rotation between the source-detector configuration and the object within the quasi-plane. Periodic values of the detected radiation are taken, convolved with certain functions, and back-projected to produce a two-dimensional output picture on a visual display illustrating a facsimile of the object slice. A series of two-dimensional pictures obtained simultaneously or serially can be combined to produce a three dimensional portrayal of the entire object

  10. Method and apparatus for stabilizing signals in radioactive well logging tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampfer, J.G.; Ingram, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus are presented for stabilizing signals in radioactive well logging tools. In the tool a main scintillating crystal and photomultiplier tube for detecting radiation induced in the borehole by a source of radiation are provided and a reference crystal, including a source of mono-energetic radiation, for producing continuous reference signals of a predetermined energy level. The signals are monitored and the spectrum is stabilized to correct for drift of the data signals introduced by the photomultiplier tube and the data transmission system. The preferred mono-energetic reference signals are selected to appear in the energy spectrum at a level which minimizes error. An electronic circuit at the surface provides a correction signal for adjusting the gain of a data signal amplifier responsive to changes in the reference signal, thereby correcting for drift in the data signal

  11. Neural interface methods and apparatus to provide artificial sensory capabilities to a subject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, Stephen P.; Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Novick, David K.; Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.

    2017-01-24

    Embodiments of neural interfaces according to the present invention comprise sensor modules for sensing environmental attributes beyond the natural sensory capability of a subject, and communicating the attributes wirelessly to an external (ex-vivo) portable module attached to the subject. The ex-vivo module encodes and communicates the attributes via a transcutaneous inductively coupled link to an internal (in-vivo) module implanted within the subject. The in-vivo module converts the attribute information into electrical neural stimuli that are delivered to a peripheral nerve bundle within the subject, via an implanted electrode. Methods and apparatus according to the invention incorporate implantable batteries to power the in-vivo module allowing for transcutaneous bidirectional communication of low voltage (e.g. on the order of 5 volts) encoded signals as stimuli commands and neural responses, in a robust, low-error rate, communication channel with minimal effects to the subjects' skin.

  12. Method and apparatus for the purification of a liquid contaminated with radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, H.

    1976-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for the purification of a liquid contaminated with radioactive substances is described, wherein the liquid is infed to an evaporator in or with which there is connected a column having a multiplicity of superposed plates or floors. The vapor generated in the evaporator is guided through a washing or scrubbing liquid uniformly distributed at the floors and flowing in crosswise counterflow with regard to the vapor. The washing liquid at the floors is deflected a number of times in such a manner that the washing liquid itself together with the droplets entrained by the vapor are uniformly admixed and the washing liquid subjected to a constant intake of the radioactive substance

  13. Apparatus for inspecting a group of containers and method of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jr., James H.; Salton, Jonathan R [Albuquerque, NM; Spletzer, Barry L [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-02-28

    An apparatus and method for inspecting a plurality of containers are provided. Each container has an outer surface for housing at least one material therein. The techniques provided involve at least one inspection vehicle and at least one detector. Each inspection vehicle has a plurality of wheels for movably positioning about the plurality of containers. The wheels may have at least one magnet for selectively adhering to the outer surface of at least one of the containers whereby the inspection vehicle traverses the container(s). The detector is positionable proximate at least one of the containers. The detector may be deployable from the inspection vehicle to a position adjacent the container(s). The detector has at least one sensor for measuring at least one characteristic of the plurality of containers. At least one base station may be provided for communicating with the inspection vehicle(s) and/or detector(s).

  14. Methods and apparatus for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-05-23

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  15. Method And Apparatus For Two Dimensional Surface Property Analysis Based On Boundary Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John G.

    2005-11-15

    An apparatus and method for determining properties of a conductive film is disclosed. A plurality of probe locations selected around a periphery of the conductive film define a plurality of measurement lines between each probe location and all other probe locations. Electrical resistance may be measured along each of the measurement lines. A lumped parameter model may be developed based on the measured values of electrical resistance. The lumped parameter model may be used to estimate resistivity at one or more selected locations encompassed by the plurality of probe locations. The resistivity may be extrapolated to other physical properties if the conductive film includes a correlation between resistivity and the other physical properties. A profile of the conductive film may be developed by determining resistivity at a plurality of locations. The conductive film may be applied to a structure such that resistivity may be estimated and profiled for the structure's surface.

  16. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes.

  17. Remote Adaptive Motor Resistance Training Exercise Apparatus and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Alton (Inventor); Shaw, James (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention comprises a method and/or an apparatus using a computer configured exercise system equipped with an electric motor to provide physical resistance to user motion in conjunction with means for sharing exercise system related data and/or user performance data with a secondary user, such as a medical professional, a physical therapist, a trainer, a computer generated competitor, and/or a human competitor. For example, the exercise system is used with a remote trainer to enhance exercise performance, with a remote medical professional for rehabilitation, and/or with a competitor in a competition, such as in a power/weightlifting competition or in a video game. The exercise system is optionally configured with an intelligent software assistant and knowledge navigator functioning as a personal assistant application.

  18. Apparatus and method of measuring fluctuations of excavated mud amount in a slurry line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Kubota, R.; Uchida, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Seki, N.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring fluctuations in amount of soil in slurry or soil-containing fluid line is described. Each system of feeding the slurry typically to tunneling face and draining it therefrom in the slurry line is provided with gamma-ray densimeter and electromagnetic flow-meter to obtain respective amounts of soil only (dry-soil amounts) in the slurry flowing through each of said systems from respective outputs of these meters in each system, so that actually excavated amount through ground layer of a shielded excavator at the tunneling face can be measured by the difference between the respective dry-soil amounts. The excavator will be advanced depending on this measured amount

  19. Apparatus and Method for Low-Temperature Training of Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  20. Methods and apparatuses for information analysis on shared and distributed computing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Shawn J [Richland, WA; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar [Richland, WA; Cowley, Wendy E [Richland, WA; Nieplocha, Jarek [Richland, WA

    2011-02-22

    Apparatuses and computer-implemented methods for analyzing, on shared and distributed computing systems, information comprising one or more documents are disclosed according to some aspects. In one embodiment, information analysis can comprise distributing one or more distinct sets of documents among each of a plurality of processes, wherein each process performs operations on a distinct set of documents substantially in parallel with other processes. Operations by each process can further comprise computing term statistics for terms contained in each distinct set of documents, thereby generating a local set of term statistics for each distinct set of documents. Still further, operations by each process can comprise contributing the local sets of term statistics to a global set of term statistics, and participating in generating a major term set from an assigned portion of a global vocabulary.

  1. Method and apparatus for producing a porosity log of a subsurface formation corrected for detector standoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.; Mills, W.R.; Stromswold, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method and apparatus for producing a porosity log of a substance formation corrected for detector stand of. It includes: lowering a logging tool having a neutron source and a neutron detector into the borehole, irradiating the subsurface formation with neutrons from the neutron source as the logging tool is traversed along the subsurface formation, recording die-away signals representing the die-away of nuclear radiation in the subsurface formation as detected by the neutron detector, producing intensity signals representing the variations in intensity of the die-away signals, producing a model of the die-away of nuclear radiation in the subsurface formation having terms varying exponentially in response to borehole, formation and background effects on the die-away of nuclear radiation as detected by the detector

  2. Method and apparatus for treating liquid contaminated with radioactive particulate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirs, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus reduces the amount of radioactive solids resulting from the filtration of particulate contaminants from liquid in a nuclear reactor plant. A filtration system includes a pre-filter comprising a sheet filter medium through which the reactor liquid passes to remove relatively large particulate contaminants for storage or disposal. The reactor liquid is then passed through a bed of granular filter medium to accumulate substantially all the previously non-filtered contaminants and thereby provide a clarified liquid suitable for reuse in the reactor. Backwash liquid is flowed through the granular filter bed to remove and entrain the accumulated contaminants into a slurry which is received by a reservoir where the slurry is maintained quiescently to settle the contaminants. Removal of liquid from the reservoir concentrates the contaminants for storage or further processing, without the necessity of large quantities of filter aids that would increase the quantity of storage-requiring contaminated solids

  3. Integrated circuit test-port architecture and method and apparatus of test-port generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teifel, John

    2016-04-12

    A method and apparatus are provided for generating RTL code for a test-port interface of an integrated circuit. In an embodiment, a test-port table is provided as input data. A computer automatically parses the test-port table into data structures and analyzes it to determine input, output, local, and output-enable port names. The computer generates address-detect and test-enable logic constructed from combinational functions. The computer generates one-hot multiplexer logic for at least some of the output ports. The one-hot multiplexer logic for each port is generated so as to enable the port to toggle between data signals and test signals. The computer then completes the generation of the RTL code.

  4. Method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of coal mine dust using gamma-ray backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of particulate material, particularly coal mine dust, include placing a sample of the particulate material in a container to define a pair of angularly oriented surfaces of the sample, directing an incident gamma-ray beam from a radiation source at one surface of the sample and detecting gamma-ray backscatter from the other surface of the sample with a radiation detector having an output operating a display to indicate incombustible content of the sample. The positioning of the source and detector along different surfaces of the sample permits the depth of the scattering volume defined by intersection of the incident beam and a detection cone from the detector to be selected such that variations in scattered radiation produced by variations in density of the sample are compensated by variations in the attenuation of the incident beam and the gamma-ray backscatter. 17 claims 5 figures

  5. Well logging method and apparatus using a continuous energy spectrum photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus for logging an earth formation of interest is disclosed in which repetitive bursts of a continuous energy spectrum of photons are emitted that penetrate the media surrounding a borehole traversing the earth formation. Thereafter, indications of photons resulting from the interaction of the emitted photons and the surrounding media are obtained, each indication being obtained at a different separation from the source along the axis of the borehole. Finally, the indications are compared to determine representations of a characteristic of the media surrounding the borehole. According to one aspect of the present invention, at least one of the indications is the result of annihilation photons produced by the interaction of the emitted photons and the surrounding media

  6. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1987-08-10

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to ''float'' in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields. 6 figs.

  7. Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

    2003-04-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus (vessel) for providing a heat transfer rate from a reaction chamber through a wall to a heat transfer chamber substantially matching a local heat transfer rate of a catalytic thermal chemical reaction. The key to the invention is a thermal distance defined on a cross sectional plane through the vessel inclusive of a heat transfer chamber, reaction chamber and a wall between the chambers. The cross sectional plane is perpendicular to a bulk flow direction of the reactant stream, and the thermal distance is a distance between a coolest position and a hottest position on the cross sectional plane. The thermal distance is of a length wherein the heat transfer rate from the reaction chamber to the heat transfer chamber substantially matches the local heat transfer rate.

  8. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Small, Highly Insulating Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity combines the following capabilities: 1) measurements of very small specimens; 2) measurements of specimens with thermal conductivity on the same order of that as air; and, 3) the ability to use air as a reference material. Care is taken to ensure that the heat flow through the test specimen is essentially one-dimensional. No attempt is made to use heated guards to minimize the flow of heat from the hot plate to the surroundings. Results indicate that since large correction factors must be applied to account for guard imperfections when specimen dimensions are small, simply measuring and correcting for heat from the heater disc that does not flow into the specimen is preferable.

  9. Apparatus and method for materials processing utilizing a rotating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Angelini, Joseph A.; Murphy, Bart L.; Wilgen, John B.

    2017-04-11

    An apparatus for materials processing utilizing a rotating magnetic field comprises a platform for supporting a specimen, and a plurality of magnets underlying the platform. The plurality of magnets are configured for rotation about an axis of rotation intersecting the platform. A heat source is disposed above the platform for heating the specimen during the rotation of the plurality of magnets. A method for materials processing utilizing a rotating magnetic field comprises providing a specimen on a platform overlying a plurality of magnets; rotating the plurality of magnets about an axis of rotation intersecting the platform, thereby applying a rotating magnetic field to the specimen; and, while rotating the plurality of magnets, heating the specimen to a desired temperature.

  10. Method and Apparatus for Performance Optimization Through Physical Perturbation of Task Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III (Inventor); Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Palsson, Olafur S. (Inventor); Turner, Marsha J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method of biofeedback training for attaining a physiological state optimally consistent with the successful performance of a task, wherein the probability of successfully completing the task is made is inversely proportional to a physiological difference value, computed as the absolute value of the difference between at least one physiological signal optimally consistent with the successful performance of the task and at least one corresponding measured physiological signal of a trainee performing the task. The probability of successfully completing the task is made inversely proportional to the physiological difference value by making one or more measurable physical attributes of the environment in which the task is performed, and upon which completion of the task depends, vary in inverse proportion to the physiological difference value.

  11. Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Steffler, Eric D.; Hartenstein, Steven D.; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2016-11-08

    Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include a containment structure having a first compartment that is configured to receive a device therein and a movable member configured to receive a cartridge having reactant material therein. The movable member is configured to be inserted into the first compartment of the containment structure and to ignite the reactant material within the cartridge. Methods of rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include disposing the device into the first compartment of the containment structure, inserting the movable member into the first compartment of the containment structure, igniting the reactant material in the cartridge, and expelling molten metal onto the device.

  12. Improved method and apparatus for electrostatically sorting biological cells. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J.T.

    An improved method of sorting biological cells in a conventional cell sorter apparatus includes generating a fluid jet containing cells to be sorted, measuring the distance between the centers of adjacent droplets in a zone thereof defined at the point where the fluid jet separates into descrete droplets, setting the distance between the center of a droplet in said separation zone and the position along said fluid jet at which the cell is optically sensed for specific characteristics to be an integral multiple of said center-to-center distance, and disabling a charger from electrically charging a specific droplet if a cell is detected by the optical sensor in a position wherein it will be in the neck area between droplets during droplet formation rather than within a predetermined distance from the droplet center.

  13. Method and apparatus for treating an earth formation penetrated by a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, F.R.

    1965-06-29

    This is a method and apparatus for treating a formation to increase its productivity. A plug is placed into the well and a liquid explosive is placed in the well upon this plug. A second plug is placed in the well, thereby isolating the liquid explosive between the 2 slugs. Pressure is applied to the second plug, thereby forcing the 2 plugs and liquid explosive down the well. After the first plug reaches the formation to be treated, the liquid explosive will enter the formation. As the second plug reaches the first plug, the explosive is detonated, thereby fracturing the formation. The liquid explosive used is a sensitized nitromethane which can be detonated by high-velocity detonators, such as Primacord. (17 claims)

  14. Method and apparatus for clockless analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2007-03-06

    An apparatus and method for analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection includes at least one stage, which includes a first switch, second switch, current source or capacitor, and discriminator. The discriminator changes state in response to a current or charge associated with the input signal exceeding a threshold, thereby indicating whether the current or charge associated with the input signal is greater than the threshold. The input signal includes a peak or a charge, and the converter includes a peak or charge detect mode in which a state of the switch is retained in response to a decrease in the current or charge associated with the input signal. The state of the switch represents at least a portion of a value of the peak or of the charge.

  15. Method and Apparatus for a Leading Edge Slat on a Wing of an Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge device is moved on a leading edge from an undeployed position to a deployed position. The leading edge device has an outer surface, an inner surface, and a deformable fairing attached to the leading edge device such that the deformable fairing covers at least a portion of the inner surface. The deformable fairing changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge device is moved to the deployed position. The leading edge device is then moved from the deployed position to the undeployed position, wherein the deformable fairing changes from the original shape to the deformed shape.

  16. Apparatus and method for extracting power from energetic ions produced in nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Rax, Jean M.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method of extracting power from energetic ions produced by nuclear fusion in a toroidal plasma to enhance respectively the toroidal plasma current and fusion reactivity. By injecting waves of predetermined frequency and phase traveling substantially in a selected poloidal direction within the plasma, the energetic ions become diffused in energy and space such that the energetic ions lose energy and amplify the waves. The amplified waves are further adapted to travel substantially in a selected toroidal direction to increase preferentially the energy of electrons traveling in one toroidal direction which, in turn, enhances or generates a toroidal plasma current. In an further adaptation, the amplified waves can be made to preferentially increase the energy of fuel ions within the plasma to enhance the fusion reactivity of the fuel ions. The described direct, or in situ, conversion of the energetic ion energy provides an efficient and economical means of delivering power to a fusion reactor.

  17. Apparatus and method for the spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, David A.; Radziemski, Leon J.; Loree, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the qualitative and quantitative spectroscopic investigation of elements present in a liquid sample using the laser spark. A series of temporally closely spaced spark pairs is induced in the liquid sample utilizing pulsed electromagnetic radiation from a pair of lasers. The light pulses are not significantly absorbed by the sample so that the sparks occur inside of the liquid. The emitted light from the breakdown events is spectrally and temporally resolved, and the time period between the two laser pulses in each spark pair is adjusted to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the emitted signals. In comparison with the single pulse technique, a substantial reduction in the limits of detectability for many elements has been demonstrated. Narrowing of spectral features results in improved discrimination against interfering species.

  18. Method and apparatus for reducing the drag of flows over surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Laurence R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus, and its accompanying method, for reducing the drag of flows over a surface includes arrays of small disks and sensors. The arrays are embedded in the surface and may extend above, or be depressed below, the surface, provided they remain hydraulically smooth either when operating or when inactive. The disks are arranged in arrays of various shapes, and spaced according to the cruising speed of the vehicle on which the arrays are installed. For drag reduction at speeds of the order of 30 meters/second, preferred embodiments include disks that are 0.2 millimeter in diameter and spaced 0.4 millimeter apart. For drag reduction at speeds of the order of 300 meters/second, preferred embodiments include disks that are 0.045 millimeter in diameter and spaced 0.09 millimeter apart. Smaller and larger dimensions for diameter and spacing are also possible. The disks rotate in the plane of the surface, with their rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the surface. The rotating disks produce velocity perturbations parallel to the surface in the overlying boundary layer. The sensors sense the flow at the surface and connect to control circuitry that adjusts the rotation rates and duty cycles of the disks accordingly. Suction and blowing holes can be interspersed among, or made coaxial with, the disks for creating general three-component velocity perturbations in the near-surface region. The surface can be a flat, planar surface or a nonplanar surface, such as a triangular riblet surface. The present apparatus and method have potential applications in the field of aeronautics for improving performance and efficiency of commercial and military aircraft, and in other industries where drag is an obstacle, including gas and oil delivery through long-haul pipelines.

  19. Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Riordan, Jenifer Ann; Sun, Feng-Guo

    2000-08-29

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric (or magnetic) field and a laser beam in an electro-optic (or magnetic-optic) crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field-optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  20. Validation of a digital photographic method for assessment of dietary quality of school lunch sandwiches brought from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is a challenge to assess children’s dietary intake. The digital photographic method (DPM) may be an objective method that can overcome some of these challenges. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a DPM to assess the quality of dietary....... The lunches were photographed using a standardised DPM. From the digital images, the dietary components were estimated by a trained image analyst using weights or household measures and the dietary quality was assessed using a validated Meal Index of Dietary Quality (Meal IQ). The dietary components...... and the Meal IQ obtained from the digital images were validated against the objective weighed foods of the school lunch sandwiches. To determine interrater reliability, the digital images were evaluated by a second image analyst. Results: Correlation coefficients between the DPM and the weighed foods ranged...

  1. A simple and accurate method for the quality control of the I.I.-DR apparatus using the CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hitoshi; Shiraishi, Akihisa; Kuraishi, Masahiko

    2000-01-01

    With the advancing development of CCD cameras, the I.I.-DR apparatus has been introduced into the x-ray fluoroscopy television system. Consequently, quality control of the system has become a complicated task. We developed a simple, accurate method for quality control of the I.I.-DR apparatus using the CCD camera. Experiments were separately performed for the imager system [laser imager, DDX (dynamic digital x-ray system)] and the imaging system (I.I., ND-filter, IRIS, CCD camera). Quality control of the imager system was done by simply examining both input and output characteristics with a sliding pattern. Quality control of the imaging system was also conducted by estimating AVE (the average volume element), which was obtained using a phantom under the constant conditions. The results indicated that this simplified method is useful as a weekly quality control check of the I.I.-DR apparatus using the CCD camera. (author)

  2. Reframing Photographic Research Methods in Human Geography: A Long-Term Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a long-term reflection on the introduction of a photographic research project into a third-year undergraduate Human Geography module. The findings indicate that, whilst the students valued the project, it did impact on their overall performance, their evaluation of the module and the ways in which they spoke about it. The paper…

  3. Method and apparatus for monitoring the flow of mercury in a system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1987-12-15

    An apparatus and method for monitoring the flow of mercury in a system are disclosed. The equipment enables the entrainment of the mercury in a carrier gas e.g., an inert gas, which passes as mercury vapor between a pair of optically transparent windows. The attenuation of the emission is indicative of the quantity of mercury (and its isotopes) in the system. A 253.7 nm light is shone through one of the windows and the unabsorbed light is detected through the other window. The absorption of the 253.7 nm light is thereby measured whereby the quantity of mercury passing between the windows can be determined. The apparatus includes an in-line sensor for measuring the quantity of mercury. It includes a conduit together with a pair of apertures disposed in a face to face relationship and arranged on opposite sides of the conduit. A pair of optically transparent windows are disposed upon a pair of viewing tubes. A portion of each of the tubes is disposed inside of the conduit and within each of the apertures. The two windows are disposed in a face to face relationship on the ends of the viewing tubes and the entire assembly is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere whereby when 253.7 nm ultraviolet light is shone through one of the windows and detected through the other, the quantity of mercury which is passing by can be continuously monitored due to absorption which is indicated by attenuation of the amplitude of the observed emission. 4 figs.

  4. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  5. Electro-active sensor, method for constructing the same; apparatus and circuitry for detection of electro-active species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electro-active sensor includes a nonconductive platform with a first electrode set attached with a first side of a nonconductive platform. The first electrode set serves as an electrochemical cell that may be utilized to detect electro-active species in solution. A plurality of electrode sets and a variety of additional electrochemical cells and sensors may be attached with the nonconductive platform. The present invention also includes a method for constructing the aforementioned electro-active sensor. Additionally, an apparatus for detection and observation is disclosed, where the apparatus includes a sealable chamber for insertion of a portion of an electro-active sensor. The apparatus allows for monitoring and detection activities. Allowing for control of attached cells and sensors, a dual-mode circuitry is also disclosed. The dual-mode circuitry includes a switch, allowing the circuitry to be switched from a potentiostat to a galvanostat mode.

  6. Evaluating a Bayesian approach to improve accuracy of individual photographic identification methods using ecological distribution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stafford

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Photographic identification of individual organisms can be possible from natural body markings. Data from photo-ID can be used to estimate important ecological and conservation metrics such as population sizes, home ranges or territories. However, poor quality photographs or less well-studied individuals can result in a non-unique ID, potentially confounding several similar looking individuals. Here we present a Bayesian approach that uses known data about previous sightings of individuals at specific sites as priors to help assess the problems of obtaining a non-unique ID. Using a simulation of individuals with different confidence of correct ID we evaluate the accuracy of Bayesian modified (posterior probabilities. However, in most cases, the accuracy of identification decreases. Although this technique is unsuccessful, it does demonstrate the importance of computer simulations in testing such hypotheses in ecology.

  7. Method and apparatus for welding workpieces along a seam with the aid of a filler material deposited in the seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for welding a nuclear reactor core barrel in a very precise and controlled manner is given. The power employed to preheat the filler material at its operating level is automatically controlled as a continuous non-linear function of the filler feed speed. (UK)

  8. Apparatus and method of manufacture for depositing a composite anti-reflection layer on a silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus and associated method are provided. A first silicon layer having at least one of an associated passivation layer and barrier is included. Also included is a composite anti-reflection layer including a stack of layers each with a different thickness and refractive index. Such composite anti-reflection layer is disposed adjacent to the first silicon layer.

  9. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  10. Centrifuge apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartory, Walter K.; Eveleigh, John W.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for operating a continuous flow blood separation centrifuge are provided. The hematocrit of the entrant whole blood is continuously maintained at an optimum constant value by the addition of plasma to the entrant blood. The hematocrit of the separated red cells is monitored to indicate the degree of separation taking place, thereby providing a basis for regulating the flow through the centrifuge.

  11. Use of Participant-Generated Photographs versus Time Use Diaries as a Method of Qualitative Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryEllen Thompson PhD, OTR/L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A small qualitative research study was chosen as a time efficient way to allow students to participate in and complete a research project during a 16-week long semester course. In the first year of the research contribution course, student researchers asked participants with diabetes to complete time use diaries as a part of their initial data collection. The time use diaries were found to be an ineffective way to collect data on self-management of diabetes and were not useful as a basis for subsequent interviews with the participants. A review of the literature suggested reasons for this lack of effectiveness; in particular, participants tend not to record frequently done daily activities. Further review of the literature pointed toward the use of participant-generated photography as an alternative. Subsequent participants were asked to take photographs of their daily self-management of their diabetes for initial data collection. These photographs provided a strong basis for subsequent interviews with the participants. A comparison of the data collected and the emergent themes from the two different methods of initial data collection demonstrated the improved ability to answer the original research question when using participant-generated photography as a basis for participant interviews. The student researchers found the use of participant-generated photographs to elicit interviews with participants in the context of a research contribution course to be effective and enjoyable.

  12. Further elucidation of nanofluid thermal conductivity measurement using a transient hot-wire method apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Donghoon; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Byeongchan; Kwon, Suyong; Koo, Junemo

    2018-02-01

    The Transient Hot-Wire Method (THWM) was developed to measure the absolute thermal conductivity of gases, liquids, melts, and solids with low uncertainty. The majority of nanofluid researchers used THWM to measure the thermal conductivity of test fluids. Several reasons have been suggested for the discrepancies in these types of measurements, including nanofluid generation, nanofluid stability, and measurement challenges. The details of the transient hot-wire method such as the test cell size, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the sampling number are further investigated to improve the accuracy and consistency of the measurements of different researchers. It was observed that smaller test apparatuses were better because they can delay the onset of natural convection. TCR values of a coated platinum wire were measured and statistically analyzed to reduce the uncertainty in thermal conductivity measurements. For validation, ethylene glycol (EG) and water thermal conductivity were measured and analyzed in the temperature range between 280 and 310 K. Furthermore, a detailed statistical analysis was conducted for such measurements, and the results confirmed the minimum number of samples required to achieve the desired resolution and precision of the measurements. It is further proposed that researchers fully report the information related to their measurements to validate the measurements and to avoid future inconsistent nanofluid data.

  13. Method and apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy using microstrip transmission line coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2006-04-04

    Apparatus and method for MRI imaging using a coil constructed of microstrip transmission line (MTL coil) are disclosed. In one method, a target is positioned to be imaged within the field of a main magnetic field of a magnet resonance imaging (MRI) system, a MTL coil is positioned proximate the target, and a MRI image is obtained using the main magnet and the MTL coil. In another embodiment, the MRI coil is used for spectroscopy. MRI imaging and spectroscopy coils are formed using microstrip transmission line. These MTL coils have the advantageous property of good performance while occupying a relatively small space, thus allowing MTL coils to be used inside restricted areas more easily than some other prior art coils. In addition, the MTL coils are relatively simple to construct of inexpensive components and thus relatively inexpensive compared to other designs. Further, the MTL coils of the present invention can be readily formed in a wide variety of coil configurations, and used in a wide variety of ways. Further, while the MTL coils of the present invention work well at high field strengths and frequencies, they also work at low frequencies and in low field strengths as well.

  14. Interfacial area measurements in two-phase bubbly flows. Pt.1. Comparison between the light attenuation technique and the photographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteau, J.-M.; Charlot, Roland.

    1981-02-01

    In order to measure specific area by a light attenuation technique in bubbly stationnary flows, the main features of an optical design are given. This method, valid for bubble sizes between 0,5 and several millimeters, is compared with a photographic technique. The latter gives values systematically higher (15 to 25%) than the former. The measured specific areas range from 0.5 to 2 cm -1 . The multiple sources of error inherent in the photographic method are discussed [fr

  15. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  16. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  17. Method and apparatus for scientific analysis under low temperature vacuum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winefordner, James D.; Jones, Bradley T.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for scientific analysis of a sample under low temperature vacuum conditions uses a vacuum chamber with a conveyor belt disposed therein. One end of the conveyor belt is a cool end in thermal contact with the cold stage of a refrigerator, whereas the other end of the conveyor belt is a warm end spaced from the refrigerator. A septum allows injection of a sample into the vacuum chamber on top of the conveyor belt for spectroscopic or other analysis. The sample freezes on the conveyor belt at the cold end. One or more windows in the vacuum chamber housing allow spectroscopic analysis of the sample. Following the spectroscopic analysis, the conveyor belt may be moved such that the sample moves toward the warm end of the conveyor belt where upon it evaporates, thereby cleaning the conveyor belt. Instead of injecting the sample by way of a septum and use of a syringe and needle, the present device may be used in series with capillary-column gas chromatography or micro-bore high performance liquid chromatography.

  18. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.

  19. Method and apparatus for determination of temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagelatos, Nicholas; Steinman, Donald K.; John, Joseph; Young, Jack C.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear method and apparatus determines the temperature of a medium by injecting fast neutrons into the medium and detecting returning slow neutrons in three first energy ranges by producing three respective detection signals. The detection signals are combined to produce three derived indicia each systematically related to the population of slow neutrons returning from the medium in a respective one of three second energy ranges, specifically exclusively epithermal neutrons, exclusively substantially all thermal neutrons and exclusively a portion of the thermal neutron spectrum. The derived indicia are compared with calibration indicia similarly systematically related to the population of slow neutrons in the same three second energy ranges returning from similarly irradiated calibration media for which the relationships temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power to such calibration indicia are known. The comparison indicates the temperature at which the calibration indicia correspond to the derived indicia and consequently the temperature of the medium. The neutron absorption cross section and moderating power of the medium can be identified at the same time.

  20. Method and apparatus for determining the spontaneous earth potential log from downhole gradient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the differential or gradient of an earth variable within a well bore (e.g., the spontaneous earth potential) and producing improved logs of this gradient or differential and its integral variable essentially free of any accumulated instrument and base line drift or error. The differential spontaneous potential of an earth formation traversed by a well bore is measured at repeated multiple depths by moving a pair of closely spaced electrodes through the well bore wherein each electrode is electrically insulated externally from the other and from a third downhole local ground (such as the well tool cable) to which each is internally resistively referenced. The measured electrical potential across the closely spaced electrodes is amplified and digitized before being transmitted to the earth's surface, whereupon an averaged value of such differential measurements within a traveling data window of predetermined length and adjacent to each successive measurement is used to adjust for base line drift, noise and instrument induced error. The resulting compensated differential logs are integrated, resulting in spontaneous potential logs of improved character

  1. Method and apparatus for signal processing in a sensor system for use in spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Paul [Bellport, NY; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi [Nesconset, NY; Grosholz, Joseph [Natrona Heights, PA

    2008-05-27

    A method for processing pulses arriving randomly in time on at least one channel using multiple peak detectors includes asynchronously selecting a non-busy peak detector (PD) in response to a pulse-generated trigger signal, connecting the channel to the selected PD in response to the trigger signal, and detecting a pulse peak amplitude. Amplitude and time of arrival data are output in first-in first-out (FIFO) sequence. An apparatus includes trigger comparators to generate the trigger signal for the pulse-receiving channel, PDs, a switch for connecting the channel to the selected PD, and logic circuitry which maintains the write pointer. Also included, time-to-amplitude converters (TACs) convert time of arrival to analog voltage and an analog multiplexer provides FIFO output. A multi-element sensor system for spectroscopy includes detector elements, channels, trigger comparators, PDs, a switch, and a logic circuit with asynchronous write pointer. The system includes TACs, a multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter.

  2. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-11-21

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of differential current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes. 48 figs.

  3. Apparatus and method for preventing the rotation of rods used in nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilgrim, L.G. Jr.; Jackson, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for preventing the rotation of one or more elongated rods used in nuclear fuel assemblies include an end plug secured to one longitudinal end of such an elongated rod and having an out-of-cavity, non-round structure affixed thereto and configured to mate with a complementary shaped structure in a lower tie plate of a nuclear fuel assembly in such a manner as to prevent the rotation of the rod about its longitudinal axis. In one embodiment, the end plug includes a pair of flats formed on a portion of the end plug and configured to abut against a pair of flats formed on the outer surface of a cylindrical boss or sleeve of the lower tie plate, thereby to prevent the rotation of the rod. In another embodiment, four grooves, disposed 90 0 apart about the periphery of an end plug of a rod form a spline. The grooves are configured to receive four, radially inwardly protruding, key members disposed 90 0 apart about the periphery of a sleeve secured to the lower tie plate, thereby to prevent the rotation of the rod. In a further embodiment, a sleeve is secured to an end plug of a rod and includes four elongated slots disposed 90 0 apart about the periphery of the sleeve and configured in width, depth and spacing to receive and mate with four web portions of the lower tie plate of the nuclear fuel assembly, thereby to secure the rod against rotation about its longitudinal axis

  4. Method and apparatus for a nuclear reactor for increasing reliability to scram control elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a method and apparatus for increasing the reliability of linear drive devices of a nuclear reactor to scram the control elements held in a raised position thereby. Each of the plurality of linear drive devices includes a first type of holding means associated with the drive means of the linear drive device and a second type of holding means distinct and operatively dissimilar from the first type. The system of linear drive devices having both types of holding means are operated in such a manner that the control elements of a portion of the linear drive devices are only held in a raised position by the first holding means and the control elements of the remaining portion of linear drive devices are held in a raised position by only the second type of holding means. Since the two types of holding means are distinct from one another and are operatively dissimilar, the probability of failure of both systems to scram as a result of common mode failure will be minimized. Means may be provided to positively detect disengagement of the first type of holding means and engagement of the second type of holding means for those linear drive devices being operative to hold the control elements in a raised position with the second type of holding means

  5. Method and apparatus for reducing radiation exposure through the use of infrared data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Frank S.; Hance, Albert B.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for transmitting information, for exae, dosimetry data from a hazardous environment such as a radioactive area to a remote relatively safe location. A radiation detector senses the radiation and generates an electrical signal which is fed as a binary coded decimal signal to an infrared transmitter having a microprocessor. The microprocessor formats the detected information into digits of data and modulates a 40 kHz oscillator, the output of which is fed to and intensity modulates one or more infrared emitting diodes. The infrared signal from the diodes is transmitted to a portable hand-held infrared receiver remote from the hazardous environment. The receiver includes an infrared sensitive diode which decodes the data and generates an electrical signal which is coupled to a microcomputer. The microcomputer synchronizes itself to the transmitter, reads the digits of data as they are received, sums the digits and compares the sum with a checksum signal generated and transmitted from the transmitter. If a match of the checksum signals exists, the received data is displayed, otherwise it is described and the receiver conditions itself for the next transmission of data.

  6. Method and apparatus for simultaneous determination of fluid mass flow rate, mean velocity and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining fluid mass flow rate and density. In one aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through a straight cantilevered tube in which transient oscillation has been induced, thus generating Coriolis damping forces on the tube. The decay rate and frequency of the resulting damped oscillation are measured, and the fluid mass flow rate and density are determined therefrom. In another aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through the cantilevered tube while an electrically powered device imparts steady-state harmonic excitation to the tube. This generates Coriolis tube-damping forces which are dependent on the mass flow rate of the fluid. Means are provided to respond to incipient flow-induced changes in the amplitude of vibration by changing the power input to the excitation device as required to sustain the original amplitude of vibration. The fluid mass flow rate and density are determined from the required change in power input. The invention provides stable, rapid, and accurate measurements. It does not require bending of the fluid flow

  7. Comparison of caries detection methods using varying numbers of intra-oral digital photographs with visual examination for epidemiology in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This was a method comparison study. The aim of study was to compare caries information obtained from a full mouth visual examination using the method developed by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) for epidemiological surveys with caries data obtained from eight, six and four intra-oral digital photographs of index teeth in two groups of children aged 5 years and 10/11 years. Methods Five trained and calibrated examiners visually examined the whole mouth of 240 5-year-olds and 250 10-/11-year-olds using the BASCD method. The children also had intra-oral digital photographs taken of index teeth. The same 5 examiners assessed the intra-oral digital photographs (in groups of 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs) for caries using the BASCD criteria; dmft/DMFT were used to compute Weighted Kappa Statistic as a measure of intra-examiner reliability and intra-class correlation coefficients as a measure of inter-examiner reliability for each method. A method comparison analysis was performed to determine the 95% limits of agreement for all five examiners, comparing the visual examination method with the photographic assessment method using 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs. Results The intra-rater reliability for the visual examinations ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 in the 5-year-olds and 0.90 to 0.97 in the 10-/11-year-olds. Those for the photographic assessments in the 5-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs, 0.86 to 0.94, for 6 intra-oral photographs, 0.85 to 0.98 and for 4 intra-oral photographs, 0.80 to 0.96; for the 10-/11-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs 0.84 to 1.00, for 6 intra-oral photographs 0.82 to 1.00 and for 4 intra-oral photographs 0.72 to 0.98. The 95% limits of agreement were −1.997 to 1.967, -2.375 to 2.735 and −2.250 to 2.921 respectively for the 5-year-olds and −2.614 to 2.027, -2.179 to 3.887 and −2.594 to 2.163 respectively for the 10-/11-year-olds. Conclusions The photographic

  8. Synthetic methods in phase equilibria: A new apparatus and error analysis of the method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, José; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    of the equipment was confirmed through several tests, including measurements along the three phase co-existence line for the system ethane + methanol, the study of the solubility of methane in water, and of carbon dioxide in water. An analysis regarding the application of the synthetic isothermal method...

  9. Investigation of urban environment from photographic information (photosurvey). Part I. Method and survey of vigor of trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, S; Oshima, T

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental data were gathered for a tree-planting program by surveying photometrically the growth state of plants in relation to topography in Suginami Ward, where the living environment is drastically changing. The photographs taken for the purpose were natural color 1972, infrared color 1972, panchromatic 1963 and 1966, panchromatio-infrachromatic 1970, and infrared 1971. The methods of evaluating tree vigor is explained. The tree species investigated were pasania, zelkova, ginkgo, Himalayan cedar, cherry, and pine. The results were summarized in a tree-vigor map. Vigor was in the descending order of ginkgo, Himalayan cedar, pasania, pine, zelkova and cherry. Along railroads and main roads, vigor was lower.

  10. Method and associated apparatus for capturing, servicing, and de-orbiting earth satellites using robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepollina, Frank J. (Inventor); Burns, Richard D. (Inventor); Holz, Jill M. (Inventor); Corbo, James E. (Inventor); Jedhrich, Nicholas M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    This invention is a method and supporting apparatus for autonomously capturing, servicing and de-orbiting a free-flying spacecraft, such as a satellite, using robotics. The capture of the spacecraft includes the steps of optically seeking and ranging the satellite using LIDAR; and matching tumble rates, rendezvousing and berthing with the satellite. Servicing of the spacecraft may be done using supervised autonomy, which is allowing a robot to execute a sequence of instructions without intervention from a remote human-occupied location. These instructions may be packaged at the remote station in a script and uplinked to the robot for execution upon remote command giving authority to proceed. Alternately, the instructions may be generated by Artificial Intelligence (AI) logic onboard the robot. In either case, the remote operator maintains the ability to abort an instruction or script at any time, as well as the ability to intervene using manual override to teleoperate the robot.In one embodiment, a vehicle used for carrying out the method of this invention comprises an ejection module, which includes the robot, and a de-orbit module. Once servicing is completed by the robot, the ejection module separates from the de-orbit module, leaving the de-orbit module attached to the satellite for de-orbiting the same at a future time. Upon separation, the ejection module can either de-orbit itself or rendezvous with another satellite for servicing. The ability to de-orbit a spacecraft further allows the opportunity to direct the landing of the spent satellite in a safe location away from population centers, such as the ocean.

  11. Several methods and apparatus of low-energy laser therapy in veterinary practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirin, Vaytcheslav N.; Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Barybin, Vitalii F.

    1998-12-01

    During same years various medical effect of low-energy laser therapy in veterinary were tested. We established that the laser low-energy therapy can be very effective for treatment such animal's diseases as mastitis and demodekose when certain combinations of laser beam parameters are used. This combinations were taken as the principle of a number of laser veterinary apparatus, which we started to produce at `POLUS'. It is our series of apparatus `VEGA-MB' and `VETLAS-3', which is real used today for dogs and cows treatment in Russia.

  12. Apparatus and method for determining movements and velocities of moving objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    in the apparatus is applicable where wave energy is used to sense or detect an object by its scattering properties when using either sound waves or electro-magnetic waves. The movement can be detected according to the field properties. The field represented by the sampling pulse must feature a spatial oscillation...... in the directions, where the velocity components are of interest. Such a transversely oscillating field is e.g. generated by using apodization on individual transducer elements and a special focusing scheme. The apparatus uses waves of either sound or electro-magnetic radiation. The temporal characteristics...

  13. Method and apparatus for anti-islanding protection of distributed generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhihong; John, Vinod; Wang, Changyong; Garces, Luis Jose; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lei; Walling, Reigh Allen; Premerlani, William James; Sanza, Peter Claudius; Liu, Yan; Dame, Mark Edward

    2006-03-21

    An apparatus for anti-islanding protection of a distributed generation with respect to a feeder connected to an electrical grid is disclosed. The apparatus includes a sensor adapted to generate a voltage signal representative of an output voltage and/or a current signal representative of an output current at the distributed generation, and a controller responsive to the signals from the sensor. The controller is productive of a control signal directed to the distributed generation to drive an operating characteristic of the distributed generation out of a nominal range in response to the electrical grid being disconnected from the feeder.

  14. Methods and apparatus for carbon dioxide removal from a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Ruud, James Anthony; Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Liu, Ke

    2010-01-19

    An apparatus for producing hydrogen gas wherein the apparatus includes a reactor. In one embodiment, the reactor includes at least two conversion-removal portions. Each conversion-removal portion comprises a catalyst section configured to convert CO in the stream to CO.sub.2 and a membrane section located downstream of and in flow communication with the catalyst section. The membrane section is configured to selectively remove the CO.sub.2 from the stream and to be in flow communication with a sweep gas.

  15. Apparatus and method for increasing the bandwidth of a laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus using sinusoidal cross-phase modulation, provides a laser pulse having a very broad bandwidth while substantially retaining the input laser's temporal shape. The modulator may be used in a master oscillator system for a laser having a master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) configration. The modulator utilizes a first laser providing an output wavelength .lambda. and a second laser providing an output wavelength shifted by a small amount to .lambda.+.DELTA..lambda.. Each beam has a single, linear polarization. Each beam is coupled into a length of polarization-preserving optical fiber. The first laser beam is coupled into the optical fiber with the beam's polarization aligned with the fiber's main axis, and the second beam is coupled into the fiber with its polarization rotated from the main axis by a predetermined angle. Within the fiber, the main axis' polarization defines an interference beam and the orthogonal axis' polarization defines a signal beam. In the interference beam, the first laser beam and the parallel polarized vector component of the other beam interfere to create areas of high and low intensity, which modulates the signal beam by cross phase modulation. Upon exit from the optical fiber, the beams are coupled out and the modulated signal beam is separated out by a polarization selector. The signal beam can be applied to coherence reducing systems to provide an output that is temporally and spatially incoherent. The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. W7405-ENG-48 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California for the operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  16. Oblique Photographs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes photographs of marine mammals and sea turtles taken in the field. Most are lateral views of animals that are used to confirm species identity...

  17. Vertical Photographs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes of photographs of marine mammals and sea turtles taken with high resolution cameras mounted in airplanes, unmanned platforms or the bow of...

  18. Method and apparatus for evaporating radioactive liquid and calcinating the residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, T.S.

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus and a process for evaporating liquid wastes and calcining the residue. The liquid is sprayed against a hollow, rotating heated cylinder within a casing. The dried residue is scraped from the rotating cylinder and released through a valve at the bottom of the casing, while the effluent gas is filtered

  19. Equidensitometry: a method for characterising the structure of plasmas. Qualitative characterisation of the lanthanum d.c. arc by equidensitometry of monochromatic arc photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, K.; Niebergall, K.; Roessler, H.

    1976-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the experimental characterization of d.c. arc plasmas. The method consists of the combination of the spectral photography of d.c. arc plasmas with a slitless, stigmatic plane-grating spectrograph and the characterization of the photographs with the aid of photographic equidensitometry. The principles of the method are described. The method is used for the investigation of a lanthanum d.c. arc plasma. The qualitative results of the measurements of the axial distributions of the light emission and lanthanum and calcium particle concentrations in the arc are discussed. The limitations and shortcomings of the method are pointed out. (author)

  20. Radiography using photographic paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Yu.V.; Kapustin, V.I.; Volkova, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of radiographic control with application of ''Fototelegrafnaya BS'' photographic paper in conjunction with the ''Standart'' image intensifier as an X-ray image converter is studied. Investigations were made using steel samples 5 to 45 mm thick, X-ray radiation energy varied from 80 to 240 keV. Specifications of the image intensifier of the ''Standart type and photographic paper are given. It is shown, that the photographic paper improves the sensitivity of the method to the detection of small defects. The method provides standard and panoramic radioscopy, conservation of objective documentation, enables one to mechanize and automatize the process of photodevelopment. The application of the photographic paper is beneficial, its cost being six times as low as that of X-ray film

  1. Method and apparatus for balancing the magnetic field detecting loops of a cryogenic gradiometer using trimming coils and superconducting disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutes, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus for and a method of measuring the difference in intensity between two coplanar magnetic field vector components at two different points in space. The device is comprised of two interconnected, relatively large, loop patterns of opposite, flux cancelling, winding sense. One or both loops include a trimming element that is itself formed of two interconnected, relatively small, loop patterns of opposite, flux cancelling, winding sense. The device is analyzed for imbalance between the two large loops and is then balanced by placing a balancing superconducting disk of the proper characteristic in or near one of the two small loops of the trimming element. The so-trimmed apparatus forms a gradiometer of substantially improved mensuration

  2. Chromatic X-ray magnifying method and apparatus by Bragg reflective planes on the surface of Abbe sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoe, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing sharp, chromatic, magnified images of X-ray emitting objects, are provided. The apparatus, which constitutes an X-ray microscope or telescope, comprises a connected collection of Bragg reflecting planes, comprised of either a bent crystal or a synthetic multilayer structure, disposed on and adjacent to a locus determined by a spherical surface. The individual Bragg planes are spatially oriented to Bragg reflect radiation from the object location toward the image location. This is accomplished by making the Bragg planes spatially coincident with the surfaces of either a nested series of prolate ellipsoids of revolution, or a nested series of spheres. The spacing between the Bragg reflecting planes can be tailored to control the wavelengths and the amount of the X-radiation that is Bragg reflected to form the X-ray image.

  3. Method and Apparatus for the Portable Identification of Material Thickness and Defects Using Spatially Controlled Heat Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor); Winfree, William P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and a portable apparatus for the nondestructive identification of defects in structures. The apparatus comprises a heat source and a thermal imager that move at a constant speed past a test surface of a structure. The thermal imager is off set at a predetermined distance from the heat source. The heat source induces a constant surface temperature. The imager follows the heat source and produces a video image of the thermal characteristics of the test surface. Material defects produce deviations from the constant surface temperature that move at the inverse of the constant speed. Thermal noise produces deviations that move at random speed. Computer averaging of the digitized thermal image data with respect to the constant speed minimizes noise and improves the signal of valid defects. The motion of thermographic equipment coupled with the high signal to noise ratio render it suitable for portable, on site analysis.

  4. Photographic Tourism Research: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Virdee, Inderpal

    2017-01-01

    This study reviews the current photographic tourism literature to identify what fields within tourism have been studied by researchers, the contexts, the samples used, the sampling methods employed, the photographic methods and supporting methods used, the data analysis techniques applied and the countries studied. A set of 115 relevant academic articles were selected and assessed using content analysis. The findings showed that overall publications in the field of photographic tourism increa...

  5. Photographic-Based Optical Evaluation of Tissues and Biomaterials Used for Corneal Surface Repair: A New Easy-Applied Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gonzalez-Andrades

    Full Text Available Tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair require fulfilling specific optical standards prior to implantation in the patient. However, there is not a feasible evaluation method to be applied in clinical or Good Manufacturing Practice settings. In this study, we describe and assess an innovative easy-applied photographic-based method (PBM for measuring functional optical blurring and transparency in corneal surface grafts.Plastic compressed collagen scaffolds (PCCS and multilayered amniotic membranes (AM samples were optically and histologically evaluated. Transparency and image blurring measures were obtained by PBM, analyzing photographic images of a standardized band pattern taken through the samples. These measures were compared and correlated to those obtained applying the Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD technique, which is the gold standard method.All the samples used for optical evaluation by PBM or IAD were histological suitable. PCCS samples presented transmittance values higher than 60%, values that increased with increasing wavelength as determined by IAD. The PBM indicated that PCCS had a transparency ratio (TR value of 80.3 ± 2.8%, with a blurring index (BI of 50.6 ± 4.2%. TR and BI obtained from the PBM showed a high correlation (ρ>|0.6| with the diffuse transmittance and the diffuse reflectance, both determined using the IAD (p<0.005. The AM optical properties showed that there was a largely linear relationship between the blurring and the number of amnion layers, with more layers producing greater blurring.This innovative proposed method represents an easy-applied technique for evaluating transparency and blurriness of tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair.

  6. Method and apparatus for extracting tritium and preparing radioactive waste for disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible's internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle's volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of; the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

  7. Methods and apparatus for use with extreme ultraviolet light having contamination protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilese, Francis C.; Torczynski, John R.; Garcia, Rudy; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Delgado, Gildardo R.; Rader, Daniel J.; Geller, Anthony S.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2016-07-12

    An apparatus for use with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light comprising A) a duct having a first end opening, a second end opening and an intermediate opening intermediate the first end opening the second end opening, B) an optical component disposed to receive EUV light from the second end opening or to send light through the second end opening, and C) a source of low pressure gas at a first pressure to flow through the duct, the gas having a high transmission of EUV light, fluidly coupled to the intermediate opening. In addition to or rather than gas flow the apparatus may have A) a low pressure gas with a heat control unit thermally coupled to at least one of the duct and the optical component and/or B) a voltage device to generate voltage between a first portion and a second portion of the duet with a grounded insulative portion therebetween.

  8. Systems, methods and apparatus for modeling, specifying and deploying policies in autonomous and autonomic systems using agent-oriented software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Penn, Joaquin (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, an agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS, is analyzed, flaws in the agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS are corrected, and an implementation is derived from the corrected agent-oriented specification. Described herein are systems, method and apparatus that produce fully (mathematically) tractable development of agent-oriented specification(s) modeled with methodology fragment for analyzing complex multiagent systems (MaCMAS) and policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. The systems, method and apparatus described herein are illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming systems, method and apparatus described herein may provide faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.

  9. Method and Apparatus for the Portable Identification Of Material Thickness And Defects Along Uneven Surfaces Using Spatially Controlled Heat Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas L. (Inventor); Jacobstein, A. Ronald (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method and apparatus for testing a material such as the water-wall tubes in boilers includes the use of a portable thermal line heater having radiation shields to control the amount of thermal radiation that reaches a thermal imager. A procedure corrects for variations in the initial temperature of the material being inspected. A method of calibrating the testing device to determine an equation relating thickness of the material to temperatures created by the thermal line heater uses empirical data derived from tests performed on test specimens for each material type, geometry, density, specific heat, speed at which the line heater is moved across the material and heat intensity.

  10. Development and application of a biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 in early phase formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiang B; Robertson, Vivian K; Rawat, Archana; Flick, Tawnya; Tang, Zhe J; Cauchon, Nina S; McElvain, James S

    2010-10-04

    Dissolution testing is frequently used to determine the rate and extent at which a drug is released from a dosage form, and it plays many important roles throughout drug product development. However, the traditional dissolution approach often emphasizes its application in quality control testing and usually strives to obtain 100% drug release. As a result, dissolution methods are not necessarily biorelevant and meaningful application of traditional dissolution methods in the early phases of drug product development can be very limited. This article will describe the development of a biorelevant in vitro dissolution method using USP apparatus 4, biorelevant media, and real-time online UV analysis. Several case studies in the areas of formulation selection, lot-to-lot variability, and food effect will be presented to demonstrate the application of this method in early phase formulation development. This biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 provides a valuable tool to predict certain aspects of the in vivo drug release. It can be used to facilitate the formulation development/selection for pharmacokinetic (PK) and clinical studies. It may also potentially be used to minimize the number of PK studies, and to aid in the design of more efficient PK and clinical studies.

  11. Method and apparatus for adding and mixing second cohesive powders in a fluidized bed blender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.I.; Brassfield, H.C.; Adomitis, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Injection and uniform dispersion of a second cohesive powdered ingredient or ingredients having hydrophobic, hydrophilic or hydroscopic properties into a fluidized bed of UO 2 powder is effected by impinging the second ingredient against a deflection plate 21 mounted within the fluidized bed. The apparatus also includes an eductor, a pressurised vortex mill 11 and a pneumatic conveying system. Before entering the fluidized bed, the second ingredient is entrained in a gas and conveyed under pressure to the vortex mill 11 where the particles of the second ingredient are propelled radially outwardly through channels 28 and collide against tungsten carbide impact, blocks 32 causing comminution of the particles. (author)

  12. Method and apparatus maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, William Earl; Felix, Larry Gordon; Snyder, Todd Robert

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

  13. Laser-ultrasound spectroscopy apparatus and method with detection of shear resonances for measuring anisotropy, thickness, and other properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Daniel; Moreau, Andre; Dubois, Marc; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre; Bussiere, Jean; Lord, Martin; Padioleau, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting shear resonances includes structure and steps for applying a radiation pulse from a pulsed source of radiation to an object to generate elastic waves therein, optically detecting the elastic waves generated in the object, and analyzing the elastic waves optically detected in the object. These shear resonances, alone or in combination with other information, may be used in the present invention to improve thickness measurement accuracy and to determine geometrical, microstructural, and physical properties of the object. At least one shear resonance in the object is detected with the elastic waves optically detected in the object. Preferably, laser-ultrasound spectroscopy is utilized to detect the shear resonances.

  14. Method and apparatus for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, William Earl [Pinson, AL; Felix, Larry Gordon [Pelham, AL; Snyder, Todd Robert [Birmingham, AL

    2008-02-12

    An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

  15. Method and apparatus for coating thin foil with a boron coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.

    2018-01-16

    An apparatus and a process is disclosed for applying a boron coating to a thin foil. Preferably, the process is a continuous, in-line process for applying a coating to a thin foil comprising wrapping the foil around a rotating and translating mandrel, cleaning the foil with glow discharge in an etching chamber as the mandrel with the foil moves through the chamber, sputtering the foil with boron carbide in a sputtering chamber as the mandrel moves through the sputtering chamber, and unwinding the foil off the mandrel after it has been coated. The apparatus for applying a coating to a thin foil comprises an elongated mandrel. Foil preferably passes from a reel to the mandrel by passing through a seal near the initial portion of an etching chamber. The mandrel has a translation drive system for moving the mandrel forward and a rotational drive system for rotating mandrel as it moves forward. The etching chamber utilizes glow discharge on a surface of the foil as the mandrel moves through said etching chamber. A sputtering chamber, downstream of the etching chamber, applies a thin layer comprising boron onto the surface of the foil as said mandrel moves through said sputtering chamber. Preferably, the coated foil passes from the mandrel to a second reel by passing through a seal near the terminal portion of the sputtering chamber.

  16. Novel apparatus and methods for performing remotely controlled particle-solid interaction experiments at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, H. F.; Deveney, E. F.; Jones, N. L.; Vane, C. R.; Datz, S.; Knudsen, H.; Grafström, P.; Schuch, R.

    1997-04-01

    Recent atomic physics studies involving ultrarelativistic Pb ions required solid target positioners, scintillators, and a sophisticated data acquisition and control system placed in a remote location at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron near Geneva, Switzerland. The apparatus, installed in a high-radiation zone underground, had to (i) function for months, (ii) automatically respond to failures such as power outages and particle-induced computer upsets, and (iii) communicate with the outside world via a telephone line. The heart of the apparatus developed was an Apple Macintosh-based CAMAC system that answered the telephone and interpreted and executed remote control commands that (i) sensed and set targets, (ii) controlled voltages and discriminator levels for scintillators, (iii) modified data acquisition hardware logic, (iv) reported control information, and (v) automatically synchronized data acquisition to the CERN spill cycle via a modem signal and transmitted experimental data to a remote computer. No problems were experienced using intercontinental telephone connections at 1200 baud. Our successful "virtual laboratory" approach that uses off-the-shelf electronics is generally adaptable to more conventional bench-type experiments.

  17. Apparatus and method of optical marker projection for the three-dimensional shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Qu, Xinghua; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Fumin

    2015-08-01

    Optical photography measurement and three-dimensional (3-D) scanning measurement have been widely used in the field of the fast dimensional and surface metrology. In the measurement process, however, retro-reflective markers are often pasted on the surface in advance for image registration and positioning the 3-D measuring instruments. For the large-scale workpiece with freeform surface, the process of pasting markers is time consuming, which reduces the measurement efficiency. Meanwhile, the measurement precision is impaired owing to the thickness of the marker. In this paper, we propose a system that projects two-dimensional (2-D) array optical markers with uniform energy on the surface of the workpiece instead of pasting retro-reflective markers, which achieves large-range and automated optical projection of the mark points. In order to conjunction with the 3-D handheld scanner belonging to our team, we develop an apparatus of optical marker projection, which is mainly composed of the high-power laser, the optical beam expander system, adjustable aperture stop and Dammann grating of dibasic spectrophotometric device. The projection apparatus can achieve the function of beams of 15 * 15 uniformly light of the two-dimensional lattice. And it's much cheaper than the existing systems.

  18. Apparatus and method for non-invasive diagnosis and control of motor operated valve condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R.H.; Chai, J.; Lang, J.H.; Hagman, W.H.; Umans, S.D.; Saarela, O.J.

    1997-01-14

    An apparatus compares the torque from an MOV motor with the valve displacement, and from the comparison assesses MOV operating condition. A transducer measures the vibration of the housing of an MOV. The vibrations are due to the motions of the rotating elements within the housing, which motions are directly related to the motion of the valve relative to its seat. Signal processing apparatus analyzes the vibrations to recover the rotations of the rotating elements and thus the motion of the valve plug. Lost motion can also be determined (if a lost motion connection exists) by demodulating the vibration signal and thus taking into account also the lost motion. Simultaneously, the forces applied to the valve are estimated by estimating the torque between the stator and the rotor of the motor. Such torque can be estimated from measuring the input current and voltage alone, using a forgetting factor and a correction for the forgetting factor. A signature derived from relating the torque to the valve position can be used to assess the condition of the MOV, by comparing the signature to signatures for MOVs of known conditions. The vibration analysis components generate signals that relate to the position of elements in the operator. Similarly, the torque estimator estimates the torque output by any type of electric motor, whether or not part of an MOV analysis unit. 28 figs.

  19. Pre-coding method and apparatus for multiple source or time-shifted single source data and corresponding inverse post-decoding method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A pre-coding method and device for improving data compression performance by removing correlation between a first original data set and a second original data set, each having M members, respectively. The pre-coding method produces a compression-efficiency-enhancing double-difference data set. The method and device produce a double-difference data set, i.e., an adjacent-delta calculation performed on a cross-delta data set or a cross-delta calculation performed on two adjacent-delta data sets, from either one of (1) two adjacent spectral bands coming from two discrete sources, respectively, or (2) two time-shifted data sets coming from a single source. The resulting double-difference data set is then coded using either a distortionless data encoding scheme (entropy encoding) or a lossy data compression scheme. Also, a post-decoding method and device for recovering a second original data set having been represented by such a double-difference data set.

  20. High-speed photographic methods for compression dynamics investigation of laser irradiated shell target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Kologrivov, A.A.; Krokhin, O.N.; Rupasov, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    Three methods are described for a high-speed diagnostics of compression dynamics of shell targets being spherically laser-heated on the installation ''Kal'mar''. The first method is based on the direct investigation of the space-time evolution of the critical-density region for Nd-laser emission (N sub(e) asymptotically equals 10 21 I/cm 3 ) by means of the streak photography of plasma image in the second-harmonic light. The second method involves investigation of time evolution of the second-harmonic spectral distribution by means of a spectrograph coupled with a streak camera. The use of a special laser pulse with two time-distributed intensity maxima for the irradiation of shell targets, and the analysis of the obtained X-ray pin-hole pictures constitute the basis of the third method. (author)

  1. Apparatus and method for transfer of information by means of a curl-free magnetic vector potential field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinas, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A system for transmission of information using a curl-free magnetic vector potential radiation field. The system includes current-carrying apparatus for generating a magnetic vector potential field with a curl-free component coupled to apparatus for modulating the current applied to the field generating apparatus. Receiving apparatus includes a detector with observable properties that vary with the application of an applied curl-free magnetic vector potential field. Analyzing apparatus for determining the information content of modulation imposed on the curl-free vector potential field can be established in materials that are not capable of transmitting more common electromagnetic radiation

  2. Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

    2013-02-12

    A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

  3. Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators.

  4. Method of and apparatus for examining a body by radiation such as x or gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hounsfield, G.N.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for examining a body by means of radiation such as X or γ radiation. The body to be examined is inserted in an aperture in a scanning and locating structure, which structure supports a source of the radiation and detector means therefor on opposite sides of the aperture. The source and detector means are moveable to and fro on the structure so as to scan the radiation laterally across the body in a plane and the structure is rotatable around the body about an axis perpendicular to the plane. Disposed between the source and detector means is an attenuator means which extends laterally in said plane to the full extent of the lateral scanning motion and rotates with the structure

  5. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INJECTING AND TRAPPING ELECTRONS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.

    1962-05-29

    An apparatus is designed for the manipulation of electrons in an exially symmetric magnetic field region and may be employed to trap electrons in such a field by directing an electron beam into a gradientially intensified field region therein to form an annular electron moving axially in the field and along a decreasing field gradient. Dissipative loop circuits such as resistive loops are disposed along at least the decreasing field gradient so as to be inductively coupled to the electron bunch so as to extract energy of the electron bunch and provide a braking force effective to reduce the velocity of the bunch. Accordingly, the electron bunch upon entering a lower intensity magnetic field region is retained therein since the electrons no longer possess sufficient energy to escape. (AEC)

  6. Apparatus and method for neutralizing the beam in an ion implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    An ion implanter apparatus is described with provision for neutralizing the space charge potential of the ionic beam with a closed loop feedback system responding to the electrical charges that tend to accumulate on a target specimen. Neutralization is provided by a controllable electron source surrounding the beam. Flow of electrons to a plate radially outward of the electron source is used to derive a signal proportional to the beam ion current when the space charge potential of the beam is neutralized. The beam current signal can be used (1) to provide a read-out display for the operator; (2) to control the magnitude of the ion beam; (3) to be integrated to determine the total positive charge that enters the faraday cage of the implanter for use to control the ion beam shutter; or (4) to effect relative movement of the specimen and the beam

  7. Apparatus and method for treating pollutants in a gas using hydrogen peroxide and UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clausen, Christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending therebetween. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  8. Apparatus and method of manufacture for an imager equipped with a cross-talk barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An imager apparatus and associated starting material are provided. In one embodiment, an imager is provided including a silicon layer of a first conductivity type acting as a junction anode. Such silicon layer is adapted to convert light to photoelectrons. Also included is a semiconductor well of a second conductivity type formed in the silicon layer for acting as a junction cathode. Still yet, a barrier is formed adjacent to the semiconductor well. In another embodiment, a starting material is provided including a first silicon layer and an oxide layer disposed adjacent to the first silicon layer. Also included is a second silicon layer disposed adjacent to the oxide layer opposite the first silicon layer. Such second silicon layer is further equipped with an associated passivation layer and/or barrier.

  9. Development of the method of sensitivity improvement of photographic film applicable in high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokieli, V.D.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivity improvement of photographic films applicable in high-energy physics experiments is discussed. To get optimal operating conditions for photographic film PT-6 to check its physical properties on electron beam and in cosmic rays a set for film samples exposure in visible spectrum and in X-rays is constructed. The set includes a start up device, high-voltage pulse oscillator, shapers, a chamber for the sample exposure, voltage divider and electron oscillograph

  10. Apparatus and method for determining stress and strain in pipes, pressure vessels, structural members and other deformable bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachon, R.I.; Ranson, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring stress and strain associated with a pipe, pressurized vessel, structural member or deformable body containing a flaw or stress concentration utilizes a laser beam to illuminate a surface being analyzed and an optical data digitizer to sense a signal provided by a speckle pattern produced by the light beam reflected from the illuminated surface. One signal is received from the surface in a reference condition and subsequent signals are received from the surface after surface deformation. The optical data digitizer provides the received signal to an image processor, and the processor stores the signals and correlates the deformed image received with the reference image and then sends this correlated information to a minicomputer which performs mathematical analyses of the signal to determine stress and strain associated with the surface. The apparatus is constructed as one integral unit, and further includes a digital and tape display, as well as a television monitor and an electro-optic range indicator. (author) 15 figs

  11. Apparatus and method for depressurizing, degassing, and affording decay of the radioactivity of weakly radioactive condensates in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.; Plotz, J.

    1976-01-01

    Described is an apparatus for depressurizing, degassing and affording decay of weakly radioactive condensates in nuclear power plants having a turbine and a main condenser turbine wherein exhaust steam of the turbine is condensed and forms a main condensate, and includes a collecting tank for the condensate situated below the condenser. A plurality of horizontal degassing channels, each having a lateral overflow, are disposed in the upper part of the condensate collecting tank and are filled with the main condensate up to the level of the overflow. At least one feedwater preheater which is heated by bleeder steam from the turbine provides a secondary condensate. Below the overflow height of the degassing channels extend horizontal feed pipes for the secondary condensate. The feed pipes are connected to the output of pressure relieving expanding devices and are provided on their underside with discharge openings for the bubbling of the secondary condensate into the main condensate to thereby degass the main condensate. The condensate collecting tank has mutually offset partitions therein providing an adequately long path for the decay of the main and secondary condensates. The condensate which is discharged from the condensate collecting tank is returned into the cycle as feedwater. Also disclosed is a method of operating the foregoing apparatus

  12. Improvements in or relating to methods of and apparatus for coating wire, rod or strip material by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for coating wire, rod or strip material comprising first subjecting the material to electron bombardment in a glow discharge to heat and activate the surface and then subjecting it to sputtering by use of a soft cathode discharge. The apparatus comprises a low pressure gas chamber through which the material is passed, and containing a glow discharge electron gun having a tubular cathode shaped so that the material can be passed axially through it, and an anode surrounding the cathode. The cathode is formed in two parts, the first part at one end, being made of material of low sputtering yield, and the second part being formed at least partially of the required coating material. The first part of the cathode may be of stainless steel or Al. The two parts of the cathode are electrically isolated with means provided for applying a lower negative potential, with respect to the anode, to the second part compared with the first part. The voltage applied to the second part may be controlled so as to control the sputtering rate. The gas pressure in the chamber is also controllable. The coating material may be arranged as inserts in the fixed cathode structure or as segments around the surface to be coated, and may be composed of Pb, Zn or Cu. (U.K.)

  13. Photographic Portraits: Narrative and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Roberts

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a more general "companion" to the subsequent, Brian ROBERTS (2011 "Interpreting Photographic Portraits: Autobiography, Time Perspectives and Two School Photographs". The article seeks to add to the growing awareness of the importance of visual materials and methods in qualitative social research and to give an introduction to the "photographic self image"—self-portraits and portraits. It focuses on time and memory, including the experiential associations (in consciousness and the senses that the self engenders, thus linking the "visual" (photographic and "auto/biographical". The article attempts to "map" a field—the use of portraiture within social science—drawing on narrative and biographical research, on one side, and photographic portraiture, on the other. In supporting the use of photography in qualitative research it points to the need for researchers to have a greater knowledge of photographic (and art criticism and cognisance of photographic practices. The article does not intend to give a definitive account of photographic portraiture or prescribe in detail how it may be used within social science. It is an initial overview of the development and issues within the area of photographic portraiture and an exploration of relevant methodological issues when images of individuals are employed within social science—so that "portraiture" is better understood and developed within biographical and narrative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110263

  14. Method and apparatus for detecting dilute concentrations of radioactive xenon in samples of xenon extracted from the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, William K.; Hennig, Wolfgang G.

    2018-01-02

    A method and apparatus for measuring the concentrations of radioxenon isotopes in a gaseous sample wherein the sample cell is surrounded by N sub-detectors that are sensitive to both electrons and to photons from radioxenon decays. Signal processing electronics are provided that can detect events within the sub-detectors, measure their energies, determine whether they arise from electrons or photons, and detect coincidences between events within the same or different sub-detectors. The energies of detected two or three event coincidences are recorded as points in associated two or three-dimensional histograms. Counts within regions of interest in the histograms are then used to compute estimates of the radioxenon isotope concentrations. The method achieves lower backgrounds and lower minimum detectable concentrations by using smaller detector crystals, eliminating interference between double and triple coincidence decay branches, and segregating double coincidences within the same sub-detector from those occurring between different sub-detectors.

  15. Method of detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements in liquid-metal-cooled reactor and apparatus for effecting same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristarkhov, N.N.; Efimov, I.A.; Zaistev, B.I.; Peters, I.G.; Tymosh, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a method of detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor, consisting in that prior to withdrawing a coolant sample, gas is accumulated in the coolant of the stack being controlled, the reactor being shut down, separated from the sample by means of an inert carrier gas, and the radioactivity of the separated gas is measured. An apparatus for carrying out said method comprises a sampler in the form of a tube parallel to the reactor axis in the hole of a rotating plug and adapted to move along the reactor axis. Made in the top portion of the tube are holes for the introduction of the inert carrier gas and the removal thereof together with the gases evolved from the coolant, while the bottom portion of the tube is provided with a sealing member

  16. Method and apparatus for fabricating a composite structure consisting of a filamentary material in a metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, J.G.; Anderson, R.C.

    1975-10-21

    A method and apparatus are provided for preparing a composite structure consisting of filamentary material within a metal matrix. The method is practiced by the steps of confining the metal for forming the matrix in a first chamber, heating the confined metal to a temperature adequate to effect melting thereof, introducing a stream of inert gas into the chamber for pressurizing the atmosphere in the chamber to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, confining the filamentary material in a second chamber, heating the confined filamentary material to a temperature less than the melting temperature of the metal, evacuating the second chamber to provide an atmosphere therein at a pressure, placing the second chamber in registry with the first chamber to provide for the forced flow of the molten metal into the second chamber to effect infiltration of the filamentary material with the molten metal, and thereafter cooling the metal infiltrated-filamentary material to form said composite structure.

  17. Method and apparatus for fabricating a composite structure consisting of a filamentary material in a metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banker, J.G.; Anderson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for preparing a composite structure consisting of filamentary material within a metal matrix. The method is practiced by the steps of confining the metal for forming the matrix in a first chamber, heating the confined metal to a temperature adequate to effect melting thereof, introducing a stream of inert gas into the chamber for pressurizing the atmosphere in the chamber to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, confining the filamentary material in a second chamber, heating the confined filamentary material to a temperature less than the melting temperature of the metal, evacuating the second chamber to provide an atmosphere therein at a pressure, placing the second chamber in registry with the first chamber to provide for the forced flow of the molten metal into the second chamber to effect infiltration of the filamentary material with the molten metal, and thereafter cooling the metal infiltrated-filamentary material to form said composite structure

  18. Method and apparatus for logging a borehole employing dual radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for logging a characteristic of a borehole in an earth formation employing nuclear count rate data selectively compensated for non-standard borehole conditions, comprising: a sonde, movable in a borehole, having: a radiation source for emitting radiation into earth formations adjacent the wellbore; first detector, spaced longitudinally from the radiation source, for detecting radiation scattered back to the detector and generating a first signal representative of a first count rate value, C/sub SS/; and second detector spaced a different longitudinal distance from the radiation source, for detecting radiation scattered back to the detector and generating a second signal representative of a count rate value, C/sub LS/; memory means for storing a predetermined threshold value, first predetermined relationships between the borehole characteristic and count rate values C/sub LS/, C/sub SS/; and second predetermined relationships between the borehole characteristic and ratios of C/sub LS/ to C/sub SS/; electronic means for producing a signal related in value to the borehole characteristic, which electronic means compares at least one of the first and second count rate value signals with the predetermined threshold value; means for recording the signal generated by the electronic means

  19. Spring retainer apparatus and method for facilitating loading of fuel rods into a fuel assembly grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mario, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    For use with a fuel assembly having at least one grid formed of interleaved straps defining hollow cells for respectively receiving fuel rods, at least some of the straps being disposed in pairs thereof so as to form springs in pairs therof being positioned in back-to-back relationships between adjacent ones of the cells, the springs in each pair thereof being configured to normally assume expanded positions in which they are displaced away from one another to engage fuel rods received in the respective cells and being deflectible to retracted positions in which they are displaced toward one another to allow loading of the fuel rods in the respective cells without engaging the springs, a spring retainer apparatus for facilitating the loading of the fuel rods into the cells of the fuel assembly grid is described comprising: (a) elongated holder bars, each holder bar being alignable with one of the pairs of the straps of the grid which defines the pairs of springs and extendible along, and in spaced relation from, the one strap pair and between and spaced from positions occupied by fuel rods when received in the cells of the grid; and (b) supported by each of the holder bars corresponding to the pairs of springs defined by the pair of straps aligned with the holder bar

  20. Apparatus and method for loading fuel rods into grids of a fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mario, E.E.; Burman, D.L.; Olson, C.A.; Secker, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel assembly having fuel rods and at least one grid formed of interleaved straps and yieldable springs, the interleaved straps defining hollow cells aligned in rows and columns thereof for receiving the respective fuel rods. A pair of the springs are disposed within each of the cells for engaging and supporting one of the fuel rods when received in the cell. An apparatus is described for facilitating the loading of the fuel rods into the grid of the fuel assembly, comprising: (a) first mean insertable concurrently into the cells of the grid for engaging and moving the springs from respective first positions in which each pair of springs will engage a respective fuel rod when disposed within the grid cell to respective second positions in which each pair of springs is disengaged from the respective fuel rod when disposed within the grid cell; (b) a pair of second means, one of the pair of the second means being insertable concurrently into the rows of the cells of the grid and the other of the pair of second means being insertable concurrently into the column of the cells