WorldWideScience

Sample records for method overview practice

  1. Subjective memory impairment in general practice : Short overview and design of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentzek, Michael; Leve, Verena; Leucht, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Public awareness for dementia is rising and patients with concerns about forgetfulness are not uncommon in general practice. For the general practitioner (GP) subjectively perceived memory impairment (SMI) also offers a chance to broach the issue of cognitive function with the patient. This may support GPs' patient-centered care in terms of a broader frailty concept. What is SMI (definition, operationalization, prevalence and burden)? Which conceptions and approaches do GPs have regarding SMI? Narrative overview of recent SMI criteria and results, selective utilization of results from a systematic literature search on GP dementia care, non-systematic search regarding SMI in general practice, deduction of a study design from the overview and development according to international standards. Studies revealed that approximately 60% of GP patients aged >74 reported a declining memory, every sixth person had concerns about this aspect and only relatively few seek medical advice. Concerns about SMI are considered a risk factor for future dementia. Specific general practice conceptions about SMI could not be identified in the literature. Using guidelines for mixed methods research, the design of an exploratory sequential mixed methods study is presented, which should reveal different attitudes of GPs towards SMI. Subjective memory impairment (SMI) is a common feature and troubles a considerable proportion of patients. Neuropsychiatric research is progressing, but for the transfer of the SMI concept into routine practice, involvement of GP research is necessary. A new study aims to make a contribution to this.

  2. Phylogenetic reconstruction methods: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Alexandre; Martin, Darren P; Lefeuvre, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Initially designed to infer evolutionary relationships based on morphological and physiological characters, phylogenetic reconstruction methods have greatly benefited from recent developments in molecular biology and sequencing technologies with a number of powerful methods having been developed specifically to infer phylogenies from macromolecular data. This chapter, while presenting an overview of basic concepts and methods used in phylogenetic reconstruction, is primarily intended as a simplified step-by-step guide to the construction of phylogenetic trees from nucleotide sequences using fairly up-to-date maximum likelihood methods implemented in freely available computer programs. While the analysis of chloroplast sequences from various Vanilla species is used as an illustrative example, the techniques covered here are relevant to the comparative analysis of homologous sequences datasets sampled from any group of organisms.

  3. Scrum in practice: an overview of Scrum adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hron, Michal; Obwegeser, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    Agile software development practices have gained widespread acceptance and application across all industries. Scrum, as one of the most widely used agile methods, has been adopted in countless organizations. However, while there is an understanding that practitioners rarely apply Scrum “by the book......”, only little research addresses the actual adaptations and modifications that are made to fit Scrum to real world requirements: whether it is to solve methodological drawbacks, to fit the method to specific contextual constraints, or to add additional value to the method by augmentation or combination...... with other tools and methods. To get an overview of the proposed adaptations and their implications, this study presents a systematic review of literature reporting on challenges and motivations that lead to modifications of the Scrum method. Based on 31 relevant studies we extract seven distinct motivations...

  4. The Practice of Campus-Based Threat Assessment: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Nolan, Jeffrey J.; Deisinger, Eugene R. D.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of threat assessment and management as implemented on campuses of higher education. Standards of practice and state calls for implementation are cited. An overview of some of the basic principles for threat assessment and management implementation is accompanied by examples of how they are utilized. Pitfalls…

  5. An Overview of Longitudinal Data Analysis Methods for Neurological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Locascio, Joseph J.; Atri, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a concise, broad and readily accessible overview of longitudinal data analysis methods, aimed to be a practical guide for clinical investigators in neurology. In general, we advise that older, traditional methods, including (1) simple regression of the dependent variable on a time measure, (2) analyzing a single summary subject level number that indexes changes for each subject and (3) a general linear model approach with a fixed-subject effect, shoul...

  6. Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.

    2012-01-01

    This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

  7. Renal cystic disease: A practical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Renal cystic disease includes a group of lesions with extremely diverse clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings. The recent development of multiple imaging systems to study renal cystic disease has resulted in considerable interest in correlating the images obtained by different modalities with each other and with the underlying gross pathology. A thorough knowledge of the disturbed morphology and natural history of these diseases will lead to a better understanding of their appearance on radiologic imaging. This refresher course correlates disturbed morphology with appearances on diagnostic imaging, urography, US, angiography, CT, and MR imaging. The advantages and limitations of each imaging method are detailed. A practical classification emphasizing differential features is presented. The presentation is divided into two parts. In the first part typical and atypical cystic masses, including acquired cystic disease (from dialysis), Von Hippel-Lindau disease, and the cystic disease of tuberous sclerosis are discussed. In the second part, polycystic kidney disease (dominant and recessive), medullary cystic disease, medullary sponge kidney, multicycle-dysplastic kidney, renal sinus cysts (peripelvic), and pluricystic kidney disease are discussed

  8. Overview of Performance Based Practical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.13023/KTC.RR.2018.03 State transportation agencies (STAs) have increasingly turned to practical design and performance based practical design(PBPD) to inform project development and implementation and to reduce project cos...

  9. Design Methods in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2010-01-01

    The paper challenges the dominant and widespread view that a good design method will guarantee a systematic approach as well as certain results. First, it explores the substantial differences between on the one hand the conception of methods implied in Pahl & Beitz’s widely recognized text book...... on engineering design, and on the other hand the understanding of method use, which has emerged from micro-sociological studies of practice (ethnomethodology). Second, it reviews a number of case studies conducted by engineering students, who were instructed to investigate the actual use of design methods...... in Danish companies. The paper concludes that design methods in practice deviate substantially from Pahl & Beitz’s description of method use: The object and problems, which are the starting points for method use, are more contested and less given than generally assumed; The steps of methods are often...

  10. Overview of current and alternative slaughter practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troeger K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional cattle slaughtering process includes some critical stages where a dissemination of Specified Risk Material (SRM: brain, spinal cord within or onto the carcass and within the slaughterhouse environment can occur. These processes are captive bolt stunning, removal of the head and first of all carcass splitting (sawing the spine lengthways. Captive bolt (CB stunning results in massive brain tissue damage with bleeding, and in some cases brain tissue also emerges from the CB hole. As the heart is still functioning, there is a risk of brain tissue particles being transferred v i a the blood flow to heart and lungs or even in the whole carcass. This contamination risk is actually assessed to be low, but a continuing leakage of Central Nervous System (CNS material from the captive bolt aperture in the further slaughter process may lead to direct and indirect contamination of carcass, meat and equipment. Therefore alternative stunning methods like electrical stunning or concussion stunning are discussed. A further critical point is the treatment of the head. When the head is removed, the spinal cord is cut with a knife. There is a danger of cross contamination due to spinal protein that may adhere to the knife and because of liquid cerebralis, which leaks from the foramen occipitale magnum. Further head cleaning with hand-held hoses following skinning also includes the danger of cross contamination from cleaning water or aerosol. Therefore measures regarding the safe handling of head and harvesting of head meat are proposed. The most critical point in terms of contamination of the meat surface with SRM is the currently common practise of sawing the spine vertically in the middle with hand-guided belt-type saws. A m i x t u r e of sawing residues and rinsing water (“sawing sludge” collects in the housing of the saw, and if it contains infectious material this leads to contamination of the subsequent carcasses. The most promising

  11. Practical methods of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, R

    2013-01-01

    Fully describes optimization methods that are currently most valuable in solving real-life problems. Since optimization has applications in almost every branch of science and technology, the text emphasizes their practical aspects in conjunction with the heuristics useful in making them perform more reliably and efficiently. To this end, it presents comparative numerical studies to give readers a feel for possibile applications and to illustrate the problems in assessing evidence. Also provides theoretical background which provides insights into how methods are derived. This edition offers rev

  12. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasson, V.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Rajkovic, A.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant

  13. First aid in the dental practice: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevon, P

    2016-06-24

    First aid encompasses a wide range of scenarios ranging from simple reassurance following a minor mishap to dealing with a life-threatening emergency. Dentists may need to provide first aid in their dental practice to a patient, relative or member of staff. This article provides an overview to first aid in the dental practice, including priorities, responsibilities when providing first aid, assessment of the environment and the casualty (primary survey &secondary survey). The new A3 'First Aid in the Workplace' poster is now available and is included as an insert in this issue (BDJ Vol. 220, Issue 12).

  14. An overview of longitudinal data analysis methods for neurological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, Joseph J; Atri, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a concise, broad and readily accessible overview of longitudinal data analysis methods, aimed to be a practical guide for clinical investigators in neurology. In general, we advise that older, traditional methods, including (1) simple regression of the dependent variable on a time measure, (2) analyzing a single summary subject level number that indexes changes for each subject and (3) a general linear model approach with a fixed-subject effect, should be reserved for quick, simple or preliminary analyses. We advocate the general use of mixed-random and fixed-effect regression models for analyses of most longitudinal clinical studies. Under restrictive situations or to provide validation, we recommend: (1) repeated-measure analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), (2) ANCOVA for two time points, (3) generalized estimating equations and (4) latent growth curve/structural equation models.

  15. An Overview of Longitudinal Data Analysis Methods for Neurological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Locascio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a concise, broad and readily accessible overview of longitudinal data analysis methods, aimed to be a practical guide for clinical investigators in neurology. In general, we advise that older, traditional methods, including (1 simple regression of the dependent variable on a time measure, (2 analyzing a single summary subject level number that indexes changes for each subject and (3 a general linear model approach with a fixed-subject effect, should be reserved for quick, simple or preliminary analyses. We advocate the general use of mixed-random and fixed-effect regression models for analyses of most longitudinal clinical studies. Under restrictive situations or to provide validation, we recommend: (1 repeated-measure analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, (2 ANCOVA for two time points, (3 generalized estimating equations and (4 latent growth curve/structural equation models.

  16. Coal waste management practices in the USA:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoginder P. Chugh; Paul T. Behum

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of coal waste management practices with two case studies and an estimate of management cost in 2010 US dollars. Processing of as-mined coal typically results in considerable amount of coarse and fine coal processing wastes because of in-seam and out-of-seam dilution mining. Processing plant clean coal recovery values run typically 50%–80%. Trace metals and sulfur may be present in waste materials that may result in leachate water with corrosive charac-teristics. Water discharges may require special measures such as liner and collection systems, and treatment to neutralize acid drainage and/or water quality for trace elements. The potential for variations in coal waste production and quality depends upon mining or processing, plus the long-term methods of waste placement. The changes in waste generation rates and engineering properties of the coal waste during the life of the facility must be considered. Safe, economical and environmentally acceptable management of coal waste involves consideration of geology, soil and rock mechanics, hydrology, hydraulics, geochemistry, soil science, agronomy and environmental sciences. These support all aspects of the regulatory environment including the design and construction of earth and rock embankments and dams, as well as a wide variety of waste disposal structures. Development of impoundments is critical and require considerations of typical water-impounding dams and additional requirements of coal waste disposal impoundments. The primary purpose of a coal waste disposal facility is to dispose of unusable waste materials from mining. However, at some sites coal waste impoundments serve to provide water storage capacity for processing and flood attenuation.

  17. Overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design analysis method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design method, from its development in the early 1970s to the present, is presented. Material characterization, structural analysis, and pavement life prediction are discussed...

  18. Qualitative research in CKD: an overview of methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Craig, Jonathan C

    2014-09-01

    There recently has been a paradigm shift in health care policies and research toward greater patient centeredness. A core tenet of patient-centered care is that patients' needs, values, and preferences are respected in clinical decision making. Qualitative research methods are designed to generate insights about patients' priorities, values, and beliefs. However, in the past 5 years (2008-2013), only 23 (0.4%) of the 6,043 original articles published in the top 5 nephrology journals (assessed by impact factor) were qualitative studies. Given this observation, it seems important to promote awareness and better understanding within the nephrology community about qualitative research and how the findings can contribute to improving the quality and outcomes of care for patients with chronic kidney disease. This article outlines examples of how qualitative research can generate insight into the values and preferences of patients with chronic kidney disease, provides an overview of qualitative health research methods, and discusses practical applications for research, practice, and policy. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of multifluid-flow-calculation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    Two categories of numerical methods which may be useful in multiphase flow research are discussed. The first category includes methods which are specifically intended for accurate computation of discontinuities, such as the method of characteristics, particle-in-cell method, flux-corrected transport, and random choice methods. Methods in this category could be applied to research on rocket exhaust plumes and interior ballistics. The second category includes methods for smooth, subsonic flows, such as fractional step methods, semi-implicit method, and methods which treat convection implicitly. The subsonic flow methods could be of interest for ice flows

  20. MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING PRACTICES - A ROMANIAN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA

    2011-12-01

    for management in the decision making process but these information are produced using traditional managerial accounting practices, tools and techniques are preferred by Romanian organizations in the detriment of modern practices like activity based-costing or target costing. Implications - The results of our study represents a reference point for both researchers and practitioners who are willing to carry on future research in the field of managerial accounting. Originality/Value - This paper tries to fill a gap in the literature related to the Romanian managerial accounting systems and practices. Moreover, it present an overview of managerial accounting practices within Romanian companies giving the possibility to formulate suggestions and proposals for its future development and evolution.

  1. Overview of nuclear power plant equipment qualification issues and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a view of and commentary on the current status of equipment qualification (EQ) in nuclear industries of the major western nations. The introductory chapters discuss the concepts of EQ, the elements of EQ process and highlight some of the key issues in EQ. A brief review of industry practices and some of the prevalent industrial standards is presented, followed by an overview of current regulatory positions in the USA, France, Germany and Sweden. A summary and commentary on the latest research findings on issues relating to accident simulation, to aging simulation and some special topics related to EQ, has been contributed by Franklin Research Centre of Philadelphia. The last part of the report deals with equipment qualification in Canada and gives recommendations on EQ for new plants as well as currently operational CANDU nuclear power plants

  2. Energy efficiency in Europe. Overview of policies and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebi, Carine; Mairet, Nicolas; Pollier, Karine; Lapillonne, Bruno; Dyevre, Nicolas; Bolinches, Christine

    2014-01-01

    As part of its Presidency of the Club EnR, a network of 24 national energy management agencies in Europe, ADEME drew up a brochure in 2014 on policies and best practices for energy efficiency in the countries of the European Union. An overview of the actions and programmes of 'neighbouring countries' is also given in this brochure. This action is a concrete part of the knowledge-sharing approach that encourages wide dissemination of proven or particularly promising policies. After an introductory chapter on the key figures and general objectives of the EU, the document is structured into 10 consumer industries and supplemented by a chapter on cross-industry measures. The conclusion draws lessons and makes recommendations to improve the results of future actions

  3. An Overview of Short-term Statistical Forecasting Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Russell J.; Montgomery, Douglas C.; Kulahci, Murat

    2006-01-01

    An overview of statistical forecasting methodology is given, focusing on techniques appropriate to short- and medium-term forecasts. Topics include basic definitions and terminology, smoothing methods, ARIMA models, regression methods, dynamic regression models, and transfer functions. Techniques...... for evaluating and monitoring forecast performance are also summarized....

  4. Methods to control for unmeasured confounding in pharmacoepidemiology : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, Md Jamal; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Ali, Mohammed Sanni; de Boer, Anthonius; Roes, Kit C B; Chowdhury, Muhammad A B; Klungel, Olaf H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unmeasured confounding is one of the principal problems in pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Several methods have been proposed to detect or control for unmeasured confounding either at the study design phase or the data analysis phase. Aim of the Review To provide an overview of commonly

  5. Overview of mycotoxin methods, present status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews current requirements for the analysis for mycotoxins in foods and identifies legislative as well as other factors that are driving development and validation of new methods. New regulatory limits for mycotoxins and analytical quality assurance requirements for laboratories to only use validated methods are seen as major factors driving developments. Three major classes of methods are identified which serve different purposes and can be categorized as screening, official and research. In each case the present status and future needs are assessed. In addition to an overview of trends in analytical methods, some other areas of analytical quality assurance such as participation in proficiency testing and reference materials are identified.

  6. Overview of hybrid subspace methods for uncertainty quantification, sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Bang, Youngsuk; Wang, Congjian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We overview the state-of-the-art in uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. ► We overview new developments in above areas using hybrid methods. ► We give a tutorial introduction to above areas and the new developments. ► Hybrid methods address the explosion in dimensionality in nonlinear models. ► Representative numerical experiments are given. -- Abstract: The role of modeling and simulation has been heavily promoted in recent years to improve understanding of complex engineering systems. To realize the benefits of modeling and simulation, concerted efforts in the areas of uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis are required. The manuscript intends to serve as a pedagogical presentation of the material to young researchers and practitioners with little background on the subjects. We believe this is important as the role of these subjects is expected to be integral to the design, safety, and operation of existing as well as next generation reactors. In addition to covering the basics, an overview of the current state-of-the-art will be given with particular emphasis on the challenges pertaining to nuclear reactor modeling. The second objective will focus on presenting our own development of hybrid subspace methods intended to address the explosion in the computational overhead required when handling real-world complex engineering systems.

  7. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasson, Vicky; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel; Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-09-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant bibliography. Perspectives on future development and the potential of the rapid method for routine application in food diagnostics are discussed. As various alternative "rapid" methods in different formats are available on the market, it can be very difficult for a food business operator or for a control authority to select the most appropriate method which fits its purpose. Validation of a method by a third party, according to international accepted protocol based upon ISO 16140, may increase the confidence in the performance of a method. A list of at the moment validated methods for enumeration of both utility indicators (aerobic plate count) and hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coagulase positive Staphylococcus) as well as for detection of the four major pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157 and Campylobacter spp.) is included with reference to relevant websites to check for updates. In a second part of this study, selection criteria are introduced to underpin the choice of the appropriate method(s) for a defined application. The selection criteria link the definition of the context in which the user of the method functions - and thus the prospective use of the microbial test results - with the technical information on the method and its operational requirements and sustainability. The selection criteria can help the end user of the method to obtain a systematic insight into all relevant factors to be taken into account for selection of a method for microbial analysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An overview of modal-based damage identification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Engineering Analysis Group

    1997-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of methods that examine changes in measured vibration response to detect, locate, and characterize damage in structural and mechanical systems. The basic idea behind this technology is that modal parameters (notably frequencies, mode shapes, and modal damping) are functions of the physical properties of the structure (mass, damping, and stiffness). Therefore, changes in the physical properties will cause detectable changes in the modal properties. The motivation for the development of this technology is first provided. The methods are then categorized according to various criteria such as the level of damage detection provided, model-based vs. non-model-based methods and linear vs. nonlinear methods. This overview is limited to methods that can be adapted to a wide range of structures (i.e., are not dependent on a particular assumed model form for the system such as beam-bending behavior and methods and that are not based on updating finite element models). Next, the methods are described in general terms including difficulties associated with their implementation and their fidelity. Past, current and future-planned applications of this technology to actual engineering systems are summarized. The paper concludes with a discussion of critical issues for future research in the area of modal-based damage identification.

  9. Best practice governance principles in the sports industry: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This overview examines the British and Australian models and codes of corporate governance since South African Company Law as well as Australian Company Law have their roots in British Company Law. From the literature seven pillars of good governance emerged and their applicability to sports governing bodies is ...

  10. Modeling good research practices--overview: a report of the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force--1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, J Jaime; Briggs, Andrew H; Siebert, Uwe; Kuntz, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    Models--mathematical frameworks that facilitate estimation of the consequences of health care decisions--have become essential tools for health technology assessment. Evolution of the methods since the first ISPOR Modeling Task Force reported in 2003 has led to a new Task Force, jointly convened with the Society for Medical Decision Making, and this series of seven articles presents the updated recommendations for best practices in conceptualizing models; implementing state-transition approaches, discrete event simulations, or dynamic transmission models; and dealing with uncertainty and validating and reporting models transparently. This overview article introduces the work of the Task Force, provides all the recommendations, and discusses some quandaries that require further elucidation. The audience for these articles includes those who build models, stakeholders who utilize their results, and, indeed, anyone concerned with the use of models to support decision making. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling good research practices--overview: a report of the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, J Jaime; Briggs, Andrew H; Siebert, Uwe; Kuntz, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    Models-mathematical frameworks that facilitate estimation of the consequences of health care decisions-have become essential tools for health technology assessment. Evolution of the methods since the first ISPOR modeling task force reported in 2003 has led to a new task force, jointly convened with the Society for Medical Decision Making, and this series of seven papers presents the updated recommendations for best practices in conceptualizing models; implementing state-transition approaches, discrete event simulations, or dynamic transmission models; dealing with uncertainty; and validating and reporting models transparently. This overview introduces the work of the task force, provides all the recommendations, and discusses some quandaries that require further elucidation. The audience for these papers includes those who build models, stakeholders who utilize their results, and, indeed, anyone concerned with the use of models to support decision making.

  12. An overview of age estimation in forensic anthropology: perspectives and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Grant, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Information on methods of age estimation in physical anthropology, in particular with regard to age-at-death from human skeletal remains, is widely available in the literature. However, the practicalities and real challenges faced in forensic casework are not always highlighted. To provide a practitioner's perspective, regarding age estimation in forensic anthropology (both in the living as well as the dead), with an emphasis on the types of cases, the value of such work and its challenges and limitations. The paper reviews the current literature on age estimation with a focus on forensic anthropology, but it also brings the author's personal perspective derived from a number of forensic cases. Although much is known about what methods to use, but not always how to apply them, little attention has been given in the literature to the real practicalities faced by forensic anthropologists, for example: the challenges in different types of scenarios; how to report age estimations; responsibilities; and ethical concerns. This paper gathers some of these aspects into one overview which includes the value of such work and the practical challenges, not necessarily with the methods themselves, but also with regard to how these are applied in the different cases where age estimation is required.

  13. Methods to control for unmeasured confounding in pharmacoepidemiology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jamal; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Ali, Mohammed Sanni; de Boer, Anthonius; Roes, Kit C B; Chowdhury, Muhammad A B; Klungel, Olaf H

    2016-06-01

    Background Unmeasured confounding is one of the principal problems in pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Several methods have been proposed to detect or control for unmeasured confounding either at the study design phase or the data analysis phase. Aim of the Review To provide an overview of commonly used methods to detect or control for unmeasured confounding and to provide recommendations for proper application in pharmacoepidemiology. Methods/Results Methods to control for unmeasured confounding in the design phase of a study are case only designs (e.g., case-crossover, case-time control, self-controlled case series) and the prior event rate ratio adjustment method. Methods that can be applied in the data analysis phase include, negative control method, perturbation variable method, instrumental variable methods, sensitivity analysis, and ecological analysis. A separate group of methods are those in which additional information on confounders is collected from a substudy. The latter group includes external adjustment, propensity score calibration, two-stage sampling, and multiple imputation. Conclusion As the performance and application of the methods to handle unmeasured confounding may differ across studies and across databases, we stress the importance of using both statistical evidence and substantial clinical knowledge for interpretation of the study results.

  14. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  15. Test equating methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers in the psychology and statistical communities have paid increasing attention to test equating as issues of using multiple test forms have arisen and in response to criticisms of traditional testing techniques This book provides a practically oriented introduction to test equating which both discusses the most frequently used equating methodologies and covers many of the practical issues involved The main themes are - the purpose of equating - distinguishing between equating and related methodologies - the importance of test equating to test development and quality control - the differences between equating properties, equating designs, and equating methods - equating error, and the underlying statistical assumptions for equating The authors are acknowledged experts in the field, and the book is based on numerous courses and seminars they have presented As a result, educators, psychometricians, professionals in measurement, statisticians, and students coming to the subject for...

  16. Rapid assessment methods in eye care: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information is required for the planning and management of eye care services. While classical research methods provide reliable estimates, they are prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Rapid assessment (RA methods are indispensable tools in situations where data are needed quickly and where time- or cost-related factors prohibit the use of classical epidemiological surveys. These methods have been developed and field tested, and can be applied across almost the entire gamut of health care. The 1990s witnessed the emergence of RA methods in eye care for cataract, onchocerciasis, and trachoma and, more recently, the main causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. The important features of RA methods include the use of local resources, simplified sampling methodology, and a simple examination protocol/data collection method that can be performed by locally available personnel. The analysis is quick and easy to interpret. The entire process is inexpensive, so the survey may be repeated once every 5-10 years to assess the changing trends in disease burden. RA survey methods are typically linked with an intervention. This article provides an overview of the RA methods commonly used in eye care, and emphasizes the selection of appropriate methods based on the local need and context.

  17. A historical overview of traditional medicine practices and policy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although traditional medicine plays an important role in Ethiopian society, knowledge about the extent and characteristics of traditional healing practices and practitioners is limited and has frequently been ignored in the national health system. Objective: To review history of practices and policies on traditional ...

  18. Medical Informatics in Clinical Practice: An Overview. | Okoromah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Providing a high-quality service to patients involves having the right information at the ... Knowledge and practice and application of computer technology in both ... informatics and to stimulate interest in computer support in health care in our ...

  19. Weed management practices in natural ecosystems: a critical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Reinhardt

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing public pressure against the use of pesticides and other agricultural inputs has placed increased emphasis on the development of ecologically based pest management. One distinct reaction of the Weed Science discipline has been the swing away from herbicide research to increased research on the basic biology and ecology of weeds in hopes of reduced reliance on "technological crutches" such as herbicides and other practices that are potentially harmful to the environment. Biological control is the long-standing alternative to the use of herbicides and interest in the former practice has been boosted by the realization that the use of herbicides may lead to the development of herbicide resistance in weed populations, and that herbicide residues occur in surface and groundwater. Supporters of herbicide use would point out that biological control is generally not effective in crop production systems, and is basically slow-acting. Debates between protagonists for the exclusive use of one or the other weed management practice tend to obscure the benefits that integration of different techniques are likely to have. For natural ecosystems it is proposed that integration of the more subtle practice of biological control with the use of herbicides, which relatively quickly overwhelm a biological system with mortality, is likely to be the most effective weed management tool. Different weed management practices that could be considered in natural ecosystems are discussed in terms of three key performance rating criteria, viz. activity, selec- tivity and persistence In this concise review, general discussion is focussed on the fundamentals of weed management practices, with the view to promote concept-based approaches that are critical for the development of effective weed management strate- gies.

  20. An Overview of Bayesian Methods for Neural Spike Train Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural spike train analysis is an important task in computational neuroscience which aims to understand neural mechanisms and gain insights into neural circuits. With the advancement of multielectrode recording and imaging technologies, it has become increasingly demanding to develop statistical tools for analyzing large neuronal ensemble spike activity. Here we present a tutorial overview of Bayesian methods and their representative applications in neural spike train analysis, at both single neuron and population levels. On the theoretical side, we focus on various approximate Bayesian inference techniques as applied to latent state and parameter estimation. On the application side, the topics include spike sorting, tuning curve estimation, neural encoding and decoding, deconvolution of spike trains from calcium imaging signals, and inference of neuronal functional connectivity and synchrony. Some research challenges and opportunities for neural spike train analysis are discussed.

  1. Overview of dosimetry methods used in medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninsiima, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    Medical exposure is the highest means of contribution of ionizing radiation to humans. The different modalities in medical exposure present a high risk to the human body as a result of the dose associated with them. However, with the knowledge of the available dosimetry techniques, medical exposure can be highly beneficial to the patients involved. This project provides an overview of the available dosimetry methods in all the medical exposure modalities and the dosimetric quantities required in order to estimate the dose received by the patients in a bid to keep it as low as reasonably achievable yet with the required diagnostic image quality and treatment being availed. With the knowledge about the dosimetric techniques, required qualification and appropriate training of the workers in the medical field together with the principles of justification and optimization of the procedures, both the medical practitioners and the patients are able to achieve the required goal, diagnosis and treatment at the end of the day. (au)

  2. Silent method for mathematics instruction: An overview of teaching subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiman, Apino, Ezi

    2017-05-01

    Generally, teachers use oral communication for teaching mathematics. Taking an opposite perspective, this paper describes how instructional practices for mathematics can be carried out namely a silent method. Silent method uses body language, written, and oral communication for classroom interaction. This research uses a design research approach consisting of four phases: preliminary, prototyping and developing the instruction, and assessment. There are four stages of silent method. The first stage is conditioning stage in which the teacher introduces the method and makes agreement about the `rule of the game'. It is followed by the second one, elaborating stage, where students guess and explore alternative answers. The third stage is developing mathematical thinking by structuring and symbolizing. Finally, the method is ended by reinforcing stage which aims at strengthening and reflecting student's understanding. In this paper, every stage is described on the basis of practical experiences in a real mathematics classroom setting.

  3. Overview of the Global Trend in Private Medical Practice | Afolabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More over, many governments face various constraints that force them to prioritize and restrict government spending. This make it impossible for any government to provide free health care for her ever increasing population. Private medical practice is an alternative to complement government efforts in providing health care ...

  4. MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING PRACTICES - A ROMANIAN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA; PETE STEFAN

    2011-01-01

    Research theme - Globalization and technological changes generates complexity both in the business environment and the accounting systems. Under these conditions managerial accounting needs to learn new practices in order to become an active consultant of management. Objectives - The main objective of this paper is to present how managerial accounting changed over the years in Romania. We intend to present how the managerial accounting system is implemented within Romanian organizations, to r...

  5. Best practices in business process redesign: an overview and qualitative evaluation of successful redesign heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, H.A.; Limam Mansar, S.

    2005-01-01

    To implement business process redesign several best practices can be distinguished. This paper gives an overview of heuristic rules that can support practitioners to develop a business process design that is a radical improvement of a current design. The emphasis is on the mechanics of the process,

  6. Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced…

  7. An Overview of Corporate Governance Practices of Selected Islamic Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Belal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Complying with Corporate Governance (CG standards is not mandatory but with collapse of many financial institutions, compliance with high standards of CG in banking operation has become a necessity. This is due to the fact that many banks and companies worldwide collapsed as a result of poor corporate governance practices such as Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI 1991, Barings Bank 1995, Lehman Brothers 2008, Enron 2001, WorldCom 2001, etc. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to examine and ascertain whether present level of CG standards practiced by Islamic banks is adequate to prevent or safeguard the banks from collapsing. The approach of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of board and the various board committees utilizing data published in financial statement of the selected banks. The methodology used in this paper is analytical descriptive to reach accurate results and as more appropriate approach with this research. The study finds out that the selected banks comply with CG standards adopted; however such compliance does not mean that the board, the board committees will be constantly reliable. Therefore, instilling the Islamic values such as the concepts of ih}sân, honesty, and accountability is paramount to prevent CG failures and protect/safeguard the banks from collapsing.

  8. A practical guide to cardiovascular 3D printing in clinical practice: Overview and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudayyeh, Islam; Gordon, Brent; Ansari, Mohammad M; Jutzy, Kenneth; Stoletniy, Liset; Hilliard, Anthony

    2018-06-01

    The advent of more advanced 3D image processing, reconstruction, and a variety of three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies using different materials has made rapid and fairly affordable anatomically accurate models much more achievable. These models show great promise in facilitating procedural and surgical planning for complex congenital and structural heart disease. Refinements in 3D printing technology lend itself to advanced applications in the fields of bio-printing, hemodynamic modeling, and implantable devices. As a novel technology with a large variability in software, processing tools and printing techniques, there is not a standardized method by which a clinician can go from an imaging data-set to a complete model. Furthermore, anatomy of interest and how the model is used can determine the most appropriate technology. In this over-view we discuss, from the standpoint of a clinical professional, image acquisition, processing, and segmentation by which a printable file is created. We then review the various printing technologies, advantages and disadvantages when printing the completed model file, and describe clinical scenarios where 3D printing can be utilized to address therapeutic challenges. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Overview of Treatment and Conditioning Practices in Goesgen NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebi, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste of the Goesgen Nuclear Power Plant is collected and stored in an appropriate form for external conditioning or for direct in-house conditioning procedures. Different waste treatment and conditioning technologies have been used since plant start up in 1979. The main conditioning technology used in-house is bituminization. Reactor internal components, contaminated filter elements of cooling circuits or radioactive sludge from the liquid waste tanks have been treated by dedicated equipment and methods. These methods are under water cutting and manipulation of core components, remote dismantling and compressing of filter elements into cartridges or filtration of sludge with a one-chamber filtration system. (authors)

  10. Headache research and medical practice in Brazil: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, Marcelo Moraes; da Silva, Amanda Araújo; Bordini, Carlos Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Since the creation of the Brazilian Headache Society in 1978, substantial developments have taken place in both research and clinical practice in the field of headache medicine in Brazil. The Society now has almost 300 members throughout the country, actively working to improve the health of the general population and, in particular, diagnose and treat headache disorders. In addition, in a few large cities, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Curitiba, and Porto Alegre, headache specialists have come together to promote research projects and increase knowledge in the field through MSc, PhD, and postdoctoral programs. Furthermore, scientific journals have emerged and books have been published to record and disseminate Brazilian scientific production in headache medicine. In this narrative review, we will briefly describe some important aspects of headache medicine in Brazil from prehistoric times to the present day, discuss the origin of headache medicine as a specialty in Brazil, the principal publications dealing with headache disorders, the use of plants and other unconventional forms of treatment used by faith healers, the main training centers, and the research produced to date by Brazilians. In conclusion, in recent years enormous progress has been made in headache medicine in Brazil stimulating us to review and expand our role in an increasingly international scenario. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  11. Overview of robotic colorectal surgery: Current and future practical developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipta; Evans, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Minimal access surgery has revolutionised colorectal surgery by offering reduced morbidity and mortality over open surgery, while maintaining oncological and functional outcomes with the disadvantage of additional practical challenges. Robotic surgery aids the surgeon in overcoming these challenges. Uptake of robotic assistance has been relatively slow, mainly because of the high initial and ongoing costs of equipment but also because of limited evidence of improved patient outcomes. Advances in robotic colorectal surgery will aim to widen the scope of minimal access surgery to allow larger and more complex surgery through smaller access and natural orifices and also to make the technology more economical, allowing wider dispersal and uptake of robotic technology. Advances in robotic endoscopy will yield self-advancing endoscopes and a widening role for capsule endoscopy including the development of motile and steerable capsules able to deliver localised drug therapy and insufflation as well as being recharged from an extracorporeal power source to allow great longevity. Ultimately robotic technology may advance to the point where many conventional surgical interventions are no longer required. With respect to nanotechnology, surgery may eventually become obsolete. PMID:26981188

  12. An overview of clinical governance policies, practices and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Travaglia, Joanne F

    2008-02-01

    To map the emergence of, and define, clinical governance; to discuss current best practices, and to explore the implications of these for boards of directors and executives wishing to promote a clinical governance approach in their health services. Review and analysis of the published and grey literature on clinical governance from 1966 to 2006. Medline and CINAHL databases, key journals and websites were systematically searched. Central issues were identified in the literature as key to effective clinical governance. These include: ensuring that links are made between health services' clinical and corporate governance; the use of clinical governance to promote quality and safety through a focus on quality assurance and continuous improvement; the creation of clinical governance structures to improve safety and quality and manage risk and performance; the development of strategies to ensure the effective exchange of data, knowledge and expertise; and the sponsoring of a patient-centred approach to service delivery. A comprehensive approach to clinical governance necessarily includes the active participation of boards and executives in sponsoring and promoting clinical governance as a quality and safety strategy. Although this is still a relatively recent development, the signs are promising.

  13. Recently developed methods in neutral-particle transport calculations: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcouffe, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that successful, general methods for the solution of the neutral particle transport equation involve a close connection between the spatial-discretization method used and the source-acceleration method chosen. The first form of the transport equation, angular discretization which is discrete ordinates is considered as well as spatial discretization based upon a mesh arrangement. Characteristic methods are considered briefly in the context of future, desirable developments. The ideal spatial-discretization method is described as having the following attributes: (1) positive-positive boundary data yields a positive angular flux within the mesh including its boundaries; (2) satisfies the particle balance equation over the mesh, that is, the method is conservative; (3) possesses the diffusion limit independent of spatial mesh size, that is, for a linearly isotropic flux assumption, the transport differencing reduces to a suitable diffusion equation differencing; (4) the method is unconditionally acceleratable, i.e., for each mesh size, the method is unconditionally convergent with a source iteration acceleration. It is doubtful that a single method possesses all these attributes for a general problem. Some commonly used methods are outlined and their computational performance and usefulness are compared; recommendations for future development are detailed, which include practical computational considerations

  14. Overview of the principles and practice of biodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Flood, Ann Barry

    2014-01-01

    The principle of biodosimetry is to utilize changes induced in the individual by ionizing radiation to estimate the dose and, if possible, to predict or reflect the clinically relevant response, i.e., the biological consequences of the dose. Ideally, the changes should be specific for ionizing radiation, and the response should be unaffected by prior medical or physiological variations among subjects, including changes that might be caused by the stress and trauma from a radiation event. There are two basic types of biodosimetry with different and often complementary characteristics: those based on changes in biological parameters such as gene activation or chromosomal abnormalities and those based on physical changes in tissues (detected by techniques such as EPR). In this paper, we consider the applicability of the various techniques for different scenarios: small- and large-scale exposures to levels of radiation that could lead to the acute radiation syndrome and exposures with lower doses that do not need immediate care, but should be followed for evidence of long-term consequences. The development of biodosimetry has been especially stimulated by the needs after a large-scale event where it is essential to have a means to identify those individuals who would benefit from being brought into the medical care system. Analyses of the conventional methods officially recommended for responding to such events indicate that these methods are unlikely to achieve the results needed for timely triage of thousands of victims. Emerging biodosimetric methods can fill this critically important gap. (orig.)

  15. Overview of the principles and practice of biodosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Flood, Ann Barry [Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, EPR Center for the Study of Viable Systems, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The principle of biodosimetry is to utilize changes induced in the individual by ionizing radiation to estimate the dose and, if possible, to predict or reflect the clinically relevant response, i.e., the biological consequences of the dose. Ideally, the changes should be specific for ionizing radiation, and the response should be unaffected by prior medical or physiological variations among subjects, including changes that might be caused by the stress and trauma from a radiation event. There are two basic types of biodosimetry with different and often complementary characteristics: those based on changes in biological parameters such as gene activation or chromosomal abnormalities and those based on physical changes in tissues (detected by techniques such as EPR). In this paper, we consider the applicability of the various techniques for different scenarios: small- and large-scale exposures to levels of radiation that could lead to the acute radiation syndrome and exposures with lower doses that do not need immediate care, but should be followed for evidence of long-term consequences. The development of biodosimetry has been especially stimulated by the needs after a large-scale event where it is essential to have a means to identify those individuals who would benefit from being brought into the medical care system. Analyses of the conventional methods officially recommended for responding to such events indicate that these methods are unlikely to achieve the results needed for timely triage of thousands of victims. Emerging biodosimetric methods can fill this critically important gap. (orig.)

  16. Overview of INAA method and its application in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavar, A.R.; Sarmani, S.B.; Khalafi, H.; Abdul Khalik Wood; Khoo, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Present work shows the development of nuclear technology in Malaysia and highlights its applications that have been developed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method. In addition, present study exhibits a comprehensive review of INAA for calculation of neutron flux parameters and concentration of elements. The INAA is a powerful method to analyse the sample which identifies qualitative and quantitative of elements present in a sample. The INAA is a working instrument with advantages of experimental simplicity, high accuracy, excellent flexibility with respect to irradiation and counting conditions, and suitability for computerization. In INAA, sample is irradiated and measured directly. In practical, INAA is based on an absolute, relative and single-comparator standardisation method.The INAA has been developed since 1982 when the TRIGA Mark II reactor of Malaysia has commissioned. The absolute method was less utilised, the relative method has been used since 1982, and the k 0 -INAA method is derived from single-comparator standardization method has been developed since 1996 in Malaysian. The relative method, because of its advantages, such as high accuracy, easy for using, has the most application in Malaysia. Currently, local Universities and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor use INAA method in Malaysia. (Author)

  17. Overview of INAA Method and Its Application in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavar, A.R.; Sarmani, S.B.; Khalafi, H.; Wood, A.K.; Khoo, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Present work shows the development of nuclear technology in Malaysia and highlights its applications that have been developed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method. In addition, present study exhibits a comprehensive review of INAA for calculation of neutron flux parameters and concentration of elements. The INAA is a powerful method to analyse the sample which identifies qualitative and quantitative of elements present in a sample. The INAA is a working instrument with advantages of experimental simplicity, high accuracy, excellent flexibility with respect to irradiation and counting conditions, and suitability for computerization. In INAA, sample is irradiated and measured directly. In practical, INAA is based on an absolute, relative and single-comparator standardisation method. The INAA has been developed since 1982 when the TRIGA MARK II reactor of Malaysia has commissioned. The absolute method was less utilised, the relative method has been used since 1982, and the k_0-INAA method is derived from single-comparator standardization method has been developed since 1996 in Malaysia. The relative method, because of its advantages, such as high accuracy, easy for using, has the most application in Malaysia. Currently, local Universities and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor use INAA method in Malaysia. (author)

  18. Overview and comparison of international practices on funding mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchapga, Flavien

    2006-01-01

    . Therefore the challenge faced by Funding Mechanisms will be to provide when needed the degree of availability necessary for their effectiveness. But this can be expected only if the risk taken in the investment of funds are properly identified and appropriate measures to cope with identified risks taken. This paper sheds some lights on Funding Mechanisms in OECD countries. First of all, it reviews and evidences the variety of the institutional frameworks of Funding Mechanisms. Despite existing differences, these mechanisms are set up with common objectives which are, 1) the management/control of the funds and, 2) the bearing of one of the back-end liabilities of nuclear power industry. Therefore, the paper addresses the existing relationship between these two objectives. The deregulation of the electricity market has created a new situation where electric utilities including NPP owners have entered a volatile era. This raises a new question concerning the robustness of Funding Mechanisms. That question is: What degree of availability of funds accumulated could be expected from those mechanisms under these new volatile business conditions? In this respect, the paper assesses the merits of current Funding Mechanisms. The paper proceeds as follow: 1) A survey of practices in different countries. The design of Funding Mechanisms is considered and their variety is evidenced; 2) Respective merits of Funding mechanisms regarding the availability of funds in a deregulated electricity context. In this respect, the strength and weakness of current Funding Mechanisms are assessed regarding the protection of funds against financial insecurity. Evaluative criteria related to the design of funds on the one hand and to the deregulated electricity context on the other are considered

  19. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A basic premise of seismic design practice is that structures and equipment designed for large, infrequent, design level earthquake motions will safely withstand the more frequent, smaller motions they may experience during their functional life. Moreover, based on experience data, there appears to be wide agreement among earthquake engineers that small-magnitude earthquakes (smaller than about M5.0) pose a negliable threat of damage to structures and equipment that have good seismic design and engineering. However, analytical approaches for engineering characterization of this lower-bound earthquake have not been developed. Largely this is because there has not, up to now, been a perceived need to do so. Moreover, because small earthquakes historically have not caused damage to well-engineered components, field investigations to determine their effects generally are not conducted. As a result, a robust earthquake experience data base, marking the earthquake magnitude corresponding to the onset of damage, has not been developed. The need to establish a lower-bound magnitude has now arisen in the context of probabilistic seismic hazard and risk assessments, where a limit on magnitude must be defined below which the contribution from smaller quakes is not considered. This workshop addresses the engineering characterization of small-magnitude earthquakes with a focus on developing technical bases for determining the lower-bound magnitude for probabilistic seismic hazard and risk computations at nuclear power generating plant sites, principally those located in the eastern U.S.. These facilities typically are designed for broad-band ground motion spectra which have spectral amplifications representative of large-magnitude earthquakes, and to conservative seismic design criteria

  20. Overview on methods for formulating explicit damping matrices for non-classically damped structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.

    1998-04-01

    In computing the dynamic response of a connected system with multiple components having dissimilar damping characteristics, which is often referred to as nonclassically damped system such as nuclear power plant piping systems supported by stiff structures, one needs to define the system-level damping based upon the damping information of components. This is frequently done in practice using approximate methods expressed as composite modal damping with weighting functions. However, when the difference in damping among components is substantial, the composite modal damping may become inappropriate in the characterization of the damping behavior of such systems. In recent years, several new methods have emerged with the expectation that they could produce more exact system-level damping for a group of nonclassically damped structures which are comprised of components that possess classical modal damping. In this paper, an overview is presented to examine these methods in the light of their theoretical basis, the technical merits, and practical applications. To this end, a synthesis method is described, which was shown to reduce to the other methods in the literature

  1. Design methods as discourse on practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a view of design methods as discourse on practice. We consider how the deployment of a particular set of design methods enables and constrains not only practical action but also discursive action within the design practice. A case study of agile software development meth...... of practices. We then discuss implications of this view on methods for CSCW research on the relationship between methods and practice as well as implications for participation in the design process.......In this paper, we present a view of design methods as discourse on practice. We consider how the deployment of a particular set of design methods enables and constrains not only practical action but also discursive action within the design practice. A case study of agile software development...... methods illustrates the ways that methods establish conditions for who can speak in the design process and how. We indentify three main kinds of discourse work performed in the invoking of design methods. These are the establishing of ontologies, the authorizing of voices, and the legitimizing...

  2. Extrapolation methods theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C

    1991-01-01

    This volume is a self-contained, exhaustive exposition of the extrapolation methods theory, and of the various algorithms and procedures for accelerating the convergence of scalar and vector sequences. Many subroutines (written in FORTRAN 77) with instructions for their use are provided on a floppy disk in order to demonstrate to those working with sequences the advantages of the use of extrapolation methods. Many numerical examples showing the effectiveness of the procedures and a consequent chapter on applications are also provided - including some never before published results and applicat

  3. Spirituality in Nursing: An Overview of Research Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Martins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality has been widely considered important for patients’ health and for healthcare practice and is related to connectedness, meaning in life, and transcendence. Research concerning spirituality is growing rapidly, and the implementation of spiritual care should be based on evidence. This literature review aims to describe the methods that have been used in nursing research focusing on spirituality. The electronic search on databases through EBSCOhost identified 2091 citations, and a total of 231 studies were included. The methods used in research on spirituality in nursing are mostly quantitative (52.4%, but some are qualitative (42.8% and mixed (4.8%. Regarding the quantitative research, most studies are observational (90.9%, and these are mainly descriptive (82.7% and correlational (17.3%. Most studies used a cross-sectional design (98.7%, and few used longitudinal design (1.3%. The qualitative research is descriptive (39.4%, phenomenological (26.3%, and grounded theory (14.1%. Research on spirituality in nursing is based on both main paradigms (quantitative and qualitative, but also on mixed methods. Studies have mainly been conducted using cross-sectional designs when compared to longitudinal designs. The latter seem to constitute a gap in nursing knowledge and evidence regarding the changes of spirituality over time, which is particularly important for nurses’ delivery of spiritual care.

  4. Alignment methods: strategies, challenges, benchmarking, and comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löytynoja, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Comparative evolutionary analyses of molecular sequences are solely based on the identities and differences detected between homologous characters. Errors in this homology statement, that is errors in the alignment of the sequences, are likely to lead to errors in the downstream analyses. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic inference are tightly connected and many popular alignment programs use the phylogeny to divide the alignment problem into smaller tasks. They then neglect the phylogenetic tree, however, and produce alignments that are not evolutionarily meaningful. The use of phylogeny-aware methods reduces the error but the resulting alignments, with evolutionarily correct representation of homology, can challenge the existing practices and methods for viewing and visualising the sequences. The inter-dependency of alignment and phylogeny can be resolved by joint estimation of the two; methods based on statistical models allow for inferring the alignment parameters from the data and correctly take into account the uncertainty of the solution but remain computationally challenging. Widely used alignment methods are based on heuristic algorithms and unlikely to find globally optimal solutions. The whole concept of one correct alignment for the sequences is questionable, however, as there typically exist vast numbers of alternative, roughly equally good alignments that should also be considered. This uncertainty is hidden by many popular alignment programs and is rarely correctly taken into account in the downstream analyses. The quest for finding and improving the alignment solution is complicated by the lack of suitable measures of alignment goodness. The difficulty of comparing alternative solutions also affects benchmarks of alignment methods and the results strongly depend on the measure used. As the effects of alignment error cannot be predicted, comparing the alignments' performance in downstream analyses is recommended.

  5. Formal Methods: Practice and Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodcock, Jim; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Bicarregui, Juan

    2009-01-01

    . Based on this, we discuss the issues surrounding the industrial adoption of formal methods. Finally, we look to the future and describe the development of a Verified Software Repository, part of the worldwide Verified Software Initiative. We introduce the initial projects being used to populate...... the repository, and describe the challenges they address. © 2009 ACM. (146 refs.)...

  6. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzanowski, A.

    2002-01-01

    . The value of the baryonic chemical potential consistently decreases down to the value of μ B = 29 MeV at the collision energy √s NN = 200 GeV for the Au + Au system. The time scale of the thermal multifragmentation of 197 Au nuclei induced by a fast proton of the energy of 8.1 GeV was established. It was proved that it is a fast process, with characteristic decay time τ of the order of 10 -22 s. The first observation of the Jacobi shape transition accompanying the fast rotation of the 46 Ti nucleus was made. For the first time, non-hem iron was found in the low - spin state of Fe 2+ which indicates that NHFe initiates the cyclic transport of electrons in photosystem II. The result was published in Applied Organometallic Chemistry. The medium T-matrix theory was developed for superfluid nuclear matter. This new theoretical achievement was published in Phys. Rev. C. Using the ''ab initio'' method for structure calculation of the FeBO 3 compound, a special phase transition with spatial group symmetry unchanged, was found for the metal - isolator and magnetic - nonmagnetic cases. The advantage of the ''ab initio'' method is that the phase transition can be studied in the region of pressure values often difficult to access experimentally. A high level of the concentration of Pu and Am was found in sculls of prehistoric fossil animals. Legal accreditation for measuring individual radiation doses was granted to our second laboratory. Together with the laboratory for scaling and legalizing portable dosimeters, it should resume public services in 2003, hopefully providing some additional income for the Institute. Two doctors obtained their habilitation degrees, and three Associate Professors became full Professors. A group of laboratories from different departments formed a Centre of Excellence in the field of the Quality of Life, which was approved by the European Union. This may help us to obtain additional money for research as well. The Henryk Niewodniczanski prize was

  7. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzanowski, A.

    2002-01-01

    . The experiments will continue the search for new particles (Higgs, super-particles) and the so-called New Physics phenomena (supersymmetry, quark-gluon plasma, CP violation) in the TeV energy range. The theoretical research was devoted to precision tests of the Standard Model, as well as to the search for a more complete theory of fundamental particles in close relation to the current and future high-energy experiments. In the field of nuclear structure, an outstanding result was the identification of the 10 + state in 206 Hg and the measurement of its decay probability. This allowed the determination of the core charge polarization value of e P = 0.60e. As a consequence, a rule was confirmed that the electrical quadrupole moment induced in the core has the proportionality factor of 0.6 for protons and 0.9 for neutrons. An interesting result was the proof that the constituent quark approach is broader than hadron level local effective theory permits. This was shown by studying the theory of weak radiative hyperon decays. B into π + ; π - and KK - pairs. In the physics of condensed matter, using the PAC method it was shown experimentally for the first time, that the test radioactive atoms 111 In/ 111 Cd can jump between two sublattices of the intermetallic alloys of Hf Al 2 . In cooperation with the Silesian University we investigated the magnetic properties of hemin, a blood cell component. It was found that the external magnetic field of about 5T increases the content of low-spin iron complex in the blood. Applying from calculations the first principles to the example of the FeBO 3 crystal it was shown that magnetic interaction could have a huge influence on phonon frequencies, contrary to the generally accepted opinion that magnetic interaction is too weak to influence phonons. In collaboration with KAERI (Korea), a new type of thermoluminescent detectors resistive to high temperatures was found which allows annealing at large exposure. The 48 MeV proton beam was

  8. Scenario development methods and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is an essential aspect of all nuclear power programmes. Although a general consensus has been reached in OECD countries on the use of geological repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, analysis of the long-term safety of these repositories, using performance assessment and other tools, is required prior to implementation. The initial stage in developing a repository safety assessment is the identification of all factors that may be relevant to the long-term safety of the repository and their combination to form scenarios. This must be done in a systematic and transparent way in order to assure the regulatory authorities that nothing important has been forgotten. Scenario development has become the general term used to describe the collection and organisation of the scientific and technical information necessary to assess the long-term performance or safety of radioactive waste disposal systems. This includes the identification of the relevant features, events and processes (FEPs), the synthesis of broad models of scientific understanding, and the selection of cases to be calculated. Scenario development provides the overall framework in which the cases and their calculated consequences can be discussed, including biases or shortcomings due to omissions or lack of knowledge. The NEA Workshop on Scenario Development was organised in Madrid, in May 1999, with the objective of reviewing developments in scenario methodologies and applications in safety assessments since 1992. The outcome of this workshop is the subject of this book. It is a review of developments in scenario methodologies based on a large body of practical experience in safety assessments. It will be of interest to radioactive waste management experts as well as to other specialists involved in the development of scenario methodologies. (author)

  9. Good practices in Local Government - A first overview of Portuguese reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhosa, P.; Portela, F.; Machado, J.; Santos, M. F.; Abelha, A.

    2017-03-01

    Good practices in eGov are being increasingly used by Local Governments being that it is considered by them as an advantage. The main goal is providing to the town hall a differentiation point and approximate their services to the citizens. For this, it is necessary to define and apply innovative strategies in order to increase the use of services by the citizens. This paper is framed in a research work and it presents a first overview of the existing good practices in eGov, taking in consideration the Portuguese’s reality. The good practices identified were distinguished with many awards and with a positive response from the target audience. The use of digital marketing strategies aims to increase their membership and coming closer the municipalities of its citizens through the dissemination of the good practices. At this moment the data collected are almost exclusively of good practice in Portugal, however some international practices were also identified. As a result of this study the community has a list of good practices that can be applied in their municipalities.

  10. Practical evaluation of robots for elderly in Denmark — an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Bak, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Robots for elderly have drawn a great deal of attention as it is a controversial topic being pushed forward by the fact that there will be a dramatic increase of elderly in most western countries. Within the field of HRI, much research has been conducted on robots interacting with elderly and also...... a number of commercial products have been introduced to the market. Since 2006, a number of projects have been launched in Denmark in order to evaluate robot technology in practice in elder care. This paper gives an brief overview of a selected number of projects and outlines the characteristics...... and results. Finally it is discussed how HRI can benefit from these....

  11. Future methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-01-01

    research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...... of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. © 2016, Springer International Publishing.......This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...

  12. PRACTICAL METHODS OF BANKING MANAGEMENT – APPLICATION IN PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodretskiy M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article presents the latest trends in the development of banking management in Ukraine. Purpose. The research is aimed at the study of practical methods of banking institutions management in Ukraine. Results. The results of the research, which prove the determination by most banks of such management methods based on the principles of minimizing operating costs of a banking institution, are proved. The main areas of such a minimization, most banks identified: the involvement of inexperienced staff, increase the level of automation of banking processes, increasing attention to non-price methods of attracting customers. A classification of non-price methods of attracting customers is made. The use of mathematical tools for determining the quality of management by a banking institution is proposed. The article states that in order to prevent the manifestations of crisis phenomena in a banking institution (predictors of which may be: the emergence of a negative spread, loss-making activity of the bank, etc. it is necessary to have an optimal, economically sound portfolio of practical management methods that can be practically useful for execution on operational and tactical level of managerial decisions of banking management. The article contains the results of the survey of specialists and scientists who took part in the scientific and practical conference “Anti-crisis management of economy and finances”, held in 2017. The main areas of work of the mentioned conference were: search of ways of overcoming of crisis phenomena in economy and finances of Ukraine; definition of strategic aspects of the development of the financial system of the state in the context of the growth of the negative consequences of the growth of tension in international and economic relations; definition of fiscal policy of Ukraine and the impact of its quality on the quality of the banking system in the conditions of stagnation of financial markets, etc

  13. Effective implementation of research into practice: an overview of systematic reviews of the health literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Alec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. Findings A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing 313 primary studies were included. Four strategy types are identified: audit and feedback; computerised decision support; opinion leaders; and multifaceted interventions. Nine of the reviews reported on multifaceted interventions. This review highlights the small effects of single interventions such as audit and feedback, computerised decision support and opinion leaders. Systematic reviews of multifaceted interventions claim an improvement in effectiveness over single interventions, with effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. This review found that a number of published systematic reviews fail to state whether the recommended practice change is based on the best available research evidence. Conclusions This overview of systematic reviews updates the body of knowledge relating to the effectiveness of key mechanisms for improving clinical practice and service development. Multifaceted interventions are more likely to improve practice than single interventions such as audit and feedback. This review identified a small literature focusing explicitly on getting research evidence into clinical practice. It emphasizes the importance of ensuring that primary studies and systematic reviews are precise about the extent to which the reported interventions focus on changing practice based on research evidence (as opposed to other information codified in guidelines and education materials.

  14. Effective implementation of research into practice: an overview of systematic reviews of the health literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Annette; Baeza, Juan; Fraser, Alec

    2011-06-22

    The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing 313 primary studies were included. Four strategy types are identified: audit and feedback; computerised decision support; opinion leaders; and multifaceted interventions. Nine of the reviews reported on multifaceted interventions. This review highlights the small effects of single interventions such as audit and feedback, computerised decision support and opinion leaders. Systematic reviews of multifaceted interventions claim an improvement in effectiveness over single interventions, with effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. This review found that a number of published systematic reviews fail to state whether the recommended practice change is based on the best available research evidence. This overview of systematic reviews updates the body of knowledge relating to the effectiveness of key mechanisms for improving clinical practice and service development. Multifaceted interventions are more likely to improve practice than single interventions such as audit and feedback. This review identified a small literature focusing explicitly on getting research evidence into clinical practice. It emphasizes the importance of ensuring that primary studies and systematic reviews are precise about the extent to which the reported interventions focus on changing practice based on research evidence (as opposed to other information codified in guidelines and education materials).

  15. The Lattice Boltzmann method principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Timm; Kuzmin, Alexandr; Shardt, Orest; Silva, Goncalo; Viggen, Erlend Magnus

    2017-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory, practice, and implementation of the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, a powerful computational fluid dynamics method that is steadily gaining attention due to its simplicity, scalability, extensibility, and simple handling of complex geometries. The book contains chapters on the method's background, fundamental theory, advanced extensions, and implementation. To aid beginners, the most essential paragraphs in each chapter are highlighted, and the introductory chapters on various LB topics are front-loaded with special "in a nutshell" sections that condense the chapter's most important practical results. Together, these sections can be used to quickly get up and running with the method. Exercises are integrated throughout the text, and frequently asked questions about the method are dealt with in a special section at the beginning. In the book itself and through its web page, readers can find example codes showing how the LB method can be implemented efficiently on a va...

  16. An overview of reliability methods in mechanical and structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsching, P. H.; Ortiz, K.; Lee, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation is made of modern methods of fast probability integration and Monte Carlo treatment for the assessment of structural systems' and components' reliability. Fast probability integration methods are noted to be more efficient than Monte Carlo ones. This is judged to be an important consideration when several point probability estimates must be made in order to construct a distribution function. An example illustrating the relative efficiency of the various methods is included.

  17. An overview of various typing methods for clinical epidemiology of the emerging pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Giovanni; Creti, Roberta; Pompilio, Arianna; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Typing of bacterial isolates has been used for decades to study local outbreaks as well as in national and international surveillances for monitoring newly emerging resistant clones. Despite being recognized as a nosocomial pathogen, the precise modes of transmission of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in health care settings are unknown. Due to the high genetic diversity observed among S. maltophilia clinical isolates, the typing results might be better interpreted if also environmental strains were included. This could help to identify preventative measures to be designed and implemented for decreasing the possibility of outbreaks and nosocomial infections. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview on the most common typing methods used for clinical epidemiology of S. maltophilia strains, such as PCR-based fingerprinting analyses, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis, and multilocus sequence type. Application of the proteomic-based mass spectrometry by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight is also described. Improvements of typing methods already in use have to be achieved to facilitate S. maltophilia infection control at any level. In the near future, when novel Web-based platforms for rapid data processing and analysis will be available, whole genome sequencing technologies will likely become a highly powerful tool for outbreak investigations and surveillance studies in routine clinical practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative containment integrity test methods, an overview of possible techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to develop and analyze alternative methods for testing of containment integrity. The study is focused on techniques for continuously monitoring containment integrity to provide rapid detection of existing leaks, thus providing greater certainty of the integrity of the containment at any time. The study is also intended to develop techniques applicable to the currently required Type A integrated leakage rate tests. A brief discussion of the range of alternative methods currently being considered is presented. The methods include applicability to all major containment types, operating and shutdown plant conditions, and quantitative and qualitative leakage measurements. The techniques are analyzed in accordance with the current state of knowledge of each method. The bulk of the techniques discussed are in the conceptual stage, have not been tested in actual plant conditions, and are presented here as a possible future direction for evaluating containment integrity. Of the methods considered, no single method provides optimum performance for all containment types. Several methods are limited in the types of containment for which they are applicable. The results of the study to date indicate that techniques for continuous monitoring of containment integrity exist for many plants and may be implemented at modest cost

  19. Overview of multi-input frequency domain modal testing methods with an emphasis on sine testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Robert W.; Brown, David L.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the current state of the art multiple-input, multiple-output modal testing technology is discussed. A very brief review of the current time domain methods is given. A detailed review of frequency and spatial domain methods is presented with an emphasis on sine testing.

  20. On the Need for Practical Formal Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    additional research and engineering that is needed to make the current set of formal methods more practical. To illustrate the ideas, I present several exam ...either a good violin or a highly talented violinist. Light-weight techniques o er software developers good violins . A user need not be a talented

  1. Overview of Effective Geophysical Methods Used in the Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The Application of various Geophysical Techniques for the assessment of the extent of ... ineffective Geophysical Method may not give true picture of the overall level of pollution in the .... stations shut down or maintenance which halt ...

  2. OVERVIEW ON BNL ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H.

    2007-01-01

    A study was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), to determine the applicability of established soil-structure interaction analysis methods and computer programs to deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. This paper provides an overview of the BNL study including a description and discussions of analyses performed to assess relative performance of various SSI analysis methods typically applied to NPP structures, as well as the importance of interface modeling for DEB structures. There are four main elements contained in the BNL study: (1) Review and evaluation of existing seismic design practice, (2) Assessment of simplified vs. detailed methods for SSI in-structure response spectrum analysis of DEB structures, (3) Assessment of methods for computing seismic induced earth pressures on DEB structures, and (4) Development of the criteria for benchmark problems which could be used for validating computer programs for computing seismic responses of DEB NPP structures. The BNL study concluded that the equivalent linear SSI methods, including both simplified and detailed approaches, can be extended to DEB structures and produce acceptable SSI response calculations, provided that the SSI response induced by the ground motion is very much within the linear regime or the non-linear effect is not anticipated to control the SSI response parameters. The BNL study also revealed that the response calculation is sensitive to the modeling assumptions made for the soil/structure interface and application of a particular material model for the soil

  3. Investigation of Thermal Performance for Atria: a Method Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi Leila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of low energy design in large buildings has encouraged researchers to implement different methods for predicting a building’s thermal performance. Atria, as energy efficient features, have been implemented to improve the indoor thermal environment in large modern buildings. Though widely implemented, the thorough study of atrium performance is restricted due to its large size, complex thermodynamic behavior and the inaccuracies and limitations of available prediction tools. This study reviews the most common research tools implemented in previous researches on atria thermal performance, to explore the advantages and limitation of different methods for future studies. The methods reviewed are analytical, experimental, computer modelling and a combination of any or all of these methods. The findings showed that CFD (computational fluid dynamic models are the most popular tools of recent due to their higher accuracy, capabilities and user-friendly modification. Although the experimental methods were reliable for predicting atria thermal and ventilation performance, they have mostly been used to provide data for validation of CFD models. Furthermore, coupling CFD with other experimental models could increase the reliability and accuracy of the models and provide a more comprehensive analysis.

  4. Radiation transport methods for nuclear log assessment - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badruzzaman, A.

    1996-01-01

    Methods of radiation transport have been applied to well-logging problems with nuclear sources since the early 1960s. Nuclear sondes are used in identifying rock compositions and fluid properties in reservoirs to predict the porosity and oil saturation. Early computational effort in nuclear logging used diffusion techniques. As computers became more powerful, deterministic transport methods and, finally, Monte Carlo methods were applied to solve these problems in three dimensions. Recently, the application has been extended to problems with a new generation of devices, including spectroscopic sondes that measure such quantities as the carbon/oxygen ratio to predict oil saturation and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sondes that take neutron and gamma measurements as they rotate in the borehole. These measurements present conditions that will be difficult to calibrate in the laboratory

  5. An overview of methods for comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Weinberger, Morris; Chen, Ronald C; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a broad category of outcomes research encompassing many different methods employed by researchers and clinicians from numerous disciplines. The goal of cancer-focused CER is to generate new knowledge to assist cancer stakeholders in making informed decisions that will improve health care and outcomes of both individuals and populations. There are numerous CER methods that may be used to examine specific questions, including randomized controlled trials, observational studies, systematic literature reviews, and decision sciences modeling. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. To both inform and serve as a reference for readers of this issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology as well as the broader oncology community, we describe CER and several of the more commonly used approaches and analytical methods. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Energy efficiency in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries - Overview of policies and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyevre, Nicolas; Salama, Anna Maria; Agrebi, Hassen; Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Taussat, Thibaut

    2012-04-01

    experiences and know-how should lead states to harmonize increasingly their practices: the most promising measures at the national level may be adopted by other countries and sometimes extended to other neighboring countries. These exchanges of best practices and their development promote also the achievement of the region's objectives of energy efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. To achieve these objectives, a reinforced regional cooperation is necessary: its foundations are based on knowledge sharing and technology transfer in the methods, programs and equipments, as energy conservation is an area that is particularly suitable. Similarly, an intensified South-South cooperation will further advance it faster. Indeed, the many available instruments are used differently according to the country, depending on the particularities of each. The economic structure may, for example, explain differences in the implementation of certain measures, with a concentration on the most greenhouse gas emitting sectors, which are not the same from one country to another. The energy - producing or totally dependent countries - and political - more or less liberal governments - situations may also have an influence on the instruments. Of course, this document does not intend to be exhaustive. To present the most illustrative measures, it is structured in meaningful economic sectors in terms of energy efficiency policies, resulting in a division into six themes, each corresponding to a chapter: building, efficient equipment, industry, transport, sustainable urban development and cross-cutting measures. They are preceded by a general chapter with the policies and key figures of energy efficiency in the Mediterranean. In addition, insights are provided on a specific ten of measures of particular interest, selected according to criteria such as energy impact, the consistency of their implementation, their financing mode and their reproducibility where proper evaluation has been

  7. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...... to parameterize battery models based solely on manufacturer’s datasheets • Manuscript II presents a parameterization method for battery models based on the notion of direct current resistance • Manuscript III proposes a battery electric vehicle design that combines fixed and swappable packs • Manuscript IV...... develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents...

  8. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....

  9. Overview of geotechnical methods to characterize rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-12-01

    The methods that are used to characterize discontinuous rock masses from a geotechnical point of view are summarized. Emphasis is put on providing key references on each subject. The topics of exploration, in-situ stresses, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and hydraulic properties are addressed

  10. Molecular techniques: An overview of methods for the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several DNA molecular markers are now available for use in surveillance and investigation of food-borne outbreaks that were previously difficult to detect. The results from several sources of literature indicate substantially different degrees of sensitivities between conventional detection methods and molecular-based ...

  11. Minimal processing - preservation methods of the future: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, T.

    1994-01-01

    Minimal-processing technologies are modern techniques that provide sufficient shelf life to foods to allow their distribution, while also meeting the demands of the consumers for convenience and fresh-like quality. Minimal-processing technologies can be applied at various stages of the food distribution chain, in storage, in processing and/or in packaging. Examples of methods will be reviewed, including modified-atmosphere packaging, high-pressure treatment, sous-vide cooking and active packaging

  12. Sampling Methods in Cardiovascular Nursing Research: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandola, Damanpreet; Banner, Davina; O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; Jassal, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular nursing research covers a wide array of topics from health services to psychosocial patient experiences. The selection of specific participant samples is an important part of the research design and process. The sampling strategy employed is of utmost importance to ensure that a representative sample of participants is chosen. There are two main categories of sampling methods: probability and non-probability. Probability sampling is the random selection of elements from the population, where each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. There are five main types of probability sampling including simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and multi-stage sampling. Non-probability sampling methods are those in which elements are chosen through non-random methods for inclusion into the research study and include convenience sampling, purposive sampling, and snowball sampling. Each approach offers distinct advantages and disadvantages and must be considered critically. In this research column, we provide an introduction to these key sampling techniques and draw on examples from the cardiovascular research. Understanding the differences in sampling techniques may aid nurses in effective appraisal of research literature and provide a reference pointfor nurses who engage in cardiovascular research.

  13. Forensic psychiatric evaluations: an overview of methods, ethical issues, and criminal and civil assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Forensic psychiatry is frequently defined as the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law. Psychiatrists are called on by the legal system to provide testimony in a wide variety of cases, criminal and civil. In criminal cases, forensic psychiatrists may be asked to comment on the competence of a person to make decisions throughout all the phases of criminal investigation, trial, and punishment. These include the competence to stand trial, to plead guilty, to be sentenced, to waive appeal, and to be executed. In civil cases, forensic psychiatric experts are asked to evaluate a number of civil competences, including competence to make a will or contract or to make decisions about one's person and property. Psychiatrists are also called on to testify about many other issues related to civil cases. Forensic psychiatrists who work with children and adolescents are frequently involved in evaluations and testimonies concerning juvenile delinquency, child custody, termination of parental rights, and other issues. As such, forensic psychiatric experts have now developed into a reputable and well-known group of professionals. Forensic evaluation methods, ethical issues related to forensic psychiatric practice, and some common criminal and civil forensic psychiatric evaluations are discussed in this overview.

  14. Selenium contaminated waters: An overview of analytical methods, treatment options and recent advances in sorption methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia; Ungureanu, Gabriela; Boaventura, Rui; Botelho, Cidália

    2015-07-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms, including humans, but it is bioaccumulative and toxic at higher than homeostatic levels. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are problems around the world. Mines, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries and agriculture are important examples of anthropogenic sources, generating contaminated waters and wastewaters. For reasons of human health and ecotoxicity, selenium concentration has to be controlled in drinking-water and in wastewater, as it is a potential pollutant of water bodies. This review article provides firstly a general overview about selenium distribution, sources, chemistry, toxicity and environmental impact. Analytical techniques used for Se determination and speciation and water and wastewater treatment options are reviewed. In particular, published works on adsorption as a treatment method for Se removal from aqueous solutions are critically analyzed. Recent published literature has given particular attention to the development and search for effective adsorbents, including low-cost alternative materials. Published works mostly consist in exploratory findings and laboratory-scale experiments. Binary metal oxides and LDHs (layered double hydroxides) have presented excellent adsorption capacities for selenium species. Unconventional sorbents (algae, agricultural wastes and other biomaterials), in raw or modified forms, have also led to very interesting results with the advantage of their availability and low-cost. Some directions to be considered in future works are also suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Methods of applied mathematics with a software overview

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    This textbook, now in its second edition, provides students with a firm grasp of the fundamental notions and techniques of applied mathematics as well as the software skills to implement them. The text emphasizes the computational aspects of problem solving as well as the limitations and implicit assumptions inherent in the formal methods. Readers are also given a sense of the wide variety of problems in which the presented techniques are useful. Broadly organized around the theme of applied Fourier analysis, the treatment covers classical applications in partial differential equations and boundary value problems, and a substantial number of topics associated with Laplace, Fourier, and discrete transform theories. Some advanced topics are explored in the final chapters such as short-time Fourier analysis and geometrically based transforms applicable to boundary value problems. The topics covered are useful in a variety of applied fields such as continuum mechanics, mathematical physics, control theory, and si...

  16. Finite element methods a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Whiteley, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical applications of the finite element method to general differential equations. The underlying strategy of deriving the finite element solution is introduced using linear ordinary differential equations, thus allowing the basic concepts of the finite element solution to be introduced without being obscured by the additional mathematical detail required when applying this technique to partial differential equations. The author generalizes the presented approach to partial differential equations which include nonlinearities. The book also includes variations of the finite element method such as different classes of meshes and basic functions. Practical application of the theory is emphasised, with development of all concepts leading ultimately to a description of their computational implementation illustrated using Matlab functions. The target audience primarily comprises applied researchers and practitioners in engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  17. A More Practical Method for Explaining Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Jang Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to suggest a more practical method for explaining market equilibrium in a two-dimensional risk-return world. Its main difference from textbook contents is to define, in both qualitative and quantitative ways, the environment or the system factor and treat it as an endogenous variable. Once the two-dimensional framework that is capable of managing uncertainty and environmental relationship can be reasonably established, a greater number of economic issues can be effect...

  18. Overview on recent developments: alternative isotope production methods in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Government of Canada's programs in alternative isotope production methods for securing supply of technetium 99m for Canadians. The supply disruptions of isotopes in 2007 and 2009/2010 caused by unplanned outages at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) reactor highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers medical isotopes, specifically Technetium 99m (Tc99m) to patients in Canada and globally. Tc99m, which is derived from its parent, molybdenum99 (Mo99) is the most widely used medical isotope for imaging, and accounts for 80 percent of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. Prior to the outage, nearly all the Mo99 produced for the world market came from five aging government owned research reactors in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and South Africa. The NRU, the largest of these, produced about 30 to 40 percent of the world supply of isotopes prior to 2009 - since its return to service in 2010, its world market share is estimated at 15 to 20%.

  19. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  20. Overview of the most commonly used methods in allergen characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANJA CIRKOVIC VELICKOVIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of an allergen is a troublesome and difficult process, as it requires both the precise biochemical characterization of a (glycoprotein molecule and the establishment of its susceptibility to IgE antibodies, as they are themain link to histamine release in some hypersensitivity states (type I allergies. As the characterization of an allergen includes molecular weight determination of the allergenic molecule, its structure determination, physicochemical properties, IgE binding properties of the allergen molecule, and its allergenicity, an overal review of which biochemical and immunochemical methods are used in achieving this goal are presented in this paper. The information on the molecular level on the stuctures of allergens indicates that allergens are considerably heterogeneous protein structures, and that there is no particular aminoacid sequence which is responsible for the allergenicity. Therefore, information gained from detailed structural, functional and immunochemical studies of these intriguing molecules, which nowadaysmodulate a variety of pathophysiological conditions, would greatly improve our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms, and the way to handle them.

  1. Practical Methods for Information Security Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian AMANCEI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present some directions to perform the risk man-agement for information security. The article follows to practical methods through question-naire that asses the internal control, and through evaluation based on existing controls as part of vulnerability assessment. The methods presented contains all the key elements that concurs in risk management, through the elements proposed for evaluation questionnaire, list of threats, resource classification and evaluation, correlation between risks and controls and residual risk computation.

  2. The Sherlock Holmes method in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopeña, B

    2014-04-01

    This article lists the integral elements of the Sherlock Holmes method, which is based on the intelligent collection of information through detailed observation, careful listening and thorough examination. The information thus obtained is analyzed to develop the main and alternative hypotheses, which are shaped during the deductive process until the key leading to the solution is revealed. The Holmes investigative method applied to clinical practice highlights the advisability of having physicians reason through and seek out the causes of the disease with the data obtained from acute observation, a detailed review of the medical history and careful physical examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Probiotic guidelines and physician practice: a cross-sectional survey and overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, K; Ley, C; Parsonnet, J

    2017-08-24

    Probiotic use by patients and physicians has dramatically increased over the last decade, although definitive evidence is often lacking for their use. We examined probiotic-prescribing practices among health care providers (HCP) at a tertiary medical centre and compared these practices to clinical guidelines. HCP at the Stanford Medical Center received a survey on probiotic prescribing practices including choice of probiotic and primary indications. A broad overview of the literature was performed. Among 2,331 HCP surveyed, 632 responded. Of the 582 of these who routinely prescribed medications, 61% had recommended probiotic foods or supplements to their patients. Women and gastroenterologists were more likely to prescribe probiotics (odds ratio (OR): 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-2.1; OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.5-10.1, respectively). Among probiotic prescribers, 50% prescribed inconsistently or upon patient request, and 40% left probiotic choice to the patient. Common indications for probiotics, particularly Lactobacillus GG, were prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (79 and 66%, respectively). Probiotics were often prescribed for 'general bowel health' or at patient request (27 and 39% of responders, respectively). Most respondents (63%) thought an electronic medical record (EMR) pop-up would change probiotic prescribing patterns. However, a review of published guidelines and large trials found inconsistencies in probiotic indications, dosages and strain selection. Probiotic prescribing is common but lacks consistency, with choice of probiotic frequently left to the patient, even for indications with some strain-specific evidence. Implementation of EMR pop-ups/pocket guides may increase consistency in probiotic prescribing, although the lack of clear and consistent guidelines must first be addressed with large, well-designed clinical trials.

  4. GP METHOD - BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wherever manufacturing activities where services are provided and work, there are costs. In circumstances where resources are relatively limited, companies should try to achieve what is needed for business. Competition is becoming tougher and tougher after 1990 the economic environment has made it costly the decision error caused by the reduced amount of information on costs. The work aims to analyze the theoretical and practical calculation method Georges Perrin. It will consider on the one hand to analyze the importance of the right choice of costing methods in an economic entity, on the other hand highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the method and analyzed the situations in which is opportunity or its use.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Vortex Methods: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, G.-H.; Koumoutsakos, P. D.

    2001-03-01

    The book Vortex Methods: Theory and Practice presents a comprehensive account of the numerical technique for solving fluid flow problems. It provides a very nice balance between the theoretical development and analysis of the various techniques and their practical implementation. In fact, the presentation of the rigorous mathematical analysis of these methods instills confidence in their implementation. The book goes into some detail on the more recent developments that attempt to account for viscous effects, in particular the presence of viscous boundary layers in some flows of interest. The presentation is very readable, with most points illustrated with well-chosen examples, some quite sophisticated. It is a very worthy reference book that should appeal to a large body of readers, from those interested in the mathematical analysis of the methods to practitioners of computational fluid dynamics. The use of the book as a text is compromised by its lack of exercises for students, but it could form the basis of a graduate special topics course. Juan Lopez

  6. An overview of solution methods for multi-objective mixed integer linear programming programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Allan; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    Multiple objective mixed integer linear programming (MOMIP) problems are notoriously hard to solve to optimality, i.e. finding the complete set of non-dominated solutions. We will give an overview of existing methods. Among those are interactive methods, the two phases method and enumeration...... methods. In particular we will discuss the existing branch and bound approaches for solving multiple objective integer programming problems. Despite the fact that branch and bound methods has been applied successfully to integer programming problems with one criterion only a few attempts has been made...

  7. Upper limb robotics applied to neurorehabilitation: An overview of clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, Christophe; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    During the last two decades, extensive interaction between clinicians and engineers has led to the development of systems that stimulate neural plasticity to optimize motor recovery after neurological lesions. This has resulted in the expansion of the field of robotics for rehabilitation. Studies in patients with stroke-related upper-limb paresis have shown that robotic rehabilitation can improve motor capacity. However, few other applications have been evaluated (e.g. tremor, peripheral nerve injuries or other neurological diseases). This paper presents an overview of the current use of upper limb robotic systems for neurorehabilitation, and highlights the rationale behind their use for the assessment and treatment of common neurological disorders. Rehabilitation robots are little integrated in clinical practice, except after stroke. Although few studies have been carried out to evaluate their effectiveness, evidence from the neurosciences and indications from pilot studies suggests that upper limb robotic rehabilitation can be applied safely in various other neurological conditions. Rehabilitation robots provide an intensity, quality and dose of treatment that exceeds therapist-mediated rehabilitation. Moreover, the use of force fields, multi-sensory environments, feedback etc. renders such rehabilitation engaging and motivating. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation robots in neurological pathologies other than stroke.

  8. Energy efficiency in the European Union: overview of policies and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The world is facing increasing energy prospects and stakes, in terms of energy supply security and safety, environmental impact as well as economic and social costs. In Europe, these fast-growing concerns have led to the adoption of new energy efficiency policies at national and European levels: legislation, regulations, institutional measures, awareness-raising and training campaigns, financial incentives, investment schemes, etc. As in other sectors and at each stage of European development, knowledge and experience feedback drive the Member States towards a growing harmonization of national policies: the most encouraging national measures may be adopted by other countries and even implemented at a European level. The valorization and exchange of best practices therefore contributes to the fulfilment of European commitments on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. All these schemes are integrally part of a common European energy policy to be applied to energy production, transportation and distribution - the supply side - as well as to all social and economic activities which make up the demand side, and which is the subject of this document. The presentation hereafter provides an overview of energy efficiency policies and programs implemented in the European Union and in the Member States. It shows the diversity of available means of action and strategic choices within the different countries whilst highlighting the most innovative and significant measures. The various tools available are of course used in different ways in each country depending on their characteristics. Economic structure, for example, can explain the differences in the implementation of certain measures as it results in concentrating on the sectors which produce the most greenhouse gases - and which differ from one country to another. Energy balances -energy-producing countries or energy-dependent countries - and political contexts - with more or less liberal governments

  9. Creative Problem Solving and Social Cooperation of Effective Physical Therapy Practice: A Pioneer Study and Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Carmeli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Action research (AR has an important role to play in educating physical therapists. Increasing efforts should be encouraged to instigate AR programs in physical therapy practice and clinical education. Such programs commonly require considerable effort and understanding by clinical instructors, and require adoption of new educational methods. AR programs can lead physical therapists and clinicians to be more questioning and reflective in evaluating practical questions regarding patient therapy and education. The purpose of this article is to educate the readers on the importance of AR and to provide a few relevant references on that topic. A specific study is described in this paper in which physical therapy clinical instructors participated in a structured workshop designed to demonstrate the values of AR and how such values can be incorporated in teaching their students. AR can lead to improved therapist-patient interaction and help solve specific practical problems arising during therapy sessions.

  10. From Farm to Pharma: An Overview of Industrial Heparin Manufacturing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Kellenbach, Edwin; van den Bos, Leendert J

    2017-06-21

    The purification of heparin from offal is an old industrial process for which commercial recipes date back to 1922. Although chemical, chemoenzymatic, and biotechnological alternatives for this production method have been published in the academic literature, animal-tissue is still the sole source for commercial heparin production in industry. Heparin purification methods are closely guarded industrial secrets which are not available to the general (scientific) public. However by reviewing the academic and patent literature, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the general methods used in industry for the extraction of heparin from animal tissue.

  11. A brief overview of NASA Langley's research program in formal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An overview of NASA Langley's research program in formal methods is presented. The major goal of this work is to bring formal methods technology to a sufficiently mature level for use by the United States aerospace industry. Towards this goal, work is underway to design and formally verify a fault-tolerant computing platform suitable for advanced flight control applications. Also, several direct technology transfer efforts have been initiated that apply formal methods to critical subsystems of real aerospace computer systems. The research team consists of six NASA civil servants and contractors from Boeing Military Aircraft Company, Computational Logic Inc., Odyssey Research Associates, SRI International, University of California at Davis, and Vigyan Inc.

  12. Sonic branding: a framework for understanding sound branding and an overview of its most noticeable practices across industries

    OpenAIRE

    Bollue, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents the importance and relevance of sound in branding, as very few studies on sonic branding have been conducted so far. The aim of this thesis is to lay out a framework for understanding sonic branding as a phenomenon and for getting an overview of the most notable practices of sonic branding across various industries. The study is commissioned by the advertising agency Wondergarden for who a workshop was also created. Additionally this thesis hopefully can inspire other...

  13. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications of nuclear technologies. (1) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Okuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the first issue showing their overview and introduction of continuum simulation methods. Finite element method as their applications is also reviewed. (T. Tanaka)

  14. On Best Practice Optimization Methods in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Nash

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available R (R Core Team 2014 provides a powerful and flexible system for statistical computations. It has a default-install set of functionality that can be expanded by the use of several thousand add-in packages as well as user-written scripts. While R is itself a programming language, it has proven relatively easy to incorporate programs in other languages, particularly Fortran and C. Success, however, can lead to its own costs: • Users face a confusion of choice when trying to select packages in approaching a problem. • A need to maintain workable examples using early methods may mean some tools offered as a default may be dated. • In an open-source project like R, how to decide what tools offer "best practice" choices, and how to implement such a policy, present a serious challenge. We discuss these issues with reference to the tools in R for nonlinear parameter estimation (NLPE and optimization, though for the present article `optimization` will be limited to function minimization of essentially smooth functions with at most bounds constraints on the parameters. We will abbreviate this class of problems as NLPE. We believe that the concepts proposed are transferable to other classes of problems seen by R users.

  15. Cloud computing methods and practical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents both state-of-the-art research developments and practical guidance on approaches, technologies and frameworks for the emerging cloud paradigm. Topics and features: presents the state of the art in cloud technologies, infrastructures, and service delivery and deployment models; discusses relevant theoretical frameworks, practical approaches and suggested methodologies; offers guidance and best practices for the development of cloud-based services and infrastructures, and examines management aspects of cloud computing; reviews consumer perspectives on mobile cloud computing an

  16. Extremity dosimetry in medical applications within Europe: an overview of doses and monitoring practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donadille, Laurent; Carinou, E.; Ginjaume, M.; Jankowski, J.; Rimpler, A.; Sans Merce, M.; Vanhavere, F.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Some activities of the EURADOS Working Group 9 (WG9) related to the radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff were funded by the European Commission in the framework of the CONRAD project, Work Package 7. The objective of WG9 was to promote and co-ordinate research activities for the assessment of occupational exposure to staff at workplaces in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. At these workplaces, from the point of view of the individual monitoring for external radiation, the skin of the fingers is generally the limiting organ. Subgroup 1 of WG9 had as main objective the study of the use of extremity dosemeters in medical radiation fields. The wide variety of radiation field characteristics present in medicine together with the difficulties of measuring a local dose which should be representative for the maximum skin dose using one single detector, makes it difficult to perform extremity dosimetry with an accuracy similar to that of whole-body one. A recent intercomparison organised by WG9 showed that some types of dosemeters significantly underestimate or overestimate skin doses. Subgroup 1 carried out a thorough literature review on extremity dosimetry issues. It covered diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine and PET, interventional radiology and cardiology, and brachytherapy. It has notably pointed out the consensus about the requirement of regular extremity dose monitoring for nuclear medicine and PET, and the great difficulty of measuring extremity doses for procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology, activities for which routine extremity dose monitoring has been found to be poor. Furthermore, information on the status of extremity dosimetry in medical applications and associated monitoring practices was gathered from 7 European countries: France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Spain and Switzerland. Interpretation of the data was not easy because of the wide range of procedures involved and also

  17. New developments in technology-assisted supervision and training: a practical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousmaniere, Tony; Abbass, Allan; Frederickson, Jon

    2014-11-01

    Clinical supervision and training are now widely available online. In this article, three of the most accessible and widely adopted new developments in clinical supervision and training technology are described: Videoconference supervision, cloud-based file sharing software, and clinical outcome tracking software. Partial transcripts from two online supervision sessions are provided as examples of videoconference-based supervision. The benefits and limitations of technology in supervision and training are discussed, with an emphasis on supervision process, ethics, privacy, and security. Recommendations for supervision practice are made, including methods to enhance experiential learning, the supervisory working alliance, and online security. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. An overview of recent developments in genomics and associated statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Peter J; Brown, James B; Huang, Haiyan; Li, Qunhua

    2009-11-13

    The landscape of genomics has changed drastically in the last two decades. Increasingly inexpensive sequencing has shifted the primary focus from the acquisition of biological sequences to the study of biological function. Assays have been developed to study many intricacies of biological systems, and publicly available databases have given rise to integrative analyses that combine information from many sources to draw complex conclusions. Such research was the focus of the recent workshop at the Isaac Newton Institute, 'High dimensional statistics in biology'. Many computational methods from modern genomics and related disciplines were presented and discussed. Using, as much as possible, the material from these talks, we give an overview of modern genomics: from the essential assays that make data-generation possible, to the statistical methods that yield meaningful inference. We point to current analytical challenges, where novel methods, or novel applications of extant methods, are presently needed.

  19. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies. (4) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, Naoto; Okita, Taira

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the fourth issue showing the overview of scientific computational methods with the introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications. Simulation methods on physical radiation effects on materials are reviewed based on the process such as binary collision approximation, molecular dynamics, kinematic Monte Carlo method, reaction rate method and dislocation dynamics. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Introduction and Overview: Prevention Services--From Optimistic Promise to Widespread, Effective Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissberg, Roger P.; Kuster, Carol Bartels; Gullotta, Thomas P.

    This opening chapter provides an overview of the book, "Healthy Children 2010: Establishing Preventive Services." The article describes the purpose of the work, which is to provide strategies to establish and successfully implement effective prevention services in key socializing settings that powerfully affect the growth an development…

  1. Strategies for Solving Potential Problems Associated with Laboratory Diffusion and Batch Experiments - Part 1: An Overview of Conventional Test Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.; Takeda, M.; Nakajima, H.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory diffusion testing as well as batch experiments are well established and widely adopted techniques for characterizing the diffusive and adsorptive properties of geological, geotechnical, and synthetic materials in both scientific and applied fields, including geological disposal of radioactive waste. Although several types of diffusion test, such as the through- diffusion test, in-diffusion test, out-diffusion test, and column test, are currently available, different methods may have different advantages and disadvantages. In addition, traditional methods may have limitations, such as the need for relatively long test times, cumbersome test procedures, and the possibility of errors due to differences between analytical assumptions and actual test conditions. Furthermore, traditional batch experiments using mineral powders are known to overestimate the sorption coefficient. In part 1 of this report, we present a brief overview of laboratory diffusion and batch experiments. The advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and/or potential problems associated with individual tests were compared and summarized. This comprehensive report will provide practical references for reviewing the results obtained from relevant experiments, especially from the viewpoint of regulation. To solve and/or eliminate the potential problems associated with conventional methods, and to obtain the diffusion coefficient and rock capacity factor from a laboratory test both rapidly and accurately, part 2 of this study discusses possible strategies involving the development of rigorous solutions to some relevant test methods, and sensitivity analyses for the related tests that may be helpful to judge the accuracy of the two parameters to be determined from individual tests. (authors)

  2. An overview of methods to mitigate artifacts in optical coherence tomography imaging of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Saba; Fotouhi, Audrey; Xu, Qiuyun; Daveluy, Steve; Mehregan, Darius; Podoleanu, Adrian; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of skin delivers three-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. Although OCT imaging offers a promising high-resolution modality, OCT images suffer from some artifacts that lead to misinterpretation of tissue structures. Therefore, an overview of methods to mitigate artifacts in OCT imaging of the skin is of paramount importance. Speckle, intensity decay, and blurring are three major artifacts in OCT images. Speckle is due to the low coherent light source used in the configuration of OCT. Intensity decay is a deterioration of light with respect to depth, and blurring is the consequence of deficiencies of optical components. Two speckle reduction methods (one based on artificial neural network and one based on spatial compounding), an attenuation compensation algorithm (based on Beer-Lambert law) and a deblurring procedure (using deconvolution), are described. Moreover, optical properties extraction algorithm based on extended Huygens-Fresnel (EHF) principle to obtain some additional information from OCT images are discussed. In this short overview, we summarize some of the image enhancement algorithms for OCT images which address the abovementioned artifacts. The results showed a significant improvement in the visibility of the clinically relevant features in the images. The quality improvement was evaluated using several numerical assessment measures. Clinical dermatologists benefit from using these image enhancement algorithms to improve OCT diagnosis and essentially function as a noninvasive optical biopsy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Clarification of vaccines: An overview of filter based technology trends and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Lise; Fabre, Virginie; Fettig, Michael; Gousseinov, Elina; Kawakami, Yasuhiro; Laroudie, Nicolas; Scanlan, Claire; Pattnaik, Priyabrata

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are derived from a variety of sources including tissue extracts, bacterial cells, virus particles, recombinant mammalian, yeast and insect cell produced proteins and nucleic acids. The most common method of vaccine production is based on an initial fermentation process followed by purification. Production of vaccines is a complex process involving many different steps and processes. Selection of the appropriate purification method is critical to achieving desired purity of the final product. Clarification of vaccines is a critical step that strongly impacts product recovery and subsequent downstream purification. There are several technologies that can be applied for vaccine clarification. Selection of a harvesting method and equipment depends on the type of cells, product being harvested, and properties of the process fluids. These techniques include membrane filtration (microfiltration, tangential-flow filtration), centrifugation, and depth filtration (normal flow filtration). Historically vaccine harvest clarification was usually achieved by centrifugation followed by depth filtration. Recently membrane based technologies have gained prominence in vaccine clarification. The increasing use of single-use technologies in upstream processes necessitated a shift in harvest strategies. This review offers a comprehensive view on different membrane based technologies and their application in vaccine clarification, outlines the challenges involved and presents the current state of best practices in the clarification of vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Overview, practical tips and potential pitfalls of using automatic exposure control in CT: Siemens care dose 4D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Today, computed tomography (CT) systems routinely use automatic exposure control (AEC), which modulates the tube current. However, for optimal use, there are several aspects of an AEC system that need to be considered. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the Siemens CARE Dose 4D AEC system, discuss practical tips and demonstrate potential pitfalls. Two adult anthropomorphic phantoms were examined using two different Siemens CT systems. When optimising the CT radiation dose and image quality, the projection angle of the localiser, patient centring, protocol selection, scanning direction and the use of protective devices requires special attention. (authors)

  5. Recommended practices in elevated temperature design: A compendium of breeder reactor experiences (1970-1986): An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, B.C.; Cooper, W.L. Jr.; Dhalla, A.K.

    1987-09-01

    Significant experiences have been accumulated in the establishment of design methods and criteria applicable to the design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) components. The Subcommittee of the Elevated Temperature Design under the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) has undertaken to collect, on an international basis, design experience gained, and the lessons learned, to provide guidelines for next generation advanced reactor designs. This paper shall present an overview and describe the highlights of the work

  6. Science Teaching Methods: A Rationale for Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This article is a version of the talk given by Jonathan Osborne as the Association for Science Education (ASE) invited lecturer at the National Science Teachers' Association Annual Convention in San Francisco, USA, in April 2011. The article provides an explanatory justification for teaching about the practices of science in school science that…

  7. Development of a fast reactor for minor actinides transmutation - (1) Overview and method development - 5092

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Usami, S.; Fujimura, K.; Takakuwa, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan has launched a national project entitled 'technology development for the environmental burden reduction' in 2013. The present study is one of the studies adopted as the national project. The objective of the study is the efficient and safe transmutation and volume reduction of minor actinides (MA) with long-lived radioactivity and high decay heat contained in high level radioactive wastes by using sodium cooled fast reactors. We are developing MA transmutation core concepts which harmonize efficient MA transmutation with core safety. To accurately design the core concepts we have improved calculation methods for estimating the transmutation rate of individual MA nuclides, and estimating and reducing uncertainty of MA transmutation. The overview of the present project is first described. Then the method improvement is presented with numerical results for a minor-actinide transmutation fast reactor. The analysis is based on Monju reactor data. (authors)

  8. Interactions from diffraction data: historical and comprehensive overview of simulation assisted methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Gergely

    2007-01-01

    A large part of statistical mechanics is concerned with the determination of condensed matter structure on the basis of known microscopic interactions. An increasing emphasis has been put on the opposite situation in the last decades as well, where structural data, e.g. pair-distance statistics, are known from diffraction experiments, and one looks for the corresponding interaction functions. The solution of this inverse problem was searched for within the integral equation theories of condensed matter in the early investigations, but before long computer simulation assisted methods were suggested. The interest in this field showed an increasing trend after some attempts appeared in the late 1980s. Several methods were published in the 1990s, and one-two methods appear annually nowadays. In this paper a comprehensive and historical overview is given on the solution of the inverse problem with simulation assisted methods. Emphasis is put on the theoretical grounds of the methods, on the choice of possible input structural functions, on the numerically local or global schemes of the potential modifications, on some advantages and limits of the different methods and on the scientific impact of the methods

  9. Industrial Practice in Formal Methods : A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bicarregui, Juan C.; Fitzgerald, John; Larsen, Peter Gorm

    2009-01-01

    We examine the the industrial application of formal methods using data gathered in a review of 62 projects taking place over the last 25 years. The review suggests that formal methods are being applied in a wide range of application domains, with increasingly strong tool support. Significant chal...... challenges remain in providing usable tools that can be integrated into established development processes; in education and training; in taking formal methods from first use to second use, and in gathering and evidence to support informed selection of methods and tools.......We examine the the industrial application of formal methods using data gathered in a review of 62 projects taking place over the last 25 years. The review suggests that formal methods are being applied in a wide range of application domains, with increasingly strong tool support. Significant...

  10. Scenistic Methods for Training: Applications and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to complement an earlier article (2010) in "Journal of European Industrial Training" in which the description and theory bases of scenistic methods were presented. This paper also offers a description of scenistic methods and information on theory bases. However, the main thrust of this paper is to describe, give suggested…

  11. A general overview of support materials for enzyme immobilization: Characteristics, properties, practical utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zdarta, Jakub; Meyer, Anne S.; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2018-01-01

    on the properties of the produced catalytic system. A large variety of inorganic and organic as well as hybrid and composite materials may be used as stable and efficient supports for biocatalysts. This review provides a general overview of the characteristics and properties of the materials applied for enzyme...... immobilization. For the purposes of this literature study, support materials are divided into two main groups, called Classic and New materials. The review will be useful in selection of appropriate support materials with tailored properties for the production of highly effective biocatalytic systems for use...

  12. An overview of practice and regulations concerning aircraft noise protection in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Bojana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of studies and regulation concerning the issue of aircraft noise protection in Republic of Serbia. After crossing the limit of 50.000 operations in 2014, Airport 'Nikola Tesla' is classified as major airport, and with that urged to fulfill various requirements related to nose protection. Major airports are obliged to monitor noise, as well as to prepare strategic noise maps and action plans aiming to decrease number of people exposed to aircraft noise above acceptable level.

  13. Evaluation of training effectiveness- overview of principles, problems and practices in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Haakan

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of training is a complex concept that involves many interrelated activities. Successful evaluation studies require a basic understanding of this complexity. Evaluation of training and training effects is therefore a part of the basic instructor-training program at KSU, The Swedish nuclear training and safety centre. Complex evaluation studies require, however, preconditions that far from always can be met. It is therefore also important to learn from successful evaluation studies and try to extrapolate the conclusions to other similar situations. A short overview of one such study at a Swedish nuclear power plant is presented. (author)

  14. Biosimilars for psoriasis: worldwide overview of regulatory guidelines, uptake and implications for dermatology clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A D; Wu, J J; Puig, L; Chimenti, S; Vender, R; Rajagopalan, M; Romiti, R; de la Cruz, C; Skov, L; Zachariae, C; Young, H S; Foley, P; van der Walt, J M; Naldi, L; Prens, E P; Blauvelt, A

    2017-12-01

    The introduction of biological drugs for the treatment of patients with psoriasis has revolutionized treatment paradigms and enabled numerous patients to achieve disease control with an acceptable safety profile. However, the high cost of biologics limits access to these medications for the majority of patients worldwide. In recent years, the introduction of biosimilars for inflammatory diseases has become a fast evolving field. The future use of biosimilars offers the potential for decreased cost and increased access to biologics for patients with psoriasis. For approval of biosimilars, different regulatory agencies use highly variable methods for definition, production, approval, marketing and postmarketing surveillance. Due to potential interchangeability between biologics and biosimilars, traceability and pharmacovigilance are required to collect accurate data about adverse events in patients with psoriasis; spontaneous reporting, registries and use of 'big data' should facilitate this process on a global basis. The current article describes biosimilar regulatory guidelines and examples of biosimilar uptake in clinical practice in several countries around the world. As it is apparent that biological therapy treatment decisions may become more physician independent, the International Psoriasis Council recommends that dermatologists should take an active role in the development of biosimilar prescribing policies with their respective healthcare settings and government agencies. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Managing the clinical setting for best nursing practice: a brief overview of contemporary initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Amanda; Winch, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Leadership strategies are important in facilitating the nursing profession to reach their optimum standards in the practice environment. To compare and contrast the central tenets of contemporary quality initiatives that are commensurate with enabling the environment so that best practice can occur. Democratic leadership, accessible and relevant education and professional development, the incorporation of evidence into practice and the ability of facilities to be responsive to change are core considerations for the successful maintenance of practice standards that are consistent with best nursing practice. While different concerns of management drive the adoption of contemporary approaches, there are many similarities in the how these approaches are translated into action in the clinical setting. Managers should focus on core principles of professional nursing that add value to practice rather than business processes.

  16. Effective implementation of research into practice: an overview of systematic reviews of the health literature

    OpenAIRE

    Boaz, Annette; Baeza, Juan; Fraser, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. Findings A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing...

  17. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Structures - Overview of Methods and Related Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Dan J.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this limited study were to provide an overview of the methods that are available for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete and metallic structures, and to provide an assessment of the status of methods that address inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. In meeting these objectives a general description of nuclear power plant safety-related structures was provided as well as identification of potential degradation factors, testing and inspection requirements, and operating experience; methods for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures and containment metallic pressure boundaries were identified and described; and applications of nondestructive evaluation methods specifically related to inspection of thick-section reinforced concrete structures and inaccessible portions of containment metallic pressure boundaries were summarized. Recommendations are provided on utilization of test article(s) to further advance nondestructive evaluation methods related to thick-section, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary representative of nuclear power plant containments. Conduct of a workshop to provide an update on applications and needed developments for nondestructive evaluation of nuclear power plant structures would also be of benefit.

  18. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Structures - Overview of Methods and Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    The objectives of this limited study were to provide an overview of the methods that are available for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete and metallic structures, and to provide an assessment of the status of methods that address inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. In meeting these objectives a general description of nuclear power plant safety-related structures was provided as well as identification of potential degradation factors, testing and inspection requirements, and operating experience; methods for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures and containment metallic pressure boundaries were identified and described; and applications of nondestructive evaluation methods specifically related to inspection of thick-section reinforced concrete structures and inaccessible portions of containment metallic pressure boundaries were summarized. Recommendations are provided on utilization of test article(s) to further advance nondestructive evaluation methods related to thick-section, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary representative of nuclear power plant containments. Conduct of a workshop to provide an update on applications and needed developments for nondestructive evaluation of nuclear power plant structures would also be of benefit.

  19. Track detectors in particle accelerator environment: an overview on existing and new methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.P.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of high energy, high intensity particle accelerators, with increasing applications in various fields has lead to the involvement of more users and operators. The complex (secondary) radiation field in an accelerator environment, generated by the primary beam hitting a target, is highly directional, dynamic, pulsed and mixed in nature, which poses a unique challenge for the radiological safety aspects, specially the neutrons contributing to a significant dose even beyond the shields. Solid polymeric track detectors (SPTDs), due to their insensitivity to low LET radiations and integrating nature of signal registration, are found to be effective and convenient for neutron measurements. This paper reviews some of the existing and frequently used methods of neutron spectrometry and dosimetry using SPTDs and explores new approaches as well. The paper elaborates on the extended energy response and rapid etching techniques of SPTDs along with some new results. An overview on the recently introduced microwave-induced chemical etching (MICE) technique is also presented. (author)

  20. Bionic Design Methods - A practical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepler, Jørgen Asbøll; Stokholm, Marianne Denise J.

    2004-01-01

    Nature has served as inspiration for product design throughout history. Applications range from poetic translations of form to utilization of primary functional principles. This paper describes a generally applicable design methodology for transforming natural functional principles to feasible...... product design. From a formulation of design demands, which need not necessarily be very precise, the approach continues with a study of natural objects (anaimals, plants) which are subject to the same demands. From this study, the working principle(s) are derived. This (these) are then clarified through...... illustrative models, which should be simplified as much as possible. The simplified principle may now be evaluated and transformed into practical design. The methodology is clarified through examples, taken from a series of extended workshops held atAalborg University ....

  1. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 1, Basic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets. These CP-nets are shown to be a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems. The introductory first...... volume contains the formal definition of CP-nets and the mathematical theory behind their analysis methods. It gives a detailed presentation of many small examples and a brief overview of some industrial applications. The purpose of the book is to teach the reader how to construct CP-net models...

  2. Medical negligence. An overview of legal theory and neurosurgical practice: duty of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nicholas V

    2014-04-01

    A working knowledge of the legal principles of medical negligence is helpful to neurosurgeons. It helps them to act in a "reasonable, responsible and logical" manner, that is a practice that is consistent with the surgical practice of their peers. This article will review and explain the relevant medical law in relation to duty of care with illustrative neurosurgical cases.

  3. Overview on Untargeted Methods to Combat Food Frauds: A Focus on Fishery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina M. Fiorino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Authenticity and traceability of food products are of primary importance at all levels of the production process, from raw materials to finished products. Authentication is also a key aspect for accurate labeling of food, which is required to help consumers in selecting appropriate types of food products. With the aim of guaranteeing the authenticity of foods, various methodological approaches have been devised over the past years, mainly based on either targeted or untargeted analyses. In this review, a brief overview of current analytical methods tailored to authenticity studies, with special regard to fishery products, is provided. Focus is placed on untargeted methods that are attracting the interest of the analytical community thanks to their rapidity and high throughput; such methods enable a fast collection of “fingerprinting signals” referred to each authentic food, subsequently stored into large database for the construction of specific information repositories. In the present case, methods capable of detecting fish adulteration/substitution and involving sensory, physicochemical, DNA-based, chromatographic, and spectroscopic measurements, combined with chemometric tools, are illustrated and commented on.

  4. Design Methods for Young Sustainable Architecture Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.; Drexler, H.; Curiel, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces landscape aesthetics as an innovative design method for sustainable architecture. It is based on the framework of a recent paper where the young and unfamous authors criticized three of the most prominent? architects today in regard to sustainable architecture and its

  5. Encapsulating the delivery of affordable housing: An overview of Malaysian practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Nor Baizura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban population increases much faster than other geographical areas and this brings huge challenges to Malaysian government especially those responsible for the provision of housing. Moreover, the rise of living cost and pressure towards the current economic situation had inevitably led to huge demands for affordable housing. Thus, affordability and inaccessibility of people in owning a house has become one of the major issues in Malaysia. These issues are not only faced by the low-income group but mostly experienced by urban dwellers including the middle-income group whom are not eligible to apply for low-cost housing delivered by the government, yet cannot afford to buy a house. Hence, the Malaysian government had therefore established the Perumahan Rakyat 1 Malaysia (PR1MA as the catalyst in providing adequate, quality and affordable houses. Furthermore, the Syarikat Perumahan Negara Berhad (SPNB and the state governments also play their big role in providing affordable house at the state level. In trying to ensure smooth delivery of affordable housing, a systematic approach is required. This paper intends to examine the delivery of affordable housing in Malaysia. The objective was to assess the parties involved, and the various stages of the process. The methodology adopted for this study includes in-depth interviews with affordable housing agencies. Investigation showed that the major problem relates to a mismatch in the delivery of affordable housing. Moreover, the political and economic aspects, as well as the organization situation had also influenced the inefficiency of affordable housing delivery system. Additionally, the significant of this paper is expected to formulate an improved strategy and guidance in delivery system, thus ensuring that the method of practice is applicable throughout the country.

  6. Overview of methods in RNA nanotechnology: synthesis, purification, and characterization of RNA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    RNA nanotechnology encompasses the use of RNA as a construction material to build homogeneous nanostructures by bottom-up self-assembly with defined size, structure, and stoichiometry; this pioneering concept demonstrated in 1998 (Guo et al., Molecular Cell 2:149-155, 1998; featured in Cell) has emerged as a new field that also involves materials engineering and synthetic structural biology (Guo, Nature Nanotechnology 5:833-842, 2010). The field of RNA nanotechnology has skyrocketed over the last few years, as evidenced by the burst of publications in prominent journals on RNA nanostructures and their applications in nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Rapid advances in RNA chemistry, RNA biophysics, and RNA biology have created new opportunities for translating basic science into clinical practice. RNA nanotechnology holds considerable promise in this regard. Increased evidence also suggests that substantial part of the 98.5 % of human genome (Lander et al. Nature 409:860-921, 2001) that used to be called "junk DNA" actually codes for noncoding RNA. As we understand more on how RNA structures are related to function, we can fabricate synthetic RNA nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This chapter provides a brief overview of the field regarding the design, construction, purification, and characterization of RNA nanoparticles for diverse applications in nanotechnology and nanomedicince.

  7. External cues challenging the internal appetite control system-Overview and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilman, Els; van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans

    2017-09-02

    Inadequate regulation of food intake plays an important role in the development of overweight and obesity, and is under the influence of both the internal appetite control system and external environmental cues. Especially in environments where food is overly available, external cues seem to override and/or undermine internal signals, which put severe challenges on the accurate regulation of food intake. By structuring these external cues around five different phases in the food consumption process this paper aims to provide an overview of the wide range of external cues that potentially facilitate or hamper internal signals and with that influence food intake. For each of the five phases of the food consumption process, meal initiation, meal planning, consumption phase, end of eating episode and time till next meal, the most relevant internal signals are discussed and it is explained how specific external cues exert their influence.

  8. Design Methods for Young Sustainable Architecture Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jauslin, D.; Drexler, H.; Curiel, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces landscape aesthetics as an innovative design method for sustainable architecture. It is based on the framework of a recent paper where the young and unfamous authors criticized three of the most prominent? architects today in regard to sustainable architecture and its aesthetics. Leading architects expressed their skepticism as to whether there is such a thing as aesthetics in sustainable architecture, or for that matter, if architecture can indeed be sustainable at all....

  9. An Overview of Total Quality Management (TQM) practice in Construction Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likita, A. J.; Zainun, N. Y.; Rahman, I. Abdul; Awal, A. S. M. Abdul; Alias, A. R.; Rahman, M. Q. Abdul; Ghazali, F. E. Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    In construction sector TQM can be termed as a philosophy which guides construction professionals on the proper execution of construction projects in terms of quality. The aim of this paper is to discuss on quality management practice in construction sector. This paper evaluated five previous researches and the findings were discussed to find a conclusion of TQM practise in construction sector. The study found that TQM had been successfully practice in construction sector at Saudi Arabia, India, US and South Africa. Application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) help to improve the implementation of TQM in construction sector. In conclusion, quality management practices will give better control of processes in construction sector.

  10. Cumulative Risk Assessment: Overview of Agency Guidance, Practice and Current Major Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powerpoint presentation that includes the EPA's definition of CRA, relevant publications already in existence, the CRA Guidelines effort, science issues where research is still needed, program office practices related to CRA, and EPA research activities.

  11. Principles and Overview of Sampling Methods for Modeling Macromolecular Structure and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Tatiana; Moffatt, Ryan; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth; Shehu, Amarda

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of macromolecular structure and dynamics is fundamental to understanding how macromolecules carry out their functions in the cell. Significant advances have been made toward this end in silico, with a growing number of computational methods proposed yearly to study and simulate various aspects of macromolecular structure and dynamics. This review aims to provide an overview of recent advances, focusing primarily on methods proposed for exploring the structure space of macromolecules in isolation and in assemblies for the purpose of characterizing equilibrium structure and dynamics. In addition to surveying recent applications that showcase current capabilities of computational methods, this review highlights state-of-the-art algorithmic techniques proposed to overcome challenges posed in silico by the disparate spatial and time scales accessed by dynamic macromolecules. This review is not meant to be exhaustive, as such an endeavor is impossible, but rather aims to balance breadth and depth of strategies for modeling macromolecular structure and dynamics for a broad audience of novices and experts.

  12. An overview of the laser ranging method of space laser altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Chen, Yuwei; Hyyppä, Juha; Li, Song

    2017-11-01

    Space laser altimeter is an active remote sensing instrument to measure topographic map of Earth, Moon and planetary. The space laser altimeter determines the range between the instrument and laser footprint by measuring round trip time of laser pulse. The return pulse reflected from ground surface is gathered by the receiver of space laser altimeter, the pulsewidth and amplitude of which are changeable with the variability of the ground relief. Meantime, several kinds of noise overlapped on the return pulse signal affect its signal-to-noise ratio. To eliminate the influence of these factors that cause range walk and range uncertainty, the reliable laser ranging methods need to be implemented to obtain high-precision range results. Based on typical space laser altimeters in the past few decades, various ranging methods are expounded in detail according to the operational principle of instruments and timing method. By illustrating the concrete procedure of determining time of flight of laser pulse, this overview provides the comparison of the employed technologies in previous and undergoing research programs and prospect innovative technology for space laser altimeters in future.

  13. Thermodynamic properties of organic compounds estimation methods, principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Janz, George J

    1967-01-01

    Thermodynamic Properties of Organic Compounds: Estimation Methods, Principles and Practice, Revised Edition focuses on the progression of practical methods in computing the thermodynamic characteristics of organic compounds. Divided into two parts with eight chapters, the book concentrates first on the methods of estimation. Topics presented are statistical and combined thermodynamic functions; free energy change and equilibrium conversions; and estimation of thermodynamic properties. The next discussions focus on the thermodynamic properties of simple polyatomic systems by statistical the

  14. Overview of Court Practice Relating to the Right of the Limited Use of Someone Else's Property in an English Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria S. Arhipova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article author carries out the detailed overview of the court practice concerning the right of limited use of someone else's property in system of a common law. In it definition the concept "servitude", servitude signs of an English law is given, each of them is in detail described and additional requirements which are necessary for existence of the servitude are described. In the conclusion the author emphasizes that the case law, unfortunately, has for the judge certainly no binding force. In certain cases the judge has the right to deviate from precedents and to pass the decision, new on the content. This fact proves flexibility of case law, but at the same time and some uncertainty, the choice of one of a set of the available precedents and its interpretation at discretion depends on the judge.

  15. Adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD study: Overview of substance use assessment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista M. Lisdahl

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD Study (https://abcdstudy.org/ is to establish a national longitudinal cohort of 9 and 10 year olds that will be followed for 10 years in order to prospectively study the risk and protective factors influencing substance use and its consequences, examine the impact of substance use on neurocognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes, and to understand the relationship between substance use and psychopathology. This article provides an overview of the ABCD Study Substance Use Workgroup, provides the goals for the workgroup, rationale for the substance use battery, and includes details on the substance use module methods and measurement tools used during baseline, 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessment time-points. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of these substance use domains over a period of ten years in a nationwide sample of youth presents an unprecedented opportunity to further understand the timing and interactive relationships between substance use and neurocognitive, health, and psychopathology outcomes in youth living in the United States. Keywords: Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, Adolescent, Child, Substance use, Alcohol, Cannabis, Marijuana, Nicotine, Longitudinal, Methods, Assessment, Drug use, Prescription drug use, Inhalants

  16. Iodination and stability of somatostatin analogues: comparison of iodination techniques. A practical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2012-01-01

    For iodination ((125/127)I) of tyrosine-containing peptides, chloramin-T, Pre-Coated Iodo-Gen(®) tubes and Iodo-Beads(®) (Pierce) are commonly used for in vitro radioligand investigations and there have been reliant vendors hereof for decades. However, commercial availability of these radio-iodinated peptides is decreasing. For continuation of our research in this field we investigated and optimized (radio-)iodination of somatostatin analogues. In literature, radioiodination using here described somatostatin analogues and iodination techniques are described separately. Here we present an overview, including High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation and characterisation by mass spectrometry, to obtain mono- and di-iodinated analogues. Reaction kinetics of (125/127)I iodinated somatostatin analogues were investigated as function of reaction time and concentration of reactants, including somatostatin analogues, iodine and oxidizing agent. To our knowledge, for the here described somatostatin analogues, no (127)I iodination and optimization are described. (Radio-)iodinated somatostatin analogues could be preserved with a >90% radiochemical purity for 1 month after reversed phase HPLC-purification.

  17. Current Trends in Malaysian Higher Education and the Effect on Education Policy and Practice: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapragasem, Selvaraj; Krishnan, Anbalagan; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has evolved from a production-based to knowledge-based economy in order to stay relevant and compete in the global marketplace. Thus, the purpose of this article is to discuss current trends in Malaysian higher education and how these affect education policies and practices. Four main trends are discussed in this study: Globalization,…

  18. Waste management and radiation protection overview of the practices in the NEA member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Riotte, H.; Ruegger, B.

    2000-01-01

    For many years the NEA has been reviewing waste management practices in Member States. Measures applied in the nuclear fuel cycle to reduce waste generation are outlined and characteristics of waste management in all steps of the nuclear fuel cycle are described. Views gained are discussed. (author)

  19. Condutas usuais entre os reumatologistas brasileiros: levantamento nacional Routine clinical practices of Brazilian rheumatologists: national overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. C. Medeiros

    2006-04-01

    ão-hormonais (AINHs (89,3%, relaxante muscular (72,9%, fisioterapia (33,3%. O repouso no leito foi orientado por 31,6% dos especialistas. Num caso de lombalgia crônica com raio X recente mostrando espondilolistese grau 1 e discoartrose, 39,6% dos reumatologistas não solicitavam nenhum exame adicional, enquanto 26,2% e 24,4% solicitavam tomografia computadorizada (TC e ressonância nuclear magnética (RNM, respectivamente. As condutas mais indicadas nesse caso foram: fisioterapia (75,1%, relaxante muscular (48,5%, RPG (45,6%, exercícios físicos (41%, AINH seletivo da Cox-2 (40,5%, amitriptilina (35,3%, analgésicos opióides (34,7%. Outros cenários de artrose de joelho e ombro doloroso foram apresentados. CONCLUSÕES: a baixa taxa de devolução dos questionários pode refletir uma prática ainda não-incorporada na nossa cultura. O perfil dos reumatologistas respondedores é muito semelhante entre as regiões. A maioria das condutas escolhidas está de acordo com as melhores evidências disponíveis, refletindo uma homogeneidade de abordagem terapêutica entre os reumatologistas. Embora este estudo traga importantes dados sobre a prática reumatológica, pode não ser representativo da população de reumatologistas brasileiros, tendo em vista o baixo percentual de respondedores.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate routine clinical practices of Brazilian rheumatologists. METHOD: Virtual clinical scenarios representing a range of rheumatological practical situations were sent by mail to 831 specialists certified by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (SBR with postage-paid envelopes for reply. RESULTS: Only 21.4% of the questionnaires were returned. The average age of responding rheumatologists was 42.7 years (SD=11.7, with an average time since graduation from medical school of 19.8 years (SD=10.1. In a clinical scenario describing early active rheumatoid arthritis most respondents (84.7% chose to initiate treatment with prednisone or prednisolone. The most chosen disease modifying

  20. Methods to address ethical issues in Counterterrorisme : An overview of methods and tools used to address and manage ethical issues in healthcare, social work, police and the military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anke van Gorp; Stijn Hoorens

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chapter 4: Basing ourselves on a literature review and expert interviews we create an overview of methods and tools to identify and respond to ethical questions used in healthcare, social work, police and the military. We identify six main types of methods or tools that can support

  1. Conservative sharp wound debridement: an overview of Canadian education, practice, risk, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd-Nielsen, Elise; Harris, Connie L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the education, policy, practice, and risk management strategies of nurses performing conservative sharp wound debridement (CSWD) in Canada, prior to the release of the Canadian Association for Enterostomal Therapy Evidence-Based Recommendations for Conservative Sharp Wound Debridement. Data collection was based on a nonrandomized, nonexperimental study design and reported using descriptive statistics. Invitations for health care professionals to participate in a CSWD scan were sent to 4315 people via e-mail through the membership lists of 2 Canadian voluntary professional wound care associations. Skip logic screened out respondents who had no experience in CSWD (n = 57). The total number of professionals who participated was 487. A 26-question electronic scan addressed demographics, education, policy, practice, and risk/quality issues related to CSWD. A comment section was included for some questions. A selected subsample of 397 nurses was chosen from the original total of 487 respondents. Nonnurse respondents were excluded due to the low total number of participants in each of these other professional categories. Nurses perform CSWD in all types of care settings in Canada from outpost nursing stations to hospital wards, homes, and long-term care facilities. The wound education preparation reported varied. The most frequently reported formal wound care education was a 2-day course (59%; n = 220), followed by an enterostomal therapy course (42%; n = 155) and the International Interdisciplinary Wound Care Course (26%; n = 98), with overlapping preparation evident. Eleven percent of respondents (n = 47) reported having taken no formal wound course, and 7% (n = 27) taught themselves to perform CSWD. Twenty-eight percent of nurses (n = 112) were unclear about whether CSWD was within their scope of practice or replied that it was not, and 69% (n = 273) did not know if there was provincial legislation that restricted their

  2. Methodic of practical study teaching on subject 'Characteristic mechanical oscillations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenchurina, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article the methodic of the undertaking the practical lesson for subject 'the own mechanical vibrations' is considered and offered the algorithm of the problem decision the finding of the vibration period for the different mechanical systems. (author)

  3. Reviewing the research methods literature: principles and strategies illustrated by a systematic overview of sampling in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentles, Stephen J; Charles, Cathy; Nicholas, David B; Ploeg, Jenny; McKibbon, K Ann

    2016-10-11

    Overviews of methods are potentially useful means to increase clarity and enhance collective understanding of specific methods topics that may be characterized by ambiguity, inconsistency, or a lack of comprehensiveness. This type of review represents a distinct literature synthesis method, although to date, its methodology remains relatively undeveloped despite several aspects that demand unique review procedures. The purpose of this paper is to initiate discussion about what a rigorous systematic approach to reviews of methods, referred to here as systematic methods overviews, might look like by providing tentative suggestions for approaching specific challenges likely to be encountered. The guidance offered here was derived from experience conducting a systematic methods overview on the topic of sampling in qualitative research. The guidance is organized into several principles that highlight specific objectives for this type of review given the common challenges that must be overcome to achieve them. Optional strategies for achieving each principle are also proposed, along with discussion of how they were successfully implemented in the overview on sampling. We describe seven paired principles and strategies that address the following aspects: delimiting the initial set of publications to consider, searching beyond standard bibliographic databases, searching without the availability of relevant metadata, selecting publications on purposeful conceptual grounds, defining concepts and other information to abstract iteratively, accounting for inconsistent terminology used to describe specific methods topics, and generating rigorous verifiable analytic interpretations. Since a broad aim in systematic methods overviews is to describe and interpret the relevant literature in qualitative terms, we suggest that iterative decision making at various stages of the review process, and a rigorous qualitative approach to analysis are necessary features of this review type

  4. Progress in sensor performance testing, modeling and range prediction using the TOD method: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Piet; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Toet, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    The Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD) methodology includes i) a widely applicable, accurate end-to-end EO/IR sensor test, ii) an image-based sensor system model and iii) a Target Acquisition (TA) range model. The method has been extensively validated against TA field performance for a wide variety of well- and under-sampled imagers, systems with advanced image processing techniques such as dynamic super resolution and local adaptive contrast enhancement, and sensors showing smear or noise drift, for both static and dynamic test stimuli and as a function of target contrast. Recently, significant progress has been made in various directions. Dedicated visual and NIR test charts for lab and field testing are available and thermal test benches are on the market. Automated sensor testing using an objective synthetic human observer is within reach. Both an analytical and an image-based TOD model have recently been developed and are being implemented in the European Target Acquisition model ECOMOS and in the EOSTAR TDA. Further, the methodology is being applied for design optimization of high-end security camera systems. Finally, results from a recent perception study suggest that DRI ranges for real targets can be predicted by replacing the relevant distinctive target features by TOD test patterns of the same characteristic size and contrast, enabling a new TA modeling approach. This paper provides an overview.

  5. Going digital: a narrative overview of the clinical and organisational impacts of eHealth technologies in hospital practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keasberry, Justin; Scott, Ian A; Sullivan, Clair; Staib, Andrew; Ashby, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of hospital-based eHealth technologies on quality, safety and efficiency of care and clinical outcomes. Methods Systematic reviews and reviews of systematic reviews of eHealth technologies published in PubMed/Medline/Cochrane Library between January 2010 and October 2015 were evaluated. Reviews of implementation issues, non-hospital settings or remote care or patient-focused technologies were excluded from analysis. Methodological quality was assessed using a validated appraisal tool. Outcome measures were benefits and harms relating to electronic medical records (EMRs), computerised physician order entry (CPOE), electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) and computerised decision support systems (CDSS). Results are presented as a narrative overview given marked study heterogeneity. Results Nineteen systematic reviews and two reviews of systematic reviews were included from 1197 abstracts, nine rated as high quality. For EMR functions, there was moderate-quality evidence of reduced hospitalisations and length of stay and low-quality evidence of improved organisational efficiency, greater accuracy of information and reduced documentation and process turnaround times. For CPOE functions, there was moderate-quality evidence of reductions in turnaround times and resource utilisation. For ePrescribing, there was moderate-quality evidence of substantially fewer medications errors and adverse drug events, greater guideline adherence, improved disease control and decreased dispensing turnaround times. For CDSS, there was moderate-quality evidence of increased use of preventive care and drug interaction reminders and alerts, increased use of diagnostic aids, more appropriate test ordering with fewer tests per patient, greater guideline adherence, improved processes of care and less disease morbidity. There was conflicting evidence regarding effects on in-patient mortality and overall costs. Reported harms were

  6. 11. Basic Practice Methods in University General Piano Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raducanu Cristina Andra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to present and analyse some practicing piano methods which are used during secondary piano lessons at the university. The final goal was to show the benefits of these practice strategies in the process of learning a new piano piece. Experience demonstrated that in order to keep students motivated, there is a need for them to know how to approach and study a new repertoire and to be sure that implementing these practice methods will help them gain the necessary skills which will enable them to fluently perform a musical piece.

  7. An overview of quality control practices in Ontario with particular reference to cholesterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S; Webb, S; Henderson, A R; Cheung, C M; Nazir, D J; Richardson, H

    1999-03-01

    The Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program (LPTP) assesses the analytical performance of all licensed laboratories in Ontario. The LPTP Enzymes, Cardiac Markers, and Lipids Committee conducted a "Patterns of Practice" survey to assess the in-house quality control (QC) practices of laboratories in Ontario using cholesterol as the QC paradigm. The survey was questionnaire-based seeking information on statistical calculations, software rules, review process and data retention, and so on. Copies of the in-house cholesterol QC graphs were requested. A total of 120 of 210 laboratories were randomly chosen to receive the questionnaires during 1995 and 1996; 115 laboratories responded, although some did not answer all questions. The majority calculate means and standard deviations (SD) every month, using anywhere from 4 to >100 data points. 65% use a fixed mean and SD, while 17% use means calculated from the previous month. A few use a floating or cumulative mean. Some laboratories that do not use fixed means use a fixed SD. About 90% use some form of statistical quality control rules. The most common rules used to detect random error are 1(3s)/R4s while 2(2s)/4(1s)/10x are used for systematic errors. About 20% did not assay any QC at levels >5.5 mmol/L. Quality control data are reviewed daily (technologists), weekly and monthly (supervisors/directors). Most laboratories retain their QC records for up to 3 years on paper and magnetic media. On some QC graphs the mean and SD, QC product lot number, or reference to action logs are not apparent. Quality control practices in Ontario are, therefore, disappointing. Improvement is required in the use of clinically appropriate concentrations of QC material and documentation on QC graphs.

  8. Medical negligence. An overview of legal theory and neurosurgical practice: causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nicholas V

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses the principles of the law in relation to legal causation as applied to neurosurgical practice. Causation is a causal link between a breach of duty of care and the final harm. The fundamental "but-for" test for causation will be discussed, together with Chester v Afshar modified causation, prospective and retrospective probabilities of harm, loss of a chance, causation following breach of duty of care by omission, breaking the chain of causation, material contribution and the law in relation to multiple defendants, with neurosurgical examples.

  9. Financial Incentives to Enable Clean Energy Deployment: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Financial incentives have been widely implemented by governments around the world to support scaled up deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices. As of 2015, at least 48 countries have adopted financial incentives to support renewable energy and energy efficiency deployment. Broader clean energy strategies and plans provide a crucial foundation for financial incentives that often complement regulatory policies such as renewable energy targets, standards, and other mandates. This policy brief provides a primer on key financial incentive design elements, lessons from different country experiences, and curated support resources for more detailed and country-specific financial incentive design information.

  10. Forensic neuropsychology and expert witness testimony: An overview of forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Elizabeth L

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are frequently asked to serve as expert witnesses in an increasing number of legal contexts for civil and criminal proceedings. The skills required to practice forensic neuropsychology expand upon the knowledge, skills, and abilities developed by clinical neuropsychologists. Forensic neuropsychologists acquire expertise in understanding the roles and various functions of the legal system, as well as their role in addressing psycholegal questions to assist fact finders in making legal decisions. The required skills and the unique circumstances for clinical neuropsychologists pursing forensic work are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance analysis of dedicated short range communications technology and overview of the practicability for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Bassoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication is a widely researched field and aims at developing technologies that may complement systems such as the advanced driver assistance systems. It is therefore important to analyse and infer on the performance of vehicular technologies for different driving and on-road criteria. This study considers the dedicated short range communications technology and more precisely the IEEE 802.11p standard for a performance and practicability analysis. There is also the proposal of a new classification scheme for typical driving conditions, which includes the main categories of Emergency and Safety scenarios while sub-classifications of Critical and Preventive Safety also exist. The scheme is used to build up scenarios as well as related equations relevant to developing countries for practical network simulation. The results obtained indicate that the relative speed of nodes is a determining factor in the overall performance and effectiveness of wireless vehicular communication systems. Moreover, delay values of low order were observed while an effective communication range of about 800 m was calculated for highway scenarios. The research thus indicates suitability of the system for an active use in collision avoidance even though independent factors such as climatic conditions and driver behaviour may affect its effectiveness in critical situations.

  12. General Overview of Psychotherapeutic Practice in Poland. Results from a Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Grzesiuk, Lidia; Styła, Rafał; Krawczyk, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    A total of 1196 persons conducting psychotherapy in Poland fully completed a nationwide online survey (or, alternatively, a paper and pencil enquiry) concerning their education, training, experience, and clinical work (professional environment, patients treated). The results are described in detail and compared with findings of similar studies from other countries. Among the primary findings were: (1) psychotherapy in Poland is conducted mostly by women (80 %); (2) almost all participants have an MA degree (91 %), including 75.2 % having graduated in psychology; (3) the therapists are well trained (mean number of training hours is above 942) and established (average experience is about 9.8 years), however, more than half of the therapists have no type of certificate; (4) 54 % of respondents identify with the integrative or eclectic orientation and, simultaneously, for 48.6 % of the therapists the most important approach is either psychodynamic or psychoanalytic; (5) the most common form of therapy is individual psychotherapy in private practice; (6) the majority of the therapists treat adult patients with anxiety or personality disorders. In sum, the results show that psychotherapeutic practice is well established in Poland and many indices are similar to those found in Western countries.

  13. Conducting phenomenological research: Rationalizing the methods and rigour of the phenomenology of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti-Ibarrondo, Begoña; Jordán, José Antonio; Díez-Del-Corral, Mercedes P; Arantzamendi, María

    2018-03-15

    To offer a complete outlook in a readable easy way of van Manen's hermeneutic-phenomenological method to nurses interested in undertaking phenomenological research. Phenomenology, as research methodology, involves a certain degree of complexity. It is difficult to identify a single article or author which sets out the didactic guidelines that specifically guide research of this kind. In this context, the theoretical-practical view of Max van Manen's Phenomenology of Practice may be seen as a rigorous guide and directive on which researchers may find support to undertake phenomenological research. Discussion paper. This discussion paper is based on our own experiences and supported by literature and theory. Our central sources of data have been the books and writings of Max van Manen and his website "Phenomenologyonline". The principal methods of the hermeneutic-phenomenological method are addressed and explained providing an enriching overview of phenomenology of practice. A proposal is made for the way the suggestions made by van Manen might be organized for use with the methods involved in Phenomenology of Practice: Social sciences, philosophical and philological methods. Thereby, nurse researchers interested in conducting phenomenological research may find a global outlook and support to understand and conduct this type of inquiry which draws on the art. The approach in this article may help nurse scholars and researchers reach an overall, encompassing perspective of the main methods and activities involved in doing phenomenological research. Nurses interested in doing phenomenology of practice are expected to commit with reflection and writing. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Overview of the Practical and Theoretical Approaches to the Estimation of Mineral Resources. A Financial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources represent an important natural resource whose exploitation, unless it is rational, can lead to their exhaustion and the collapse of sustainable development. Given the importance of mineral resources and the uncertainty concerning the estimation of extant reserves, they have been analyzed by several national and international institutions. In this article we shall present a few aspects concerning the ways to approach the reserves of mineral resources at national and international level, by considering both economic aspects and those aspects concerned with the definition, classification and aggregation of the reserves of mineral resources by various specialized institutions. At present there are attempts to homogenize practices concerning these aspects for the purpose of presenting correct and comparable information.

  15. Overview of concrete containment design practice in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a historical summary of the engineering practices and their evolution applied to the design of concrete containment structures in the U.S.A. during the period 1965 to 1974. It reviews the broad spectrum of concrete containment designs developed for the three major Nuclear Steam Supply Systems, Pressurized Water Reactor, Boiling Water Reactor and High Temperature Gas Reactor employed or planned in the U.S.A. during this period. The development of deformed rebar and one way prestress as well as fully prestressed reinforced concrete containment is discussed. Particular attention is paid to base mat-containment shell joint design details as well as the design of reinforcement around large penetrations and those penetrations subject to large pipe thrust loads. In addition to the historical summary, current trends in containment design are identified and projections of future developments are presented. Finally, potential innovations such as plastic liners are discussed. (author)

  16. Review of bayesian statistical analysis methods for cytogenetic radiation biodosimetry, with a practical example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Lloyd, David C.; Rothkamm, Kai; Vinnikov, Volodymyr A.; Maznyk, Nataliya A.; Puig, Pedro; Higueras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Classical methods of assessing the uncertainty associated with radiation doses estimated using cytogenetic techniques are now extremely well defined. However, several authors have suggested that a Bayesian approach to uncertainty estimation may be more suitable for cytogenetic data, which are inherently stochastic in nature. The Bayesian analysis framework focuses on identification of probability distributions (for yield of aberrations or estimated dose), which also means that uncertainty is an intrinsic part of the analysis, rather than an 'afterthought'. In this paper Bayesian, as well as some more advanced classical, data analysis methods for radiation cytogenetics are reviewed that have been proposed in the literature. A practical overview of Bayesian cytogenetic dose estimation is also presented, with worked examples from the literature. (authors)

  17. An Overview of the Post-Harvest Grain Storage Practices of Smallholder Farmers in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Manandhar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Grain storage loss is a major contributor to post-harvest losses and is one of the main causes of food insecurity for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Thus, the objective of this review is to assess the conventional and emerging grain storage practices for smallholder farmers in developing countries and highlight their most promising features and drawbacks. Smallholder farmers in developing countries use conventional grain storage structures and handling systems such as woven bags or cribs to store grain. However, they are ineffective against mold and insects already present in the grain before storage. Different chemicals are also mixed with grain to improve grain storability. Hermetic storage systems are effective alternatives for grain storage as they have minimal storage losses without using any chemicals. However, hermetic bags are prone to damage and hermetic metal silos are cost-prohibitive to most smallholder farmers in developing countries. Thus, an ideal grain storage system for smallholder farmers should be hermetically sealable, mechanically durable, and cost-effective compared to the conventional storage options. Such a storage system will help reduce grain storage losses, maintain grain quality and contribute to reducing food insecurity for smallholder farmers in developing countries.

  18. Perioperative Management of Patients with Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Undergoing Major Orthopaedic Surgery: A Practical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtierotti, Roberta; Parisi, Marco; Ingegnoli, Francesca

    2018-04-01

    Patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases often need orthopaedic surgery due to joint involvement. Total hip replacement and total knee replacement are frequent surgical procedures in these patients. Due to the complexity of the inflammatory rheumatic diseases, the perioperative management of these patients must envisage a multidisciplinary approach. The frequent association with extraarticular comorbidities must be considered when evaluating perioperative risk of the patient and should guide the clinician in the decision-making process. However, guidelines of different medical societies may vary and are sometimes contradictory. Orthopaedics should collaborate with rheumatologists, anaesthesiologists and, when needed, cardiologists and haematologists with the common aim of minimising perioperative risk in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with simple practical recommendations regarding perioperative management of drugs such as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and tools for a risk stratification for cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk based on current evidence for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  19. Development of a Practical Costing Method for Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Pengyu; Toyabe, Shin-ichi; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2006-01-01

    To realize an effective cost control, a practical and accurate cost accounting system is indispensable in hospitals. In traditional cost accounting systems, the volume-based costing (VBC) is the most popular cost accounting method. In this method, the indirect costs are allocated to each cost object (services or units of a hospital) using a single indicator named a cost driver (e.g., Labor hours, revenues or the number of patients). However, this method often results in rough and inaccurate r...

  20. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participato...

  1. Local linearization methods for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, J.C.

    2009-06-01

    Local Linearization (LL) methods conform a class of one-step explicit integrators for ODEs derived from the following primary and common strategy: the vector field of the differential equation is locally (piecewise) approximated through a first-order Taylor expansion at each time step, thus obtaining successive linear equations that are explicitly integrated. Hereafter, the LL approach may include some additional strategies to improve that basic affine approximation. Theoretical and practical results have shown that the LL integrators have a number of convenient properties. These include arbitrary order of convergence, A-stability, linearization preserving, regularity under quite general conditions, preservation of the dynamics of the exact solution around hyperbolic equilibrium points and periodic orbits, integration of stiff and high-dimensional equations, low computational cost, and others. In this paper, a review of the LL methods and their properties is presented. (author)

  2. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a need to develop supportive new scientific evidence for contemporary Ayurveda has emerged. One of the research objectives is an assessment of the reliability of diagnoses and treatment. Reliability is a quantitative measure of consistency. It is a crucial issue in classification (such as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine diagnoses is in the formative stage. However, reliability studies in Ayurveda are in the preliminary stage. In this paper, examples are provided to illustrate relevant concepts of reliability studies of diagnostic methods and their implication in practice, education, and training. An introduction to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda. PMID:23930037

  3. Overview of integrative assessment of marine systems: the Ecosystem Approach in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eBorja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional and emerging human activities are increasingly putting pressures on marine ecosystems and impacting their ability to sustain ecological and human communities. To evaluate the health status of marine ecosystems we need a science-based, integrated Ecosystem Approach, that incorporates knowledge of ecosystem function and services provided that can be used to track how management decisions change the health of marine ecosystems. Although many methods have been developed to assess the status of single components of the ecosystem, few exist for assessing multiple ecosystem components in a holistic way. To undertake such an integrative assessment, it is necessary to understand the response of marine systems to human pressures. Hence, innovative monitoring is needed to obtain data to determine the health of large marine areas, and in an holistic way. Here we review five existing methods that address both of these needs (monitoring and assessment: the Ecosystem Health Assessment Tool; a method for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in the Bay of Biscay; the Ocean Health Index; the Marine Biodiversity Assessment Tool; and the Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool. We have highlighted their main characteristics and analyzing their commonalities and differences, in terms of: use of the Ecosystem Approach; inclusion of multiple components in the assessment; use of reference conditions; use of integrative assessments; use of a range of values to capture the status; weighting ecosystem components when integrating; determine the uncertainty; ensure spatial and temporal comparability; use of robust monitoring approaches; and address pressures and impacts. Ultimately, for any ecosystem assessment to be effective it needs to be: transparent and repeatable and, in order to inform marine management, the results should be easy to communicate to wide audiences, including scientists, managers and policymakers.

  4. Imaging Techniques in Endodontics: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, B. S.; Subash, T. S.; Narmatha, V. J.; Anamika, T.; Snehil, T. K.; Nandini, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the relevance of imaging techniques such as, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, and ultrasound, to endodontic practice. Many limitations of the conventional radiographic techniques have been overcome by the newer methods. Advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques in endodontic practice are also discussed. PMID:22530184

  5. Pregnancy diagnosis in sheep: review of the most practical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karen, A.; Szenci, O.; Kovacs, P.; Beckers, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Various practical methods have been used for pregnancy diagnosis in sheep: radiography, rectal abdominal palpation, assessment of progesterone, assessment of estrone sulphate, RIA assay of placental lactogen, assessment of pregnancy proteins or pregnancy-associated glycoproteins, A-mode ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Real-time, B-mode ultrasonography appears to be the most practical and accurate method for diagnosing pregnancy and determining fetal numbers in sheep. Transabdominal B-mode ultrasonography achieved high accuracy for pregnancy diagnosis (94-100 %) and the determination of fetal numbers (92-99 %) on d 29 to 106 of gestation

  6. The Practice of Korean Medicine: An Overview of Clinical Trials in Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Suk Kim

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture, one of the Oriental medical therapeutic techniques that can be traced back at least 2500 years, is growing in popularity all over the world. Korea has continued to develop its own unique tradition of medicine throughout its long history, and has formed different types of acupuncture methods. The purpose of this review is to summarize clinical case studies in acupuncture and related therapies, such as acupressure, electric acupuncture, auricular acupuncture and moxibustion in Korea. A survey of Korean journals revealed that a total of 124 studies were published from 1983 to 2001. Results obtained from the survey showed that most clinical studies using acupuncture, electric acupuncture, moxibustion and other traditional therapies could alleviate a relatively broad range of medical problems. However, it should be emphasized that almost all clinical case studies published in various local journals did not follow the ‘good clinical practice’ with respect to regulatory aspects. Since they were not conducted using the randomized double-blinded controls with a large sample size, all the results should be considered as therapeutic indications. This review is an attempt to show the scope of acupuncture in our country and the kind of diseases, after many years of clinical experience, that were deemed valid targets for clinical trials.

  7. An Overview of Practical Applications of Protein Disorder Prediction and Drive for Faster, More Accurate Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Gumm, Jordan; Karki, Suman; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin

    2015-07-07

    Protein disordered regions are segments of a protein chain that do not adopt a stable structure. Thus far, a variety of protein disorder prediction methods have been developed and have been widely used, not only in traditional bioinformatics domains, including protein structure prediction, protein structure determination and function annotation, but also in many other biomedical fields. The relationship between intrinsically-disordered proteins and some human diseases has played a significant role in disorder prediction in disease identification and epidemiological investigations. Disordered proteins can also serve as potential targets for drug discovery with an emphasis on the disordered-to-ordered transition in the disordered binding regions, and this has led to substantial research in drug discovery or design based on protein disordered region prediction. Furthermore, protein disorder prediction has also been applied to healthcare by predicting the disease risk of mutations in patients and studying the mechanistic basis of diseases. As the applications of disorder prediction increase, so too does the need to make quick and accurate predictions. To fill this need, we also present a new approach to predict protein residue disorder using wide sequence windows that is applicable on the genomic scale.

  8. An Overview of Practical Applications of Protein Disorder Prediction and Drive for Faster, More Accurate Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Deng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein disordered regions are segments of a protein chain that do not adopt a stable structure. Thus far, a variety of protein disorder prediction methods have been developed and have been widely used, not only in traditional bioinformatics domains, including protein structure prediction, protein structure determination and function annotation, but also in many other biomedical fields. The relationship between intrinsically-disordered proteins and some human diseases has played a significant role in disorder prediction in disease identification and epidemiological investigations. Disordered proteins can also serve as potential targets for drug discovery with an emphasis on the disordered-to-ordered transition in the disordered binding regions, and this has led to substantial research in drug discovery or design based on protein disordered region prediction. Furthermore, protein disorder prediction has also been applied to healthcare by predicting the disease risk of mutations in patients and studying the mechanistic basis of diseases. As the applications of disorder prediction increase, so too does the need to make quick and accurate predictions. To fill this need, we also present a new approach to predict protein residue disorder using wide sequence windows that is applicable on the genomic scale.

  9. Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Philippe G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD; the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in

  10. Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Philippe G

    2008-01-01

    Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD); the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in cooperation with community

  11. Methods and practices for verification and validation of programmable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimbuerger, H.; Haapanen, P.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1993-01-01

    The programmable systems deviate by their properties and behaviour from the conventional non-programmable systems in such extent, that their verification and validation for safety critical applications requires new methods and practices. The safety assessment can not be based on conventional probabilistic methods due to the difficulties in the quantification of the reliability of the software and hardware. The reliability estimate of the system must be based on qualitative arguments linked to a conservative claim limit. Due to the uncertainty of the quantitative reliability estimate other means must be used to get more assurance about the system safety. Methods and practices based on research done by VTT for STUK, are discussed in the paper as well as the methods applicable in the reliability analysis of software based safety functions. The most essential concepts and models of quantitative reliability analysis are described. The application of software models in probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is evaluated. (author). 18 refs

  12. Modelling Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan

    This report provides an overview of the existing models of global manufacturing, describes the required modelling views and associated methods and identifies tools, which can provide support for this modelling activity.The model adopted for global manufacturing is that of an extended enterprise s...

  13. Cost-Efficient Methods and Processes for Safety Relevant Embedded Systems (CESAR) - An Objective Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Graham

    For developing embedded safety critical systems, industrial companies have to face increasing complexity and variety coupled with increasing regulatory constraints, while costs, performances and time to market are constantly challenged. This has led to a profusion of enablers (new processes, methods and tools), which are neither integrated nor interoperable because they have been developed more or less independently (addressing only a part of the complexity: e.g. Safety) in the absence of internationally recognized open standards. CESAR has been established under ARTEMIS, the European Union's Joint Technology Initiative for research in embedded systems, with the aim to improve this situation and this pa-per will explain what CESAR's objectives are, how they are expected to be achieved and, in particular, how current best practice can ensure that safety engineering requirements can be met.

  14. A Practical Method for Collecting Social Media Campaign Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharis, Laurie W.; Hightower, Mary F.

    2017-01-01

    Today's Extension professionals are tasked with more work and fewer resources. Integrating social media campaigns into outreach efforts can be an efficient way to meet work demands. If resources go toward social media, a practical method for collecting metrics is needed. Collecting metrics adds one more task to the workloads of Extension…

  15. THE PRACTICAL ANALYSIS OF FINITE ELEMENTS METHOD ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bakhova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The most important in the practical plan questions of reliable estimations of finite elementsmethod errors are considered. Definition rules of necessary calculations accuracy are developed. Methodsand ways of the calculations allowing receiving at economical expenditures of computing work the best finalresults are offered.Keywords: error, given the accuracy, finite element method, lagrangian and hermitian elements.

  16. Mixed methods in health sciences research: a practical primer [Leslie Curry and Marcella-Nunez Smith (Sage Publishing, 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, David

    2016-01-01

    Written by internationally-recognised health research experts, Leslie Curry and Marcella Nunez-Smith, this book aims to show researchers and students in the health sciences how to design, conduct, review and use mixed methods. Given the increased use of mixed methods in the health sciences, this text is timely and unique in that it offers a discipline-specific focus that is both relevant and practical. The book has a logical structure and is broken down into four parts: (1) an overview of ...

  17. Simulation methods to estimate design power: an overview for applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Hogan, Daniel R; Colford, John M; Hubbard, Alan E

    2011-06-20

    Estimating the required sample size and statistical power for a study is an integral part of study design. For standard designs, power equations provide an efficient solution to the problem, but they are unavailable for many complex study designs that arise in practice. For such complex study designs, computer simulation is a useful alternative for estimating study power. Although this approach is well known among statisticians, in our experience many epidemiologists and social scientists are unfamiliar with the technique. This article aims to address this knowledge gap. We review an approach to estimate study power for individual- or cluster-randomized designs using computer simulation. This flexible approach arises naturally from the model used to derive conventional power equations, but extends those methods to accommodate arbitrarily complex designs. The method is universally applicable to a broad range of designs and outcomes, and we present the material in a way that is approachable for quantitative, applied researchers. We illustrate the method using two examples (one simple, one complex) based on sanitation and nutritional interventions to improve child growth. We first show how simulation reproduces conventional power estimates for simple randomized designs over a broad range of sample scenarios to familiarize the reader with the approach. We then demonstrate how to extend the simulation approach to more complex designs. Finally, we discuss extensions to the examples in the article, and provide computer code to efficiently run the example simulations in both R and Stata. Simulation methods offer a flexible option to estimate statistical power for standard and non-traditional study designs and parameters of interest. The approach we have described is universally applicable for evaluating study designs used in epidemiologic and social science research.

  18. Overview of interatomic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonny, G.; Malerba, L.

    2005-12-01

    In this report an overview on interatomic potentials is given. This overview is by no means complete and it has merely the intention to give the reader an idea of where interatomic potentials come from, as well as to provide the basic ideas behind some commonly used methods for deriving interatomic potentials for molecular dynamics applications. We start by giving a short introduction about the concept of interatomic potential in the framework of quantum mechanics, followed by a short description of commonly used methods for deriving semi-empirical interatomic potentials. After some short theoretical notions on each method, some practical parameterizations of commonly used potentials are given, including very recent ones. An effort has been made to classify existing approaches within a rational and consequent scheme, which is believed to be of use for a thorough comprehension of the topic. Although these approaches can be used in a variety of different materials, we will only discuss the practical cases of metals. Following this, some widespread ad hoc modification of the general methods are discussed. The report is concluded by a generalization of the methods to multi-component materials, in particular metallic alloys. (author)

  19. Discourses and Practices in Teaching Methods and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gopinath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Translating the purposes of education into practice is particularly challenging for those who are new or have recently entered academia. By reflecting on my first years of teaching in higher education, I discuss two key aspects of my teaching practice: shifts in choice of teaching methods and a critique of different forms of assessment. Through the discussion, I argue that a teacher needs to be reflective on both these aspects and that such reflection needs to be carried out so that the student develops into a “self-directing,” “self-monitoring,” and “self-correcting” individual. At the end of the discussion, the relevance of a “project-based learning” approach starts to become significant in taking my pedagogical practice forward.

  20. The Influence of Methods Massed Practice and Distributed Practice Model on The Speed and Accuracy of Service Tennis Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Desak Wiwin,; Edy Mintarto; Nurkholis Nurkholis

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze about (1) the effect of the method massed practice against the speed and accuracy of service, (2) the effect of the method of distributed practice against the speed and accuracy of service and (3) the influence of methods of massed practice and distributed practice against the speed and accuracy of service. This type of research used in this research is quantitative with quasiexperimental methods. The research design uses a non-randomized control group...

  1. Will genomic selection be a practical method for plant breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Akihiro; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2012-11-01

    Genomic selection or genome-wide selection (GS) has been highlighted as a new approach for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in recent years. GS is a form of MAS that selects favourable individuals based on genomic estimated breeding values. Previous studies have suggested the utility of GS, especially for capturing small-effect quantitative trait loci, but GS has not become a popular methodology in the field of plant breeding, possibly because there is insufficient information available on GS for practical use. In this review, GS is discussed from a practical breeding viewpoint. Statistical approaches employed in GS are briefly described, before the recent progress in GS studies is surveyed. GS practices in plant breeding are then reviewed before future prospects are discussed. Statistical concepts used in GS are discussed with genetic models and variance decomposition, heritability, breeding value and linear model. Recent progress in GS studies is reviewed with a focus on empirical studies. For the practice of GS in plant breeding, several specific points are discussed including linkage disequilibrium, feature of populations and genotyped markers and breeding scheme. Currently, GS is not perfect, but it is a potent, attractive and valuable approach for plant breeding. This method will be integrated into many practical breeding programmes in the near future with further advances and the maturing of its theory.

  2. Operationalising UN security council resolution 1540: an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.

    2009-01-01

    The UN member states are continuing to take measures to inter alia establish and effectively implement controls to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and their means of delivery in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004). The resolution also encourages enhanced international cooperation on such efforts, including by working through the 1540 Committee. Most analyses on the implementation of the resolution have focused on nuclear issues. This presentation provides an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas, including chemical product classification and identification, biosafety and biosecurity practices and criminal prosecutions for unauthorised chemical transfers.(author)

  3. An overview of development and application of acoustic emission methods in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutten, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Beneficial uses being made of acoustic emission (AE) technology for flaw or fault detection both inside of and outside of the nuclear industry tend to be obscured by some of the earlier disappointing efforts to utilize the technology. The objective of this paper is to counter that tendency by providing an overview of a variety of AE applications being made in the United States. In addition to nuclear power applications, the paper discusses applications in other nuclear areas, fossil power plant applications, and other industrial uses including aircraft monitoring. Major AE research and development programs in progress in the United States are also summarized. (orig.)

  4. Overview of Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTVs), Alternative Methods in Human Health Risk Assessment, and the RapidTox Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster provides an overview of three key lines of ongoing work at EPA/ORD/NCEA-CIN: Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTVs), Alternative Methods in Human Health Risk Assessment, and the RapidTox Dashboard collaboration.

  5. On the development of a theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Volume 3 : executive summary : overview of methods, results, and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The executive summary of this Final Report offers an overview of : methods, results, and conclusions which support the development of a : theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Such a theory : will be useful in the design of transpo...

  6. Research Circles - a method for developing guidance practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This video reports on our work with using research circles to improve our understanding of how to provide guidance and counseling to help young people in danger of dropping out of school. The video is based on the paper: Research Circles -- a method for developing guidance practices, and was pres......This video reports on our work with using research circles to improve our understanding of how to provide guidance and counseling to help young people in danger of dropping out of school. The video is based on the paper: Research Circles -- a method for developing guidance practices......, and was presented at the Conference for Social Justice, Prosperity and Sustainable Employment 2012 by assistant professor Helle Merete Nordentoft from DPU (http://edu.au.dk/). The film communicating the research paper was created by Mie Nørgaard...

  7. Practicing the practice: Learning to guide elementary science discussions in a practice-oriented science methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashima Mathur

    University methods courses are often criticized for telling pre-service teachers, or interns, about the theories behind teaching instead of preparing them to actually enact teaching. Shifting teacher education to be more "practice-oriented," or to focus more explicitly on the work of teaching, is a current trend for re-designing the way we prepare teachers. This dissertation addresses the current need for research that unpacks the shift to more practice-oriented approaches by studying the content and pedagogical approaches in a practice-oriented, masters-level elementary science methods course (n=42 interns). The course focused on preparing interns to guide science classroom discussions. Qualitative data, such as video records of course activities and interns' written reflections, were collected across eight course sessions. Codes were applied at the sentence and paragraph level and then grouped into themes. Five content themes were identified: foregrounding student ideas and questions, steering discussion toward intended learning goals, supporting students to do the cognitive work, enacting teacher role of facilitator, and creating a classroom culture for science discussions. Three pedagogical approach themes were identified. First, the teacher educators created images of science discussions by modeling and showing videos of this practice. They also provided focused teaching experiences by helping interns practice the interactive aspects of teaching both in the methods classroom and with smaller groups of elementary students in schools. Finally, they structured the planning and debriefing phases of teaching so interns could learn from their teaching experiences and prepare well for future experiences. The findings were analyzed through the lens of Grossman and colleagues' framework for teaching practice (2009) to reveal how the pedagogical approaches decomposed, represented, and approximated practice throughout course activities. Also, the teacher educators

  8. Transfer Pricing Profit Split Methods : A Practical Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Quttineh, Yousef

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to explain and analyze whether today’s existing regulations provide sufficient guidance on how to apply the Profit Split Method (PSM) in practice. Since the enterprises’ profits arising from intra-group transactions increases, the tax base for any government also becomes larger and more important. This issue will likely become even more problematic as the globalization branches out and the majority of the global trade is undertaken between associated ent...

  9. Overview and technical and practical aspects for use of geostatistics in hazardous-, toxic-, and radioactive-waste-site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossong, C.R.; Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.; Vecchia, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    Technical and practical aspects of applying geostatistics are developed for individuals involved in investigation at hazardous-, toxic-, and radioactive-waste sites. Important geostatistical concepts, such as variograms and ordinary, universal, and indicator kriging, are described in general terms for introductory purposes and in more detail for practical applications. Variogram modeling using measured ground-water elevation data is described in detail to illustrate principles of stationarity, anisotropy, transformations, and cross validation. Several examples of kriging applications are described using ground-water-level elevations, bedrock elevations, and ground-water-quality data. A review of contemporary literature and selected public domain software associated with geostatistics also is provided, as is a discussion of alternative methods for spatial modeling, including inverse distance weighting, triangulation, splines, trend-surface analysis, and simulation

  10. Evaluating rehabilitation methods - some practical results from Rum Jungle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.

    1987-01-01

    Research and analysis of the following aspects of rehabilitation have been conducted at the Rum Jungle mine site over the past three years: drainage structure stability; rock batter stability; soil fauna; tree growth in compacted soils; rehabilitation costs. The results show that, for future rehabilitation projects adopting refined methods, attention to final construction detail and biospheric influences is most important. The mine site offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the success of a variety of rehabilitation methods to the benefit of the industry in Australia overseas. It is intended that practical, economic, research will continue for some considerable time

  11. Practical methods for exposure control/management at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twiggs, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure management/reduction is very important to Duke Power Company. Practical exposure control/reduction techniques applied to their reactor vessel head disassembly outage activity have consistently reduced personnel exposure for this task. The following exposure control methods have worked for use and will be the industry's direction for the 1990's. A summary of these methods includes: (a) move the responsibility of exposure management from the Radiation Protection group to the Maintenance group; (b) reduce area source term by removal of source; (c) improve working environments in radiation areas by minimizing protective clothing usage; and (d) maximize the use of electronic instruments to allow remote monitoring

  12. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. PMID:24279835

  14. Practical methods to improve the development of computational software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, A. G.; Harding, D. W.; Deinert, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of computation has become ubiquitous in science and engineering. As the complexity of computer codes has increased, so has the need for robust methods to minimize errors. Past work has show that the number of functional errors is related the number of commands that a code executes. Since the late 1960's, major participants in the field of computation have encouraged the development of best practices for programming to help reduce coder induced error, and this has lead to the emergence of 'software engineering' as a field of study. Best practices for coding and software production have now evolved and become common in the development of commercial software. These same techniques, however, are largely absent from the development of computational codes by research groups. Many of the best practice techniques from the professional software community would be easy for research groups in nuclear science and engineering to adopt. This paper outlines the history of software engineering, as well as issues in modern scientific computation, and recommends practices that should be adopted by individual scientific programmers and university research groups. (authors)

  15. Teaching Evidence-Based Practice across Curricula-An Overview of a Professional Development Course for Occupational Therapy Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Marta M; DeAngelis, Tina M

    2017-01-01

    A professional development course for occupational therapy educators about teaching evidence-based practice (EBP) was developed and piloted. The course was developed to promote increased awareness of resources and methods for teaching EBP that are applicable across entry-level curricula. Participants included full-time faculty (n = 7) from one entry-level occupational therapy program in the New York City area. The results of the pilot informed refinement of the course in preparation for delivery to a wider audience of educators. This paper provides a description of the course, results of the pilot, and implications for future delivery of the course.

  16. An online forum as a qualitative research method: practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2006-01-01

    Despite the positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known on the practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. The aim of this study was to describe the practical issues encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranging from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of the discussions were reviewed and analyzed using content analysis. Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: (a) a high response and retention rate and (b) automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants' forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.

  17. The experimental field work as practical learning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Fernández Losa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a teaching experience about experimental field work as practical learning method implemented in the subject of Organizational Behaviour. With this teaching experience we pretend to change the practical training, as well as in its evaluation process, in order to favour the development of transversal skills of students. For this purpose, the use of a practice plan, tackled through an experimental field work and carried out with the collaboration of a business organization within a work team (as organic unity of learning, arises as an alternative to the traditional method of practical teachings and allows the approach of business reality into the classroom, as well as actively promote the use of transversal skills. In particular, we develop the experience in three phases. Initially, the students, after forming a working group and define a field work project, should get the collaboration of a nearby business organization in which to obtain data on one or more functional areas of organizational behaviour. Subsequently, students carry out the field work with the realization of the scheduled visits and elaboration of a memory to establish a diagnosis of the strategy followed by the company in these functional areas in order to propose and justify alternative actions that improve existing ones. Finally, teachers assess the different field work memories and their public presentations according to evaluation rubrics, which try to objectify and unify to the maximum the evaluation criteria and serve to guide the learning process of students. The results of implementation of this teaching experience, measured through a Likert questionnaire, are very satisfactory for students.

  18. A practical method to evaluate radiofrequency exposure of mast workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanko, T.; Hietanen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of occupational exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields in telecommunication transmitter masts is a challenging task. For conventional field strength measurements using manually operated instruments, it is difficult to document the locations of measurements while climbing up a mast. Logging RF dosemeters worn by the workers, on the other hand, do not give any information about the location of the exposure. In this study, a practical method was developed and applied to assess mast workers' exposure to RF fields and the corresponding location. This method uses a logging dosemeter for personal RF exposure evaluation and two logging barometers to determine the corresponding height of the worker's position on the mast. The procedure is not intended to be used for compliance assessments, but to indicate locations where stricter assessments are needed. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by making measurements in a TV and radio transmitting mast. (authors)

  19. Guidance for using mixed methods design in nursing practice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Newman, David; Dyess, Susan; Piyakong, Duangporn; Liehr, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The mixed methods approach purposefully combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques, enabling a multi-faceted understanding of nursing phenomena. The purpose of this article is to introduce three mixed methods designs (parallel; sequential; conversion) and highlight interpretive processes that occur with the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings. Real world examples of research studies conducted by the authors will demonstrate the processes leading to the merger of data. The examples include: research questions; data collection procedures and analysis with a focus on synthesizing findings. Based on experience with mixed methods studied, the authors introduce two synthesis patterns (complementary; contrasting), considering application for practice and implications for research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a practical costing method for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengyu; Toyabe, Shin-Ichi; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2006-03-01

    To realize an effective cost control, a practical and accurate cost accounting system is indispensable in hospitals. In traditional cost accounting systems, the volume-based costing (VBC) is the most popular cost accounting method. In this method, the indirect costs are allocated to each cost object (services or units of a hospital) using a single indicator named a cost driver (e.g., Labor hours, revenues or the number of patients). However, this method often results in rough and inaccurate results. The activity based costing (ABC) method introduced in the mid 1990s can prove more accurate results. With the ABC method, all events or transactions that cause costs are recognized as "activities", and a specific cost driver is prepared for each activity. Finally, the costs of activities are allocated to cost objects by the corresponding cost driver. However, it is much more complex and costly than other traditional cost accounting methods because the data collection for cost drivers is not always easy. In this study, we developed a simplified ABC (S-ABC) costing method to reduce the workload of ABC costing by reducing the number of cost drivers used in the ABC method. Using the S-ABC method, we estimated the cost of the laboratory tests, and as a result, similarly accurate results were obtained with the ABC method (largest difference was 2.64%). Simultaneously, this new method reduces the seven cost drivers used in the ABC method to four. Moreover, we performed an evaluation using other sample data from physiological laboratory department to certify the effectiveness of this new method. In conclusion, the S-ABC method provides two advantages in comparison to the VBC and ABC methods: (1) it can obtain accurate results, and (2) it is simpler to perform. Once we reduce the number of cost drivers by applying the proposed S-ABC method to the data for the ABC method, we can easily perform the cost accounting using few cost drivers after the second round of costing.

  1. Practical methods of target preparation for use in nuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao.

    1976-01-01

    This is the fifth report on the practical methods of target preparation for use in nuclear experiments following the previous one (INS-J-152, 1975). Electro-deposition is a very powerful technique well suited to the preparation of self-supporting targets of Ni, Cr, Zn, Rh, Cd, Sb and Pb metals over a wide range of thickness from 1 to 20 mg/cm 2 . The uniformities of the thicknesses of Cr, Zn, Rh, Cd and Pb targets were measured with α- and β-ray thickness gauges. The impurities in Cr target were checked by the measurement of elastically scattered protons, and by a optical spectrometer. (auth.)

  2. Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Filella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn; (ii more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic; and (iii methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb, nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework.

  3. Methods to Succeed in Effective Knowledge Translation in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Alison L; Harvey, Gillian

    2016-05-01

    To explore the evidence around facilitation as an intervention for the successful implementation of new knowledge into clinical practice. The revised version of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework, called the integrated or i-PARIHS framework, is used as the explanatory framework. This framework posits that evidence is a multidimensional construct embedded within innovation and operationalized by clinicians (individuals and within teams), working across multiple layers of context. Facilitation is the active ingredient that promotes successful implementation. An emerging body of evidence supports facilitation as a mechanism to getting new knowledge into clinical practice. Facilitation roles are divided into beginner, experienced, and expert facilitators. Facilitators can be internal or external to the organization they work in, and their skills and attributes complement other knowledge translation (KT) roles. Complex KT projects require facilitators who are experienced in implementation methods. Facilitation is positioned as the active ingredient to effectively introduce new knowledge into a clinical setting. Levels of facilitation experience are assessed in relation to the complexity of the KT task. Three core facilitation roles are identified, and structured interventions are established taking into account the nature and novelty of the evidence, the receptiveness of the clinicians, and the context or setting where the new evidence is to be introduced. Roles such as novice, experienced, and expert facilitators have important and complementary parts to play in enabling the successful translation of evidence into everyday practice in order to provide effective care for patients. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Implementing falls prevention research into policy and practice: an overview of a new National Health and Medical Research Council Partnership Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Stephen R; Delbaere, Kim; Tiedemann, Anne; Smith, Stuart T; Sturnieks, Daina L

    2011-06-01

    Preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people is an urgent public health challenge. This paper provides an overview of the background to and research planned for a 5-year National Health and Medical Research Council Partnership Grant on implementing falls prevention research findings into policy and practice. This program represents a partnership between key Australian falls prevention researchers, policy makers and information technology companies which aims to: (1) fill gaps in evidence relating to the prevention of falls in older people, involving new research studies of risk factor assessment and interventions for falls prevention; (2) translate evidence into policy and practice, examining the usefulness of new risk-identification tools in clinical practice; and (3) disseminate evidence to health professionals working with older people, via presentations, new evidence-based guidelines, improved resources and learning tools, to improve the workforce capacity to prevent falls and associated injuries in the future.

  5. Interpolation in Time Series: An Introductive Overview of Existing Methods, Their Performance Criteria and Uncertainty Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lepot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A thorough review has been performed on interpolation methods to fill gaps in time-series, efficiency criteria, and uncertainty quantifications. On one hand, there are numerous available methods: interpolation, regression, autoregressive, machine learning methods, etc. On the other hand, there are many methods and criteria to estimate efficiencies of these methods, but uncertainties on the interpolated values are rarely calculated. Furthermore, while they are estimated according to standard methods, the prediction uncertainty is not taken into account: a discussion is thus presented on the uncertainty estimation of interpolated/extrapolated data. Finally, some suggestions for further research and a new method are proposed.

  6. Overview of frequency bandwidth determination techniques of useful signal in case of leaks detection by correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faerman, V A; Avramchuk, V S; Luneva, E E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an overview of useful signal detection methods on the background of intense noise and limits determination methods of useful signal is presented. The following features are considered: peculiarities of usage of correlation analysis, cross-amplitude spectrum, coherence function, cross-phase spectrum, time-frequency correlation function in case of frequency limits determination as well as leaks detection in pipelines. The possibility of using time-frequency correlation function for solving above named issues is described. Time- frequency correlation function provides information about the signals correlation for each of the investigated frequency bands. Data about location of peaks on the surface plot of a time- frequency correlation function allows making an assumption about the spectral composition of useful signal and its frequency boundaries

  7. A practical method for accurate quantification of large fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Soo; Cho, Nam Zin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical method to accurately quantify top event probability and importance measures from incomplete minimal cut sets (MCS) of a large fault tree. The MCS-based fault tree method is extensively used in probabilistic safety assessments. Several sources of uncertainties exist in MCS-based fault tree analysis. The paper is focused on quantification of the following two sources of uncertainties: (1) the truncation neglecting low-probability cut sets and (2) the approximation in quantifying MCSs. The method proposed in this paper is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique to estimate probability of the discarded MCSs and the sum of disjoint products (SDP) approach complemented by the correction factor approach (CFA). The method provides capability to accurately quantify the two uncertainties and estimate the top event probability and importance measures of large coherent fault trees. The proposed fault tree quantification method has been implemented in the CUTREE code package and is tested on the two example fault trees

  8. Overview of Akatsuki data products: definition of data levels, method and accuracy of geometric correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogohara, Kazunori; Takagi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shin-ya; Horinouchi, Takeshi; Yamada, Manabu; Kouyama, Toru; Hashimoto, George L.; Imamura, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Yukio; Kashimura, Hiroki; Hirata, Naru; Sato, Naoki; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Satoh, Takehiko; Iwagami, Naomoto; Taguchi, Makoto; Watanabe, Shigeto; Sato, Takao M.; Ohtsuki, Shoko; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Futaguchi, Masahiko; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Kameda, Shingo; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Ando, Hiroki; Lee, Yeon Joo; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Makoto; Hirose, Chikako; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi

    2017-12-01

    We provide an overview of data products from observations by the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter, Akatsuki, and describe the definition and content of each data-processing level. Levels 1 and 2 consist of non-calibrated and calibrated radiance (or brightness temperature), respectively, as well as geometry information (e.g., illumination angles). Level 3 data are global-grid data in the regular longitude-latitude coordinate system, produced from the contents of Level 2. Non-negligible errors in navigational data and instrumental alignment can result in serious errors in the geometry calculations. Such errors cause mismapping of the data and lead to inconsistencies between radiances and illumination angles, along with errors in cloud-motion vectors. Thus, we carefully correct the boresight pointing of each camera by fitting an ellipse to the observed Venusian limb to provide improved longitude-latitude maps for Level 3 products, if possible. The accuracy of the pointing correction is also estimated statistically by simulating observed limb distributions. The results show that our algorithm successfully corrects instrumental pointing and will enable a variety of studies on the Venusian atmosphere using Akatsuki data.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Practical methods for radiation survey in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.

    2001-12-01

    This study is placed to those who are responsible to perform radiation survey in the nuclear installations, especially the beginners. Therefore, it gives a comprehensive view to all-important aspects related to their work starting from the structure of atoms to the practical steps for radiation survey works. So, it clarify how to perform personal monitoring, methods for monitoring surface contamination, methods for measuring radioactivity of gases and radioactive aerosols in air, monitoring radiation doses, measuring radiation influences in workplaces and finally measuring internal exposure of radiation workers in nuclear installations. Finally, The study shows some cases of breaches of radiation protection rules in some American nuclear installations and describes the final results of these breaches. The aim of this is to assure that any breach or ignore to radiation protection principles may produce bad results, and there is no leniency in implementing environmental radiation protection principles. (author)

  10. SIMULATION AS PART OF INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Pekarčíková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the simulation as an efficient scientific method of problem solving in industrial practice. It creates an overview of the simulation program means used in industrial practice and creates an overview of tools for discrete, continuous, and combined.

  11. Renewing Theories, Methods and Design Practices: Challenges for Architectural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Yatmo Yandi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Architectural education should promote the advancement of knowledge that is necessary as the basis for the development of excellent design practice. Architectural education needs to respond appropriately to the current issues in the society. To find its way into the society in an appropriate way, architecture needs to be liquid. The ability to address the liquidity of architecture requires educational approach that promotes the ability to work with a range of design methods and approaches. There are several principles that become the basis for developing architectural education that could strengthen its position within the society: to promote knowledge-based design practice, to embrace variety of design methods and approaches; to keep a balance between design knowledge and design skills; while at the same time to aim for mastery and excellence in design. These principles should be the basis for defining and developing the curriculum and the process of design learning architectural education. Then the main challenge is on our willingness to be liquid in developing architectural education, which needs continuous renewal and update to respond to the changing context of knowledge, technology and society.

  12. The Influence of Methods Massed Practice and Distributed Practice Model on The Speed and Accuracy of Service Tennis Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Wiwin,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze about (1 the effect of the method massed practice against the speed and accuracy of service, (2 the effect of the method of distributed practice against the speed and accuracy of service and (3 the influence of methods of massed practice and distributed practice against the speed and accuracy of service. This type of research used in this research is quantitative with quasiexperimental methods. The research design uses a non-randomized control group pretest posttest design, and data analysis using Manova. The process of data collection is done by testing the speed of service (dartfish and test accuracy (Hewitt during the pretest and posttest. The results of the study as follows: (1 there is a significant influence on the methods of massed practice to increase the speed and accuracy of service (2 there is a significant influence on the method of distributed practice to increase the speed and accuracy of service (3 There is no significant difference influence among methods massed ptactice practice and distributed to the speed and accuracy of service. Conclusions of this research is a method massed practice and distributed practice equally provide significant results but that gives the influence of better is method distributed practice to speed and accuracy of service.

  13. Understanding Variation in Treatment Effects in Education Impact Evaluations: An Overview of Quantitative Methods. NCEE 2014-4017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Puma, Mike; Deke, John

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the complex research literature on quantitative methods for assessing how impacts of educational interventions on instructional practices and student learning differ across students, educators, and schools. It also provides technical guidance about the use and interpretation of these methods. The research topics addressed…

  14. An overview of quantification methods in energy-dispersive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods for thin samples, samples with intermediate thickness and thick ... algorithms and quantification methods based on scattered primary radiation. ... technique for in situ characterization of materials such as contaminated soil, archaeo-.

  15. Interpolation in Time Series : An Introductive Overview of Existing Methods, Their Performance Criteria and Uncertainty Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepot, M.J.; Aubin, Jean Baptiste; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2017-01-01

    A thorough review has been performed on interpolation methods to fill gaps in time-series, efficiency criteria, and uncertainty quantifications. On one hand, there are numerous available methods: interpolation, regression, autoregressive, machine learning methods, etc. On the other hand, there are

  16. An Overview on Novel Microbial Determination Methods in Pharmaceutical and Food Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Nemati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional microbiological methods tend to be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Rapid and novel methods in microbiological tests provide more sensitive, precise and reproducible results compared with conventional methods. In microbiology, the most rapid testing methods belong to the field of biotechnology such as PCR, ELISA, ATP bioluminescence and etc. Nevertheless impedance microbiology, biosensors and analytical procedures to determine microbial constituents are of significance. The present review article was conducted using internet databases and related scientific literatures and articles that provide information on developments in the rapid methods in microbiology. The main focus is on the application of rapid methods in microbial quality control of pharmaceutical products. Reviewed literature showed that rapid methods and automation in microbiology is an advanced area for studying and applying of improved methods in the early detection, and characterization of microorganisms and their products in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industrials as well as environmental monitoring and clinical applications. It can be concluded that rapid methods and automation in microbiology should continue as potent and efficient technologies to develop the novel tests to be performed in the future because of the ever-increasing concerns about the safety of food and pharmaceutical products. However the main issues to be considered are the scale up of developed methods and the regulatory requirements.

  17. The Principle-Based Method of Practical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielthenner, Georg

    2017-09-01

    This paper is about the methodology of doing practical ethics. There is a variety of methods employed in ethics. One of them is the principle-based approach, which has an established place in ethical reasoning. In everyday life, we often judge the rightness and wrongness of actions by their conformity to principles, and the appeal to principles plays a significant role in practical ethics, too. In this paper, I try to provide a better understanding of the nature of principle-based reasoning. To accomplish this, I show in the first section that these principles can be applied to cases in a meaningful and sufficiently precise way. The second section discusses the question how relevant applying principles is to the resolution of ethical issues. This depends on their nature. I argue that the principles under consideration in this paper should be interpreted as presumptive principles and I conclude that although they cannot be expected to bear the weight of definitely resolving ethical problems, these principles can nevertheless play a considerable role in ethical research.

  18. A practical method for quantifying atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zheng, H; Yu, Q; Yang, P; Li, Y; Cheng, F; Fan, J; Liu, E

    2010-01-01

    The rabbit has been widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis; however, the method for analysis of the atherosclerotic lesions has not been standardized between laboratories. The present study reports a practical method for quantifying the changes that occur in aortic atherosclerosis of rabbits. Male Japanese white rabbits were fed with either a standard chow or a diet containing 10% fat and 0.3% cholesterol for 16 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assessed in quantitative fashion using an image analysis system that measured (1) the gross area of the entire aorta affected by atherosclerosis as defined by Sudan IV staining, (2) the microscopical intimal lesion defined by the elastic van Gieson stain and (3) the infiltration of macrophages and smooth muscle cell proliferation as determined immunohistochemically. The rabbits developed severe aortic atherosclerosis without apparent abnormality of glucose metabolism. The quantitative method described here will be useful for the further investigation of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO THE GROUND OSCILLATION VELOCITY MEASUREMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Stanković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of an explosive’s energy during blasting includes undesired effects on the environment. The seismic influence of a blast, as a major undesired effect, is determined by many national standards, recommendations and calculations where the main parameter is ground oscillation velocity at the field measurement location. There are a few approaches and methods for calculation of expected ground oscillation velocities according to charge weight per delay and the distance from the blast to the point of interest. Utilizations of these methods and formulas do not provide satisfactory results, thus the measured values on diverse distance from the blast field more or less differ from values given by previous calculations. Since blasting works are executed in diverse geological conditions, the aim of this research is the development of a practical and reliable approach which will give a different model for each construction site where blasting works have been or will be executed. The approach is based on a greater number of measuring points in line from the blast field at predetermined distances. This new approach has been compared with other generally used methods and formulas through the use of measurements taken during research along with measurements from several previously executed projects. The results confirmed that the suggested model gives more accurate values.

  20. Test equating, scaling, and linking methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to test equating, scaling, and linking, including those concepts and practical issues that are critical for developers and all other testing professionals.  In addition to statistical procedures, successful equating, scaling, and linking involves many aspects of testing, including procedures to develop tests, to administer and score tests, and to interpret scores earned on tests. Test equating methods are used with many standardized tests in education and psychology to ensure that scores from multiple test forms can be used interchangeably.  Test scaling is the process of developing score scales that are used when scores on standardized tests are reported. In test linking, scores from two or more tests are related to one another. Linking has received much recent attention, due largely to investigations of linking similarly named tests from different test publishers or tests constructed for different purposes. In recent years, researchers from the education, psychology, and...

  1. Short overview of PSA quantification methods, pitfalls on the road from approximate to exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banov, Reni; Simic, Zdenko; Sterc, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Over time the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models have become an invaluable companion in the identification and understanding of key nuclear power plant (NPP) vulnerabilities. PSA is an effective tool for this purpose as it assists plant management to target resources where the largest benefit for plant safety can be obtained. PSA has quickly become an established technique to numerically quantify risk measures in nuclear power plants. As complexity of PSA models increases, the computational approaches become more or less feasible. The various computational approaches can be basically classified in two major groups: approximate and exact (BDD based) methods. In recent time modern commercially available PSA tools started to provide both methods for PSA model quantification. Besides availability of both methods in proven PSA tools the usage must still be taken carefully since there are many pitfalls which can drive to wrong conclusions and prevent efficient usage of PSA tool. For example, typical pitfalls involve the usage of higher precision approximation methods and getting a less precise result, or mixing minimal cuts and prime implicants in the exact computation method. The exact methods are sensitive to selected computational paths in which case a simple human assisted rearrangement may help and even switch from computationally non-feasible to feasible methods. Further improvements to exact method are possible and desirable which opens space for a new research. In this paper we will show how these pitfalls may be detected and how carefully actions must be done especially when working with large PSA models. (authors)

  2. Analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium: An overview of detection methods in aerosols and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camins, I.; Shinn, J.H.

    1988-06-01

    We conducted a survey of commercially available methods for analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium in aerosols and soils to find a reliable, cost-effective, and sufficiently precise method for researchers involved in environmental testing at the Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona. Criteria used for evaluation include cost, method of analysis, specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, applicability, and commercial availability. We found that atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace meets these criteria for testing samples for beryllium. We found that this method can also be used to test samples for depleted uranium. However, atomic absorption with graphite furnace is not as sensitive a measurement method for depleted uranium as it is for beryllium, so we recommend that quality control of depleted uranium analysis be maintained by testing 10 of every 1000 samples by neutron activation analysis. We also evaluated 45 companies and institutions that provide analyses of beryllium and depleted uranium. 5 refs., 1 tab

  3. Measuring of the moisture content in brick walls of historical buildings - the overview of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the issue of measuring the moisture content of brick walls in buildings of high historical value. It includes a classification of known methods used to measure the moisture content and their valorisation with regards to the legitimacy of using them in historical buildings. Moreover, the most important considerations for conducting such measurements are also described, which include the choice of an appropriate method for a specific situation, the determination of a correlative or hypothetical dependency for equipment used in tests and also the method of distributing measurement points.

  4. An Overview and Comparison of Online Implementable SOC Estimation Methods for Lithium-ion Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Jinhao; Ricco, Mattia; Luo, Guangzhao

    2018-01-01

    . Many SOC estimation methods have been proposed in the literature. However, only a few of them consider the real-time applicability. This paper reviews recently proposed online SOC estimation methods and classifies them into five categories. Their principal features are illustrated, and the main pros...... and cons are provided. The SOC estimation methods are compared and discussed in terms of accuracy, robustness, and computation burden. Afterward, as the most popular type of model based SOC estimation algorithms, seven nonlinear filters existing in literature are compared in terms of their accuracy...

  5. An overview on the conventional and nonconventional methods for manufacturing the metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axinte Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic glasses (MGs, first discovered in 1959 at Caltech are currently among the most studied metallic materials. MGs called also glassy metals, amorphous metals, liquid metals, are considered to be among the materials of the future. The “classic” methods for industrialization of MGs are : end-casting in copper molds and protected environment, die forging , atomization for obtaining MG powder ,selective laser melting , imprinting in molds, thermoplastic shaping in the super-cooled temperature region. These methods are suitable for producing high value-added precision components but the problems still exists: expensive tools, limited lifetime of tools and the occurring of crystallization. Actually methods (thermoplastic shaping, casting and die forging are limited by the low flexibility of production and by higher costs of tools and accessories. More suitable methods are greatly desired to machine MGs for their wider applications.

  6. Overview of molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Sabat, A. J.; Budimir, A.; Nashev, D.; Sa-Leao, R.; van Dijl, J. M.; Laurent, F.; Grundmann, H.; Friedrich, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Typing methods for discriminating different bacterial isolates of the same species are essential epidemiological tools in infection prevention and control. Traditional typing systems based on phenotypes, such as serotype, biotype, phage-type, or antibiogram, have been used for many years. However, more recent methods that examine the relatedness of isolates at a molecular level have revolutionised our ability to differentiate among bacterial types and subtypes. Importantly, the development of...

  7. Agile Software Development: An Introduction and Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingsøyr, Torgeir; Dybå, Tore; Moe, Nils Brede

    Agile software development is an important topic in software engineering and information systems. This chapter provides a characterization and definition of agile software development, an overview of research through a summary of existing overview studies, an analysis of the research literature so far, and an introduction to the main themes of this book. The first part of the book provides foundations and background of agile development. The second part describes findings from studies of agile methods in practice. The third part identifies principal challenges and discusses new frontiers that agile development methods will meet in the future.

  8. Instrumental performance of an etude after three methods of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Ark, S

    1997-12-01

    For 80 fifth-grade students three practice conditions (mental, mental with physical simulation, and physical with singing) produced significant mean differences in instrumental performance of an etude. No significant differences were found for traditional, physical practice.

  9. A practical method for target preparation of powdered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao.

    1977-01-01

    This is the sixth report on the practical method of target preparation for use in nuclear physics experiments following the previous one (INS-TL-131, 1976). We have made various targets by developing the centrifugal precipitation method, which is particularly effective in the cases; (a) metal with high melting point and low vapor pressure, (b) oxides which are difficult to prepare by the usual vacuum evaporation technique and (c) some enriched isotopes which are very minute in quantity (less than - 10 mg) and low in recovery ratio. The samples were once suspended in liquid paraffin by ultrasonic wave vibrator, and then centrifugally precipitated on a thin backing foil such as Mylar or aluminum set and the bottom of the centrifugal tube. Uniformity of target made in this way was checked by an 24 Am-α ray thickness gauge. Contaminations smudged in the preparing process were checked by irradiating the targets with the proton beam from the FM Cyclotron at I.N.S. (auth.)

  10. [Quality management in surgery--an overview of methods and possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Möller, J; Reibe, F; Güntert, B; Kremer, B

    2003-06-01

    Numerous methods of assessing quality in health care have been presented over the last years. Since the German health care reform of 2000 introduced a legal obligation to quality assurance, hospitals have to meet that condition. However, no specific system of quality assurance was implicated. Therefore, many potential users search for systems suiting their own needs. However, German hospitals can benefit from international experience in quality management. Accreditation, visitation, excellence schemes, and certification seem to be the dominant methods. Every method is worthy of hospital evaluation. Certifications illustrate the quality system view without regard to profession, while excellence schemes evaluate the development of quality management in hospitals. Accreditation portrays a specific hospital as a whole, while visitations follow the professional perspective of quality assurance. Depending on the perspective and aims, there are advantages and disadvantages in each method. Finally, a combination of two may also be helpful. Indeed, no "role model" exists yet for assessing quality in health care. These methods of quality management are applicable especially in surgery, because a variety of standard outcome parameters such as length of stay, duration of procedure, and complication and relapse rates are already available.

  11. Mercury Exchange at the Air-Water-Soil Interface: An Overview of Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengman Fang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to assess the present knowledge about the methods of determining mercury (Hg exchange at the air-water-soil interface during the past 20 years. Methods determining processes of wet and dry removal/deposition of atmospheric Hg to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as well as methods determining Hg emission fluxes to the atmosphere from natural surfaces (soil and water are discussed. On the basis of the impressive advances that have been made in the areas relating to Hg exchange among air-soil-water interfaces, we analyzed existing problems and shortcomings in our current knowledge. In addition, some important fields worth further research are discussed and proposed.

  12. An Overview of the Computational Physics and Methods Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Randal Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-22

    CCS Division was formed to strengthen the visibility and impact of computer science and computational physics research on strategic directions for the Laboratory. Both computer science and computational science are now central to scientific discovery and innovation. They have become indispensable tools for all other scientific missions at the Laboratory. CCS Division forms a bridge between external partners and Laboratory programs, bringing new ideas and technologies to bear on today’s important problems and attracting high-quality technical staff members to the Laboratory. The Computational Physics and Methods Group CCS-2 conducts methods research and develops scientific software aimed at the latest and emerging HPC systems.

  13. Overview of methods and tools for evaluating future woody biomass availability in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barreiro, Susana; Schelhaas, Mart Jan; Kändler, Gerald; Antón-Fernández, Clara; Colin, Antoine; Bontemps, Jean Daniel; Alberdi, Iciar; Condés, Sonia; Dumitru, Marius; Ferezliev, Angel; Fischer, Christoph; Gasparini, Patrizia; Gschwantner, Thomas; Kindermann, Georg; Kjartansson, Bjarki; Kovácsevics, Pál; Kucera, Milos; Lundström, Anders; Marin, Gheorghe; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Packalen, Tuula; Redmond, John; Sacchelli, Sandro; Sims, Allan; Snorrason, Arnór; Stoyanov, Nickola; Thürig, Esther; Wikberg, Per Erik

    2016-01-01

    Key message: This analysis of the tools and methods currently in use for reporting woody biomass availability in 21 European countries has shown that most countries use, or are developing, National Forest Inventory-oriented models whereas the others use standwise forest inventory--oriented

  14. Overview of experimental progress on understanding photon strength functions with an emphasis of the Oslo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krticka, Milan

    2015-10-01

    The so-called Photon Strength Functions (PSFs) for different multipolarities are, together with the Nuclear Level Density (NLD) the key entities describing the statistical γ-decay of nucleus. It is well known that PSFs at energies above the threshold for particle emission are well described by the Lorentzian shape of the Giant Electric Dipole Resonance (GEDR). On the other hand, shapes of RSFs at the low-energy tail of GEDR are known rather poorly. Information on the PSFs at the GEDR tail can be obtained from several different experimental techniques. They will be summarized and the most important ones briefly introduced in this contribution. Special emphasis will be put on the so-called Oslo method which allows simultaneous extraction of the NLD and the PSFs from particle- γ coincidence measurements. This method has been used for determining the NLD and the PSFs in many nuclei in A ~ 45- 240 range during past years. Examples of the most interesting results obtained with this method will be shown. The results will be compared to information on the PSFs available from other experimental techniques. The strengths and the weaknesses of the method will be thoroughly discussed.

  15. An overview of currently available methods and future trends for physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kiško

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methodological limitations make comparison of various instruments difficult, although the number of publications on physical activity assessment has extensively increased. Therefore, systematization of techniques and definitions is essential for the improvement of knowledge in the area. Objective: This paper systematically describes and compares up-to-date methods that assess habitual physical activity and discusses main issues regarding the use and interpretation of data collected with these techniques. Methods: A general outline of the measures and techniques described above is presented in review form, along with their respective definition, usual applications, positive aspects and shortcomings. Results and conclusions: The various factors to be considered in the selection of physical activity assessment methods include goals, sample size, budget, cultural and social/environmental factors, physical burden for the subject, and statistical factors, such as accuracy and precision. It is concluded that no single current technique is able to quantify all aspects of physical activity under free-living conditions, requiring the use of complementary methods. In not too distant future, devices will take advantage of consumer technologies, such as mobile phones, GPS devices. It is important to perform other activities, such as detecting and responding to physical activity in a real time, creating new opportunities in measurement, remote compliance monitoring, data-driven discovery and intervention.

  16. Overview of molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabat, A. J.; Budimir, A.; Nashev, D.; Sa-Leao, R.; van Dijl, J. M.; Laurent, F.; Grundmann, H.; Friedrich, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Typing methods for discriminating different bacterial isolates of the same species are essential epidemiological tools in infection prevention and control. Traditional typing systems based on phenotypes, such as serotype, biotype, phage-type, or antibiogram, have been used for many years. However,

  17. Tools of Thor - more than a hammer: An overview of some analysis methods for turbulence investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Stein; Vaivads, Andris; Eriksson, Elin

    2016-04-01

    In the old Norse mythology Thor was a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder and lightning. THOR is also an acronym for Turbulence Heating ObserveR - a planned space mission dedicated to stydy space plasma turbulence. Whereas the mythological Thor did most of his work with a single tool, Mjølnir - his hammer, the modern version of THOR is far more versatile. The proposed THOR spacecraft comes with a comprehensive package of instruments to explore the energy dissipation and particle energization taking place in turbulent plasma environments. This paper presents a more detailed investigation of some of the analysis methods listed in the submitted THOR proposal. To demonstrate the methods, we have used data from existing spacecraft missions like Cluster and MMS to examine and compare single-spacecraft and multi-spacecraft methods to establish proper frames. The presented analysis methods are based on fundamental plasma laws, such as conservation of mass, momentum and energy and do not require any triangulation or gradients based on multiple spacecraft. Our experience based on Cluster and MMS results show that a well equipped single spacecraft platform, like the proposed THOR mission, very often provides better and less ambiguous results that a constellation of many spacecraft with less capable instrumentation. Limitations in underlying assumptions, such as planarity and linearity, as well as non-optimal spacecraft separation and configurations often limit the possibility to utilize multi-spacecraft methods. We also investigate the role of time resolution and dynamical range of the measurements used in the methods. Since the particle instruments onboard THOR will have a much better time resolution than existing magnetospheric satellite missions, we infer that THOR will be far better suited to resolve time evolution in plasma structures. This is of particular importance in the solar wind and magnetosheat, where frame velocities can be very high. With a larger

  18. Self-regulation method: psychological, physiological and clinical considerations. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemi, A; Tomita, S; Kuroda, M; Hayashida, Y; Ikemi, Y

    1986-01-01

    Body-oriented therapies as relaxation training and certain forms of meditation are gaining popularity in the treatment and prevention of psychosomatic disorders. In this paper, a new method of self-control called self-regulation method (SRM), derived from autogenic training and Zen meditation, is presented. The technique of SRM is introduced. Secondly, physiological studies on SRM using skin temperature, galvanic skin response, and cortical evoked potentials are presented. Thirdly, the results of psychological tests conducted on SRM are presented. These psycho-physiological studies suggest that SRM may elicit a state of 'relaxed alertness'. Fourthly, clinical applications of SRM are discussed, and 3 cases are presented. Finally, SRM is discussed in relation to the psychology and physiology of 'relaxed alertness'.

  19. Review of methods and indicators in sustainable urban transport studies overview from 2000 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Adiatna Nadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The attention of countries either the developed or developing countries on sustainable urban transport is becoming more popular. The purpose of paper is to review the methods and the indicators used for measuring performance of sustainable urban transport. This study is based on the literature review and the case study observation and also uses the quantitative assessment. It reviews the theoretical aspects of sustainability factors at various research works and performance indicator in urban transportation. The indicators were classified into two major categories: (i assessment methods in sustainable urban transport (SUT, and (ii basic of sustainability indicators for urban transport. This study found several types of analytical techniques for measuring sustainability indicators in urban transport. It also identify five indicators as basic element to measure sustainable urban transport performance i.e. traffic congestion, traffic air pollution, traffic noise pollution, traffic accidents and land consumption for transport infrastructure.

  20. Current Researches on the Methods of Diagnosing Sasang Constitution: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Woo Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitution diagnosis has traditionally been conducted by a Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM doctor who examines the external appearance, temperament and various symptoms of an individual and then collectively analyzes this information to determine their own constitutions. However, because this process is subjective and not quantitative, many researchers have been attempting to develop objective and reasonable methods of determining constitutions. In Korea, even though a wide range of research regarding SCM has been conducted, most of the work has not been revealed internationally. So in this review, the authors have searched the Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, as well as other Korean domestic journal databases and Pubmed for research regarding modernized constitution diagnosis methods so to provide the understanding of current research state and outlook for future research.

  1. Overview of methods for uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis in probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Helton, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is playing an increasingly important role in the nuclear reactor regulatory process. The assessment of uncertainties associated with PRA results is widely recognized as an important part of the analysis process. One of the major criticisms of the Reactor Safety Study was that its representation of uncertainty was inadequate. The desire for the capability to treat uncertainties with the MELCOR risk code being developed at Sandia National Laboratories is indicative of the current interest in this topic. However, as yet, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis in the context of PRA is a relatively immature field. In this paper, available methods for uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis in a PRA are reviewed. This review first treats methods for use with individual components of a PRA and then considers how these methods could be combined in the performance of a complete PRA. In the context of this paper, the goal of uncertainty analysis is to measure the imprecision in PRA outcomes of interest, and the goal of sensitivity analysis is to identify the major contributors to this imprecision. There are a number of areas that must be considered in uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis for a PRA: (1) information, (2) systems analysis, (3) thermal-hydraulic phenomena/fission product behavior, (4) health and economic consequences, and (5) display of results. Each of these areas and the synthesis of them into a complete PRA are discussed

  2. Overview of Didactic Methodical Organization of University Teaching by Bologna Concept of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Čirić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reassessment of the existing didactic-methodological organization within the University lectures as well as the role of students and University lecturers is a result of the current process of higher education reforms. The advancement of pedagogical and didactic-methodological competences of university lecturers represents an imperative in reaching a high quality education. The results of this research may function as a starting point in the self-evaluation of University lecturers. The point of this work was to present didactic and methodical elements of contemporary university teaching, according to Bologna concept of higher education, and position of students. Taking into consideration the very definition and didactic methodological structure and legality of teaching, researches related to representation of individual didactic and methodical elements of contemporary university teaching are presented, which relate to forms of teaching, methods of teaching and application of teaching and technical aids. In the context of the current reform of the high education and considering the Bologna Declaration it could be concluded that contemporary university teaching is marked with cooperative interactive teaching in which the position of students and teachers is defined as partnership.

  3. Phenomenology as research method or substantive metaphysics? An overview of phenomenology's uses in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Vicki

    2010-10-01

    In exploring phenomenological literature, it is evident that the term 'phenomenology' holds rather different meanings depending upon the context. Phenomenology has been described as both a philosophical movement and an approach to human science research. The phenomenology of Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty was philosophical in nature and not intended to provide rules or procedures for conducting research. The Canadian social scientist, van Manen, however, introduced specific guidelines for conducting human science research, which is rooted in hermeneutic phenomenology and this particular method has been employed in professional disciplines such as education, nursing, clinical psychology, and law. The purpose of this paper is to explore the difference between the phenomenological method as described by van Manen and that of other philosophers such as Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. In so doing, the author aims to address the blurred boundaries of phenomenology as a research method and as a philosophical movement and highlight the influence of these blurred boundaries on nursing knowledge development.

  4. An Overview and Evaluation of Recent Machine Learning Imputation Methods Using Cardiac Imaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzhe; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2017-03-01

    Many clinical research datasets have a large percentage of missing values that directly impacts their usefulness in yielding high accuracy classifiers when used for training in supervised machine learning. While missing value imputation methods have been shown to work well with smaller percentages of missing values, their ability to impute sparse clinical research data can be problem specific. We previously attempted to learn quantitative guidelines for ordering cardiac magnetic resonance imaging during the evaluation for pediatric cardiomyopathy, but missing data significantly reduced our usable sample size. In this work, we sought to determine if increasing the usable sample size through imputation would allow us to learn better guidelines. We first review several machine learning methods for estimating missing data. Then, we apply four popular methods (mean imputation, decision tree, k-nearest neighbors, and self-organizing maps) to a clinical research dataset of pediatric patients undergoing evaluation for cardiomyopathy. Using Bayesian Rule Learning (BRL) to learn ruleset models, we compared the performance of imputation-augmented models versus unaugmented models. We found that all four imputation-augmented models performed similarly to unaugmented models. While imputation did not improve performance, it did provide evidence for the robustness of our learned models.

  5. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 2, Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    ideas behind the analysis methods are described as well as the mathematics on which they are based and also how the methods are supported by computer tools. Some parts of the volume are theoretical while others are application oriented. The purpose of the volume is to teach the reader how to use......This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets (CP-nets). The second volume contains a detailed presentation of the analysis methods for CP-nets. They allow the modeller to investigate dynamic properties of CP-nets. The main...... the formal analysis methods, which does not require a deep understanding of the underlying mathematical theory....

  6. Measuring Patient Preferences: An Overview of Methods with a Focus on Discrete Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, Glen S

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of patient preferences and methodologies to measure them. In this article, methods to quantify patient preferences are reviewed, with a focus on discrete choice experiments. In a discrete choice experiment, patients are asked to choose between 2 or more treatments. The results can be used to quantify the relative importance of treatment outcomes and/or other considerations relevant to medical decision making. Conducting and interpreting a discrete choice experiment requires multiple steps and an understanding of the potential biases that can arise, which we review in this article with examples in rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Overview of Internal and External Fixation Methods for the Diabetic Charcot Foot and Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, Crystal L; Zgonis, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy (DCN) of the foot and ankle is a challenging disease with regard to clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and prognosis. Its surgical management is equally difficult to interpret based on the wide array of options available. In the presence of an ulceration or concomitant osteomyelitis, internal fixation by means of screws, plates, or intramedullary nailing needs to be avoided when feasible. External fixation becomes a great surgical tool when managing DCN with concomitant osteomyelitis. This article describes internal and external fixation methods along with available literature to enlighten surgeons faced with treating this complex condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Overview of Neolignans of the Genus Piper L.: Isolation Methods and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Arthur Ladeira; Dos Santos, Thais Carvalho Costa; Valverde, Alessandra Leda; Moreira, Davyson de Lima; Vasconcelos, Thatyana Rocha Alves

    2017-01-01

    The genus Piper L. has the shikimic acid pathway predominantly expressed, biosynthesizing many cinnamic acid derivatives (CAD). Neolignans comprise an important class of CAD that exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antitumor, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, smooth muscle relaxant, neuroprotective, antiprotozoal and against platelet aggregation factor. These substances have been extracted and isolated from Piper species using different technics. The present review aims to summarize extraction and isolation methods and biological activities of the different types of neolignans covering the period from 1968 to January 2016. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Overview of Methods Able to Overcome Impediments to tumor Drug Delivery with Special Attention to Tumor Interstitial Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco eBaronzio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Every drug used to treat cancer (chemotherapeutics, immunologic, monoclonal antibodies, nanoparticles, radionuclides must reach the targeted cells through the tumor environment at adequate concentrations, in order to exert their cell-killing effects. For any of these agents to reach the goal cells they must overcome a number of impediments created by the tumor microenvironment, beginning with tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP and a multifactorial increase in composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM. A primary modifier of tumor microenvironment is hypoxia, which increases the production of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF. These growth factors released by both tumor cells and bone marrow recruited myeloid cells (MDS, form abnormal vasculature characterized by vessels that are tortuous and more permeable. Increased leakiness combined with increased inflammatory byproducts accumulates fluid within the tumor mass [tumor interstitial fluid (TIF], ultimately creating an increased pressure (TIFP. Fibroblasts are also up-regulated by the tumor microenvironment, and deposit fibers that further augment the density of the extracellular matrix (ECM, thus, further worsening the TIFP. Increased TIFP with the ECM are the major obstacles to adequate drug delivery. By decreasing TIFP and decreasing ECM density, we can expect an associated rise in drug concentration within the tumor itself. In this overview we will describe all the methods (drugs, nutraceuticals, physical methods of treatment able to lower TIFP and to modify ECM that can be used for increasing drug concentration within the tumor tissue.

  10. Overview of statistical methods, models and analysis for predicting equipment end of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Utility equipment can be operated and maintained for many years following installation. However, as the equipment ages, utility operators must decide whether to extend the service life or replace the equipment. Condition assessment modelling is used by many utilities to determine the condition of equipment and to prioritize the maintenance or repair. Several factors are weighted and combined in assessment modelling, which gives a single index number to rate the equipment. There is speculation that this index alone may not be adequate for a business case to rework or replace an asset because it only ranks an asset into a particular category. For that reason, a new methodology was developed to determine the economic end of life of an asset. This paper described the different statistical methods available and their use in determining the remaining service life of electrical equipment. A newly developed Excel-based demonstration computer tool is also an integral part of the deliverables of this project.

  11. Natural Experiments: An Overview of Methods, Approaches, and Contributions to Public Health Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Peter; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Leyland, Alastair; Popham, Frank

    2017-03-20

    Population health interventions are essential to reduce health inequalities and tackle other public health priorities, but they are not always amenable to experimental manipulation. Natural experiment (NE) approaches are attracting growing interest as a way of providing evidence in such circumstances. One key challenge in evaluating NEs is selective exposure to the intervention. Studies should be based on a clear theoretical understanding of the processes that determine exposure. Even if the observed effects are large and rapidly follow implementation, confidence in attributing these effects to the intervention can be improved by carefully considering alternative explanations. Causal inference can be strengthened by including additional design features alongside the principal method of effect estimation. NE studies often rely on existing (including routinely collected) data. Investment in such data sources and the infrastructure for linking exposure and outcome data is essential if the potential for such studies to inform decision making is to be realized.

  12. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Overview of EPA's Methodology to Address the Environmental Footprint of Site Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated site cleanups involving complex activities may benefit from a detailed environmental footprint analysis to inform decision-making about application of suitable best management practices for greener cleanups.

  13. SUBJECTIVE AND INDIRECT METHODS TO OBSERVE DRIVER’S DROWSINESS AND ALERTNESS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOR KAMALIANA K.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of drivers' workload has great interest these days due to the following reasons: high numbers of accidents seemingly ineradicable, very costly, and largely attributable to the human factor. The objective of this review is to assess the current status of fatigue performance and detection technology research and to identify any pertinent issues. Twenty-six relevant studies were identified and chosen from electronic databases, dating as far back as 1997. Fatigue, drowsiness, alertness, sleepiness, subjective, direct method and driver were the keyword search terms for this paper. Past studies demonstrated various purposes and implementation of subjective and indirect assessment among the driver for evaluating fatigue. It provides a better understanding for future researchers and industry to deal with fatigue issues among drivers. This review will provide a critical discussion on the designs used, discuss the findings in the search of directions for future studies, as well as provide insights into the use of counter measures for preventing fatigue-related accidents.

  14. Methods to Improve Osseointegration of Dental Implants in Low Quality (Type-IV Bone: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan S. Alghamdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, dental implants have become more common treatment for replacing missing teeth and aim to improve chewing efficiency, physical health, and esthetics. The favorable clinical performance of dental implants has been attributed to their firm osseointegration, as introduced by Brånemark in 1965. Although the survival rate of dental implants over a 10-year observation has been reported to be higher than 90% in totally edentulous jaws, the clinical outcome of implant treatment is challenged in compromised (bone conditions, as are frequently present in elderly people. The biomechanical characteristics of bone in aged patients do not offer proper stability to implants, being similar to type-IV bone (Lekholm & Zarb classification, in which a decreased clinical fixation of implants has been clearly demonstrated. However, the search for improved osseointegration has continued forward for the new evolution of modern dental implants. This represents a continuum of developments spanning more than 20 years of research on implant related-factors including surgical techniques, implant design, and surface properties. The methods to enhance osseointegration of dental implants in low quality (type-IV bone are described in a general manner in this review.

  15. Methods to Improve Osseointegration of Dental Implants in Low Quality (Type-IV) Bone: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Hamdan S

    2018-01-13

    Nowadays, dental implants have become more common treatment for replacing missing teeth and aim to improve chewing efficiency, physical health, and esthetics. The favorable clinical performance of dental implants has been attributed to their firm osseointegration, as introduced by Brånemark in 1965. Although the survival rate of dental implants over a 10-year observation has been reported to be higher than 90% in totally edentulous jaws, the clinical outcome of implant treatment is challenged in compromised (bone) conditions, as are frequently present in elderly people. The biomechanical characteristics of bone in aged patients do not offer proper stability to implants, being similar to type-IV bone (Lekholm & Zarb classification), in which a decreased clinical fixation of implants has been clearly demonstrated. However, the search for improved osseointegration has continued forward for the new evolution of modern dental implants. This represents a continuum of developments spanning more than 20 years of research on implant related-factors including surgical techniques, implant design, and surface properties. The methods to enhance osseointegration of dental implants in low quality (type-IV) bone are described in a general manner in this review.

  16. An overview of bioinformatics methods for modeling biological pathways in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Acharya, Lipi; Zhu, Dongxiao; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-03-01

    The advent of high-throughput genomics techniques, along with the completion of genome sequencing projects, identification of protein-protein interactions and reconstruction of genome-scale pathways, has accelerated the development of systems biology research in the yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae In particular, discovery of biological pathways in yeast has become an important forefront in systems biology, which aims to understand the interactions among molecules within a cell leading to certain cellular processes in response to a specific environment. While the existing theoretical and experimental approaches enable the investigation of well-known pathways involved in metabolism, gene regulation and signal transduction, bioinformatics methods offer new insights into computational modeling of biological pathways. A wide range of computational approaches has been proposed in the past for reconstructing biological pathways from high-throughput datasets. Here we review selected bioinformatics approaches for modeling biological pathways inS. cerevisiae, including metabolic pathways, gene-regulatory pathways and signaling pathways. We start with reviewing the research on biological pathways followed by discussing key biological databases. In addition, several representative computational approaches for modeling biological pathways in yeast are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Overview of physical dosimetry methods for triage application integrated in the new European network RENEB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, François; Burbidge, Christopher; Bassinet, Céline; Baumann, Marion; Bortolin, Emanuela; De Angelis, Cinzia; Eakins, Jonathan; Della Monaca, Sara; Fattibene, Paola; Quattrini, Maria Cristina; Tanner, Rick; Wieser, Albrecht; Woda, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    In the EC-funded project RENEB (Realizing the European Network in Biodosimetry), physical methods applied to fortuitous dosimetric materials are used to complement biological dosimetry, to increase dose assessment capacity for large-scale radiation/nuclear accidents. This paper describes the work performed to implement Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry techniques. OSL is applied to electronic components and EPR to touch-screen glass from mobile phones. To implement these new approaches, several blind tests and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILC) were organized for each assay. OSL systems have shown good performances. EPR systems also show good performance in controlled conditions, but ILC have also demonstrated that post-irradiation exposure to sunlight increases the complexity of the EPR signal analysis. Physically-based dosimetry techniques present high capacity, new possibilities for accident dosimetry, especially in the case of large-scale events. Some of the techniques applied can be considered as operational (e.g. OSL on Surface Mounting Devices [SMD]) and provide a large increase of measurement capacity for existing networks. Other techniques and devices currently undergoing validation or development in Europe could lead to considerable increases in the capacity of the RENEB accident dosimetry network.

  18. An overview of modeling methods for thermal mixing and stratification in large enclosures for reactor safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2010-10-01

    Thermal mixing and stratification phenomena play major roles in the safety of reactor systems with large enclosures, such as containment safety in current fleet of LWRs, long-term passive containment cooling in Gen III+ plants including AP-1000 and ESBWR, the cold and hot pool mixing in pool type sodium cooled fast reactor systems (SFR), and reactor cavity cooling system behavior in high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), etc. Depending on the fidelity requirement and computational resources, 0-D steady state models (heat transfer correlations), 0-D lumped parameter based transient models, 1-D physical-based coarse grain models, and 3-D CFD models are available. Current major system analysis codes either have no models or only 0-D models for thermal stratification and mixing, which can only give highly approximate results for simple cases. While 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze simple configurations, these methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries. Due to prohibitive computational expenses for long transients in very large volumes, 3-D CFD simulations remain impractical for system analyses. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, UC Berkeley developed 1-D models basing on Zuber’s hierarchical two-tiered scaling analysis (HTTSA) method where the ambient fluid volume is represented by 1-D transient partial differential equations and substructures such as free or wall jets are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to 3-D CFD modeling. This paper will present an overview on important thermal mixing and stratification phenomena in large enclosures for different reactors, major modeling methods and their advantages and limits, potential paths to improve simulation capability and reduce analysis uncertainty in this area for advanced reactor system analysis tools.

  19. Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

  20. Eastside forest management practices: historical overview, extent of their application, and their effects on sustainability of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick D. Oliver; Larry L. Irwin; Walter H. Knapp

    1994-01-01

    Forest management of eastern Oregon and Washington began in the late 1800s as extensive utilization of forests for grazing, timber, and irrigation water. With time, protection of these values developed into active management for these and other values such as recreation. Silvicultural and administrative practices, developed to solve problems at a particular time have...

  1. Classical and modern numerical analysis theory, methods and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ackleh, Azmy S; Kearfott, R Baker; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical Review and Computer Arithmetic Mathematical Review Computer Arithmetic Interval ComputationsNumerical Solution of Nonlinear Equations of One Variable Introduction Bisection Method The Fixed Point Method Newton's Method (Newton-Raphson Method) The Univariate Interval Newton MethodSecant Method and Müller's Method Aitken Acceleration and Steffensen's Method Roots of Polynomials Additional Notes and SummaryNumerical Linear Algebra Basic Results from Linear Algebra Normed Linear Spaces Direct Methods for Solving Linear SystemsIterative Methods for Solving Linear SystemsThe Singular Value DecompositionApproximation TheoryIntroduction Norms, Projections, Inner Product Spaces, and Orthogonalization in Function SpacesPolynomial ApproximationPiecewise Polynomial ApproximationTrigonometric ApproximationRational ApproximationWavelet BasesLeast Squares Approximation on a Finite Point SetEigenvalue-Eigenvector Computation Basic Results from Linear Algebra The Power Method The Inverse Power Method Deflation T...

  2. A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: part 1: overview and reviews – defining and describing the field and its practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuroethics entails investigations of neurocognitive mechanisms of morality and ethics; and studies and address of the ethical issues spawned by the use of neuroscience and its technologies to investigate cognition, emotion and actions. These two principal emphases, or what have been called “traditions” of neuroethics both mirror traditional bioethical discussions (such as debates about the safety of technological and pharmaceutical advances and ethical implications of new scientific and technological discoveries), and engage discourse about neuroscientific investigations of (proto-moral and moral) cognition, emotions and behaviors, and what such findings may mean for human beliefs and conduct - from the individual to the political levels. Given the growth, range, and rapid maturation of the field of neuroethics we provide an iterative, four-part document that affords a repository of international papers, books, and chapters that address the field in overview, and present discussion(s) of more particular aspects and topics of neuroethics. This first installment lists reviews and overviews of the discipline, and broad summaries of basic developments and issues of the field. Methods To systematically survey the neuroethics literature, searches were performed by accessing 11 databases, 8 additional literature depositories, and 4 individual journal searches using indexing language for National Library of Medicine (NLM) Medical Subject Heading databases. Searches and assurance against overlapping coverage were conducted using the RefWorks citation management program. Results Overview, review and reflections upon the history and multicultural perspectives of neuroethics were obtained and relevant listings from international journals, books, and book chapters are provided. Part I will be followed by three installments that will address a): the neuroscience of morality and ethics, including discussions of free will, and personal autonomy; b)

  3. Evaluation of Sustainable Practices within Project Management Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Satya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research study is to investigate some of the sustainable practices within projects with a focus on social projects. The different research methodologies applied through this research consisted both primary and secondary research, including literature review and through case study. The stakeholder’s behavioural needs towards acting and implementing sustainable practices led to the adoption of sustainable practices within projects which are managed across profit and non-profit organisations. Nevertheless, lack of sustainable behaviour was outlined, and henceforth the integration of sustainable development within social projects is crucially important as such projects were identified as the drivers toward educating the society in order to help to produce generations of people who would be more sustainably aware. Currently, sustainable development is very often taken into account when it comes to managing projects. Nevertheless, if the adoption of sustainable practices is well established in some sectors such as construction, literature tends to demonstrate a lack of information regarding other sectors, especially within social projects. This research aims to investigate the adoption of sustainable practices within social projects and therefore to satisfy a literature gap.

  4. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

  5. Landscapes of Practice: Bricolage as a Method for Situated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monica; Gill, Satinder; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a ‘bricolage’ approach to designing systems for cooperative work. This involves users, participatory designers and ethnographers in a continuing cycle of design and revised work practice, often in settings where resources are limited and short-termresults are required. If expl......This paper proposes a ‘bricolage’ approach to designing systems for cooperative work. This involves users, participatory designers and ethnographers in a continuing cycle of design and revised work practice, often in settings where resources are limited and short-termresults are required...

  6. Quantifying Dental Office-Originating Adverse Events: The Dental Practice Study Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi; Walji, Muhammad; Ramoni, Rachel; Rindal, Donald B; Worley, Donald; Hebballi, Nutan; Kumar, Krishna; van Strien, Claire; Chen, Mengxia; Navat-Pelli, Shaked; Liu, Hongchun; Etolue, Jini; Yansane, Alfa; Obadan-Udoh, Enihomo; Easterday, Casey; Enstad, Chris; Kane, Sheryl; Rush, William; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2017-12-05

    Preventable medical errors in hospital settings are the third leading cause of deaths in the United States. However, less is known about harm that occurs in patients in outpatient settings, where the majority of care is delivered. We do not know the likelihood that a patient sitting in a dentist chair will experience harm. Additionally, we do not know if patients of certain race, age, sex, or socioeconomic status disproportionately experience iatrogenic harm. We initiated the Dental Practice Study (DPS) with the aim of determining the frequency and types of adverse events (AEs) that occur in dentistry on the basis of retrospective chart audit. This article discusses the 6-month pilot phase of the DPS during which we explored the feasibility and efficiency of our multistaged review process to detect AEs. At sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively, 2 reviewers abstracted 21, 11, and 23 probable AEs, respectively, from the 100 patient charts audited per site. At site 2, a third reviewer audited the same 100 charts and found only 1 additional probable AE. Of the total 56 probable AEs (from 300 charts), the expert panel confirmed 9 AE cases. This equals 3 AEs per 100 patients per year. Patients who experienced an AE tended to be male and older and to have undergone more procedures within the study year. This article presents an overview of the DPS. It describes the methods used and summarizes the results of its pilot phase. To minimize threats to dental patient safety, a starting point is to understand their basic epidemiology, both in terms of their frequency and the extent to which they affect different populations.

  7. Overview of improvements in work practices and instrumentation for CANDU primary heat transport feeders in-service inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcotte, O., E-mail: olivier@nucleom.ca [Nucleom Inc., Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Rousseau, G., E-mail: rousseau.gilles.a@hydro.qc.ca [Hydro Quebec, Becancour, Quebec (Canada); Rochefort, E., E-mail: erochfort@zetec.com [Zetec Canada, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian nuclear industry has developed many advanced non-destructive inspection techniques to be applied safely in hazardous environments in recent years. Automated systems, manual tooling and specialized software modules have been designed since early 2000s to provide complete and very efficient fitness for service inspection of primary heat transport system carbon steel feeder pipes. These techniques deal with complex geometries, difficult access and, radioactive environment. Complementary NDE techniques, namely Ultrasounds, eddy current, phased-array UT and automated scanners are used. This presentation describes the improvements in inspection practices and the advanced data analysis features. (author)

  8. Different Element Methods in Engineering Practice | Onah | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presented is the most common element methods used for analysis in engineering. The methods are discussed in an overall and general manner so that engineers and scientists who are increasingly, called upon to use element methods to support and check their analyses and/or designs can appreciate the essential ...

  9. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeki, E.; Pahkin, K.; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, A-L.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or skeptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices. (authors)

  10. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeki, Eerikki; Pahkin, Krista; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, Anna-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or sceptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices.

  11. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeki, Eerikki [Aalto Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management; Pahkin, Krista; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, Anna-Leena [Finnish Institue of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland). Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations

    2015-04-15

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or sceptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices.

  12. An overview of the analytical methods for the determination of organic ultraviolet filters in biological fluids and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisvert, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.chisvert@uv.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universitat de Valencia, Doctor Moliner St. 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Leon-Gonzalez, Zacarias [Unidad Analitica, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Fundacion Hospital La Fe, 46009 Valencia (Spain); Tarazona, Isuha; Salvador, Amparo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universitat de Valencia, Doctor Moliner St. 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Giokas, Dimosthenis [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Papers describing the determination of UV filters in fluids and tissues are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrix complexity and low amounts of analytes require effective sample treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The published papers do not cover the study of all the substances allowed as UV filters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New analytical methods for UV filters determination in these matrices are encouraged. - Abstract: Organic UV filters are chemical compounds added to cosmetic sunscreen products in order to protect users from UV solar radiation. The need of broad-spectrum protection to avoid the deleterious effects of solar radiation has triggered a trend in the cosmetic market of including these compounds not only in those exclusively designed for sun protection but also in all types of cosmetic products. Different studies have shown that organic UV filters can be absorbed through the skin after topical application, further metabolized in the body and eventually excreted or bioaccumulated. These percutaneous absorption processes may result in various adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity caused by the generation of free radicals, which can even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, and estrogenicity, which is associated with the endocrine disruption activity caused by some of these compounds. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is a demand for analytical methods that enable the determination of UV filters in biological fluids and tissues in order to retrieve more information regarding their behavior in the human body and thus encourage the development of safer cosmetic formulations. In view of this demand, there has recently been a noticeable increase in the development of sensitive and selective analytical methods for the determination of UV filters and their metabolites in biological fluids (i.e., urine, plasma, breast milk and semen) and tissues. The complexity of

  13. An overview of the analytical methods for the determination of organic ultraviolet filters in biological fluids and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisvert, Alberto; León-González, Zacarías; Tarazona, Isuha; Salvador, Amparo; Giokas, Dimosthenis

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Papers describing the determination of UV filters in fluids and tissues are reviewed. ► Matrix complexity and low amounts of analytes require effective sample treatments. ► The published papers do not cover the study of all the substances allowed as UV filters. ► New analytical methods for UV filters determination in these matrices are encouraged. - Abstract: Organic UV filters are chemical compounds added to cosmetic sunscreen products in order to protect users from UV solar radiation. The need of broad-spectrum protection to avoid the deleterious effects of solar radiation has triggered a trend in the cosmetic market of including these compounds not only in those exclusively designed for sun protection but also in all types of cosmetic products. Different studies have shown that organic UV filters can be absorbed through the skin after topical application, further metabolized in the body and eventually excreted or bioaccumulated. These percutaneous absorption processes may result in various adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity caused by the generation of free radicals, which can even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, and estrogenicity, which is associated with the endocrine disruption activity caused by some of these compounds. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is a demand for analytical methods that enable the determination of UV filters in biological fluids and tissues in order to retrieve more information regarding their behavior in the human body and thus encourage the development of safer cosmetic formulations. In view of this demand, there has recently been a noticeable increase in the development of sensitive and selective analytical methods for the determination of UV filters and their metabolites in biological fluids (i.e., urine, plasma, breast milk and semen) and tissues. The complexity of the biological matrix and the low concentration levels of these compounds inevitably impose sample

  14. A study of best management practices for enhancing productivity in building projects: construction methods perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gurmu, Argaw Tarekegn; Aibinu, Ajibade Ayodeji; Chan, Toong Khuan

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates management practices that have the potential to enhance productivity in building projects by focusing on construction methods. In phase 1 of the study, face-to-face interviews with nineteen experts were conducted to identify the best management practices for construction methods. The qualitative data analysis reached saturation and resulted in a list of best practices for construction methods that are relevant to the local industry. The second phase used an industry...

  15. Invisible nursing research: thoughts about mixed methods research and nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    In this this essay, the author addresses the close connection between mixed methods research and nursing practice. If the assertion that research and practice are parallel processes is accepted, then nursing practice may be considered "invisible mixed methods research," in that almost every encounter between a nurse and a patient involves collection and integration of qualitative (word) and quantitative (number) information that actually is single-case mixed methods research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Managing electronic records methods, best practices, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate guide to electronic records management, featuring a collaboration of expert practitioners including over 400 cited references documenting today's global trends, standards, and best practices Nearly all business records created today are electronic, and are increasing in number at breathtaking rates, yet most organizations do not have the policies and technologies in place to effectively organize, search, protect, preserve, and produce these records. Authored by an internationally recognized expert on e-records in collaboration with leading subject matter experts worldwide

  17. Spent fuel storage and transport cask decontamination and modification. An overview of management requirements and applications based on practical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    A large increase in the number of casks required for transport and/or storage of spent fuel is forecast into the next century. The principal requirement will be for increased number of storage and dual purpose (transport/storage) casks for interim storage of spent fuel prior to reprocessing or permanent disposal in both on-site and off-site storage facilities. Through contact with radioactive materials spent fuel casks will be contaminated on both internal and external surfaces. In broad terms, cask contamination management can be defined by three components: minimisation, prevention and decontamination. This publication is a compilation of international experience with cask contamination problems and decontamination practices. The objective is to present current knowledge and experience as well as developments, trends and potential for new applications in this field. Furthermore, the report may assist in new design or modification of existing casks, cask handling systems and decontamination equipment

  18. Method validation in pharmaceutical analysis: from theory to practical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Kaleian Eserian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The validation of analytical methods is required to obtain high-quality data. For the pharmaceutical industry, method validation is crucial to ensure the product quality as regards both therapeutic efficacy and patient safety. The most critical step in validating a method is to establish a protocol containing well-defined procedures and criteria. A well planned and organized protocol, such as the one proposed in this paper, results in a rapid and concise method validation procedure for quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis.   Type: Commentary

  19. Effects of e-Learning and m-Learning on Nursing Care in a Continuing Education Context: An Overview of Mixed Method Systematic Reviews (Protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Geneviève; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Côté, José; Hudson, Emilie; Payne-Gagnon, Julie; Bouix-Picasso, Julien; Duboi, Carl-Ardy

    2017-01-01

    Continuing education is an imperative for professional nursing. e-Learning is one modality to support education and it has been extensively examined in a nursing academic context. An overview of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method systematic reviews were conducted to draw a broad picture of the effects of e-Learning and m-Learning used by registered nurses in a continuing education context.

  20. Measure Guideline. Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, S. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Stephenson, R. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks.

  1. A Practical Note on Transferring Ideas and Methods from Consultancy Practice to the MPA Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ry Nielsen, Jens Carl; Quinn, Brid

    2016-01-01

    At the lead author’s home institution – Copenhagen Business School (CBS) – the combination of theory and practice is seen as very important in teaching. Research-based teaching is the slogan. In this respect, CBS has the same ambition as other universities. But it seems as if CBS has an advantage...

  2. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: robsonpetroni@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  3. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  4. Monte Carlo methods for medical physics a practical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schuemann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2018-01-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method, established as the gold standard to predict results of physical processes, is now fast becoming a routine clinical tool for applications that range from quality control to treatment verification. This book provides a basic understanding of the fundamental principles and limitations of the MC method in the interpretation and validation of results for various scenarios. It shows how user-friendly and speed optimized MC codes can achieve online image processing or dose calculations in a clinical setting. It introduces this essential method with emphasis on applications in hardware design and testing, radiological imaging, radiation therapy, and radiobiology.

  5. Overview of religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of 9 religions: Christianity, Judaism, Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Christian Science, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. Basic information on the origins, language, naming practices, diet, personal hygiene, and dress requirements is provided. For additional information, Web sites for each of these religions are also provided.

  6. Quantification of biofilm in microtiter plates: overview of testing conditions and practical recommendations for assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanović, Srdjan; Vuković, Dragana; Hola, Veronika; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Djukić, Slobodanka; Cirković, Ivana; Ruzicka, Filip

    2007-08-01

    The details of all steps involved in the quantification of biofilm formation in microtiter plates are described. The presented protocol incorporates information on assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci, gained both by direct experience as well as by analysis of methods for assaying biofilm production. The obtained results should simplify quantification of biofilm formation in microtiter plates, and make it more reliable and comparable among different laboratories.

  7. An overview of the national immunization policy making process: the role of the Korea expert committee on immunization practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The need for evidence-based decision making in immunization programs has increased due to the presence of multiple health priorities, limited human resources, expensive vaccines, and limited funds. Countries should establish a group of national experts to advise their Ministries of Health. So far, many nations have formed their own National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In the Republic of Korea, the Korea Expert Committee on Immunization Practices (KECIP), established by law in the early 1990s, has made many important technical recommendations to contribute to the decline in vaccine preventable diseases and currently functions as a NITAG. It includes 13 core members and 2 non-core members, including a chairperson. Core members usually come from affiliated organizations in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, microbiology, preventive medicine, nursing and a representative from a consumer group, all of whom serve two year terms. Non-core members comprise two government officials belonging to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) and the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Meetings are held as needed, but at least twice a year, and sub-committees are formed as a resource for gathering, analyzing, and preparing information for the KECIP meetings. Once the sub-committees or the KCDC review the available data, the KECIP members discuss each issue in depth and develop recommendations, usually by a consensus in the meeting. The KECIP publishes national guidelines and immunization schedules that are updated regularly. KECIP's role is essentially consultative and the implementation of their recommendations may depend on the budget or current laws. PMID:22359523

  8. An overview of the national immunization policy making process: the role of the Korea expert committee on immunization practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Yeon Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for evidence-based decision making in immunization programs has increased due to the presence of multiple health priorities, limited human resources, expensive vaccines, and limited funds. Countries should establish a group of national experts to advise their Ministries of Health. So far, many nations have formed their own National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs. In the Republic of Korea, the Korea Expert Committee on Immunization Practices (KECIP, established by law in the early 1990s, has made many important technical recommendations to contribute to the decline in vaccine preventable diseases and currently functions as a NITAG. It includes 13 core members and 2 non-core members, including a chairperson. Core members usually come from affiliated organizations in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, microbiology, preventive medicine, nursing and a representative from a consumer group, all of whom serve two year terms. Non-core members comprise two government officials belonging to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC and the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Meetings are held as needed, but at least twice a year, and sub-committees are formed as a resource for gathering, analyzing, and preparing information for the KECIP meetings. Once the sub-committees or the KCDC review the available data, the KECIP members discuss each issue in depth and develop recommendations, usually by a consensus in the meeting. The KECIP publishes national guidelines and immunization schedules that are updated regularly. KECIP’s role is essentially consultative and the implementation of their recommendations may depend on the budget or current laws.

  9. Practical applications and methods in performing cardiac digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, D.M.; Withrow, S.; Moodie, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    One of the purposes of this book is to outline the utility of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in common clinical practice. No text has dealt with the actual physical setup of the room or the patient prior and during a digital subtraction angiographic study at rest and with exercise. This chapter outlines the steps commonly used when cardiac DSA is performed on patients in the authors' laboratory. The authors have learned over the last few years the best way to prepare the patient and the equipment and it is hoped that utilizing this experience, other centers may avoid the mistakes the authors have made in the past and develop new techniques for the future

  10. Development of new geoinformation methods for modelling and prediction of sea level change over different timescales - overview of the project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, T.; Włosińska, M.; Miziński, B.; Hewelt, M.; Migoń, P.; Kosek, W.; Priede, I. G.

    2012-04-01

    The poster aims to provide a broad scientific audience with a general overview of a project on sea level change modelling and prediction that has just commenced at the University of Wrocław, Poland. The initiative that the project fits, called the Homing Plus programme, is organised by the Foundation for Polish Science and financially supported by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund and the Innovative Economy Programme. There are two key research objectives of the project that complement each other. First, emphasis is put on modern satellite altimetric gridded time series from the Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO) repository. Daily sea level anomaly maps, access to which in near-real time is courtesy of AVISO, are being steadily downloaded every day to our local server in Wroclaw, Poland. These data will be processed within a general framework of modelling and prediction of sea level change in short, medium and long term. Secondly, sea level change over geological time is scrutinised in order to cover very long time scales that go far beyond a history of altimetric and tide-gauge measurements. The aforementioned approaches comprise a few tasks that aim to solve the following detailed problems. Within the first one, our objective is to seek spatio-temporal dependencies in the gridded sea level anomaly time series. Subsequently, predictions that make use of such cross-correlations shall be derived, and near-real time service for automatic update with validation will be implemented. Concurrently, (i.e. apart from spatio-temporal dependencies and their use in the process of forecasting variable sea level topography), threshold models shall be utilised for predicting the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal that is normally present in sea level anomaly time series of the equatorial Pacific. Within the second approach, however, the entirely different methods are proposed. Links between

  11. On illicit drug policies; methods of evaluation and comments on recent practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Giovanni; Vezzani, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    This contribution provides an overview of different approaches used to analyse drug policies within and across countries. Besides the great number of cost of illness studies which have contributed to the assessment of health harms and risks associated to the drug use, most of the recent efforts have focused on the creation of synthetic indices to classify countries around the world or to evaluate particular law enforcement policies in some countries. This is probably due to a general lack of comparable data across countries. The wide variety of budgetary practices in the drugs field in Europe contributes to the problems that exist in estimating drug-related public expenditure. These heterogeneous accounting practices, together with the complexity of the drug phenomenon and the multiplicity of perspectives on the issue, strongly constrains the possibility of economically evaluate and compare drug laws across countries.

  12. Testing methods in practice: practical experience with neutron-flux detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilhofer, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    With the commissioning of purely commercial nuclear power stations there are new operational tasks in power station control engineering: reactor protection (transmitters, logics, control of safety systems) and nuclear measuring engineering. Inspection and maintenance of these components contribute to safety and availability of the power station. In the paper, measuring techniques for power station practice and problems of operational efficiency are treated preferably. (orig.) [de

  13. Intuitionistic fuzzy based DEMATEL method for developing green practices and performances in a green supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Khodaverdi, Roohollah; Vafadarnikjoo, Amin

    2015-01-01

    for organizations to enhance their environmental performance and achieve competitive advantages. This study pioneers using the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method with intuitionistic fuzzy sets to handle the important and causal relationships between GSCM practices and performances...... to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method. The results reveal "internal management support", "green purchasing" and "ISO 14001 certification" are the most significant GSCM practices. The practical results of this study offer useful insights for managers to become more environmentally responsible...

  14. Overview of the international legal framework governing the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy - Some practical steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautenbach, J.; Tonhauser, W.; Wetherall, A.

    2006-01-01

    and the background leading to their respective development. More importantly, however, this paper highlights some of the practical steps taken since the accident, both by the IAEA and the international community, which underpin this framework. In addition, the paper identifies some of the current challenges and, in a brief outlook, considers some recent multilateral initiatives in the nuclear domain and their possible impact on future developments in nuclear law

  15. INVESTIGATING THE MANAGEMENT OF CARIOUS PRIMARY TEETH IN GENERAL DENTAL PRACTICE: AN OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND CONDUCT OF THE FICTION TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Keightley, Alexander; Maguire, Anne; Chadwick, Barbara; Vale, Luke; Homer, Tara; Douglas, Gail; Deery, Chris; Marshman, Zoe; Ryan, Vicky; Innes, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    The management of carious primary teeth is a challenge for patients, parents and clinicians. Most evidence supporting different management strategies originates from a specialist setting and therefore its relevance to the primary care setting is questionable. The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) has commissioned the FiCTION (Filling Children's Teeth: Indicated Or Not?) trial; a multi-centre primary dental care randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine the most clinically and cost- effective approach to managing caries in the primary dentition in the UK. This large trial began in 2012, is due to be completed in late 2017 and involves 72 practices and 1,124 children initially aged three to seven years with dentine caries, following randomisation to one of three caries management strategies. Clinical, radiographic, quality of life, treatment acceptability and health economics data are collected during the three-year follow up period. This article provides an overview of the development and conduct of FiCTION and discusses some approaches adopted to manage challenges and achieve the patient recruitment target.

  16. Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

  17. Learning Practice-Based Research Methods: Capturing the Experiences of MSW Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, Sidsel; Weissinger, Erika; Graaf, Genevieve; Carnochan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The literature on teaching research methods to social work students identifies many challenges, such as dealing with the tensions related to producing research relevant to practice, access to data to teach practice-based research, and limited student interest in learning research methods. This is an exploratory study of the learning experiences of…

  18. Strength-based Supervision: Frameworks, Current Practice, and Future Directions A Wu-wei Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey K.; Chen, Mei-Whei

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a method of counseling supervision similar to the wu-wei practice in Zen and Taoism. Suggests that this strength-based method and an understanding of isomorphy in supervisory relationships are the preferred practice for the supervision of family counselors. States that this model of supervision potentiates the person-of-the-counselor.…

  19. Integral methods in science and engineering theoretical and practical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, C; Rollins, D

    2006-01-01

    Presents a series of analytic and numerical methods of solution constructed for important problems arising in science and engineering, based on the powerful operation of integration. This volume is meant for researchers and practitioners in applied mathematics, physics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as graduate students.

  20. Innovative Teaching Practice: Traditional and Alternative Methods (Challenges and Implications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurutdinova, Aida R.; Perchatkina, Veronika G.; Zinatullina, Liliya M.; Zubkova, Guzel I.; Galeeva, Farida T.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the present issue is caused be the strong need in alternative methods of learning foreign language and the need in language training and retraining for the modern professionals. The aim of the article is to identify the basic techniques and skills in using various modern techniques in the context of modern educational tasks. The…

  1. [Historical overview and the current practice of intracavitary treatment of cervical and endometrial cancer in the Oncoradiology Center of Budapest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkó, Dániel; Nemeskéri, Csaba; Pallinger, Ágnes; Weisz, Csaba; Naszály, Attila; Landherr, László

    2015-06-01

    The aims of our study were to describe the history and development of intracavitary brachytherapy in the treatment of gynecological tumors, to introduce our current practice for intracavitary brachytherapy treatments based on CT planning. Gynecological intracavitary brachytherapy has been applied in our department since the early 1930s. After a long development it has been completely renewed by 2014. In our center definitive and/or preoperative gynecological HDR-AL brachytherapy treatments were given to 25 patients (13 corpus uterine cancer patients and 12 cervical cancer patients) during the period of 01. 01. 2014-31. 01. 2015. In each case, target volumes were planned by CT images, DVH (dose volume histogram) analysis was performed in order to calculate the radiation tolerance dose of rectum and urinary bladder. Evaluation was performed by the EclipseTM 11.0.47. brachytherapy treatment planning system. During the definitive treatments of the 13 uterine cancer patients the D2cc value related to rectum tolerance was 66.3 GyEQD2 (46-91 Gy). The average D2cc value of urinary bladder tolerance was 76.5 GyEQD2 (30-112 Gy). CI was 0.72 (0.6-0.95). Average value of COIN was 0.57 (0.35-0.78). Compared to the prescribed dose D100 and D90 values were given in ratios. Compared to the volume which receives 100% of reference dose V150 and V200 values were also given in ratios. D100 and D90 were calculated to be 0.66 (0.47-0.97) and 0.91 (0.8-1.25). V150 and V200 volumes were 0.11 (0.04-0.18) and 0.06 (0.02-0.1). During the definitive treatments of 12 cervical cancer patients the D2cc value related to rectum tolerance calculated by DVH was 75.2 GyEQD2 (60-82 Gy). The average D2cc value of urinary bladder tolerance was 85 GyEQD2 based on DVH. CI was 0.66 (0.42-0.76). Average value of COIN was 0.52 (0.32-0.78). Mean value of DHI was 0.46 (0.27-0.54). D100 and D90 were calculated to be 0.72 (0.57-0.89) and 0.91 (0.84-1.11). V150 and V200 volumes were 0.057 (0.02-0.13) and 0.02 (0

  2. Practical methods for generating alternating magnetic fields for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Michael G.; Howe, Christina M.; Bono, David C.; Perreault, David J.; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-08-01

    Alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) cause magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to dissipate heat while leaving surrounding tissue unharmed, a mechanism that serves as the basis for a variety of emerging biomedical technologies. Unfortunately, the challenges and costs of developing experimental setups commonly used to produce AMFs with suitable field amplitudes and frequencies present a barrier to researchers. This paper first presents a simple, cost-effective, and robust alternative for small AMF working volumes that uses soft ferromagnetic cores to focus the flux into a gap. As the experimental length scale increases to accommodate animal models (working volumes of 100s of cm3 or greater), poor thermal conductivity and volumetrically scaled core losses render that strategy ineffective. Comparatively feasible strategies for these larger volumes instead use low loss resonant tank circuits to generate circulating currents of 1 kA or greater in order to produce the comparable field amplitudes. These principles can be extended to the problem of identifying practical routes for scaling AMF setups to humans, an infrequently acknowledged challenge that influences the extent to which many applications of MNPs may ever become clinically relevant.

  3. Investigating the efficacy of practical skill teaching: a pilot-study comparing three educational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-03-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a randomised controlled trial, with concealed allocation and blinded participants and outcome assessment. Each of the three randomly allocated groups were exposed to a different practical skills teaching method (traditional, pre-recorded video tutorial or student self-video) for two specific practical skills during the semester. Clinical performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The students were also administered a questionnaire to gain the participants level of satisfaction with the teaching method, and their perceptions of the teaching methods educational value. There were no significant differences in clinical performance between the three practical skill teaching methods as measured in the OSCE, or for student ratings of satisfaction. A significant difference existed between the methods for the student ratings of perceived educational value, with the teaching approaches of pre-recorded video tutorial and student self-video being rated higher than 'traditional' live tutoring. Alternative teaching methods to traditional live tutoring can produce equivalent learning outcomes when applied to the practical skill development of undergraduate health professional students. The use of alternative practical skill teaching methods may allow for greater flexibility for both staff and infrastructure resource allocation.

  4. A PRACTICAL METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF PLEURAL EFFUSION BY USG

    OpenAIRE

    Swish Kumar; Dinesh Kumar; Suganita; Singh; Vijay Shankar; Rajeev; Ajay; Anjali

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to find a correlation between pleural separation and amount of aspirated effusion. METHODS Total 20 adult patients with 25 effusions were taken into the study with chest x-ray showing homogeneous opacity in either one or both of the lung field, which was confirmed on USG. Only uncomplicated pleural effusion were taken into study. Effusion with septations or encysted effusion or pyothorax were excluded from the study. RESULTS...

  5. Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Obesity (ACE-Obesity: an overview of the ACE approach, economic methods and cost results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. Results The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from Conclusion The use of consistent methods enables valid comparison of potential intervention costs and cost-offsets for each of the interventions. ACE-Obesity informs policy-makers about cost-effectiveness, health impact, affordability and 2nd stage filters for important options for preventing unhealthy weight gain in children. In related articles cost-effectiveness results and

  6. A practical attenuation compensation method for cone beam spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manglos, S.H.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Floyd, C.E.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    An algorithm for attenuation compensation of cone beam SPECT images has been developed and implemented. The algorithm is based on a multiplicative post-processing method previously used for parallel and fan beam geometries. This method computes the compensation from the estimated average attenuation of photons originating from each image pixel. In the present development, a uniform attenuation coefficient inside of the body contour is assumed, although the method could be extended to include a non-uniform attenuation map. The algorithm is tested with experimental projections of a phantom obtained using a cone beam collimator. Profiles through the reconstructed images are presented as a quantitative test of the improvement due to the compensation. The algorithm provides adequate compensation for attenuation in a simple uniform cylindrical phantom, and the computational time is short compared to that expected for iterative reconstruction techniques. Also observed are image distortions in some reconstructed slices when the source distribution extends beyond the edge of the cone beam axial field-of-view

  7. Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The program overview describes the following resources and facilities; laser facilities, main laser room, target room, energy storage, laboratory area, building support systems, general plant project, and the new trailer complex

  8. Disability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  9. Vulvovaginitis - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000897.htm Vulvovaginitis - overview To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vulvovaginitis or vaginitis is swelling or infection of the ...

  10. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for computed radiography (CR) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of computed radiography (CR) imaging and data acquisition equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This practice is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information objec...

  11. Best practices for learning physiology: combining classroom and online methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa C; Krichbaum, Kathleen E

    2017-09-01

    Physiology is a requisite course for many professional allied health programs and is a foundational science for learning pathophysiology, health assessment, and pharmacology. Given the demand for online learning in the health sciences, it is important to evaluate the efficacy of online and in-class teaching methods, especially as they are combined to form hybrid courses. The purpose of this study was to compare two hybrid physiology sections in which one section was offered mostly in-class (85% in-class), and the other section was offered mostly online (85% online). The two sections in 2 yr ( year 1 and year 2 ) were compared in terms of knowledge of physiology measured in exam scores and pretest-posttest improvement, and in measures of student satisfaction with teaching. In year 1 , there were some differences on individual exam scores between the two sections, but no significant differences in mean exam scores or in pretest-posttest improvements. However, in terms of student satisfaction, the mostly in-class students in year 1 rated the instructor significantly higher than did the mostly online students. Comparisons between in-class and online students in the year 2 cohort yielded data that showed that mean exam scores were not statistically different, but pre-post changes were significantly greater in the mostly online section; student satisfaction among mostly online students also improved significantly. Education researchers must investigate effective combinations of in-class and online methods for student learning outcomes, while maintaining the flexibility and convenience that online methods provide. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Simulated settings; powerful arenas for learning patient safety practices and facilitating transference to clinical practice. A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reime, Marit Hegg; Johnsgaard, Tone; Kvam, Fred Ivan; Aarflot, Morten; Breivik, Marit; Engeberg, Janecke Merethe; Brattebø, Guttorm

    2016-11-01

    Poor teamwork is an important factor in the occurrence of critical incidents because of a lack of non-technical skills. Team training can be a key to prevent these incidents. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of nursing and medical students after a simulation-based interprofessional team training (SBITT) course and its impact on professional and patient safety practices, using a concurrent mixed-method design. The participants (n = 262) were organized into 44 interprofessional teams. The results showed that two training sequences the same day improved overall team performance. Making mistakes during SBITT appeared to improve the quality of patient care once the students returned to clinical practice as it made the students more vigilant. Furthermore, the video-assisted oral debriefing provided an opportunity to strengthen interprofessional teamwork and share situational awareness. SBITT gave the students an opportunity to practice clinical reasoning skills and to share professional knowledge. The students conveyed the importance of learning to speak up to ensure safe patient practices. Simulated settings seem to be powerful arenas for learning patient safety practices and facilitating transference of this awareness to clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Morphological Characterization of Nanofibers: Methods and Application in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Širc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical applications such as wound dressing for skin regeneration, stem cell transplantation, or drug delivery require special demands on the three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Besides the biocompatibility and mechanical properties, the morphology is the most important attribute of the scaffold. Specific surface area, volume, and size of the pores have considerable effect on cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation. In the case of incorporated biologically active substances, their release is also influenced by the internal structure of nanofibers. Although many scientific papers are focused on the preparation of nanofibers and evaluation of biological tests, the morphological characterization was described just briefly as service methods. The aim of this paper is to summarize the methods applicable for morphological characterization of nanofibers and supplement it by the results of our research. Needleless electrospinning technique was used to prepare nanofibers from polylactide, poly(ε-caprolactone, gelatin, and polyamide. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the fiber diameters and to reveal eventual artifacts in the nanofibrous structure. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were employed to measure the specific surface areas. Mercury porosimetry was used to determine total porosities and compare pore size distributions of the prepared samples.

  14. A systematic and practical method for selecting systems engineering tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    analyses of the actual needs and the available tools. Grouping needs into categories, allow us to obtain a comprehensive set of requirements for the tools. The entire model-based systems engineering discipline was categorized for a modeling tool case to enable development of a tool specification...... in successful operation since 2013 at GN Hearing. We further utilized the method to select a set of tools that we used on pilot cases at GN Hearing for modeling, simulating and formally verifying embedded systems.......The complexity of many types of systems has grown considerably over the last decades. Using appropriate systems engineering tools therefore becomes increasingly important. Starting the tool selection process can be intimidating because organizations often only have a vague idea about what they need...

  15. Practical optimization of Steiner trees via the cavity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Alfredo; Muntoni, Anna

    2016-07-01

    The optimization version of the cavity method for single instances, called Max-Sum, has been applied in the past to the minimum Steiner tree problem on graphs and variants. Max-Sum has been shown experimentally to give asymptotically optimal results on certain types of weighted random graphs, and to give good solutions in short computation times for some types of real networks. However, the hypotheses behind the formulation and the cavity method itself limit substantially the class of instances on which the approach gives good results (or even converges). Moreover, in the standard model formulation, the diameter of the tree solution is limited by a predefined bound, that affects both computation time and convergence properties. In this work we describe two main enhancements to the Max-Sum equations to be able to cope with optimization of real-world instances. First, we develop an alternative ‘flat’ model formulation that allows the relevant configuration space to be reduced substantially, making the approach feasible on instances with large solution diameter, in particular when the number of terminal nodes is small. Second, we propose an integration between Max-Sum and three greedy heuristics. This integration allows Max-Sum to be transformed into a highly competitive self-contained algorithm, in which a feasible solution is given at each step of the iterative procedure. Part of this development participated in the 2014 DIMACS Challenge on Steiner problems, and we report the results here. The performance on the challenge of the proposed approach was highly satisfactory: it maintained a small gap to the best bound in most cases, and obtained the best results on several instances in two different categories. We also present several improvements with respect to the version of the algorithm that participated in the competition, including new best solutions for some of the instances of the challenge.

  16. Measuring solar reflectance - Part II: Review of practical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23 ], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45 ]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R{sub g,0}{sup *}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R{sub g,0}{sup *} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R{sub g,0}{sup *} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R{sub g,0}{sup *} to within about 0.01. (author)

  17. PRACTICAL PERIODONTAL SURGERY: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna; Chandrashekar; Anuroopa; Senthil; Syed; Sandeep S; Kumuda; Ashwini

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of periodontal surgery in the treatment of periodontal diseases not yet been systematically evaluated. The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the efficacy of periodontal surgical procedures in the various treatment modalities. Periodontal disease is multifaceted in nature and scope. The problems created due to this inflammatory condition are different eg. gingival enlargement, osseous deformities, mucogingival problem which ultimately may ...

  18. Overview of current chelation practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aydinok

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Deferoxamine (DFO is reference standard therapy for transfusional iron overload since the 1980s. Although it is a highly effective iron chelator, the compliance problem to subcutaneous administration of DFO remains as the major problem. The oral chelator Deferiprone (DFP has no marketing licence in North America, however, it has been licensed in India since 1994 and the European Union (EU granted marketing approval for DFP in 1999, specifically for patients with thalassemia major when DFO is inadequate, intolerable or unacceptable. There are still limited data available on the use of DFP in children between 6 and 10 years of age, and no data on DFP use in children under 6 years of age. Subsequently the oral chelator Deferasirox (DFX was approved by FDA and EMA for the treatment of patients with transfusional iron overload -older than 2 years of age- as first line therapy, in 2005 and 2006 respectively. The primary objective of iron chelation is to maintain body iron at safe levels at all times but once iron is accumulated, the objective of iron chelation is to reduce tissue iron to safe levels which is a slow process. The chelation regimen, dose and frequency of administration, of the chelator(s are mainly determined based on body iron burden, presence of myocardial iron and the transfusional iron loading rate. A proper monitoring of chelation is of importance for measuring the response rate to a particular regimen and providing dose adjustments to enhance chelation efficacy and to avoid toxicity. Efficacy of a chelation regimen may exhibit individual variability resulting from factors such as absorbtion and metabolism of the chelator. Tolerability and compliance are also individual variables effecting the response to chelation. Understanding of advantages and limitations of chelators, accurately determining chelation needs of patients with iron overload and designing individualized chelation regimens with less toxicity but optimum efficacy, should provide long-term survival and quality of life for patients with iron loading anemias. The goal of this review is to summarize current concepts in iron chelation therapies based on the considerable amount of prospective data obtained by clinical studies. 去铁胺 (DFO)是自20世纪80年以来输血引起铁过载的参考标准疗法。 虽然它是一种高效的铁螯合剂,但是去铁胺皮下给药的遵从性问题依旧是主要问题。 口服螯合剂去铁酮(DFP)在北美没有销售许可证,但是,它在1994年获得印度许可,1999年欧洲联盟(EU)批准授予去铁酮销售许可证,特别是当去铁胺不足、无法忍受或无法接受时,去铁酮可用于重型地中海贫血患者。 还可获得关于在6岁至10岁之间的儿童身上使用去铁酮的有限数据,但是没有关于在6岁以下儿童身上使用去铁酮的数据。 随后美国食品和药品管理局(FDA)和欧洲药品管理局(EMA)分别在2005年和2006年批准口服螯合剂去铁酮作为第一疗法来治疗2岁以上输血引起铁过载的患者。 铁螯合的主要目的是将身体铁维持在安全水平,但一旦铁累积起来,铁螯合的目标是把组织铁降低到安全级别,这是一个缓慢的过程。 确定螯合剂的螯合方案、剂量和频率管理的主要依据是身体铁负担、心肌铁的状态和输血铁负载速率。 适当监控螯合对测量特殊方案的反应速率和提供计量调整来加强螯合效果和避免毒效尤其重要。 由于一些因素,诸如:螯合剂的吸收和代谢,螯合方案的效果可能呈现个别变化。 耐受性和遵从性也是影响螯合反应的个别变量。 了解螯合剂的优点和局限性,准确确定铁过载患者的螯合需求以及设计毒效更小但效果更优的个性化螯合方案,可以向铁过载贫血患者提供长期的生存和生活质量。 此次调研的目的是在临床研究获得的相当数量预期数据基础上,总结铁螯合疗法的当前概念。

  19. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for ultrasonic test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of ultrasonic imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E 2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E 2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, transfer and archival storage. The goal of Practice E 2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE test results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E 2339 provides a data dictionary and set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E 2339 by providing information object definitions, information ...

  20. Group supervision in a private setting: Practice and method for theory and practice in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziana Mangiacavallo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The report aims to tell the experience of a supervision group in a private setting. The group consists of professional psychotherapists driven by the more experienced practitioner, who shares a clinical reasoning on psychotherapy with younger colleagues. The report aims to present the supervision group as a methode and to showcase its features. The supervision group becomes a container of professional experiences that speak of the new way of doing psychotherapy. 

  1. Standard Practice for Optical Distortion and Deviation of Transparent Parts Using the Double-Exposure Method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This photographic practice determines the optical distortion and deviation of a line of sight through a simple transparent part, such as a commercial aircraft windshield or a cabin window. This practice applies to essentially flat or nearly flat parts and may not be suitable for highly curved materials. 1.2 Test Method F 801 addresses optical deviation (angluar deviation) and Test Method F 2156 addresses optical distortion using grid line slope. These test methods should be used instead of Practice F 733 whenever practical. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. A study of best management practices for enhancing productivity in building projects: construction methods perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argaw Tarekegn Gurmu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates management practices that have the potential to enhance productivity in building projects by focusing on construction methods. In phase 1 of the study, face-to-face interviews with nineteen experts were conducted to identify the best management practices for construction methods. The qualitative data analysis reached saturation and resulted in a list of best practices for construction methods that are relevant to the local industry. The second phase used an industry-wide survey to prioritize the best practices. Accordingly, project start-up plan, traffic control plan, machinery positioning strategy, project completion plan, and dynamic site layout plan were shown to be the top five best practices for construction methods. The study also revealed that high levels of implementation of best practices are associated with low levels of project delays. The use of best practices also varied according to the project costs. There were no discernible differences between the top five best practices. The authors suggest that they should be implemented jointly to improve productivity in building projects. Contractors could use the logistic regression model developed, to predict the probability of exceeding a baseline productivity factor and, on that basis, implement corrective actions to achieve the desired level of productivity.

  3. Riemann solvers and numerical methods for fluid dynamics a practical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Toro, Eleuterio F

    2009-01-01

    High resolution upwind and centred methods are a mature generation of computational techniques applicable to a range of disciplines, Computational Fluid Dynamics being the most prominent. This book gives a practical presentation of this class of techniques.

  4. Instructional maps of safe working methods and practices for separate types of opera-tions conducted in the oil mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. В. Климова

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Instructing personnel in the issues of labor protection and industrial safety at hazardous facilities is one of the main tasks that face the employer; the quality with which this procedure is organized and carried out defines not only company’s indicators, but the mere possibility of its normal functioning. The paper contains a detailed overview of the typical content of standard documentation, which is currently used when conducting operations in the oil mines of Yarega high-viscosity oil deposit. Distinct features and unique nature of this oil field require special measures to guarantee safety of personnel and all facilities in general.The author proposes and reviews an additional type of operating guidelines – instructional map of safe working methods and practices. It is more illustrative than existing documentation (charts of inclined shaft development, labor protection regulations, which allows to upgrade the process of instructing personnel in the oil mines, to improve the quality of instructions and to reduce the risk of emergencies, accidents, industrial injuries.The author reviews the structure of suggested instructional map, offers a detailed arrangement diagram for the main thematic sections of the map, as well as their content. Instructional maps are regarded as a type of operating guidelines that include: description and characteristics of equipment, instruments and appliances; general safety requirements; content and execution sequence of operational elements with their graphical images; distribution of responsibilities with an indication of their priority in case the operations are conducted by several workers; specific safety requirements for equipment, materials, instruments, safety clothes and footwear, personal protective gear etc. (prohibitions, warnings.Advantages and disadvantages of proposed instructional maps of safe working methods and practices are highlighted.

  5. Introductory Overviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakeman, A.J.; Hamilton, S.H.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Pierce, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory Overview articles are designed to provide introductory level background to key themes and topics that caters to the eclectic readership of EMS. It is envisaged that these articles will help to break down barriers to shared understanding and dialogue within multidisciplinary teams, and

  6. Conference overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It had 17 plenary talks and as a new feature it also had 8 short talks which ..... absence of black holes, long-term simulations are possible and quantitative .... [3] For a brief overview, see The Nag Memorial Lecture by Ashoke Sen at the Inst-.

  7. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  8. Current Hitachi knowledge engineering systems: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, S; Maeda, A; Masuishi, T [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-02-01

    In order to bring the knowledge engineering technology up to the practical phase, Hitachi has provided several knowledge engineering system products, including expert system building tools, knowledge acquisition tools, and many kinds of stand-alone and build-in expert systems in both the business and process control fields. In this review article, an overview of Hitachi{prime}s recent knowledge systems is described, which includes a trend analysis on recent market recognition. In addition, to introduce the Hitachi{prime}s current activities, a new product, a user interface building tool, and a new method of tuning fuzzy membership functions using a neuro-computing algorithm are also described. Furthermore, it is pointed out that not only practical tools and methodologies, but also a practical development team, including a planning section, a cooperating expert, a user section, and experienced knowledge engineers, is needed to achieve practical expert systems. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A macro perspective for client-centred practice in curricula: Critique and teaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Castaldy, Rita P

    2015-07-01

    Client-centred practice is often eclipsed by social, economic, and political inequities. Ignoring these realities obstructs clients' goal attainment. The author advocates for the integration of a macro perspective inclusive of participation barriers and supports in occupational therapy curricula and seeks to motivate educators to adopt teaching approaches that develop students' abilities to address the complexities of client-centred practice. This article integrates a critical analysis of the literature on client-centred practice with reflexivity on disability studies and autoethnography. Educational standards require students to learn about the social, economic, and political contexts that impact on client-centred practice and the need for advocacy to enable participation. Theoretical support of a macro perspective for client-centred practice is strongly evident in the literature. Information on methods for teaching students how to actualize these concepts in practice is scant. Thus, strategies to inform the integration of a macro perspective into curricula and concrete activities to develop students' competencies for empowered client-centred practice are required. Educators have an ethical responsibility to critique their pedagogy to determine whether they are adequately preparing students for client-centred practice. The focus must move from teaching a micro perspective of client-centred practice to a macro perspective that enables occupational justice and empowerment.

  10. Cascade annealing: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Schiffgens, J.O.

    1976-04-01

    Concepts and an overview of radiation displacement damage modeling and annealing kinetics are presented. Short-term annealing methodology is described and results of annealing simulations performed on damage cascades generated using the Marlowe and Cascade programs are included. Observations concerning the inconsistencies and inadequacies of current methods are presented along with simulation of high energy cascades and simulation of longer-term annealing

  11. An experimental method to determine the electrostatic field enhancement factor of a practical conductor surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1989-01-01

    A method of determining the field enhancement factor of a practical conductor is presented. The method is developed from a modified theory of discharge onset in a gaseous medium. This modification incorporates the influence of conductor surface roughness. Onset data from an experimental study...

  12. Practical Recommendations to Improve the Quality of Training and Methodical Support of Professional Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebennikov, Valery V.; Grudtsina, Ludmila Yu.; Marchuk, Nikolay N.; Sangadgiev, Badma V.; Kudyashev, Nail K.

    2016-01-01

    The research urgency is caused by the transition to the knowledge society and new demands for training and methodical provision of professional pedagogical education. The purpose of this paper is to develop practical recommendations to improve the quality of training and methodical support of professional pedagogical education. The leading…

  13. Best Practices in Teaching Statistics and Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences [with CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S., Ed.; Smith, Randolph A., Ed.; Beins, Barney, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a showcase for "best practices" in teaching statistics and research methods in two- and four-year colleges and universities. A helpful resource for teaching introductory, intermediate, and advanced statistics and/or methods, the book features coverage of: (1) ways to integrate these courses; (2) how to promote ethical conduct;…

  14. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  15. Action research as a method for changing patient education practice in a clinical diabetes setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Jane Rohde; Hansen, Ulla M.; Glindorf, Mette

    2014-01-01

    with researchers developed and implemented a participatory, group-based diabetes education program in a diabetes clinic in the Danish health care system. The research process included a variety of qualitative methods: workshops, classroom observations, video recordings and semi-structured interviews. These methods......Action research is potentially a useful method for changing clinical practice by involving practitioners in the process of change. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of action research in bridging the gap between research and practice. Diabetes educators in collaboration...... aimed at obtaining contextual sensitivity, allowing dynamic interactions with educators and people with diabetes. Despite challenges, the study demonstrates how action research methods contribute to development and change of diabetes education practice while simultaneously adding knowledge to the action...

  16. How to Measure Costs and Benefits of eHealth Interventions: An Overview of Methods and Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmo, Trine Strand

    2015-11-09

    Information on the costs and benefits of eHealth interventions is needed, not only to document value for money and to support decision making in the field, but also to form the basis for developing business models and to facilitate payment systems to support large-scale services. In the absence of solid evidence of its effects, key decision makers may doubt the effectiveness, which, in turn, limits investment in, and the long-term integration of, eHealth services. However, it is not realistic to conduct economic evaluations of all eHealth applications and services in all situations, so we need to be able to generalize from those we do conduct. This implies that we have to select the most appropriate methodology and data collection strategy in order to increase the transferability across evaluations. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of how to apply economic evaluation methodology in the eHealth field. It provides a brief overview of basic health economics principles and frameworks and discusses some methodological issues and challenges in conducting cost-effectiveness analysis of eHealth interventions. Issues regarding the identification, measurement, and valuation of costs and benefits are outlined. Furthermore, this work describes the established techniques of combining costs and benefits, presents the decision rules for identifying the preferred option, and outlines approaches to data collection strategies. Issues related to transferability and complexity are also discussed.

  17. Overview of the Diagnostic Methods Used in the Field for Human African Trypanosomiasis: What Could Change in the Next Years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bonnet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness is a parasitic infection caused by two species of trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and rhodesiense, transmitted by the tsetse fly. The disease eventually affects the central nervous system, resulting in severe neurological symptoms. Without treatment, death is inevitable. During the first stage of the disease, infected patients are mildly symptomatic and early detection of infection allows safer treatment (administered on an outpatient basis which can avoid death; routine screening of the exposed population is necessary, especially in areas of high endemicity. The current therapeutic treatment of this disease, especially in stage 2, can cause complications and requires a clinical surveillance for several days. A good stage diagnosis of the disease is the cornerstone for delivering the adequate treatment. The task faced by the medical personnel is further complicated by the lack of support from local health infrastructure, which is at best weak, but often nonexistent. Therefore it is crucial to look for new more efficient technics for the diagnosis of stage which are also best suited to use in the field, in areas not possessing high-level health facilities. This review, after an overview of the disease, summarizes the current diagnosis procedures and presents the advances in the field.

  18. Organizational climate and hospital nurses' caring practices: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Geneviève; Dubois, Carl-Ardy; Clarke, Sean P

    2014-06-01

    Organizational climate in healthcare settings influences patient outcomes, but its effect on nursing care delivery remains poorly understood. In this mixed-methods study, nurse surveys (N = 292) were combined with a qualitative case study of 15 direct-care registered nurses (RNs), nursing personnel, and managers. Organizational climate explained 11% of the variation in RNs' reported frequency of caring practices. Qualitative data suggested that caring practices were affected by the interplay of organizational climate dimensions with patients and nurses characteristics. Workload intensity and role ambiguity led RNs to leave many caring practices to practical nurses and assistive personnel. Systemic interventions are needed to improve organizational climate and to support RNs' involvement in a full range of caring practices. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. English Language Teaching at Secondary School Level in Bangladesh: An Overview of the Implementation of Communicative Language Teaching Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sofe

    2012-01-01

    The concept of globalization has brought dynamism in each aspect of the world. The changes have also touched the field of English language teaching (ELT) throughout the world. Bangladesh is no more far from that transformation. It has already attempted to the innovation of ELT. The country has moved from long term-practiced Grammar Translation…

  20. The early Browning: Pastoral care in a pluralistic age and the method of practical moral inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hestenes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The past president of the International Academy of Practical Theology, Prof. Donald Browning, has written books and articles across a wide variety of topics concerning the correlation of many great fields of knowledge, including theology, psychology, philosophy, sociology, practical theology, ethics, family therapy and ecology over the past 40 years. Prof. Browning passed away on 03 June 2010. This left the author of this article with a desire to begin to reassess some of Browning’s earlier reflections regarding his vision of pastoral care in a pluralistic age and the importance of his method of practical moral inquiry.

  1. Standardization of reagents and methods used in cytological and histological practice with emphasis on dyes, stains and chromogenic reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; De Leenheer, A P; Horobin, R W

    1994-01-01

    and stains through the preparation of reference materials and the development of chromatographic methods. An overview is presented of the problems concerned with standardization of the Romanowsky-Giemsa stain for cytological and histological application. Finally, the problem of how to convince routine dye...

  2. "Hand in Glove": Using Qualitative Methods to Connect Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Liam D; McCunn, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has espoused the idea that in applied sporting environments, "fast"-working practitioners should work together with "slow"-working researchers. However, due to economical and logistical constraints, such a coupling may not always be practical. Therefore, alternative means of combining research and applied practice are needed. A particular methodology that has been used in recent years is qualitative research. Examples of qualitative methods include online surveys, 1-on-1 interviews, and focus groups. This article discusses the merits of using qualitative methods to combine applied practice and research in sport science. This includes a discussion of recent examples of the use of such methods in published journal articles, a critique of the approaches employed, and future directions and recommendations. The authors encourage both practitioners and researchers to use and engage with qualitative research with the ultimate goal of benefiting athlete health and sporting performance.

  3. Qualitative Evaluation Methods in Ethics Education: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Logan L; Todd, E Michelle; Mulhearn, Tyler J; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Although qualitative research offers some unique advantages over quantitative research, qualitative methods are rarely employed in the evaluation of ethics education programs and are often criticized for a lack of rigor. This systematic review investigated the use of qualitative methods in studies of ethics education. Following a review of the literature in which 24 studies were identified, each study was coded based on 16 best practices characteristics in qualitative research. General thematic analysis and grounded theory were found to be the dominant approaches used. Researchers are effectively executing a number of best practices, such as using direct data sources, structured data collection instruments, non-leading questioning, and expert raters. However, other best practices were rarely present in the courses reviewed, such as collecting data using multiple sources, methods, raters, and timepoints, evaluating reliability, and employing triangulation analyses to assess convergence. Recommendations are presented for improving future qualitative research studies in ethics education.

  4. Application of quality-improvement methods in a community practice: the Sandhills Pediatrics Asthma Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroth, Thomas H; Boals, Joseph C

    2005-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the use of quality improvement methods to improve asthma care in a busy community practice. The practice used disease-management strategies, such as population identification, self-management education, and performance measurement and feedback. The practice then applied several practice-based quality improvement methods, such as PDSA cycles, to improve care. From 1998 to 2003, process measures, such as staging of asthmatics, use of long-term control medications, use of peak flow meters and spacers, and use of action plans, improved. There was also a substantial decrease in emergency department use and hospitalizations among patients with asthma. Although there have been several studies demonstrating the efficacy of disease management strategies, most lack generalizability to community practices. Often, interventions are so intensive and cumbersome, that they are unlikely to be replicated in primary care setting. Researchers have been unable to determine which components of the interventions are most effective and replicable. Furthermore, many studies of disease management strategies enroll participants who lack the co-morbidities seen in community practice. There are also few studies of disadvantaged populations that face other barriers to care, such as lack of transportation, poor access to specialists, and medical illiteracy. In this case study, there were several unique factors that enabled the practice to improve care for this population. The AccessCare case manager who worked with the practice not only provided data and feedback to the practice team, but also served as an improvement "coach," often pushing the team and facilitating many of the improvement efforts. AccessCare's approach is in contrast to many of the commercial disease management companies' "carve out" models that do not sufficiently involve providers or practices in their interventions. The other necessary ingredient for success in this project was organizational

  5. What does it mean to use a method? Towards a practice theory for software engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Context Methods and processes, along with the tools to support them, are at the heart of software engineering as a discipline. However, as we all know, that often the use of the same method neither impacts software projects in a comparable manner nor the software they result in. What is lacking...... software development and teaching are indicated. Conclusion The theoretical/philosophical concepts allow the explaining of heterogeneity in application of software engineering methods in line with empirical research results....... is an understanding of how methods affect software development. Objective The article develops a set of concepts based on the practice-concept in philosophy of sociology as a base to describe software development as social practice, and develop an understanding of methods and their application that explains...

  6. [Psychoanalysis: a research method based on clinical practice: contributions to nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Teresa Cristina; Kirschbaum, Débora Isane Ratner

    2008-09-01

    Nursing, in its different fields of practice, is essentially characterized as a clinical practice. In this context, psychoanalysis can make important contributions. This article discusses some basic psychoanalytical concepts and assumptions, proposes psychoanalysis as a research method, and stresses its contributions for nursing. Essential Freudian concepts are identified, as well as the path to be followed by the researcher. As a research method, psychoanalysis can be used as a framework for the studu of human behavior based on unconscious mental processes. In several knowledge areas.

  7. Characterization of polarization-independent phase modulation method for practical plug and play quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Osung; Lee, Min-Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Park, Byung Kwon; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2015-01-01

    We characterized a polarization-independent phase modulation method, called double phase modulation, for a practical plug and play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Following investigation of theoretical backgrounds, we applied the method to the practical QKD system and characterized the performance through comparing single phase modulation (SPM) and double phase modulation. Consequently, we obtained repeatable and accurate phase modulation confirmed by high visibility single photon interference even for input signals with arbitrary polarization. Further, the results show that only 80% of the bias voltage required in the case of single phase modulation is needed to obtain the target amount of phase modulation. (paper)

  8. A new method for designing dual foil electron beam forming systems. II. Feasibility of practical implementation of the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrich, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    In Part I of this work a new method for designing dual foil electron beam forming systems was introduced. In this method, an optimal configuration of the dual foil system is found by means of a systematic, automatized scan of system performance in function of its parameters. At each point of the scan, Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the off-axis dose profile in water taking into account detailed and complete geometry of the system. The new method, while being computationally intensive, minimizes the involvement of the designer. In this Part II paper, feasibility of practical implementation of the new method is demonstrated. For this, a prototype software tools were developed and applied to solve a real life design problem. It is demonstrated that system optimization can be completed within few hours time using rather moderate computing resources. It is also demonstrated that, perhaps for the first time, the designer can gain deep insight into system behavior, such that the construction can be simultaneously optimized in respect to a number of functional characteristics besides the flatness of the off-axis dose profile. In the presented example, the system is optimized in respect to both, flatness of the off-axis dose profile and the beam transmission. A number of practical issues related to application of the new method as well as its possible extensions are discussed.

  9. Comparison of four teaching methods on Evidence-based Practice skills of postgraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ritin S; Tran, Duong Thuy; Ramjan, Lucie; Ho, Carey; Gill, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare four teaching methods on the evidence-based practice knowledge and skills of postgraduate nursing students. Students enrolled in the Evidence-based Nursing (EBN) unit in Australia and Hong Kong in 2010 and 2011 received education via either the standard distance teaching method, computer laboratory teaching method, Evidence-based Practice-Digital Video Disc (EBP-DVD) teaching method or the didactic classroom teaching method. Evidence-based Practice (EBP) knowledge and skills were evaluated using student assignments that comprised validated instruments. One-way analysis of covariance was implemented to assess group differences on outcomes after controlling for the effects of age and grade point average (GPA). Data were obtained from 187 students. The crude mean score among students receiving the standard+DVD method of instruction was higher for developing a precise clinical question (8.1±0.8) and identifying the level of evidence (4.6±0.7) compared to those receiving other teaching methods. These differences were statistically significant after controlling for age and grade point average. Significant improvement in cognitive and technical EBP skills can be achieved for postgraduate nursing students by integrating a DVD as part of the EBP teaching resources. The EBP-DVD is an easy teaching method to improve student learning outcomes and ensure that external students receive equivalent and quality learning experiences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An overview on applied methods in the FRG to investigate human factors in control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    In the first half of 1984 a feasibility study was carried out with respect to the CSNI of the OECD/NEA inventory of methods for the analysis and evaluation of human factors in the control room of nuclear power plants. In order to enable an analysis of the methods to be made, an elementary categorization of the methods under field studies, laboratory studies and theoretical studies was performed. A further differentiation of these categories was used as the basis for a critical analysis and interpretation of the methods employed in the research plan. In the following sections, an explanation is given of the method categories used and the plans included in the investigation. A short representation is given of the breakdown of the applied methods into categories and an analysis is made of the results. Implications for research programs are discussed. (orig./GL) [de

  11. Computational methods assuring nuclear power plant structural integrity and safety: an overview of the recent activities at VTT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinaenen, H.; Talja, H.; Rintamaa, R.

    1998-01-01

    Numerical, simplified engineering and standardised methods are applied in the safety analyses of primary circuit components and reactor pressure vessels. The integrity assessment procedures require input relating both to the steady state and transient loading actual material properties data and precise knowledge of the size and geometry of defects. Current procedures bold extensive information regarding these aspects. It is important to verify the accuracy of the different assessment methods especially in the case of complex structures and loading. The focus of this paper is on the recent results and development of computational fracture assessment methods at VTT Manufacturing Technology. The methods include effective engineering type tools for rapid structural integrity assessments and more sophisticated finite-element based methods. An integrated PC-based program system MASI for engineering fracture analysis is described. A summary of the verification of the methods in computational benchmark analyses and against the results of large scale experiments is presented. (orig.)

  12. Social networking and young adults' drinking practices: innovative qualitative methods for health behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Antonia C; Goodwin, Ian; McCreanor, Tim; Griffin, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Understandings of health behaviors can be enriched by using innovative qualitative research designs. We illustrate this with a project that used multiple qualitative methods to explore the confluence of young adults' drinking behaviors and social networking practices in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Participants were 18-25 year old males and females from diverse ethnic, class, and occupational backgrounds. In Stage 1, 34 friendship focus group discussions were video-recorded with 141 young adults who talked about their drinking and social networking practices. In Stage 2, 23 individual interviews were conducted using screen-capture software and video to record participants showing and discussing their Facebook pages. In Stage 3, a database of Web-based material regarding drinking and alcohol was developed and analyzed. In friendship group data, young adults co-constructed accounts of drinking practices and networking about drinking via Facebook as intensely social and pleasurable. However, this pleasure was less prominent in individual interviews, where there was greater explication of unpleasant or problematic experiences and practices. The pleasure derived from drinking and social networking practices was also differentiated by ethnicity, gender, and social class. Juxtaposing the Web-based data with participants' talk about their drinking and social media use showed the deep penetration of online alcohol marketing into young people's social worlds. Multiple qualitative methods, generating multimodal datasets, allowed valuable nuanced insights into young adults' drinking practices and social networking behaviors. This knowledge can usefully inform health policy, health promotion strategies, and targeted health interventions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Evaluating the practice of the Design-Build procurement method in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babsola Olubunmi Ilori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A well implemented good practice of Design-Build procurement method brings different disciplines and aspects of construction process together, which in turn minimizes the incidents of constructors having to repeat work, and thus, result in cost and time savings. This type of procurement method increases the probability of a successful project that meets the expectations of all stakeholders. A bad practice of Design–Build procurement method increases the probability that the project’s performance will be compromised and that some or all of the stakeholders disappointed. The aim of this research is to determine whether Design-build procurement method is rightly practiced in South Africa. Data were collected from consultants and contractors using a structured questionnaire via personal contact and email. The collected data were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses. This paper argues that design-build procurement is not correctly practiced in South Africa. This may be due to the late introduction and the level of understanding of the procurement method.

  14. Putting social impact assessment to the test as a method for implementing responsible tourism practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCombes, Lucy, E-mail: l.mccombes@leedsbeckett.ac.uk [International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality (ICRETH), Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Macaulay Hall 103, Leeds LS6 3QS (United Kingdom); Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl [Professor of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands); Evers, Yvette, E-mail: y.evers@tft-earth.org [The Forest Trust, Chemin de Chantavril 2, 1260 Nyon (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    The discourse on the social impacts of tourism needs to shift from the current descriptive critique of tourism to considering what can be done in actual practice to embed the management of tourism's social impacts into the existing planning, product development and operational processes of tourism businesses. A pragmatic approach for designing research methodologies, social management systems and initial actions, which is shaped by the real world operational constraints and existing systems used in the tourism industry, is needed. Our pilot study with a small Bulgarian travel company put social impact assessment (SIA) to the test to see if it could provide this desired approach and assist in implementing responsible tourism development practice, especially in small tourism businesses. Our findings showed that our adapted SIA method has value as a practical method for embedding a responsible tourism approach. While there were some challenges, SIA proved to be effective in assisting the staff of our test case tourism business to better understand their social impacts on their local communities and to identify actions to take. - Highlights: • Pragmatic approach is needed for the responsible management of social impacts of tourism. • Our adapted Social impact Assessment (SIA) method has value as a practical method. • SIA can be embedded into tourism businesses existing ‘ways of doing things’. • We identified challenges and ways to improve our method to better suit small tourism business context.

  15. Putting social impact assessment to the test as a method for implementing responsible tourism practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombes, Lucy; Vanclay, Frank; Evers, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    The discourse on the social impacts of tourism needs to shift from the current descriptive critique of tourism to considering what can be done in actual practice to embed the management of tourism's social impacts into the existing planning, product development and operational processes of tourism businesses. A pragmatic approach for designing research methodologies, social management systems and initial actions, which is shaped by the real world operational constraints and existing systems used in the tourism industry, is needed. Our pilot study with a small Bulgarian travel company put social impact assessment (SIA) to the test to see if it could provide this desired approach and assist in implementing responsible tourism development practice, especially in small tourism businesses. Our findings showed that our adapted SIA method has value as a practical method for embedding a responsible tourism approach. While there were some challenges, SIA proved to be effective in assisting the staff of our test case tourism business to better understand their social impacts on their local communities and to identify actions to take. - Highlights: • Pragmatic approach is needed for the responsible management of social impacts of tourism. • Our adapted Social impact Assessment (SIA) method has value as a practical method. • SIA can be embedded into tourism businesses existing ‘ways of doing things’. • We identified challenges and ways to improve our method to better suit small tourism business context

  16. Assessing methods for measurement of clinical outcomes and quality of care in primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the appropriateness of potential data sources for the population of performance indicators for primary care (PC practices. Methods This project was a cross sectional study of 7 multidisciplinary primary care teams in Ontario, Canada. Practices were recruited and 5-7 physicians per practice agreed to participate in the study. Patients of participating physicians (20-30 were recruited sequentially as they presented to attend a visit. Data collection included patient, provider and practice surveys, chart abstraction and linkage to administrative data sets. Matched pairs analysis was used to examine the differences in the observed results for each indicator obtained using multiple data sources. Results Seven teams, 41 physicians, 94 associated staff and 998 patients were recruited. The survey response rate was 81% for patients, 93% for physicians and 83% for associated staff. Chart audits were successfully completed on all but 1 patient and linkage to administrative data was successful for all subjects. There were significant differences noted between the data collection methods for many measures. No single method of data collection was best for all outcomes. For most measures of technical quality of care chart audit was the most accurate method of data collection. Patient surveys were more accurate for immunizations, chronic disease advice/information dispensed, some general health promotion items and possibly for medication use. Administrative data appears useful for indicators including chronic disease diagnosis and osteoporosis/ breast screening. Conclusions Multiple data collection methods are required for a comprehensive assessment of performance in primary care practices. The choice of which methods are best for any one particular study or quality improvement initiative requires careful consideration of the biases that each method might introduce into the results. In this study, both patients and providers were

  17. The overview of damping methods for three-phase grid-tied inverter with LLCL-filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Compared with LCL filter, an LLCL-filter is characterized with smaller size and lower cost for grid-connected inverters. But this high order filter may also have resonant problem which will affect the system stability. Many methods can be used to alleviate the resonant problem including active da...... and shows the advantages as well as disadvantages of these methods....

  18. Socializing Identity Through Practice: A Mixed Methods Approach to Family Medicine Resident Perspectives on Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J W; Cafferty, Lauren A; Seehusen, Dean A

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty is a central theme in the practice of medicine and particularly primary care. This study explored how family medicine resident physicians react to uncertainty in their practice. This study incorporated a two-phase mixed methods approach, including semi-structured personal interviews (n=21) and longitudinal self-report surveys (n=21) with family medicine residents. Qualitative analysis showed that though residents described uncertainty as an implicit part of their identity, they still developed tactics to minimize or manage uncertainty in their practice. Residents described increasing comfort with uncertainty the longer they practiced and anticipated that growth continuing throughout their careers. Quantitative surveys showed that reactions to uncertainty were more positive over time; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Qualitative and quantitative results show that as family medicine residents practice medicine their perception of uncertainty changes. To reduce uncertainty, residents use relational information-seeking strategies. From a broader view of practice, residents describe uncertainty neutrally, asserting that uncertainty is simply part of the practice of family medicine.

  19. PHOBOS Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, David J.; Phobos Collaboration; Bbback; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Kwoźniak; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-11-01

    A brief overview of the current results and conclusions from the PHOBOS experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is given. No evidence is found for non-monotonic behavior of observables measured by PHOBOS in the RHIC energy region. Convincing evidence is found that we have created a state of matter with high energy-density, that is nearly net-baryon free and is strongly interacting. The data are found to exhibit "simple" scaling behaviors, which include extended longitudinal scaling and scaling with the number of participating nucleons. The Au+Au collision charged particle data also exhibit a remarkable factorization of collision energy and geometry.

  20. New teaching methods for practical training in nursing within the project Tempus IV – CCNURCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kuriplachová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present new teaching methods for practical training in nursing within the project Tempus IV – CCNURCA (Competency based Curriculum Reform in Nursing and Healthcare in Western Balkan Universities No. 544169-TEMPUS-1-2013-1-BE-TEMPUS-JPCR. Implementation of new practical teaching methods, such as learning with simulator mannequins, practical workshop, nursing process, mind mapping, case studies and problem-based learning (PBL in practical training could help to improve the quality of the educational process in nursing at Universities of Western Balkan countries that have been involved in this project. The realistic conditions in simulation laboratories are reflecting real hospital and patient´s care, communication with patient and hospital staff, discussion and analysis of all student´s activities. The methods of next nursing generation in practical training that can help nurses to get used to the recognition and management of patients by using of simulated real life situations.

  1. [Identification of the scope of practice for dental nurses with Delphi method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Hong; Lu, Yue-Cen; Huang, Yao; Ruan, Hong; Wu, Zheng-Yi

    2016-10-01

    To identify the practice scope of dental nurses under the new situations. The draft of scope of practice for dental nurses was based on theoretical analysis, literature review and consultation of advisory panel, and the final scope of practice for dental nurses was established by using the Delphi method. Statistical analysis was implemented using coefficient of variation, Kendall W with SPSS 17.0 software package. Thirty experts were consulted twice by using the Delphi method. The effective rates of two rounds of questionnaire were 100% and 73.3%, respectively. The authority coefficient was 0.837, and the P value of expert coordination coefficients W was less than 0.05. There were totally 116 suggestions from the experts, and 96 were accepted. The scope of practice for dental nurses was finally established, including 4 primary indexes and 25 secondary indexes. The scope of practice for dental nurses under the new situations is established in China through scientific methods. It is favorable for position management of dental nurses and may promote the development of nurse specialists in dental clinic.

  2. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: basics and beyond (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    This is the first of two papers which explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. In an era of evidence-based medicine and policy, high-quality research evidence is essential for the development of effective pharmacist-led services. Over the past decade, the use of mixed-methods research has become increasingly common in healthcare, although to date its use has been relatively limited in pharmacy practice research. In this article, the basic concepts of mixed-methods research including its definition, typologies and advantages in relation to pharmacy practice research are discussed. Mixed-methods research brings together qualitative and quantitative methodologies within a single study to answer or understand a research problem. There are a number of mixed-methods designs available, but the selection of an appropriate design must always be dictated by the research question. Importantly, mixed-methods research should not be seen as a 'tool' to collect qualitative and quantitative data, rather there should be some degree of 'integration' between the two data sets. If conducted appropriately, mixed-methods research has the potential to generate quality research evidence by combining strengths and overcoming the respective limitations of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Qualitative methods in PhD theses from general practice in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Hamberg, Katarina; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-12-01

    Qualitative methodology is gaining increasing attention and esteem in medical research, with general practice research taking a lead. With these methods, human and social interaction and meaning can be explored and shared by systematic interpretation of text from talk, observation or video. Qualitative studies are often included in Ph.D. theses from general practice in Scandinavia. Still, the Ph.D. programs across nations and institutions offer only limited training in qualitative methods. In this opinion article, we draw upon our observations and experiences, unpacking and reflecting upon values and challenges at stake when qualitative studies are included in Ph.D. theses. Hypotheses to explain these observations are presented, followed by suggestions for standards of evaluation and improvement of Ph.D. programs. The authors conclude that multimethod Ph.D. theses should be encouraged in general practice research, in order to offer future researchers an appropriate toolbox.

  4. Experimental innovations in surface science a guide to practical laboratory methods and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John T

    2015-01-01

    This book is a new edition of a classic text on experimental methods and instruments in surface science. It offers practical insight useful to chemists, physicists, and materials scientists working in experimental surface science. This enlarged second edition contains almost 300 descriptions of experimental methods. The more than 50 active areas with individual scientific and measurement concepts and activities relevant to each area are presented in this book. The key areas covered are: Vacuum System Technology, Mechanical Fabrication Techniques, Measurement Methods, Thermal Control, Delivery of Adsorbates to Surfaces, UHV Windows, Surface Preparation Methods, High Area Solids, Safety. The book is written for researchers and graduate students.

  5. A practical intercomparison of non-radiometric methods for the determination of low levels of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    Non-Radiometric, methods of elemental analysis have been assessed as alternatives to radiometric methods for the determination of low levels of radionuclides. The methods have been assessed in a practical intercomparison, using a set of samples containing known, low levels of analytes in a variety of matrices. It was found that all of the methods considered have a role to play and are to some extent complementary in terms of cost, rate of sample throughput, elemental coverage, imaging capability sensitivity and quantitative capabilities. Techniques based on mass spectrometry have most to offer in this application, allowing sensitive isotope specific determinations. (author)

  6. Visual methods in health dialogues: A qualitative study of public health nurse practice in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laholt, Hilde; Guillemin, Marilys; Mcleod, Kim; Olsen, Randi Elisabeth; Lorem, Geir Fagerjord

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to explore how using visual methods might improve or complicate the dynamics of the health dialogue between public health nurses (PHNs) and school pupils. This was done from the perspective of PHNs, specifically examining how they understood their role and practice as a PHN and the application of visual methods in this practice. The health dialogue is a method used by PHNs in school nursing in Norway. In this practice, there can be communicative barriers between pupils and PHNs. Investigating how PHNs understand their professional practice can lead to ways of addressing these communicative barriers, which can affect pupil satisfaction and achievement of health-related behaviours in the school context. Specifically, the use of visual methods by PHNs may address these communicative barriers. The research design was qualitative, using focus groups combined with visual methods. We conducted focus group interviews using a semi-structured discussion guide and visual methods with five groups of PHNs (n = 31) working in northern Norwegian school health services. The data were collected during January and February 2016. Discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and coded into themes and sub-themes using systematic text condensation and drawings were analysed using interpretive engagement, a method of visual analysis. Drawings and focus group discussions showed that PHNs perceived their professional practice as primarily a relational praxis. The PHNs used a variety of visual methods as part of the health dialogue with school pupils. This active use of visualization worked to build and strengthen relations when words were inadequate and served to enhance the flexible and relational practice employed by the PHNs. PHNs used different kinds of visualization methods to establish relations with school pupils, especially when verbalization by the pupils was difficult. PHNs were aware of both the benefits and challenges of using visualization with school pupils in

  7. A Practical Test Method for Mode I Fracture Toughness of Adhesive Joints with Dissimilar Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeman, R.G.; Erdman, D.L.; Klett, L.B.; Lomax, R.D.

    1999-09-27

    A practical test method for determining the mode I fracture toughness of adhesive joints with dissimilar substrates will be discussed. The test method is based on the familiar Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen geometry, but overcomes limitations in existing techniques that preclude their use when testing joints with dissimilar substrates. The test method is applicable to adhesive joints where the two bonded substrates have different flexural rigidities due to geometric and/or material considerations. Two specific features discussed are the use of backing beams to prevent substrate damage and a compliance matching scheme to achieve symmetric loading conditions. The procedure is demonstrated on a modified DCB specimen comprised of SRIM composite and thin-section, e-coat steel substrates bonded with an epoxy adhesive. Results indicate that the test method provides a practical means of characterizing the mode I fracture toughness of joints with dissimilar substrates.

  8. Design of Embedded Real-time Systems: Developing a Method for Practical Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Ravn, Anders P.; Rischel, Hans

    1990-01-01

    The methodological issues and practical problems in development and industrial use of a theory-based design method for embedded, real-time systems are discussed. The method has been used for several years in a number of smaller industries that develop both electronics and software for a professio......The methodological issues and practical problems in development and industrial use of a theory-based design method for embedded, real-time systems are discussed. The method has been used for several years in a number of smaller industries that develop both electronics and software...... for a professional market. The design is expressed in a notation for communicating sequential processes, while data types and operations are expressed in a notation built on mathematical set theory. The authors present an order in which to use the notations, a technique for deriving states and operations...

  9. Overview of Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling Methods for State-of-Charge Estimation in Electrical Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinhao, Meng; Guangzhao, Luo; Ricco, Mattia

    2018-01-01

    As a critical indictor in the Battery Management System (BMS), State of Charge (SOC) is closely related to the reliable and safe operation of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Model-based methods are an effective solution for accurate and robust SOC estimation, the performance of which heavily relies...... on the battery model. This paper mainly focuses on battery modeling methods, which have the potential to be used in a model-based SOC estimation structure. Battery modeling methods are classified into four categories on the basis of their theoretical foundations, and their expressions and features are detailed....... Furthermore, the four battery modeling methods are compared in terms of their pros and cons. Future research directions are also presented. In addition, after optimizing the parameters of the battery models by a Genetic Algorithm (GA), four typical battery models including a combined model, two RC Equivalent...

  10. Experimental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Five years ago the first heavy-ion beams were accelerated at both the BNL-AGS and the CERN-SPS. This conference is the 5th anniversary in the experimental field. Currently, four experimental groups (E802/E859, E810, E814, E858) are taking data at BNL and eight groups (NA34-3, NA44, NA45, NA35, NA36, NA38, WA80/WA93, WA85) at CERN. Au and Pb beams are about to come, and a lot of activities are going on for RHIC and LHC. The purpose of this talk is to overview where we are, in particular, by looking at the past data. In this talk, the data of proton rapidity distributions are reviewed first to study nuclear transparency, then, the data of energy spectra and slopes, HBT and anti d production are discussed in connection with the evolution of the collision. Third, the data of strangeness production are described. Finally, the status of J/ψ and that of soft photons and electron pairs are briefly overviewed. (orig.)

  11. Room for improvement? Leadership, innovation culture and uptake of quality improvement methods in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apekey, Tanefa A; McSorley, Gerry; Tilling, Michelle; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2011-04-01

    Leadership and innovation are currently seen as essential elements for the development and maintenance of high-quality care. Little is known about the relationship between leadership and culture of innovation and the extent to which quality improvement methods are used in general practice. This study aimed to assess the relationship between leadership behaviour, culture of innovation and adoption of quality improvement methods in general practice. Self-administered postal questionnaires were sent to general practitioner quality improvement leads in one county in the UK between June and December 2007. The questionnaire consisted of background information, a 12-item scale to assess leadership behaviour, a seven-dimension self-rating scale for culture of innovation and questions on current use of quality improvement tools and techniques. Sixty-three completed questionnaires (62%) were returned. Leadership behaviours were not commonly reported. Most practices reported a positive culture of innovation, featuring relationship most strongly, followed by targets and information but rated lower on other dimensions of rewards, risk and resources. There was a significant positive correlation between leadership behaviour and the culture of innovation (r = 0.57; P improvement methods were not adopted by most participating practices. Leadership behaviours were infrequently reported and this was associated with a limited culture of innovation in participating general practices. There was little use of quality improvement methods beyond clinical and significant event audit. Practices need support to enhance leadership skills, encourage innovation and develop quality improvement skills if improvements in health care are to accelerate. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. RESEARCH PRIORITY-SETTING IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA: POLICIES, METHODS AND PRACTICALITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Omuru, Eric; Kingwell, Ross S.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural research priority-setting at best promotes the effective and efficient use of scarce research resources. This paper reviews firstly the priority-setting methods used in Papua New Guinea for agricultural R&D and examines the practicalities of implementing these and other methods. Secondly, this paper reports on key factors affecting the strategic directions for agricultural R&D in Papua New Guinea. These factors include:(i) the long term trends in international crop prices; (ii) l...

  13. Personnel planning in general practices: development and testing of a skill mix analysis method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eitzen-Strassel, J. von; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; Derckx, E.W.C.C.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2014-01-01

    Background: General practitioners (GPs) have to match patients’ demands with the mix of their practice staff’s competencies. However, apart from some general principles, there is little guidance on recruiting new staff. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a method which would allow GPs

  14. Personnel planning in general practices : Development and testing of a skill mix analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eitzen-Strassel, J.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; Derckx, E.W.C.C.; de Bakker, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) have to match patients’ demands with the mix of their practice staff’s competencies. However, apart from some general principles, there is little guidance on recruiting new staff. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a method which would allow GPs

  15. Econometric Methods for Causal Evaluation of Education Policies and Practices: A Non-Technical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotter, Martin; Schwerdt, Guido; Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    Education policy-makers and practitioners want to know which policies and practices can best achieve their goals. But research that can inform evidence-based policy often requires complex methods to distinguish causation from accidental association. Avoiding econometric jargon and technical detail, this paper explains the main idea and intuition…

  16. Managing aging workers: a mixed methods study on bundles of HR practices for aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Dorien T. A. M.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Dikkers, Josje S. E.; de Lange, Annet H.

    2014-01-01

    Since abilities and motives change with age and common human resource (HR) practices might be less suitable for aging employees, scholars and practitioners are currently challenged to find new ways of managing aging workers and motivating them to continue working. Therefore, this mixed methods study

  17. Blended Learning: A Mixed-Methods Study on Successful Schools and Effective Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Blended learning is a teaching technique that utilizes face-to-face teaching and online or technology-based practice in which the learner has the ability to exert some level of control over the pace, place, path, or time of learning. Schools that employ this method of teaching often demonstrate larger gains than traditional face-to-face programs…

  18. Connecting Practice, Theory and Method: Supporting Professional Doctoral Students in Developing Conceptual Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Antonenko, Pavlo

    2014-01-01

    From an instrumental view, conceptual frameworks that are carefully assembled from existing literature in Educational Technology and related disciplines can help students structure all aspects of inquiry. In this article we detail how the development of a conceptual framework that connects theory, practice and method is scaffolded and facilitated…

  19. A survey of methods and practices used to stop digit sucking in 2-5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The findings from this study show that the most common method to stop digit sucking habit was the use of adhesive plaster. Negative practices included the use of razor blade to cut the digits and the application of bitter or peppery tasting substances. The use of appliances was not common and many mothers ...

  20. Blogging as a method to stimulate entrepreneurial reflective practice learning in physiotherapy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringby, Betina

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to identify, create and test an easy and low cost method that stimulates physiotherapy students to become reflective practice learners. Thus blogging was selected as a tool for students to use in their learning process. Blogging is considered to be a useful tool to support students...

  1. Practical methods to define scattering coefficients in a room acoustics computer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Xiangyang; Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    of obtaining the data becomes quite time consuming thus increasing the cost of design. In this paper, practical methods to define scattering coefficients, which is based on an approach of modeling surface scattering and scattering caused by limited size of surface as well as edge diffraction are presented...

  2. Self-Assessment Methods in Writing Instruction: A Conceptual Framework, Successful Practices and Essential Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Student writing achievement is essential to lifelong learner success, but supporting writing can be challenging for teachers. Several large-scale analyses of publications on writing have called for further study of instructional methods, as the current literature does not sufficiently address the need to support best teaching practices.…

  3. Understanding University Students' Thoughts and Practices about Digital Citizenship: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate university students' thoughts and practices concerning digital citizenship. An explanatory mixed methods design was used, and it involved collecting qualitative data after a quantitative phase in order to follow up on the quantitative data in more depth. In the first quantitative phase of the study, a…

  4. The Delphi Method: An Approach for Facilitating Evidence Based Practice in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrey, Michelle A.; Bulger, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The growing importance of evidence based practice in athletic training is necessitating academics and clinicians to be able to make judgments about the quality or lack of the body of research evidence and peer-reviewed standards pertaining to clinical questions. To assist in the judgment process, consensus methods, namely brainstorming,…

  5. Communities of Practice: A Research Paradigm for the Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denscombe, Martyn

    2008-01-01

    The mixed methods approach has emerged as a "third paradigm" for social research. It has developed a platform of ideas and practices that are credible and distinctive and that mark the approach out as a viable alternative to quantitative and qualitative paradigms. However, there are also a number of variations and inconsistencies within the mixed…

  6. Reframing Research on Methods Courses to Inform Mathematics Teacher Educators' Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberg, Signe E.; Tyminski, Andrew M.; Sanchez, Wendy B.

    2017-01-01

    Calls have been made for the creation of a shared knowledge base in mathematics teacher education with the power to inform the design of scholarly inquiry and mathematics teacher educators' (MTEs) scholarly practices. Focusing on mathematics methods courses, we summarize and contribute to literature documenting activities MTEs use in mathematics…

  7. Methods of sterilization and monitoring of sterilization across selected dental practices in karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.

    2015-01-01

    To assess methods of sterilization in dental practices in Karachi and secondly to investigate methods of monitoring sterilization in dental practices in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental colleges, hospitals and private clinics of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 251 questionnaires were obtained. Descriptive statistics were computed and differences between groups were assessed through chi-square test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Autoclave, used by 155 (61.8%) dentists was the most common method of sterilization followed by more than one method, 65 (25.9%); dry heat, 24 (9.6%); and cold sterilization, 7 (2.8%). Majority of dentists, 126 (50.1%), never monitored sterilization and those who did monitored mostly monthly. Statistically significant difference was found amongst the three groups of dentists monitoring sterilization (p=0.09) and methods of sterilization (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Statistically significant difference was found in infection control practices of specialists, postgraduate trainees and general dentists regarding method of monitoring sterilization with majority of dentists never monitoring sterilization. (author)

  8. Statistical methods in epidemiology. VII. An overview of the chi2 test for 2 x 2 contingency table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, A S

    2001-11-10

    The odds ratio is an appropriate method of analysis for data in 2 x 2 contingency tables. However, other methods of analysis exist. One such method is based on the chi2 test of goodness-of-fit. Key players in the development of statistical theory include Pearson, Fisher and Yates. Data are presented in the form of 2 x 2 contingency tables and a method of analysis based on the chi2 test is introduced. There are many variations of the basic test statistic, one of which is the chi2 test with Yates' continuity correction. The usefulness (or not) of Yates' continuity correction is discussed. Problems of interpretation when the method is applied to k x m tables are highlighted. Some properties of the chi2 the test are illustrated by taking examples from the author's teaching experiences. Journal editors should be encouraged to give both observed and expected cell frequencies so that better information comes out of the chi2 test statistic.

  9. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: recommendations for quality reporting. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    This is the second of two papers that explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. This paper discusses the rationale, applications, limitations and challenges of conducting mixed-methods research. As with other research methods, the choice of mixed-methods should always be justified because not all research questions require a mixed-methods approach. Mixed-methods research is particularly suitable when one dataset may be inadequate in answering the research question, an explanation of initial results is required, generalizability of qualitative findings is desired or broader and deeper understanding of a research problem is necessary. Mixed-methods research has its own challenges and limitations, which should be considered carefully while designing the study. There is a need to improve the quality of reporting of mixed-methods research. A framework for reporting mixed-methods research is proposed, for researchers and reviewers, with the intention of improving its quality. Pharmacy practice research can benefit from research that uses both 'numbers' (quantitative) and 'words' (qualitative) to develop a strong evidence base to support pharmacy-led services. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Extended morphological processing: a practical method for automatic spot detection of biological markers from microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka; Baba, Norio; Morone, Nobuhiro

    2010-07-08

    A reliable extraction technique for resolving multiple spots in light or electron microscopic images is essential in investigations of the spatial distribution and dynamics of specific proteins inside cells and tissues. Currently, automatic spot extraction and characterization in complex microscopic images poses many challenges to conventional image processing methods. A new method to extract closely located, small target spots from biological images is proposed. This method starts with a simple but practical operation based on the extended morphological top-hat transformation to subtract an uneven background. The core of our novel approach is the following: first, the original image is rotated in an arbitrary direction and each rotated image is opened with a single straight line-segment structuring element. Second, the opened images are unified and then subtracted from the original image. To evaluate these procedures, model images of simulated spots with closely located targets were created and the efficacy of our method was compared to that of conventional morphological filtering methods. The results showed the better performance of our method. The spots of real microscope images can be quantified to confirm that the method is applicable in a given practice. Our method achieved effective spot extraction under various image conditions, including aggregated target spots, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and large variations in the background intensity. Furthermore, it has no restrictions with respect to the shape of the extracted spots. The features of our method allow its broad application in biological and biomedical image information analysis.

  11. Bioethics education in clinical settings: theory and practice of the dilemma method of moral case deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Margreet; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy

    2016-07-22

    Moral Case Deliberation is a specific form of bioethics education fostering professionals' moral competence in order to deal with their moral questions. So far, few studies focus in detail on Moral Case Deliberation methodologies and their didactic principles. The dilemma method is a structured and frequently used method in Moral Case Deliberation that stimulates methodological reflection and reasoning through a systematic dialogue on an ethical issue experienced in practice. In this paper we present a case-study of a Moral Case Deliberation with the dilemma method in a health care institution for people with an intellectual disability, describing the theoretical background and the practical application of the dilemma method. The dilemma method focuses on moral experiences of participants concerning a concrete dilemma in practice. By an in-depth description of each of the steps of the deliberation process, we elucidate the educational value and didactics of this specific method. The didactics and methodical steps of the dilemma method both supported and structured the dialogical reflection process of the participants. The process shows that the participants learned to recognize the moral dimension of the issue at stake and were able to distinguish various perspectives and reasons in a systematic manner. The facilitator played an important role in the learning process of the participants, by assisting them in focusing on and exploring moral aspects of the case. The reflection and learning process, experienced by the participants, shows competency-based characteristics. The role of the facilitator is that of a Socratic teacher with specific knowledge and skills, fostering reflection, inquiry and dialogue. The specific didactics of the dilemma method is well suited for teaching bioethics in clinical settings. The dilemma method follows an inductive learning approach through a dialogical moral inquiry in which participants develop not only knowledge but also skills

  12. Viscosity measurements - a comprehensive overview on the method and its applicability for the identification of irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberger, E.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The viscosity of a foodstuff depends mainly on the composition and the amount of starch, pectins and cellulose, which may undergo changes after irradiation. The investigation on the applicability of viscosity measurement for the identification of irradiated foods showed so far that this method seems to be applicable only to a definite number of spices and foods. The optimal method has to be determined empirically, because the reason is still unknown, why in some cases, the viscosity values decrease and in other cases increase after irradiation - and why sometimes no changes occur at all. Until now, the following irradiated spices can be identified by this method: cardamom, cinnamon, curcuma, horse-radish, nutmeg, mustard-seed and white pepper. (21 figs, 2 tabs, 10 refs)

  13. Application of Concepts from Cross-Recurrence Analysis in Speech Production: An Overview and Comparison with Other Nonlinear Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancia, Leonardo; Fuchs, Susanne; Tiede, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article was to introduce an important tool, cross-recurrence analysis, to speech production applications by showing how it can be adapted to evaluate the similarity of multivariate patterns of articulatory motion. The method differs from classical applications of cross-recurrence analysis because no phase space…

  14. Energy, economy, thermo economy and environmental methods-an overview of the field of application within power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olausson, P. L.; Azimian, A. R.; Assadi, M.

    2003-01-01

    High efficiency, environmental friendliness, low operation and maintenance costs, and the lowest possible impact on the environment are some of the requirements of sustainable energy production. In the selection of new power generation systems, a number of steps have to be taken into account in order to meet these requirements. Here, the first law analysis has been implemented and investigated, followed by a combination of the first and second law analyses (energy analysis), and thermo economics. Finally, an exergetic life cycle assessment has been carried out for two different power cycle to show how the irreversibility of a process is coupled to environmental issues. The study involves two cycles, a two-pressure level combined cycle and a humid cycle, to demonstrate the usefulness of the three methods mentioned above in a pre-purchase process. The main goal of this study is to point out the advantages and difficulties related to the implementation of each and every method, and to identify the target groups that can gain knowledge and information by using these methods. Since the operators of power plants often do not have access to detailed information about component materials, characteristics, etc., of the power cycle, assumptions have to be made when comparing different cycle configurations with each other. These limited types of data and information have also been used here to create a plausible scenario of how different pre-purchase methods can differ from each other

  15. Evaluation of Health Equity Impact of Structural Policies: Overview of Research Methods Used in the SOPHIE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    This article briefly assesses the research methods that were applied in the SOPHIE project to evaluate the impact of structural policies on population health and health inequalities. The evaluation of structural policies is one of the key methodological challenges in today's public health. The

  16. An Overview of the Environmental Applicability of Vermicompost: From Wastewater Treatment to the Development of Sensitive Analytical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Madson de Godoi; Cardoso de Souza Neta, Lourdes; Fontes, Maurício Paulo Ferreira; Souza, Adriana Nascimento; Carvalho Matos, Thaionara; de Lima Sachdev, Raquel; dos Santos, Arnaud Victor; Oliveira da Guarda Souza, Marluce; de Andrade, Marta Valéria Almeida Santana; Marinho Maciel Paulo, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Joselito Nardy; Verónica Flores Nardy Ribeiro, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    The use of vermicompost (humified material) for treating wastewaters, remediating polluted soils, improving agricultural productivity, protecting crop production, and developing sensitive analytical methods is reviewed here, covering the past 17 years. The main advantages of vermicompost, considering all applications covered in this paper, comprise (i) easy acquisition, (ii) low costs, (iii) structural, chemical, and biological characteristics responsible for exceptional adsorptive capacities...

  17. Translating Evidence Into Practice via Social Media: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Tunnecliff, Jacqueline; Morgan, Prue; Gaida, Jamie E; Clearihan, Lyn; Sadasivan, Sivalal; Davies, David; Ganesh, Shankar; Mohanty, Patitapaban; Weiner, John; Reynolds, John; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-10-26

    Approximately 80% of research evidence relevant to clinical practice never reaches the clinicians delivering patient care. A key barrier for the translation of evidence into practice is the limited time and skills clinicians have to find and appraise emerging evidence. Social media may provide a bridge between health researchers and health service providers. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of social media as an educational medium to effectively translate emerging research evidence into clinical practice. The study used a mixed-methods approach. Evidence-based practice points were delivered via social media platforms. The primary outcomes of attitude, knowledge, and behavior change were assessed using a preintervention/postintervention evaluation, with qualitative data gathered to contextualize the findings. Data were obtained from 317 clinicians from multiple health disciplines, predominantly from the United Kingdom, Australia, the United States, India, and Malaysia. The participants reported an overall improvement in attitudes toward social media for professional development (P<.001). The knowledge evaluation demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge after the training (P<.001). The majority of respondents (136/194, 70.1%) indicated that the education they had received via social media had changed the way they practice, or intended to practice. Similarly, a large proportion of respondents (135/193, 69.9%) indicated that the education they had received via social media had increased their use of research evidence within their clinical practice. Social media may be an effective educational medium for improving knowledge of health professionals, fostering their use of research evidence, and changing their clinical behaviors by translating new research evidence into clinical practice.

  18. Chapter 21: Estimating Net Savings - Common Practices. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Violette, Daniel M. [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Rathbun, Pamela [Tetra Tech, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM and V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to a program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings but does not prescribe methods.

  19. A Practical Tuning Method for the Robust PID Controller with Velocity Feed-Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Sariyildiz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID control is the most widely used control method in industrial and academic applications due to its simplicity and efficiency. Several different control methods/algorithms have been proposed to tune the gains of PID controllers. However, the conventional tuning methods do not have sufficient performance and simplicity for practical applications, such as robotics and motion control. The performance of motion control systems may significantly deteriorate by the nonlinear plant uncertainties and unknown external disturbances, such as inertia variations, friction, external loads, etc., i.e., there may be a significant discrepancy between the simulation and experiment if the robustness is not considered in the design of PID controllers. This paper proposes a novel practical tuning method for the robust PID controller with velocity feed-back for motion control systems. The main advantages of the proposed method are the simplicity and efficiency in practical applications, i.e., a high performance robust motion control system can be easily designed by properly tuning conventional PID controllers. The validity of the proposal is verified by giving simulation and experimental results.

  20. Interpretative Social Work: On the Uses of Qualitative Methods for Practice, Reflection and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Völter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methods could play an important role in the context of a lively, life-world oriented, and emancipatory self-reflective social work. They are already applied in three realms of social work: social work research, the daily practice of social workers and professional self-reflection. Even though these three realms overlap they are three distinct spheres of knowledge and action, which have specific aims. Therefore qualitative methods have to be adjusted to the needs of social science, practice and practice reflection. When students and practitioners of social work learn to use qualitative methods in this sense, they gain a competence which can be referred to as "ethnographic sophistication." This "ethnographic sophistication" contains essential elements of social work professionalism. Familiarity with qualitative methods and their application are highly relevant for the acquisition of basic competencies in social work, i.e., that what has become known as "reconstructive social pedagogy" is much more than just one social work method among others. But a consequence of the introduction of academic reforms of the so called "Bologna process" all over Europe is that it has become more difficult in many universities and universities of applied sciences to implement this approach. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801563

  1. New practical method for evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad; Tavakoli, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer with a new feasible method. → Using thermophysical properties of air and matter. → This manner could be utilized in similar dryer for other agricultural products. → Method shows the heat loss and power separately. -- Abstract: Testing a dryer is necessary to evaluate its absolute and comparative performance with other dryers. A conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer was tested by a new practical method of mass and energy equilibrium. Results showed that the average power consumption and heat loss in three tests are 62.13 and 18.99 kW, respectively. The ratio of heat loss on power consumption showed that the efficiency of practical pistachios flat plate dryer is about 69.4%.

  2. New practical method for evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad [Agri Machinery Engineering, Ilam University, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Teymur [Agri Machinery Engineering, Tarbyat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer with a new feasible method. {yields} Using thermophysical properties of air and matter. {yields} This manner could be utilized in similar dryer for other agricultural products. {yields} Method shows the heat loss and power separately. -- Abstract: Testing a dryer is necessary to evaluate its absolute and comparative performance with other dryers. A conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer was tested by a new practical method of mass and energy equilibrium. Results showed that the average power consumption and heat loss in three tests are 62.13 and 18.99 kW, respectively. The ratio of heat loss on power consumption showed that the efficiency of practical pistachios flat plate dryer is about 69.4%.

  3. Research methods to change clinical practice for patients with rare cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, Lucinda; Malottki, Kinga; Steven, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Rare cancers are a growing group as a result of reclassification of common cancers by molecular markers. There is therefore an increasing need to identify methods to assess interventions that are sufficiently robust to potentially affect clinical practice in this setting. Methods advocated for clinical trials in rare diseases are not necessarily applicable in rare cancers. This Series paper describes research methods that are relevant for rare cancers in relation to the range of incidence levels. Strategies that maximise recruitment, minimise sample size, or maximise the usefulness of the evidence could enable the application of conventional clinical trial design to rare cancer populations. Alternative designs that address specific challenges for rare cancers with the aim of potentially changing clinical practice include Bayesian designs, uncontrolled n-of-1 trials, and umbrella and basket trials. Pragmatic solutions must be sought to enable some level of evidence-based health care for patients with rare cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ideas on a practical method to make more uniform the measure and the account of doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, P.; Dollo, R.; De Kerviller, M.; Penneroux, M.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRP 60 publication and its consequences on the revision of CEC regulations and basic norms, discussions on dosimetry of outside workers and more generally on the development of exchanges of information between users have led EDF to question its practices for measuring counting doses. Faced with this wide range of french practices and in a desire for harmonisation, an EDF and CEA work team has established a summary of present methods, an evaluation of the consequences of these different strategies and have then suggested a harmonisation of dosimetric measures based on systematic methodology. (author)

  5. Pathological gambling: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling activities are popular as a form of recreation and have been a source of income for many people worldwide. Although gambling has been common across continents and time, and a subset of individuals experience problems with gambling. This review attempts to provide an overview of problem gambling for clinicians who are likely to encounter such patients in their practice. The review discusses the relevance, nosology, and epidemiology of gambling. We also discuss the associated comorbidities and principles of management of pathological gambling.

  6. Economic Sanctions Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sanctions Seminar held on November 19 was organized by LexisNexis Russia in cooperation with ANO Pericles.The Seminar theme was ‘Economic Sanctions Overview: Due Diligence and AML Procedures.’ In the course of the seminar, practicing lawyers, compliance and AML professionals had the opportunity to interact on the scope of US A and EU Sanctions and their impact on global business transaction, as well as get a better understanding of the due diligence procedures necessary in order to comply with a such complex environment.

  7. An overview of filtration methods that can provide protection from the macrofouling zebra mussel at hydroelectric facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smythe, A.G.; Short, T.M. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The non-indigenous freshwater zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena, spp.) threaten to foul freshwater conduits throughout much of the United States and southern Canada. Initially, many electric facilities within the lower Great Lakes drainage were fouled. More recently, other systems both in and out of the Great Lakes, have been exposed to infested water facilitated by canals and boat traffic and impacted by the mussels. Mussels have clogged conduits and fouled equipment and monitoring sensors in relatively distant regions including the Hudson River, the Mississippi River south to New Orleans, and the Arkansas River into Oklahoma. Chemicals can effectively control the mussels, however, filtration methods promise to be a relatively cost effective, environmentally safe alternative control approach. Information on traditional filtration methods will be presented in this paper along with recent research results for in-line filters.

  8. Evaluation of Health Equity Impact of Structural Policies: Overview of Research Methods Used in the SOPHIE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Anton E

    2017-07-01

    This article briefly assesses the research methods that were applied in the SOPHIE project to evaluate the impact of structural policies on population health and health inequalities. The evaluation of structural policies is one of the key methodological challenges in today's public health. The experience in the SOPHIE project was that mixed methods are essential to identify, understand, and predict the health impact of structural policies. On the one hand, quantitative studies that included spatial comparisons or time trend analyses, preferably in a quasi-experimental design, showed that some structural policies were associated with improved population health and smaller health inequalities. On the other hand, qualitative studies, often inspired by realist approaches, were important to understand how these policies could have achieved the observed impact and why they would succeed in some settings but fail in others. This review ends with five recommendations for future studies that aim to evaluate, understand, and predict how health inequalities can be reduced through structural policies.

  9. An overview of translation in language teaching methods: implications for EFL in secondary education in the region of Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Marqués Aguado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various activities and resources have been used across time to promote and enhance the learning of foreign languages. Among these, translation has been cherished or dismissed depending on the preferred teaching method at each period. With the arrival of the Communicative approach, which focuses on communicative competence, its role has apparently become even more unstable.This article seeks to explore the role of translation in the main teaching methods used in Spain. This will in turn serve as the background against which the current educational scenario (with the communicative approach and the tenets of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages will be measured with a view to ascertaining the role that translation may currently play. The particular situation of Secondary Education in the Region of Murcia will be discussed in the light of the curricula for this stage.

  10. A practical comparison of methods to assess sum-of-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauzy, A.; Chatelet, E.; Dutuit, Y.; Berenguer, C.

    2003-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed in the literature to assess the probability of a sum-of-products. This problem has been shown computationally hard (namely no. P-hard). Therefore, algorithms can be compared only from a practical point of view. In this article, we propose first an efficient implementation of the pivotal decomposition method. This kind of algorithms is widely used in the Artificial Intelligence framework. It is unfortunately almost never considered in the reliability engineering framework, but as a pedagogical tool. We report experimental results that show that this method is in general much more efficient than classical methods that rewrite the sum-of-products under study into an equivalent sum of disjoint products. Then, we derive from our method a factorization algorithm to be used as a preprocessing method for binary decision diagrams. We show by means of experimental results that this latter approach outperforms the formers

  11. Practical use of control rod calibration system with the inverse kinetics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Motohashi, Jun; Kawashima, Kazuhito; Ichimura, Toshiyuki; Tamai, Kazuo; Takeuti, Mitsuo

    2002-01-01

    The control rod calibration results in the JRR-3 are used as a reactivity standard to measure and manage the reactivity change in the core. The total travel of all six control rods has been calibrated by an inverse kinetics method (IK method) during an annual maintenance period. The IK method has the great merit in saving measuring time compared with the conventional positive period method (PP method). The JRR-3 control rod calibration system was renovated and put into practical use in order to improve reliability and function by accumulating 10-year experience with the IK method in the JRR-3. The report shows the function, the performance and results of verification of the JRR-3 control rod calibration system. (author)

  12. Overview of CSR codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, G.; Agoh, T.; Dohlus, M.; Giannessi, L.; Hajima, R.; Kabel, A.; Limberg, T.; Quattromini, M.

    2006-01-01

    Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects play an important role in accelerator physics. CSR effects can be negative (emittance growth in bunch compressors and microbunching instability) or positive (production of CSR in a controlled way). Moreover, CSR is of interest in other fields such as astrophysics. Only a few simple models have been solved analytically. This motivates the development of numerical procedures. In this review article we overview different numerical methods to study CSR effects

  13. A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: part 1: overview and reviews--defining and describing the field and its practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buniak, Liana; Darragh, Martina; Giordano, James

    2014-05-16

    Neuroethics entails investigations of neurocognitive mechanisms of morality and ethics; and studies and address of the ethical issues spawned by the use of neuroscience and its technologies to investigate cognition, emotion and actions. These two principal emphases, or what have been called "traditions" of neuroethics both mirror traditional bioethical discussions (such as debates about the safety of technological and pharmaceutical advances and ethical implications of new scientific and technological discoveries), and engage discourse about neuroscientific investigations of (proto-moral and moral) cognition, emotions and behaviors, and what such findings may mean for human beliefs and conduct - from the individual to the political levels.Given the growth, range, and rapid maturation of the field of neuroethics we provide an iterative, four-part document that affords a repository of international papers, books, and chapters that address the field in overview, and present discussion(s) of more particular aspects and topics of neuroethics. This first installment lists reviews and overviews of the discipline, and broad summaries of basic developments and issues of the field. To systematically survey the neuroethics literature, searches were performed by accessing 11 databases, 8 additional literature depositories, and 4 individual journal searches using indexing language for National Library of Medicine (NLM) Medical Subject Heading databases. Searches and assurance against overlapping coverage were conducted using the RefWorks citation management program. Overview, review and reflections upon the history and multicultural perspectives of neuroethics were obtained and relevant listings from international journals, books, and book chapters are provided. Part I will be followed by three installments that will address a): the neuroscience of morality and ethics, including discussions of free will, and personal autonomy; b) "second tradition neuroethics", to include

  14. Lost to the NHS: a mixed methods study of why GPs leave practice early in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Natasha; Fox, Fiona; Rodham, Karen; Taylor, Gordon; Harris, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The loss of GPs in the early stages of their careers is contributing to the GP workforce crisis. Recruitment in the UK remains below the numbers needed to support the demand for GP care. To explore the reasons why GPs leave general practice early. A mixed methods study using online survey data triangulated with qualitative interviews. Participants were GPs aged pressures of increased patient demand and the negative media portrayal left many feeling unsupported and vulnerable to burnout and ill health, and, ultimately, to the decision to leave general practice. To improve retention of young GPs, the pace of administrative change needs to be minimised and the time spent by GPs on work that is not face-to-face patient care reduced. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  15. LSC - rapid methods with mobile instrument Triathler(TM) for in situ analytics of natural radionuclides in water - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, E.

    2002-01-01

    The compact and mobile Triathler liquid scintillation counter enables in situ measurements of 222 Rn in water ( LLoD 226 Ra ( enrichment by filtering on special 3M RadDisks); (iv) 228 Ra (enrichment by filtering on special 3M RadDisks ). The special rapid method for radium 226 and 228 benefits from the availability of selective filters of 3M company. The filters were developed by US research centres ( like the Argonne National Laboratories) in collaboration with 3M. Up to 5 liters are filtered through the RadDisks and subsequently measured preferable by LSC, or Low Background Counting or α spectroscopy

  16. Overview of a workshop on screening methods for detecting potential (anti-) estrogenic/androgenic chemicals in wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Mihaich, Ellen; Stahl, Ralph G.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Colborn, Theo; McMaster, Suzzanne; Miller, Ron; Bantle, John; Campbell, Pamela; Denslow, Nancy; Dickerson, Richard L.; Folmar, Leroy C.; Fry, Michael; Giesy, John P.; Gray, L. Earl; Guiney, Patrick; Hutchinson, Thomas; Kennedy, Sean W.; Kramer, Vincent; LeBlanc, Gerald A.; Mayes, Monte; Nimrod, Alison; Patino, Reynaldo; Peterson, Richard; Purdy, Richard; Ringer, Robert; Thomas, Peter C.; Touart, Les; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Zacharewski, Tim

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Congress has passed legislation requiring the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to develop, validate, and implement screening tests for identifying potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals within 3 years. To aid in the identification of methods suitable for this purpose, the U.S. EPA, the Chemical Manufacturers Association, and the World Wildlife Fund sponsored several workshops, including the present one, which dealt with wildlife species. This workshop was convened with 30 international scientists representing multiple disciplines in March 1997 in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. Participants at the meeting identified methods in terms of their ability to indicate (anti-) estrogenic/androgenic effects, particularly in the context of developmental and reproductive processes. Data derived from structure-activity relationship models and in vitro test systems, although useful in certain contexts, cannot at present replace in vivo tests as the sole basis for screening. A consensus was reached that existing mammalian test methods (e.g., with rats or mice) generally are suitable as screens for assessing potential (anti-) estrogenic/ androgenic effects in mammalian wildlife. However, due to factors such as among-class variation in receptor structure and endocrine function, it is uncertain if these mammalian assays would be of broad utility as screens for other classes of vertebrate wildlife. Existing full and partial life-cycle tests with some avian and fish species could successfully identify chemicals causing endocrine disruption; however, these long-term tests are not suitable for routine screening. However, a number of short-term tests with species from these two classes exist that could serve as effective screening tools for chemicals inducing (anti-) estrogenic/androgenic effects. Existing methods suitable for identifying chemicals with these mechanisms of action in reptiles and amphibians are limited, but in the future, tests with species from

  17. An Overview of Deep Learning Based Methods for Unsupervised and Semi-Supervised Anomaly Detection in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ravi Kiran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Videos represent the primary source of information for surveillance applications. Video material is often available in large quantities but in most cases it contains little or no annotation for supervised learning. This article reviews the state-of-the-art deep learning based methods for video anomaly detection and categorizes them based on the type of model and criteria of detection. We also perform simple studies to understand the different approaches and provide the criteria of evaluation for spatio-temporal anomaly detection.

  18. An overview of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, addiction, analytical methods, and interpretation of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, H; Aydin, B E; Mueller, A; Iwersen-Bergmann, S

    2011-09-01

    Abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been known since the early 1990's, but is not as widespread as the consumption of other illegal drugs. However, the number of severe intoxications with fatal outcomes is comparatively high; not the least of which is brought about by the consumption of the currently legal precursor substances gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD). In regards to previous assumptions, addiction to GHB or its analogues can occur with severe symptoms of withdrawal. Moreover, GHB can be used for drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its pharmacological effects are generated mainly by interaction with both GABA(B) and GHB receptors, as well as its influence on other transmitter systems in the human brain. Numerous analytical methods for determining GHB using chromatographic techniques were published in recent years, and an enzymatic screening method was established. However, the short window of GHB detection in blood or urine due to its rapid metabolism is a challenge. Furthermore, despite several studies addressing this problem, evaluation of analytical results can be difficult: GHB is a metabolite of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid); a differentiation between endogenous and exogenous concentrations has to be made. Apart from this, in samples with a longer storage interval and especially in postmortem specimens, higher levels can be measured due to GHB generation during this postmortem interval or storage time. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. An Overview of the Environmental Applicability of Vermicompost: From Wastewater Treatment to the Development of Sensitive Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Madson de Godoi; Cardoso de Souza Neta, Lourdes; Fontes, Maurício Paulo Ferreira; Souza, Adriana Nascimento; Carvalho Matos, Thaionara; de Lima Sachdev, Raquel; dos Santos, Arnaud Victor; Oliveira da Guarda Souza, Marluce; de Andrade, Marta Valéria Almeida Santana; Marinho Maciel Paulo, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Joselito Nardy; Verónica Flores Nardy Ribeiro, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    The use of vermicompost (humified material) for treating wastewaters, remediating polluted soils, improving agricultural productivity, protecting crop production, and developing sensitive analytical methods is reviewed here, covering the past 17 years. The main advantages of vermicompost, considering all applications covered in this paper, comprise (i) easy acquisition, (ii) low costs, (iii) structural, chemical, and biological characteristics responsible for exceptional adsorptive capacities as well as pollutant degradation, and (iv) the promotion of biocontrol. Specifically, for wastewater decontamination, a considerable number of works have verified the adsorption of toxic metals, but the application of vermicompost is still scarce for the retention of organic compounds. Problems related to the final disposal of enriched vermicompost (after treatment steps) are often found, in spite of some successful destinations such as organic fertilizer. For decontaminating soils, the use of vermicompost is quite scarce, mainly for inorganic pollutants. In agricultural productivity and biocontrol, vermicompost imparts remarkable benefits regarding soil aggregation, plant nutrition, and the development of beneficial microorganisms against phytopathogens. Finally, the use of vermicompost in sensitive analytical methods for quantifying toxic metals is the newest application of this adsorbent. PMID:24578668

  20. An overview of the environmental applicability of vermicompost: from wastewater treatment to the development of sensitive analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Madson de Godoi; Neta, Lourdes Cardoso de Souza; Fontes, Maurício Paulo Ferreira; Souza, Adriana Nascimento; Matos, Thaionara Carvalho; Sachdev, Raquel de Lima; dos Santos, Arnaud Victor; da Guarda Souza, Marluce Oliveira; de Andrade, Marta Valéria Almeida Santana; Paulo, Gabriela Marinho Maciel; Ribeiro, Joselito Nardy; Ribeiro, Araceli Verónica Flores Nardy

    2014-01-01

    The use of vermicompost (humified material) for treating wastewaters, remediating polluted soils, improving agricultural productivity, protecting crop production, and developing sensitive analytical methods is reviewed here, covering the past 17 years. The main advantages of vermicompost, considering all applications covered in this paper, comprise (i) easy acquisition, (ii) low costs, (iii) structural, chemical, and biological characteristics responsible for exceptional adsorptive capacities as well as pollutant degradation, and (iv) the promotion of biocontrol. Specifically, for wastewater decontamination, a considerable number of works have verified the adsorption of toxic metals, but the application of vermicompost is still scarce for the retention of organic compounds. Problems related to the final disposal of enriched vermicompost (after treatment steps) are often found, in spite of some successful destinations such as organic fertilizer. For decontaminating soils, the use of vermicompost is quite scarce, mainly for inorganic pollutants. In agricultural productivity and biocontrol, vermicompost imparts remarkable benefits regarding soil aggregation, plant nutrition, and the development of beneficial microorganisms against phytopathogens. Finally, the use of vermicompost in sensitive analytical methods for quantifying toxic metals is the newest application of this adsorbent.

  1. An Overview of the Environmental Applicability of Vermicompost: From Wastewater Treatment to the Development of Sensitive Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson de Godoi Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of vermicompost (humified material for treating wastewaters, remediating polluted soils, improving agricultural productivity, protecting crop production, and developing sensitive analytical methods is reviewed here, covering the past 17 years. The main advantages of vermicompost, considering all applications covered in this paper, comprise (i easy acquisition, (ii low costs, (iii structural, chemical, and biological characteristics responsible for exceptional adsorptive capacities as well as pollutant degradation, and (iv the promotion of biocontrol. Specifically, for wastewater decontamination, a considerable number of works have verified the adsorption of toxic metals, but the application of vermicompost is still scarce for the retention of organic compounds. Problems related to the final disposal of enriched vermicompost (after treatment steps are often found, in spite of some successful destinations such as organic fertilizer. For decontaminating soils, the use of vermicompost is quite scarce, mainly for inorganic pollutants. In agricultural productivity and biocontrol, vermicompost imparts remarkable benefits regarding soil aggregation, plant nutrition, and the development of beneficial microorganisms against phytopathogens. Finally, the use of vermicompost in sensitive analytical methods for quantifying toxic metals is the newest application of this adsorbent.

  2. A preliminary approach to creating an overview of lactoferrin multi-functionality utilizing a text mining method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kei-ichi; Kushida, Tatsuya

    2010-06-01

    Lactoferrin is a multi-functional metal-binding glycoprotein that exhibits many biological functions of interest to many researchers from the fields of clinical medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, nutrition and milk science. To date, a number of academic reports concerning the biological activities of lactoferrin have been published and are easily accessible through public data repositories. However, as the literature is expanding daily, this presents challenges in understanding the larger picture of lactoferrin function and mechanisms. In order to overcome the "analysis paralysis" associated with lactoferrin information, we attempted to apply a text mining method to the accumulated lactoferrin literature. To this end, we used the information extraction system GENPAC (provided by Nalapro Technologies Inc., Tokyo). This information extraction system uses natural language processing and text mining technology. This system analyzes the sentences and titles from abstracts stored in the PubMed database, and can automatically extract binary relations that consist of interactions between genes/proteins, chemicals and diseases/functions. We expect that such information visualization analysis will be useful in determining novel relationships among a multitude of lactoferrin functions and mechanisms. We have demonstrated the utilization of this method to find pathways of lactoferrin participation in neovascularization, Helicobacter pylori attack on gastric mucosa, atopic dermatitis and lipid metabolism.

  3. Analysis and an overview of fixators in medicine and the methods of processing materials for producing fixators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Milojko Đenadić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fixator is a medical device that provides support to fractured biological structures. Metal biomaterials are mainly used for replacing broken or damaged hard tissues such as bones because of their high strenght, toughness and corrosion resistance. Materials such as stainless steel, titanium and aluminium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, cobalt and chromium alloys, composite materials and other biocompatible materials are used in orthopedy for the stabilization of connective tissue injuries or as a substitute for the bone tissues. Fixators are classified according to the place of installation to external and internal fixators. Widely used medical fixators are pins, rods plates, screws, pipes, wires, nails and external fixators. Conventional and non-conventional methods of processing are used in the production process for all types of fixators. Introduction Fixators are medical devices manufactured to support damaged biological structures. In the field of orthopedic surgery that deals with skeletal disorders such as bone, spine, joints, muscles and tendons injuries and diseases, various metals, titanium and cobalt alloys etc. are used to stabilize the supporting tissue injuries or as a substitute for bone tissues. Metallic implants are frequently used in orthopedic surgery as joint prosthesis (hip, knee and elbow fracture fixation devices (plates, screws, external fixators and devices for the fixation of the spine. In principle, fixators are devided into external and internal ones, depending on the place of installation (outside or inside the body. The most common types of medical fixators are pins, rods and plates. This paper presents some of the most common materials used for the production of fixators, their processing and possibilties of use in medicine for various purposes. Types of fixators and materials used for their production Nowadays, biocompatible materials are usually used for the production of fixators and implants. These materials show good

  4. Survey of sterile admixture practices in canadian hospital pharmacies: part 1. Methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W

    2009-03-01

    The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its "General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations", which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. Part 1 of this series reports the survey methods and results relating to policies, personnel, raw materials, storage and handling

  5. Current situation on regulations for mycotoxins. Overview of tolerances and status of standard methods of sampling and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Egmond, H P

    1989-01-01

    A worldwide enquiry was undertaken in 1986-1987 to obtain up-to-date information about mycotoxin legislation in as many countries of the world as possible. Together with some additional data collected in 1981, information is now available about planned, proposed, existing or absence of legislation in 66 countries. Details about tolerances, legal bases, responsible authorities, prescribed methods of sampling and analysis and disposition of commodities containing inadmissible amounts of mycotoxins, are given. The information concerns aflatoxins in foodstuffs, aflatoxin M1 in dairy products, aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs, and other mycotoxins in food- and feedstuffs. In comparison with the situation in 1981, limits and regulations for mycotoxins have been expanded in 1987 with more countries having legislation (proposed or passed) on the subject, more products, and more mycotoxins covered by this legislation. The differences between tolerances in the various countries are sometimes quite large, which makes harmonization of mycotoxin regulations highly desirable.

  6. Perceptions of Weight and Health Practices in Hispanic Children: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Alexander Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This study sought to explore the relationship between perceptions of weight and health beliefs and practices in a Hispanic population. Methods. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach was used with semistructured interviews conducted with parent-child (2–5 years old dyads in a primarily Hispanic, low-income population. Parents were queried on their perceptions of their child’s health, health practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze participants’ discussion of health practices and behaviors. Results. Forty parent-child dyads completed the interview. Most (58% of the parents of overweight and obese children misclassified their child’s weight status. The qualitative analysis showed that accurate perception of weight was associated with internal motivation and more concrete ideas of what healthy meant for their child. Conclusions. The qualitative data suggest there may be populations at different stages of readiness for change among parents of overweight and obese children, incorporating this understanding should be considered for interventions.

  7. Empirical evaluation of a practical indoor mobile robot navigation method using hybrid maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Fan, Zhun; Xiao, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    This video presents a practical navigation scheme for indoor mobile robots using hybrid maps. The method makes use of metric maps for local navigation and a topological map for global path planning. Metric maps are generated as occupancy grids by a laser range finder to represent local information...... about partial areas. The global topological map is used to indicate the connectivity of the ‘places-of-interests’ in the environment and the interconnectivity of the local maps. Visual tags on the ceiling to be detected by the robot provide valuable information and contribute to reliable localization...... that the method is implemented successfully on physical robot in a hospital environment, which provides a practical solution for indoor navigation....

  8. A practical material decomposition method for x-ray dual spectral computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingjing; Zhao, Xing

    2016-03-17

    X-ray dual spectral CT (DSCT) scans the measured object with two different x-ray spectra, and the acquired rawdata can be used to perform the material decomposition of the object. Direct calibration methods allow a faster material decomposition for DSCT and can be separated in two groups: image-based and rawdata-based. The image-based method is an approximative method, and beam hardening artifacts remain in the resulting material-selective images. The rawdata-based method generally obtains better image quality than the image-based method, but this method requires geometrically consistent rawdata. However, today's clinical dual energy CT scanners usually measure different rays for different energy spectra and acquire geometrically inconsistent rawdata sets, and thus cannot meet the requirement. This paper proposes a practical material decomposition method to perform rawdata-based material decomposition in the case of inconsistent measurement. This method first yields the desired consistent rawdata sets from the measured inconsistent rawdata sets, and then employs rawdata-based technique to perform material decomposition and reconstruct material-selective images. The proposed method was evaluated by use of simulated FORBILD thorax phantom rawdata and dental CT rawdata, and simulation results indicate that this method can produce highly quantitative DSCT images in the case of inconsistent DSCT measurements.

  9. A practical implementation of the higher-order transverse-integrated nodal diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinsloo, Rian H.; Tomašević, Djordje I.; Moraal, Harm

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A practical higher-order nodal method is developed for diffusion calculations. • The method resolves the issue of the transverse leakage approximation. • The method achieves much superior accuracy as compared to standard nodal methods. • The calculational cost is only about 50% greater than standard nodal methods. • The method is packaged in a module for connection to existing nodal codes. - Abstract: Transverse-integrated nodal diffusion methods currently represent the standard in full core neutronic simulation. The primary shortcoming of this approach is the utilization of the quadratic transverse leakage approximation. This approach, although proven to work well for typical LWR problems, is not consistent with the formulation of nodal methods and can cause accuracy and convergence problems. In this work, an improved, consistent quadratic leakage approximation is formulated, which derives from the class of higher-order nodal methods developed some years ago. Further, a number of iteration schemes are developed around this consistent quadratic leakage approximation which yields accurate node average results in much improved calculational times. The most promising of these iteration schemes results from utilizing the consistent leakage approximation as a correction method to the standard quadratic leakage approximation. Numerical results are demonstrated on a set of benchmark problems and further applied to a realistic reactor problem, particularly the SAFARI-1 reactor, operating at Necsa, South Africa. The final optimal solution strategy is packaged into a standalone module which may simply be coupled to existing nodal diffusion codes

  10. An overview of advanced reduction processes for bromate removal from drinking water: Reducing agents, activation methods, applications and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Yu, Shuili; Li, Lei; Wang, Ting; Liao, Xinlei; Ye, Yubing

    2017-02-15

    Bromate (BrO 3 - ) is a possible human carcinogen regulated at a strict standard of 10μg/L in drinking water. Various techniques to eliminate BrO 3 - usually fall into three main categories: reducing bromide (Br - ) prior to formation of BrO 3 - , minimizing BrO 3 - formation during the ozonation process, and removing BrO 3 - from post-ozonation waters. However, the first two approaches exhibit low degradation efficiency and high treatment cost. The third workaround has obvious advantages, such as high reduction efficiency, more stable performance and easier combination with UV disinfection, and has therefore been widely implemented in water treatment. Recently, advanced reduction processes (ARPs), the photocatalysis of BrO 3 - , have attracted much attention due to improved performance. To increase the feasibility of photocatalytic systems, the focus of this work concerns new technological developments, followed by a summary of reducing agents, activation methods, operational parameters, and applications. The reaction mechanisms of two typical processes involving UV/sulfite homogeneous photocatalysis and UV/titanium dioxide heterogeneous photocatalysis are further summarized. The future research needs for ARPs to reach full-scale potential in drinking water treatment are suggested accordingly. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Overview of toxicity data and risk assessment methods for evaluating the chemical effects of depleted uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.M.; Monette, F.A.; Avci, H.I.

    2000-01-01

    In the United States, depleted uranium is handled or used in several chemical forms by both governmental agencies and private industry (primarily companies producing and machining depleted uranium metal for military applications). Human exposure can occur as a result of handling these compounds, routine low-level effluent releases to the environment from processing facilities, or materials being accidentally released from storage locations or during processing or transportation. Exposure to uranium can result in both chemical and radiological toxicity, but in most instances chemical toxicity is of greater concern. This article discusses the chemical toxic effects from human exposure to depleted uranium compounds that are likely to be handled during the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) inventories in the United States. It also reviews representative publications in the toxicological literature to establish appropriate reference values for risk assessments. Methods are described for evaluating chemical toxicity caused by chronic low-level exposure and acute exposure. Example risk evaluations are provided for illustration. Preliminary results indicate that chemical effects of chronic exposure to uranium compounds under normal operating conditions would be negligibly small. Results also show that acute exposures under certain accident conditions could cause adverse chemical effects among the populations exposed.

  12. Meaning and challenges in the practice of multiple therapeutic massage modalities: a combined methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcino, Antony J; Boon, Heather S; Page, Stacey A; Verhoef, Marja J

    2011-09-20

    Therapeutic massage and bodywork (TMB) practitioners are predominantly trained in programs that are not uniformly standardized, and in variable combinations of therapies. To date no studies have explored this variability in training and how this affects clinical practice. Combined methods, consisting of a quantitative, population-based survey and qualitative interviews with practitioners trained in multiple therapies, were used to explore the training and practice of TMB practitioners in Alberta, Canada. Of the 5242 distributed surveys, 791 were returned (15.1%). Practitioners were predominantly female (91.7%), worked in a range of environments, primarily private (44.4%) and home clinics (35.4%), and were not significantly different from other surveyed massage therapist populations. Seventy-seven distinct TMB therapies were identified. Most practitioners were trained in two or more therapies (94.4%), with a median of 8 and range of 40 therapies. Training programs varied widely in number and type of TMB components, training length, or both. Nineteen interviews were conducted. Participants described highly variable training backgrounds, resulting in practitioners learning unique combinations of therapy techniques. All practitioners reported providing individualized patient treatment based on a responsive feedback process throughout practice that they described as being critical to appropriately address the needs of patients. They also felt that research treatment protocols were different from clinical practice because researchers do not usually sufficiently acknowledge the individualized nature of TMB care provision. The training received, the number of therapies trained in, and the practice descriptors of TMB practitioners are all highly variable. In addition, clinical experience and continuing education may further alter or enhance treatment techniques. Practitioners individualize each patient's treatment through a highly adaptive process. Therefore, treatment

  13. Finite element methods for viscous incompressible flows a guide to theory, practice, and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Gunzburger, Max D

    2012-01-01

    In this book, the author examines mathematical aspects of finite element methods for the approximate solution of incompressible flow problems. The principal goal is to present some of the important mathematical results that are relevant to practical computations. In so doing, useful algorithms are also discussed. Although rigorous results are stated, no detailed proofs are supplied; rather, the intention is to present these results so that they can serve as a guide for the selection and, in certain respects, the implementation of algorithms.

  14. Method through motion:structuring theory and practice for motion graphics in spatial contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design...

  15. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  16. Wind power plants and the landscape: Analysis of conflict and methods of solution - practical examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brux, H.

    1993-01-01

    The conflict between wind power plants and the appearance of the landscape is explained. Legal regulations forcing one to take it into account are pointed out. After an introduction into the theoretical basis, methods of solution for the operation of aesthetic landscape judgments are introduced by examples from planning practice. Finally, the frequently unused possibilities of site optimisation with the aid of applied biology and landscape planning are pointed out. (orig.) [de

  17. Social networking and young adults’ drinking practices:innovative qualitative methods for health behavior research

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Antonia C.; Goodwin, Ian; McCreanor, Tim; Griffin, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Understandings of health behaviours can be enriched by employing innovative qualitative research designs. We draw on research that employed a range of qualitative methods to explore young adults’ drinking behaviours and social networking in Aotearoa New Zealand. We demonstrate the importance of multiple research approaches to situate drinking practices within their broader social context. The research involved three data collection stages. First, 34 friendship focus group discussions were con...

  18. Examining organizational change in primary care practices: experiences from using ethnographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Grant; Advocat, Jenny; Geneau, Robert; Farrell, Barbara; Thille, Patricia; Ward, Natalie; Evans, Samantha

    2012-08-01

    Qualitative methods are an important part of the primary care researcher's toolkit providing a nuanced view of the complexity in primary care reform and delivery. Ethnographic research is a comprehensive approach to qualitative data collection, including observation, in-depth interviews and document analysis. Few studies have been published outlining methodological issues related to ethnography in this setting. This paper examines some of the challenges of conducting an ethnographic study in primary care setting in Canada, where there recently have been major reforms to traditional methods of organizing primary care services. This paper is based on an ethnographic study set in primary care practices in Ontario, Canada, designed to investigate changes to organizational and clinical routines in practices undergoing transition to new, interdisciplinary Family Health Teams (FHTs). The study was set in six new FHTs in Ontario. This paper is a reflexive examination of some of the challenges encountered while conducting an ethnographic study in a primary care setting. Our experiences in this study highlight some potential benefits of and difficulties in conducting an ethnographic study in family practice. Our study design gave us an opportunity to highlight the changes in routines within an organization in transition. A study with a clinical perspective requires training, support, a mixture of backgrounds and perspectives and ongoing communication. Despite some of the difficulties, the richness of this method has allowed the exploration of a number of additional research questions that emerged during data analysis.

  19. RETRAN overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agee, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The RETRAN code has become the industry standard with respect to NSSS transient analysis. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of important RETRAN-related events since the second International meeting in April of 1982. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part addresses the current status of the code with emphasis on the design review of RETRAN-02 MOD002 and the goal of RETRAN-02 in the Reactor Analysis Support Package (RASP). These activities are being undertaken to simplify the use of RETRAN for safety analysis and reload application which may be part of an NRC submittal. The second part of the paper describes significant applications of RETRAN. In the analysis section, special emphasis is placed on validation analyses which compare the code to actual plant data or experimental facilities. The third section briefly describes the pre-release version of RETRAN and the developmental goals for the next version of RETRAN. One major limitation of all state-of-the-art thermal-hydraulic codes is the determination of the structure of the fluid. A brief description of research needs in this are indicated

  20. A Practical Radiosity Method for Predicting Transmission Loss in Urban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ming

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict transmission loss or field strength distribution is crucial for determining coverage in planning personal communication systems. This paper presents a practical method to accurately predict entire average transmission loss distribution in complicated urban environments. The method uses a 3D propagation model based on radiosity and a simplified city information database including surfaces of roads and building groups. Narrowband validation measurements with line-of-sight (LOS and non-line-of-sight (NLOS cases at 1800 MHz give excellent agreement in urban environments.

  1. Verification of practicability of quantitative reliability evaluation method (De-BDA) in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kinshiro; Yukimachi, Takeo.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of methods have been applied to study of reliability analysis in which human factors are included in order to enhance the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. De-BDA (Detailed Block Diagram Analysis) is one of such mehtods developed with the objective of creating a more comprehensive and understandable tool for quantitative analysis of reliability associated with plant operations. The practicability of this method has been verified by applying it to reliability analysis of various phases of plant operation as well as evaluation of enhanced man-machine interface in the central control room. (author)

  2. Theory of the Allen method and its practical bearing on pipe discharge measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.; Margrita, R.

    1976-01-01

    The Allen method for measurement of pipe discharge is based on a general relationship between discharge, instrument section volume and the first moment of the residence time distribution. An original demonstration of this standard chemical engineering relationship is given. The Allen method thus offers a very wide practical application scope. Requirements are limited to knowing the volume of the instrument section and the residence time distribution; the shape of the instrument section is immaterial. The information can be obtained for example by means of a system correlating the instrument section input and output signals [fr

  3. A study for the practical methods and evaluations for the on-line maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigusa, Naoki; Ogami, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    For planning and enforcing the On Line Maintenance (OLM) in the near future, we should take care of keeping a reasonable balance between the degree of risk increase and the task volume equalization. In this paper, the current status of studying for the OLM introducing on Japanese utilities is described. The planning approach of OLM is examined on the assumption that planned OLM can be carried out. The practical methods and evaluations for the OLM are described, and the trial evaluation for this method is also described. (author)

  4. The role, practice and training of unregulated birth workers in Australia: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Elizabeth C; Schmied, Virginia; Peters, Kath; Dahlen, Hannah G

    2018-05-23

    In Australia, the provision of homebirth services by unregulated birthworkers (doulas, ex-registered midwives, traditional midwives and lay workers) has increased. Accessing a homebirth with a registered midwife via mainstream services is limited. Concern is growing that new legislation aimed at prohibiting unregulated birthworkers practice may result in homebirth going underground. To explore the role, practice and training of unregulated birthworkers in Australian and establish what they would do if legislation prohibited their practice. This study used a mixed methods sequential exploratory design to explore the practice, training and role of unregulated birthworkers in Australia. In phase one, four unregulated birthworkers were interviewed in-depth and the findings informed the development of a survey in phase two. This was distributed nationally through two consumer websites, social media, Facebook and email. Data from both phases were integrated. Unregulated birthworkers in Australia provide homebirth services to women with high and low-risk pregnancies when this choice is unavailable or unacceptable within mainstream services. They operate covertly to protect their practice and avoid the scrutiny of authorities. Unregulated birthworkers can be experienced and trained in childbirth care and practice, much like a midwife working within a holistic paradigm of care. Unregulated birthworkers believe they provide women with the homebirth service they want but cannot access. Mainstream service providers need to listen to consumer criticisms, as women seek answers outside the system. Change is needed to improve and align services with women's expectations of homebirth. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A STUDY ON FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICES AND METHODS AMONG WOMEN OF URBAN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjit Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Utilization of family planning methods, their side effects and the factors influencing their uses. Aims: To study the family planning practices/methods among the married women of reproductive age (15- 45yrs. Study Design: Community-based study. Study Subjects: The Women of reproductive age groups (15-45yrs adopting family planning methods & those residing in urban slums of, Lucknow. Sample size: 540, Study Period : July 2009 to July 2011. Sampling Technique: thirty cluster sampling. Result: The acceptance of family planning methods both temporary and permanent methods increased with level of literacy of women. About 53.40 % adopted I.U.C.D, 38.83% O.C pills & only 7.77% of their partners used condoms. 66.6% have undergone laparoscopic & 33.4% mini-lap sterilization. Vasectomy was not done for even a single partner. More number of illiterate and primary educated accepted permanent method after 3 or more children than higher educated who accepted it after 1 or 2 children. Among acceptors of permanent methods, total 70.27 % were experiencing side effects and among temporary method users, it accounted 23.30%. Conclusions: Acceptance in family planning is associated with increasing age, nuclear family & level of literacy. IUCD is the most accepted one among all the temporary methods. Vasectomy and newer contraceptives were not at all used.

  6. Practical method of dynamic analysis considering coupling effects between equipment and piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Ryoichi

    1984-01-01

    Many piping systems are supported by flexible structures or attached to thin shell walls so it is very important to consider the dynamic coupling effects between these systems in dynamic analysis. This paper presents a practical method of dynamic analysis of an individual system considering the dynamic coupling effects of coupled equipment-piping systems. In this method, dynamic responses are calculated by using the modal information which is obtained from the other analysis for associative structure. Analytical results for the complete model and of this method for an individual system are presented in the piping-supporting structure system and a piping-shell system. From the comparison of these results, it shows that this method is accurate, useful and economically applicable to the dynamic analysis of large model. (author)

  7. Practice-Oriented Formal Methods to Support the Software Development of Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088632; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    Formal specification and verification methods provide ways to describe requirements precisely and to check whether the requirements are satisfied by the design or the implementation. In other words, they can prevent development faults and therefore improve the quality of the developed systems. These methods are part of the state-of-the-practice in application domains with high criticality, such as avionics, railway or nuclear industry. The situation is different in the industrial control systems domain. As the criticality of the systems is much lower, formal methods are rarely used. The two main obstacles to using formal methods in systems with low- or medium-criticality are performance and usability. Overcoming these obstacles often needs deep knowledge and high effort. Model checking, one of the main formal verification techniques, is computationally difficult, therefore the analysis of non-trivial systems requires special considerations. Furthermore, the mainly academic tools implementing different model c...

  8. Overview of Future of Probabilistic Methods and RMSL Technology and the Probabilistic Methods Education Initiative for the US Army at the SAE G-11 Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Surendra N.

    2003-01-01

    The SAE G-11 RMSL Division and Probabilistic Methods Committee meeting sponsored by the Picatinny Arsenal during March 1-3, 2004 at Westin Morristown, will report progress on projects for probabilistic assessment of Army system and launch an initiative for probabilistic education. The meeting features several Army and industry Senior executives and Ivy League Professor to provide an industry/government/academia forum to review RMSL technology; reliability and probabilistic technology; reliability-based design methods; software reliability; and maintainability standards. With over 100 members including members with national/international standing, the mission of the G-11s Probabilistic Methods Committee is to enable/facilitate rapid deployment of probabilistic technology to enhance the competitiveness of our industries by better, faster, greener, smarter, affordable and reliable product development.

  9. The contribution of analytical detection methods to the enforcement of good irradiation practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is a generally accepted principle combining several features in order to achieve the optimal quality. In other words, GMP is observed if every possible measure is taken to contribute to the best possible quality of the end product. In this sense, Good Irradiation Practice (GIP) may be understood as one of the many elements of GMP dealing especially with aspects of processing food using ionising radiation. On the contrary the operator of an irradiation facility may consider GIP as the central idea including that GMP - in this case excluding the radiation aspects - is observed in addition to GIP standards. Regardless of this theoretical dispute, it is obvious that food irradiation requires classical GMP to be applied without exception and that good practice is also applied in radiation processing. The main interest in analytical methods for the identification of radiation processed food arose from the need to enforce the ban on this process, to verify correct labelling, or to ensure that it is used only for the very limited number of application which are permitted. In this field, identification methods already introduced into the official food inspection systems have contributed considerably towards making evident several cases of the fraudulent application of radiation processing. At present, as radiation processing of food is becoming more and more accepted, the number of national clearances is increasing and the European Community is preparing for a Directive to harmonise the food laws of the member states with regard to food irradiation. Therefore, it should be considered how the analytical detection methods which have been developed could contribute to enforcing good manufacturing practices, once the main goal ceases to be the suppression of this process. (author)

  10. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  11. Statistical methods applied to the study of opinion formation models: a brief overview and results of a numerical study of a model based on the social impact theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordogna, Clelia María; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand we present a brief overview on the application of statistical physics methods to the modelling of social phenomena focusing our attention on models for opinion formation. On the other hand, we discuss and present original results of a model for opinion formation based on the social impact theory developed by Latané. The presented model accounts for the interaction among the members of a social group under the competitive influence of a strong leader and the mass media, both supporting two different states of opinion. Extensive simulations of the model are presented, showing that they led to the observation of a rich scenery of complex behaviour including, among others, critical behaviour and phase transitions between a state of opinion dominated by the leader and another dominated by the mass media. The occurrence of interesting finite-size effects reveals that, in small communities, the opinion of the leader may prevail over that of the mass media. This observation is relevant for the understanding of social phenomena involving a finite number of individuals, in contrast to actual physical phase transitions that take place in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, we give a brief outlook of open questions and lines for future work.

  12. Statistical methods applied to the study of opinion formation models: a brief overview and results of a numerical study of a model based on the social impact theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordogna, Clelia Maria; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand we present a brief overview on the application of statistical physics methods to the modelling of social phenomena focusing our attention on models for opinion formation. On the other hand, we discuss and present original results of a model for opinion formation based on the social impact theory developed by Latane. The presented model accounts for the interaction among the members of a social group under the competitive influence of a strong leader and the mass media, both supporting two different states of opinion. Extensive simulations of the model are presented, showing that they led to the observation of a rich scenery of complex behaviour including, among others, critical behaviour and phase transitions between a state of opinion dominated by the leader and another dominated by the mass media. The occurrence of interesting finite-size effects reveals that, in small communities, the opinion of the leader may prevail over that of the mass media. This observation is relevant for the understanding of social phenomena involving a finite number of individuals, in contrast to actual physical phase transitions that take place in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, we give a brief outlook of open questions and lines for future work

  13. Overview of Tokamak Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberg, Bernhard; Samm, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of recent results obtained in tokamak devices. We introduce basic confinement scenarios as L-mode, H-mode and plasmas with an internal transport barrier and discuss methods for profile control. Important findings in DT-experiments at JET as α-particle heating are described. Methods for power exhaust like plasma regimes with a radiating mantle and radiative divertor scenarios are discussed. The overall impact of plasma edge conditions on the general plasma performance in tokamaks is illustrated by describing the impact of wall conditions on confinement and the edge operational diagram of H-mode plasmas

  14. APPLICATION OF MODIFIED POWER FLOW TRACING METHOD FOR REACTIVE POWER PRICING IN PRACTICAL UTILITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SUSITHRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive trend towards restructuring and unbundling of transmission services has resulted in the need to discover the impact of a particular generator to load. This paper initially presents the analysis of three different reactive power valuation methods namely, Modified Ybus , Virtual flow approach and modified power flow tracing to compute the reactive power output from a particular generator to particular load. Among these methods, the modified power flow electricity tracing method is identified as the best method to trace the reactive power contribution from various reactive power sources to loads, transmission line, etc. Also this proposed method breakdown the total reactive power loss in a transmission line into components to be allocated to individual loads. Secondly, based on this Method a novel allocation method for reactive power service for practical system is proposed. Hence, this method can be useful in providing additional insight into power system operation and can be used to modify existing tariffs of charging for reactive power transmission loss and reactive power transmission services. Simulation and comparison results are shown by taking WSCC 9 and IEEE 30 bus system as test system.

  15. Comprehensive field evaluation of asphalt patching methods and development of simple decision trees and a best practices manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The long-term performance of pothole patches largely depends on the selection of the patching method. A number of pothole patching methods are in practice in Minnesota and other nearby states. However, pavement maintenance crews often encounter probl...

  16. Governance of professional nursing practice in a hospital setting: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Guedes dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to elaborate an interpretative model for the governance of professional nursing practice in a hospital setting. Method: a mixed methods study with concurrent triangulation strategy, using data from a cross-sectional study with 106 nurses and a Grounded Theory study with 63 participants. The quantitative data were collected through the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised and underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Qualitative data were obtained from interviews and analyzed through initial, selective and focused coding. Results: based on the results obtained with the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised, it is possible to state that nurses perceived that they had autonomy, control over the environment, good relationships with physicians and organizational support for nursing governance. The governance of the professional nursing practice is based on the management of nursing care and services carried out by the nurses. To perform these tasks, nurses aim to get around the constraints of the organizational support and develop management knowledge and skills. Conclusion: it is important to reorganize the structures and processes of nursing governance, especially the support provided by the organization for the management practices of nurses.

  17. MO-F-211-01: Methods for Completing Practice Quality Improvement (PQI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J; Brown, K; Ibbott, G; Pawlicki, T

    2012-06-01

    Practice Quality Improvement (PQI) is becoming an expected part of routine practice in healthcare as an approach to provide more efficient, effective and high quality care. Additionally, as part of the ABR's Maintenance of Certification (MOC) pathway, medical physicists are now expected to complete a PQI project. This session will describe the history behind and benefits of the ABR's MOC program, provide details of quality improvement methods and how to successfully complete a PQI project. PQI methods include various commonly used engineering and management tools. The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle will be presented as one project planning and implementation tool. Other PQI analysis instruments such as flowcharts, Pareto charts, process control charts and fishbone diagrams will also be explained with examples. Cause analysis, solution development and implementation, and post-implementation measurement will be presented. Project identification and definition as well as appropriate measurement tool selection will be offered. Methods to choose key quality metrics (key quality indicators) will also be addressed. Several sample PQI projects and templates available through the AAPM and other organizations will be described. At least three examples of completed PQI projects will be shared. 1. Identify and define a PQI project 2. Identify and select measurement methods/techniques for use with the PQI project 3. Describe example(s) of completed projects. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Investigating the Practices of Assessment Methods in Amharic Language Writing Skill Context: The Case of Selected Higher Education in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfay, Hailay

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Ethiopian higher education Amharic language writing skills instructors' practices of Assessment Methods in writing skill context. It was also intended to look for their viewpoints about the practicality of implementing Assessment Methods in Amharic writing courses. In order to achieve the goals of this study,…

  19. Software specification methods

    CERN Document Server

    Habrias, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This title provides a clear overview of the main methods, and has a practical focus that allows the reader to apply their knowledge to real-life situations. The following are just some of the techniques covered: UML, Z, TLA+, SAZ, B, OMT, VHDL, Estelle, SDL and LOTOS.

  20. A Practical Method of Acoustic Emission Source Location in Anisotropic Composite Laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Kang, Yong Kyu; Kwon, Oh Yang [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    Since the velocity is dependent on the fiber orientation in anisotropic composites, the application of traditional acoustic emission (AE) source location techniques based on the constant velocity to composite structures has been practically impossible. The anisotropy makes the source location procedure complicated and deteriorates the accuracy of the location. In this study, we have divided the region of interest(ROI) into a set of finite elements, taken each element as a virtual source, and calculated the arrival time differences between sensors by using the velocities at every degree from 0 to 90. The calculated and the experimentally measured values of the arrival time difference aye then compared to minimize the location error. The results from two different materials, namely AA6061-T6 and CFRP(uni-directional; UD, [0]{sub 32}4 ) laminate confirmed the practical usefulness of the proposed method

  1. Use of text messaging in general practice: a mixed methods investigation on GPs' and patients' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Dorothy; Lyons, Aoife; Dahm, Matthias; Quinlan, Diarmuid; Bradley, Colin

    2017-11-01

    Text messaging has become more prevalent in general practice as a tool with which to communicate with patients. The main objectives were to assess the extent, growth, and perceived risks and benefits of text messaging by GPs to communicate with patients, and assess patients' attitudes towards receiving text messages from their GP. A mixed methods study, using surveys, a review, and a focus group, was conducted in both urban and rural practices in the south-west of Ireland. A telephone survey of 389 GPs was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of text messaging. Subsequently, the following were also carried out: additional telephone surveys with 25 GPs who use text messaging and 26 GPs who do not, a written satisfaction survey given to 78 patients, a review of the electronic information systems of five practices, and a focus group with six GPs to ascertain attitudes towards text messaging. In total, 38% ( n = 148) of the surveyed GPs used text messaging to communicate with patients and 62% ( n = 241) did not. Time management was identified as the key advantage of text messaging among GPs who used it (80%; n = 20) and those who did not (50%; n = 13). Confidentiality was reported as the principal concern among both groups, at 32% ( n = 8) and 69% ( n = 18) respectively. Most patients (99%; n = 77) were happy to receive text messages from their GP. The GP focus group identified similar issues and benefits in terms of confidentiality and time management. Data were extracted from the IT systems of five consenting practices and the number of text messages sent during the period from January 2013 to March 2016 was generated. This increased by 40% per annum. Collaborative efforts are required from relevant policymakers to address data protection and text messaging issues so that GPs can be provided with clear guidelines to protect patient confidentiality. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  2. Environmental Warning System Based on the DPSIR Model: A Practical and Concise Method for Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Though we are in urgent need of environmental warnings to slow environmental deterioration, currently, there is no internationally concise method for environmental warnings. In addition, the existing approaches do not combine the three aspects of ecology, resources, and environment. At the same time, the three elements of the environment (air, water, and soil are separated in most environmental warning systems. Thus, the method this paper gives is an innovative attempt and aims to make environmental assessment more practical. This paper establishes the index system of an environmental early warning based on the Driving–Pressure–State–Influence–Response (DPSIR model. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to determine the weights. Next, single and integrated index methods further assess the environmental warning state, in which the weighted summation method is used to summarize the data and results. The case of Tianjin is used to confirm the applicability of this method. In conclusion, the method in this paper is more well-behaved and, therefore, more suitable to assist cities in their environmental assessment.

  3. A trajectory design method via target practice for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xue; Yang, Ming; Ning, Guodong; Wang, Songyan; Chao, Tao

    2017-11-01

    There are strong coupling interactions between aerodynamics and scramjet, this kind of aircraft also has multiple restrictions, such as the range and difference of dynamic pressure, airflow, and fuel. On the one hand, we need balance the requirement between maneuverability of vehicle and stabilization of scramjet. On the other hand, we need harmonize the change of altitude and the velocity. By describing aircraft's index system of climbing capability, acceleration capability, the coupling degree in aerospace, this paper further propose a rapid design method which based on target practice. This method aimed for reducing the coupling degree, it depresses the coupling between aircraft and engine in navigation phase, satisfy multiple restriction conditions to leave some control buffer and create good condition for control implementation. According to the simulation, this method could be used for multiple typical fly commissions such as climbing, acceleration or both.

  4. CURRENT METHODS OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION ASSESSMENT AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN THE PRACTICAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shabrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A review contains a description of the most common methods of evaluation and monitoring of "endothelial dysfunction" that are assessed in terms of their information content and applicability in the practice of medicine. The term "endothelial function" is interpreted primarily as a function of the regulation of capillary blood flow, carried out by the expense of the dynamic change of the phase of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation in vessels of resistive type (in accordance with the changing needs of cellular metabolism. Assessment of endothelial dysfunction is understood as a generalized indicator of the extent and nature of violations of the regulation of peripheral circulation. It includes an assessment of imbalances between endotheliumdependent vasoconstrictor and vasodilating factors or mismatch of the local and central regulation of capillary blood flow in response to various functional tests or other effects (eg, cold test, or test with local ischemia. All methods of endothelial dysfunction assessment in the survey are divided into invasive and non-invasive. The main feature of invasive methods lies in the direct effect on the endothelium of the coronary or other vessels by introducing into these vessels vasoactive substances such as acetylcholine. Response to the test (vasoconstriction or vasodilation is evaluated by coronary angiography or by ultrasound. Non-invasive methods of the assessment of endothelial dysfunction or functions of regulation of the peripheral circulation are regarded as the most promising for widespread use. There are two basic methods that underlie functional tests: methods PAT (peripheral arterial tone and PHG (polyhepatography. Assessment of endothelial dysfunction in many modern scientific researches is important. They are regarded as the causative factors of many different diseases. Such assessments can be useful in everyday medical practice. Assessment of endothelial function provides the clinician with

  5. Using a Mixed Methods Approach to Examine Practice Characteristics Associated With Implementation of an Adult Immunization Intervention Using the 4 Pillars Practice Transformation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mary; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Moehling, Krissy K; Pavlik, Valory; Raviotta, Jonathan M; Brown, Anthony E; Zimmerman, Richard K; Ricci, Edmund M

    Adult immunization rates are consistently suboptimal, exacting significant human and financial burden of preventable disease. Practice-level interventions to improve immunization rates have produced mixed results. The context of change critically affects implementation of evidence-based interventions. We conducted a randomized controlled cluster trial of the 4 Pillars Practice Transformation Program to increase adult vaccination rates in primary care practices and used qualitative methods to test intervention effects and understand practice characteristics associated with implementation success. We conducted qualitative interviews with staff from 14 practices to assess implementation experiences. Thematic analysis of data pointed to the importance of quality improvement history, communication and practice leadership, Immunization Champion leadership effectiveness, and organizational flexibility. Practices were scored on these characteristics and grouped into four types: Low Implementers, Medium Implementers, High Implementers, and Public/University Practices. Intervention uptake and immunization rate changes were compared, and a significant increase in influenza vaccination rates (3.9 percentage points [PPs]; p = .038) was observed for High Implementers only. Significant increases in Tdap vaccination rates were observed for High Implementers (9.3 PP; p = 0.006) and the Public/University groups (6.5 PP; p = 0.012), but not other groups. Practice characteristics may be critical factors in predicting intervention success.

  6. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Coupled with Finite Element Limit Equilibrium Method for Geotechnical Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm coupled with the finite element limit equilibrium method (FELEM for the minimum factor of safety and the location of associated noncircular critical failure surfaces for various geotechnical practices. During the search process, the stress compatibility constraints coupled with the geometrical and kinematical compatibility constraints are firstly established based on the features of slope geometry and stress distribution to guarantee realistic slip surfaces from being unreasonable. Furthermore, in the FELEM, based on rigorous theoretical analyses and derivation, it is noted that the physical meaning of the factor of safety can be formulated on the basis of strength reserving theory rather than the overloading theory. Consequently, compared with the limit equilibrium method (LEM and the shear strength reduction method (SSRM through several numerical examples, the FELEM in conjunction with the improved search strategy is proved to be an effective and efficient approach to routine analysis and design in geotechnical practices with a high level of confidence.

  7. INTEGRATIVE METHOD OF TEACHING INFORMATION MODELING IN PRACTICAL HEALTH SERVICE BASED ON MICROSOFT ACCESS QUERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Firsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: this article explores the pedagogical technology employed to teach medical students foundations of work with MICROSOFT ACCESS databases. The above technology is based on integrative approach to the information modeling in public health practice, drawing upon basic didactic concepts that pertain to objects and tools databases created in MICROSOFT ACCESS. The article examines successive steps in teaching the topic “Queries in MICROSOFT ACCESS” – from simple queries to complex ones. The main attention is paid to such components of methodological system, as the principles and teaching methods classified according to the degree of learners’ active cognitive activity. The most interesting is the diagram of the relationship of learning principles, teaching methods and specific types of requests. Materials and Methods: the authors used comparative analysis of literature, syllabi, curricula in medical informatics taught at leading medical universities in Russia. Results: the original technique of training in putting queries with databases of MICROSOFT ACCESS is presented for analysis of information models in practical health care. Discussion and Conclusions: it is argued that the proposed pedagogical technology will significantly improve the effectiveness of teaching the course “Medical Informatics”, that includes development and application of models to simulate the operation of certain facilities and services of the health system which, in turn, increases the level of information culture of practitioners.

  8. Knowledge-attitude-practice survey among Portuguese gynaecologists regarding combined hormonal contraceptives methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombas, Teresa; Costa, Ana Rosa; Palma, Fátima; Vicente, Lisa; Sá, José Luís; Nogueira, Ana Maria; Andrade, Sofia

    2012-04-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices of Portuguese gynaecologists regarding combined hormonal contraceptives. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 303 gynaecologists. Results Ninety percent of the gynaecologists considered that deciding on contraceptive methods is a process wherein the woman has her say. Efficacy, safety and the woman's preference were the major factors influencing gynaecologists, while efficacy, tolerability and ease of use were the major factors perceived by the specialists to influence the women's choice. Gynaecologists believed that only 2% of women taking the pill were 100% compliant compared to 48% of those using the patch and 75% of those using the ring. The lower risk of omission was the strong point for the latter methods. Side effects were the main reason to change to another method. Vaginal manipulation was the most difficult topic to discuss. Conclusions Most gynaecologists decided with the woman on the contraceptive method. The main reasons for the gynaecologist's recommendation of a given contraceptive method and the women's choice were different. Counselling implies an open discussion and topics related to sexuality were considered difficult to discuss. Improving communication skills and understanding women's requirements are critical for contraceptive counselling.

  9. Arts and Crafts Classes in Years I–III, Based on Methods Featuring Pupils’ Practical Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Piwowarska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The issue to be analysed here concerns teachers’ planning of arts and crafts classes in Years I–III, with specific reference to methods featuring pupils’ practical activities. A theoretical part briefly presents the concepts involved in teaching a subject that was initially defined as drawing, then as arts and crafts education, and finally as arts and crafts classes. It points out the factors that influence the process of stimulating pupils’ artistic activities. The technique used in the cour...

  10. Data analysis in high energy physics. A practical guide to statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Olaf; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Kroeninger, Kevin; Schott, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This practical guide covers the essential tasks in statistical data analysis encountered in high energy physics and provides comprehensive advice for typical questions and problems. The basic methods for inferring results from data are presented as well as tools for advanced tasks such as improving the signal-to-background ratio, correcting detector effects, determining systematics and many others. Concrete applications are discussed in analysis walkthroughs. Each chapter is supplemented by numerous examples and exercises and by a list of literature and relevant links. The book targets a broad readership at all career levels - from students to senior researchers.

  11. Qualitative methods in PhD theses from general practice in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Hamberg, Katarina; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    . Qualitative studies are often included in Ph.D. theses from general practice in Scandinavia. Still, the Ph.D. programs across nations and institutions offer only limited training in qualitative methods. In this opinion article, we draw upon our observations and experiences, unpacking and reflecting upon...... values and challenges at stake when qualitative studies are included in Ph.D. theses. Hypotheses to explain these observations are presented, followed by suggestions for standards of evaluation and improvement of Ph.D. programs. The authors conclude that multimethod Ph.D. theses should be encouraged...

  12. A practical method for in-situ thickness determination using energy distribution of beta particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, S.; Gurler, O.; Gundogdu, O.; Bradley, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a method to determine the thickness of an absorber using the energy distribution of beta particles. An empirical relationship was obtained between the absorber thickness and the energy distribution of beta particles transmitted through. The thickness of a polyethylene radioactive source cover was determined by exploiting this relationship, which has largely been left unexploited allowing us to determine the in-situ cover thickness of beta sources in a fast, cheap and non-destructive way. - Highlights: ► A practical and in-situ unknown cover thickness determination ► Cheap and readily available compared to other techniques. ► Beta energy spectrum.

  13. Students' Perceptions of Teaching Methods That Bridge Theory to Practice in Dental Hygiene Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Denise M; Smallidge, Dianne; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori

    2015-10-01

    Health care education requires students to connect classroom learning with patient care. The purpose of this study was to explore dental hygiene students' perceptions of teaching tools, activities and teaching methods useful in closing the gap between theory and practice as students transition from classroom learning into the clinical phase of their training. This was an exploratory qualitative study design examining retrospective data from journal postings of a convenience sample of dental hygiene students (n=85). Open-ended questions related to patient care were given to junior and senior students to respond in a reflective journaling activity. A systematic approach was used to establish themes. Junior students predicted hands-on experiences (51%), critical thinking exercises (42%) and visual aids (27%) would be the most supportive in helping them connect theory to practice. Senior students identified critical thinking exercises (44%) and visual aids (44%) as the most beneficial in connecting classroom learning to patient care. Seniors also identified barriers preventing them from connecting theory to patient care. Barriers most often cited were not being able to see firsthand what is in the text (56%) and being unsure that what was seen during clinical practice was the same as what was taught (28%). Students recognized the benefits of critical thinking and problem solving skills after having experienced patient care and were most concerned with performance abilities prior to patient care experiences. This information will be useful in developing curricula to enhance critical thinking and problem solving skills. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  14. Governance of professional nursing practice in a hospital setting: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, José Luís Guedes; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2015-01-01

    To elaborate an interpretative model for the governance of professional nursing practice in a hospital setting. A mixed methods study with concurrent triangulation strategy, using data from a cross-sectional study with 106 nurses and a Grounded Theory study with 63 participants. The quantitative data were collected through the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised and underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Qualitative data were obtained from interviews and analyzed through initial, selective and focused coding. Based on the results obtained with the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised, it is possible to state that nurses perceived that they had autonomy, control over the environment, good relationships with physicians and organizational support for nursing governance. The governance of the professional nursing practice is based on the management of nursing care and services carried out by the nurses. To perform these tasks, nurses aim to get around the constraints of the organizational support and develop management knowledge and skills. It is important to reorganize the structures and processes of nursing governance, especially the support provided by the organization for the management practices of nurses.

  15. Methods, metrics and research gaps around minimum data sets for nursing practice and fundamental care: A scoping literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntlin Athlin, Åsa

    2018-06-01

    To examine and map research on minimum data sets linked to nursing practice and the fundamentals of care. Another aim was to identify gaps in the evidence to suggest future research questions to highlight the need for standardisation of terminology around nursing practice and fundamental care. Addressing fundamental care has been highlighted internationally as a response to missed nursing care. Systematic performance measurements are needed to capture nursing practice outcomes. Overview of the literature framed by the scoping study methodology. PubMed and CINAHL were searched using the following inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed empirical quantitative and qualitative studies related to minimum data sets and nursing practice published in English. No time restrictions were set. Exclusion criteria were as follows: no available full text, reviews and methodological and discursive studies. Data were categorised into one of the fundamentals of care elements. The review included 20 studies published in 1999-2016. Settings were mainly nursing homes or hospitals. Of 14 elements of the fundamentals of care, 11 were identified as measures in the included studies, but their frequency varied. The most commonly identified elements concerned safety, prevention and medication (n = 11), comfort (n = 6) and eating and drinking (n = 5). Studies have used minimum data sets and included variables linked to nursing practices and fundamentals of care. However, the relations of these variables to nursing practice were not always clearly described and the main purpose of the studies was seldom to measure the outcomes of nursing interventions. More robust studies focusing on nursing practice and patient outcomes are warranted. Using minimum data sets can highlight the nurses' work and what impact it has on direct patient care. Appropriate models, systems and standardised terminology are needed to facilitate the documentation of nursing activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Health care encounters in Danish chiropractic practice from a consumer perspectives - a mixed methods investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Boyle, Eleanor; Larsen, Johanne Brinch; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

    2016-01-01

    Perceived value is the key ingredient to carving and maintaining a competitive business niche. The opportunities to interact with consumers to understand and enhance perceived value are termed 'touch points'. Due to the out-of-pocket expense incurred by patients, Danish chiropractors are subject to consumer trends and behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to explore and describe consumer touch points relevant to perceived value through healthcare journeys in chiropractic practices. We designed a convergent parallel, mixed methods study. Our purposive sampling framework identified 11 chiropractic clinics from which we collected observational field notes, video recordings and face-to-face interviews. Data was collected between April 14(th) and June 26(th) 2014. We described the exteriors and interiors of all participant clinics, interviewed 32 staff members, 12 new patients and 36 follow-up patients and finally video recorded 11 new and 24 follow-up consultations. Categorization and analysis led to the emergence six consumer touch point themes: 'the internet', 'the physical environment', 'practice models', 'administrative staff', 'the consultation sequence and timing' and 'a consultation that adds value'. The Internet functions as a tool when choosing/confirming a clinic as appropriate, developing and initial image and managing appointments. The administrative hub appears integral to the shaping of positive consumer experiences outside of the consultation. Clinic location, practice model and interior design may contribute to context effects and thus may influence value perception during the clinical encounter. The duration of hands-on treatment received from the chiropractor is not an apparent consumer focus point. Rather, through a seven stage clinical procedure patients value consultations with clinicians who demonstrate professional competence by effective communication diagnosis/management and facilitating satisfactory treatment outcomes. At least six

  17. Parenting Practices and Child Misbehavior: A Mixed Method Study of Italian Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Norcia, Anna; Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative method to examine three main research questions: What are the practices that mothers report they use when trying to correct their children’s misbehaviors? Are there common patterns of these practices? Are the patterns that emerge related to children’s well-being? Design Italian mother-child dyads (N=103) participated in the study (when children were 8 years of age). At Time 1 (T1), mothers answered open-ended questions about discipline; in addition, measures of maternal physical discipline and rejection and child aggression were assessed in mothers and children at T1, one year later (T2), and two years later (T3). Results Mothers’ answers to open-ended questions about what they would do in three disciplinary situations were classified in six categories: physical or psychological punishment, control, mix of force and reasoning, reasoning, listening, and permissiveness. Cluster analysis yielded 3 clusters: Group 1, Induction (predominant use of reasoning and listening; 74%); Group 2, Punishment (punitive practices and no reasoning; 16%); Group 3, Mixed practices (combination of reasoning and punishment, as well as high control and no listening; 10%). Multiple-group latent growth curves of maternal physical discipline, maternal rejection, and child aggression were implemented to evaluate possible differences in the developmental trends from T1 to T3, as a function of cluster. Conclusions Qualitative data deepen understanding of parenting because they shed light on what parents think about themselves; their self-descriptions, in turn, help to identify ways of parenting that may have long-lasting consequences for children’s adjustment. PMID:26877716

  18. Fatigue and fracture: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A brief overview of the status of the fatigue and fracture programs is given. The programs involve the development of appropriate analytic material behavior models for cyclic stress-strain-temperature-time/cyclic crack initiation, and cyclic crack propagation. The underlying thrust of these programs is the development and verification of workable engineering methods for the calculation, in advance of service, of the local cyclic stress-strain response at the critical life governing location in hot section compounds, and the resultant crack initiation and crack growth lifetimes.

  19. Pharmaceutical cocrystals: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ning; Li, Mingzhong; Schlindwein, Walkiria; Malek, Nazneen; Davies, Angela; Trappitt, Gary

    2011-10-31

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are emerging as a new class of solid drugs with improved physicochemical properties, which has attracted increased interests from both industrial and academic researchers. In this paper a brief and systematic overview of pharmaceutical cocrystals is provided, with particular focus on cocrystal design strategies, formation methods, physicochemical property studies, characterisation techniques, and recent theoretical developments in cocrystal screening and mechanisms of cocrystal formations. Examples of pharmaceutical cocrystals are also summarised in this paper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Teaching Research Methods and Statistics in eLearning Environments: Pedagogy, Practical Examples, and Possible Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Adam J.; Coventry, William L.; Morgan, Methuen I.; Loi, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Generally, academic psychologists are mindful of the fact that, for many students, the study of research methods and statistics is anxiety provoking (Gal et al., 1997). Given the ubiquitous and distributed nature of eLearning systems (Nof et al., 2015), teachers of research methods and statistics need to cultivate an understanding of how to effectively use eLearning tools to inspire psychology students to learn. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to discuss critically how using eLearning systems might engage psychology students in research methods and statistics. First, we critically appraise definitions of eLearning. Second, we examine numerous important pedagogical principles associated with effectively teaching research methods and statistics using eLearning systems. Subsequently, we provide practical examples of our own eLearning-based class activities designed to engage psychology students to learn statistical concepts such as Factor Analysis and Discriminant Function Analysis. Finally, we discuss general trends in eLearning and possible futures that are pertinent to teachers of research methods and statistics in psychology. PMID:27014147