WorldWideScience

Sample records for method originally proposed

  1. Thematic Apperception Test: an original proposal for interaction analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Dipaola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The TAT as projective technique gives the opportunity to explore the inner world and the intra-psychic functioning, as well as the objectual representations and the prevailing thinking processes. Our hypothesis is that the TAT could also be deployed as a valid tool in the analysis of inter-personal functioning, specifically within the couple. From this assumption originates our proposal for an original methodology of TAT deployment and reading, which integrates the classical individual TAT methodology with the Common Rorschach method suggested by Willi. The goal is to experiment a parallel utilisation of the test that could contribute to the understanding of personalities and of how these intertwine in couple interaction. “In the relationship with the partner, the personality takes new shapes, given personality and character traits are strengthened, while others lose importance”, (Theodore Lidz, in Willi, 1990. The couple TAT presupposes a sequence of pictures proposed following procedures identical to the Common Rorschach ones to the single individuals at first and then to the couple. From the initial individual task follows the one of building a commonly shared history starting from the stimulus. The suggested methodology shall be exemplified through the presentation of clinical cases belonging to the research sample. The comprehension of the inter-personal dynamic, in a common task, could allow to explore the ways in which conflict expresses itself, the roles and prospects for collaboration, the “generativity” of the couple and the management of affects and anxieties in the interaction and could be successfully deployed as a tool in the context of couple counselling.

  2. A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C; Basinger, James F; Garrett, Amber

    2009-10-07

    Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern-fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum.

  3. Critical Values for Lawshe's Content Validity Ratio: Revisiting the Original Methods of Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, Colin; Scally, Andrew John

    2014-01-01

    The content validity ratio originally proposed by Lawshe is widely used to quantify content validity and yet methods used to calculate the original critical values were never reported. Methods for original calculation of critical values are suggested along with tables of exact binomial probabilities.

  4. A Proposed Arabic Handwritten Text Normalization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Abu-Ain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Text normalization is an important technique in document image analysis and recognition. It consists of many preprocessing stages, which include slope correction, text padding, skew correction, and straight the writing line. In this side, text normalization has an important role in many procedures such as text segmentation, feature extraction and characters recognition. In the present article, a new method for text baseline detection, straightening, and slant correction for Arabic handwritten texts is proposed. The method comprises a set of sequential steps: first components segmentation is done followed by components text thinning; then, the direction features of the skeletons are extracted, and the candidate baseline regions are determined. After that, selection of the correct baseline region is done, and finally, the baselines of all components are aligned with the writing line.  The experiments are conducted on IFN/ENIT benchmark Arabic dataset. The results show that the proposed method has a promising and encouraging performance.

  5. Metasynthesis: An Original Method to Synthesize Qualitative Literature in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lachal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetasynthesis—the systematic review and integration of findings from qualitative studies—is an emerging technique in medical research that can use many different methods. Nevertheless, the method must be appropriate to the specific scientific field in which it is used. The objective is to describe the steps of a metasynthesis method adapted from Thematic Synthesis and phenomenology to fit the particularities of psychiatric research.MethodWe detail each step of the method used in a metasynthesis published in 2015 on adolescent and young adults suicidal behaviors. We provide clarifications in several methodological points using the latest literature on metasyntheses. The method is described in six steps: define the research question and the inclusion criteria, select the studies, assess their quality, extract and present the formal data, analyze the data, and express the synthesis.ConclusionMetasyntheses offer an appropriate balance between an objective framework, a rigorously scientific approach to data analysis and the necessary contribution of the researcher’s subjectivity in the construction of the final work. They propose a third level of comprehension and interpretation that brings original insights, improve the global understanding in psychiatry, and propose immediate therapeutic implications. They should be included in the psychiatric common research toolkit to become better recognized by clinicians and mental health professionals.

  6. Proposed method for regulating major materials licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The Director, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, appointed a Materials Regulatory Review Task Force to conduct a broad-based review of the Commission's current licensing and oversight programs for fuel cycle and large materials plants. The task force, as requested, defined the components and subcomponents of an ideal regulatory evaluation system for these types of licensed plants and compared they to the components and subcomponents of the existing regulatory evaluation system. This report discusses findings from this comparison and proposed recommendations on the basis of these findings

  7. Progress in analytical methods for the detection of geographical origin and authenticity of tea (Camellia sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yuwei; Hu Guixian; Shao Shengzhi; Zhang Yongzhi; Zhang Yu; Zhu Jiahong; Yang Guiling; Zhang Zhiheng

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the important agricultural products with obvious regional characteristics. Analytical methods are very important for the protection of geographical origin and authenticity of tea. The developments of analytical methods including stable isotope determination, multi-elements determination, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy, chemical fingerprint and others were reviewed. Major problems on tea origin and authenticity detection were discussed in this study, and some suggestions were also proposed which would be useful for the protection of geographical origin of tea in China. (authors)

  8. A proposal about the origin of the indo-european locative plural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Shields

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant recent developments in the field of historical lin­ guistics has been the identification of what Fox (1995: 194 calls '"laws' oflanguage development"-a methodology "for determining which changes are more likely than others, and ... criteria for determining the overall direction of linguistic change." This methodology is largely an aspect of what has come to be known as "grammati­ calization theory," which, according to Heine (2003: 575, is really "neither a theory of language nor of language change; its goal is to describe grammaticalization, that is, the way grammatical forms arise and develop through space and time, and to explain why they are structured the way they are." The process of grammaticalization "is hypothesized to be essentially unidirectional" (Heine 2003: 575 and therefore potentially "offers an explanatory account of how and why grammatical categories arise and develop" (Heine 2003: 578. Such explanation serves as "a potentially powerful adjunct to the methods of reconstruction, especially on an internal basis" (Fox 1995: 206, since it leads the historical linguist to principled conclusions about the structural sources of both attested and comparatively reconstructed morpho­ syntactic patterns. In this brief paper I wish to apply one such '"law' of language development" to account for the origin of the traditionally reconstructed Inda-European locative plural suffixes *-si (Gk. -si and *-su (Skt. -su, OCS -Xb (cf. Szemerényi 1996: 165. Like Fox (1995: 206, I acknowledge that the application of this methodology can be "speculative and controversial"; however, I offer my proposal as a reasonable possibility for developments within Indo-European

  9. The origin of the medial circumflex femoral artery: a meta-analysis and proposal of a new classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Henry, Brandon M; Vikse, Jens; Roy, Joyeeta; Pękala, Przemysław A; Svensen, Maren; Guay, Daniel L; Saganiak, Karolina; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) is a common branch of the deep femoral artery (DFA) responsible for supplying the femoral head and the greater trochanteric fossa. The prevalence rates of MCFA origin, its branching patterns and its distance to the mid-inguinal point (MIP) vary significantly throughout the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the true prevalence of these characteristics and to study their associated anatomical and clinical relevance. Methods. A search of the major electronic databases Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, SciELO, BIOSIS, and CNKI was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the origin of the MCFA, its branching patterns and its distance to the MIP. No data or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. All data on origin, branching and distance to MIP was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL v2.0. Results. A total of 38 (36 cadaveric and 2 imaging) studies (n = 4,351 lower limbs) were included into the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the DFA was 64.6% (95% CI [58.0-71.5]), while the pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the CFA was 32.2% (95% CI [25.9-39.1]). The CFA-derived MCFA was found to originate as a single branch in 81.1% (95% CI [70.1-91.7]) of cases with a mean pooled distance of 50.14 mm (95% CI [42.50-57.78]) from the MIP. Conclusion. The MCFA's variability must be taken into account by surgeons, especially during orthopedic interventions in the region of the hip to prevent iatrogenic injury to the circulation of the femoral head. Based on our analysis, we present a new proposed classification system for origin of the MCFA.

  10. Assessment of proposed electromagnetic quantum vacuum energy extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Moddel, Garret

    2009-01-01

    In research articles and patents several methods have been proposed for the extraction of zero-point energy from the vacuum. None has been reliably demonstrated, but the proposals remain largely unchallenged. In this paper the feasibility of these methods is assessed in terms of underlying thermodynamics principles of equilibrium, detailed balance, and conservation laws. The methods are separated into three classes: nonlinear processing of the zero-point field, mechanical extraction using Cas...

  11. A Proposed Method for Solving Fuzzy System of Linear Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kargar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for solving fuzzy system of linear equations with crisp coefficients matrix and fuzzy or interval right hand side. Some conditions for the existence of a fuzzy or interval solution of m×n linear system are derived and also a practical algorithm is introduced in detail. The method is based on linear programming problem. Finally the applicability of the proposed method is illustrated by some numerical examples.

  12. The origin of the medial circumflex femoral artery: a meta-analysis and proposal of a new classification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof A. Tomaszewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA is a common branch of the deep femoral artery (DFA responsible for supplying the femoral head and the greater trochanteric fossa. The prevalence rates of MCFA origin, its branching patterns and its distance to the mid-inguinal point (MIP vary significantly throughout the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the true prevalence of these characteristics and to study their associated anatomical and clinical relevance. Methods. A search of the major electronic databases Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, SciELO, BIOSIS, and CNKI was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the origin of the MCFA, its branching patterns and its distance to the MIP. No data or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. All data on origin, branching and distance to MIP was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL v2.0. Results. A total of 38 (36 cadaveric and 2 imaging studies (n = 4,351 lower limbs were included into the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the DFA was 64.6% (95% CI [58.0–71.5], while the pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the CFA was 32.2% (95% CI [25.9–39.1]. The CFA-derived MCFA was found to originate as a single branch in 81.1% (95% CI [70.1–91.7] of cases with a mean pooled distance of 50.14 mm (95% CI [42.50–57.78] from the MIP. Conclusion. The MCFA’s variability must be taken into account by surgeons, especially during orthopedic interventions in the region of the hip to prevent iatrogenic injury to the circulation of the femoral head. Based on our analysis, we present a new proposed classification system for origin of the MCFA.

  13. Proposal of Evolutionary Simplex Method for Global Optimization Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    To make an agile decision in a rational manner, role of optimization engineering has been notified increasingly under diversified customer demand. With this point of view, in this paper, we have proposed a new evolutionary method serving as an optimization technique in the paradigm of optimization engineering. The developed method has prospects to solve globally various complicated problem appearing in real world applications. It is evolved from the conventional method known as Nelder and Mead’s Simplex method by virtue of idea borrowed from recent meta-heuristic method such as PSO. Mentioning an algorithm to handle linear inequality constraints effectively, we have validated effectiveness of the proposed method through comparison with other methods using several benchmark problems.

  14. The origins of Western mind-body exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jonathan; Gabel, C Philip

    2015-11-02

    Background: Over recent decades, mind-body exercise methods have gained international popularity and importance in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives: The scope of this paper was to investigate: the origins of Western mind-body methods, their philosophies, exercises, and relationship with mainstream healthcare over the last two centuries. Major findings: Within a few decades of the turn of the 20th century, a cluster of mind-body exercise methods emerged from at least six pioneering founders: Checkley, Müller, Alexander, Randell, Pilates, and Morris. Each was based upon a similar exercise philosophy and similar functional movement-harmonizing exercises. This renaissance of independent mind-body schools occurred in parallel with the demise of the 18th and 19th century gymnasium Physical Culture movement and the concurrent emergence of bodybuilding and strength training. Even though mostly forgotten today, Western mind-body exercise methods enjoyed celebrated success during the first half of the 20th century, were hailed by medical and allied health practitioners and practiced by millions from society's elite to deprived minorities. Conclusions: Rediscovering the Western mind-body exercise movement is hoped to facilitate official healthcare establishment recognition of this kind of training as an integral entity. This may widen research opportunities and consolidate approaches toward: optimal musculoskeletal rehabilitation and injury prevention, promotion of a healthy active lifestyle environment in the modern world, and enhancement of the natural pain-free human athletic look, feel, and performance.

  15. Origin,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur de Vargas Giorgi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay tightens the “origin” concept, its manifestation through puzzles and their relationship to techniques of reproduction. Contrary to the hegemonic critique of aesthetic and cultural objects – critique that, settled on the appearance and notions of identity, tradition, canon, etc., undervalues the reproductions of "originals" –, the aim is to deliver these objects from formal hierarchization dispositives, that is, release them of what is ideal and positively imposed, so that the reproducibility is potentiated as producer of singularities, of apparitions. The effort is to keep the undecided character of puzzles (bodies, texts, images in which the origin is manifest, so that the logic of the spectacle is reverted into sense opening, instance in which the aesthetic becomes a “performance” before contemporary complexity. With the reproducibility, an origin survives in passage: continually restored, but incomplete, present in trace, in absence.

  16. Methodological proposal for environmental impact evaluation since different specific methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego; Lopera Arango Gabriel Jaime

    1999-01-01

    Some conceptual and practical elements related to environmental impact evaluation are described and related to the preparation of technical reports (environmental impact studies and environmental management plans) to be presented to environmental authorities for obtaining the environmental permits for development projects. In the first part of the document a summary of the main aspects of normative type is made that support the studies of environmental impact in Colombia. We propose a diagram for boarding and elaboration of the evaluation of environmental impact, which begins with the description of the project and of the environmental conditions in the area of the same. Passing then to identify the impacts through a method matricial and continuing with the quantitative evaluation of the same. For which we propose the use of the method developed by Arboleda (1994). Also we propose to qualify the activities of the project and the components of the environment in their relative importance, by means of a method here denominated agglomerate evaluation. Which allows finding those activities more impacting and the mostly impacted components. Lastly it is presented some models for the elaboration and presentation of the environmental management plans. The pursuit programs and those of environmental supervision

  17. Spectroscopy methods for identifying the country of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondrogiannis, Ellen; Ehrlinger, Erin; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2013-05-01

    There is a need in many industries and government functions to identify the source of origin for various materials. For example, the food industry needs to ensure that the claimed source of some of the food products (e.g. coffee, spices) are in fact legitimate due to the variation of quality from different source locations world-wide. Another example is to identify the source country for imported commodities going through Customs so as to assess the correct tariff which varies depending on the source country. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) holds promise for being a field-portable tool for rapid identification of the country of origin of various materials. Recent research at Towson University has identified the elemental markers needed for discrimination of select spices back to their country of origin using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The WDXRF device, however, is not particularly suitable for convenient and fast field analysis. We are extending this study to evaluate the potential of a benchtop commercial LIBS device that could be located at ports of entry and to compare its performance with WDXRF. Our initial study on the spice cumin has demonstrated that discriminant function models can not only be created with 100% separation between the 4 countries of origin (China, India, Syria, and Turkey), but also when tested they show 100% correct matching to the country of origin. This study adds to the growing number of publications that indicate the power of LIBS elemental fingerprinting for provenance determinations.

  18. Proposed frustrated-total-reflection acoustic sensing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Modulation of electromagnetic energy transmission through a frustrated-total-reflection device by pressure-induced changes in the index of refraction is proposed for use as an acoustic detector. Maximum sensitivity occurs for angles of incidence near the critical angle. The minimum detectable pressure in air is limited by Brownian noise. Acoustic propagation losses and diffraction of the optical beam by the acoustic signal limit the minimum acoustic wavelength to lengths of the order of the spatial extent of the optical beam. The response time of the method is fast enough to follow individual acoustic waves

  19. A Normative Definition Method for Origin Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der H.S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define a methodological tool to evaluate the contribution of various factors to the connectedness of food products to their places of origin, i.e. to the specific market potential that arises from that link. Most of the examples given here are drawn from the Dutch

  20. A proposed method for fast determination of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Lackner, K.

    1984-09-01

    The method of function parametrization, developed and applied by H. Wind for fast data evaluation in high energy physics, is presented in the context of controlled fusion research. This method relies on statistical analysis of a data base of simulated experiments in order to obtain a functional representation for the intrinsic physical parameters of a system in terms of the values of the measurements. Some variations on Wind's original procedure are suggested. A specific application for tokamak experiments would be the determination of certain global parameters of the plasma, characterizing the current profile, shape of the cross-section, plasma pressure, and the internal inductance. The relevant measurements for this application include values of the poloidal field and flux external to the plasma, and a diamagnetic measurement. These may be combined with other diagnostics, such as electron-cyclotron emission and laser interferometry, in order to obtain also density and temperature profiles. There appears to be a capability for on-line determination of basic physical parameters, in a millisecond timescale on a minicomputer instead of in seconds on a large mainframe. (orig.)

  1. A proposal concerning the origin of life on the planet earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    It is proposed that, contrary to the widely accepted Oparin thesis, life on earth arose not in the oceans but in the earth's atmosphere. Difficulties of the Oparin thesis relating to the nonbiological nature of prebiotic evolution are discussed, and autotrophic, photosynthetic cells are proposed as the first living organisms to emerge, thus avoiding these difficulties. Recent developments in the geology of the earth at the time of the emergence of life are interpreted as requiring the absence of liquid surface water, with water partitioned between a molten crust and a dense, CO2-rich atmosphere, similar to the present state of Venus. Biochemistry in such an atmosphere would be primarily membrane chemistry on the interfaces of atmospheric salt water droplets, proceeding at normal temperatures without the absorption of electrical discharges or UV light. Areas not sufficiently accounted for by this scenario include the development of genetic organization and the breaking of the runaway greenhouse condition assumed.

  2. A proposed assessment method for image of regional educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataeva Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Market of educational services in the current Russian economic conditions is a complex of a huge variety of educational institutions. Market of educational services is already experiencing a significant influence of the demographic situation in Russia. This means that higher education institutions are forced to fight in a tough competition for high school students. Increased competition in the educational market forces universities to find new methods of non-price competition in attraction of potential students and throughout own educational and economic activities. Commercialization of education places universities in a single plane with commercial companies who study a positive perception of the image and reputation as a competitive advantage, which is quite acceptable for use in strategic and current activities of higher education institutions to ensure the competitiveness of educational services and educational institution in whole. Nevertheless, due to lack of evidence-based proposals in this area there is a need for scientific research in terms of justification of organizational and methodological aspects of image use as a factor in the competitiveness of the higher education institution. Theoretically and practically there are different methods and ways of evaluating the company’s image. The article provides a comparative assessment of the existing valuation methods of corporate image and the author’s method of estimating the image of higher education institutions based on the key influencing factors. The method has been tested on the Vyatka State Agricultural Academy (Russia. The results also indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the institution, highlights ways of improving, and adjusts the efforts for image improvement.

  3. Method of local pointed function reduction of original shape in Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, H.; Slavyanov, S.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The method for analytical reduction of the original shape in the one-dimensional Fourier transformation by the fourier image modulus is proposed. The basic concept of the method consists in the presentation of the model shape in the form of the local peak functions sum. The eigenfunctions, generated by the linear differential equations with the polynomial coefficients, are selected as the latter ones. This provides for the possibility of managing the Fourier transformation without numerical integration. This reduces the reverse task to the nonlinear regression with a small number of the evaluated parameters and to the numerical or asymptotic study on the model peak functions - the eigenfunctions of the differential tasks and their fourier images [ru

  4. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.co [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia at Bogotá (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Duarte, Oscar, E-mail: ogduartev@unal.edu.co [National University of Colombia at Bogotá, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics (Colombia); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  5. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown

  6. Discrimination of Medicine Radix Astragali from Different Geographic Origins Using Multiple Spectroscopies Combined with Data Fusion Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Song, Chao; Sha, Min; Liu, Jun; Li, Li-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Yong

    2018-05-01

    Raman spectra and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of four different geographic origins of Radix Astragali were collected. These data were analyzed using kernel principal component analysis combined with sparse representation classification. The results showed that the recognition rate reached 70.44% using Raman spectra for data input and 90.34% using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra for data input. A new fusion method based on Raman combined with ultraviolet-visible data was investigated and the recognition rate was increased to 96.43%. The experimental results suggested that the proposed data fusion method effectively improved the utilization rate of the original data.

  7. Early fractionation methods and the origins of the NSD concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of the time factor in radiotherapy originated in the controversy surrounding single-dose and fractionated treatments during the first 20 years of this century. The success of Coutard's fractionated treatments of larynx tumors was an important factor in the abandonment of single-dose treatments. There was considerable research afterwards into the influence of dose rate and overall time of treatment on the responses of normal tissues. Recovery was modeled in terms of the Schwarzschild law of photochemistry, as exemplified by the analysis of Strandqvist in log dose-log time coordinates. Different conventions were followed in defining the time for a single-dose treatment. Subsequently the concept arose that the slopes of isoeffect lines relating dose and treatment time for normal tissues and tumors were different and moreover that the effects of fraction number and overall time could be separated; these developments constituted the foundation of the Ellis NSD model. It had an important influence on clinical practice and was reasonably successful in predicting isoeffective regimens for acute effects. It failed to predict severe late effects after large dose fractions. The dissociation between acute and late effects with altered fractionation led to recognition of the importance of the ratio α/β in characterizing the fractionation sensitivity of tissues. (orig.) With 125 refs

  8. Origins, Methods and Advances in Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Elizabeth; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research is a broad term encompassing many methods. Critiques of the field of qualitative research argue that while individual studies provide rich descriptions and insights, the absence of connections drawn between studies limits their usefulness. In response, qualitative meta-synthesis serves as a design to interpret and synthesise…

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Fitted-Stable Finite Difference Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gemechis

    two point boundary value problems with the boundary layer at one end (left or right) ... scheme (SCD Method) and its value is obtained using the theory of singular ..... Eq. (15) at the point. N iih xxi. , ,2 ,1 ,0 ,.. = = = and taking the limit as. 0. →.

  10. Principles, Methods of Participatory Research: Proposal for Draft Animal Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The meeting of researchers, who question themselves on the efficiency of their actions when they accompany stakeholders during change processes, provides the opportunity to ponder on the research methods to develop when working together with the stakeholders: participative research, research-action, research-intervention… The author proposes to present the research-action approach as new. If the three phases of research-action are important, the negotiation phase is essential, because it enables contract formalization among partners (ethical aspect, development of a common language, and formalization of structuring efforts between researchers with various specialties and stakeholders. In the research-action approach, the managing set-ups (scientific committees… play a major role: they guarantee at the same time a solution to problems, production, and the legitimacy of the scientific knowledge produced. In conclusion, the author suggests ways to develop research-action in the field of animal traction in order to conceive new socio-technical and organizational innovations that will make the use of this technique easier.

  11. At the origins of the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuada, Marcello

    2018-01-01

    During the seventies and eighties a long experimental research program on the quasi-free reactions at low energy was carried out by a small group of nuclear physicists, where Claudio Spitaleri was one of the main protagonists. Nowadays, a posteriori, the results of these studies can be considered an essential step preparatory to the application of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) in Nuclear Astrophysics.

  12. Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dordevic, N.; Wehrens, R.; Postma, G.J.; Buydens, L.M.C.; Camin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The assessment of claims of origin is of enormous economic importance for DOC and DOCG wines. ► The official method is based on univariate statistical tests of H, C and O isotopic ratios. ► We consider 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000–2010. ► Multivariate statistical analysis leads to much better specificity and easier detection of false claims of origin. ► In the case of multi-modal data, mixture modelling provides additional improvements. - Abstract: Wine derives its economic value to a large extent from geographical origin, which has a significant impact on the quality of the wine. According to the food legislation, wines can be without geographical origin (table wine) and wines with origin. Wines with origin must have characteristics which are essential due to its region of production and must be produced, processed and prepared, exclusively within that region. The development of fast and reliable analytical methods for the assessment of claims of origin is very important. The current official method is based on the measurement of stable isotope ratios of water and alcohol in wine, which are influenced by climatic factors. The results in this paper are based on 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000–2010. We evaluate the univariate approach underlying the official method to assess claims of origin and propose several new methods to get better geographical discrimination between samples. It is shown that multivariate methods are superior to univariate approaches in that they show increased sensitivity and specificity. In cases where data are non-normally distributed, an approach based on mixture modelling provides additional improvements.

  13. Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dordevic, N.; Wehrens, R. [IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all' Adige (Italy); Postma, G.J.; Buydens, L.M.C. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Camin, F., E-mail: federica.camin@fmach.it [IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all' Adige (Italy)

    2012-12-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of claims of origin is of enormous economic importance for DOC and DOCG wines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The official method is based on univariate statistical tests of H, C and O isotopic ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000-2010. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multivariate statistical analysis leads to much better specificity and easier detection of false claims of origin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the case of multi-modal data, mixture modelling provides additional improvements. - Abstract: Wine derives its economic value to a large extent from geographical origin, which has a significant impact on the quality of the wine. According to the food legislation, wines can be without geographical origin (table wine) and wines with origin. Wines with origin must have characteristics which are essential due to its region of production and must be produced, processed and prepared, exclusively within that region. The development of fast and reliable analytical methods for the assessment of claims of origin is very important. The current official method is based on the measurement of stable isotope ratios of water and alcohol in wine, which are influenced by climatic factors. The results in this paper are based on 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000-2010. We evaluate the univariate approach underlying the official method to assess claims of origin and propose several new methods to get better geographical discrimination between samples. It is shown that multivariate methods are superior to univariate approaches in that they show increased sensitivity and specificity. In cases where data are non-normally distributed, an approach based on mixture modelling provides additional improvements.

  14. Sur l’origine de l’écriture libyque. Quelques propositions On the origin of the Libyco-Berber alphabet: A few proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Casajus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article propose quelques hypothèses sur l’origine des alphabets dits libyques. Attestés par plus d’un millier d’inscriptions recueillies dans toute l’Afrique du Nord, depuis la Libye jusqu’aux îles Canaries, ces alphabets sont selon toute vraisemblance les ancêtres des alphabets touaregs actuels. La seule inscription qui ait pu être datée avec un degré raisonnable de certitude est une bilingue libyco-punique, mise au jour sur le site de Dougga (Tunisie, qui daterait de 139 avant J.-C. Il semble que les alphabets libyques existaient déjà alors depuis plusieurs siècles. Leurs créateurs ont emprunté quelques lettres (au moins quatre aux alphabets phénico-puniques. Pour composer les autres lettres, ils semblent avoir eu recours à des procédés géométriques simples qu’on essaie ici de reconstituer.A few hypotheses about the origin of the so-called “Libyan” alphabets are presented. Attested in more than a thousand inscriptions from Libya to the Canary Islands in northern Africa, these alphabets are probably the forebears of the current ones used by the Tuareg. The only inscription that has been dated (139 BCE with a reasonable degree of certainty is bilingual, Libyco-Punic, from Dougga in Tunisia. The “Libyan” alphabets apparently already existed, several centuries earlier. Their creators borrowed a few — at least four — letters from the Phoenician/Punic alphabets; and apparently used simple geometric procedures, which are reconstituted herein, for the other letters.

  15. Rapid turns in European renewable energy policy: advocacy and framing of the proposed trading of guarantees of origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Maans; Nilsson, Lars J.; Ericsson, Karin

    2008-10-15

    The EU has assumed ambitious targets and strategies for the promotion of renewable sources of energy (RES) binding to all its member states. This report sets out to examine the proposed EU-wide policy instrument designed to help achieve the targets on renewable electricity and heat - the trading of Guarantees of Origin (GO). It analyses the fate of the GO trading proposal in the European policy-making machinery during 2007 and 2008. It first discusses its origins, key components and points of contention, and then examines key factors behind the policy development leading first to its development and subsequently to its abandonment in 2008. Addressing these factors, the report explores first the near-term policy-making process before and after the proposal on GO trading was tabled in January 2008, focusing on processes in the European bureaucracy and how they were influenced by different interest groups and member state governments. It then takes a step back and looks at how competing policy frames over time have shaped the GO instrument debate. Results show how a strong internal market frame acted as a primary driving force in the Commission throughout the 2000s to promote the GO trading instrument. The subsequent collapse of the GO trading proposal can be largely attributed to a) the lack of a strong lobby in favour of GO, b) the accumulated experience with and institutionalisation of national RES support policy, and c) growing general political concerns for supply security, innovation and competitiveness. In the end, the fall of the GO trading instrument is indicative of how the underlying political battle line between advocates of the European internal market and guardians of national interests has moved in favour of the latter in recent years. (author). refs

  16. FIFRA Peer Review: Proposed Risk Assessment Methods Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    From September 11-14, 2012, EPA participated in a Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) meeting on a proposed pollinator risk assessment framework for determining the potential risks of pesticides to honey bees.

  17. Visual assessment of BIPV retrofit design proposals for selected historical buildings using the saliency map method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of energy efficiency, many old buildings have to undergo a massive facade energy retrofit. How to predict the visual impact which solar installations on the aesthetic cultural value of these buildings has been a heated debate in Switzerland (and throughout the world. The usual evaluation method to describe the visual impact of BIPV is based on semantic and qualitative descriptors, and strongly dependent on personal preferences. The evaluation scale is therefore relative, flexible and imprecise. This paper proposes a new method to accurately measure the visual impact which BIPV installations have on a historical building by using the saliency map method. By imitating working principles of the human eye, it is measured how much the BIPV design proposals differ from the original building facade in the aspect of attracting human visual attention. The result is directly presented in a quantitative manner, and can be used to compare the fitness of different BIPV design proposals. The measuring process is numeric, objective and more precise.  

  18. Proposed efficient method for ticket booking (PEMTB) | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home ... We used angular JS, ionic for a front end and node.js, express.js for a back end and mongo DB for a database. ... Our proposed system is totally softcopy and in digitalized.

  19. Proposed test method for determining discharge rates from water closets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, V.; Fjord Jensen, T.

    At present the rates at which discharge takes place from sanitary appliances are mostly known only in the form of estimated average values. SBI has developed a measuring method enabling determination of the exact rate of discharge from a sanitary appliance as function of time. The methods depends...

  20. Contribution for an Urban Geomorphoheritage Assessment Method: Proposal from Three Geomorphosites in Rome (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pica Alessia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban geomorphology has important implications in spatial planning of human activities, and it also has a geotouristic potential due to the relationship between cultural and geomorphological heritage. Despite the introduction of the term Anthropocene to describe the deep influence that human activities have had in recent times on Earth evolution, urban geomorphological heritage studies are relatively rare and limited and urban geotourism development is recent. The analysis of the complex urban landscape often need the integration of multidisciplinary data. This study aims to propose the first urban geomorphoheritage assessment method, which originates after long-lasting previous geomorphological and geotouristic studies on Rome city centre, it depict rare examples of the geomorphological mapping of a metropolis and, at the same time, of an inventory of urban geomorphosites. The proposal is applied to geomorphosites in the Esquilino neighbourhood of Rome, whose analysis confirm the need for an ad hoc method for assessing urban geomorphosites, as already highlighted in the most recent literature on the topic. The urban geomorphoheritage assessment method is based on: (i the urban geomorphological analysis by means of multitemporal and multidisciplinary data; (ii the geomorphosite inventory; and (iii the geomorphoheritage assessment and enhancement. One challenge is to assess invisible geomorphosites that are widespread in urban context. To this aim, we reworked the attributes describing the Value of a site for Geotourism in order to build up a specific methodology for the analysis of the urban geomorphological heritage.

  1. Qualitative methods in radiography research: a proposed framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.; Smith, T.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: While radiography is currently developing a research base, which is important in terms of professional development and informing practice and policy issues in the field, the amount of research published by radiographers remains limited. However, a range of qualitative methods offer further opportunities for radiography research. Purpose: This paper briefly introduces a number of key qualitative methods (qualitative interviews, focus groups, observational methods, diary methods and document/text analysis) and sketches one possible framework for future qualitative work in radiography research. The framework focuses upon three areas for study: intra-professional issues; inter-professional issues; and clinical practice, patient and health delivery issues. While the paper outlines broad areas for future focus rather than providing a detailed protocol for how individual pieces of research should be conducted, a few research questions have been chosen and examples of possible qualitative methods required to answer such questions are outlined for each area. Conclusion: Given the challenges and opportunities currently facing the development of a research base within radiography, the outline of key qualitative methods and broad areas suitable for their application is offered as a useful tool for those within the profession looking to embark upon or enhance their research career

  2. Repeated extragenic sequences in prokaryotic genomes: a proposal for the origin and dynamics of the RUP element in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, M R; Claverys, J P

    1999-10-01

    A survey of all Streptococcus pneumoniae GenBank/EMBL DNA sequence entries and of the public domain sequence (representing more than 90% of the genome) of an S. pneumoniae type 4 strain allowed identification of 108 copies of a 107-bp-long highly repeated intergenic element called RUP (for repeat unit of pneumococcus). Several features of the element, revealed in this study, led to the proposal that RUP is an insertion sequence (IS)-derivative that could still be mobile. Among these features are: (1) a highly significant homology between the terminal inverted repeats (IRs) of RUPs and of IS630-Spn1, a new putative IS of S. pneumoniae; and (2) insertion at a TA dinucleotide, a characteristic target of several members of the IS630 family. Trans-mobilization of RUP is therefore proposed to be mediated by the transposase of IS630-Spn1. To account for the observation that RUPs are distributed among four subtypes which exhibit different degrees of sequence homogeneity, a scenario is invoked based on successive stages of RUP mobility and non-mobility, depending on whether an active transposase is present or absent. In the latter situation, an active transposase could be reintroduced into the species through natural transformation. Examination of sequences flanking RUP revealed a preferential association with ISs. It also provided evidence that RUPs promote sequence rearrangements, thereby contributing to genome flexibility. The possibility that RUP preferentially targets transforming DNA of foreign origin and subsequently favours disruption/rearrangement of exogenous sequences is discussed.

  3. Direct LSC method for determination of bio-origin by C-14 measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristof, Romana; Kozar Logar, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the generalized direct liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) method for bio-origin determination by measurement of C-14. Examples of diversified items with known and unknown bio-origin were measured by liquid scintillation counting and analyzed by procedures, developed for fuel samples. Bio-origin of fuels, lubricants and monomer resins were successfully determined via direct LSC method after simple sample preparation with acceptable accuracy and trueness despite their diversity in color, viscosity, density or chemical composition. (author)

  4. Proposed New Method of Interpretation of Infrared Ship Signature Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; Wilson, M.T.; Youern, K.

    2005-01-01

    new method of deriving and defining requirements for the infrared signature of new ships is presented. The current approach is to specify the maximum allowed temperature or radiance contrast of the ship with respect to its background. At present, in most NATO countries, it is the contractor’s

  5. Signal predictions for a proposed fast neutron interrogation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, K.E.

    1992-12-01

    We have applied the Monte Carlo radiation transport code COG) to assess the utility of a proposed explosives detection scheme based on neutron emission. In this scheme a pulsed neutron beam is generated by an approximately seven MeV deuteron beam incident on a thick Be target. A scintillation detector operating in the current mode measures the neutrons transmitted through the object as a function of time. The flight time of unscattered neutrons from the source to the detector is simply related to the neutron energy. This information along with neutron cross section excitation functions is used to infer the densities of H, C, N and O in the volume sampled. The code we have chosen to use enables us to create very detailed and realistic models of the geometrical configuration of the system, the neutron source and of the detector response. By calculating the signals that will be observed for several configurations and compositions of interrogated object we can investigate and begin to understand how a system that could actually be fielded will perform. Using this modeling capability many early on with substantial savings in time and cost and with improvements in performance. We will present our signal predictions for simple single element test cases and for explosive compositions. From these studies it is dear that the interpretation of the signals from such an explosives identification system will pose a substantial challenge

  6. Proposals of counting method for bubble detectors and their intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Eduardo; Silva, Ademir X.; Bellido, Luis F.; Facure, Alessandro; Pereira, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The study of neutron's spectrometry and dosimetry has become significantly easier due to relatively new devices called bubble detectors. Insensitive to gamma rays and composed by superheated emulsions, they still are subjects of many researches in Radiation Physics and Nuclear Engineering. In bubble detectors, either exposed to more intense neutron fields or for a long time, when more bubbles are produced, the statistical uncertainty during the dosimetric and spectrometric processes is reduced. A proposal of this nature is set up in this work, which presents ways to perform counting processes for bubble detectors and an updated proceeding to get the irradiated detectors' images in order to make the manual counting easier. Twelve BDS detectors were irradiated by RDS111 cyclotron from IEN's (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear) and photographed using an assembly specially designed for this experiment. Counting was proceeded manually in a first moment; simultaneously, ImagePro was used in order to perform counting automatically. The bubble counting values, either manual or automatic, were compared and the time to get them and their difficult levels as well. After the bubble counting, the detectors' standardizes responses were calculated in both cases, according to BDS's manual and they were also compared. Among the results, the counting on these devices really becomes very hard at a large number of bubbles, besides higher variations in counting of many bubbles. Because of the good agreement between manual counting and the custom program, the last one revealed a good alternative in practical and economical levels. Despite the good results, the custom program needs of more adjustments in order to achieve more accuracy on higher counting on bubble detectors for neutron measurement applications. (author)

  7. Centrifugal compressor shape modification using a proposed inverse design method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niliahmadabadi, Mahdi; Poursadegh, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a quasi-3D design method for the radial and axial diffusers of a centrifugal compressor on the meridional plane. The method integrates a novel inverse design algorithm, called ball-spine algorithm (BSA), and a quasi-3D analysis code. The Euler equation is solved on the meridional plane for a numerical domain, of which unknown boundaries (hub and shroud) are iteratively modified under the BSA until a prescribed pressure distribution is reached. In BSA, unknown walls are composed of a set of virtual balls that move freely along specified directions called spines. The difference between target and current pressure distributions causes the flexible boundary to deform at each modification step. In validating the quasi-3D analysis code, a full 3D Navier-Stokes code is used to analyze the existing and designed compressors numerically. Comparison of the quasi-3D analysis results with full 3D analysis results shows viable agreement. The 3D numerical analysis of the current compressor shows a huge total pressure loss on the 90 .deg. bend between the radial and axial diffusers. Geometric modification of the meridional plane causes the efficiency to improve by about 10%.

  8. Centrifugal compressor shape modification using a proposed inverse design method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niliahmadabadi, Mahdi [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursadegh, Farzad [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    This paper is concerned with a quasi-3D design method for the radial and axial diffusers of a centrifugal compressor on the meridional plane. The method integrates a novel inverse design algorithm, called ball-spine algorithm (BSA), and a quasi-3D analysis code. The Euler equation is solved on the meridional plane for a numerical domain, of which unknown boundaries (hub and shroud) are iteratively modified under the BSA until a prescribed pressure distribution is reached. In BSA, unknown walls are composed of a set of virtual balls that move freely along specified directions called spines. The difference between target and current pressure distributions causes the flexible boundary to deform at each modification step. In validating the quasi-3D analysis code, a full 3D Navier-Stokes code is used to analyze the existing and designed compressors numerically. Comparison of the quasi-3D analysis results with full 3D analysis results shows viable agreement. The 3D numerical analysis of the current compressor shows a huge total pressure loss on the 90 .deg. bend between the radial and axial diffusers. Geometric modification of the meridional plane causes the efficiency to improve by about 10%.

  9. Theory of the Trojan-Horse Method - From the Original Idea to Actual Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Typel, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The origin and the main features of the Trojan-horse (TH) method are delineated starting with the original idea of Gerhard Baur. Basic theoretical considerations, general experimental conditions and possible problems are discussed. Significant steps in experimental studies towards the implementation of the TH method and the development of the theoretical description are presented. This lead to the successful application of the TH approach by Claudio Spitaleri and his group to determine low-energy cross section that are relevant for astrophysics. An outlook with possible developments in the future are given.

  10. Origin Determination and Differentiation of Gelatin Species of Bovine, Porcine, and Piscine through Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Saadiye Eryılmaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin origin determination has been a crucial issue with respect to religion and health concerns. It is necessary to analyze the origin of gelatin with reliable methods to ensure not only consumer choices but also safety and legal requirements such as labeling. There are many analytical methods developed for detection and/or quantification of gelatin from different sources including bovine, porcine and piscine. These analytical methods can be divided into physicochemical, chromatographic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and molecular methods. Moreover, computational methods have been used in some cases consecutively to ensure sensitivity of the analytical methods. Every method has different advantages and limitations due to their own principles, applied food matrix and process conditions of material. The present review intends to give insight into novel analytical methods and perspectives that have been developed to differentiate porcine, bovine and piscine gelatins and to establish their authenticity. Almost every method can be succeeded in origin determination; however, it is a matter of sensitivity in that some researches fail to ensure sufficient differentiation.

  11. Construction Method of Display Proposal for Commodities in Sales Promotion by Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masaki

    In a sales promotion task, wholesaler prepares and presents the display proposal for commodities in order to negotiate with retailer's buyers what commodities they should sell. For automating the sales promotion tasks, the proposal has to be constructed according to the target retailer's buyer. However, it is difficult to construct the proposal suitable for the target retail store because of too much combination of commodities. This paper proposes a construction method by Genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed method represents initial display proposals for commodities with genes, improve ones with the evaluation value by GA, and rearrange one with the highest evaluation value according to the classification of commodity. Through practical experiment, we can confirm that display proposal by the proposed method is similar with the one constructed by a wholesaler.

  12. Age of Saurashtra miliolites by U-Th decay series methods: possible implications to their origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, N.; Bhandari, N.; Ramanathan, K.R.; Somayajulu, B.L.K.

    1980-01-01

    The miliolite deposits of Saurashtra have been dated by 234 U, 230 Th, 231 Pa and 14 C methods. Concordant ages of approximately 10 5 years using the U decay series isotopes are obtained which agree with the ages of the coral reefs of Okha-Dwaraka coast suggesting a contemporaneous origin for both. The lower 14 C ages (<= 40,000 years) may be due to a recent influx of seawater or ground water. Quartz and clay minerals together constitute only <= 10% by weight, as such the aeolin characteristics of quartz grains may not be relevant to the origin of the miliolites. (auth.)

  13. Age of Saurashtra miliolites by U-Th decay series methods: possible implications to their origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, N; Bhandari, N; Ramanathan, K R; Somayajulu, B L.K. [Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India)

    1980-03-01

    The miliolite deposits of Saurashtra have been dated by /sup 234/U, /sup 230/Th, /sup 231/Pa and /sup 14/C methods. Concordant ages of approximately 10/sup 5/ years using the U decay series isotopes are obtained which agree with the ages of the coral reefs of Okha-Dwaraka coast suggesting a contemporaneous origin for both. The lower /sup 14/C ages (<= 40,000 years) may be due to a recent influx of seawater or ground water. Quartz and clay minerals together constitute only <= 10% by weight, as such the aeolin characteristics of quartz grains may not be relevant to the origin of the miliolites.

  14. Development and implementation of methods for determination of the origin of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, M.; Pajo, L.; Mayer, K.

    2001-01-01

    The determination of the origin of seized nuclear material is important for authorities in the context of the criminal investigation, in order to return the material to its last legal owner and to help preventing any further diversion of material from this source. Origin determination is based on a complex pattern of parameters obtained through analytical measurements. The information required to determine the origin of nuclear materials may be divided into two categories: endogenous information (e.g. age or mode of production of the material) which is self-explanatory; whereas exogenous information (e.g. dimensions, surface roughness, impurities) requires a database to which the parameters can be compared. The Institute for Transuranium Elements has developed methods to determine characteristic parameters like impurities, surface roughness, or microstructural information. Furthermore, a database was set up containing relevant information on reactor fuels. (author)

  15. The origin of cholesterol in chyle demonstrated by nuclear indicator methods; Origines du cholesterol du chyle mises en evidence par la methode des indicateurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, M

    1962-07-01

    In order to obtain information about the mechanism of the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, rats having a lymphatic abdominal fistula are used. The animals receive either 4-{sup 14}C- cholesterol subcutaneously or orally, or the 1-{sup 14}C acetate. The study of the specific radio-activities of the cholesterol in chyle, in serum, in the lining, and in the intestinal contents makes it possible to define the roles played by the transfer cholesterol from the serum, by the cholesterol synthesised intestinally, and by the absorption cholesterol, in the formations of the lymph and of the chylomicrons. A new theory is proposed for the mechanism of cholesterol absorption. (author) [French] Pour obtenir des renseignements concernant le mecanisme de l'absorption intestinale du cholesterol, on utilise des rats porteurs d'une fistule lymphatique abdominale. Les animaux recoivent soit du cholesterol 4-{sup 14}C par voie sous-cutanee ou par voie orale, soit de l'acetate 1-{sup 14}C. L'etude des radioactivites specifiques du cholesterol du chyle, du serum, de la paroi et du contenu intestinal permet de preciser les roles joues par le cholesterol de transfert d'origine serique, par le cholesterol de synthese intestinale et par le cholesterol d'absorption, dans la formation de la lymphe et des chylomicrons. Une theorie nouvelle concernant le mecanisme de l'absorption du cholesterol est proposee. (auteur)

  16. Evaluation of a proposed optimization method for discrete-event simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ferreira de Pinho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization methods combined with computer-based simulation have been utilized in a wide range of manufacturing applications. However, in terms of current technology, these methods exhibit low performance levels which are only able to manipulate a single decision variable at a time. Thus, the objective of this article is to evaluate a proposed optimization method for discrete-event simulation models based on genetic algorithms which exhibits more efficiency in relation to computational time when compared to software packages on the market. It should be emphasized that the variable's response quality will not be altered; that is, the proposed method will maintain the solutions' effectiveness. Thus, the study draws a comparison between the proposed method and that of a simulation instrument already available on the market and has been examined in academic literature. Conclusions are presented, confirming the proposed optimization method's efficiency.

  17. [Influence of different processing methods on Angelica sinensis polysaccharides from same origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jieli; Chen, Hongli; Duan, Jinao; Yan, Hui; Tang, Yuping; Song, Bingsheng

    2011-04-01

    To study the influences of different processing methods on the content of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides (APS) from the same origin. The contents of neutral polysaccharides and acidic polysaccharides in various samples of A. sinensis were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid and carbazole-sulfuric acid method, respectively. The proliferation ability of lymphocyte was detected by MTT method after the cells were cultured with different concentrations of APS from two samples processed by different methods. The different processing methods had different effects on the contents of polysaccharide. The maximum content of APS (26.03%) was found in the sample processed by microwave drying medium-fired, but the minimum content of APS (2.25%) was found in the sample processed by vacuum drying at 50 TC. Furthermore, the APS (high concentration group, P methods have different effects on the contents of APS and the proliferation ability of lymphocytes.

  18. Case 3018. Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 (currently Mazama gouazoubira; Mammalia, Artiodactyla): proposed conservation as the correct original spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the spelling of the specific name of Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 for the brown brocket deer of South America (family Cervidae). This spelling, rather than the original gouazoubira, has been in virtually universal usage for almost 50 years.

  19. A Proposal of Operational Risk Management Method Using FMEA for Drug Manufacturing Computerized System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masakazu; Nanba, Reiji; Fukue, Yoshinori

    This paper proposes operational Risk Management (RM) method using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for drug manufacturing computerlized system (DMCS). The quality of drug must not be influenced by failures and operational mistakes of DMCS. To avoid such situation, DMCS has to be conducted enough risk assessment and taken precautions. We propose operational RM method using FMEA for DMCS. To propose the method, we gathered and compared the FMEA results of DMCS, and develop a list that contains failure modes, failures and countermeasures. To apply this list, we can conduct RM in design phase, find failures, and conduct countermeasures efficiently. Additionally, we can find some failures that have not been found yet.

  20. A study of muscular tissue of animal origin by reflection-spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, L. V.; Nechiporenko, A. P.; Orekhova, S. M.; Plotnikov, P. P.; Ishevskii, A. L.

    2017-06-01

    A comparative analysis of the spectral characteristics of the surface of muscular tissue of animal origin (pork) and its main components has been performed by the methods of diffuse reflection electronic spectroscopy (DRES) and frustrated total internal reflection IR spectroscopy. The experiments have shown that the application of the DRES method makes it possible to detect more pronounced changes in the surface optical characteristics of muscular tissue and obtain electronic spectra containing information about the component composition of its main parts under successive extraction of sarcoplasmic materials, myofibrillar proteins of the actomyosin complex, and stroma mucopolysaccharides.

  1. [Influence of different original processing methods on quality of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma from Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Shu-Rui; Hou, Jun-Ling; Wang, Wen-Quan; Xu, Zhen-Guang; Song, Yan; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Li, Jun

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the contents of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, crytotanshinone, tanshinone II(A) in samples of different original processed Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were determined by HPLC. Different processing methods have varied influences on four active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Sun-drying reduced the content of crytotanshinone, tanshi-none II(A) and rosmarinic acid, integralsamples were better than those cut into segments. Oven dry method had great influence on water--soluble ingredients, high temperature (80-100 degrees C) could easily cause big loss of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B. The role of traditional processing method "fahan: was complicated, the content of rosmarinic acid decreased, crytotanshinone and tanshinone II(A) increased, and salvianolic acid B showed no difference after "fahan". Drying in the shade and oven dry under low temperatrure (40-60 degrees C) were all effective to keep active ingredients of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and, there was no difference between integral samples and samples cut into segments. Therefore, considering comprehensively the content of active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and processing costing etc., shade-drying or oven dry underlow temperature (40-60 degrees C) should be the most suitable original processing method.

  2. The origin of the third family festschrift Zichichi on the 30th anniversary of the proposal to search for the third lepton at ADONE

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Chien Shiung; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Maiani, Luciano; Barnabei, Ottavio; Wolf, Gunter; Wiik, Bjørn Haavard; Petermann, Andreas; Conversi, Marcello; Villi, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Weisskopf, Victor Frederick; Cabibbo, Nicola; Lee Tsung Dao

    1998-01-01

    In 1967 a group of physicists from the University of Bologna, led by A Zichichi, published a proposal to search for a heavy lepton using the Frascati (e + e - ) collider. The proposal, whose key pages are reproduced in this book on the 30th anniversary of the publication, was the consequence of many years of work started at CERN, where, in addition to the original idea of searching for a heavy lepton carrying its own leptonic number, new technologies were invented to allow the detection of a signal whose identification against the high background of hadronic processes was extremely difficult.M

  3. Applicability of the proposed evaluation method for social infrastructures to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Tomiyasu

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an evaluation method for social infrastructures, and verifies the applicability of the proposed evaluation method to social infrastructures by applying it to nuclear power plants, which belong to social infrastructures. In the proposed evaluation method for social infrastructures, the authors chose four evaluation viewpoints and proposed common evaluation standards for the evaluation indexes obtained from each viewpoint. By applying this system to the evaluation of nuclear power plants, the evaluation index examples were obtained from the evaluation viewpoints. Furthermore, when the level of the common evaluation standards of the proposed evaluation method was applied to the evaluation of the activities of nuclear power plants based on the regulations, it was confirmed that these activities are at the highest level. Through this application validation, it was clarified that the proposed evaluation method for social infrastructures had certain effectiveness. The four evaluation viewpoints are 'service,' 'environment,' 'action factor,' and 'operation and management.' Part of the application examples to a nuclear power plant are as follows: (1) in the viewpoint of service: the operation rate of the power plant, and operation costs, and (2) in the viewpoint of environment: external influence related to nuclear waste and radioactivity, and external effect related to cooling water. (A.O.)

  4. Quality parameters and pattern recognition methods as a tool in tracing regional origin of multifloral honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Kristina B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of multifloral honey regarding the mineral composition, sugar content and basic physicochemical properties has been done. The total of 164 honey samples was collected from six regions of Serbia during 2009 harvesting season. Univariate data analysis (descriptive statistics and analysis of variance, geographic information system and pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis and cluster analysis have been performed in order to identify geographical origin of honey. The content of Mg, K, and Cu, electrical conductivity, and optical rotation were established as useful indicators in tracing regional differences between honey samples. Samples originated from Zlatibor region were clearly distinguished from those from the rest of Serbia showing higher K and Mg content, as well as higher values of optical rotation, electrical conductivity, and free acidity. The influence of the soil composition, and climate conditions, as well as the presence of particular flora on the honey composition is stressed out. The modeling of geographic origin of honey has been attempted by the means of linear discriminant analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172017 and 451-03-2372-IP i FP7 RegPot project FCUB ERA GA No. 256716

  5. Carotenoids from Foods of Plant, Animal and Marine Origin: An Efficient HPLC-DAD Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini F. Strati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are important antioxidant compounds, present in many foods of plant, animal and marine origin. The aim of the present study was to describe the carotenoid composition of tomato waste, prawn muscle and cephalothorax and avian (duck and goose egg yolks through the use of a modified gradient elution HPLC method with a C30 reversed-phase column for the efficient separation and analysis of carotenoids and their cis-isomers. Elution time was reduced from 60 to 45 min without affecting the separation efficiency. All-trans lycopene predominated in tomato waste, followed by all-trans-β-carotene, 13-cis-lutein and all-trans lutein, while minor amounts of 9-cis-lutein, 13-cis-β-carotene and 9-cis-β-carotene were also detected. Considering the above findings, tomato waste is confirmed to be an excellent source of recovering carotenoids, especially all-trans lycopene, for commercial use. Xanthophylls were the major carotenoids of avian egg yolks, all-trans lutein and all-trans zeaxanthin in duck and goose egg yolk, respectively. In the Penaeus kerathurus prawn, several carotenoids (zeaxanthin, all-trans-lutein, canthaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, optical and geometrical astaxanthin isomers were identified in considerable amounts by the same method. A major advantage of this HPLC method was the efficient separation of carotenoids and their cis-isomers, originating from a wide range of matrices.

  6. Extended safe preservation period of foods of plant origin through combined technological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miteva, D.; Nacheva, I.; Dzhakova, A.; Tsvetkov, Tsv.

    2008-01-01

    The sublimation drying of fruits as an innovative technology for preservation their composition and enzyme activity is applied to various fruits: apricots, strawberries, plumbs, peaches and apples. The authors present the main methods of lyophilization as an original biotechnology for cryopreservation of fruits and afterwards are subjected to cold sterilization with 1.5 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. The combined application of both technologies provides safe and extended preservation of fresh fruits with high content of vitamins, mineral salts, maximum preserved enzyme system, aroma-tasty complex and microbiological purity

  7. Optimal plot size in the evaluation of papaya scions: proposal and comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Felipe Celanti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Evaluating the quality of scions is extremely important and it can be done by characteristics of shoots and roots. This experiment evaluated height of the aerial part, stem diameter, number of leaves, petiole length and length of roots of papaya seedlings. Analyses were performed from a blank trial with 240 seedlings of "Golden Pecíolo Curto". The determination of the optimum plot size was done by applying the methods of maximum curvature, maximum curvature of coefficient of variation and a new proposed method, which incorporates the bootstrap resampling simulation to the maximum curvature method. According to the results obtained, five is the optimal number of seedlings of papaya "Golden Pecíolo Curto" per plot. The proposed method of bootstrap simulation with replacement provides optimal plot sizes equal or higher than the maximum curvature method and provides same plot size than maximum curvature method of the coefficient of variation.

  8. A proposal on evaluation method of neutron absorption performance to substitute conventional neutron attenuation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Je Hyun; Shim, Chang Ho [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hyun [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Research Division, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Choe, Jung Hun; Cho, In Hak; Park, Hwan Seo [Ionizing Radiation Center, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Seo; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Yoon Ho [Ionizing Radiation Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    For a verification of newly-developed neutron absorbers, one of guidelines on the qualification and acceptance of neutron absorbers is the neutron attenuation test. However, this approach can cause a problem for the qualifications that it cannot distinguish how the neutron attenuates from materials. In this study, an estimation method of neutron absorption performances for materials is proposed to detect both direct penetration and back-scattering neutrons. For the verification of the proposed method, MCNP simulations with the experimental system designed in this study were pursued using the polyethylene, iron, normal glass and the vitrified form. The results show that it can easily test neutron absorption ability using single absorber model. Also, from simulation results of single absorber and double absorbers model, it is verified that the proposed method can evaluate not only the direct thermal neutrons passing through materials, but also the scattered neutrons reflected to the materials. Therefore, the neutron absorption performances can be accurately estimated using the proposed method comparing with the conventional neutron attenuation test. It is expected that the proposed method can contribute to increase the reliability of the performance of neutron absorbers.

  9. A proposal on evaluation method of neutron absorption performance to substitute conventional neutron attenuation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Je Hyun; Shim, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hyun; Choe, Jung Hun; Cho, In Hak; Park, Hwan Seo; Park, Hyun Seo; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Yoon Ho

    2016-01-01

    For a verification of newly-developed neutron absorbers, one of guidelines on the qualification and acceptance of neutron absorbers is the neutron attenuation test. However, this approach can cause a problem for the qualifications that it cannot distinguish how the neutron attenuates from materials. In this study, an estimation method of neutron absorption performances for materials is proposed to detect both direct penetration and back-scattering neutrons. For the verification of the proposed method, MCNP simulations with the experimental system designed in this study were pursued using the polyethylene, iron, normal glass and the vitrified form. The results show that it can easily test neutron absorption ability using single absorber model. Also, from simulation results of single absorber and double absorbers model, it is verified that the proposed method can evaluate not only the direct thermal neutrons passing through materials, but also the scattered neutrons reflected to the materials. Therefore, the neutron absorption performances can be accurately estimated using the proposed method comparing with the conventional neutron attenuation test. It is expected that the proposed method can contribute to increase the reliability of the performance of neutron absorbers

  10. Proposed Sandia frequency shift for anti-islanding detection method based on artificial immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Hatata

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sandia frequency shift (SFS is one of the active anti-islanding detection methods that depend on frequency drift to detect an islanding condition for inverter-based distributed generation. The non-detection zone (NDZ of the SFS method depends to a great extent on its parameters. Improper adjusting of these parameters may result in failure of the method. This paper presents a proposed artificial immune system (AIS-based technique to obtain optimal parameters of SFS anti-islanding detection method. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, and self-organizing in nature, maintains a memory of past encounters, and has the ability to continually learn about new encounters. The proposed method generates less total harmonic distortion (THD than the conventional SFS, which results in faster island detection and better non-detection zone. The performance of the proposed method is derived analytically and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. Two case studies are used to verify the proposed method. The first case includes a photovoltaic (PV connected to grid and the second includes a wind turbine connected to grid. The deduced optimized parameter setting helps to achieve the “non-islanding inverter” as well as least potential adverse impact on power quality. Keywords: Anti-islanding detection, Sandia frequency shift (SFS, Non-detection zone (NDZ, Total harmonic distortion (THD, Artificial immune system (AIS, Clonal selection algorithm

  11. Proposal and Evaluation of Management Method for College Mechatronics Education Applying the Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yoshinobu; Eguchi, Yuya; Mizukawa, Makoto

    In this research, we proposed and evaluated a management method of college mechatronics education. We applied the project management to college mechatronics education. We practiced our management method to the seminar “Microcomputer Seminar” for 3rd grade students who belong to Department of Electrical Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology. We succeeded in management of Microcomputer Seminar in 2006. We obtained the good evaluation for our management method by means of questionnaire.

  12. A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants (AS-GMP Method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus-Hitzschky, Katia Regina Evaristo de; Silveira, Jose Maria F.J. da

    2009-01-01

    An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an impact analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the Assessment System GMP Method. The assessment is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under assessment. In this case by case analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available assessment.

  13. Validation of a method for assessing resident physicians' quality improvement proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenstra, James L; Beckman, Thomas J; Reed, Darcy A; Mundell, William C; Thomas, Kris G; Krajicek, Bryan J; Cha, Stephen S; Kolars, Joseph C; McDonald, Furman S

    2007-09-01

    Residency programs involve trainees in quality improvement (QI) projects to evaluate competency in systems-based practice and practice-based learning and improvement. Valid approaches to assess QI proposals are lacking. We developed an instrument for assessing resident QI proposals--the Quality Improvement Proposal Assessment Tool (QIPAT-7)-and determined its validity and reliability. QIPAT-7 content was initially obtained from a national panel of QI experts. Through an iterative process, the instrument was refined, pilot-tested, and revised. Seven raters used the instrument to assess 45 resident QI proposals. Principal factor analysis was used to explore the dimensionality of instrument scores. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlations were calculated to determine internal consistency and interrater reliability, respectively. QIPAT-7 items comprised a single factor (eigenvalue = 3.4) suggesting a single assessment dimension. Interrater reliability for each item (range 0.79 to 0.93) and internal consistency reliability among the items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87) were high. This method for assessing resident physician QI proposals is supported by content and internal structure validity evidence. QIPAT-7 is a useful tool for assessing resident QI proposals. Future research should determine the reliability of QIPAT-7 scores in other residency and fellowship training programs. Correlations should also be made between assessment scores and criteria for QI proposal success such as implementation of QI proposals, resident scholarly productivity, and improved patient outcomes.

  14. Evaluation of the existing triple point path models with new experimental data: proposal of an original empirical formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutillier, J.; Ehrhardt, L.; De Mezzo, S.; Deck, C.; Magnan, P.; Naz, P.; Willinger, R.

    2018-03-01

    With the increasing use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), the need for better mitigation, either for building integrity or for personal security, increases in importance. Before focusing on the interaction of the shock wave with a target and the potential associated damage, knowledge must be acquired regarding the nature of the blast threat, i.e., the pressure-time history. This requirement motivates gaining further insight into the triple point (TP) path, in order to know precisely which regime the target will encounter (simple reflection or Mach reflection). Within this context, the purpose of this study is to evaluate three existing TP path empirical models, which in turn are used in other empirical models for the determination of the pressure profile. These three TP models are the empirical function of Kinney, the Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) curves, and the model of the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). As discrepancies are observed between these models, new experimental data were obtained to test their reliability and a new promising formulation is proposed for scaled heights of burst ranging from 24.6-172.9 cm/kg^{1/3}.

  15. Evaluation of the botanical origin of commercial dry bee pollen load batches using pollen analysis: a proposal for technical standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortrud M. Barth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High quality of bee pollen for commercial purpose is required. In order to attend the consumer with the best identification of the botanical and floral origin of the product, 25 bee pollen batches were investigated using two techniques of pollen grain preparation. The first started to identify pollen loads of different colors in two grams of each well mixed batch, and the second to identify pollen grains in a pool made of all the pollen loads comprised in two grams. The best result was obtained by this last technique, when a pollen grain suspension was dropped on a microscope slide and circa 500 pollen grains were counted per sample. This analysis resulted in the recognition of monofloral and bifloral pollen batches, while the use of the first technique resulted in all samples receiving a heterofloral diagnosis.É exigida alta qualidade para a comercialização de pólen apícola. A fim de atender o consumidor com a melhor identificação da origem botânica e floral do produto, 25 partidas de pólen apícola feram investigadas usande duas diferentes técnicas na preparação dos grãos de pólen. A primeira partiu da identificação das cargas polínicas contidas em dois gramas de cada partida bem misturada segundo suas cores. A segunda visava identificar os grãos de pólen de um agrupamento ("pool" de todas as cargas polínicas contidas em dois gramas de cada amostra. O melhor resultado foi obtido pela última técnica, quando uma suspensão de grãos de pólen era gotejada sobre uma lâmina de microscopia e cerca de 500 grãos de pólen eram centades por amostra. Esta análise resultou no reconhecimento de partidas monoflorais e biflorais de pólen apícola, enquanto que usando a primeira técnica, todas as amostras receberam a diagnose heterefloral.

  16. Original method to compute epipoles using variable homography: application to measure emergent fibers on textile fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Cudel, Christophe; Kohler, Sophie; Fontaine, Stéphane; Haeberlé, Olivier; Klotz, Marie-Louise

    2012-04-01

    Fabric's smoothness is a key factor in determining the quality of finished textile products and has great influence on the functionality of industrial textiles and high-end textile products. With popularization of the zero defect industrial concept, identifying and measuring defective material in the early stage of production is of great interest to the industry. In the current market, many systems are able to achieve automatic monitoring and control of fabric, paper, and nonwoven material during the entire production process, however online measurement of hairiness is still an open topic and highly desirable for industrial applications. We propose a computer vision approach to compute epipole by using variable homography, which can be used to measure emergent fiber length on textile fabrics. The main challenges addressed in this paper are the application of variable homography on textile monitoring and measurement, as well as the accuracy of the estimated calculation. We propose that a fibrous structure can be considered as a two-layer structure, and then we show how variable homography combined with epipolar geometry can estimate the length of the fiber defects. Simulations are carried out to show the effectiveness of this method. The true length of selected fibers is measured precisely using a digital optical microscope, and then the same fibers are tested by our method. Our experimental results suggest that smoothness monitored by variable homography is an accurate and robust method of quality control for important industrial fabrics.

  17. Proposal of a method for evaluating tsunami risk using response-surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Information on probabilistic tsunami inundation hazards is needed to define and evaluate tsunami risk. Several methods for calculating these hazards have been proposed (e.g. Løvholt et al. (2012), Thio (2012), Fukutani et al. (2014), Goda et al. (2015)). However, these methods are inefficient, and their calculation cost is high, since they require multiple tsunami numerical simulations, therefore lacking versatility. In this study, we proposed a simpler method for tsunami risk evaluation using response-surface methodology. Kotani et al. (2016) proposed an evaluation method for the probabilistic distribution of tsunami wave-height using a response-surface methodology. We expanded their study and developed a probabilistic distribution of tsunami inundation depth. We set the depth (x1) and the slip (x2) of an earthquake fault as explanatory variables and tsunami inundation depth (y) as an object variable. Subsequently, tsunami risk could be evaluated by conducting a Monte Carlo simulation, assuming that the generation probability of an earthquake follows a Poisson distribution, the probability distribution of tsunami inundation depth follows the distribution derived from a response-surface, and the damage probability of a target follows a log normal distribution. We applied the proposed method to a wood building located on the coast of Tokyo Bay. We implemented a regression analysis based on the results of 25 tsunami numerical calculations and developed a response-surface, which was defined as y=ax1+bx2+c (a:0.2615, b:3.1763, c=-1.1802). We assumed proper probabilistic distribution for earthquake generation, inundation height, and vulnerability. Based on these probabilistic distributions, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations of 1,000,000 years. We clarified that the expected damage probability of the studied wood building is 22.5%, assuming that an earthquake occurs. The proposed method is therefore a useful and simple way to evaluate tsunami risk using a response

  18. 77 FR 24684 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013-2015 American Community Survey Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... proposed content changes. Thus, we need to test an alternative questionnaire design to accommodate additional content on the ACS mail questionnaire. In the 2013 ACS Questionnaire Design Test, we will study... in Puerto Rico. II. Method of Collection Questionnaire Design Test--Data collection for this test...

  19. A novel method to rapidly distinguish the geographical origin of traditional fermented-salted vegetables by mass fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, So-Ra; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Hae-Won; Ha, Ji-Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    The geographical origin of kimchi is of interest to consumers and producers because the prices of commercial kimchi products can vary significantly according to the geographical origin. Hence, social issues related to the geographical origin of kimchi in Korea have emerged as a major problem. In this study, the geographical origin of kimchi was determined by comparing the mass fingerprints obtained for Korean and Chinese kimchi samples by MALDI-TOF MS with multivariate analysis. The results obtained herein provide an accurate, powerful tool to clearly discriminate kimchi samples based on their geographical origin within a short time and to ensure food authenticity, which is of significance in the kimchi industry. Furthermore, our MALDI-TOF MS method could be applied to determining the geographical origin of other fermented-salted vegetables at a reduced cost in shorter times.

  20. An assessment of the long term suitability of present and proposed methods for the management of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    Proposals for safe, long-term containment of conventional tailings include 1) storage under water, 2) storage in active, abandoned or specially created underground mines and, 3) storage in open pits, with subsequent flooding or covering with overburden. The underwater proposal can meet most of the requirements of long term containment; however, extensive study of existing tailings deposits in deep water locations will be needed. Underground mines cannot provide sufficient storage capacity, since the tailings bulk during mill operation can occupy twice the volume of the original ore. It is possible to reduce the hazard by reducing the radium and thorium content of the tailings. Proposals for such an undertaking include ore beneficiation with rejection of the relatively innocuous fraction, radium-thorium removal in the mill, and significant changes in both ore processing and treatment of tailings. It is concluded that surface-stored tailings are vulnerable over the long term to dispersion by leaching and water erosion, and that access to a tailings site cannot be prevented, while only a major climatic or seismic event could disturb tailings stored in suitable underwater or underground mine sites. The criteria for determining suitability for each method, however, will need to be identified, tested, and accepted through the normal process of modeling, pilot plant evaluation, monitoring and evaluation. (author)

  1. Proposal for Requirement Validation Criteria and Method Based on Actor Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Noboru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Ajisaka, Tsuneo; Kitani, Tsuyoshi

    We propose requirement validation criteria and a method based on the interaction between actors in an information system. We focus on the cyclical transitions of one actor's situation against another and clarify observable stimuli and responses based on these transitions. Both actors' situations can be listed in a state transition table, which describes the observable stimuli or responses they send or receive. Examination of the interaction between both actors in the state transition tables enables us to detect missing or defective observable stimuli or responses. Typically, this method can be applied to the examination of the interaction between a resource managed by the information system and its user. As a case study, we analyzed 332 requirement defect reports of an actual system development project in Japan. We found that there were a certain amount of defects regarding missing or defective stimuli and responses, which can be detected using our proposed method if this method is used in the requirement definition phase. This means that we can reach a more complete requirement definition with our proposed method.

  2. Determination of the oxidizing property: proposal of an alternative method based on differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigante, L.; Dellavedova, M.; Pasturenzi, C.; Lunghi, A.; Mattarella, M.; Cardillo, P.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of chemical-physical and hazardous properties of substances is a very important matter in the chemical industry, considering the growing attention of public opinion regarding safety and eco-compatibility aspects of products. In the present work, attention was focused on characterization of oxidizing properties. In case of solid compounds, the current method (Dir 84/449/CEE 6) compares the maximum combustion rate of the examined substance to the maximum combustion rate of a reference mixture. This method shows a lot of disvantages and does not provide a quantitative result. In the following work an alternative method, based on DSC measurements, is proposed for the determination of oxidizing properties. [it

  3. Estimation of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy: state of the art methods and proposal of novel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buendia, R; Seoane, F; Lindecrantz, K; Bosaeus, I; Gil-Pita, R; Johannsson, G; Ellegård, L; Ward, L C

    2015-01-01

    Determination of body fluids is a useful common practice in determination of disease mechanisms and treatments. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) methods are non-invasive, inexpensive and rapid alternatives to reference methods such as tracer dilution. However, they are indirect and their robustness and validity are unclear. In this article, state of the art methods are reviewed, their drawbacks identified and new methods are proposed. All methods were tested on a clinical database of patients receiving growth hormone replacement therapy. Results indicated that most BIS methods are similarly accurate (e.g.  <  0.5   ±   3.0% mean percentage difference for total body water) for estimation of body fluids. A new model for calculation is proposed that performs equally well for all fluid compartments (total body water, extra- and intracellular water). It is suggested that the main source of error in extracellular water estimation is due to anisotropy, in total body water estimation to the uncertainty associated with intracellular resistivity and in determination of intracellular water a combination of both. (paper)

  4. Origins, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Analytical Methods and Safety of Cortex Moutan (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortex Moutan (CM, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, is commonly used for treating various diseases in China and other eastern Asian countries. Recorded in Pharmacopeias of several countries, CM is now drawing increasing attention and under extensive studies in various fields. Phytochemical studies indicate that CM contains many valuable secondary metabolites, such as monoterpene glycosides and phenols. Ample evidence from pharmacological researches suggest that CM has a wide spectrum of activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular protective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, various analytical methods were established for the quality evaluation and safety control of CM. This review synopsizes updated information concerning the origins, phytochemistry, pharmacology, analytical method and safety of CM, aiming to provide favorable references for modern CM research and application. In conclusion, continuing pharmacological investigations concerning CM should be conducted to unravel its pharmacological mechanisms. Further researches are necessary to obtain comprehensive and applicable analytical approach for quality evaluation and establish harmonized criteria of CM.

  5. THE DETERMINATION OF BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS BY ORIGINAL UV- AND SECOND DERIVATIVE UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY, POTENTIOMETRIC AND CONDUCTOMETRIC METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu YENİCELİ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Spectrophotometric, potentiometric and conductometric methods are developed for the determination of bupropion hydrochloride (BLIP in pharmaceutical tablets. For the first method, original UV-spectrophotometry, 252 nm was determined as the optimum wavelength and used for the determinations. For the other method, second derivative UV spectrophotometry, the absorbances were measured at 217.4 and 221.8 nm and the distance between these extremum values was determined according to peak to peak method. Two spectrophotometric methods were validated over the concentration range of 5.72 - 20.03 ug/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation values of original UV-spectrophotometry were 0.75 ug/mL and 2.28 jug/mL. Also, these parameters were determined as 0.23 ug/mL and 0.68 ug/mL respectively, for the second derivative UV spectrophotometry. Developed methods were fully validated and the applicability of the methods for the determination of BUP in pharmaceuticals were demonstrated. Also, simple potentiometric and conductometric methods were developed and the applicability of these methods were demonstrated. The results of four analytical methods were compared with ANOVA test and no significant difference was found statistically. As a result, the developed methods could be proposed to the rutin content analysis to be simple, cheap, accurate, and precise

  6. Proposed waste form performance criteria and testing methods for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Fuhrmann, M.; Bowerman, B.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed waste form performance criteria and testing methods were developed as guidance in judging the suitability of solidified waste as a physico-chemical barrier to releases of radionuclides and RCRA regulated hazardous components. The criteria follow from the assumption that release of contaminants by leaching is the single most important property for judging the effectiveness of a waste form. A two-tier regimen is proposed. The first tier consists of a leach test designed to determine the net, forward leach rate of the solidified waste and a leach test required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second tier of tests is to determine if a set of stresses (i.e., radiation, freeze-thaw, wet-dry cycling) on the waste form adversely impacts its ability to retain contaminants and remain physically intact. In the absence of site-specific performance assessments (PA), two generic modeling exercises are described which were used to calculate proposed acceptable leachates

  7. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process

  8. Proposal of evaluation method of tsunami wave pressure using 2D depth-integrated flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimitsu, Tsuyoshi; Ooe, Kazuya; Kawasaki, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To design and construct land structures resistive to tsunami force, it is most essential to evaluate tsunami pressure quantitatively. The existing hydrostatic formula, in general, tended to underestimate tsunami wave pressure under the condition of inundation flow with large Froude number. Estimation method of tsunami pressure acting on a land structure was proposed using inundation depth and horizontal velocity at the front of the structure, which were calculated employing a 2D depth-integrated flow model based on the unstructured grid system. The comparison between the numerical and experimental results revealed that the proposed method could reasonably reproduce the vertical distribution of the maximum tsunami pressure as well as the time variation of the tsunami pressure exerting on the structure. (author)

  9. A proposed safety assurance method and its application to the fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, T.; Seki, Y.; Inabe, T.; Aoki, I.

    1995-01-01

    Importance categorization and hazard identification methods have been proposed for a fusion experimental reactor. A parameter, the system index, is introduced in the categorization method. The relative importance of systems with safety functions can be classified by the largeness of the system index and whether or not the system acts as a boundary for radioactive materials. This categorization can be used as the basic principle in determining structure design assessment, seismic design criteria etc. For the hazard identification the system time energy matrix is proposed, where the time and spatial distributions of hazard energies are used. This approach is formulated more systematically than an ad-hoc identification of hazard events and it is useful to select design basis events which are employed in the assessment of safety designs. (orig.)

  10. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  11. Proposal of Constraints Analysis Method Based on Network Model for Task Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Tomoe; Sato, Tatsuhiro; Morita, Toyohisa; Sasaki, Toshiro

    Deregulation has been accelerating several activities toward reengineering business processes, such as railway through service and modal shift in logistics. Making those activities successful, business entities have to regulate new business rules or know-how (we call them ‘constraints’). According to the new constraints, they need to manage business resources such as instruments, materials, workers and so on. In this paper, we propose a constraint analysis method to define constraints for task planning of the new business processes. To visualize each constraint's influence on planning, we propose a network model which represents allocation relations between tasks and resources. The network can also represent task ordering relations and resource grouping relations. The proposed method formalizes the way of defining constraints manually as repeatedly checking the network structure and finding conflicts between constraints. Being applied to crew scheduling problems shows that the method can adequately represent and define constraints of some task planning problems with the following fundamental features, (1) specifying work pattern to some resources, (2) restricting the number of resources for some works, (3) requiring multiple resources for some works, (4) prior allocation of some resources to some works and (5) considering the workload balance between resources.

  12. Comparison among four proposed direct blood culture microbial identification methods using MALDI-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Bazzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry facilitates rapid and accurate identification of pathogens, which is critical for sepsis patients.In this study, we assessed the accuracy in identification of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, except for Streptococcus viridans, using four rapid blood culture methods with Vitek MALDI-TOF-MS. We compared our proposed lysis centrifugation followed by washing and 30% acetic acid treatment method (method 2 with two other lysis centrifugation methods (washing and 30% formic acid treatment (method 1; 100% ethanol treatment (method 3, and picking colonies from 90 to 180 min subculture plates (method 4. Methods 1 and 2 identified all organisms down to species level with 100% accuracy, except for Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. The latter two were identified to genus level with 100% accuracy. Each method exhibited excellent accuracy and precision in terms of identification to genus level with certain limitations. Keywords: MALDI-TOF, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, Sepsis, Blood culture

  13. Comparison among four proposed direct blood culture microbial identification methods using MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; El Edaily, Zeyad; John, Susan; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry facilitates rapid and accurate identification of pathogens, which is critical for sepsis patients. In this study, we assessed the accuracy in identification of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, except for Streptococcus viridans, using four rapid blood culture methods with Vitek MALDI-TOF-MS. We compared our proposed lysis centrifugation followed by washing and 30% acetic acid treatment method (method 2) with two other lysis centrifugation methods (washing and 30% formic acid treatment (method 1); 100% ethanol treatment (method 3)), and picking colonies from 90 to 180min subculture plates (method 4). Methods 1 and 2 identified all organisms down to species level with 100% accuracy, except for Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. The latter two were identified to genus level with 100% accuracy. Each method exhibited excellent accuracy and precision in terms of identification to genus level with certain limitations. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Proposal on the Quantitative Homogeneity Analysis Method of SEM Images for Material Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan Seo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a method to inspect the surface microstructure of materials. The SEM uses electron beams for imaging high magnifications of material surfaces; therefore, various chemical analyses can be performed from the SEM images. Therefore, it is widely used for the material inspection, chemical characteristic analysis, and biological analysis. For the nuclear criticality analysis field, it is an important parameter to check the homogeneity of the compound material for using it in the nuclear system. In our previous study, the SEM was tried to use for the homogeneity analysis of the materials. In this study, a quantitative homogeneity analysis method of SEM images is proposed for the material inspections. The method is based on the stochastic analysis method with the information of the grayscales of the SEM images.

  15. Proposal for outline of training and evaluation method for non-technical skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Akihiko; Shibue, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to systematize measures for improvement of emergency response capability focused on non-technical skills. As the results of investigation of some emergency training in nuclear power plant and referring to CRM training, following two issues were picked up. 1) Lack of practical training method for improvement of non-technical skills. 2) Lack of evaluation method of non-technical skills. Then, based on these 7 non-technical skills 'situational awareness' 'decision making' 'communication' 'teamworking' 'leadership' 'managing stress' 'coping with fatigue' are promotion factors to improve emergency response capability, we propose practical training method for each non-technical skill. Also we give example of behavioral markers as evaluation factor, and indicate approaches to introduce the evaluation method of non-technical skills. (author)

  16. A Proposal on the Quantitative Homogeneity Analysis Method of SEM Images for Material Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Chang Ho; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan Seo

    2015-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a method to inspect the surface microstructure of materials. The SEM uses electron beams for imaging high magnifications of material surfaces; therefore, various chemical analyses can be performed from the SEM images. Therefore, it is widely used for the material inspection, chemical characteristic analysis, and biological analysis. For the nuclear criticality analysis field, it is an important parameter to check the homogeneity of the compound material for using it in the nuclear system. In our previous study, the SEM was tried to use for the homogeneity analysis of the materials. In this study, a quantitative homogeneity analysis method of SEM images is proposed for the material inspections. The method is based on the stochastic analysis method with the information of the grayscales of the SEM images

  17. The detectability of the origin of the inferior phrenic artery by paging method on multidetector-row CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terayama, Koshi

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the ability to detect the origin of the inferior phrenic artery (IPA) by paging method on multidetector-row computed tomography (CT) angiography. In 104 patients who underwent multidetector-row CT, detectability of the origin of the IPA was assessed. In addition, in 30 patients in whom arteriographic study was performed, the IPA findings on multidetector-row CT were compared with those on arteriography. In 100 patients (96%) the origin of the right IPA was demonstrated with multidetector-row CT and in 93 patients (89%) the origin of the left IPA was demonstrated. CT angiographic findings concurred with arteriographic findings in all 30 patients (100%) who underwent arteriographic study. In conclusion, paging method on multidetector-row CT angiography provides valuable anatomical information regarding IPA. (author)

  18. European experiences of the proposed ASTM test method for crack arrest toughness of ferritic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutla, T.; Lidbury, D.P.G.; Ziebs, J.; Zimmermann, C.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed ASTM test method for measuring the crack arrest toughness of ferritic materials using wedge-loaded, side-grooved, compact specimens was applied to three steels: A514 bridge steel, A588 bridge steel, and A533B pressure vessel steel. Five sets of results from different laboratories are discussed here. Notches were prepared by spark erosion, although root radii varied from ∝0.1-1.5 mm. Although fast fractures were successfully initiated, arrest did not occur in a significant number of cases. The results showed no obvious dependence of crack arrest toughness, K a , (determined by a static analysis) on crack initiation toughness, K 0 . It was found that K a decreases markedly with increasing crack jump distance. A limited amount of further work on smaller specimens of the A533B steel showed that lower K a values tended to be recorded. It is concluded that a number of points relating to the proposed test method and notch preparation are worthy of further consideration. It is pointed out that the proposed validity criteria may screen out lower bound data. Nevertheless, for present practical purposes, K a values may be regarded as useful in providing an estimate of arrest toughness - although not necessarily a conservative estimate. (orig./HP)

  19. Origin and effective reduction of inversion domains in aluminum nitride grown by a sublimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigetoh, Keisuke; Horibuchi, Kayo; Nakamura, Daisuke

    2017-11-01

    Owing to the large differences in the chemical properties between Al and N polarities in aluminum nitride (AlN), the choice of the polar direction for crystal growth strongly affects not only the quality but also the shape (facet formation) of the grown crystal. In particular, N-polar (0 0 0 -1) has been considered to be a more preferable direction than Al-polar (0 0 0 1) for sublimation growth because compared to Al-polar (0 0 0 1), N-polar (0 0 0 -1) exhibits better stability at high growth rate (high supersaturation) conditions and enables easier lateral enlargement of the crystal. However, some critical growth conditions induce polarity inversion and hinder stable N-polar growth. Furthermore, the origin of the polarity inversion in AlN growth by the sublimation method is still unclear. To ensure stable N-polar growth without polarity inversion, the formation mechanism of the inversion domain during AlN sublimation growth must be elucidated. Therefore, herein, we demonstrate homoepitaxial growth on an N-polar seed and carefully investigate the obtained crystal that shows polarity inversion. Annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals that polarity is completely converted to the Al polarity via the formation of a 30 nm thick mixed polar layer (MPL) just above the seed. Moreover, three-dimensional atom probe tomography shows the segregation of the oxygen impurities in the MPL with a high concentration of about 3 atom%. Finally, by avoiding the incorporation of oxygen impurity into the crystal at the initial stage of the growth, we demonstrate an effective reduction (seven orders of magnitude) of the inversion domain boundary formation.

  20. Proposal for an Evaluation Method for the Performance of Work Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mouda; Mébarek, Djebabra; Wafa, Boulagouas; Makhlouf, Chati

    2016-12-01

    Noncompliance of operators with work procedures is a recurrent problem. This human behavior has been said to be situational and studied by many different approaches (ergonomic and others), which consider the noncompliance with work procedures to be obvious and seek to analyze its causes as well as consequences. The object of the proposed method is to solve this problem by focusing on the performance of work procedures and ensuring improved performance on a continuous basis. This study has multiple results: (1) assessment of the work procedures' performance by a multicriteria approach; (2) the use of a continuous improvement approach as a framework for the sustainability of the assessment method of work procedures' performance; and (3) adaptation of the Stop-Card as a facilitator support for continuous improvement of work procedures. The proposed method emphasizes to put in value the inputs of continuous improvement of the work procedures in relation with the conventional approaches which adopt the obvious evidence of the noncompliance to the working procedures and seek to analyze the cause-effect relationships related to this unacceptable phenomenon, especially in strategic industry.

  1. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A proposed theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-01-01

    In order to compare existing usability data to ideal goals or to that for other products, usability practitioners have tried to develop a framework for deriving an integrated metric. However, most current usability methods with this aim rely heavily on human judgment about the various attributes of a product, but often fail to take into account of the inherent uncertainties in these judgments in the evaluation process. This paper presents a universal method of usability evaluation by combining the analytic hierarchical process (AHP) and the fuzzy evaluation method. By integrating multiple sources of uncertain information during product usability evaluation, the method proposed here aims to derive an index that is structured hierarchically in terms of the three usability components of effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction of a product. With consideration of the theoretical basis of fuzzy evaluation, a two-layer comprehensive evaluation index was first constructed. After the membership functions were determined by an expert panel, the evaluation appraisals were computed by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation technique model to characterize fuzzy human judgments. Then with the use of AHP, the weights of usability components were elicited from these experts. Compared to traditional usability evaluation methods, the major strength of the fuzzy method is that it captures the fuzziness and uncertainties in human judgments and provides an integrated framework that combines the vague judgments from multiple stages of a product evaluation process.

  2. Analysis of fuel using the Direct LSC method determination of bio-originated fuel in the presence of quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Charles G.; Wright, Cherylyn W.; Morley, Shannon M.; Wright, Bob W.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a modified version of the Direct LSC method to correct for quenching effect was investigated for the determination of bio-originated fuel content in fuel samples produced from multiple biological starting materials. The modified method was found to be accurate in determining the percent bio-originated fuel to within 5% of the actual value for samples with quenching effects ≤43%. Finally, analysis of highly quenched samples was possible when diluted with the exception of one sample with a 100% quenching effect.

  3. The clinically-integrated randomized trial: proposed novel method for conducting large trials at low cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scardino Peter T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Randomized controlled trials provide the best method of determining which of two comparable treatments is preferable. Unfortunately, contemporary randomized trials have become increasingly expensive, complex and burdened by regulation, so much so that many trials are of doubtful feasibility. Discussion Here we present a proposal for a novel, streamlined approach to randomized trials: the "clinically-integrated randomized trial". The key aspect of our methodology is that the clinical experience of the patient and doctor is virtually indistinguishable whether or not the patient is randomized, primarily because outcome data are obtained from routine clinical data, or from short, web-based questionnaires. Integration of a randomized trial into routine clinical practice also implies that there should be an attempt to randomize every patient, a corollary of which is that eligibility criteria are minimized. The similar clinical experience of patients on- and off-study also entails that the marginal cost of putting an additional patient on trial is negligible. We propose examples of how the clinically-integrated randomized trial might be applied in four distinct areas of medicine: comparisons of surgical techniques, "me too" drugs, rare diseases and lifestyle interventions. Barriers to implementing clinically-integrated randomized trials are discussed. Conclusion The proposed clinically-integrated randomized trial may allow us to enlarge dramatically the number of clinical questions that can be addressed by randomization.

  4. Proposed waste form performance criteria and testing methods for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Fuhrmann, M.; Bowerman, B.; Bates, S.; Peters, R.

    1994-08-01

    This document describes proposed waste form performance criteria and testing method that could be used as guidance in judging viability of a waste form as a physico-chemical barrier to releases of radionuclides and RCRA regulated hazardous components. It is assumed that release of contaminants by leaching is the single most important property by which the effectiveness of a waste form is judged. A two-tier regimen is proposed. The first tier includes a leach test required by the Environmental Protection Agency and a leach test designed to determine the net forward leach rate for a variety of materials. The second tier of tests are to determine if a set of stresses (i.e., radiation, freeze-thaw, wet-dry cycling) on the waste form adversely impact its ability to retain contaminants and remain physically intact. It is recommended that the first tier tests be performed first to determine acceptability. Only on passing the given specifications for the leach tests should other tests be performed. In the absence of site-specific performance assessments (PA), two generic modeling exercises are described which were used to calculate proposed acceptable leach rates

  5. Gene set analysis: limitations in popular existing methods and proposed improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pashupati; Törönen, Petri; Leino, Yrjö; Holm, Liisa

    2014-10-01

    Gene set analysis is the analysis of a set of genes that collectively contribute to a biological process. Most popular gene set analysis methods are based on empirical P-value that requires large number of permutations. Despite numerous gene set analysis methods developed in the past decade, the most popular methods still suffer from serious limitations. We present a gene set analysis method (mGSZ) based on Gene Set Z-scoring function (GSZ) and asymptotic P-values. Asymptotic P-value calculation requires fewer permutations, and thus speeds up the gene set analysis process. We compare the GSZ-scoring function with seven popular gene set scoring functions and show that GSZ stands out as the best scoring function. In addition, we show improved performance of the GSA method when the max-mean statistics is replaced by the GSZ scoring function. We demonstrate the importance of both gene and sample permutations by showing the consequences in the absence of one or the other. A comparison of asymptotic and empirical methods of P-value estimation demonstrates a clear advantage of asymptotic P-value over empirical P-value. We show that mGSZ outperforms the state-of-the-art methods based on two different evaluations. We compared mGSZ results with permutation and rotation tests and show that rotation does not improve our asymptotic P-values. We also propose well-known asymptotic distribution models for three of the compared methods. mGSZ is available as R package from cran.r-project.org. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Proposal of Screening Method of Sleep Disordered Breathing Using Fiber Grating Vision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirooki; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Masato

    Every conventional respiration monitoring technique requires at least one sensor to be attached to the body of the subject during measurement, thereby imposing a sense of restraint that results in aversion against measurements that would last over consecutive days. To solve this problem, we developed a respiration monitoring system for sleepers, and it uses a fiber-grating vision sensor, which is a type of active image sensor to achieve non-contact respiration monitoring. In this paper, we verified the effectiveness of the system, and proposed screening method of the sleep disordered breathing. It was shown that our system could equivalently measure the respiration with thermistor and accelerograph. And, the respiratory condition of sleepers can be grasped by our screening method in one look, and it seems to be useful for the support of the screening of sleep disordered breathing.

  7. Proposal for a new detection method of substance abuse risk in Croatian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalovic Vorkapic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors of successful substance abuse treatment is the early start of the same treatment. Recent selection method for identification of Croatian adolescents in the substance abuse risk that has been using drug tests from urine samples, has been simple and exact on the one hand, but on the other, has been very rare and usually guided by the pressure of parents or the court. Besides, such method presented the source of legal and ethical questions. So, the proposal of application of standardized psychological tests during systematic medical exams of Croatian adolescents at the age range of 15-22 years could help with the early detection of those adolescents who were in the substance abuse risk or already had the developed addiction problem.

  8. Proposal and Implementation of a Robust Sensing Method for DVB-T Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunyi; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Harada, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a sensing method for TV signals of DVB-T standard to realize effective TV White Space (TVWS) Communication. In the TVWS technology trial organized by the Infocomm Development Authority (iDA) of Singapore, with regard to the sensing level and sensing time, detecting DVB-T signal at the level of -120dBm over an 8MHz channel with a sensing time below 1 second is required. To fulfill such a strict sensing requirement, we propose a smart sensing method which combines feature detection and energy detection (CFED), and is also characterized by using dynamic threshold selection (DTS) based on a threshold table to improve sensing robustness to noise uncertainty. The DTS based CFED (DTS-CFED) is evaluated by computer simulations and is also implemented into a hardware sensing prototype. The results show that the DTS-CFED achieves a detection probability above 0.9 for a target false alarm probability of 0.1 for DVB-T signals at the level of -120dBm over an 8MHz channel with the sensing time equals to 0.1 second.

  9. A Proposal of New Spherical Particle Modeling Method Based on Stochastic Sampling of Particle Locations in Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jea Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    To the high computational efficiency and user convenience, the implicit method had received attention; however, it is noted that the implicit method in the previous studies has low accuracy at high packing fraction. In this study, a new implicit method, which can be used at any packing fraction with high accuracy, is proposed. In this study, the implicit modeling method in the spherical particle distributed medium for using the MC simulation is proposed. A new concept in the spherical particle sampling was developed to solve the problems in the previous implicit methods. The sampling method was verified by simulating the sampling method in the infinite and finite medium. The results show that the particle implicit modeling with the proposed method was accurately performed in all packing fraction boundaries. It is expected that the proposed method can be efficiently utilized for the spherical particle distributed mediums, which are the fusion reactor blanket, VHTR reactors, and shielding analysis.

  10. Disintegration of sublingual tablets: proposal for a validated test method and acceptance criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weda, M; van Riet-Nales, D A; van Aalst, P; de Kaste, D; Lekkerkerker, J F F

    2006-12-01

    In the Netherlands the market share of isosorbide dinitrate 5 mg sublingual tablets is dominated by 2 products (A and B). In the last few years complaints have been received from health care professionals on product B. During patient use the disintegration of the tablet was reported to be slow and/or incomplete, and ineffectiveness was experienced. In the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) no requirement is present for the disintegration time of sublingual tablets. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro disintegration time of products A and B, and to establish a suitable test method and acceptance criterion. A and B were tested with the Ph. Eur. method described in the monograph on disintegration of tablets and capsules as well as with 3 modified tests using the same Ph. Eur. apparatus, but without movement of the basket-rack assembly. In modified test 1 and modified test 2 water was used as medium (900 ml and 50 ml respectively), whereas in modified test 3 artificial saliva was used (50 ml). In addition, disintegration was tested in Nessler tubes with 0.5 and 2 ml of water. Finally, the Ph. Eur. method was also applied to other sublingual tablets with other drug substances on the Dutch market. With modified test 3 no disintegration could be achieved within 20 min. With the Ph. Eur. method and modified tests 1 and 2 product A and B differed significantly (p disintegration times. These 3 methods were capable of discriminating between products and between batches. The time measured with the Ph. Eur. method was significantly lower compared to modified tests 1 and 2 (p tablets the disintegration time should be tested. The Ph. Eur. method is considered suitable for this test. In view of the products currently on the market and taking into consideration requirements in the United States Pharmacopeia and Japanese Pharmacopoeia, an acceptance criterion of not more than 2 min is proposed.

  11. Proposed method to calculate FRMAC intervention levels for the assessment of radiologically contaminated food and comparison of the proposed method to the U.S. FDA's method to calculate derived intervention levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Terrence D.; Hunt, Brian D.

    2014-02-01

    This report reviews the method recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for calculating Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) and identifies potential improvements to the DIL calculation method to support more accurate ingestion pathway analyses and protective action decisions. Further, this report proposes an alternate method for use by the Federal Emergency Radiological Assessment Center (FRMAC) to calculate FRMAC Intervention Levels (FILs). The default approach of the FRMAC during an emergency response is to use the FDA recommended methods. However, FRMAC recommends implementing the FIL method because we believe it to be more technically accurate. FRMAC will only implement the FIL method when approved by the FDA representative on the Federal Advisory Team for Environment, Food, and Health.

  12. Stable isotope fingerprinting: a novel method for identifying plant, fungal, or bacterial origins of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Larsen; D. Lee Taylor; Mary Beth Leigh; Diane M. O' Brien

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids play an important role in ecology as essential nutrients for animals and as currencies in symbiotic associations. Here we present a new approach to tracing the origins of amino acids by identifying unique patterns of carbon isotope signatures generated by amino acid synthesis in plants, fungi, and bacteria ("13C fingerprints...

  13. Proposal for a Five-Step Method to Elicit Expert Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duco Veen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elicitation is a commonly used tool to extract viable information from experts. The information that is held by the expert is extracted and a probabilistic representation of this knowledge is constructed. A promising avenue in psychological research is to incorporated experts’ prior knowledge in the statistical analysis. Systematic reviews on elicitation literature however suggest that it might be inappropriate to directly obtain distributional representations from experts. The literature qualifies experts’ performance on estimating elements of a distribution as unsatisfactory, thus reliably specifying the essential elements of the parameters of interest in one elicitation step seems implausible. Providing feedback within the elicitation process can enhance the quality of the elicitation and interactive software can be used to facilitate the feedback. Therefore, we propose to decompose the elicitation procedure into smaller steps with adjustable outcomes. We represent the tacit knowledge of experts as a location parameter and their uncertainty concerning this knowledge by a scale and shape parameter. Using a feedback procedure, experts can accept the representation of their beliefs or adjust their input. We propose a Five-Step Method which consists of (1 Eliciting the location parameter using the trial roulette method. (2 Provide feedback on the location parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (3 Elicit the scale and shape parameter. (4 Provide feedback on the scale and shape parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (5 Use the elicited and calibrated probability distribution in a statistical analysis and update it with data or to compute a prior-data conflict within a Bayesian framework. User feasibility and internal validity for the Five-Step Method are investigated using three elicitation studies.

  14. Development and validation of an SPE HG-AAS method for determination of inorganic arsenic in samples of marine origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a novel method for the quantitative determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in food and feed of marine origin. The samples were subjected to microwave-assisted extraction using diluted hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide, which solubilised the analytes and oxidised...

  15. A Method for Proposing Valued-Adding Attributes in Customized Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia S. Hentschke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most emerging economies, there has been many incentives and high availability of funding for low-cost housing projects. This has encouraged product standardization and the application of mass production ideas, based on the assumption that this is the most effective strategy for reducing costs. However, the delivery of highly standardized housing units to customers with different needs, without considering their lifestyle and perception of value, often results in inadequate products. Mass customization has been pointed out as an effective strategy to improve value generation in low-cost housing projects, and to avoid waste caused by renovations done in dwellings soon after occupancy. However, one of the main challenges for the implementation of mass customization is the definition of a set of relevant options based on users’ perceived value. The aim of this paper is to propose a method for defining value adding attributes in customized housing projects, which can support decision-making in product development. The means-end chain theory was used as theoretical framework to connect product attributes and costumers’ values, through the application of the laddering technique. The method was tested in two house-building projects delivered by a company from Brazil. The main contribution of this method is to indicate the customization units that are most important for users along with the explanation of why those units are the most relevant ones.

  16. Proposal for a method to estimate nutrient shock effects in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Nuno F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plating methods are still the golden standard in microbiology; however, some studies have shown that these techniques can underestimate the microbial concentrations and diversity. A nutrient shock is one of the mechanisms proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this study, a tentative method to assess nutrient shock effects was tested. Findings To estimate the extent of nutrient shock effects, two strains isolated from tap water (Sphingomonas capsulata and Methylobacterium sp. and two culture collection strains (E. coli CECT 434 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 were exposed both to low and high nutrient conditions for different times and then placed in low nutrient medium (R2A and rich nutrient medium (TSA. The average improvement (A.I. of recovery between R2A and TSA for the different times was calculated to more simply assess the difference obtained in culturability between each medium. As expected, A.I. was higher when cells were plated after the exposition to water than when they were recovered from high-nutrient medium showing the existence of a nutrient shock for the diverse bacteria used. S. capsulata was the species most affected by this phenomenon. Conclusions This work provides a method to consistently determine the extent of nutrient shock effects on different microorganisms and hence quantify the ability of each species to deal with sudden increases in substrate concentration.

  17. Analytical methods used for the authentication of food of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ouissam; Zadravec, Manuela; Baeten, Vincent; Mikuš, Tomislav; Lešić, Tina; Vulić, Ana; Prpić, Jelena; Jemeršić, Lorena; Pleadin, Jelka

    2018-04-25

    Since adulteration can have serious consequences on human health, it affects market growth by destroying consumer confidence. Therefore, authentication of food is important for food processors, retailers and consumers, but also for regulatory authorities. However, a complex nature of food and an increase in types of adulterants make their detection difficult, so that food authentication often poses a challenge. This review focuses on analytical approaches to authentication of food of animal origin, with an emphasis put on determination of specific ingredients, geographical origin and adulteration by virtue of substitution. This review highlights a current overview of the application of target approaches in cases when the compound of interest is known and non-target approaches for screening issues. Papers cited herein mainly concern milk, cheese, meat and honey. Moreover, advantages, disadvantages as well as challenges regarding the use of both approaches in official food control but also in food industry are investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proposal of adaptive human interface and study of interface evaluation method for plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Kubota, Ryuji.

    1994-01-01

    In this report, a new concept of human interface adaptive to plant operators' mental model, cognitive process and psychological state which change with time is proposed. It is composed of a function to determine information which should be indicated to operators based on the plant situation, a function to estimate operators' internal conditions, and a function to arrange the information amount, position, timing, form etc. based on their conditions. The method to evaluate the fitness of the interface by using the analysis results based on cognitive science, ergonomics, psychology and physiology is developed to achieve such an interface. Fundamental physiological experiments have been performed. Stress and workload can be identified by the ratio of the power average of the α wave fraction of a brain wave and be distinguished by the ratio of the standard deviation of the R-R interval in test and at rest, in the case of low stress such as mouse operation, calculation and walking. (author)

  19. Proposal of adaptive human interface and study of interface evaluation method for plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujita, Hiroshi [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Energy Research Lab.; Kubota, Ryuji

    1994-07-01

    In this report, a new concept of human interface adaptive to plant operators' mental model, cognitive process and psychological state which change with time is proposed. It is composed of a function to determine information which should be indicated to operators based on the plant situation, a function to estimate operators' internal conditions, and a function to arrange the information amount, position, timing, form etc. based on their conditions. The method to evaluate the fitness of the interface by using the analysis results based on cognitive science, ergonomics, psychology and physiology is developed to achieve such an interface. Fundamental physiological experiments have been performed. Stress and workload can be identified by the ratio of the power average of the [alpha] wave fraction of a brain wave and be distinguished by the ratio of the standard deviation of the R-R interval in test and at rest, in the case of low stress such as mouse operation, calculation and walking. (author).

  20. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses of an adenovirus isolated from a corn snake (Elaphe guttata) imply a common origin with members of the proposed new genus Atadenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Szilvia L; Benko, Mária; Elo, Péter; Ursu, Krisztina; Dán, Adám; Ahne, Winfried; Harrach, Balázs

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 60% of the genome of an adenovirus isolated from a corn snake (Elaphe guttata) was cloned and sequenced. The results of homology searches showed that the genes of the corn snake adenovirus (SnAdV-1) were closest to their counterparts in members of the recently proposed new genus ATADENOVIRUS: In phylogenetic analyses of the complete hexon and protease genes, SnAdV-1 indeed clustered together with the atadenoviruses. The characteristic features in the genome organization of SnAdV-1 included the presence of a gene homologous to that for protein p32K, the lack of structural proteins V and IX and the absence of homologues of the E1A and E3 regions. These characteristics are in accordance with the genus-defining markers of atadenoviruses. Comparison of the cleavage sites of the viral protease in core protein pVII also confirmed SnAdV-1 as a candidate member of the genus ATADENOVIRUS: Thus, the hypothesis on the possible reptilian origin of atadenoviruses (Harrach, Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 48, 484-490, 2000) seems to be supported. However, the base composition of DNA sequence (>18 kb) determined from the SnAdV-1 genome showed an equilibrated GC content of 51%, which is unusual for an atadenovirus.

  1. A proposal on alternative sampling-based modeling method of spherical particles in stochastic media for Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Lee, Jae Yong; KIm, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jae Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Chord length sampling method in Monte Carlo simulations is a method used to model spherical particles with random sampling technique in a stochastic media. It has received attention due to the high calculation efficiency as well as user convenience; however, a technical issue regarding boundary effect has been noted. In this study, after analyzing the distribution characteristics of spherical particles using an explicit method, an alternative chord length sampling method is proposed. In addition, for modeling in finite media, a correction method of the boundary effect is proposed. Using the proposed method, sample probability distributions and relative errors were estimated and compared with those calculated by the explicit method. The results show that the reconstruction ability and modeling accuracy of the particle probability distribution with the proposed method were considerably high. Also, from the local packing fraction results, the proposed method can successfully solve the boundary effect problem. It is expected that the proposed method can contribute to the increasing of the modeling accuracy in stochastic media.

  2. A proposal on alternative sampling-based modeling method of spherical particles in stochastic media for Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Lee, Jae Yong; KIm, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung; Noh, Jae Man

    2015-01-01

    Chord length sampling method in Monte Carlo simulations is a method used to model spherical particles with random sampling technique in a stochastic media. It has received attention due to the high calculation efficiency as well as user convenience; however, a technical issue regarding boundary effect has been noted. In this study, after analyzing the distribution characteristics of spherical particles using an explicit method, an alternative chord length sampling method is proposed. In addition, for modeling in finite media, a correction method of the boundary effect is proposed. Using the proposed method, sample probability distributions and relative errors were estimated and compared with those calculated by the explicit method. The results show that the reconstruction ability and modeling accuracy of the particle probability distribution with the proposed method were considerably high. Also, from the local packing fraction results, the proposed method can successfully solve the boundary effect problem. It is expected that the proposed method can contribute to the increasing of the modeling accuracy in stochastic media

  3. Proposed Suitable Methods to Detect Transient Regime Switching to Improve Power Quality with Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Safaee Kuchaksaraee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of electrical energy and the use of non-linear loads that create transient regime states in distribution networks is increasing day by day. This is the only reason due to which the analysis of power quality for energy sustainability in power networks has become more important. Transients are often created by energy injection through switching or lightning and make changes in voltage and nominal current. Sudden increase or decrease in voltage or current makes characteristics of the transient regime. This paper shed some lights on the capacitor bank switching, which is one of the main causes for oscillatory transient regime states in the distribution network, using wavelet transform. The identification of the switching current of capacitor bank and the internal fault current of the transformer to prevent the unnecessary outage of the differential relay, it propose a new smart method. The accurate performance of this method is shown by simulation in EMTP and MATLAB (matrix laboratory software.

  4. Proposed method to produce a highly polarized e+ beam for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okugi, Toshiyuki; Chiba, Masami; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    1996-01-01

    We propose a method to produce a spin-polarized e + beam using e + e - pair-creation by circularly polarized photons. Assuming Compton scattering of an unpolarized e - beam and circularly polarized laser light, scattered γ-rays at the high end of the energy spectrum are also circularly polarized. If those γ-rays are utilized to create e ± pairs on a thin target, the spin-polarization is preserved for e + 's at the high end of their energy spectrum. By using the injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility at KEK and a commercially available Nd:YAG pulse laser, we can expect about 10 5 polarized e + 's per second with a degree of polarization of 80% and a kinetic energy of 35-80 MeV. The apparatus for creation and measurement of polarized e + 's is being constructed. We present new idea for possible application of our method to future linear colliders by utilizing a high-power CO 2 laser. (author)

  5. A calibration method for proposed XRF measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherase, Mihai R; Fleming, David E B

    2011-01-01

    A calibration method for proposed x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings is demonstrated. Phantom nail clippings were produced from a whole nail phantom (0.7 mm thickness, 25 x 25 mm 2 area) and contained equal concentrations of arsenic and selenium ranging from 0 to 20 μg g -1 in increments of 5 μg g -1 . The phantom nail clippings were then grouped in samples of five different masses: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg for each concentration. Experimental x-ray spectra were acquired for each of the sample masses using a portable x-ray tube and a detector unit. Calibration lines (XRF signal in a number of counts versus stoichiometric elemental concentration) were produced for each of the two elements. A semi-empirical relationship between the mass of the nail phantoms (m) and the slope of the calibration line (s) was determined separately for arsenic and selenium. Using this calibration method, one can estimate elemental concentrations and their uncertainties from the XRF spectra of human nail clippings. (note)

  6. Proposed method for reconstructing velocity profiles using a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollár, László E; Lucas, Gary P; Zhang, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    An analytical method is developed for the reconstruction of velocity profiles using measured potential distributions obtained around the boundary of a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM). The method is based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and is implemented in Matlab. The method assumes the velocity profile in a section of a pipe as a superposition of polynomials up to sixth order. Each polynomial component is defined along a specific direction in the plane of the pipe section. For a potential distribution obtained in a uniform magnetic field, this direction is not unique for quadratic and higher-order components; thus, multiple possible solutions exist for the reconstructed velocity profile. A procedure for choosing the optimum velocity profile is proposed. It is applicable for single-phase or two-phase flows, and requires measurement of the potential distribution in a non-uniform magnetic field. The potential distribution in this non-uniform magnetic field is also calculated for the possible solutions using weight values. Then, the velocity profile with the calculated potential distribution which is closest to the measured one provides the optimum solution. The reliability of the method is first demonstrated by reconstructing an artificial velocity profile defined by polynomial functions. Next, velocity profiles in different two-phase flows, based on results from the literature, are used to define the input velocity fields. In all cases, COMSOL Multiphysics is used to model the physical specifications of the EMFM and to simulate the measurements; thus, COMSOL simulations produce the potential distributions on the internal circumference of the flow pipe. These potential distributions serve as inputs for the analytical method. The reconstructed velocity profiles show satisfactory agreement with the input velocity profiles. The method described in this paper is most suitable for stratified flows and is not applicable to axisymmetric flows in

  7. Electrophoresis characterisation of protein as a method to establish the entomological origin of stingless bee honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón-Sierra, Jesús Manuel; Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; de la Luz Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth

    2015-09-15

    Increasing production of stingless-bee honey and the prospect of broader marker for natural and organic products indicate the need to establish parameters to determinate the entomological origin and authenticity of honey. In this research, honeys of Apis mellifera, Melipona beecheii and Trigona spp. were collected in Yucatan, Mexico. Stingless-bee honeys contained more water and less total sugars and reducing sugars. SDS-PAGE patterns show distinctive bands for each kind of honey. The SDS-PAGE pattern of A. mellifera proteins honey showed three bands with molecular weights between 10.2 and 74.8kDa, there were five proteins bands in M. beecheii honey with molecular weights between 6.1 and 97.0kDa and nine for Trigona spp. proteins between 9.3 and 86.7kDa. Conventional physicochemical parameters along with electrophoresis profiles of stingless-bee honeys proteins could be an alternative for determination of entomological origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Automating Construction of Machine Learning Models With Clinical Big Data: Proposal Rationale and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Stone, Bryan L; Johnson, Michael D; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B; Mooney, Sean D; Sheng, Xiaoming; Haug, Peter J; Nkoy, Flory L

    2017-08-29

    To improve health outcomes and cut health care costs, we often need to conduct prediction/classification using large clinical datasets (aka, clinical big data), for example, to identify high-risk patients for preventive interventions. Machine learning has been proposed as a key technology for doing this. Machine learning has won most data science competitions and could support many clinical activities, yet only 15% of hospitals use it for even limited purposes. Despite familiarity with data, health care researchers often lack machine learning expertise to directly use clinical big data, creating a hurdle in realizing value from their data. Health care researchers can work with data scientists with deep machine learning knowledge, but it takes time and effort for both parties to communicate effectively. Facing a shortage in the United States of data scientists and hiring competition from companies with deep pockets, health care systems have difficulty recruiting data scientists. Building and generalizing a machine learning model often requires hundreds to thousands of manual iterations by data scientists to select the following: (1) hyper-parameter values and complex algorithms that greatly affect model accuracy and (2) operators and periods for temporally aggregating clinical attributes (eg, whether a patient's weight kept rising in the past year). This process becomes infeasible with limited budgets. This study's goal is to enable health care researchers to directly use clinical big data, make machine learning feasible with limited budgets and data scientist resources, and realize value from data. This study will allow us to achieve the following: (1) finish developing the new software, Automated Machine Learning (Auto-ML), to automate model selection for machine learning with clinical big data and validate Auto-ML on seven benchmark modeling problems of clinical importance; (2) apply Auto-ML and novel methodology to two new modeling problems crucial for care

  9. Review of Dercum’s disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Emma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition and clinical picture We propose the minimal definition of Dercum’s disease to be generalised overweight or obesity in combination with painful adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercum’s disease include fatty deposits, easy bruisability, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, depression, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, weakness and joint aches. Classification We suggest that Dercum’s disease is classified into: I. Generalised diffuse form A form with diffusely widespread painful adipose tissue without clear lipomas, II. Generalised nodular form - a form with general pain in adipose tissue and intense pain in and around multiple lipomas, and III. Localised nodular form - a form with pain in and around multiple lipomas IV. Juxtaarticular form - a form with solitary deposits of excess fat for example at the medial aspect of the knee. Epidemiology Dercum’s disease most commonly appears between the ages of 35 and 50 years and is five to thirty times more common in women than in men. The prevalence of Dercum’s disease has not yet been exactly established. Aetiology Proposed, but unconfirmed aetiologies include: nervous system dysfunction, mechanical pressure on nerves, adipose tissue dysfunction and trauma. Diagnosis and diagnostic methods Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and should be made by systematic physical examination and thorough exclusion of differential diagnoses. Advisably, the diagnosis should be made by a physician with a broad experience of patients with painful conditions and knowledge of family medicine, internal medicine or pain management. The diagnosis should only be made when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnoses include: fibromyalgia, lipoedema, panniculitis, endocrine disorders, primary psychiatric disorders, multiple symmetric lipomatosis, familial

  10. Origin identification for Cantona, Puebla, obsidians by the analysis method of neutron activation (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez N, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    There are tests that most of the obsidian worked in the workshops of Cantona, Puebla, is coming from the mineral deposits of Oyameles-Zaragoza, but also has been detected obsidian that macroscopically belongs to other mineral deposits. The present work has as purpose to determine the provenance of an obsidian sample obtained in the Cantona Site to know if there was the presence of obsidian of other mineral deposits. For the study the neutron activation analysis was used to identify the presence of other deposits. An explanation on the treatment to the selected pieces is included, the preparation of the same ones for its irradiation in the nuclear reactor, the counting and statistical study of the results. Finally the results of the selected samples are presented, indicating their origin places, that time comes and the interpretation of the results is given. (Author)

  11. A proposed through-flow inverse method for the design of mixed-flow pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Joao Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    A through-flow (hub-to-shroud) truly inverse method is proposed and described. It uses an imposition of mean swirl, i.e., radius times mean tangential velocity, given throughout the meridional section of the turbomachine as an initial design specification. In the present implementation, it is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible, and irrotational at inlet and that the blades are supposed to have zero thickness. Only blade rows that impart to the fluid a constant work along the space are considered. An application of this procedure to design the rotor of a mixed-flow pump is described in detail. The strategy used to find a suitable mean swirl distribution and the other design inputs is also described. The final blade shape and pressure distributions on the blade surface are presented, showing that it is possible to obtain feasible designs using this technique. Another advantage of this technique is the fact that it does not require large amounts of CPU time.

  12. Restoring stream habitat connectivity: a proposed method for prioritizing the removal of resident fish passage barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanley, Jesse R; Wright, Jed; Diebel, Matthew; Fedora, Mark A; Soucy, Charles L

    2013-08-15

    Systematic methods for prioritizing the repair and removal of fish passage barriers, while growing of late, have hitherto focused almost exclusively on meeting the needs of migratory fish species (e.g., anadromous salmonids). An important but as of yet unaddressed issue is the development of new modeling approaches which are applicable to resident fish species habitat restoration programs. In this paper, we develop a budget constrained optimization model for deciding which barriers to repair or remove in order to maximize habitat availability for stream resident fish. Habitat availability at the local stream reach is determined based on the recently proposed C metric, which accounts for the amount, quality, distance and level of connectivity to different stream habitat types. We assess the computational performance of our model using geospatial barrier and stream data collected from the Pine-Popple Watershed, located in northeast Wisconsin (USA). The optimization model is found to be an efficient and practical decision support tool. Optimal solutions, which are useful in informing basin-wide restoration planning efforts, can be generated on average in only a few minutes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How to identify partial exposures to ionizing radiation? Proposal for a cytogenetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, T.S.; Silva, E.B.; Pinto, M.M.P.L.; Amaral, A.; Lloyd, David

    2013-01-01

    In cases of radiological incidents or in occupational exposures to ionizing radiation, the majority of exposures are not related to the total body, but only partial. In this context, if the cytogenetic dosimetry is performed, there will be an underestimation of the absorbed dose due to the dilution of irradiated cells with non-irradiated cells. Considering the norms of NR 32 - Safety and Health in the Work of Health Service - which recommends cytogenetic dosimetry in the investigation of accidental exposures to ionizing radiations, it is necessary to develop of a tool to provide a better identification of partial exposures. With this aim, a partial body exposure was simulated by mixing, in vitro, 70% of blood irradiated with 4 Gy of X-rays with 30% of unirradiated blood from the same healthy donor. Aliquots of this mixture were cultured for 48 and 72 hours. Prolonging the time of cell culture from 48 to 72 hours produced no significant change in the yield of dicentrics. However, when only M1 (first division cells) were analyzed, the frequency of dicentrics per cell was increased. Prolonging the time of cell culture allowed cells in mitotic delay by irradiation to reach metaphase, and thus provides enough time for the damage to be visualized. The results of this research present the proposed method as an important tool in the investigation of exposed individuals, allowing associating the cytogenetic analysis with the real percentage of irradiated cells, contributing significantly for the decision making in terms of occupational health. (author)

  14. A Proposal of Client Application Architecture using Loosely Coupled Component Connection Method in Banking Branch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Harushi; Mori, Yuichi; Abe, Masahiro; Machida, Isamu; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Yoshie, Osamu

    Due to the deregulation of financial industry, the branches in banking industry need to shift to the sales-oriented bases from the operation-oriented bases. For corresponding to this movement, new banking branch systems are being developed. It is the main characteristics of new systems that we bring the form operations that have traditionally been performed at each branch into the centralized operation center for the purpose of rationalization and efficiency of the form operations. The branches treat a wide variety of forms. The forms can be described by common items in many cases, but the items include the different business logic and each form has the different relation among the items. And there is a need to develop the client application by user oneself. Consequently the challenge is to arrange the development environment that is high reusable, easy customizable and user developable. We propose a client application architecture that has a loosely coupled component connection method, and allows developing the applications by only describing the screen configurations and their transitions in XML documents. By adopting our architecture, we developed client applications of the centralized operation center for the latest banking branch system. Our experiments demonstrate good performances.

  15. Proposed algorithm to improve job shop production scheduling using ant colony optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpahan, Eka KA; Kristina, Sonna; Setiawan, Ari

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the determination of job shop production schedule on an automatic environment. On this particular environment, machines and material handling system are integrated and controlled by a computer center where schedule were created and then used to dictate the movement of parts and the operations at each machine. This setting is usually designed to have an unmanned production process for a specified interval time. We consider here parts with various operations requirement. Each operation requires specific cutting tools. These parts are to be scheduled on machines each having identical capability, meaning that each machine is equipped with a similar set of cutting tools therefore is capable of processing any operation. The availability of a particular machine to process a particular operation is determined by the remaining life time of its cutting tools. We proposed an algorithm based on the ant colony optimization method and embedded them on matlab software to generate production schedule which minimize the total processing time of the parts (makespan). We test the algorithm on data provided by real industry and the process shows a very short computation time. This contributes a lot to the flexibility and timelines targeted on an automatic environment.

  16. The origin of cholesterol in chyle demonstrated by nuclear indicator methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, M.

    1962-01-01

    In order to obtain information about the mechanism of the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, rats having a lymphatic abdominal fistula are used. The animals receive either 4- 14 C- cholesterol subcutaneously or orally, or the 1- 14 C acetate. The study of the specific radio-activities of the cholesterol in chyle, in serum, in the lining, and in the intestinal contents makes it possible to define the roles played by the transfer cholesterol from the serum, by the cholesterol synthesised intestinally, and by the absorption cholesterol, in the formations of the lymph and of the chylomicrons. A new theory is proposed for the mechanism of cholesterol absorption. (author) [fr

  17. Quasilinear theory of plasma turbulence. Origins, ideas, and evolution of the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakunin, O. G.

    2018-01-01

    The quasilinear method of describing weak plasma turbulence is one of the most important elements of current plasma physics research. Today, this method is not only a tool for solving individual problems but a full-fledged theory of general physical interest. The author's objective is to show how the early ideas of describing the wave-particle interactions in a plasma have evolved as a result of the rapid expansion of the research interests of turbulence and turbulent transport theorists.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF METHODS OF DNA EXTRACTION FROM PLANT ORIGIN OBJECTS AND FOODS BASED ON THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Dyshlyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last decades modern and highly efficient methods of determining the quality and safety of food products, based on the application of the latest scientific achievements were developed in the world. A special place is given to the methods based on achievements of molecular biology and genetics. At the present stage of development in the field of assessing the quality of raw materials and processed food products much attention is given to highly accurate, sensitive and specific research methods, the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR occupying a leading place among them. PCR is a sophisticated method that simulates the natural DNA replication and allows to detect a single specific DNA molecule in the presence of millions of other molecules. The key point in the preparation of material for PCR is the extraction of nucleic acids. The low content of DNA in plant material and the high concentration of secondary metabolites complicate the process of extraction. The key solution to this problem is highly effective method of extraction, which allows to obtain the DNA of adequate quality and purity. Comparative analysis of methods for the extraction of nucleic acids from fruit raw materials and products based on them was carried out in the study. General analysis of the experimental data allowed us to determine the most efficient method for DNA extracting. In the comparative analysis it was found out that to extract DNA from plant raw materials and food products prepared on their basis it is the most suitable to use "Sorb-GMO-A" reactants kit (set. The approach described gives us a brilliant opportunity to obtain deoxyribonucleic acid proper quality and purity.

  19. Methods for estimating the site of origin of locoregional recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Due, A.K.; Vogelius, I.R.; Berthelsen, A.K.; Kristensen, C.A.; Specht, L. [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Radiation Oncology Section 3994; Aznar, M.C. [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Radiation Oncology Section 3994; Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Niels Bohr Institute; Bentzen, S.M. [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Radiation Oncology Section 3994; Wisconsin Univ., MD (United States). Depts. of Human Oncology and Medical Physics; Korreman, S.S. [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Niels Bohr Institute; Roskilde Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Science, Systems, and Models

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Methods to estimate the likely origin of recurrences after radiation therapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are compared. Methods and materials: A total of 25 patients meeting the following inclusion criteria were randomly selected: curatively intended intensity-modulated radiotherapy planned on a positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) scan during the period 2005-2009; squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx or larynx; complete clinical response followed by locoregional recurrence; and a CT scan at recurrence before any salvage therapy. Exclusion criteria were previous cancer in the area, surgery prior to radiotherapy, or a synchronous cancer. Three methods of estimating focal points of recurrence origin and two volume overlap methods assigning the recurrences to the most central target volumes encompassing at least 50% or 95% of the recurrence volumes were tested. Treatment planning and recurrence scans were rigid and deformable co-registered in order to transfer focal points to the treatment planning scan. Double determinations of all volumes, points, and co-registrations were made. Results: The volume overlap methods assigned the recurrences to significantly more peripheral target volumes than focal methods (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons of 95% overlap vs. focal methods, p < 0.028 for all comparisons of 50% overlap vs. focal methods). Repeated registrations of the same point had higher reproducibility with deformable registration than with rigid registration (median distance 0.31 vs. 0.35 cm, p = 0.015). No significant differences were observed among the focal methods. Conclusion: Significant differences between methods were found which may affect strategies to improve radiotherapy based on pattern of failure analyses. (orig.)

  20. Determination of Botanical Origin of Propolis from Monte Region of Argentina by Histological and Chemical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasa, Ana; Mercadoc, María I; Zampini, Iris C; Ponessa, Graciela I; Isla, María I

    2016-05-01

    Propolis production by honey bees is the result of a selective harvest of exudates from plants in the neighborhood of the hive. This product is used in Argentina as a food supplement and alternative medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the botanical origin of propolis from the arid regions of Monte of Argentina using rapid histochemical techniques and by comparison of TLC and HPLC-DAD chromatographic profiles with extract profiles obtained from Zuccagnia punctata, Larrea divaricata and Larrea cuneifolia, plant species that grow in the study area as a natural community named "jarillal". Microscopical analysis revealed the presence of several Z. punctata structures, such as multicellular trichomes, leaflets, stems and young leaves. Remarkable was the richness of the propolis in two bioactive chalcones, also present in Z. punctata resin; these compounds can be regarded as possible markers for propolis identification and justify its use as a dietary supplement, functional food and medicinal product. This study indicates that the source of resin used by honey bees to produce propolis in the Monte region of Argentina is only Z. punctata, a native shrub widespread in this phytogeographical region, while other more abundant species (L. divaricata and L. cuneifolia) in the region were not found, indicating that this propolis could be defined as a mono-resin, type-Zuccagnia.

  1. Passive Signals from Aggressive Methods: The Origin and Implications of Organic Material in a Carbonate Stromatolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, V.; Bailey, J.; Stamps, B. W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial activity can play a role in the construction of carbonate features like stromatolites and thrombolites, but determining whether microbes were directly or indirectly involved in the formation can be difficult—an endeavor that becomes more difficult as geologic time passes and organic signals degrade. In order to assess our ability to decipher the role of microbes in stromatolite formation, DNA (geologically short-lived) and alkanes (potentially geologically long-lived) were extracted and analyzed from finely-laminated Holocene carbonate stromatolites of Walker Lake, Nevada. The stromatolitic laminations were typically between 50 and 100 microns thick. The surrounding sediment and lake water was also sampled, for comparison. SSU rRNA gene sequencing suggests that a large percentage (25-40 % relative abundance) of the microbial community found within the stromatolite is comprised of ambient lake algae, not known to form stromatolite-building mats given their size vs. stromatolite lamination thickness, rather than the usual taxa associated with the formation of stromatolites. Other minor taxa were identified, including the bacterial families Cyanobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae, and Rhodobacteraceae. Mirroring the DNA results, the carbon isotopic compositions of the alkanes were largely indistinguishable from the limnic biomass dominated by lake algae. The results suggest that organic matter was passively incorporated into the carbonate structure from the lake as it accreted. Although evidence of life was abundant in the stromatolite, a direct role (builders) or even an indirect role (tenants) is difficult to establish, as the 16S/18S and lipid biomarkers appear to simply originate from the water column (squatters) and not from a unique microbial mat. In the absence of in situ analyses during the formation of the stromatolite, it may be difficult to disentangle the builders from the tenants and/or squatters based solely on molecular or organic geochemical data

  2. Proposing Some New Ecliptics in New Testament Studies Enabled by Digital Humanities-Based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Libby

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “Fragmentation” is a well-worn watchword in contemporary biblical studies. But is endless fragmentation across the traditional domains of epistemology, methodology and hermeneutics the inevitable future for the postmodern exercise of biblical scholarship? In our view, multiple factors mitigate against such a future, but two command our attention here. First, digital humanities itself, through its principled use of corpora, databases and computer-based methods, seems to be remarkably capable of producing findings with high levels of face validity (interpretive agreement across multiple hermeneutical perspectives and communities. Second, and perhaps more subversively, there is a substantial body of practitioners that, per Kearney, actively question postmodernity’s impress as the final port of call for philosophy. For these practitioners deconstruction has become both indispensable — by delegitimizing hegemonies — but, in its own way, metanarratival by stultifying all other iterative, dialectical and critical processes that have historically motivated scholarship. Sensing this impasse, Kearney (1987, pp. 43-45 proposes a reimagining that is not only critical but that also embraces ποίησις, the possibility of optimistic, creative work. Such a stance within digital humanities would affirm that poietic events emerge not only through frictions and fragmentation (e.g. Kinder and McPherson 2014, pp. xiii-xviii but also through commonalties and convergence. Our approach here will be to demonstrate such a reimagining, rather than to argue for it, using two worked examples in the Greek New Testament (GNT. Those examples – digital humanities-enabled papyrology and digital humanities-enabled statistical linguistics – demonstrate ways in which the data of the text itself can be used to interrogate our perspectives and suggest that our perspectives must remain ever open to such inquiries. We conclude with a call for digital humanities to

  3. A "conservative" method of thoracic wall dissection: a proposal for teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, Fabrizio; Brunone, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The common methods of dissection exposing the thoracic organs include crossing of the wall together with wide resection of its muscular planes. In order to preserve these structures, a little demolishing technique of the thoracic wall is proposed, entering the thoracic cavity without extensive resection of the pectoral muscles. This method is based on the fact that these muscles rise up from the wall, like a bridge connecting the costal plane with the upper limb, and that the pectoralis major shows a segmental constitution. SUPERIOR LIMIT: Resect the sternal manubrium transversely between the 1st and the 2nd rib. The incision is prolonged along the 1st intercostal space, separating the first sterno-costal segment of the pectoralis major from the second one, and involving the intercostal muscles as far as the medial margin of the pectoralis minor. This muscle must be raised up, and the transverse resection continued below its medial margin latero-medially along the 1st intercostal space, to rejoin the cut performed before. Then, the incision of the 1st intercostal space is prolonged below the lateral margin of the pectoralis minor, which must be kept raised up, medio-laterally as far as the anterior axillary line. INFERIOR LIMIT: It corresponds to the inferior border of the thoracic cage, resected from the xiphoid process to the anterior axillary line, together with the sterno-costal insertions of the diaphragm. Then, an incision of the sterno-pericardial ligaments and a median sternotomy from the xiphoid process to the transverse resection of the manubrium should be performed. LATERAL LIMIT: From the point of crossing of the anterior axillary line with the inferior limit, resect the ribs from the 10th to the 2nd one. The lateral part of the pectoralis major must be raised up, so that the costal resection may be continued below it. Then, at the lateral extremity of the superior incision, the first and the second sternocostal segment of the pectoralis major must be

  4. A proposed new method for the determination of the solar irradiance at EUV wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Uri; Doschek, G. A.; Seely, J. F.; Landi, E.; Dammasch, I.

    , 1.4x106 and 3x106 K. At the transition region (2x104 -2x105 K) where the structures are not isothermal the slopes of the emission measure vs. temperature stay the same independent of the solar activity. In our talk we will propose a variation to the EM method for the determination of the solar irradiance described above. The modified method will be based on line intensity calculations from the actual solar EM values at the above specified discrete temperatures. The EM in those temperatures could in principle be derived from solar observations spanning a fairly limited wavelengths range.

  5. Proposal for Reduction of Calibration Process in Reference to Trip Distribution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Tanczos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nowadays applied different macro models or parts ofthose, which describe the urban environment, can originate in afour-step modelling process. The paper focuses on the trip distributionprocess (the 2"d step because of its significant calibrationrequirements. Therefore, it is possible to make the entiremodelling process more reliable (dependent upon the reliabilityof the available databases .

  6. A Proposal on the Advanced Sampling Based Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Method for the Eigenvalue Uncertainty Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Song, Myung Sub; Shin, Chang Ho; Noh, Jae Man

    2014-01-01

    In using the perturbation theory, the uncertainty of the response can be estimated by a single transport simulation, and therefore it requires small computational load. However, it has a disadvantage that the computation methodology must be modified whenever estimating different response type such as multiplication factor, flux, or power distribution. Hence, it is suitable for analyzing few responses with lots of perturbed parameters. Statistical approach is a sampling based method which uses randomly sampled cross sections from covariance data for analyzing the uncertainty of the response. XSUSA is a code based on the statistical approach. The cross sections are only modified with the sampling based method; thus, general transport codes can be directly utilized for the S/U analysis without any code modifications. However, to calculate the uncertainty distribution from the result, code simulation should be enough repeated with randomly sampled cross sections. Therefore, this inefficiency is known as a disadvantage of the stochastic method. In this study, an advanced sampling method of the cross sections is proposed and verified to increase the estimation efficiency of the sampling based method. In this study, to increase the estimation efficiency of the sampling based S/U method, an advanced sampling and estimation method was proposed. The main feature of the proposed method is that the cross section averaged from each single sampled cross section is used. For the use of the proposed method, the validation was performed using the perturbation theory

  7. The radiation factor 'hot particles': origin, methods of investigation, characterization and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, Ts.; Vapirev, E.; Yanev, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of hot particles (HP) is reviewed chronologically following published data. The term appeared in the 50-s when HP have been found in fallout as a result of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. After the Chernobyl accident there is a growing interest in HP. In 1986 HP have been discovered in American nuclear power plants (NPP) and in 1992 some have been found at Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria as well. Detection and collection methods and different approaches for HP investigation are discussed. The direct and indirect risks from HP are described. It is concluded that the problem deserves further investigation and the discovery of HP inside NPP is of special interest

  8. The radiation factor `hot particles`: origin, methods of investigation, characterization and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonchev, Ts; Vapirev, E; Yanev, Y

    1994-12-31

    The problem of hot particles (HP) is reviewed chronologically following published data. The term appeared in the 50-s when HP have been found in fallout as a result of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. After the Chernobyl accident there is a growing interest in HP. In 1986 HP have been discovered in American nuclear power plants (NPP) and in 1992 some have been found at Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria as well. Detection and collection methods and different approaches for HP investigation are discussed. The direct and indirect risks from HP are described. It is concluded that the problem deserves further investigation and the discovery of HP inside NPP is of special interest.

  9. “Grammar-translation” method, a linguistic historic err or of perspective: origins, dynamics and inconsistencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Bonilla Carvajal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Grammar-Translation method is frequently referred to as the traditional ineffective approach par excellence. Such view is often justified by the claim that before the Audiolingual method oral performance in foreign language was not reached, and language classes were reduced to memorizing grammar rules and lists of vocabulary. Nevertheless, this opinion is derived from unproved claims, mainly made by misinformed authors for they offer no compelling empirical evidence to validate their restrictive descriptions where translation is shown as an invalid metacognitive strategy. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that Grammar-Translation is merely an arbitrary historic label, developed by methodologists and theoreticians to encompass the history of language teaching from 1790 through 1950. References to Grammar-Translation are critically reviewed to make evident they are biased inferences based on partial evidence to account for the existence of any such methodology. The assumption that Grammar-Translation did exist, and that it is the negative model of teaching practices that should be better avoided at all costs, might reflect an unconstructive and unfounded ideological interest of mainstream theoreticians and unsuspecting teachers.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of Polygoni Multiflori Radix of different geographical origins using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and multivariate chemometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR is increasingly being used not just as a traditional herbal medicine but also as a popular functional food. In this study, multivariate chemometric methods and mass spectrometry were combined to analyze the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC fingerprints of PMR from six different geographical origins. A chemometric strategy based on multivariate curve resolution–alternating least squares (MCR–ALS and three classification methods is proposed to analyze the UPLC fingerprints obtained. Common chromatographic problems, including the background contribution, baseline contribution, and peak overlap, were handled by the established MCR–ALS model. A total of 22 components were resolved. Moreover, relative species concentrations were obtained from the MCR–ALS model, which was used for multivariate classification analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA and Ward's method have been applied to classify 72 PMR samples from six different geographical regions. The PCA score plot showed that the PMR samples fell into four clusters, which related to the geographical location and climate of the source areas. The results were then corroborated by Ward's method. In addition, according to the variance-weighted distance between cluster centers obtained from Ward's method, five components were identified as the most significant variables (chemical markers for cluster discrimination. A counter-propagation artificial neural network has been applied to confirm and predict the effects of chemical markers on different samples. Finally, the five chemical markers were identified by UPLC–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Components 3, 12, 16, 18, and 19 were identified as 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside, emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, emodin-8-O-(6′-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, emodin, and physcion, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method can be applied for the

  11. Standardized patients in audiology: a proposal for a new method of evaluating clinical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Brooke Freeman; Bohnert, Carrie; Preminger, Jill E

    2013-05-01

    While accrediting organizations require AuD programs to provide evidence that their students are able to demonstrate knowledge and competencies in specific content areas, there are no generally accepted mechanisms for the assessment and the measurement of these proficiencies. We propose that AuD programs consider developing standardized patient (SP) cases in order to develop consistent summative assessment programs within and across universities. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for establishing SP programs to evaluate competencies in AuD students by detailing the history of SP cases and their use, developing a rationale for this method of assessment, and outlining the steps for writing and implementing SP cases. Literature review. SPs have been used to assess clinical competence in medical students for over 50 yr. The prevalence of SP assessment in allied health professions (e.g., dentistry, psychology, pharmacy) has increased over the last two decades but has only gained a limited following in audiology. SP assessment has been implemented in medical education using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, a multistation, timed exam that uses fictional cases to assess students' clinical abilities. To date, only one published report has been completed that evaluates the use of SPs to assess clinical abilities in audiology students. This article expands upon the work of English et al (2007) and their efforts to use SPs to evaluate counseling abilities. To this end, we describe the steps necessary to write a case, procedures to determine performance requirements, and the need to develop remediation plans. As an example, we include a case that we have developed in order to evaluate vestibular assessment and patient communication skills. Utilizing SP assessment in audiology education would provide useful means to evaluate competence in a uniform way. Future research is necessary to develop reliable and valid cases that may be implemented

  12. Development of an original active thermography method adapted to ITER plasma facing components control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durocher, A.; Vignal, N.; Escourbiac, F.; Farjon, J.L.; Schlosser, J. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Cismondi, F. [Toulon Univ., 83 - La Garde (France)

    2004-07-01

    Among all Non-Destructive Examinations (NDE), active infrared thermography is becoming recognised as a technique available today for improving quality control of many materials and structures involved in heat transfer. The infrared thermography allows to characterise the bond between two materials having different thermal physical properties. In order to increase the defect detection limit of the SATIR test bed, several possibilities have been evaluated to improve the infrared thermography inspection. The implementation in 2003 of a micro-bolometer camera and the improving of the thermo-signal process allowed to increase considerably the detection sensitivity of the SATIR facility. The quality, the spatial stability of infrared image and the detection of edge defect have been also improved. The coupling on the same test bed of SATIR method with a lock-in thermography will be evaluated in this paper. An improvement of the global reliability is expected by data merging produced by the two thermal excitation sources. A new enhanced facility named SATIRPACA has been designed for the full Non Destructive Examination of the High Heat Flux ITER components taking into account these main improvements. These systematic acceptance tests obviously need tools for quality control of critical parts. (authors)

  13. Pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis as a recycling method of waste CDs originating from polycarbonate and HIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonakou, E.V. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalogiannis, K.G.; Stephanidis, S.D. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Triantafyllidis, K.S. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Lappas, A.A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Achilias, D.S., E-mail: axilias@chem.auth.gr [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis is a powerful method for recycling of WEEEs. • Liquid products obtained from the pyrolysis of PC or HIPS found in waste CDs are very different. • Mainly phenols are obtained from pyrolysis PC based wastes while aromatics from HIPS. • Use of MgO catalyst increases the amount of phenols from CD recycling compared to ZSM-5. • Use of MgO or ZSM-5 catalysts reduces the amount of styrene recovered from HIPS. - Abstract: Pyrolysis appears to be a promising recycling process since it could convert the disposed polymers to hydrocarbon based fuels or various useful chemicals. In the current study, two model polymers found in WEEEs, namely polycarbonate (PC) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and their counterparts found in waste commercial Compact Discs (CDs) were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor. Both, thermal pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of two catalytic materials (basic MgO and acidic ZSM-5 zeolite) was performed for all four types of polymers. Results have shown significant recovery of the monomers and valuable chemicals (phenols in the case of PC and aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of HIPS), while catalysts seem to decrease the selectivity towards the monomers and enhance the selectivity towards other desirable compounds.

  14. Development of an original active thermography method adapted to ITER plasma facing components control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durocher, A.; Vignal, N.; Escourbiac, F.; Farjon, J.L.; Schlosser, J.; Cismondi, F.

    2004-01-01

    Among all Non-Destructive Examinations (NDE), active infrared thermography is becoming recognised as a technique available today for improving quality control of many materials and structures involved in heat transfer. The infrared thermography allows to characterise the bond between two materials having different thermal physical properties. In order to increase the defect detection limit of the SATIR test bed, several possibilities have been evaluated to improve the infrared thermography inspection. The implementation in 2003 of a micro-bolometer camera and the improving of the thermo-signal process allowed to increase considerably the detection sensitivity of the SATIR facility. The quality, the spatial stability of infrared image and the detection of edge defect have been also improved. The coupling on the same test bed of SATIR method with a lock-in thermography will be evaluated in this paper. An improvement of the global reliability is expected by data merging produced by the two thermal excitation sources. A new enhanced facility named SATIRPACA has been designed for the full Non Destructive Examination of the High Heat Flux ITER components taking into account these main improvements. These systematic acceptance tests obviously need tools for quality control of critical parts. (authors)

  15. The Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) project: origins, aims, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald M; Douglas, Clifford E; Beasley, John K

    2006-12-01

    Research on previously secret tobacco industry documents has grown substantially during the past decade, since these documents first became available as the result of private and governmental litigation and investigations by the US Congress and the US Food and Drug Administration. Complementary research on tobacco litigation testimony is now being conducted through the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) project. We obtained transcripts of depositions and trial testimony, deposition and trial exhibits, expert reports, and other litigation documents from law firms, court reporter firms, individual lawyers and witnesses, tobacco company websites, and other sources. As of 3 March 2006, the publicly available collection of DATTA (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) contained 4850 transcripts of depositions and trial testimony, including a total of about 820,000 transcript pages. Transcripts covered testimony from 1957 to 2005 (85% were for testimony from 1990 to 2005) given by more than 1500 witnesses in a total of 232 lawsuits. Twelve research teams were established to study the transcripts, with each team covering a particular topic (for example, the health consequences of tobacco use, addiction and pharmacology, tobacco advertising and promotion, tobacco-product design and manufacture, economic impact of tobacco use, youth initiation of tobacco use, and public understanding of the risks of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke). The teams used qualitative research methods to analyse the documents, and their initial findings are published throughout this journal supplement.

  16. Quantifying Dental Office-Originating Adverse Events: The Dental Practice Study Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi; Walji, Muhammad; Ramoni, Rachel; Rindal, Donald B; Worley, Donald; Hebballi, Nutan; Kumar, Krishna; van Strien, Claire; Chen, Mengxia; Navat-Pelli, Shaked; Liu, Hongchun; Etolue, Jini; Yansane, Alfa; Obadan-Udoh, Enihomo; Easterday, Casey; Enstad, Chris; Kane, Sheryl; Rush, William; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2017-12-05

    Preventable medical errors in hospital settings are the third leading cause of deaths in the United States. However, less is known about harm that occurs in patients in outpatient settings, where the majority of care is delivered. We do not know the likelihood that a patient sitting in a dentist chair will experience harm. Additionally, we do not know if patients of certain race, age, sex, or socioeconomic status disproportionately experience iatrogenic harm. We initiated the Dental Practice Study (DPS) with the aim of determining the frequency and types of adverse events (AEs) that occur in dentistry on the basis of retrospective chart audit. This article discusses the 6-month pilot phase of the DPS during which we explored the feasibility and efficiency of our multistaged review process to detect AEs. At sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively, 2 reviewers abstracted 21, 11, and 23 probable AEs, respectively, from the 100 patient charts audited per site. At site 2, a third reviewer audited the same 100 charts and found only 1 additional probable AE. Of the total 56 probable AEs (from 300 charts), the expert panel confirmed 9 AE cases. This equals 3 AEs per 100 patients per year. Patients who experienced an AE tended to be male and older and to have undergone more procedures within the study year. This article presents an overview of the DPS. It describes the methods used and summarizes the results of its pilot phase. To minimize threats to dental patient safety, a starting point is to understand their basic epidemiology, both in terms of their frequency and the extent to which they affect different populations.

  17. A Proposal of Product Development Collaboration Method Using User Support Information and its Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mitsuru; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Koizumi, Hisao

    As the market changes more rapidly and new products continue to get more complex and multifunctional, product development collaboration with competent partners and leading users is getting more important to come up with new products that are successful in the market in a timely manner. ECM (engineering chain management) and SCM (supply chain management) are supply-side approaches toward this collaboration. In this paper, we propose a demand-side approach toward product development collaboration with users based on the information gathered through user support interactions. The approach and methodology proposed here was applied to a real data set, and its effectiveness was verified.

  18. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus among coagulase positive staphylococci from animal origin based on conventional and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Velizarova Rusenova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus among other coagulase positive staphylococci from animal origin by using conventional methods (biochemical tests and latex agglutination and a molecular method, based on the nuc gene, as the gold standard and to assess the usefulness of these methods. For this purpose, total of 344 staphylococcal isolates were collected and analysed. A total of 156 isolates suspicious for S. aureus were detected by a conventional biochemical method – 88 from cows, 18 from goats, 7 from pigs, 17 from poultry, 7 from rabbits and 19 from dogs. The majority of S. aureus strains gave typical biochemical reactions with the exception of 30 (19.2% and 25 (16% that were VP negative and weak positive in fermenting mannitol, respectively. Twelve strains were found to be non-haemolytic (7.7% and four strains did not ferment trehalose (2.6%. Other staphylococci were identified as S. pseudintermedius (n = 103, S. hyicus (n = 23 and the rest were coagulase-negative staphylococci. Latex agglutination test resulted in rapid positive reactions with S. aureus with exception of 5 strains (3.2% from cow mastitis milk. Positive agglutination reactions were also established with S. pseudintermedius, and S. hyicus. PCR confirmed all strains that were preliminary identified as S. aureus by amplification of 270 bp fragment of nuc gene specific for this species. The atypical reactions in certain strains established in this study have shown that the precise detection of S. aureus from animal origin should be done by combination of conventional and molecular methods.

  19. Combining microscopy with spectroscopic and chemical methods for tracing the origin of atmospheric fallouts from mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navel, Aline; Uzu, Gaëlle; Spadini, Lorenzo [University Grenoble Alpes — LTHE UMR 5564–CNRS-INSU/UGA/INPG/IRD, 1025 rue de la Piscine, DU BP53 - 38041 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Sobanska, Sophie [LASIR, (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq CEDEX (France); Martins, Jean M.F., E-mail: jean.martins@yujf-grenoble.fr [University Grenoble Alpes — LTHE UMR 5564–CNRS-INSU/UGA/INPG/IRD, 1025 rue de la Piscine, DU BP53 - 38041 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Numerous ancient mines are left over without specific care for contaminated wastes. • Sources similarity makes the tracing of the origin of metallic fallouts challenging. • Physico-chemical fingerprints of all metal-source sites and fallouts were established. • Combining physical/chemical methods allowed discriminating polluted fallouts origin. • A Hierarchical cluster analysis permitted to identify the dominant particles source. - Abstract: Populations living close to mining sites are often exposed to important heavy metal concentrations, especially through atmospheric fallouts. Identifying the main sources of metal-rich particles remains a challenge because of the similarity of the particle signatures from the polluted sites. This work provides an original combination of physical and chemical methods to determine the main sources of airborne particles impacting inhabited zones. Raman microspectrometry (RMS), X-ray diffraction (DRX), morphology analyses by microscopy and chemical composition were assessed. Geochemical analysis allowed the identification of target and source areas; XRD and RMS analysis identified the main mineral phases in association with their metal content and speciation. The characterization of the dominant minerals was combined with particle morphology analysis to identify fallout sources. The complete description of dust morphologies permitted the successful determination of a fingerprint of each source site. The analysis of these chemical and morphological fingerprints allowed identification of the mine area as the main contributor of metal-rich particles impacting the inhabited zone. In addition to the identification of the main sources of airborne particles, this study will also permit to better define the extent of polluted zones requiring remediation or protection from eolian erosion inducing metal-rich atmospheric fallouts.

  20. Combining microscopy with spectroscopic and chemical methods for tracing the origin of atmospheric fallouts from mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navel, Aline; Uzu, Gaëlle; Spadini, Lorenzo; Sobanska, Sophie; Martins, Jean M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerous ancient mines are left over without specific care for contaminated wastes. • Sources similarity makes the tracing of the origin of metallic fallouts challenging. • Physico-chemical fingerprints of all metal-source sites and fallouts were established. • Combining physical/chemical methods allowed discriminating polluted fallouts origin. • A Hierarchical cluster analysis permitted to identify the dominant particles source. - Abstract: Populations living close to mining sites are often exposed to important heavy metal concentrations, especially through atmospheric fallouts. Identifying the main sources of metal-rich particles remains a challenge because of the similarity of the particle signatures from the polluted sites. This work provides an original combination of physical and chemical methods to determine the main sources of airborne particles impacting inhabited zones. Raman microspectrometry (RMS), X-ray diffraction (DRX), morphology analyses by microscopy and chemical composition were assessed. Geochemical analysis allowed the identification of target and source areas; XRD and RMS analysis identified the main mineral phases in association with their metal content and speciation. The characterization of the dominant minerals was combined with particle morphology analysis to identify fallout sources. The complete description of dust morphologies permitted the successful determination of a fingerprint of each source site. The analysis of these chemical and morphological fingerprints allowed identification of the mine area as the main contributor of metal-rich particles impacting the inhabited zone. In addition to the identification of the main sources of airborne particles, this study will also permit to better define the extent of polluted zones requiring remediation or protection from eolian erosion inducing metal-rich atmospheric fallouts.

  1. A Proposed Method for Improving the Performance of P-Type GaAs IMPATTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. El-Motaafy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A special waveform is proposed and assumed to be the optimum waveform for p-type GaAs IMPATTs. This waveform is deduced after careful and extensive study of the performance of these devices. The results presented here indicate the superiority of the performance of the IMPATTs driven by the proposed waveform over that obtained when the same IMPATTs are driven by the conventional sinusoidal waveform. These results are obtained using a full-scale computer simulation program that takes fully into account all the physical effects pertinent to IMPATT operation.  In this paper, it is indicated that the superiority of the proposed waveform is attributed to its ability to reduce the bad effects that usually degrade the IMPATT performance such as the space-charge effect and the drift-velocity dropping below saturation effect. The superiority is also attributed to the ability of the proposed waveform to improve the phase relationship between the terminal voltage and the induced current.Key Words: Computer-Aided Design, GaAs IMPATT, Microwave Engineering

  2. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  3. Origin-Independent Sum Over States Simulations of Magnetic and Electronic Circular Dichroism Spectra via the Localized Orbital/Local Origin Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Petr; Bouř, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2015), s. 723-730 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-03978S; GA ČR GAP208/11/0105 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200551205 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : density functional theory * electronic circular dichroism * magnetic circular dichroism * origin-dependence Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.648, year: 2015

  4. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity have a fetal origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Olaf Nielsen

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that greater preponderance of very small adipocytes, increased collagen infiltration and reduced subcutaneous lipid accumulation ability, as well as altered perirenal fat preferences for accumulation of C14:0 can have a fetal origin. Disturbance of normal (subcutaneous adipose tissue development may play a key role in linking fetal malnutrition to disease risk later in life.

  5. Near-infrared microscopic methods for the detection and quantification of processed by-products of animal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, O.; Fernández Pierna, J. A.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.

    2010-04-01

    Since the BSE crisis, researches concern mainly the detection, identification, and quantification of meat and bone meal with an important focus on the development of new analytical methods. Microscopic based spectroscopy methods (NIR microscopy - NIRM or/and NIR hyperspectral imaging) have been proposed as complementary methods to the official method; the optical microscopy. NIR spectroscopy offers the advantage of being rapid, accurate and independent of human analyst skills. The combination of an NIR detector and a microscope or a camera allows the collection of high quality spectra for small feed particles having a size larger than 50 μm. Several studies undertaken have demonstrated the clear potential of NIR microscopic methods for the detection of animal particles in both raw and sediment fractions. Samples are sieved and only the gross fraction (superior than 250 μm) is investigated. Proposed methodologies have been developed to assure, with an acceptable level of confidence (95%), the detection of at least one animal particle when a feed sample is adulterated at a level of 0.1%. NIRM and NIR hyperspectral imaging are running under accreditation ISO 17025 since 2005 at CRA-W. A quantitative NIRM approach has been developed in order to fulfill the new requirements of the European commission policies. The capacities of NIRM method have been improved; only the raw fraction is analyzed, both the gross and the fine fractions of the samples are considered, and the acquisition parameters are optimized (the aperture, the gap, and the composition of the animal feed). A mapping method for a faster collection of spectra is also developed. The aim of this work is to show the new advances in the analytical methods developed in the frame of the feed ban applied in Europe.

  6. Determining origin in a migratory marine vertebrate: a novel method to integrate stable isotopes and satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Wunder, Michael B.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bolten, Alan B.; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is a useful tool to track animal movements in both terrestrial and marine environments. These intrinsic markers are assimilated through the diet and may exhibit spatial gradients as a result of biogeochemical processes at the base of the food web. In the marine environment, maps to predict the spatial distribution of stable isotopes are limited, and thus determining geographic origin has been reliant upon integrating satellite telemetry and stable isotope data. Migratory sea turtles regularly move between foraging and reproductive areas. Whereas most nesting populations can be easily accessed and regularly monitored, little is known about the demographic trends in foraging populations. The purpose of the present study was to examine migration patterns of loggerhead nesting aggregations in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), where sea turtles have been historically understudied. Two methods of geographic assignment using stable isotope values in known-origin samples from satellite telemetry were compared: 1) a nominal approach through discriminant analysis and 2) a novel continuous-surface approach using bivariate carbon and nitrogen isoscapes (isotopic landscapes) developed for this study. Tissue samples for stable isotope analysis were obtained from 60 satellite-tracked individuals at five nesting beaches within the GoM. Both methodological approaches for assignment resulted in high accuracy of foraging area determination, though each has advantages and disadvantages. The nominal approach is more appropriate when defined boundaries are necessary, but up to 42% of the individuals could not be considered in this approach. All individuals can be included in the continuous-surface approach, and individual results can be aggregated to identify geographic hotspots of foraging area use, though the accuracy rate was lower than nominal assignment. The methodological validation provides a foundation for future sea turtle studies in the region to inexpensively

  7. Proposal on the mitigation methods of thermal stress near the sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masanori; Kasahara, Naoto

    2003-09-01

    A Reactor vessel of fast rector plants contains high temperature liquid sodium in its inside and its upper end is supported by a low temperature structures. Therefore, a significant temperature gradient will arise at the vessel wall near the sodium surface. For this reason, a large thermal stress will be generated around this part. To lower this stress and to protect the vessel, a number of methods have been applied the plants. Generally, these mitigation methods by protection equipments for thermal stress also have some problems such as, increase a mount of materials or to be complicate for control, hard to maintenance and so on. In this research, authors suggested another simple methods for thermal stress, and evaluated their effects using computer analysis. The results obtained in this research are as follows. Authors suggested one method, circulate high temperature gas around outside of the vessel and evaluated the effects of this method by analysis. In case of using this method, Sn (one of index values of design) value might be getting lower about 45%. Authors also suggested another method by setting up a heat transfer plate outside of the vessel and evaluated the effects of this method by analysis. Effects of this method depend on material of the plate. In case of using Carbon as material of plate, Sn value might be 27% lower and in case of using 12Cr steel as material of plate, Sn value might be 15% lower. Authors also suggested another method by changing material of the guard vessel to be the one which has good ability of heat transfer and evaluated the effects of this method by analysis. In case of changing material of guard vessel to 12Cr steel, Sn value might be lower about 12%. (author)

  8. Proposing water balance method for water availability estimation in Indonesian regional spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniati, A. T.; Sutjiningsih, D.; Soeryantono, H.; Kusratmoko, E.

    2018-01-01

    The water availability (WA) of a region is one of important consideration in both the formulation of spatial plans and the evaluation of the effectiveness of actual land use in providing sustainable water resources. Information on land-water needs vis-a-vis their availability in a region determines the state of the surplus or deficit to inform effective land use utilization. How to calculate water availability have been described in the Guideline in Determining the Carrying Capacity of the Environment in Regional Spatial Planning. However, the method of determining the supply and demand of water on these guidelines is debatable since the determination of WA in this guideline used a rational method. The rational method is developed the basis for storm drain design practice and it is essentially a peak discharge method peak discharge calculation method. This paper review the literature in methods of water availability estimation which is described descriptively, and present arguments to claim that water balance method is a more fundamental and appropriate tool in water availability estimation. A better water availability estimation method would serve to improve the practice in preparing formulations of Regional Spatial Plan (RSP) as well as evaluating land use capacity in providing sustainable water resources.

  9. New proposal of moderator temperature coefficient estimation method using gray-box model in NPP, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Michitsugu; Kagami, Yuichi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Tamaoki, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Shinichiro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new void reactivity coefficient (VRC) estimation method based on gray box modeling concept. The gray box model consists of a point kinetics model as the first principle model and a fitting model of moderator temperature kinetics. Applying Kalman filter and maximum likehood estimation algorithms to the gray box model, MTC can be estimated. The verification test is done by Monte Carlo simulation, and, it is shown that the present method gives the best estimation results comparing with the conventional methods from the viewpoints of non-biased and smallest scattering estimation performance. Furthermore, the method is verified via real plant data analysis. The reason of good performance of the present method is explained by proper definition of likelihood function based on explicit expression of observation and system noise in the gray box model. (author)

  10. Identification by the DArTseq method of the genetic origin of the Coffea canephora cultivated in Vietnam and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavito, Andrea; Montagnon, Christophe; Guyot, Romain; Bertrand, Benoît

    2016-11-04

    The coffee species Coffea canephora is commercially identified as "Conilon" when produced in Brazil, or "Robusta" when produced elsewhere in the world. It represents approximately 40 % of coffee production worldwide. While the genetic diversity of wild C. canephora has been well studied in the past, only few studies have addressed the genetic diversity of currently cultivated varieties around the globe. Vietnam is the largest Robusta producer in the world, while Mexico is the only Latin American country, besides Brazil, that has a significant Robusta production. Knowledge of the genetic origin of Robusta cultivated varieties in countries as important as Vietnam and Mexico is therefore of high interest. Through the use of Sequencing-based diversity array technology-DArTseq method-on a collection of C. canephora composed of known accessions and accessions cultivated in Vietnam and Mexico, 4,021 polymorphic SNPs were identified. We used a multivariate analysis using SNP data from reference accessions in order to confirm and further fine-tune the genetic diversity of C. canephora. Also, by interpolating the data obtained for the varieties from Vietnam and Mexico, we determined that they are closely related to each other, and identified that their genetic origin is the Robusta Congo - Uganda group. The genetic characterization based on SNP markers of the varieties grown throughout the world, increased our knowledge on the genetic diversity of C. canephora, and contributed to the understanding of the genetic background of varieties from very important coffee producers. Given the common genetic origin of the Robusta varieties cultivated in Vietnam, Mexico and Uganda, and the similar characteristics of climatic areas and relatively high altitude where they are grown, we can state that the Vietnamese and the Mexican Robusta have the same genetic potential to produce good cup quality.

  11. Development of an Origin Trace Method based on Bayesian Inference and Artificial Neural Network for Missing or Stolen Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, Yim Ho; Min, Lee Seung; Min, Kim Kyung; Jeong, Hong Yoon; Kim, Jae Kwang [Nuclear Security Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Thus, 'to put nuclear materials under control' is an important issue for prosperity mankind. Unfortunately, numbers of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials have been increased for decades. Consequently, security of nuclear materials is recently spotlighted. After the 2{sup nd} Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul in 2012, the president of Korea had showed his devotion to nuclear security. One of the main responses for nuclear security related interest of Korea was to develop a national nuclear forensic support system. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published the document of Nuclear Security Series No.2 'Nuclear Forensics Support' in 2006 to encourage international cooperation of all IAEA member states for tracking nuclear attributions. There are two main questions related to nuclear forensics to answer in the document. The first question is 'what type of material is it?', and the second one is 'where did the material come from?' Korea Nuclear Forensic Library (K-NFL) and mathematical methods to trace origins of missing or stolen nuclear materials (MSNMs) are being developed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control (KINAC) to answer those questions. Although the K-NFL has been designed to perform many functions, K-NFL is being developed to effectively trace the origin of MSNMs and tested to validate suitability of trace methods. New fuels and spent fuels need each trace method because of the different nature of data acquisition. An inductive logic was found to be appropriate for new fuels, which had values as well as a bistable property. On the other hand, machine learning was suitable for spent fuels, which were unable to measure, and thus needed simulation.

  12. A proposal of parameter determination method in the residual strength degradation model for the prediction of fatigue life (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Jang, Seong Soo

    2001-01-01

    The static and fatigue tests have been carried out to verify the validity of a generalized residual strength degradation model. And a new method of parameter determination in the model is verified experimentally to account for the effect of tension-compression fatigue loading of spheroidal graphite cast iron. It is shown that the correlation between the experimental results and the theoretical prediction on the statistical distribution of fatigue life by using the proposed method is very reasonable. Furthermore, it is found that the correlation between the theoretical prediction and the experimental results of fatigue life in case of tension-tension fatigue data in composite material appears to be reasonable. Therefore, the proposed method is more adjustable in the determination of the parameter than maximum likelihood method and minimization technique

  13. Assessment of four calculation methods proposed by the EC for waste hazardous property HP 14 'Ecotoxic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Humez, Nicolas; Conche, Isabelle; Bishop, Ian; Rebischung, Flore

    2016-02-01

    Legislation published in December 2014 revised both the List of Waste (LoW) and amended Appendix III of the revised Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC; the latter redefined hazardous properties HP 1 to HP 13 and HP 15 but left the assessment of HP 14 unchanged to allow time for the Directorate General of the Environment of the European Commission to complete a study that is examining the impacts of four different calculation methods for the assessment of HP 14. This paper is a contribution to the assessment of the four calculation methods. It also includes the results of a fifth calculation method; referred to as "Method 2 with extended M-factors". Two sets of data were utilised in the assessment; the first (Data Set #1) comprised analytical data for 32 different waste streams (16 hazardous (H), 9 non-hazardous (NH) and 7 mirror entries, as classified by the LoW) while the second data set (Data Set #2), supplied by the eco industries, comprised analytical data for 88 waste streams, all classified as hazardous (H) by the LoW. Two approaches were used to assess the five calculation methods. The first approach assessed the relative ranking of the five calculation methods by the frequency of their classification of waste streams as H. The relative ranking of the five methods (from most severe to less severe) is: Method 3>Method 1>Method 2 with extended M-factors>Method 2>Method 4. This reflects the arithmetic ranking of the concentration limits of each method when assuming M=10, and is independent of the waste streams, or the H/NH/Mirror status of the waste streams. A second approach is the absolute matching or concordance with the LoW. The LoW is taken as a reference method and the H wastes are all supposed to be HP 14. This point is discussed in the paper. The concordance for one calculation method is established by the number of wastes with identical classification by the considered calculation method and the LoW (i.e. H to H, NH to NH). The discordance is

  14. A hybrid body technique: does the pulse diagnostic cun guan chi method have Chinese-Tibetan origins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the medieval origins of the main pulse diagnostic method in contemporary Chinese medicine, sometimes known as san bu (three sectors) method, which requires physicians to examine the mai (vessels, vessel movements or pulse) on the wrist at the three locations cun guan chi (inch, gate, foot). The article provides evidence to suggest that this body technique grew out of an earlier Chinese one, the cun chi (inch-foot) method, which appears to have aimed at investigating the qualities of yin and yang in order to determine the condition of a patient by means of exploring fairly large areas of the patient's body surface with the palms. The article furthermore posits that the cun chi method was decisively transformed in medieval times, presumably due to the impact of early Tibetan pulse diagnostic practices: it became framed in a numerology of three and started advocating the use of the fingertips for sensing the pulse beats. The article, which draws on detailed textual analyses of medieval manuscripts, on visual evidence and also on psychophysical research, furthermore highlights how misunderstandings can constructively contribute to cultural communication.

  15. A proposed method of measuring the electric-dipole moment of the neutron by ultracold neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, M.S.; Peshkin, M.; Ringo, G.R.; Dombeck, T.W.

    1989-08-01

    The use of an ultracold neutron interferometer incorporating an electrostatic accelerator having a strong electric field gradient to accelerate neutrons by their possible electric dipole moment is proposed as a method of measuring the neutron electric dipole moment. The method appears to have the possibility of extending the sensitivity of the measurement by several orders of magnitude, perhaps to 10 -30 e-cm. 9 refs., 3 figs

  16. Small Private Online Research: A Proposal for A Numerical Methods Course Based on Technology Use and Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Francisco Javier Delgado

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a proposed model in blended learning for a numerical methods course evolved from traditional teaching into a research lab in scientific visualization. The blended learning approach sets a differentiated and flexible scheme based on a mobile setup and face to face sessions centered on a net of research challenges. Model is…

  17. Enhancing the Social Network Dimension of Lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems: A Proposal of Methods and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Cheak, A. M., Angehrn, A. A., & Sloep, P. (2006). Enhancing the social network dimension of lifelong competence development and management systems: A proposal of methods and tools. In R. Koper & K. Stefanov (Eds.). Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence

  18. Enhancing the Social Network Dimension of Lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems: A proposal of methods and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Cheak, A. M., Angehrn, A. A., & Sloep, P. B. (2006). Enhancing the social network dimension of lifelong competence development and management systems: A proposal of methods and tools. In E. J. R. Koper & K. Stefanov (Eds.), Proceedings of International Workshop on Learning Networks for Lifelong

  19. Proposal for a new method of reactor neutron flux distribution determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popic, V R [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-01-15

    A method, based on the measurements of the activity produced in a medium flowing with variable velocity through a reactor, for the determination of the neutron flux distribution inside a reactor is considered theoretically (author)

  20. Conceptual design of covering method for the proposed LILW near-surface repository at Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    The disposal concept of the low and intermediate level (LIL) wastes resulting during NPP operation combines both the natural and engineered barriers in order to ensure the safety of the environment and population. Saligny site has been proposed for LIL waste disposal. Preliminary performance assessments indicate that the loess and clay layers are efficient natural barriers against water flow and radionuclide migration through the vadose zone to the local aquifers. At present, the studies on site characterization are concentrated on investigation of the potential factors affecting the long-term integrity of the disposal facility. This analysis showed that surface erosion by wind and water and bio-intrusion by plant roots and burrowing animals could affect the long-term disposal safety. Based on the preliminary erosion results, as well as on the high probability of bio-intrusion by the plant roots and burrowing animals (i.e. moles, mice), different covering systems able to ensure the long-term safety of the repository has been proposed and analyzed. FEHM and HYDRUS 2D water flow simulations have been performed in order to compare their efficiency in the diminution of the infiltration rate in the repository. From this point of view, the covering system combining the capillary barrier and the resistive layer proved to have the best behavior

  1. Improve the functional status of students using the proposed method recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtukh M.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - to improve the organizational and methodological foundations of physical education for the improvement of high school students in training. The study involved 152 students of the second year of the International Economics and Humanities University named after Stepan Demyanchuk. Students were divided into control (n = 76 and primary (n = 76 groups, which were similar in age and physical development. At the end of the study, through the application of the proposed technique improvement in students the core group, was able to restore the function of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems to the possibilities of healthy untrained people. A similar increase in the functionality of the core group of students registered with the definition of the index Skibinski - held a combined evaluation of functions of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of students and determine its growth with satisfactory to good level.

  2. Proposing co-design of personas as a method to heighten validity and engage users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Charlotte; Pedersen, Majbrit; Pedersen, Nicholai Friis

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes co-designing personas with users as a strategy to overcome a challenge inherent in the design of personas or fictitious users: On one hand, personas should appear realistic and believable as individuals, and on the other hand, personas should represent a broader range of users....... By involving empirical users in all parts of the process of persona design, the risk of creating personas that are too stereotypical is minimized, as the participating users enrich the data on which the personas are based with up-to-date and firsthand contextual knowledge. Advantages of co-designing personas...... with users is illustrated by a case from higher education in which personas were co-designed with students as part of a project aiming at designing a smartphone application for Master's thesis students. © 2016, IGI Global....

  3. R and D proposals to improve outages operation. Methods, practices and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionis, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with outage operation improvement. It offers a number of tracks on the interactions between the operation activities and maintenance, with a methodological perspective and proposals concerning the Information System. On the methodological point of view, a clever plant systems modeling may allow representing the needed characteristics in order to optimize tagouts, alignment procedures and the schedule. Tools must be taken n into account for new tagout practices such as tags sharing. It is possible to take advantage of 2D drawings integrated into the information system in order to improve the data controls and to visualize operation activities. An integrated set of mobile applications should allow field operators to join the information system for a better and safer performance. (author)

  4. Proposed method for determining the thickness of glass in solar collector panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical method was developed for determining the minimum thickness for simply supported, rectangular glass plates subjected to uniform normal pressure environmental loads such as wind, earthquake, snow, and deadweight. The method consists of comparing an analytical prediction of the stress in the glass panel to a glass breakage stress determined from fracture mechanics considerations. Based on extensive analysis using the nonlinear finite element structural analysis program ARGUS, design curves for the structural analysis of simply supported rectangular plates were developed. These curves yield the center deflection, center stress and corner stress as a function of a dimensionless parameter describing the load intensity. A method of estimating the glass breakage stress as a function of a specified failure rate, degree of glass temper, design life, load duration time, and panel size is also presented.

  5. Brief communication: a proposed osteological method for the estimation of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2013-06-01

    Puberty forms an important threshold between childhood and adulthood, but this subject has received little attention in bioarchaeology. The new application of clinical methods to assess pubertal stage in adolescent skeletal remains is explored, concentrating on the development of the mandibular canine, hamate, hand phalanges, iliac crest and distal radius. Initial results from the medieval cemetery of St. Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber, England suggest that application of these methods may provide insights into aspects of adolescent development. This analysis indicates that adolescents from this medieval site were entering the pubertal growth spurt at a similar age to their modern counterparts, but that the later stages of pubertal maturation were being significantly delayed, perhaps due to environmental stress. Continued testing and refinement of these methods on living adolescents is still necessary to improve our understanding of their significance and accuracy in predicting pubertal stages. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Proposed Model for Integrating RAMS Method in the Design Process in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Al-Jibouri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend in the Netherlands for outsourcing public construction activities to the private sector through the use of integrated contracts. There is also an increasing emphasis from public clients on the use of RAMS and life cycle costing (LCC in the design process of infrastructural projects to improve the performance of designed systems and optimize the project cost. RAMS is an acronym for `reliability, availability, maintainability and safety' and represents a collection of techniques to provide predictions of the performance targets of the required system. Increasingly, RAMS targets are being specified in invitation to tender or contract documents and the parties responsible for the design are required to provide evidence of its application in their design. Recent evidence from practice, complemented with a literature study, has shown that the knowledge and application of RAMS in infrastructural designs are in their infancy compared with other industrial sectors and many designers in construction do not have the necessary knowledge and experience to apply it. This paper describes a proposed model for the integration of RAMS and LCC into the design process in construction. A variation of the model for the application of RAMS in `design, build, finance and maintain' (DBFM contracts that include maintenance requirements is also proposed. The two models involve providing guidelines to simplify the application of RAMs by the designers. The model has been validated for its practicality and usefulness during a workshop by experienced designers. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0100 Published in the Journal AEDM - Volume 5, Number 4, 2009 , pp. 179-192(14

  7. Hypothesis: primary antiangiogenic method proposed to treat early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retsky, Michael W; Hrushesky, William JM; Gukas, Isaac D

    2009-01-01

    Women with Down syndrome very rarely develop breast cancer even though they now live to an age when it normally occurs. This may be related to the fact that Down syndrome persons have an additional copy of chromosome 21 where the gene that codes for the antiangiogenic protein Endostatin is located. Can this information lead to a primary antiangiogenic therapy for early stage breast cancer that indefinitely prolongs remission? A key question that arises is when is the initial angiogenic switch thrown in micrometastases? We have conjectured that avascular micrometastases are dormant and relatively stable if undisturbed but that for some patients angiogenesis is precipitated by surgery. We also proposed that angiogenesis of micrometastases very rarely occurs before surgical removal of the primary tumor. If that is so, it seems possible that we could suggest a primary antiangiogenic therapy but the problem then arises that starting a therapy before surgery would interfere with wound healing. The therapy must be initiated at least one day prior to surgical removal of the primary tumor and kept at a Down syndrome level perhaps indefinitely. That means the drug must have virtually no toxicity and not interfere meaningfully with wound healing. This specifically excludes drugs that significantly inhibit the VEGF pathway since that is important for wound healing and because these agents have some toxicity. Endostatin is apparently non-toxic and does not significantly interfere with wound healing since Down syndrome patients have no abnormal wound healing problems. We propose a therapy for early stage breast cancer consisting of Endostatin at or above Down syndrome levels starting at least one day before surgery and continuing at that level. This should prevent micrometastatic angiogenesis resulting from surgery or at any time later. Adjuvant chemotherapy or hormone therapy should not be necessary. This can be continued indefinitely since there is no acquired resistance that

  8. Proposed method of assembly for the BCD silicon strip vertex detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeyer, C.

    1989-01-01

    The BCD Silicon strip Vertex Detector is constructed of 10 identical central region modules and 18 similar forward region modules. This memo describes a method of assembling these modules from individual silicon wafers. Each wafer is fitted with associated front end electronics and cables and has been tested to insure that only good wafers reach the final assembly stage. 5 figs

  9. Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce

    As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate…

  10. Texting to increase physical activity among teenagers (TXT Me!): Rationale, design, and methods proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity decreases from childhood through adulthood. Among youth, teenagers (teens) achieve the lowest levels of physical activity, and high school age youth are particularly at risk of inactivity. Effective methods are needed to increase youth physical activity in a way that can be maintai...

  11. Proposal of a method for formulating strategy in small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Piovezan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Strategy models found in the literature are usually more suitable for big companies. However, small and medium enterprises (SME also need to plan their strategies, but in such a way that considers their peculiarities. In this context, this paper presents a simple method for strategy formulation and deployment in SME. This method was developed through a sequence of cases studies, developed in small companies (10 to 500 employees. The final version of this method is a seven-step framework that considers both business environment and firm core competencies. The final aim is the alignment of business and manufacturing strategies. This framework can be considered suitable for SME, since it is simple and allows saving time and scarce available resources for strategy formulation, both important issues in this kind of enterprises. Finally, a case study is presented, encompassing the analysis of the application of the final version of the method in a small Brazilian company. Key-words: Competitive Strategy, Small Business Strategy, Manufacturing Strategy.

  12. Elliptical broken line method for calculating capillary density in nailfold capillaroscopy: Proposal and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaie, Abdolamir; Abtahi, Farhad; Fatemi, Alimohammad; Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz; Emrani, Zahra; Erlandsson, Björn-Erik

    2017-09-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is a practical method for identifying and obtaining morphological changes in capillaries which might reveal relevant information about diseases and health. Capillaroscopy is harmless, and seems simple and repeatable. However, there is lack of established guidelines and instructions for acquisition as well as the interpretation of the obtained images; which might lead to various ambiguities. In addition, assessment and interpretation of the acquired images are very subjective. In an attempt to overcome some of these problems, in this study a new modified technique for assessment of nailfold capillary density is introduced. The new method is named elliptic broken line (EBL) which is an extension of the two previously known methods by defining clear criteria for finding the apex of capillaries in different scenarios by using a fitted elliptic. A graphical user interface (GUI) is developed for pre-processing, manual assessment of capillary apexes and automatic correction of selected apexes based on 90° rule. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of EBL and corrected EBL is evaluated in this study. Four independent observers familiar with capillaroscopy performed the assessment for 200 nailfold videocapillaroscopy images, form healthy subject and systemic lupus erythematosus patients, in two different sessions. The results show elevation from moderate (ICC=0.691) and good (ICC=0.753) agreements to good (ICC=0.750) and good (ICC=0.801) for intra- and inter-observer reliability after automatic correction of EBL. This clearly shows the potential of this method to improve the reliability and repeatability of assessment which motivates us for further development of automatic tool for EBL method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New clinical validation method for automated sphygmomanometer: a proposal by Japan ISO-WG for sphygmomanometer standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Osamu; Asou, Yosuke; Takahashi, Yukio

    2007-12-01

    Owing to fast or stepwise cuff deflation, or measuring at places other than the upper arm, the clinical accuracy of most recent automated sphygmomanometers (auto-BPMs) cannot be validated by one-arm simultaneous comparison, which would be the only accurate validation method based on auscultation. Two main alternative methods are provided by current standards, that is, two-arm simultaneous comparison (method 1) and one-arm sequential comparison (method 2); however, the accuracy of these validation methods might not be sufficient to compensate for the suspicious accuracy in lateral blood pressure (BP) differences (LD) and/or BP variations (BPV) between the device and reference readings. Thus, the Japan ISO-WG for sphygmomanometer standards has been studying a new method that might improve validation accuracy (method 3). The purpose of this study is to determine the appropriateness of method 3 by comparing immunity to LD and BPV with those of the current validation methods (methods 1 and 2). The validation accuracy of the above three methods was assessed in human participants [N=120, 45+/-15.3 years (mean+/-SD)]. An oscillometric automated monitor, Omron HEM-762, was used as the tested device. When compared with the others, methods 1 and 3 showed a smaller intra-individual standard deviation of device error (SD1), suggesting their higher reproducibility of validation. The SD1 by method 2 (P=0.004) significantly correlated with the participant's BP, supporting our hypothesis that the increased SD of device error by method 2 is at least partially caused by essential BPV. Method 3 showed a significantly (P=0.0044) smaller interparticipant SD of device error (SD2), suggesting its higher interparticipant consistency of validation. Among the methods of validation of the clinical accuracy of auto-BPMs, method 3, which showed the highest reproducibility and highest interparticipant consistency, can be proposed as being the most appropriate.

  14. Evaluation of fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria originating from swine manure applied to agricultural lands using culture-based and quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  15. An Innovative Oil Pollution Containment Method for Ship Wrecks Proposed for Offshore Well Blow-outs

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRITSOS Fivos; COJINS Hans

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the PRESTIGE disaster, an innovative system for the prompt intervention on oil pollution sources (primarily ship wrecks) at great depths was conceived at the Joint Research Center of the European Commission. This system, with some re-engineering, could also serve for collecting oil and gas leaking after an offshore well blow-out and could constitute a reference method for prompt intervention on deep water oil pollution sources like ship wrecks and blown-out offshore wells....

  16. [Proposal of a method for collective analysis of work-related accidents in the hospital setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Claudia; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Minayo-Gomez, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a method for the analysis of work-related accidents in hospitals, with the double aim of analyzing accidents in light of actual work activity and enhancing the vitality of the various professions that comprise hospital work. This process involves both research and intervention, combining knowledge output with training of health professionals, fostering expanded participation by workers in managing their daily work. The method consists of stimulating workers to recreate the situation in which a given accident occurred, shifting themselves to the position of observers of their own work. In the first stage of analysis, workers are asked to show the work analyst how the accident occurred; in the second stage, the work accident victim and analyst jointly record the described series of events in a diagram; in the third, the resulting record is re-discussed and further elaborated; in the fourth, the work accident victim and analyst evaluate and implement measures aimed to prevent the accident from recurring. The article concludes by discussing the method's possibilities and limitations in the hospital setting.

  17. [Proposal of a conceptual method of supportive care for co-active patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidli, Yamine; Piette, Danielle; Casini, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    There is a broad consensus on the importance for health professionals to support co-active patients. However, in practice, very few "patient care partnership" approaches have been developed. We hypothesized that the lack of investment in supporting patient care partnerships is due to the lack of interest in the skills needed by caregivers to provide such support. This paper intends to address thisgap. The patient care partnership method is studied, adapted and developed from existing models. It complements, harmonizes and integrates various schools of thought arising from the need to place the patient at the center of care and life in general. The patient care partnership method includes 7 stages during which the professional accompanies the patient through the process of care. The methodological approach for training professionals is designed to ensure that professionals experience the change as well as its difficulties of the change they expect from the patient in the care relationship. This method now needs to be validated by the experience of other professionals in order define the limits of application and to allow further development.

  18. A direct vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque elasticity reconstruction method based on an original material-finite element formulation: theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M.; Yazdani, Saami K.; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Ohayon, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10-8±5.7 × 10-8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method.

  19. Our first experiences in applying an original method for removal of ABO-isoagglutinins in ABO-incompatible kidney recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Due to improved methods for removal of ABO isoagglutinins and novel immunosuppressive protocols, short and long term outcome in blood group incompatible is similar to blood group compatible kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of our original method for removal of ABO isoagglutinins from the blood in ABO-incompatible kidney allograft recipients. Method. Between 2006 and 2008 twelve patients were transplanted from ABO incompatible living donors. Titers of ABO isoagglutinins were 4-128 (IgG. Immunosuppressive therapy started 14 days before kidney transplantation with rituximab, followed by a triple therapy (prednisone + tacrolimus + mycophenolate mofetil and the first plasma exchange (PE procedure, in which one plasma volume was substituted with albumin and saline on day 7 before transplantation. For selective extracorporeal immunoadsorption, the removed plasma was mixed with donor blood type filtered red blood cells, centrifuged and the supernatant separated and preserved. In the next PE procedure, the removed plasma was replaced with immunoadsorbed plasma, and so on. Titers of ABO agglutinins, renal allograft function and survival were followed-up. Results. The pre-transplant treatment consisting of 1-5 PE procedures and immunosuppressive therapy resulted in target ABO agglutinins titers below 4. During a 10-24 month follow-up three patients had an early acute rejection, one patient acute rejection and hemolytic anemia, two patients surgical complications and one of them lost his graft. In the post-transplant period, the titers of ABO antibodies remained below 4. All the patients had stable kidney allograft function with mean serum creatinine ±SD of 129 ± 45 μmol/l at the end of the study. Conclusion. Our method for removal of ABO antibodies was effective in a limited series of patients and short-term follow-up.

  20. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Practices. Problems. Supervision. Primary School. *Corresponding Author: Asrat Dagnew. E-mail: asratboza@yahoo.com tructional support. The relevant and ... vision is one of indispensable system pment. Supervision is a system of that directly concerned on the aff members in a school or other. Original Research ...

  1. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    language in social interaction( Anto et al., 2012; Tessema et al., 2012). While such ..... 10 items on a five-point Likert scale originally developed by Benard et al. (2007). ..... self-confidence, and hold down their anxiety levels. In this study ...

  2. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masanori, E-mail: ando.masanori@jaea.go.jp; Takaya, Shigeru, E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  3. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masanori; Takaya, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  4. A proposal of a three-dimensional CT measurement method of maxillofacial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ray; Hayashi, Takafumi

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional CT measurement is put in practice in order to grasp the pathological condition on diseases such as the temporomandibular joint disorder, maxillofacial anomaly, jaw deformity, or fracture which cause the morphologic changes of the maxillofacial bones. On the 3D measurement, the unique system that is obtained by volume rendering 3D images with a simultaneous reference of axial images combined with coronal and sagittal multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images (we call this MPR referential method), is employed in order to define the measurement points. Our purpose in this report is to indicate the usefulness of this unique method by comparing with the common way to define the measurement points on only 3D reconstruction images without consulting of MPR images. Clinical CT data obtained from a male patient with skeletal malocclusion was used. Contiguous axial images were reconstructed at 4 times magnification, with a reconstruction interval of 0.5 mm, focused on the temporomandibular joint region in his left side. After these images were converted to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format and sent to personal computer (PC), 3D reconstruction image was created using free 3D DICOM medical image viewer. The coordinates of 3 measurement points (the lateral and medial pole of the mandibular condyle, and the left foramen ovale) were defined with MPR images (MPR coordinates) as reference coordinates, and then the coordinates that were defined on only 3D reconstruction image without consulting to MPR images (3D coordinates) were compared to those of MPR coordinates. Three examiners were engaged independently 10 times for every measurement point. In our result, there was no correspondence between 3D coordinates and MPR coordinates, and contribution of 3D coordinates showed a variety in every measurement point and in every observer. We deemed that ''MPR referential method'' is useful to assess the location of the target point of anatomical

  5. Proposed thermodynamic method to determine the vortex mass in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moler, K.A.; Fetter, A.L.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe a simple method to study vortex dynamics that can determine or set an upper limit on the vortex mass. The specific heat of the vortex lattice in layered superconductors has a classical limit of 1 k B per pancake vortex if the vortex mass is zero. If the vortex mass m v is finite, a new Einstein branch of normal modes will appear with a crossover temperature Θ E ∝ m v -1 , and the specific heat will saturate at a new classical limit of 2 k B per pancake vortex

  6. A proposal for a determination method of element division on an analytical model for finite element elastic waves propagation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes an element size selection method named the 'Impact-Meshing (IM) method' for a finite element waves propagation analysis model, which is characterized by (1) determination of element division of the model with strain energy in the whole model, (2) static analysis (dynamic analysis in a single time step) with boundary conditions which gives a maximum change of displacement in the time increment and inertial (impact) force caused by the displacement change. In this paper, an example of application of the IM method to 3D ultrasonic wave propagation problem in an elastic solid is described. These examples showed an analysis result with a model determined by the IM method was convergence and calculation time for determination of element subdivision was reduced to about 1/6 by the IM Method which did not need determination of element subdivision by a dynamic transient analysis with 100 time steps. (author)

  7. Fair and efficient tariffs for wind energy : principles, method, proposal, data and potential consequences in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, the government of France announced a national energy plan that included the installation of 5,000 to 10,000 MW of wind power by 2010. It also announced a new system based on fixed tariffs that would replace the EOLE 2005 calls for tenders for projects under 12 MW. This paper described the principles and methods used to develop this fair and efficient tariff system for wind energy in France. The Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME) uses the Profitability Index Method to help define a wind energy tariff system for wind power plants under 12 MW. This paper presents some figures of the related over-cost incurred with the new tariff system which makes it possible for energy developers in France to develop huge wind potential at a pace equal to other countries with fixed premium prices. The over-cost of the new tariff system is not too high, plus it could be passed equally over all consumers of electricity. The tariff system will help France comply with its national, European and international commitments regarding climate change and with the future European directive on electricity generated from renewable energy sources. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  8. [Proposal of a costing method for the provision of sterilization in a public hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauler, S; Combe, C; Piallat, M; Laurencin, C; Hida, H

    2011-07-01

    To refine the billing to institutions whose operations of sterilization are outsourced, a sterilization cost approach was developed. The aim of the study is to determine the value of a sterilization unit (one point "S") evolving according to investments, quantities processed, types of instrumentation or packaging. The time of preparation has been selected from all sub-processes of sterilization to determine the value of one point S. The time of preparation of sterilized large and small containers and pouches were raised. The reference time corresponds to one bag (equal to one point S). Simultaneously, the annual operating cost of sterilization was defined and divided into several areas of expenditure: employees, equipments and building depreciation, supplies, and maintenance. A total of 136 crossing times of containers were measured. Time to prepare a pouch has been estimated at one minute (one S). A small container represents four S and a large container represents 10S. By dividing the operating cost of sterilization by the total number of points of sterilization over a given period, the cost of one S can be determined. This method differs from traditional costing method in sterilizing services, considering each item of expenditure. This point S will be the base for billing of subcontracts to other institutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Board Game in Physics Classes—a Proposal for a New Method of Student Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziob, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of assessing students' achievements in a physics course in the form of a group board game. Research was conducted in two groups of 131 high school students in Poland. In each school, the research sample was divided into experimental and control groups. Each group was taught by the same teacher and participated in the same courses and tests before the game. Just after finishing the course on waves and vibrations (school 1) and optics (school 2), experimental groups took part in a group board game to assess their knowledge. One week after the game, the experimental and control groups (not involved in the game) took part in the post-tests. Students from the experimental groups performed better in the game than in the tests given before the game. As well their results in the post-tests were significantly higher statistically than students from the control groups. Simultaneously, student's opinions in the experimental groups about the board game as an assessment method were collected in an open-descriptive form and in a short questionnaire, and analyzed. Results showed that students experienced a positive attitude toward the assessment method, a reduction of test anxiety and an increase in their motivation for learning.

  10. [The strategic research areas of a University Hospital: proposal of a quali-quantitative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzi, Elisa; Ardissino, Diego; Ferrari, Carlo; Vitale, Marco; Caminiti, Caterina

    2018-02-01

    This work aimed to objectively identify the main research areas at the University Hospital of Parma. To this end, a multidisciplinary working group, comprising clinicians, researchers, and hospital management, was formed to develop a shared quali-quantitative method. Easily retrievable performance indicators were selected from the literature (concerning bibliometric data and grant acquisition), and a scoring system developed to assign weights to each indicator. Subsequently, Research Team Leaders were identified from the hospital's "Research Plan", a document produced every three years which contains information on the main research themes carried out at each Department, involved staff and available resources, provided by health care professionals themselves. The selected performance indicators were measured for each Team Leader, and scores assigned, thus creating a ranking list. Through the analyses of the research themes of top Team Leaders, the Working Group identified the following five strategic research areas: (a) personalized treatment in oncology and hematology; (b) chronicization mechanisms in immunomediate diseases; (c) old and new risk factors for cardiovascular diseases; (d) nutritional disorders, metabolic and chronic-degenerative diseases; (e) molecular diagnostic and predictive markers. We have developed an objective method to identify a hospital's main research areas. Its application can guide resource allocation and can offer ways to value the work of professionals involved in research.

  11. Alpins and thibos vectorial astigmatism analyses: proposal of a linear regression model between methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano de Oliveira Freitas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine linear regression models between Alpins descriptive indices and Thibos astigmatic power vectors (APV, assessing the validity and strength of such correlations. METHODS: This case series prospectively assessed 62 eyes of 31 consecutive cataract patients with preoperative corneal astigmatism between 0.75 and 2.50 diopters in both eyes. Patients were randomly assorted among two phacoemulsification groups: one assigned to receive AcrySof®Toric intraocular lens (IOL in both eyes and another assigned to have AcrySof Natural IOL associated with limbal relaxing incisions, also in both eyes. All patients were reevaluated postoperatively at 6 months, when refractive astigmatism analysis was performed using both Alpins and Thibos methods. The ratio between Thibos postoperative APV and preoperative APV (APVratio and its linear regression to Alpins percentage of success of astigmatic surgery, percentage of astigmatism corrected and percentage of astigmatism reduction at the intended axis were assessed. RESULTS: Significant negative correlation between the ratio of post- and preoperative Thibos APVratio and Alpins percentage of success (%Success was found (Spearman's ρ=-0.93; linear regression is given by the following equation: %Success = (-APVratio + 1.00x100. CONCLUSION: The linear regression we found between APVratio and %Success permits a validated mathematical inference concerning the overall success of astigmatic surgery.

  12. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    In this rega educational theory has proposed a teaching approa which is called ..... that they serve as major factors in guiding and influencing teachers' thoughts ... cognitive development and language are shaped by a student's interaction with ...

  13. EPICOR-II resin characterization and proposed methods for degradation analysis. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, J.D.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1984-06-01

    One goal of the EPICOR-II Research and Disposition Program is the examination of the EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins for physical and chemical degradation. This report summarizes preliminary information necessary for the evaluation of the resins for degradation. Degradation of the synthetic organic ion-exchange resins should be efficiently and accurately measurable by using the baseline data provided by the nonirradiated resin characterization. The degradation threshold is about 10 8 rads, approximately the same dose rate the resins will have received by the examination date. If degradation has not occurred at the first examination point, later examinations will detect resin degradation using the same analytical methods. The results from the characterization tests will yield practical and useful data on the actual effects of radiation on commercial synthetic organic ion-exchange resins. 10 references, 12 figures

  14. Proposal for a Method for Business Model Performance Assessment: Toward an Experimentation Tool for Business Model Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Batocchio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The representation of business models has been recently widespread, especially in the pursuit of innovation. However, defining a company’s business model is sometimes limited to discussion and debates. This study observes the need for performance measurement so that business models can be data-driven. To meet this goal, the work proposed as a hypothesis the creation of a method that combines the practices of the Balanced Scorecard with a method of business models representation – the Business Model Canvas. Such a combination was based on study of conceptual adaptation, resulting in an application roadmap. A case study application was performed to check the functionality of the proposition, focusing on startup organizations. It was concluded that based on the performance assessment of the business model it is possible to propose the search for change through experimentation, a path that can lead to business model innovation.

  15. PRACTICAL PROPOSALS AS A RESULT OF THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE PROCESS OF EXTRACTION FROM RAW MATERIALS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shishatskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Theoretical and experimental researches of extraction processes from plant origin raw materials: barley, acorns and chicory with liquid carbon dioxide, as well as lupin with cheese whey were carried out. Quality indicators of extracts and secondary raw materials are defined. It is established that they are perspective raw sources for the enriched and functional products as they contain amino acids, vitamins and microelements. The dairy-vegetative lupine extract, for example, contains 17 amino acids, including the essential as well as vitamins and minerals. The studies of secondary raw materials, barley, acorns, chicory and lupine quality showed the expediency of their use for foods enrichment. Quality indicators of secondary raw materials are presented in the tables form in the given work. It formed the basis for the development of hardware-technological schemes of obtaining СО2-extracts and their use. The hardware-technological scheme of obtaining СО2-extracts from barley, acorns and chicory includes a number of equipment units: motor transport for raw materials delivery to the enterprise, the scraper hydroconveyor, the jet washer, a photoseparator for of poor-quality raw materials and impurities removal, a blowing machine for removing surface moisture from the raw materials, a jet washer for peeling, a cutter, drying and frying device, a crusher, a roller machine tool and an extracting unit. Hardware providing for yoghurt technology enriched with amino acids, microelements and vitamins which are present in a dairy-plant extract differs from the mentioned above one in the following. The extract used is a cheese whey, and the extraction of a target component is carried out in a vibrating extractor. The hardwaretechnological scheme is made according to Russian technology of yoghurt and furnished with the equipment for dairy-vegetative extract feeding into a product. It includes the following: a vibrating extractor (not shown in fig

  16. Proposal for element size and time increment selection guideline by 3-D finite element method for elastic waves propagation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a guideline for selection of element size and time increment by 3-D finite element method, which is applied to elastic wave propagation analysis for a long distance of a large structure. An element size and a time increment are determined by quantitative evaluation of strain, which must be 0 on the analysis model with a uniform motion, caused by spatial and time discretization. (author)

  17. Development and validation of an SPE HG-AAS method for determination of inorganic arsenic in samples of marine origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Rie R.; Larsen, Erik H.; Sloth, Jens J. [Technical University of Denmark, National Food Institute, Division of Food Chemistry, Soeborg (Denmark); Hedegaard, Rikke V. [Technical University of Denmark, National Food Institute, Division of Food Chemistry, Soeborg (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Food Science, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2012-07-15

    The present paper describes a novel method for the quantitative determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in food and feed of marine origin. The samples were subjected to microwave-assisted extraction using diluted hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide, which solubilised the analytes and oxidised arsenite (As{sup III}) to arsenate (As{sup V}). Subsequently, a pH buffering of the sample extract at pH 6 enabled selective elution of As{sup V} from a strong anion exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) was applied to quantify the concentration of iAs (sum of As{sup III} and As{sup V}) as the total arsenic (As) in the SPE eluate. The results of the in-house validation showed that mean recoveries of 101-104% were achieved for samples spiked with iAs at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.08 mg kg{sup -1}, and the repeatability (RSD{sub r}) and intra-laboratory reproducibility (RSD{sub IR}) were less than 8% and 13%, respectively, for samples containing 0.2 to 1.5 mg kg{sup -1} iAs. The trueness of the SPE HG-AAS method was verified by confirming results obtained by parallel analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It was demonstrated that the two sets of results were not significantly different (P < 0.05). The SPE HG-AAS method was applied to 20 marine food and feed samples, and concentrations of up to 0.14 mg kg{sup -1} of iAs were detected. (orig.)

  18. PROPOSED SIMPLE METHOD FOR ELECTROCARDIOGRAM RECORDING IN FREE-RANGING ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Norin; Pouchelon, Jean Louis; Bouvard, Jonathan; Sillero, Leonor Camacho; Huynh, Minh; Segalini, Vincent; Point, Lisa; Croce, Veronica; Rigaux, Goulven; Highwood, Jack; Chetboul, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    Electrocardiography represents a relevant diagnostic tool for detecting cardiac disease in animals. Elephants can present various congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases. However, few electrophysiologic studies have been reported in captive elephants, mainly due to challenging technical difficulties in obtaining good-quality electrocardiogram (ECG) tracings, and no data are currently available for free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The purpose of this pilot prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a simple method for recording ECG tracings in wild, apparently healthy, unsedated Asian elephants (n = 7) in the standing position. Successful six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, and aVF) were obtained, with the aVL lead providing the best-quality tracings in most animals. Variables measured in the aVL lead included heart rate, amplitudes and duration of the P waves, QRS complexes, T and U waves, and duration of the PR, QT, and QU intervals. A negative deflection following positive P waves, representative of an atrial repolarization wave (Ta wave), was observed for five out of the seven elephants.

  19. A proposed method to detect kinematic differences between and within individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; McGill, Stuart M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective was to examine the utility of a novel method of detecting "actual" kinematic changes using the within-subject variation. Twenty firefighters were assigned to one of two groups (lifting or firefighting). Participants performed 25 repetitions of two lifting or firefighting tasks, in three sessions. The magnitude and within-subject variation of several discrete kinematic measures were computed. Sequential averages of each variable were used to derive a cubic, quadratic and linear regression equation. The efficacy of each equation was examined by contrasting participants' sequential means to their 25-trial mean±1SD and 2SD. The magnitude and within-subject variation of each dependent measure was repeatable for all tasks; however, each participant did not exhibit the same movement patterns as the group. The number of instances across all variables, tasks and testing sessions whereby the 25-trial mean±1SD was contained within the boundaries established by the regression equations increased as the aggregate scores included more trials. Each equation achieved success in at least 88% of all instances when three trials were included in the sequential mean (95% with five trials). The within-subject variation may offer a means to examine participant-specific changes without having to collect a large number of trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Proposal of inspection method of radiation protection applied to nuclear medicine establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Leopoldino da Cruz Gouveia

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to implement a method of an impartial and efficient inspection, due to a correct and secure dose of ionizing radiation in the field of Nuclear Medicine. The Radiological Protection Model was tested in 113 Nuclear Medicine Services all over the country, according to a biannual analysis frequency (1996, 1998, 2000 and 2002). The data sheet comprised general information about the structure of the NMS and a technical approach. In the analytical process, a methodology of inputting different importance levels to each of the 82 features was adopted, based on the risk factors stated in the CNEN NE's and in the IAEA recommendations, as well. From this point of view, as a feature does not fit one of the rules above, it will correspond to a radioprotection fault and be imparted a grade. The sum of those grades, classified the NMS in one of the three different ranges, as follows: - operating without restriction - 100 points and below- operating with restriction - between 100 and 300 points - temporary shutdown - above and equal to 300 points. The allowance of the second group to carry on operating should be attached to a defined and restricted period of time (six to twelve months), supposed large enough to the NMS solving the problems being new evaluation proceeded then. The NMS's classified in the third group are supposed to go back into operation only when fit all the pending radioprotection requirements. Until the next regular evaluation, meanwhile a multiplication factor 2 n was applied to the recalcitrant NMS s where n is the number of unwilling occurrences. The previous establishment of those items of radioprotection, with its respective grade, excluded subjective and personal values in the judgement and technical evaluation of the institutions. (author)

  1. A Review and Update on Papillary Immature Metaplasia of the Uterine Cervix: A Distinct Subset of Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion, Proposing a Possible Cell of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon Auck; Yoo, Su Hyun; Choi, Jene; Robboy, Stanley J; Kim, Kyu-Rae

    2018-04-13

    - Papillary immature metaplasia (PIM) is a known papillary cervical lesion associated with low-risk human papilloma virus (LR-HPV). - To evaluate additional clinicopathologic features and the HPV genotypes of PIM and discuss the presumptive cell of origin. - A total of 26 PIM cases were evaluated by p16 INK4a , cytokeratin (CK) 7, and CK17 immunohistochemical stainings. Human papilloma virus genotyping was performed, by using HPV DNA Chip, HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR. - Histologically, PIM forms either a papillary mass (n = 21 of 26, 81%) or a slightly elevated/flat plaque (n = 5, 19%). All cases contain variable amounts of mucinous epithelia within the lesions. Koilocytosis was identified in 15 of the 26 cases (58%). Sixteen cases (61%) were associated with LR-HPV (types 6, 11, or 42), but 3 cases (12%) with high-risk (HR) HPV (16, 16/18, and 33), 2 cases (8%) with mixed LR- and HR-HPV (6/16 and 11/58), while 2 cases (8%) were negative, but p16 INK4a immunostaining showed nonblock positivity in all cases. Eight (31%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in the adjacent mucosa, 4 (50%) of which showed direct continuity. Identical HPV subtypes were confirmed in separately microdissected cases from PIM and adjacent HSIL. Most lesions (n = 24, 92%) expressed CK17 (reserve cell marker) in a bottom-heavy pattern and CK7 (squamocolumnar junction [SCJ] marker) in a top-heavy pattern, while most cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) were negative for both markers. - Our results suggest that PIM is a distinct subset of LSIL showing a productive HPV infection, but PIM involves the transformation zone and is proximal to SCJ, while LSIL is mostly from ectocervix or distal to the SCJ.

  2. A proposed architecture and method of operation for improving the protection of privacy and confidentiality in disease registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churches Tim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease registers aim to collect information about all instances of a disease or condition in a defined population of individuals. Traditionally methods of operating disease registers have required that notifications of cases be identified by unique identifiers such as social security number or national identification number, or by ensembles of non-unique identifying data items, such as name, sex and date of birth. However, growing concern over the privacy and confidentiality aspects of disease registers may hinder their future operation. Technical solutions to these legitimate concerns are needed. Discussion An alternative method of operation is proposed which involves splitting the personal identifiers from the medical details at the source of notification, and separately encrypting each part using asymmetrical (public key cryptographic methods. The identifying information is sent to a single Population Register, and the medical details to the relevant disease register. The Population Register uses probabilistic record linkage to assign a unique personal identification (UPI number to each person notified to it, although not necessarily everyone in the entire population. This UPI is shared only with a single trusted third party whose sole function is to translate between this UPI and separate series of personal identification numbers which are specific to each disease register. Summary The system proposed would significantly improve the protection of privacy and confidentiality, while still allowing the efficient linkage of records between disease registers, under the control and supervision of the trusted third party and independent ethics committees. The proposed architecture could accommodate genetic databases and tissue banks as well as a wide range of other health and social data collections. It is important that proposals such as this are subject to widespread scrutiny by information security experts, researchers and

  3. Removal of organic compounds from wastewater originating from the production of printed circuit boards by UV-Fenton method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of removing organic compounds from wastewater originating from the photochemical production of printed circuit boards by use of waste acidification and disposal of precipitated photopolymer in the first stage and the UV-Fenton method in a second stage has been presented. To optimize the process of advanced oxidation, the RSM (Response Surface Methodology for three independent factors was applied, i.e. pH, the concentration of Fe(II and H2O2 concentration. The use of optimized values of individual parameters in the process of wastewater treatment caused a decrease in the concentration of the organic compounds denoted as COD by approx. 87% in the first stage and approx. 98% after application of both processes. Precipitation and the decomposition of organic compounds was associated with a decrease of wastewater COD to below 100 mg O2/L whereas the initial value was 5550 mg O2/L. Decomposition of organic compounds and verification of the developed model of photopolymers removal was also carried out with use of alternative H2O2 sources i.e. CaO2, MgO2, and Na2CO3·1,5H2O2.

  4. Comments and Remarks over Classic Linear Loop-Gain Method for Oscillator Design and Analysis. New Proposed Method Based on NDF/RRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Jimenez-Martin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Present paper describes a new method for designing oscillators based on the Normalized Determinant Function (NDF and Return Relations (RRT . First a review of the loop-gain method will be performed, showing pros, cons and including some examples for exploring wrong so- lutions provided by this method. Wrong solutions, because some conditions have to be previously fulfilled in order to obtain right ones, which will be described and finally, demonstrate that NDF analysis is necessary, including Return Relations (RRT usefulness, which in fact are related with the True Loop-Gain. Finally concluding this paper, steps for oscillator design and analysis, using the proposed NDF/RRT method will be presented, compared to wrong previous solutions pointing out new accuracy achieved on oscillation frequency and QL prediction. Also, more new examples, of plane reference oscillators (Z/Y/rho, will be added for which loop gain method application is clearly difficult or even impossible, solving them with the new proposed NDF/RRT method.

  5. Nanomaterials, and Occupational Health and Safety—A Literature Review About Control Banding and a Semi-Quantitative Method Proposed for Hazard Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimou, Kaotar; Emond, Claude

    2017-06-01

    approaches that were developed worldwide, and then to suggest an original methodology based on the characterisation of the hazard. For this research, our team conducted a systematic literature review over the past 20 years. This approach is important in understanding the conceptual basis for CB and the model’s overall effectiveness. These considerations will lead to the proposal of an original hazard assessment method based on physico-chemical and biological characteristics. Such a method should help the entire industry better understand the ability of the CB approach to limit workers’ exposure, while identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. Developing this practice method will help to provide relevant recommendations to workers who handle hazardous chemicals such as ENMs and to the general population.

  6. Nanomaterials, and Occupational Health and Safety—A Literature Review About Control Banding and a Semi-Quantitative Method Proposed for Hazard Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimou, Kaotar; Emond, Claude

    2017-01-01

    approaches that were developed worldwide, and then to suggest an original methodology based on the characterisation of the hazard. For this research, our team conducted a systematic literature review over the past 20 years. This approach is important in understanding the conceptual basis for CB and the model’s overall effectiveness. These considerations will lead to the proposal of an original hazard assessment method based on physico-chemical and biological characteristics. Such a method should help the entire industry better understand the ability of the CB approach to limit workers’ exposure, while identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. Developing this practice method will help to provide relevant recommendations to workers who handle hazardous chemicals such as ENMs and to the general population. (paper)

  7. Sensitivity analysis of a complex, proposed geologic waste disposal system using the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yichi; Mohanty, Sitakanta

    2001-01-01

    The Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) method has been used to perform a sensitivity analysis of a computer model developed for conducting total system performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. The computer model has a large number of random input parameters with assigned probability density functions, which may or may not be uniform, for representing data uncertainty. The FAST method, which was previously applied to models with parameters represented by the uniform probability distribution function only, has been modified to be applied to models with nonuniform probability distribution functions. Using an example problem with a small input parameter set, several aspects of the FAST method, such as the effects of integer frequency sets and random phase shifts in the functional transformations, and the number of discrete sampling points (equivalent to the number of model executions) on the ranking of the input parameters have been investigated. Because the number of input parameters of the computer model under investigation is too large to be handled by the FAST method, less important input parameters were first screened out using the Morris method. The FAST method was then used to rank the remaining parameters. The validity of the parameter ranking by the FAST method was verified using the conditional complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the output. The CCDF results revealed that the introduction of random phase shifts into the functional transformations, proposed by previous investigators to disrupt the repetitiveness of search curves, does not necessarily improve the sensitivity analysis results because it destroys the orthogonality of the trigonometric functions, which is required for Fourier analysis

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the MPAM-R to Brazilian Portuguese and Proposal of a New Method to Calculate Factor Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maicon R.; Lopes, Mariana C.; de Paula, Jonas J.; Faria, Larissa O.; Pereira, Eveline T.; da Costa, Varley T.

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the reasons that lead individuals to practice physical activity, researchers developed the Motives for Physical Activity Measure-Revised (MPAM-R) scale. In 2010, a translation of MPAM-R to Portuguese and its validation was performed. However, psychometric measures were not acceptable. In addition, factor scores in some sports psychology scales are calculated by the mean of scores by items of the factor. Nevertheless, it seems appropriate that items with higher factor loadings, extracted by Factor Analysis, have greater weight in the factor score, as items with lower factor loadings have less weight in the factor score. The aims of the present study are to translate, validate the MPAM-R for Portuguese versions, and investigate agreement between two methods used to calculate factor scores. Three hundred volunteers who were involved in physical activity programs for at least 6 months were collected. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 30 items indicated that the version did not fit the model. After excluding four items, the final model with 26 items showed acceptable model fit measures by Exploratory Factor Analysis, as well as it conceptually supports the five factors as the original proposal. When two methods are compared to calculate factors scores, our results showed that only “Enjoyment” and “Appearance” factors showed agreement between methods to calculate factor scores. So, the Portuguese version of the MPAM-R can be used in a Brazilian context, and a new proposal for the calculation of the factor score seems to be promising. PMID:28293203

  9. The Proposal to “Snapshot” Raim Method for Gnss Vessel Receivers Working in Poor Space Segment Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Aleksander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we can observe an increase in research on the use of small unmanned autonomous vessel (SUAV to patrol and guiding critical areas including harbours. The proposal to “snapshot” RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring method for GNSS receivers mounted on SUAV operating in poor space segment geometry is presented in the paper. Existing “snapshot” RAIM methods and algorithms which are used in practical applications have been developed for airborne receivers, thus two main assumptions have been made. The first one is that the geometry of visible satellites is strong. It means that the exclusion of any satellite from the positioning solution don’t cause significant deterioration of Dilution of Precision (DOP coefficients. The second one is that only one outlier could appear in pseudorange measurements. In case of SUAV operating in harbour these two assumptions cannot be accepted. Because of their small dimensions, GNSS antenna is only a few decimetres above sea level and regular ships, buildings and harbour facilities block and reflect satellite signals. Thus, different approach to “snapshot” RAIM is necessary. The proposal to method based on analyses of allowable maximal separation of positioning sub-solutions with using some information from EGNOS messages is described in the paper. Theoretical assumptions and results of numerical experiments are presented.

  10. On the origin of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, A.; Alfven, H.

    1976-01-01

    Physico-chemical processes leading to the dynamic formation and physical evolution of comets are reviewed in relationship to the various theories that propose solar origins, protoplanetary origins, planetary origins and interstellar origins. Evidence points to the origins of comets by the growth and agglomeration of small particles from gas and dust at very low temperatures at undetermined regions in space.

  11. Mapping replication origins in yeast chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1991-07-01

    The replicon hypothesis, first proposed in 1963 by Jacob and Brenner, states that DNA replication is controlled at sites called origins. Replication origins have been well studied in prokaryotes. However, the study of eukaryotic chromosomal origins has lagged behind, because until recently there has been no method for reliably determining the identity and location of origins from eukaryotic chromosomes. Here, we review a technique we developed with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that allows both the mapping of replication origins and an assessment of their activity. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization with total genomic DNA are used to determine whether a particular restriction fragment acquires the branched structure diagnostic of replication initiation. The technique has been used to localize origins in yeast chromosomes and assess their initiation efficiency. In some cases, origin activation is dependent upon the surrounding context. The technique is also being applied to a variety of eukaryotic organisms.

  12. Examining reproducibility in psychology : A hybrid method for combining a statistically significant original study and a replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aert, R.C.M.; Van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2018-01-01

    The unrealistically high rate of positive results within psychology has increased the attention to replication research. However, researchers who conduct a replication and want to statistically combine the results of their replication with a statistically significant original study encounter

  13. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of greater omentum: An effective method to trace the origin of unclear ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que Yanhong [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: quebaobao@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xuemei [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: wxmlmt@yahoo.com.cn; Liu Yanjun [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: lyj7512@sina.com; Li Ping [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: liping7213@sina.com; Ou Guocheng [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: yang9951@126.com; Zhao Wenjing [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: awk999@163.com

    2009-05-15

    Objectives: Thickened greater omentum is encountered with high frequency in patients with ascites. The purpose of our study was to assess the utility of greater omentum biopsy under the guidance of ultrasound (US) in tracing the origin of unclear ascites and differentiating benign and malignant ascites. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed our institutional database for all records of greater omentum biopsy cases. One hundred and ninety-four patients with unclear ascites and thickened greater omentum were included in the study. The sonograms of greater omentum were evaluated before undergoing the ultrasound-guided biopsy and a biopsy was considered successful if a specific benign or malignant diagnosis was rendered by the pathologist. Results: Successful biopsy was rendered for 182 biopsy procedures (93.8%, 182/194) including tuberculosis (n = 114), chronic inflammation (n = 3), metastases (n = 58), malignant mesothelioma (n = 6) and pseudomyxoma peritonei (n = 1). Twelve biopsies were non-diagnostic. According to the results of biopsy and follow-up, the sensitivity and specificity of biopsy in distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascities were respectively 95.6% (65/68) and 92.9% (117/126). The greater omentum of 84 cases of tuberculous peritonitis showed 'cerebral fissure' sign and was well seen as an omental cake infiltrated with irregular nodules when involved by carcinomatosis. No 'cerebral fissure' sign was observed in peritoneal carcinomatosis. The sensitivity and specificity of this sign in indicating the existence of tuberculous peritonitis were 73.5% (89/121) and 100% (73/73). Moreover, if the specific 'cerebral fissure' sign was combined with the biopsy results, the specificity of biopsy in distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascits increased to 96.8% (122/126). Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided biopsy of greater omentum is an important and effective method to diagnose the unclear ascites for

  14. Proposal of a New Method for Neutron Dosimetry Based on Spectral Information Obtained by Application of Artificial Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbacher, G.; Schuetz, R.; Hahn, K.; Sprunck, M.; Cordes, E.; Biersack, J.P.; Wahl, W.

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the monitoring of neutron radiation is proposed. It is based on the determination of spectral information on the neutron field in order to derive dose quantities like the ambient dose equivalent, the dose equivalent, or other dose quantities which depend on the neutron energy. The method uses a multi-element system consisting of converter type silicon detectors. The unfolding procedure is based on an artificial neural network (ANN). The response function of each element is determined by a computational model considering the neutron interaction with the dosemeter layers and the subsequent transport of produced ions. An example is given for a multi-element system. The ANN is trained by a given set of neutron spectra and then applied to count responses obtained in neutron fields. Four examples of spectra unfolded using the ANN are presented. (author)

  15. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    organizing mathematics lessons, classroom managemen. Teachers have also ... method at an average level, their obstruction effect was implied that there are ..... non-significant difference between the expected (12) and the observed (12.35) ...

  16. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    perception toward the role execution of stakeholders in teachers and .... student teachers face between the in-field and on-campus ... secondary teacher education of Ethiopia, prospective teachers of Bahir Dar ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  17. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Items 1 - 6 ... types, entertainments (e.g., music and movies), a business promotion and ... to study students' classroom interaction in EFL speaking ..... Methods of Data Analysis ..... highlight of it and jump over to other content of the daily lesson.

  18. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    The chemical ecology of many of the green alg ... tetra hydroxyl octadecane isolated from the green alg. Ulva faciata collected off ... two methods have been used as a primary screen ..... Antimicrobial activity and surface bacterial film in marine.

  19. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    ... and the persons. Official International Journal of Wollega University, Ethiopia .... need of active learning methods in all education levels which is .... This tool was also used to collect qualitative data .... based on numerical value. The analysis ...

  20. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study Area and ... establish replicated planting materials at each home .... content (Sankaram, 1996), organic carbon content, available ..... and measure most of the elements essential to plant nutrition as .... manipulate cocoyam canopy architecture, leaf production, planting .... Application of.

  1. Application of PCA-LDA method to determine the geographical origin of tea based on determination of stable isotopes and multi-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yuwei; Zhang Yongzhi; Yang Guiling; Zhang Zhiheng; Fu Haiyan; Han Wenyan; Li Shufang

    2013-01-01

    The ratio of stable isotope and concentration of multi-element in tea was determinated with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pattern recognition techniques with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to classify the geographical origins of tea from Fujian, Shandong and Zhejiang province, and Yuyao, Jinhua and Xihu region of Zhejiang. The results showed the values of δ"1"5N, δ"1"3C, δD, δ"1"8O and the ratios of "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb, "2"0"8Pb/"2"0"6Pb and "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr in tea samples were different from different origins. There was also large variable for the concentrations of 27 mineral elements, such as Li, Be, Na and so on, with a specific character of origin. The method of PCA could be used to classify the geographical origin of tea from different origins but with a cross in the scatter plot. However, PCA combining with LDA could gave correct assignation percentages of 99% for the tea samples among Fujian, Shandong and Zhejiang provinces, and 87% for the tea samples among Yuyao, Jinhua and Xihu region of Zhejiang. These results revealed that it was possible and feasible to classify the geographical origin of tea by the method of PCA-LDA based on the determination of isotopes and multi-elements. (authors)

  2. Proposal for an alignment method of the CLIC linear accelerator - From geodesic networks to the active pre-alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touze, T.

    2011-01-01

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is the particle accelerator project proposed by the european organization for nuclear research (CERN) for high energy physics after the large hadron collider (LHC). Because of the nano-metric scale of the CLIC leptons beams, the emittance growth budget is very tight. It induces alignment tolerances on the positions of the CLIC components that have never been achieved before. The last step of the CLIC alignment will be done according to the beam itself. It falls within the competence of the physicists. However, in order to implement the beam-based feedback, a challenging pre-alignment is required: 10 μm at 3σ along a 200 m sliding window. For such a precision, the proposed solution must be compatible with a feedback between the measurement and repositioning systems. The CLIC pre-alignment will have to be active. This thesis does not demonstrate the feasibility of the CLIC active pre-alignment but shows the way to the last developments that have to be done for that purpose. A method is proposed. Based on the management of the Helmert transformations between Euclidean coordinate systems, from the geodetic networks to the metrological measurements, this method is likely to solve the CLIC pre-alignment problem. Large scale facilities have been built and Monte-Carlo simulations have been made in order to validate the mathematical modeling of the measurement systems and of the alignment references. When this is done, it will be possible to extrapolate the modeling to the entire CLIC length. It will be the last step towards the demonstration of the CLIC pre-alignment feasibility. (author)

  3. Precision of glucose measurements in control sera by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry: proposed definitive method compared with a reference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, O.; Arratoon, C.

    1987-01-01

    This improved isotope-dilution gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method, in which [ 13 C]glucose is the internal standard, meets the requirements of a Definitive Method. In a first study with five reconstituted lyophilized sera, a nested analysis of variance of GC/MS values indicated considerable among-vial variation. The CV for 32 measurements per serum ranged from 0.5 to 0.9%. However, concentration and uncertainty values (mmol/L per gram of serum) assigned to one serum by the NBS Definitive Method (7.56 +/- 0.28) were practically identical to those obtained with the proposed method (7.57 +/- 0.20). In the second study, we used twice more [ 13 C]glucose diluent to assay four serum pools and two lyophilized sera. The CV ranged from 0.26 to 0.5% for the serum pools and from 0.28 to 0.59% for the lyophilized sera. In comparison, results by the hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase reference method agreed within acceptable limits with those by the Definitive Method but tended to be slightly higher (up to 3%) for lyophilized serum samples or slightly lower (up to 2.5%) for serum pools

  4. Verbal Auditory Cueing of Improvisational Dance: A Proposed Method for Training Agency in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Soriano, Christina T.

    2016-01-01

    Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson’s disease (PPD). Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson’s have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance) and partnered (tango). In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time-to-music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation demands open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues, potentially fostering the formation of spontaneous movement strategies. Here, we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living. PMID:26925029

  5. Proposal for evaluation methodology on impact resistant performance and construction method of tornado missile protection net structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Kosuke; Shirai, Koji

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, the necessity of the Tornado Missile Protection Structure is becoming a technical key issue. Utilization of the net structure seems to be one of the realistic counter measures from the point of the view of the mitigation wind and seismic loads. However, the methodology for the selection of the net suitable materials, the energy absorption design method and the construction method are not sufficiently established. In this report, three materials (high-strength metal mesh, super strong polyethylene fiber net and steel grating) were selected for the candidate material and the material screening tests, the energy absorption tests by free drop test using the heavy weight and the impact tests with the small diameter missile. As a result, high-strength metal mesh was selected as a suitable material for tornado missile protection net structure. Moreover, the construction method to obtain the good energy absorption performance of the material and the practical design method to estimate the energy absorption of the high-strength metal mesh under tornado missile impact load were proposed. (author)

  6. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Abstract. Sukhasarak churna, an ayurvedic formulation, traditiona purifier and liver disorder. The main aim of the study amylase activities aqueous extract of Sukhasarak churn churna was screening for antioxidant activity b scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay an amylase activity by dinitrosalicylic acid method ...

  7. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    2015-03-23

    Mar 23, 2015 ... Maize insect pest. *Corresponding Author: Ahmed Ibrahim. E-mail: ibrahimyuya02@gmail.com e methods of storage pest control good for the control of stored sorghum t they were not proved for efficacy. hould be supported by research, as could be very high and for wider of locally available plant products ...

  8. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Therefore, detailed study is necessary for the d the existing water sources, future water sources select water demand and management options .To achieve. Pressure map, population growth rate, Water quality s on purposive sampling method. The pressure result s distributed equally at higher locations of the supply rese.

  9. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    like Ethiopia, bananas in most markets are ripen traditional techniques. Local methods, such as the fruits in .... 1 is unusable, 3 is unsalable, 5 is fair, 7 is good, and 9 is excellent, was used to evaluate the fruit quality. ... changes in color, firmness and TSS value of bananas. (Dadzie and Orchard, 1997). Ripening period for ...

  10. Proposal of Environmental Impact Assessment Method for Concrete in South Korea: An Application in LCA (Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, this study proposed an LCA method specifically applicable to the Korean concrete industry by adapting the ISO standards to suit the Korean situations. The proposed LCA method involves a system that performs environmental impact assessment on the basis of input information on concrete mix design, transport distance, and energy consumption in a batch plant. The Concrete Lifecycle Assessment System (CLAS thus developed provides user-friendly support for environmental impact assessment with specialized database for concrete mix materials and energy sources. In the case analysis using the CLAS, among the substances discharged from the production of 24 MPa concrete, those contributing to GWP, AP, EP, ADP, ODP, and POCP were assessed to amount to 309 kg-CO2 eq/m3, 28.7 kg-SO2 eq/m3, 5.21 kg-PO43− eq/m3, 0.000049 kg-CFC11 eq/m3, 34 kg/m3, and 21 kg-Ethylene eq/m3, respectively. Of these six environmental impact categories selected for the LCA in this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC was found to contribute most intensely to GWP and POCP, and aggregates, to AP, EP, ODP, and ADP. It was also found that the mix design with increased prop proportion of recycled aggregate was found to contribute to reducing the impact in all other categories.

  11. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    activation energy (kJ/mol), R is the ideal gas constant. (8.314 J/mol. K), T is the actual temperature (K), and t is the time (min). Kinetic parameters for ascorbic acid degradation were estimated by a common two-step linear regression method (Esteve et al. 1998, 1999). In the first regression, the logarithm of the values of ...

  12. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    ade of hard wood fibers is not lay-up method of moulding to . Then we are making a rial boards with the required the specimen size and the are given in Table 1. Three aking the mould box. Those ddle board and Base board. or base boards are similar middle board only having n in figure 1. box construction tions of mould ...

  13. Mapping subsurface pathways for contaminant migration at a proposed low level waste disposal site using electromagnetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic methods have been used to measure apparent terrain conductivity in the downstream portion of a watershed in which a waste disposal site is proposed. At that site, the pathways for waste migration in ground water are controlled by subsurface channels. The channels are identified using isocurves of measured apparent conductivity. Two upstream channel branches are found to merge into a single downstream channel which constitutes the main drainage path out of the watershed. The identification and mapping of the ground water pathways is an important contribution to the site characterization study and the pathways analysis. The direct applications of terrain conductivity mapping to the planning of the monitoring program, the hydrogeological testing, and the modeling study are demonstrated. 7 references, 4 figures

  14. Proposal of quality indicators for cardiac rehabilitation after acute coronary syndrome in Japan: a modified Delphi method and practice test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtera, Shosuke; Kanazawa, Natsuko; Ozasa, Neiko; Ueshima, Kenji; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-01-27

    Cardiac rehabilitation is underused and its quality in practice is unclear. A quality indicator is a measurable element of clinical practice performance. This study aimed to propose a set of quality indicators for cardiac rehabilitation following an acute coronary event in the Japanese population and conduct a small-size practice test to confirm feasibility and applicability of the indicators in real-world clinical practice. This study used a modified Delphi technique (the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method), a consensus method which involves an evidence review, a face-to-face multidisciplinary panel meeting and repeated anonymous rating. Evidence to be reviewed included clinical practice guidelines available in English or Japanese and existing quality indicators. Performance of each indicator was assessed retrospectively using medical records at a university hospital in Japan. 10 professionals in cardiac rehabilitation for the consensus panel. In the literature review, 23 clinical practice guidelines and 16 existing indicators were identified to generate potential indicators. Through the consensus-building process, a total of 30 indicators were assessed and finally 13 indicators were accepted. The practice test (n=39) revealed that 74% of patients underwent cardiac rehabilitation. Median performance of process measures was 93% (IQR 46-100%). 'Communication with the doctor who referred the patient to cardiac rehabilitation' and 'continuous participation in cardiac rehabilitation' had low performance (32% and 38%, respectively). A modified Delphi technique identified a comprehensive set of quality indicators for cardiac rehabilitation. The single-site, small-size practice test confirmed that most of the proposed indicators were measurable in real-world clinical practice. However, some clinical processes which are not covered by national health insurance in Japan had low performance. Further studies will be needed to clarify and improve the quality of care in cardiac

  15. TumorTracer: a method to identify the tissue of origin from the somatic mutations of a tumor specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquard, Andrea Marion; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Thomas, Cecilia Engel

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of cancer cases present with a metastatic tumor and require further testing to determine the primary site; many of these are never fully diagnosed and remain cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP). It has been previously demonstrated that the somatic point mutations......-copy-number classifier on three independent data sets: 1669 newly available public tumors of various types, a cohort of 91 breast metastases, and a set of 24 specimens from 9 lung cancer patients subjected to multiregion sequencing. The cross-validation accuracy was highest when all three types of information were used...... detected in a tumor can be used to identify its site of origin with limited accuracy. We hypothesized that higher accuracy could be achieved by a classification algorithm based on the following feature sets: 1) the number of nonsynonymous point mutations in a set of 232 specific cancer-associated genes, 2...

  16. Facile synthetic method for pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots: origin of blue and green luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Jang, Min-Ho; Ha, Hyun Dong; Kim, Je-Hyung; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Seo, Tae Seok

    2013-07-19

    Pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots are synthesized by chemical exfoliation from the graphite nanoparticles with high uniformity in terms of shape (circle), size (less than 4 nm), and thickness (monolayer). The origin of the blue and green photoluminescence of GQDs and GOQDs is attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic energy states, respectively. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A method for investigating population declines of migratory birds using stable isotopes: origins of harvested lesser scaup in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hobson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating geographic locations from where migratory birds are recruited into adult breeding populations is a fundamental but largely elusive goal in conservation biology. This is especially true for species that breed in remote northern areas where field-based demographic assessments are logistically challenging.Here we used hydrogen isotopes (deltaD to determine natal origins of migrating hatch-year lesser scaup (Aythya affinis harvested by hunters in the United States from all North American flyways during the hunting seasons of 1999-2000 (n = 412 and 2000-2001 (n = 455. We combined geospatial, observational, and analytical data sources, including known scaup breeding range, deltaD values of feathers from juveniles at natal sites, models of deltaD for growing-season precipitation, and scaup band-recovery data to generate probabilistic natal origin landscapes for individual scaup. We then used Monte Carlo integration to model assignment uncertainty from among individual deltaD variance estimates from birds of known molt origin and also from band-return data summarized at the flyway level. We compared the distribution of scaup natal origin with the distribution of breeding population counts obtained from systematic long-term surveys.Our analysis revealed that the proportion of young scaup produced in the northern (above 60 degrees N versus the southern boreal and Prairie-Parkland region was inversely related to the proportions of breeding adults using these regions, suggesting that despite having a higher relative abundance of breeding adults, the northern boreal region was less productive for scaup recruitment into the harvest than more southern biomes. Our approach for evaluating population declines of migratory birds (particularly game birds synthesizes all available distributional data and exploits the advantages of intrinsic isotopic markers that link individuals to geography.

  18. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  19. THE PROPOSED METHODOLOGIES FOR THE SIX SIGMA METHOD AND TQM STRATEGY AS WELL AS THEIR APPLICATION IN PRACTICE IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the proposed methodologies for the Six Sigma method and the TQM strategy as well as their application in practice in Macedonia. Although the philosophy of the total quality management (TQM is deeply involved in many industries and business areas of European and other countries it is insufficiently known and present in our country and other developing countries. The same applies to the Six Sigma approach of reducing the dispersion of a process and it is present in a small fraction in Macedonian companies. The results of the implementation have shown that the application of the Six Sigma approach does not refer to the number of defects per million opportunities but to the systematic and systemic lowering of the dispersion process. The operation and effect of the implementation of the six sigma method engages experts that receive a salary depending on the success of the Six Sigma program. On other hand the results of the application of the TQM methodology within the Macedonian companies will depend on the commitment of all employees and their motivation.

  20. A proposed method for accurate 3D analysis of cochlear implant migration using fusion of cone beam CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eDees

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe goal of this investigation was to compare fusion of sequential cone beam CT volumes to the gold standard (fiducial registration in order to be able to analyze clinical CI migration with high accuracy in three dimensions. Materials and MethodsPaired time-lapsed cone beam CT volumes were performed on five human cadaver temporal bones and one human subject. These volumes were fused using 3D Slicer 4 and BRAINSFit software. Using a gold standard fiducial technique, the accuracy, robustness and performance time of the fusion process were assessed.Results This proposed fusion protocol achieves a sub voxel mean Euclidean distance of 0.05 millimeter in human cadaver temporal bones and 0.16 millimeter when applied to the described in vivo human synthetic data set in over 95% of all fusions. Performance times are less than two minutes.ConclusionHere a new and validated method based on existing techniques is described which could be used to accurately quantify migration of cochlear implant electrodes.

  1. Quench origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss the quench origins. I shall first establish a method of classification and introduce the notions of conductor-limited and energy-deposited quenches. Next the paper will be devoted to the study of conductor-limited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of plateau and of fraction of short sample. Also the paper will be devoted to the study of energy-deposited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of training and of minimum energy deposit; I shall then review the possible causes of energy release. Lastly, I shall introduce the notion of operating margin, and I shall indicate how to optimize the operating margin in order to limit the risk of premature quenching. 112 refs., 14 figs

  2. Proposing New Methods to Enhance the Low-Resolution Simulated GPR Responses in the Frequency and Wavelet Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, a number of numerical methods, including the popular Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD technique, have been proposed to simulate Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR responses. Despite having a number of advantages, the finite-difference method also has pitfalls such as being very time consuming in simulating the most common case of media with high dielectric permittivity, causing the forward modelling process to be very long lasting, even with modern high-speed computers. In the present study the well-known hyperbolic pattern response of horizontal cylinders, usually found in GPR B-Scan images, is used as a basic model to examine the possibility of reducing the forward modelling execution time. In general, the simulated GPR traces of common reflected objects are time shifted, as with the Normal Moveout (NMO traces encountered in seismic reflection responses. This suggests the application of Fourier transform to the GPR traces, employing the time-shifting property of the transformation to interpolate the traces between the adjusted traces in the frequency domain (FD. Therefore, in the present study two post-processing algorithms have been adopted to increase the speed of forward modelling while maintaining the required precision. The first approach is based on linear interpolation in the Fourier domain, resulting in increasing lateral trace-to-trace interval of appropriate sampling frequency of the signal, preventing any aliasing. In the second approach, a super-resolution algorithm based on 2D-wavelet transform is developed to increase both vertical and horizontal resolution of the GPR B-Scan images through preserving scale and shape of hidden hyperbola features. Through comparing outputs from both methods with the corresponding actual high-resolution forward response, it is shown that both approaches can perform satisfactorily, although the wavelet-based approach outperforms the frequency-domain approach noticeably, both in amplitude and

  3. Geographic determination of the growing origins of Jamaican and international coffee using instrumental neutron activation analysis and other methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, J.M.R.; Hoo Fung, L.A.; Grant, Ch.N.

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether elemental analysis could distinguish the growing origins of Jamaican versus international coffee and identify intra-island growing regions. Twenty-four samples of roasted and ground coffee and soluble coffee were collected and analysed using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Sixteen elements were selected for statistical evaluation. Soluble clustered discretely from roasted and ground samples. The distinction among roasted and ground samples was not as discrete. Geographic growing regions could be determined by statistical analysis; separating the growing sub-regions in Jamaica would require additional analyses. (author)

  4. A Proposal of a Method to Measure and Evaluate the Effect to Apply External Support Measures for Owners by Construction Management Method, etc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hiroshi; Miyatake, Ichiro; Mouri, Junji; Ajiki, Norihiko; Fueta, Toshiharu

    In Japan, various approaches have been taken to ensure the quality of public works or to support the procurement regime of the governmental agencies, as a means to utilize external resources, which include the procurement support service or the construction management (CM) method. Although discussions on these measures to utilize external resources (hereinafter referred to as external support measure) have been going on, as well as the follow-up surveys showing the positive effects of such measures have been conducted, the surveys only deal with the matters concerning the overall effects of the external support measure on the whole, meaning that the effect of each item of the tasks have not been addressed, and that the extent it dealt with the expectations of the client is unknown. However, the effective use of the external support measure in future cannot be achieved without knowing what was the purpose to introduce the external support measure, and what effect was expected on each task item, and what extent the expectation fulfilled. Furthermore, it is important to clarify not only the effect as compared to the client's expectation (performance), but also the public benefit of this measure (value improvement). From this point of view, there is not an established method to figure out the effect of the client's measure to utilize external resources. In view of this background, this study takes the CM method as an example of the external support measure, and proposes a method to measure and evaluate the effect by each task item, and suggests the future issues and possible responses, in the aim of contributing the promotion, improvement, and proper implementation of the external support measures in future.

  5. A Proposal of Estimation Methodology to Improve Calculation Efficiency of Sampling-based Method in Nuclear Data Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myung Sub; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung; Noh, Jae Man

    2014-01-01

    The uncertainty with the sampling-based method is evaluated by repeating transport calculations with a number of cross section data sampled from the covariance uncertainty data. In the transport calculation with the sampling-based method, the transport equation is not modified; therefore, all uncertainties of the responses such as k eff , reaction rates, flux and power distribution can be directly obtained all at one time without code modification. However, a major drawback with the sampling-based method is that it requires expensive computational load for statistically reliable results (inside confidence level 0.95) in the uncertainty analysis. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for improving the computational efficiency and obtaining highly reliable uncertainty result in using the sampling-based method with Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed method is a method to reduce the convergence time of the response uncertainty by using the multiple sets of sampled group cross sections in a single Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed method was verified by estimating GODIVA benchmark problem and the results were compared with that of conventional sampling-based method. In this study, sampling-based method based on central limit theorem is proposed to improve calculation efficiency by reducing the number of repetitive Monte Carlo transport calculation required to obtain reliable uncertainty analysis results. Each set of sampled group cross sections is assigned to each active cycle group in a single Monte Carlo simulation. The criticality uncertainty for the GODIVA problem is evaluated by the proposed and previous method. The results show that the proposed sampling-based method can efficiently decrease the number of Monte Carlo simulation required for evaluate uncertainty of k eff . It is expected that the proposed method will improve computational efficiency of uncertainty analysis with sampling-based method

  6. Feasibility study and technical proposal for the use of microseismic methods in the long-term observation of bedrock stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    1995-04-01

    Recent geodetic and seismological studies have paid attention to the slow deformation occurring in the Fennoscandian Shield. On the basis of these studies, together with in-situ stress measurements, the idea has been put forth that horizontal movement can be even greater than vertical movement. Local seismotectonics has importance in relation to the predictions of the long-term stability of the bedrock at the final disposal site. Potential direct and - what in Finland is more likely - indirect effects on the vault are due to local earthquakes of creep. The direct effects on the repository include rock vibration and displacement on an increasing fault. The indirect effects are changes in the surrounding structure, in the stress field, in the groundwater table, pressure, flux and chemistry. The block movements are controlled mainly by the network of fracture zones. The report deals with the possibilities to monitor by seismic methods slow movements occurring in the bedrock at the local level. The report includes descriptions of instrumentation for recording microearthquakes, the seismic network and an interpretation of the observations. The potential sites for disposal (Kuhmo, Aeaenekoski, Eurajoki) are compared in relation to seismic monitoring. Also the experiences of other investigations and a proposal for microearthquake investigations as well as of prospective developments within monitoring are presented. (28 refs., 17 figs.)

  7. Proposed Food and Drug Administration protective action guides for human food and animal feed: methods and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.D.; Shleien, B.; Chiacchierini, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's proposed recommendations to State and local agencies provide guidance on appropriate planning actions necessary for evaluating and preventing radioactive contamination of foods and animal feeds and the control and use of such products should they become contaminated. This presentation will cover the recommendations on implementation of the Preventive and Emergency PAG's. These recommendations include (1) the use of 'Dietary Factors' to obtain PAG's for specific food items from the general guidance, (2) procedures to be used for radionuclide mixtures and other radionuclides, (3) field and laboratory methods for the measurement of the level of contamination in the event of an incident and, (4) protective actions to be implemented by State and local agencies to limit the radiation dose to the public. Specific protective actions which should be considered for implementation when the projected dose exceeds the Preventive PAG are given for application to pasture, milk, fruits and vegetables, and grains. At the Emergency PAG level, the protective action decision is whether condemnation or other disposition is appropriate. (author)

  8. Relating two proposed methods for speedup of algorithms for fitting two- and three-way principal component and related multilinear models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.; Harshman, Richard A.

    Multilinear analysis methods such as component (and three-way component) analysis of very large data sets can become very computationally demanding and even infeasible unless some method is used to compress the data and/or speed up the algorithms. We discuss two previously proposed speedup methods.

  9. On the origin of constrained superfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall’Agata, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dudas, E. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-05-06

    In this work we analyze constrained superfields in supersymmetry and supergravity. We propose a constraint that, in combination with the constrained goldstino multiplet, consistently removes any selected component from a generic superfield. We also describe its origin, providing the operators whose equations of motion lead to the decoupling of such components. We illustrate our proposal by means of various examples and show how known constraints can be reproduced by our method.

  10. Original methods of quantitative analysis developed for diverse samples in various research fields. Quantitative analysis at NMCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center (NMCC) has been opened for nationwide-common utilization of positron nuclear medicine (PET) and PIXE since April 1993. At the present time, nearly 40 subjects of PIXE in various research fields are pursued here, and more than 50,000 samples have been analyzed up to the present. In order to perform quantitative analyses of diverse samples, technical developments in sample preparation, measurement and data analysis have been continuously carried out. Especially, a standard-free method for quantitative analysis'' made it possible to perform analysis of infinitesimal samples, powdered samples and untreated bio samples, which could not be well analyzed quantitatively in the past. The standard-free method'' and a ''powdered internal standard method'' made the process for target preparation quite easier. It has been confirmed that results obtained by these methods show satisfactory accuracy and reproducibility preventing any ambiguity coming from complicated target preparation processes. (author)

  11. Origin and outcome of multiple pregnancies in Bern, Switzerland, 1995-2006 and the current proposal of the Swiss parliament to revise the Swiss law of reproductive medicine: Switzerland quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Dorothea; Neurohr, Eva-Maria; Faouzi, Mohamed; Birkhäuser, Martin H

    2013-09-19

    Infertility treatments are a major source of the increase in multiple pregnancies (MPs). The aims of the present study were (1.) to investigate the origin and maternal/neonatal outcomes of MP and (2.) to review the different measures that can be adopted to reduce these serious complications. The study included all women with multiple births between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2006 at the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland. The outcomes associated with the various origins of MP (natural conception, ovarian stimulation [OS]--in-vitro fertilisation [IVF-ICSI]) were analysed using a multinomial logistic regression model. An analysis of the Swiss law on reproductive medicine and its current proposed revision, as well as a literature review using Pubmed, was carried out. A total of 592 MP were registered, 91% (n = 537) resulted in live births. There was significantly more neonatal/maternal morbidity in MP after OS compared with natural conception and even with the IVF-ICSI group. With a policy of elective single embryo transfer (eSET), twin rates after IVF-ICSI can be reduced to <5% and triplets to <1%. After OS, more triplets are found and the outcome of MP is worse. MP is known to be associated with morbidity, mortality, and economic and social risks. To counteract these complications (1.) better training for physicians performing OS should be encouraged and (2.) the Swiss law on reproductive medicine needs to be changed, with the introduction of eSET policies. This would lead to a dramatic decrease in neonatal and maternal morbidity/mortality as well as significant cost reductions for the Swiss healthcare system.

  12. Intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in Mexican-origin youths' participation in organized activities: insights from mixed-methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Vest, Andrea E; Price, Chara D

    2011-12-01

    Motivation theories suggest that parents are an integral support for adolescents' participation in organized activities. Despite the importance of parents, the field knows very little about how parents' own experiences in activities influence the participation of their adolescent children. The goals of this study were to examine (a) the patterns of intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in parents' activity participation during adolescence and their adolescents' activity participation, and (b) the processes underlying each of these patterns within Mexican-origin families. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through three in-depth interviews conducted with 31 seventh-grade adolescents and their parents at three time points over a year. The quantitative data suggested there was modest intergenerational continuity in activity participation. There were three distinct patterns: nine families were continuous participants, seven families were continuous nonparticipants, and 15 families were discontinuous, where the parent did not participate but the youth did participate in activities. The continuous participant families included families in which parents valued how organized activities contributed to their own lives and actively encouraged their adolescents' participation. The continuous nonparticipant families reported less knowledge and experience with activities along with numerous barriers to participation. There were three central reasons for the change in the discontinuous families. For a third of these families, parents felt strongly about providing a different childhood for their adolescents than what they experienced. The intergenerational discontinuity in participation was also likely to be sparked by someone else in the family or an external influence (i.e., friends, schools).

  13. Proposal of flexible atomic and molecular process management for Monte Carlo impurity transport code based on object oriented method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, K.; Ohno, N.; Takamura, S.

    2001-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation code on impurity transport has been developed by several groups to be utilized mainly for fusion related edge plasmas. State of impurity particle is determined by atomic and molecular processes such as ionization, charge exchange in plasma. A lot of atomic and molecular processes have been considered because the edge plasma has not only impurity atoms, but also impurity molecules mainly related to chemical erosion of carbon materials, and their cross sections have been given experimentally and theoretically. We need to reveal which process is essential in a given edge plasma condition. Monte Carlo simulation code, which takes such various atomic and molecular processes into account, is necessary to investigate the behavior of impurity particle in plasmas. Usually, the impurity transport simulation code has been intended for some specific atomic and molecular processes so that the introduction of a new process forces complicated programming work. In order to evaluate various proposed atomic and molecular processes, a flexible management of atomic and molecular reaction should be established. We have developed the impurity transport simulation code based on object-oriented method. By employing object-oriented programming, we can handle each particle as 'object', which enfolds data and procedure function itself. A user (notice, not programmer) can define property of each particle species and the related atomic and molecular processes and then each 'object' is defined by analyzing this information. According to the relation among plasma particle species, objects are connected with each other and change their state by themselves. Dynamic allocation of these objects to program memory is employed to adapt for arbitrary number of species and atomic/molecular reactions. Thus we can treat arbitrary species and process starting from, for instance, methane and acetylene. Such a software procedure would be useful also for industrial application plasmas

  14. Trace analysis of three fungicides in animal origin foods with a modified QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhaobin; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-02-01

    A multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed and validated for the determination of three selected fungicides (propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, and isopyrazam) in seven animal origin foods. The overall recoveries at the three spiking levels of 0.005, 0.05, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) spanned between 72.3 and 101.4% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 0.7 and 14.9%. The method shows good linearity in the concentrations between 0.001 and 1 mg L(-1) with the coefficient of determination (R (2)) value >0.99 for each target analyte. The limit of detections (LODs) for target analytes were between 0.04 and 1.26 μg kg(-1), and the limit of quantifications (LOQs) were between 0.13 and 4.20 μg kg(-1). The matrix effect for each individual compound was evaluated through the study of ratios of the areas obtained in solvent and matrix standards. The optimized method provided a negligible matrix effect for propiconazole within 20%, whereas for pyraclostrobin and isopyrazam, the matrix effect was relatively significant with a maximum value of 49.8%. The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 210 animal origin samples obtained from 16 provinces of China. The results suggested that the developed method was satisfactory for trace analysis of three fungicides in animal origin foods.

  15. Potential of electric discharge plasma methods in abatement of volatile organic compounds originating from the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, S; Klauson, D; Gregor, A

    2013-01-15

    Increased volatile organic compounds emissions and commensurate tightening of applicable legislation mean that the development and application of effective, cost-efficient abatement methods are areas of growing concern. This paper reviews the last two decades' publications on organic vapour emissions from food processing, their sources, impacts and treatment methods. An overview of the latest developments in conventional air treatment methods is presented, followed by the main focus of the paper, non-thermal plasma technology. The results of the review suggest that non-thermal plasma technology, in its pulsed corona discharge configuration, is an emerging treatment method with potential for low-cost, effective abatement of a wide spectrum of organic air pollutants. It is found that the combination of plasma treatment with catalysis is a development trend that demonstrates considerable potential. The as yet relatively small number of plasma treatment applications is considered to be due to the novelty of pulsed electric discharge techniques and a lack of reliable pulse generators and reactors. Other issues acting as barriers to widespread adoption of the technique include the possible formation of stable oxidation by-products, residual ozone and nitrogen oxides, and sensitivity towards air humidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodistance analysis of the Moche sacrificial victims from Huaca de la Luna plaza 3C: Matrix method test of their origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Richard C; Verano, John W

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to test two competing models regarding the origins of Early Intermediate Period (AD 200-750) sacrificial victims from the Huacas de Moche site using the matrix correlation method. The first model posits the sacrificial victims represent local elites who lost competitions in ritual battles with one another, while the other model suggests the victims were nonlocal warriors captured during warfare with nearby polities. We estimate biodistances for sacrificial victims from Huaca de la Luna Plaza 3C (AD 300-550) with eight previously reported samples from the north coast of Peru using both the mean measure of divergence (MMD) and Mahalanobis' distance (d2). Hypothetical matrices are developed based upon the assumptions of each of the two competing models regarding the origins of Moche sacrificial victims. When the MMD matrix is compared to the two hypothetical matrices using a partial-Mantel test (Smouse et al.: Syst Zool 35 (1986) 627-632), the ritual combat model (i.e. local origins) has a low and nonsignificant correlation (r = 0.134, P = 0.163), while the nonlocal origins model is highly correlated and significant (r = 0.688, P = 0.001). Comparisons of the d2 results and the two hypothetical matrices also produced low and nonsignificant correlation for the ritual combat model (r = 0.210, P = 0.212), while producing a higher and statistically significant result with the nonlocal origins model (r = 0.676, P = 0.002). We suggest that the Moche sacrificial victims represent nonlocal warriors captured in territorial combat with nearby competing polities. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Original Misunderstanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  18. Differentiation of wines according to grape variety and geographical origin based on volatiles profiling using SPME-MS and SPME-GC/MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Angelika; Wąsowicz, Erwin; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2016-12-15

    Among methods to detect wine adulteration, profiling volatiles is one with a great potential regarding robustness, analysis time and abundance of information for subsequent data treatment. Volatile fraction fingerprinting by solid-phase microextraction with direct analysis by mass spectrometry without compounds separation (SPME-MS) was used for differentiation of white as well as red wines. The aim was to differentiate between varieties used for wine production and to also differentiate wines by country of origin. The results obtained were compared to SPME-GC/MS analysis in which compounds were resolved by gas chromatography. For both approaches the same type of statistical procedure was used to compare samples: principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). White wines (38) and red wines (41) representing different grape varieties and various regions of origin were analysed. SPME-MS proved to be advantageous in use due to better discrimination and higher sample throughput. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Origin Discrimination of Osmanthus fragrans var. thunbergii Flowers using GC-MS and UPLC-PDA Combined with Multivariable Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Zhao, Yajing; Peng, Jiyu; Jiang, Yirong; Li, Maiquan; Jiang, Yuan; Lu, Baiyi

    2017-07-01

    Osmanthus fragrans flowers are used as folk medicine and additives for teas, beverages and foods. The metabolites of O. fragrans flowers from different geographical origins were inconsistent in some extent. Chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with multivariable analysis methods provides an approach for discriminating the origin of O. fragrans flowers. To discriminate the Osmanthus fragrans var. thunbergii flowers from different origins with the identified metabolites. GC-MS and UPLC-PDA were conducted to analyse the metabolites in O. fragrans var. thunbergii flowers (in total 150 samples). Principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modelling of class analogy analysis (SIMCA) and random forest (RF) analysis were applied to group the GC-MS and UPLC-PDA data. GC-MS identified 32 compounds common to all samples while UPLC-PDA/QTOF-MS identified 16 common compounds. PCA of the UPLC-PDA data generated a better clustering than PCA of the GC-MS data. Ten metabolites (six from GC-MS and four from UPLC-PDA) were selected as effective compounds for discrimination by PCA loadings. SIMCA and RF analysis were used to build classification models, and the RF model, based on the four effective compounds (caffeic acid derivative, acteoside, ligustroside and compound 15), yielded better results with the classification rate of 100% in the calibration set and 97.8% in the prediction set. GC-MS and UPLC-PDA combined with multivariable analysis methods can discriminate the origin of Osmanthus fragrans var. thunbergii flowers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Libertarianism and Original Appropriation

    OpenAIRE

    Dominiak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of the structure of libertarian theory of justice. It tries to present a map of the main concepts and principles of this theory and to investigate its possible justifications. It explains such fundamental concepts as original appropriation, homesteading, labour theory of property or first possession theory of original appropriation. The article shows merits and drawbacks of alternative libertarian principles of justice in first acquisition and proposes a ...

  1. Development and Implementation of Efficiency-Improving Analysis Methods for the SAGE III on ISS Thermal Model Originating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; Scola, Salvatore; Tobin, Steven; McLeod, Shawn; Mannu, Sergio; Guglielmo, Corrado; Moeller, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2015. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Several novel methods have been implemented to facilitate efficient payload-level thermal analysis, including the use of a design of experiments (DOE) methodology to determine the worst-case orbits for SAGE III while on ISS, use of TD assemblies to move payloads from the Dragon trunk to the Enhanced Operational Transfer Platform (EOTP) to its final home on the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Logistics Carrier (ELC)-4, incorporation of older models in varying unit sets, ability to change units easily (including hardcoded logic blocks), case-based logic to facilitate activating heaters and active elements for varying scenarios within a single model, incorporation of several coordinate frames to easily map to structural models with differing geometries and locations, and streamlined results processing using an Excel-based text file plotter developed in-house at LaRC. This document presents an overview of the SAGE III thermal model and describes the development and implementation of these efficiency-improving analysis methods.

  2. Experimental methods for the Palaeolithic dry distillation of birch bark: implications for the origin and development of Neandertal adhesive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozowyk, P R B; Soressi, M; Pomstra, D; Langejans, G H J

    2017-08-31

    The destructive distillation of birch bark to produce tar has recently featured in debates about the technological and cognitive abilities of Neandertals and modern humans. The abilities to precisely control fire temperatures and to manipulate adhesive properties are believed to require advanced mental traits. However, the significance given to adhesive technology in these debates has quickly outgrown our understanding of birch bark tar and its manufacture using aceramic techniques. In this paper, we detail three experimental methods of Palaeolithic tar production ranging from simple to complex. We recorded the fuel, time, materials, temperatures, and tar yield for each method and compared them with the tar known from the Palaeolithic. Our results indicate that it is possible to obtain useful amounts of tar by combining materials and technology already in use by Neandertals. A ceramic container is not required, and temperature control need not be as precise as previously thought. However, Neandertals must have been able to recognize certain material properties, such as adhesive tack and viscosity. In this way, they could develop the technology from producing small traces of tar on partially burned bark to techniques capable of manufacturing quantities of tar equal to those found in the Middle Palaeolithic archaeological record.

  3. The restructuring and privatisation trajectory in South Africa: tracing the historical public policy origins, purpose, methods and guidelines in the pre-1994 epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyawo Gumede

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many perspectives have been propounded and written about the restructuring and privatisation reform. However, this paper endeavours to give a South African approach to the reform profoundly delving into its historical approach on the original definition, methods, factors, criteria and goals of the reform. This paper seeks to demonstrate that this reform has its origins in the apartheid government policy which was intended at strengthening and revitalising the apartheid political economy in the 1980s. The thinking that the private sector runs enterprises in a more efficient, effective, competitive and profitable way and that such an approach may be applied to the State Owned Enterprises with success in an effort to reduce government debt and improving the operational performance, attracted the then South African government into adopting this neoliberal trajectory. State Owned Enterprises compared to their private counterparts performed poorly and suffered heavy losses and ultimately drained government financially. The then South African government initiated a white paper on privatisation and deregulation in 1987 which culminated in the implementation of the restructuring and privatisation reform in South Africa. Thus, this paper posits that the privatisation and restructuring reform originated from the then South African government policy initiatives in the 1980s.

  4. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic ... Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated ... GBS development in diabetics. An Italian ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... Reproductive development and function in human and other ... sulting solution was filtered and left to stand for three days to ..... male rat brain and pituitary. Brain Res 164,.

  6. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... shall argue that it is necessary for the pedagogues to know how they are constituted by the regimes of power on one side and on the other side are forced to create themselves. This knowledge could transform pedagogues into what I suggest calling ‘original pedagogues’, who have an authentic, ethic...... and professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study...

  7. A General Method for Assessing the Origin of Interstellar Small Bodies: The Case of 1I/2017 U1 (‘Oumuamua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Sánchez-Hernández, Oscar; Sucerquia, Mario; Ferrín, Ignacio

    2018-06-01

    With the advent of more and deeper sky surveys, the discovery of interstellar small objects entering into the solar system has been finally possible. In 2017 October 19, using observations of the Pan-STARRS survey, a fast moving object, now officially named 1I/2017 U1 (‘Oumuamua), was discovered in a heliocentric unbound trajectory, suggesting an interstellar origin. Assessing the provenance of interstellar small objects is key for understanding their distribution, spatial density, and the processes responsible for their ejection from planetary systems. However, their peculiar trajectories place a limit on the number of observations available to determine a precise orbit. As a result, when its position is propagated ∼105–106 years backward in time, small errors in orbital elements become large uncertainties in position in the interstellar space. In this paper we present a general method for assigning probabilities to nearby stars of being the parent system of an observed interstellar object. We describe the method in detail and apply it for assessing the origin of ‘Oumuamua. A preliminary list of potential progenitors and their corresponding probabilities is provided. In the future, when further information about the object and/or the nearby stars be refined, the probabilities computed with our method can be updated. We provide all the data and codes we developed for this purpose in the form of an open source C/C++/Python package, iWander, which is publicly available at http://github.com/seap-udea/iWander.

  8. Do intrauterine or genetic influences explain the foetal origins of chronic disease? A novel experimental method for disentangling effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Dale

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is much evidence to suggest that risk for common clinical disorders begins in foetal life. Exposure to environmental risk factors however is often not random. Many commonly used indices of prenatal adversity (e.g. maternal gestational stress, gestational diabetes, smoking in pregnancy are influenced by maternal genes and genetically influenced maternal behaviour. As mother provides the baby with both genes and prenatal environment, associations between prenatal risk factors and offspring disease maybe attributable to true prenatal risk effects or to the "confounding" effects of genetic liability that are shared by mother and offspring. Cross-fostering designs, including those that involve embryo transfer have proved useful in animal studies. However disentangling these effects in humans poses significant problems for traditional genetic epidemiological research designs. Methods We present a novel research strategy aimed at disentangling maternally provided pre-natal environmental and inherited genetic effects. Families of children aged 5 to 9 years born by assisted reproductive technologies, specifically homologous IVF, sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation and gestational surrogacy were contacted through fertility clinics and mailed a package of questionnaires on health and mental health related risk factors and outcomes. Further data were obtained from antenatal records. Results To date 741 families from 18 fertility clinics have participated. The degree of association between maternally provided prenatal risk factor and child outcome in the group of families where the woman undergoing pregnancy and offspring are genetically related (homologous IVF, sperm donation is compared to association in the group where offspring are genetically unrelated to the woman who undergoes the pregnancy (egg donation, embryo donation, surrogacy. These comparisons can be then examined to infer the extent to which prenatal effects

  9. The effect of cutting origin and organic plant growth regulator on the growth of Daun Ungu (Graptophyllum pictum) through stem cutting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, S. P.; Yunus, A.; Purwanto, E.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Graptophyllum pictum is one of medical plants which has important chemical content to treat diseases. Leaf, bark and flower can be used to facilitate menstruation, treat hemorrhoid, constipation, ulcers, ulcers, swelling, and earache. G. pictum is difficult to propagated by seedling due to the long duration of seed formation, thusvegetative propagation is done by stem cutting. The aims of this study are to obtain optimum combination of cutting origin and organic plant growth regulator in various consentration for the growth of Daun Ungu through stem cutting method. This research was conducted at Research center for Medicinal Plant and Traditional DrugTanjungsari, Tegal Gede, Karanganyar in June to August 2016. Origin of cuttings and organic plant growth regulator were used as treatments factor. A completely randomized design (RAL) is used and data were analyzed by F test (ANOVA) with a confidence level of 95%. Any significant differences among treatment followed with Duncan test at a = 5%. The research indicates that longest root was resulted from the treatment of 0,5 ml/l of organic plant growth regulator. The treatment of 1 ml/l is able to increase the fresh and dry weight of root, treatment of 1,5 ml/l of organic plant growth regulator was able to increase the percentage of growing shoots. Treatment of base part as origin of cuttings increases the length, fresh weight and and dry weight of shoot, increase the number of leaves. Interaction treatment between 1 ml/l consentration of organic plant growth regulator and central part origin of cuttings is capable of increasing the leaf area, whereas treatment without organic plant growth regulator and base part as planting material affects the smallest leaf area.

  10. Numerical Differentiation Methods for Computing Error Covariance Matrices in Item Response Theory Modeling: An Evaluation and a New Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Cai, Li; Thissen, David; Xin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In item response theory (IRT) modeling, the item parameter error covariance matrix plays a critical role in statistical inference procedures. When item parameters are estimated using the EM algorithm, the parameter error covariance matrix is not an automatic by-product of item calibration. Cai proposed the use of Supplemented EM algorithm for…

  11. Original article Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives – a new method of measuring motives for physical activity and sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Lipowski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background As a conscious activity of an individual, physical activity (PA constitutes an element of the free-time dimension. The type of goal allows us to distinguish between sport and PA: sport performance vs. psychophysical health – hence the idea to develop a tool for measurement of the motivational function of an objective in physical activity and sport. Participants and procedure The normalisation sample consisted of 2141 individuals: 1163 women aged 16-64 (M = 23.90, SD = 8.30 and 978 men aged 16-66 (M = 24.50, SD = 9.40. In the process of validation, a factor analysis, and subsequently validity and reliability analysis of the tool, and normalisation of scales were performed. Results Based on the factor analysis and the degree to which each of the given items conformed to the theory of the motivational function of an objective, the following scales were distinguished: 1 motivational value (the extent to which the objective influences the actions undertaken by an individual, 2 time management (the level of focus on planning, arranging and organizing time for PA, 3 persistence in action (efficiency and persistence of action, and the ability to deal with adversities, and 4 motivational conflict (the level of conflict: PA objectives vs. other objectives. The Cronbach’s α reliability coefficient for this version reached .78. The Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives (IPAO also included questions that allow one to control for variables such as the variety of forms, duration, and frequency of PA, and socio-demographic variables. Conclusions The IPAO, as a new method for measuring motives for physical activity and sport, is characterized by good psychometric properties. The IPAO can serve both scientific research and as a useful tool for personal trainers, helping diagnose the motives for engaging in PA and sports. With knowledge about the purposefulness of actions, it is possible to support and shape additional motivation experienced by

  12. CTA-enhanced perfusion CT: an original method to perform ultra-low-dose CTA-enhanced perfusion CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Elizabeth; Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Utilizing CT angiography enhances image quality in PCT, thereby permitting acquisition at ultra-low dose. Dynamic CT acquisitions were obtained at 80 kVp with decreasing tube current-time product [milliamperes x seconds (mAs)] in patients suspected of ischemic stroke, with concurrent CTA of the cervical and intracranial arteries. By utilizing fast Fourier transformation, high spatial frequencies of CTA were combined with low spatial frequencies of PCT to create a virtual PCT dataset. The real and virtual PCT datasets with decreasing mAs were compared by assessing contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and noise and PCT values and by visual inspection of PCT parametric maps. Virtual PCT attained CNR and SNR three- to sevenfold superior to real PCT and noise reduction by a factor of 4-6 (p < 0.05). At 20 mAs, virtual PCT achieved diagnostic parametric maps, while the quality of real PCT maps was inadequate. At 10 mAs, both real and virtual PCT maps were nondiagnostic. Virtual PCT (but not real PCT) maps regained diagnostic quality at 10 mAs by applying 40 % adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and improved further with 80 % ASIR. Our new method of creating virtual PCT by combining ultra-low-dose PCT with CTA information yields diagnostic perfusion parametric maps from PCT acquired at 20 or 10 mAs with 80 % ASIR. Effective dose is approximately 0.20 mSv, equivalent to two chest radiographs. (orig.)

  13. Proposed method for assigning metric tons of heavy metal values to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    A proposed method is described for assigning an equivalent metric ton heavy metal (eMTHM) value to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository. This method for establishing a curie equivalency between defense high-level waste and irradiated commercial fuel is based on the ratio of defense fuel exposure to the typical commercial fuel exposure, MWd/MTHM. application of this technique to defense high-level wastes is described. Additionally, this proposed technique is compared to several alternate calculations for eMTHM. 15 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Examining the hemagglutinin subtype diversity among wild duck-origin influenza A viruses using ethanol-fixed cloacal swabs and a novel RT-PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Soll, Lindsey; Dugan, Vivien; Runstadler, Jonathan; Happ, George; Slemons, Richard D; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2008-05-25

    This study presents an interconnected approach for circumventing two inherent limitations associated with studies defining the natural history of influenza A viruses in wild birds. The first limiting factor is the ability to maintain a cold chain from specimen collection to the laboratory when study sites are in more remote locations. The second limiting factor is the ability to identify all influenza A virus HA subtypes present in an original sample. We report a novel method for molecular subtyping of avian influenza A virus hemagglutinin genes using degenerate primers designed to amplify all known hemagglutinin subtypes. It was shown previously that templates larger than 200 bp were not consistently amplifiable from ethanol-fixed cloacal swabs. For this study, new primer sets were designed within these constraints. This method was used to perform subtyping RT-PCR on 191 influenza RNA-positive ethanol-fixed cloacal swabs obtained from 880 wild ducks in central Alaska in 2005. Seven different co-circulating hemagglutinin subtypes were identified in this study set, including H1, H3, H4, H5, H6, H8, and H12. In addition, 16% of original cloacal samples showed evidence of mixed infection, with samples yielding from two-to-five different hemagglutinin subtypes. This study further demonstrates the complex ecobiology of avian influenza A viruses in wild birds.

  15. [A study for testing the antifungal susceptibility of yeast by the Japanese Society for Medical Mycology (JSMM) method. The proposal of the modified JSMM method 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yayoi; Abe, Michiko; Ikeda, Reiko; Uno, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Mohri, Shinobu; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Hasumi, Yayoi; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    The Japanese Society for Medical Mycology (JSMM) method used for testing the antifungal susceptibility of yeast, the MIC end point for azole antifungal agents, is currently set at IC(80). It was recently shown, however that there is an inconsistency in the MIC value between the JSMM method and the CLSI M27-A2 (CLSI) method, in which the end- point was to read as IC(50). To resolve this discrepancy and reassess the JSMM method, the MIC for three azoles, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole were compared to 5 strains of each of the following Candida species: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei, for a total of 25 comparisons, using the JSMM method, a modified JSMM method, and the CLSI method. The results showed that when the MIC end- point criterion of the JSMM method was changed from IC(80) to IC(50) (the modified JSMM method) , the MIC value was consistent and compatible with the CLSI method. Finally, it should be emphasized that the JSMM method, using a spectrophotometer for MIC measurement, was superior in both stability and reproducibility, as compared to the CLSI method in which growth was assessed by visual observation.

  16. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  17. Proposal of an Appropriate Decalcification Method of Bone Marrow Biopsy Specimens in the Era of Expanding Genetic Molecular Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Choi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The conventional method for decalcification of bone specimens uses hydrochloric acid (HCl and is notorious for damaging cellular RNA, DNA, and proteins, thus complicating molecular and immunohistochemical analyses. A method that can effectively decalcify while preserving genetic material is necessary. Methods: Pairs of bilateral bone marrow biopsies sampled from 53 patients were decalcified according to protocols of two comparison groups: EDTA versus HCl and RDO GOLD (RDO versus HCl. Pairs of right and left bone marrow biopsy samples harvested from 28 cases were allocated into the EDTA versus HCl comparison group, and 25 cases to the RDO versus HCl comparison group. The decalcification protocols were compared with regards to histomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular analysis. For molecular analysis, we randomly selected 5 cases from the EDTA versus HCl and RDO versus HCl groups. Results: The decalcification time for appropriate histomorphologic analysis was the longest in the EDTA method and the shortest in the RDO method. EDTA was superior to RDO or HCl in DNA yield and integrity, assessed via DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and silver in situ hybridization using DNA probes. The EDTA method maintained intact nuclear protein staining on immunohistochemistry, while the HCl method produced poor quality images. Staining after the RDO method had equivocal results. RNA in situ hybridization using kappa and lambda RNA probes measured RNA integrity; the EDTA and RDO method had the best quality, followed by HCl. Conclusions: The EDTA protocol would be the best in preserving genetic material. RDO may be an acceptable alternative when rapid decalcification is necessary.

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Illnesses of Herod the Great. Francois P Retief, Johan F G Cilliers. Herod the Great, ldumean by birth, was king ofthe Jews from 40 to 4 BC. An able statesman, builder and warrior, he ruthlessly stamped out all perceived opposition to his rule. His last decade was characterised by vicious strife within ...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF. INTERNS TO BLOOD IN AN AREA. OF HIGH HIV SEROPREVALENCE. A S Karstaedt, L Pantanowitz. Objective. To determine the epidemiology of work-related exposure to blood among interns. Design. Interns were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. McCarthy D, Amos A, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 1997; 14: suppl 5, Sl-585. 2. Zgibor JC, Songer TJ, Kelsey SF, et al. The association of diabetes specialist care with health care practices ...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Cost to patients of obtaining treatment for HIV/AIDS in. South Africa. Sydney Rosen, Mpefe Ketlhapile, Ian Sanne, Mary Bachman DeSilva. Background. South Africa is providing antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV I AIDS free of charge in order to increase access for poorer patients and promote ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES could be chosen to link to action policy decisions. In the. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) programme, such a screening test would also remind the health provider to prescribe an iron tonic and to emphasise the importance of a balanced diet. A potential disadvantage of copper ...

  3. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):153-60. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) is a devastating renal disease that leads to renal failure within. 10 years of diagnosis in about half of affected patients. In this study, we evaluated the relative prevalence and.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    One of the concerns among mothers for delivery is labor pain. There are various ... Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2017) 6(2): 11-16. © UDS Publishers ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE ..... effective than a placebo during the first stage of.

  5. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pezhman Kharazm

    treatment in 32 patients who were admitted in Shohada-E-Tajrish hospital with final diagnosis of AMI from March 1996 to March 2002. ... of the patient and diagnostic studies and early surgical or non surgical intervention is the most ... operative diagnosis of etiology was based on presence of pulse at the origin of mesenteric.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  7. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A facility based comparative cross-sectional study ... Health care delivery should consider the desire for children by men and .... Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the .... For substitution, children are an important part of marriage, current child needs sibling, original desires .... does not, the only way to avoid the risk of.

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    source of blood supply whilst in developed countries VNRDs are the major source. This study de- termined and ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ..... ferral rate of females in comparison to males as pre- .... nors at blood bank of a medical college,. Australia. Med J Armed Forces 61: 131- 4.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alternatives to conventional care (homoeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, etc.), and also recognise the groundswell of interest in and support for inclusion of benefits for services provided by traditional healers. The transition from the original, relatively restricted approach which was concerned with established, mainstream.

  10. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  11. Original Copies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2013-01-01

    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... shown that, about 80.0% of women contracted HPV infection before ... 2010), age of initial sexual contact, and lack of symp- toms for ...

  13. Proposal and Its Evaluation of a Shoulder-Surfing Attack Resistant Authentication Method:Secret Tap with Double Shift

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiro Kita; Fumio Sugai; MiRang Park; Naonobu Okazaki

    2015-01-01

    Recently, mobile terminals such as smartphones have come into widespread use. Most of such mobile terminals store several types of important data, such as personal information. Therefore, it is necessary to lock and unlock terminals using a personal authentication method such as personal identification numbers (PINs) in order to prevent data theft. However, most existing authentication methods have a common problem referred to here as “shoulder-surfing”, in which authentication information is...

  14. Testing the ability of a proposed geotechnical based method to evaluate the liquefaction potential analysis subjected to earthquake vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.; Behzadafshar, K.; Esfandiyari, B.; Rajablou, R.

    2010-12-01

    During the earthquakes a number of earth dams have had severe damages or suffered major displacements as a result of liquefaction, thus modeling by computer codes can provide a reliable tool to predict the response of the dam foundation against earthquakes. These modeling can be used in the design of new dams or safety assessments of existing ones. In this paper, on base of the field and laboratory tests and by combination of several software packages a seismic geotechnical based analysis procedure is proposed and verified by comparison with computer model tests, field and laboratory experiences. Verification or validation of the analyses relies to ability of the applied computer codes. By use of Silakhor earthquake (2006, Ms 6.1) and in order to check the efficiency of the proposed framework, the procedure is applied to the Korzan earth dam of Iran which is located in Hamedan Province to analyze and estimate the liquefaction and safety factor. Design and development of a computer code by authors which named as “Abbas Converter” with graphical user interface which operates as logic connecter function that can computes and models the soil profiles is the critical point of this study and the results are confirm and proved the ability of the generated computer code on evaluation of soil behavior under the earthquake excitations. Also this code can make and render facilitate this study more than previous have done, and take over the encountered problem.

  15. Isotope dilution/mass spectrometry of serum cholesterol with [3,4-13C]cholesterol: proposed definitive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, O.; Wright, L.A.; Breckenridge, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a new gas-chromatographic/mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) isotope-dilution method for determination of serum cholesterol. The method has been fully optimized and documented to provide the high accuracy and precision expected for a Definitive Method. In the presence of [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol, cholesteryl esters in serum are hydrolyzed under optimum conditions and the entire cholesterol pool is extracted and derivatized to silyl ethers. The cholesterol derivatives are resolved from other sterols by gas-liquid chromatography on a fused silica column, and selected ions characteristic of cholesterol and the [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol are monitored with a GC/MS quandrupole system. We estimated the cholesterol content of samples by bracketing each sample with standards of comparable cholesterol concentration that also contained the [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol. The procedure was highly reproducible (CV less than 0.5%), better accuracy and precision being obtained with [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol than with heptadeuterated cholesterol. Mean values per gram of dry serum for one serum pool assayed by this method and that of the National Bureau of Standards differed by 0.5%. We conclude that the method satisfies the criteria for a Definitive Method

  16. Design Method for Contra-Rotating Propellers for High-Speed Crafts: Revising the Original Lerbs Theory in a Modern Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Brizzolara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main theoretical and numerical aspects of a design method for optimum contrar-rotating (CR propellers for fast marine crafts are presented. We propose a reformulated version of a well-known design theory for contra-rotating propellers, by taking advantage of a new fully numerical algorithm for the calculation of the mutually induced velocities and introducing new features such as numerical lifting surface corrections, use of an integrated modern cavitation/strength criteria, a modified method to consider different numbers of blades among the two propellers, and to allow for an unloading function in the search for the optimal circulation distribution. The paper first introduces the main theoretical principles of the new methods and then discusses the influence of the main design parameters on an emblematic example of application in the case of counter rotating propellers for a pod propulsor designed for fast planing crafts (35 knots and above.

  17. Selecting Cooking Methods to Decrease Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in Food of Animal Origin Using a Consensus Decision-Making Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Tan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs pose serious threats to human health. Increasing attention has been paid to POPs to protect the environment and prevent disease. Humans are exposed to POPs through diet (the major route, inhaling air and dust and skin contact. POPs are very lipophilic and hydrophobic, meaning that they accumulate in fatty tissues in animals and can biomagnify. Humans can therefore be exposed to relatively high POP concentrations in food of animal origin. Cooking animal products can decrease the POP contents, and different cooking methods achieve different reduction rates. Here, a consensus decision-making model with interval preference relations is used to prioritize cooking methods for specific animal products in terms of reducing POP concentrations. Two consistency mathematical expressions (I-consistency and I I -consistency are defined, then the ideal interval preference relations are determined for the cooking methods with respect to different social choice principles. The objective is to minimize disparities between individual judgments and the ideal consensus judgment. Consistency is used as a constraint to determine the rationality of the consistency definitions. A numerical example indicated that baking is the best cooking method for decreasing POP concentrations in grass carp. The I-consistency results were more acceptable than the I I -consistency results.

  18. Selecting Cooking Methods to Decrease Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in Food of Animal Origin Using a Consensus Decision-Making Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao; Gong, Zaiwu; Huang, Minji; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-02-14

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pose serious threats to human health. Increasing attention has been paid to POPs to protect the environment and prevent disease. Humans are exposed to POPs through diet (the major route), inhaling air and dust and skin contact. POPs are very lipophilic and hydrophobic, meaning that they accumulate in fatty tissues in animals and can biomagnify. Humans can therefore be exposed to relatively high POP concentrations in food of animal origin. Cooking animal products can decrease the POP contents, and different cooking methods achieve different reduction rates. Here, a consensus decision-making model with interval preference relations is used to prioritize cooking methods for specific animal products in terms of reducing POP concentrations. Two consistency mathematical expressions ( I -consistency and I I -consistency) are defined, then the ideal interval preference relations are determined for the cooking methods with respect to different social choice principles. The objective is to minimize disparities between individual judgments and the ideal consensus judgment. Consistency is used as a constraint to determine the rationality of the consistency definitions. A numerical example indicated that baking is the best cooking method for decreasing POP concentrations in grass carp. The I -consistency results were more acceptable than the I I -consistency results.

  19. International survey of methods used in health technology assessment (HTA: does practice meet the principles proposed for good research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephens JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer M Stephens,1 Bonnie Handke,2 Jalpa A Doshi3 On behalf of the HTA Principles Working Group, part of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR HTA Special Interest Group (SIG1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Medtronic Neuromodulation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Center for Evidence-Based Practice and Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAObjective: To describe research methods used internationally in health technology assessment (HTA and health-care reimbursement policies; compare the survey findings on research methods and processes to published HTA principles; and discuss important issues/trends reported by HTA bodies related to current research methods and applications of the HTA process.Methods: Representatives from HTA bodies worldwide were recruited to complete an online survey consisting of 47 items within four topics: (1 organizational information and process, (2 primary HTA methodologies and importance of attributes, (3 HTA application and dissemination, and (4 quality of HTA, including key issues. Results were presented as a comparison of current HTA practices and research methods to published HTA principles.Results: The survey was completed by 30 respondents representing 16 countries in five major regions, Australia (n = 3, Canada (n = 2, Europe (n = 17, Latin America (n = 2, and the United States (n = 6. The most common methodologies used were systematic review, meta-analysis, and economic modeling. The most common attributes evaluated were effectiveness (more commonly than efficacy, cost-effectiveness, safety, and quality of life. The attributes assessed, relative importance of the attributes, and conformance with HTA principles varied by region/country. Key issues and trends facing HTA bodies included standardizing methods for economic evaluations and grading of evidence, lack of evidence

  20. MERCURY QUANTIFICATION IN SOILS USING THERMAL DESORPTION AND ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY: PROPOSAL FOR AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Catone Soares

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable environmental importance of mercury (Hg, given its high toxicity and ability to contaminate large areas via atmospheric deposition, little is known about its activity in soils, especially tropical soils, in comparison with other heavy metals. This lack of information about Hg arises because analytical methods for determination of Hg are more laborious and expensive compared to methods for other heavy metals. The situation is even more precarious regarding speciation of Hg in soils since sequential extraction methods are also inefficient for this metal. The aim of this paper is to present a technique of thermal desorption associated with atomic absorption spectrometry, TDAAS, as an efficient tool for quantitative determination of Hg in soils. The method consists of the release of Hg by heating, followed by its quantification by atomic absorption spectrometry. It was developed by constructing calibration curves in different soil samples based on increasing volumes of standard Hg2+ solutions. Performance, accuracy, precision, and quantification and detection limit parameters were evaluated. No matrix interference was detected. Certified reference samples and comparison with a Direct Mercury Analyzer, DMA (another highly recognized technique, were used in validation of the method, which proved to be accurate and precise.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plenty, the thrifty phenotype hypothesis proposes that humans are metabolically programmed during intra-uterine life to expect feast ... true, then intervention during pregnancy will be able to .... This study did not identify the anatomical sites of.

  2. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-02-18

    Feb 18, 2014 ... Blue method and standard MTT colorimetric method). The Euphorbia ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... were identified as Oximes, alkenes, aminoacids and aromatic .... and vincristine), which were both obtained from the.

  3. Proposed method for agglutinating antibody titer analysis and its use as indicator of acquired immunity in pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Biller-Takahashi

    Full Text Available Antibody can be assessed by agglutinating antibody titer which is a quantitative measure of circulating antibodies in serum from fish previously immunized. The antibody evaluation has been performed with different fish species, and is considered a reliable method that can be applied to confirm several hypothesis regarding acquired immunity, even in conjunction with precise methods to describe immune mechanisms. In order to provide appropriate analytical methods for future studies on the specific immune system of native fish, the present study standardized on assay to measure the serum agglutinating antibody titer produced after immunization with inactivated A. hydrophila and levamisole administration in pacu. It was possible to determine the agglutinating antibodies titer in a satisfactorily way in pacu immunized with inactive A. hydrophila, and the highest titers were observed on fish fed with levamisole.

  4. A novel method of TVTS in the TS-3 device and the proposal of its application to a large device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Hayashi, N.; Ueda, Y.; Ono, Y.; Katsurai, M.

    1997-01-01

    A novel method of television Thomson scattering (TVTS) has been developed in the TS-3 device. In this system, a framing camera is located between a spectroscope and a close coupled device camera. This framing camera can take two successive frames from the exit of the spectroscope. The time interval is of 500 ns between those two frames. Because of the shortness of this time interval, the background light is negligible; moreover TVTS is applicable to the TS-3 device whose plasma lifetime is about 150 μs. This method indicates the possibility of not only high spatial resolution but also time repetition in a simple system. (orig.)

  5. Study of a proposed method of uranium concentration determination using low-energy γ-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiter, K.G.; Tang, J.C.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problems associated with in-situ uranium assaying are discussed, especially in relation to the secular disequilibrium between the parent uranium and its radioactive daughters. A detailed study of the gamma-spectra of some natural uranium bearing ore and mineral samples was performed using a high resolution Ge(Li) detector. A method of spectroscopic analysis of the low energy gamma-rays of U-238 and its daughter Th-234, using a proportional counter and a series of Ross filters, was found to be feasible. The application of such a method to uranium assaying in natural ore bodies is discussed

  6. PROPOSED ASTM METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ASBESTOS IN AIR BY TEM AND INFORMATION ON INTERFERING FIBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft of the ASTM Test Method for air entitled: "Airborne Asbestos Concentration in Ambient and Indoor Atmospheres as Determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy Direct Transfer (TEM)" (ASTM Z7077Z) is an adaptation of the International Standard, ISO 10312. It is currently...

  7. A proposed method to assess the damage risk of future climate change to museum objects in historic buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, Z.; Kramer, R.P.; Martens, M.H.J.; Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    Future climate change is expected to have a critical effect on valuable museum collections that are housed in historic buildings. Changes of the indoor environment in the building affect the microclimate around the museum objects and may cause damage to the collection. In this study, a method is

  8. Scientific Opinion on a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode from the bark of pine trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the appropriateness of a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle......) insufficient evidence on the sampling methodology is provided to determine the reliability of the testing method provided by the Portuguese document to determine freedom from PWN. Although there is potential for development of a composting method as a heat treatment to eliminate PWN from bark of pine trees...

  9. Efficiency of PCR-based methods in discriminating Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis strains of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srůtková, Dagmar; Spanova, Alena; Spano, Miroslav; Dráb, Vladimír; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozaková, Hana; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2011-10-01

    Bifidobacterium longum is considered to play an important role in health maintenance of the human gastrointestinal tract. Probiotic properties of bifidobacterial isolates are strictly strain-dependent and reliable methods for the identification and discrimination of this species at both subspecies and strain levels are thus required. Differentiation between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis is difficult due to high genomic similarities. In this study, four molecular-biological methods (species- and subspecies-specific PCRs, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method using 5 primers, repetitive sequence-based (rep)-PCR with BOXA1R and (GTG)(5) primers and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA)) and biochemical analysis, were compared for the classification of 30 B. longum strains (28 isolates and 2 collection strains) on subspecies level. Strains originally isolated from the faeces of breast-fed healthy infants (25) and healthy adults (3) showed a high degree of genetic homogeneity by PCR with subspecies-specific primers and rep-PCR. When analysed by RAPD, the strains formed many separate clusters without any potential for subspecies discrimination. These methods together with arabionose/melezitose fermentation analysis clearly differentiated only the collection strains into B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis at the subspecies level. On the other hand, ARDRA analysis differentiated the strains into the B. longum/infantis subspecies using the cleavage analysis of genus-specific amplicon with just one enzyme, Sau3AI. According to our results the majority of the strains belong to the B. longum ssp. infantis (75%). Therefore we suggest ARDRA using Sau3AI restriction enzyme as the first method of choice for distinguishing between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Withdrawal of corticosteroids in inflammatory bowel disease patients after dependency periods ranging from 2 to 45 years: a proposed method.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, S J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Even in the biologic era, corticosteroid dependency in IBD patients is common and causes a lot of morbidity, but methods of withdrawal are not well described. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of a corticosteroid withdrawal method. METHODS: Twelve patients (10 men, 2 women; 6 ulcerative colitis, 6 Crohn\\'s disease), median age 53.5 years (range 29-75) were included. IBD patients with quiescent disease refractory to conventional weaning were transitioned to oral dexamethasone, educated about symptoms of the corticosteroid withdrawal syndrome (CWS) and weaned under the supervision of an endocrinologist. When patients failed to wean despite a slow weaning pace and their IBD remaining quiescent, low dose synthetic ACTH stimulation testing was performed to assess for adrenal insufficiency. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess predictors of a slow wean. RESULTS: Median durations for disease and corticosteroid dependency were 21 (range 3-45) and 14 (range 2-45) years respectively. Ten patients (83%) were successfully weaned after a median follow-up from final wean of 38 months (range 5-73). Disease flares occurred in two patients, CWS in five and ACTH testing was performed in 10. Multivariate analysis showed that longer duration of corticosteroid use appeared to be associated with a slower wean (P = 0.056). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid withdrawal using this protocol had a high success rate and durable effect and was effective in patients with long-standing (up to 45 years) dependency. As symptoms of CWS mimic symptoms of IBD disease flares, gastroenterologists may have difficulty distinguishing them, which may be a contributory factor to the frequency of corticosteroid dependency in IBD patients.

  11. Number needed to benefit from information (NNBI): proposal from a mixed methods research study with practicing family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland M; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique; Granikov, Vera; Shulha, Michael; Marlow, Bernard; Ricarte, Ivan Luiz Marques

    2013-01-01

    We wanted to describe family physicians' use of information from an electronic knowledge resource for answering clinical questions, and their perception of subsequent patient health outcomes; and to estimate the number needed to benefit from information (NNBI), defined as the number of patients for whom clinical information was retrieved for 1 to benefit. We undertook a mixed methods research study, combining quantitative longitudinal and qualitative research studies. Participants were 41 family physicians from primary care clinics across Canada. Physicians were given access to 1 electronic knowledge resource on handheld computer in 2008-2009. For the outcome assessment, participants rated their searches using a validated method. Rated searches were examined during interviews guided by log reports that included ratings. Cases were defined as clearly described searches where clinical information was used for a specific patient. For each case, interviewees described information-related patient health outcomes. For the mixed methods data analysis, quantitative and qualitative data were merged into clinical vignettes (each vignette describing a case). We then estimated the NNBI. In 715 of 1,193 searches for information conducted during an average of 86 days, the search objective was directly linked to a patient. Of those searches, 188 were considered to be cases. In 53 cases, participants associated the use of information with at least 1 patient health benefit. This finding suggested an NNBI of 14 (715/53). The NNBI may be used in further experimental research to compare electronic knowledge resources. A low NNBI can encourage clinicians to search for information more frequently. If all searches had benefits, the NNBI would be 1. In addition to patient benefits, learning and knowledge reinforcement outcomes are frequently reported.

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypothyroidism is easily controlled by amiodarone withdrawal and a short course of potassium perchlorate if the condition is transient, or by L-thyroxine replacement in permanent forms. In contrast, amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism is a more complex therapeutic challenge. Proposed treatment regimens have not been ...

  13. Proposals for the Operationalisation of the Discourse Theory of Laclau and Mouffe Using a Triangulation of Lexicometrical and Interpretative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Glasze

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The discourse theory of Ernesto LACLAU and Chantal MOUFFE brings together three elements: the FOUCAULTian notion of discourse, the (post- MARXist notion of hegemony, and the poststructuralist writings of Jacques DERRIDA and Roland BARTHES. Discourses are regarded as temporary fixations of differential relations. Meaning, i.e. any social "objectivity", is conceptualised as an effect of such a fixation. The discussion on an appropriate operationalisation of such a discourse theory is just beginning. In this paper, it is argued that a triangulation of two linguistic methods is appropriate to reveal temporary fixations: by means of corpus-driven lexicometric procedures as well as by the analysis of narrative patterns, the regularities of the linkage of elements can be analysed (for example, in diachronic comparisons. The example of a geographic research project shows how, in so doing, the historically contingent constitution of an international community and "world region" can be analysed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702143

  14. Clays as green catalysts in the cholesterol esterification: spectroscopic characterization and polymorphs identification by thermal analysis methods. An interdisciplinary laboratorial proposal for the undergraduate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, Teresa M R.; Nunes, Rui M. D.; Pereira, Mariette M.; Eusebio, M. Ermelinda S.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that enables the professor to introduce the problematic of sustainable development in pharmaceutical chemistry to undergraduate students is proposed, using a simple synthetic procedure. Cholesteryl acetate is prepared by the esterification of cholesterol using Montmorillonite K10 as heterogeneous catalyst. Cholesterol and cholesteryl acetate are characterized by spectroscopic ( 1 H RMN, 13 C RMN, FTIR) and thermal analysis techniques. The thermal methods are used to introduce the concepts of polymorphism and the nature of mesophases. (author)

  15. Multiresidue method for pesticide residue analysis in food of animal and plant origin based on GC or LC and MS or MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Eva; Muñoz, Gloria; Pineda, Laura; Serrahima, Eulalia; Centrich, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    A multiresidue method based on GC or LC and MS or MS/MS for the determination of 204 pesticides in diverse food matrixes of animal and plant origin is described. The method can include different stages of cleanup according to the chemical characteristics of each sample. Samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction. Those with a high fat content or that contained chlorophyll required further purification by gel permeation chromatography and/or SPE (ENVI-Carb). The methodology developed here was fully validated; the LOQs for the 204 pesticides are presented. The LOQ values lie between 0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg. However, in some cases, mainly in baby food, they were as low as 0.003 mg/kg, thereby meeting European Union requirements on maximum residue levels for pesticides, as outlined in European regulation 396/2005 and the Commission Directive 2003/13/EC. The procedure has been accredited for a wide scope of pesticides and matrixes by the Spanish Accreditation Body (ENAC) following ISO/IEC 17025:2005, as outlined in ENAC technical note NT-19.

  16. Settlement behavior of the container for high-level nuclear waste disposal. Centrifuge model tests and proposal for simple evaluation method for settlement behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2004-01-01

    In Japan, bentonite will be used as buffer materials in high-level nuclear waste disposal. In the softened buffer material with the infiltration of various properties of under ground water, if the container deeply sinks, the decrease of the thickness of the buffer materials may lose the required abilities. Therefore, it is very important to consider settlement of container. In this study, influences of distilled water and artificial seawater on the settlement of the container were investigated and a simple evaluation method for settlement of the container was proposed. The following findings were obtained from this study. (1) Under the distilled water, amount of settlement decreases exponentially as dry density becomes larger. (2) While the amount of settlement of container under the 10% artificial seawater was almost equal to the one in the distilled water, the container was floating under the 100% artificial seawater. (3) The simple evaluation method for settlement of container was proposed based on the diffuse double layer theory, and the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated by the results of several experiments. (author)

  17. Relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease and Ph nose and salivary: proposal of a simple method outpatient in patients adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Arturo Armone; Del Prete, Salvatore; Ferrara, Lydia; Serra, Raffaele; Telesca, Donato Alessandro; Ruggiero, Simona; Russo, Teresa; Sivero, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is increasing, in part through easy inspection of the upper digestive tract, but especially for a real spread of the disease as a consequence of modernity, lifestyle, incorrect dietary rules, and stress arising from social norms. It is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder in Europe and the United States. The aim of our study is to highlight a relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease and salivary pH as evidenced by indicator strips, especially in the outpatient field. Twenty adult subjects (10 males and 10 females) aged between 18 and 50 years (GROUP A)_ were selected. How to control a homogeneous group of 20 patients without GERD, or from any type of allergies (GROUP B) was enlisted. This method has provided excellent results showing no difference in the measured values compared with the traditional instrumental measurement. Our study has allowed us to observe a strong correlation between the saliva pH, nasal cavities and the interaction between the two districts, and could be the basis for a diagnosis of GERD especially in primary health care clinics and in the initial stage of the disease.

  18. Trends and regional variations in provision of contraception methods in a commercially insured population in the United States based on nationally proposed measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, A; Yu, J S; Wang, W; Lin, J; Lynen, R

    2017-09-01

    Three measures to assess the provision of effective contraception methods among reproductive-aged women have recently been endorsed for national public reporting. Based on these measures, this study examined real-world trends and regional variations of contraceptive provision in a commercially insured population in the United States. Women 15-44years old with continuous enrollment in each year from 2005 to 2014 were identified from a commercial claims database. In accordance with the proposed measures, percentages of women (a) provided most effective or moderately effective (MEME) methods of contraception and (b) provided a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method were calculated in two populations: women at risk for unintended pregnancy and women who had a live birth within 3 and 60days of delivery. During the 10-year period, the percentages of women at risk for unintended pregnancy provided MEME contraceptive methods increased among 15-20-year-olds (24.5%-35.9%) and 21-44-year-olds (26.2%-31.5%), and those provided a LARC method also increased among 15-20-year-olds (0.1%-2.4%) and 21-44-year-olds (0.8%-3.9%). Provision of LARC methods increased most in the North Central and West among both age groups of women. Provision of MEME contraceptives and LARC methods to women who had a live birth within 60days postpartum also increased across age groups and regions. This assessment indicates an overall trend of increasing provision of MEME contraceptive methods in the commercial sector, albeit with age group and regional variations. If implemented, these proposed measures may have impacts on health plan contraceptive access policy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How to evaluate the environmental safety of plant protection products of natural origin - Proposals for decision trees for microbial, semio-chemical, and plant-derived biopesticides: version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; SEC

    2004-01-01

    The environmental safety of crop protection products of natural origin (biopesticides) is to be re-evaluated within a few years' time by the European Union. Also, new biopesticides will enter the EU market, due to the increasing importance of sustainable agriculture. There is, however, almost no

  20. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... water quality parameters were analyzed using the membrane filtration method. Water ... is the first line of defense against water borne .... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... acid and distilled water. ... supply and sanitation laboratory for microbiological water ...

  1. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-06-08

    Jun 8, 2014 ... 2-, Cl-, Ca and Mg were determined by titrimetric methods. PO4. 3-and NO3 ..... instrumental analysis the determination of instrument and method detection limit, the ...... Principles of Water Quality Control. (5th ed.). Linacre ...

  2. Proposal for Testing and Validation of Vacuum Ultra-Violet Atomic Laser-Induced Fluorescence as a Method to Analyze Carbon Grid Erosion in Ion Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Previous investigation under award NAG3-25 10 sought to determine the best method of LIF to determine the carbon density in a thruster plume. Initial reports from other groups were ambiguous as to the number of carbon clusters that might be present in the plume of a thruster. Carbon clusters would certainly affect the ability to LIF; if they were the dominant species, then perhaps the LIF method should target clusters. The results of quadrupole mass spectroscopy on sputtered carbon determined that minimal numbers of clusters were sputtered from graphite under impact from keV Krypton. There were some investigations in the keV range by other groups that hinted at clusters, but at the time the proposal was presented to NASA, there was no data from low-energy sputtering available. Thus, the proposal sought to develop a method to characterize the population only of atoms sputtered from a graphite target in a test cell. Most of the ground work had been established by the previous two years of investigation. The proposal covering 2003 sought to develop an anti-Stokes Raman shifting cell to generate VUW light and test this cell on two different laser systems, ArF and YAG- pumped dye. The second goal was to measure the lowest detectable amounts of carbon atoms by 156.1 nm and 165.7 nm LIF. If equipment was functioning properly, it was expected that these goals would be met easily during the timeframe of the proposal, and that is the reason only modest funding was requested. The PI was only funded at half- time by Glenn during the summer months. All other work time was paid for by Whitworth College. The college also funded a student, Charles Shawley, who worked on the project during the spring.

  3. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-16

    SEP) = 0.58 mg/100g. Although HPLC is the most accepted method of analysis, Vis/NIR spectroscopy measurement combined with multivariate techniques has the potential to estimate lycopene in intact tomato fruits.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2008 among 450 study participants selected by multistage .... attend formal education (Table 1). All the 450 ... Dirty things. 4(0.9) .... The Internet Journal of Parasitic. Diseases ...

  5. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... Furthermore, delivery, financial position and reputation have all equal ... approaches or the cost ratio method (Principal. Component Analysis (PCA) ... evident that numerous accounts proclaim AHP as the best tool for decision ...

  6. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the active drug and to formulate the MD tablets by sublimation method. Metoclopramide HCl ... In order to achieve an acceptable palatability, the addition of flavors or sweeteners is ... pouring presieved drug excipient blend into a graduated ...

  7. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    series to find new perspectives on the disease. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search for the available data through PubMed and Google Scholar for reports of PTLD ..... to study a large number of patients to analyze the potential.

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Material and methods: A total of 66,597 pregnant women from the 13 health regions of .... partners, poverty, literacy and occupation, were ... should help reduce the incidence of the infection. ..... different also from the data reported in India by.

  9. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... Preparation, Characterization and In Vitro Drug Release Studies of ... simple and an efficient method for drug delivery to achieve desired therapeutic compliance. ..... Chitosan Nanoparticles for pH-Stimulated Drug Delivery:.

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boaz

    use of antibiotic and appropriate methods of screening ESBL genes in routine laboratories in Niger is needed to control the. ESBL genes ... lactam antibiotics currently available and other ... data on the ESBLs gene characterization available.

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    industries causing exposure and diagnostic methods. ... National Centre for Occupational Health, Department of Health, Johannesburg ... Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks .... epoxy resin, silica, cement, chrome and sulphuric acid. .... recognition and knowledge among workers and practitioners.

  12. Proposal of a simple screening method for a rapid preliminary evaluation of ''heavy metals'' mobility in soils of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Valentina; Chiusolo, Francesca; Cremisini, Carlo [ENEA - Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment, Rome (Italy). Section PROTCHIM

    2010-09-15

    Risks associated to ''heavy metals'' (HM) soil contamination depend not only on their total content but, mostly, on their mobility. Many extraction procedures have been developed to evaluate HM mobility in contaminated soils, but they are generally time consuming (especially the sequential extraction procedures (SEPs)) and consequently applicable on a limited number of samples. For this reason, a simple screening method, applicable even ''in field'', has been proposed in order to obtain a rapid evaluation of HM mobility in polluted soils, mainly focused on the fraction associated to Fe and Mn oxide/hydroxides. A buffer solution of trisodium citrate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride was used as extractant for a single-step leaching test. The choice of this buffered solution was strictly related to the possibility of directly determining, via titration with dithizone (DZ), the content of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd, which are among the most representative contaminants in highly mineralised soils. Moreover, the extraction solution is similar, aside from for the pH value, which is the one used in the BCR SEP second step. The analysis of bivalents ions through DZ titration was exploited in order to further simplify and quicken the whole procedure. The proposed method generically measures, in few minutes, the concentration of total extractable ''heavy metals'' expressed as molL{sup -1} without distinguishing between elements. The proposed screening method has been developed and applied on soil samples collected from rural, urban and mining areas, representing different situation of soil contamination. Results were compared with data obtained from the BCR procedure. The screening method demonstrated to be a reliable tool for a rapid evaluation of metals mobility. Therefore, it could be very useful, even ''in field'', both to guide the sampling activity on site and to monitor the efficacy of the subsequent

  13. Emissions trading and competitive positions. The European Proposal for a Directive establishing a Framework for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading and Methods for the initial Allocation of Pollution Rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimeaud, D.; Peeters, M.

    2002-10-01

    The study on the intention to introduce emissions trading on a European Union level was conducted on the basis of the following three questions: Which methods can be used (by the Member States) to distribute the tradable emissions rights en which legal preconditions should be observed considering the EU-Treaty and the relevant directive proposal? Whenever necessary and possible international agreements on climate change and international trade law will be mentioned. Which safeguards are available for fair competition and which system of emissions trading is advisable in this perspective? How should the PSR (performance standard rate) system, which is preferred by industry, be valued? The structure of this study is as follows: in chapter 2 insight is given into the various methods that can be used to start an emissions trading system, i.e. the way tradable pollution rights are distributed (initial allocation). Chapter 3 will further examine the system of the initial allocation of pollution rights as it has been chosen in the proposal for the European directive. The aim is to give an exact qualification of the method of emissions trading, especially the method of initial allocation, that is used in the directive proposal. Chapter 4 examines whether safeguards are available to prevent competition distortions between firms that fall under the scope of the emissions trading scheme. Special attention will be given to conditions that result from the EU-Treaty in this context, such as the prohibition of state aid. In this chapter the international trade law will be dealt with as well. Chapter 5 will present an executive summary and the specific question whether the PSR-system is legally acceptable or maybe even recommendable, will be answered

  14. Consumer Perceptions of Fruit and Vegetable Origin, Growing Methods, and Willingness to Pay in Trinidad and Tobago Marketplaces: Implications for Extension Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M’Randa R. Sandlin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior is a complex phenomenon encompassing internal, external, and situational factors. This study examined perceptions of market consumers about fruits and vegetables in Trinidad and Tobago in terms of produce origin, growing method, and willingness to pay. A stratified purposive sample of consumers at 14 unique market locations was surveyed to measure the three constructs and demographics. Descriptive statistics, correlational analysis, a ttest, and one-way analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed consumers have positive perceptions of locally grown produce and produce grown without chemicals. Findings also revealed a slight willingness to pay more for such characteristics. There were small to moderate correlations among the three constructs. Male and female perceptions of locally grown produce were significantly different, but no differences were found based on age. Extension educators working with producers who sell directly to consumers can utilize results from this study in working with clientele to tailor marketing and production strategies. Further research into social norms and perceived behavior control is recommended to better understand consumer behavior and help Extension better prepare stakeholders for success in the market places.

  15. Proposal and field practice of a 'hiyarihatto' activity method for promotion of statements of participants for nuclear power plant organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Saizo; Fujino, Hidenori; Ishii, Hirotake; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Sakuda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Sugiman, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    In a 'hiyarihatto' activity, workers report and discuss incident cases related to their work. Such an activity is particularly effective for cultivating participants' attitudes about safety. Nevertheless, a conventional face-to-face hiyarihatto activity includes features that are inappropriate for conduct in a nuclear power plant organization. For example, workers at nuclear power plants are geographically distributed and busy. Therefore, they have great difficulty in participating in a face-to-face hiyarihatto activity. Furthermore, workers' hesitation in discussing problems inhibits the continuation of their active participation. This study is conducted to propose a hiyarihatto activity with an asynchronous and distributed computer-mediated communication (CMC) for a nuclear power plant organization, with the demonstration of its effectiveness through field practice. The proposed method also involves the introduction of special participants who follow action guidelines for the promotion of the continuation of the activity. The method was used in an actual nuclear power plant organization. Results showed that the method is effective under some conditions, such as during periods without facility inspection. Special participants promoted the activity in some cases. Moreover, other factors affecting the activity and some improvements were identified. (author)

  16. Effects of disease severity distribution on the performance of quantitative diagnostic methods and proposal of a novel ‘V-plot’ methodology to display accuracy values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Howard, James P; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Sen, Sayan; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Mayet, Jamil; Davies, Justin E; Francis, Darrel P

    2018-01-01

    Background Diagnostic accuracy is widely accepted by researchers and clinicians as an optimal expression of a test’s performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of disease severity distribution on values of diagnostic accuracy as well as propose a sample-independent methodology to calculate and display accuracy of diagnostic tests. Methods and findings We evaluated the diagnostic relationship between two hypothetical methods to measure serum cholesterol (Cholrapid and Cholgold) by generating samples with statistical software and (1) keeping the numerical relationship between methods unchanged and (2) changing the distribution of cholesterol values. Metrics of categorical agreement were calculated (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity). Finally, a novel methodology to display and calculate accuracy values was presented (the V-plot of accuracies). Conclusion No single value of diagnostic accuracy can be used to describe the relationship between tests, as accuracy is a metric heavily affected by the underlying sample distribution. Our novel proposed methodology, the V-plot of accuracies, can be used as a sample-independent measure of a test performance against a reference gold standard. PMID:29387424

  17. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method and a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method with pressurized liquid extraction for simultaneous quantification and confirmation of cyromazine, melamine and its metabolites in foods of animal origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huan; Tao Yanfei; Chen Dongmei; Wang Yulian; Liu Zhaoying; Pan Yuanhu; Huang Lingli; Peng Dapeng; Dai Menghong; Liu Zhenli; Yuan Zonghui

    2010-01-01

    Simple and sensitive methods have been developed for simultaneous detection of cyromazine, melamine and their metabolites (ammeline, ammelide and cyanuric acid) in samples of animal origins. These include a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and are useful in regular monitoring and in toxicity studies of these molecules. Representative samples used in this study include muscles and livers of swine, bovine, sheep and chicken, kidneys of swine, bovine and sheep, and milk powder. A new sample preparation procedure with pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) at 1400 psi and 70 deg. C was investigated. Quantification of these five compounds by HPLC was achieved using an APS-2 column with UV detection at 230 nm. Limit of detection (LOD) was at 10 μg kg -1 , and limit of quantification (LOQ) was at 40 μg kg -1 . Recoveries of the five analytes in spiked samples ranged from 72.2% to 115.4% with RSD less than 12%. Confirmatory analysis of the analytes was performed using LC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The LOD and LOQ were 5 μg kg -1 and 15 μg kg -1 , respectively. This is the first simultaneous analysis of cyromazine, melamine, ammeline, ammelide and cyanuric acid residues in complex tissue samples using PLE and HPLC. It is expected that these methods will find many practical applications in evaluating the safety of cyromazine, melamine and their metabolites.

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Background: The public health implications of helmintic infection in ... Materials and methods: Albendazole tablets were administered by school teachers to pupils after data and stool sample ... formal healthcare training, thus allowing integration of the programme into ..... more funds for drug procurement and reduce donor.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zaria with urethritis and cervicitis were screened for their susceptibility pattems against eight antibiotics, using the agar diffusion plate method. Antibiotic susceptibility testing. Pure Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were screened against eight antibiotics made up of: penicillin G. (2.4meg), ampicillin (10 meg), tetracycline (10.

  20. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-11-30

    Nov 30, 2014 ... Validated Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Ofloxacin and .... 41 paper. The tablet ... coefficient correlation, slope, y-intercept of the calibration ..... Kim, Y.W., Han, S.K. and Yoo, C.G. (2013).

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study Participants. This study participants were all Doctor of Op- tometry students (from first to sixth year) of the. College of Health and Allied Sciences of UCC. UCC is situated at the southern part of Ghana along the coastal area where it adjoins the Atlan- tic Ocean. Selection of ...

  2. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    settings, and this limits access to effective mental healthcare for young people with depression. ... Methods. A sample of healthcare providers (N = 25) from community health clinics ... to youth referred from schools, it led to generally favourable clinical outcomes. ... A cross-sectional survey of adolescent depression in Malawi.

  3. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    102640

    Diseases at the Tripoli Medical Centre. Methods: The medical records of 891 Libyan chronic HCV infected patients registered and followed up from January 2003 to January 2007 were reviewed. Data gathered includes patient's age, gender, risk factors and family history of HCV infection. Statistical analysis was performed ...

  4. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of the Organism. The isolate RAMPP-065 was characterized to genus level by cultural (size, texture, color of substrate and aerial mycelium, diffusible pigment production), microscopic (spore arrangement in Cover slip method), staining (Gram's and Acid fast staining) and biochemical (starch hydrolysis, gelatin.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urinary tract infections (UTI) in symptomatic pregnant women. likelihood ratios ... in labour; and (iI) pregnant women with symptoms suggestive of UTI. Method. A midstream urine specimen was collected from the two populations of patients, plated onto the Uricult Trio and sent to the .... Staphylococcus epidermidis. 1. 2. 3. 1.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in medical technology, particularly endoscoric surgery and .... parametric statistical methods were used instead of the ... inguinal hernia and thyroid operations. ..... 'Laparoscopic sterilisation and minor procedures', while the .... AndeiSOn RE, Hunter )G. l.aparoscopic cholecystectomy is less expensive than open.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distinctive clinical and radiographic appearances are not ... pneumonia, particularly in children younger than 2 years of age because they respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens.14. An additional diagnostic modality is antigen detection. However, this method is expensive and .... 32 and 252, with a median value of 111.

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    termine the risk factors for Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH). Information ... It is more common in nulliparous than in multipa- ... cental dysfunction, is the measurement, in the ma- ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... Ashanti Region of Ghana between November, 2006 ... a mercury sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Co-existence of syndrome X and hypertension among Ghanaians ... Ghana; 2Laboratory Department, Methodist Hospital, Wenchi, Brong Ahafo Region, ... risk factors such as obesity, diabetes and dyslipidaemia have been commonly asso- ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... Measurements were taken from the left upper arm.

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of conductive deafness varies with the size and position of the tympanic membrane perforation. Objective: This study is to determine the pattern and causes of tympanic membrane perforation. Method: Hospital based study at the ENT Clinic, UCH, Ibadan. Consecutive patients seen during the period of study with ...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    the 2,456 clients who had contraception during the period, 88 had Implanon giving a 3.6% uptake. The mean age of Implanon users in the study was 33.4 years, no teenager used the method and ... (33%) of the total users, 78(88.6%) users had at least secondary education, all except one client .... ciety and Africa at large.

  12. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-18

    Feb 18, 2012 ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Jan-March 2012, 1(1): ... simultaneously, this paper presents a novel iris recognition method based on the natural-open eyes. ... information, length information, width information of texture, the neighbouring ... Non-contacting biometrics is the inevitable trend.

  13. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-16

    Sep 16, 2012 ... 0.58 mg/100g. Although HPLC is the most accepted method of analysis, Vis/NIR .... was quantified by the standard error of prediction. (SEP), the root mean ..... activity of Flavonoids and steroids isolated from two. Chromolaena ...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Natal. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic and clinical presentation data from women attending family planning and other reproductive health services. Pap smears were done using standard methods. Pap smear data were linked to HIVserostatus. Results. Four hundred ...

  15. Developing an Agent-Based Simulation System for Post-Earthquake Operations in Uncertainty Conditions: A Proposed Method for Collaboration among Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Hooshangi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based modeling is a promising approach for developing simulation tools for natural hazards in different areas, such as during urban search and rescue (USAR operations. The present study aimed to develop a dynamic agent-based simulation model in post-earthquake USAR operations using geospatial information system and multi agent systems (GIS and MASs, respectively. We also propose an approach for dynamic task allocation and establishing collaboration among agents based on contract net protocol (CNP and interval-based Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS methods, which consider uncertainty in natural hazards information during agents’ decision-making. The decision-making weights were calculated by analytic hierarchy process (AHP. In order to implement the system, earthquake environment was simulated and the damage of the buildings and a number of injuries were calculated in Tehran’s District 3: 23%, 37%, 24% and 16% of buildings were in slight, moderate, extensive and completely vulnerable classes, respectively. The number of injured persons was calculated to be 17,238. Numerical results in 27 scenarios showed that the proposed method is more accurate than the CNP method in the terms of USAR operational time (at least 13% decrease and the number of human fatalities (at least 9% decrease. In interval uncertainty analysis of our proposed simulated system, the lower and upper bounds of uncertain responses are evaluated. The overall results showed that considering uncertainty in task allocation can be a highly advantageous in the disaster environment. Such systems can be used to manage and prepare for natural hazards.

  16. A combined application of hydrochemical, isotope and noble gas methods for determining the origin and age of mineral waters; Kompleksowe zastosowanie metod hydrochemicznych, izotopowych i gazow szlachetnych dla okreslenia genezy i wieku wod mineralnych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Weise, S.M. [GSF-Institut fuer Hydrologie, Oberscheissheim (Germany); Osenbruck, K. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany); Matenko, T. [P.O. Uzdrowisko Busko-Solec, Busko-Zdroj (Poland); Grabczak, J. [Akademia Ekonomiczna, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Chemical data indicate that mineral waters of Busko and Solec Spas are related to leaching of gypsum and salt inclusions at the some time. Sulfide rich shallow water is shown by isotope and noble gas methods to be of an interglacial or interstadial origin, whereas deep saline water(sulfate reach in Busko and Sulfide reach in Solec) is of the pre-Quaternary origin, from the periods after the last sea transgression in the Badenian. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs.

  17. Tritium extraction methods proposed for a solid breeder blanket. Subtask WP-B 6.1 of the European Blanket Program 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.

    1997-04-01

    Ten different methods for the extraction of tritium from the purge gas of a ceramic blanket are described and evaluated with respect to their applicability for ITER and DEMO. The methods are based on the conditions that the purge gas is composed of helium with an addition of up to 0.1% of H 2 or O 2 and H 2 O to facilitate the release of tritium, and that tritium occurs in the purge gas in two main chemical forms, i.e. HT and HTO. Individual process steps of many methods are identical; in particular, the application of cold traps, molecular sieve beds, and diffusors are proposed in several cases. Differences between the methods arise mainly from the ways in which various process steps are combined and from the operating conditions which are chosen with respect to temperature and pressure. Up to now, none of the methods has been demonstrated to be reliably applicable for the purge gas conditions foreseen for the operation of an ITER blanket test module (or larger ceramic blanket designs such as for DEMO). These conditions are characterized by very high gas flow rates and extremely low concentrations of HT and HTO. Therefore, a proposal has been made (FZK concept) which is expected to have the best potential for applicability to ITER and DEMO and to incorporate the smallest development risk. In this concept, the extraction of tritium and excess hydrogen is accomplished by using a cold trap for freezing out HTO/H 2 O and a 5A molecular sieve bed for the adsorption of HT/H 2 . (orig.) [de

  18. SU-F-J-223: Patterns of Failure for Laryngeal Cancer Patients Treated with Definitive IMRT: Comparing Two Different Methods for Determining the Origin of Recurrence From Follow-Up PET/CT Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, P; Guha, C; Tome, W [Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Kabarriti, R; Kalnicki, S; Garg, M [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Vogelius, I [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine patterns of failure in laryngeal cancer treated with definitive IMRT by comparing two different methods for identifying the recurrence epicenter on follow-up PET/CT. Methods: We identified 20 patients treated for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with definitive IMRT who had loco-regional recurrence diagnosed on PET/CT. Recurrence PET/CT scans were co-registered with the original treatment planning CT using deformable image registration with the VoxAlign deformation engine in MIM Software. Recurrence volumes were delineated on co-registered follow-up scans using a semi-automatic PETedge tool and two separate methods were used to identify the recurrence point of origin: a) Finding the point within the recurrence volume for which the maximum distance to the surface of the surrounding recurrence volume is smaller than for any other point. b) Finding the point within the recurrence volume with the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), without geometric restrictions.For each method the failure pattern was determined as whether the recurrence origin fell within the original high-dose target volumes GTV70, CTV70, PTV70 (receiving 70Gy), intermediate-risk PTV59 (receiving 59.4Gy) or low-risk PTV54 (receiving 54.1Gy), in the original treatment planning CT. Results: 23 primary/nodal recurrences from the 20 patients were analyzed. The three-dimensional distance between the two different origins was on average 10.5mm (std.dev. 10mm). Most recurrences originated in the high-dose target volumes for both methods with 13 (57%) and 11 (48%) in the GTV70 and 20 (87%) and 20 (87%) in the PTV70 for method a) and b), respectively. There was good agreement between the two methods in classifying the origin target volumes with 69% concordance for GTV70, 89% for CTV70 and 100% for PTV70. Conclusion: With strong agreement in patterns of failure between two separate methods for determining recurrence origin, we conclude that most recurrences occurred within the

  19. Effects of disease severity distribution on the performance of quantitative diagnostic methods and proposal of a novel 'V-plot' methodology to display accuracy values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraco, Ricardo; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Howard, James P; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Sen, Sayan; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Mayet, Jamil; Davies, Justin E; Francis, Darrel P

    2018-01-01

    Diagnostic accuracy is widely accepted by researchers and clinicians as an optimal expression of a test's performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of disease severity distribution on values of diagnostic accuracy as well as propose a sample-independent methodology to calculate and display accuracy of diagnostic tests. We evaluated the diagnostic relationship between two hypothetical methods to measure serum cholesterol (Chol rapid and Chol gold ) by generating samples with statistical software and (1) keeping the numerical relationship between methods unchanged and (2) changing the distribution of cholesterol values. Metrics of categorical agreement were calculated (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity). Finally, a novel methodology to display and calculate accuracy values was presented (the V-plot of accuracies). No single value of diagnostic accuracy can be used to describe the relationship between tests, as accuracy is a metric heavily affected by the underlying sample distribution. Our novel proposed methodology, the V-plot of accuracies, can be used as a sample-independent measure of a test performance against a reference gold standard.

  20. Toward a holistic environmental impact assessment of marble quarrying and processing: proposal of a novel easy-to-use IPAT-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitano, Cinzia; Peri, Giorgia; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Ferrante, Patrizia

    2017-03-01

    Marble is a natural dimension stone that is widely used in building due to its resistance and esthetic qualities. Unfortunately, some concerns have arisen regarding its production process because quarrying and processing activities demand significant amounts of energy and greatly affect the environment. Further, performing an environmental analysis of a production process such as that of marble requires the consideration of many environmental aspects (e.g., noise, vibrations, dust and waste production, energy consumption). Unfortunately, the current impact accounting tools do not seem to be capable of considering all of the major aspects of the (marble) production process that may affect the environment and thus cannot provide a comprehensive and concise assessment of all environmental aspects associated with the marble production process. Therefore, innovative, easy, and reliable methods for evaluating its environmental impact are necessary, and they must be accessible for the non-technician. The present study intends to provide a contribution in this sense by proposing a reliable and easy-to-use evaluation method to assess the significance of the environmental impacts associated with the marble production process. In addition, an application of the method to an actual marble-producing company is presented to demonstrate its practicability. Because of its relative ease of use, the method presented here can also be used as a "self-assessment" tool for pursuing a virtuous environmental policy because it enables company owners to easily identify the segments of their production chain that most require environmental enhancement.

  1. Oriented Polar Molecules in a Solid Inert-Gas Matrix: A Proposed Method for Measuring the Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Vutha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a very sensitive method for measuring the electric dipole moment of the electron using polar molecules embedded in a cryogenic solid matrix of inert-gas atoms. The polar molecules can be oriented in the z ^ -direction by an applied electric field, as has recently been demonstrated by Park et al. The trapped molecules are prepared into a state that has its electron spin perpendicular to z ^ , and a magnetic field along z ^ causes precession of this spin. An electron electric dipole moment d e would affect this precession due to the up to 100 GV/cm effective electric field produced by the polar molecule. The large number of polar molecules that can be embedded in a matrix, along with the expected long coherence times for the precession, allows for the possibility of measuring d e to an accuracy that surpasses current measurements by many orders of magnitude. Because the matrix can inhibit molecular rotations and lock the orientation of the polar molecules, it may not be necessary to have an electric field present during the precession. The proposed technique can be applied using a variety of polar molecules and inert gases, which, along with other experimental variables, should allow for careful study of systematic uncertainties in the measurement.

  2. Oriented Polar Molecules in a Solid Inert-Gas Matrix: A Proposed Method for Measuring the Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutha, A.; Horbatsch, M.; Hessels, E.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a very sensitive method for measuring the electric dipole moment of the electron using polar molecules embedded in a cryogenic solid matrix of inert-gas atoms. The polar molecules can be oriented in the $\\hat{\\rm{z}}$ direction by an applied electric field, as has recently been demonstrated by Park, et al. [Angewandte Chemie {\\bf 129}, 1066 (2017)]. The trapped molecules are prepared into a state which has its electron spin perpendicular to $\\hat{\\rm{z}}$, and a magnetic field along $\\hat{\\rm{z}}$ causes precession of this spin. An electron electric dipole moment $d_e$ would affect this precession due to the up to 100~GV/cm effective electric field produced by the polar molecule. The large number of polar molecules that can be embedded in a matrix, along with the expected long coherence times for the precession, allows for the possibility of measuring $d_e$ to an accuracy that surpasses current measurements by many orders of magnitude. Because the matrix can inhibit molecular rotations and lock the orientation of the polar molecules, it may not be necessary to have an electric field present during the precession. The proposed technique can be applied using a variety of polar molecules and inert gases, which, along with other experimental variables, should allow for careful study of systematic uncertainties in the measurement.

  3. Additional comments on 'A proposed method for measuring the electric dipole moment of the neutron using acceleration in an electric field gradient and ultracold neutron interferometry'

    CERN Document Server

    Lamoreaux, S K

    1999-01-01

    We have previously (Lamoreaux and Golub, Los Alamos archive (xxx) nucl-ex/9901007vs, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., 433 (1999)) presented an analysis, using classical, semi-classical and quantum mechanical tehniques, of the proposal of Freedman et al., (Nucl. Instr. and Meth., A 396 (1997) 181) to search for the neutron electric dipole moment by the use of acceleration of ultracold neutrons in an inhomogeneous electric field followed by amplification of the resulting displacement by several methods involving spin independent interactions (gravity) or reflection from curved (spin independent) mirrors. Following the appearance of some more recent comments (Peshkin, Los Alamos archive (xxx) nucl-ex/9903012 v2; Dombeck and Ringo, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., A 433 (1999)) it now seems reasonable to publish a revised version of our quantum mechanical treatment (Section 2 B of ) with a more detailed exposition.

  4. Chloroplast DNA haplotype samenstelling van eikenopstanden (categorie "van bekende origine") van de Rassenlijst van Bomen; een aanvullende methode voor identificatie van autochtoniteit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, J.; Boerwinkel, M.C.; Bovenschen, J.; Kranenborg, K.G.; Vries, de S.M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Tegenwoordig kan autochtoon materiaal op de Rassenlijst van Bomen geplaatst worden in de categorie `van bekende origine¿ en heeft daardoor een `officiële¿ status. Identificatie van autochtone opstanden blijft echter nog een lastige zaak. Momenteel worden autochtone opstanden geïdentificeerd met de

  5. H electro-insertion into Pd/Pt(1 1 1) nanofilms: an original method for isotherm measurement coupled to in situ surface X-ray diffraction structural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldo-Olivier, Y.; Sibert, E.; Previdello, B.; Lafouresse, M.C.; Maillard, F.; De Santis, M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to get a thorough comprehension of the mechanisms governing hydrogen insertion into nanometric metallic films, we have studied ultra-thin Pd/Pt(1 1 1) layers. In this paper we propose an original method allowing the measurement of hydrogen insertion electrochemical isotherms. The use of a hanging meniscus rotating disc electrode and a new calculation approach permit to remove the contributions to the insertion charge of both hydrogen evolution and hydrogen oxidation reactions. Indeed, compared to hydrogen insertion such terms become non-negligible in the case of nanometric deposits, due to their large surface/bulk atom ratio. We have measured hydrogen insertion isotherms for Pd/Pt(1 1 1) films from 14 ML down to 4 ML. Independently from the film thickness, the maximum hydrogen insertion rate (H/Pd) max is smaller than that of bulk Pd. The so-called two-phase region is still present, but contrarily to bulk Pd it is characterized by a slope. Both hydrogen solubility and the two-phase domain width diminish with the decrease of the film thickness. In the present work the behaviour of hydrogen electrochemical insertion isotherms is interpreted in the light of the Pd nanofilms structure obtained with in situ surface X-ray diffraction. The lattice constraints induced by the substrate result in a lower insertion rate in the Pd deposit close to the Pt–Pd interface. Only the outermost region of the film is relaxed and behaves like bulk Pd. This description quantitatively accounts for the experimental behaviour of (H/Pd) max as a function of the film thickness. The obtained Pd/Pt(1 1 1) films structure also corresponds to the presence of non-equivalent hydrogen insertion sites, surely contributing to the slope observed in the two-phase domain

  6. Evaluation of acoustic resonance at branch section in main steam line. Part 2. Proposal of method for predicting resonance frequency in steam flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yuta; Morita, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Flow-induced acoustic resonances of piping system containing closed side-branches are sometimes encountered in power plants. Acoustic standing waves with large amplitude pressure fluctuation in closed side-branches are excited by the unstable shear layer which separates the mean flow in the main piping from the stagnant fluid in the branch. In U.S. NPP, the steam dryer had been damaged by high cycle fatigue due to acoustic-induced vibration under a power uprating condition. Our previous research developed the method for evaluating the acoustic resonance at the branch sections in actual power plants by using CFD. In the method, sound speed in wet steam is evaluated by its theory on the assumption of homogeneous flow, although it may be different from practical sound speed in wet steam. So, it is necessary to consider and introduce the most suitable model of practical sound speed in wet steam. In addition, we tried to develop simplified prediction method of the amplitude and frequency of pressure fluctuation in wet steam flow. Our previous experimental research clarified that resonance amplitude of fluctuating pressure at the top of the branch in wet steam. However, the resonance frequency in steam condition could not be estimated by using theoretical equation as the end correction in steam condition and sound speed in wet steam is not clarified as same reason as CFD. Therefore, in this study, we tried to evaluate the end correction in each dry and wet steam and sound speed of wet steam from experimental results. As a result, method for predicting resonance frequency by using theoretical equation in each wet and dry steam condition was proposed. (author)

  7. Effective public involvement in the HoST-D Programme for dementia home care support: From proposal and design to methods of data collection (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa; Roe, Brenda; Hodgson, Anthony; Britt, David; Clarkson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Public involvement is an important element in health and social care research. However, it is little evaluated in research. This paper discusses the utility and impact of public involvement of carers and people with dementia in a five-year programme on effective home support in dementia, from proposal and design to methods of data collection, and provides a useful guide for future research on how to effectively involve the public. The Home SupporT in Dementia (HoST-D) Programme comprises two elements of public involvement, a small reference group and a virtual lay advisory group. Involving carers and people with dementia is based on the six key values of involvement - respect, support, transparency, responsiveness, fairness of opportunity, and accountability. Carers and people with dementia gave opinions on study information, methods of data collection, an economic model, case vignettes, and a memory aid booklet, which were all taken into account. Public involvement has provided benefits to the programme whilst being considerate of the time constraints and geographical locations of members.

  8. Thesis Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Strukturen i Thesis proposal er følgende: Først præsenteres mine konkrete empiriske forskningsprojekter som skal munde ud i afhandlingens artikler. Jeg præsenterer herefter de teoretiske overvejelser omkring oplevelsesbegrebet og forbrugerkulturteori som danner baggrund for at jeg er nået frem til...

  9. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 ("Release of an acute toxic gas") in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Samaali, Ismahen; Molina, Pauline

    2016-12-01

    A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as "Release of an acute toxic gas": waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, 2014b). When the substances with the cited hazard statement codes react with water or an acid, they can release HCl, Cl 2 , HF, HCN, PH 3 , H 2 S, SO 2 (and two other gases very unlikely to be emitted, hydrazoic acid HN 3 and selenium oxide SeO 2 - a solid with low vapor pressure). Hence, a method is proposed:For a set of 49 waste, water addition did not produce gas. Nearly all the solid waste produced a gas in contact with hydrochloric acid in 5 min in an automated calcimeter with a volume >0.1L of gas per kg of waste. Since a plateau of pressure is reached only for half of the samples in 5 min, 6 h trial with calorimetric bombs or glass flasks were done and confirmed the results. Identification of the gases by portable probes showed that most of the tested samples emit mainly CO 2 . Toxic gases are emitted by four waste: metallic dust from the aluminum industry (CO), two air pollution control residue of industrial waste incinerator (H 2 S) and a halogenated solvent (organic volatile(s) compound(s)). HF has not been measured in these trials started before the present definition of HP 12. According to the definition of HP 12, only the H 2 S emission of substances with hazard statement EUH031 is accounted for. In view of the calcium content of the two air pollution control residue, the presence of calcium sulphide (EUH031) can be assumed. These two waste are therefore classified potentially hazardous for HP 12, from a total of 49 waste. They are also classified as hazardous for other properties (HP 7

  10. Summary Report of Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of zeolite addition currently planned for implementation at the Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. During the course of this work, we established the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that Wypalls absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Follow-on studies will be developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of stabilization for ignitable Wypall debris. Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). As a result, additional nitrate salt solutions (those exhibiting the oxidizer characteristic) will be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the remedy.

  11. SU-F-J-142: Proposed Method to Broaden Inclusion Potential of Patients Able to Use the Calypso Tracking System in Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, D; Kuo, H; Bodner, W; Tome, W [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To introduce a non-standard method of patient setup, using BellyBoard immobilization, to better utilize the localization and tracking potential of an RF-beacon system with EBRT for prostate cancer. Methods: An RF-beacon phantom was imaged using a wide bore CT scanner, both in a standard level position and with a known rotation (4° pitch and 7.5° yaw). A commercial treatment planning system (TPS) was used to determine positional coordinates of each beacon, and the centroid of the three beacons for both setups. For each setup at the Linac, kV AP and Rt Lateral images were obtained. A full characterization of the RF-beacon system in clinical mode was completed for various beacons’ array-to-centroid distances, which includes vertical, lateral, and longitudinal offset data, as well as pitch and yaw offset measurements for the tilted phantom. For the single patient who has been setup using the proposed BellyBoard method, a supine simulation was first obtained. When abdominal protrusion was found to be exceeding the limits of the RF-Beacon system through distance-based analysis in the TPS, the patient is re-simulated prone with the BellyBoard. Array to centroid distance is measured again in the TPS, and if found to be within the localization or tracking region it is applied. Results: Characterization of limitations for the RF-beacon system in clinical mode showed acceptable consistency of offset determination for phantom setup accuracy. The nonstandard patient setup method reduced the beacons’ centroid-to-array distance by 8.32cm, from 25.13cm to 16.81cm; completely out of tracking range (greater than 20cm) to within setup tracking range (less than 20cm). Conclusion: Using the RF-beacon system in combination with this novel patient setup can allow patients who would otherwise not be candidates for beacon enhanced EBRT to now be able to benefit from the reduced PTV margins of this treatment method.

  12. SU-F-J-142: Proposed Method to Broaden Inclusion Potential of Patients Able to Use the Calypso Tracking System in Prostate Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, D; Kuo, H; Bodner, W; Tome, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a non-standard method of patient setup, using BellyBoard immobilization, to better utilize the localization and tracking potential of an RF-beacon system with EBRT for prostate cancer. Methods: An RF-beacon phantom was imaged using a wide bore CT scanner, both in a standard level position and with a known rotation (4° pitch and 7.5° yaw). A commercial treatment planning system (TPS) was used to determine positional coordinates of each beacon, and the centroid of the three beacons for both setups. For each setup at the Linac, kV AP and Rt Lateral images were obtained. A full characterization of the RF-beacon system in clinical mode was completed for various beacons’ array-to-centroid distances, which includes vertical, lateral, and longitudinal offset data, as well as pitch and yaw offset measurements for the tilted phantom. For the single patient who has been setup using the proposed BellyBoard method, a supine simulation was first obtained. When abdominal protrusion was found to be exceeding the limits of the RF-Beacon system through distance-based analysis in the TPS, the patient is re-simulated prone with the BellyBoard. Array to centroid distance is measured again in the TPS, and if found to be within the localization or tracking region it is applied. Results: Characterization of limitations for the RF-beacon system in clinical mode showed acceptable consistency of offset determination for phantom setup accuracy. The nonstandard patient setup method reduced the beacons’ centroid-to-array distance by 8.32cm, from 25.13cm to 16.81cm; completely out of tracking range (greater than 20cm) to within setup tracking range (less than 20cm). Conclusion: Using the RF-beacon system in combination with this novel patient setup can allow patients who would otherwise not be candidates for beacon enhanced EBRT to now be able to benefit from the reduced PTV margins of this treatment method.

  13. How to identify partial exposures to ionizing radiation? Proposal for a cytogenetic method; Como identificar exposicoes parciais as radiacoes ionizantes? Proposta de um metodo citogenetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, T.S.; Silva, E.B.; Pinto, M.M.P.L.; Amaral, A., E-mail: thiagosalazar@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (LAMBDA/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Modelagem e Biodosimetria Aplicada; Lloyd, David [Health Protection Agency, Oxford (United Kingdom). Radiation Protection Division

    2013-08-15

    In cases of radiological incidents or in occupational exposures to ionizing radiation, the majority of exposures are not related to the total body, but only partial. In this context, if the cytogenetic dosimetry is performed, there will be an underestimation of the absorbed dose due to the dilution of irradiated cells with non-irradiated cells. Considering the norms of NR 32 - Safety and Health in the Work of Health Service - which recommends cytogenetic dosimetry in the investigation of accidental exposures to ionizing radiations, it is necessary to develop of a tool to provide a better identification of partial exposures. With this aim, a partial body exposure was simulated by mixing, in vitro, 70% of blood irradiated with 4 Gy of X-rays with 30% of unirradiated blood from the same healthy donor. Aliquots of this mixture were cultured for 48 and 72 hours. Prolonging the time of cell culture from 48 to 72 hours produced no significant change in the yield of dicentrics. However, when only M1 (first division cells) were analyzed, the frequency of dicentrics per cell was increased. Prolonging the time of cell culture allowed cells in mitotic delay by irradiation to reach metaphase, and thus provides enough time for the damage to be visualized. The results of this research present the proposed method as an important tool in the investigation of exposed individuals, allowing associating the cytogenetic analysis with the real percentage of irradiated cells, contributing significantly for the decision making in terms of occupational health. (author)

  14. A proposal for evaluation method of crack growth due to cyclic overload for piping materials based on an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Katsuyama, Jinya; Onizawa, Kunio; Li, Yinsheng; Sugino, Hideharu

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude of Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake in 2007 was beyond the assumed one provided in seismic design. Therefore it becomes an important issue to evaluate the crack growth behaviors due to the cyclic overload like large earthquake. Fatigue crack growth is usually evaluated by Paris's law using the range of stress intensity factor (ΔK). However, ΔK is inappropriate in a loading condition beyond small scale yielding. In this study, the crack growth behaviors for piping materials were investigated based on an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter, J-integral. It was indicated that the crack growth due to the cyclic overload beyond small scale yielding could be the sum of fatigue and ductile crack growth. The retardation effect of excessive loading on the crack growth was observed after the loading. The modified Wheeler model using J-integral has been proposed for the prediction of retardation effect. Finally, an evaluation method for crack growth behaviors due to the cyclic overload is suggested. (author)

  15. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  16. Interactive visual exploration and analysis of origin-destination data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Linfang; Meng, Liqiu; Yang, Jian; Krisp, Jukka M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a visual analytics approach for the exploration of spatiotemporal interaction patterns of massive origin-destination data. Firstly, we visually query the movement database for data at certain time windows. Secondly, we conduct interactive clustering to allow the users to select input variables/features (e.g., origins, destinations, distance, and duration) and to adjust clustering parameters (e.g. distance threshold). The agglomerative hierarchical clustering method is applied for the multivariate clustering of the origin-destination data. Thirdly, we design a parallel coordinates plot for visualizing the precomputed clusters and for further exploration of interesting clusters. Finally, we propose a gradient line rendering technique to show the spatial and directional distribution of origin-destination clusters on a map view. We implement the visual analytics approach in a web-based interactive environment and apply it to real-world floating car data from Shanghai. The experiment results show the origin/destination hotspots and their spatial interaction patterns. They also demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  17. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-01-01

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  18. Summary Report of Comprehensive Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of adding zeolite currently planned for implementation at LANL’s Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF). The course of this work verified the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that WypAlls, cheesecloth, and Celotex absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). Sensitivity testing and an analysis were conducted to evaluate the waste form for reactivity. Tests included subjecting surrogate material to mechanical impact, friction, electrostatic discharge and thermal insults. The testing confirmed that the waste does not exhibit the characteristic of

  19. A Training Program to Enhance Postgraduate Students' Research Skills in Preparing a Research Proposal in the Field of Curriculum and Instruction Methods of Arabic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfakih, Ahmed Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the impact of a training program on enhancing postgraduate students' research skills in preparing a research proposal. The nature of the skills required to prepare a research proposal were first determined using a questionnaire. A training program for improving such skills was then constructed and seven postgraduate students in…

  20. Método de custeio UEP: uma proposta para uma agroindústria avícola = UEP costing method: a proposal for an aviary agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Milanese

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo geral deste trabalho é elaborar uma proposta de implantação do método de custeio Unidade de Esforço de Produção (UEP para uma agroindústria avícola. Para tanto, realiza-se uma pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem do problema de forma qualitativa e quantitativa, por meio de um estudo de caso. Os resultados apontam que: a a empresa possui um processo produtivo diferente, pois seus produtos finais são procedentes da desmontagem de uma única matéria-prima, o frango; b os custos de transformação são significativos, com destaque para os postos operativos PO25, PO27 e PO13; c pelo método UEP, os produtos Filé de Peito de Frango e Peito de Frango com Osso atingem uma lucratividade de 34,43% e 25,60%, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o método UEP identifica os custos de transformação e ainda gera informações que dão suporte para melhorias nos processos produtivos. The general objective of this paper is to develop a proposal to implement the Unit Effort of Production (UEP for an aviary agribusiness. To do so, a descriptive research is carried out to approach the problem in a qualitative and quantitative way through a case study. The results show that: a the company has a different production process because its outcome products come from the disassembly of one single raw material, the chickens; b transforming costs are significant, especially with operational posts PO25, PO27 and PO13; c with the UEP method, the Boneless Chicken Breast and Bone-in Chicken Breast products attain a profitability of 34.43% and 25.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that the UEP method identifies the transformation costs as well as generates information to serve as the foundation for improvements in the production processes.

  1. The origins of originality: the neural bases of creative thinking and originality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay-Tsoory, S G; Adler, N; Aharon-Peretz, J; Perry, D; Mayseless, N

    2011-01-01

    Although creativity has been related to prefrontal activity, recent neurological case studies postulate that patients who have left frontal and temporal degeneration involving deterioration of language abilities may actually develop de novo artistic abilities. In this study, we propose a neural and cognitive model according to which a balance between the two hemispheres affects a major aspect of creative cognition, namely, originality. In order to examine the neural basis of originality, that is, the ability to produce statistically infrequent ideas, patients with localized lesions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and posterior parietal and temporal cortex (PC), were assessed by two tasks involving divergent thinking and originality. Results indicate that lesions in the mPFC involved the most profound impairment in originality. Furthermore, precise anatomical mapping of lesions indicated that while the extent of lesion in the right mPFC was associated with impaired originality, lesions in the left PC were associated with somewhat elevated levels of originality. A positive correlation between creativity scores and left PC lesions indicated that the larger the lesion is in this area the greater the originality. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between originality scores and lesions in the right mPFC. It is concluded that the right mPFC is part of a right fronto-parietal network which is responsible for producing original ideas. It is possible that more linear cognitive processing such as language, mediated by left hemisphere structures interferes with creative cognition. Therefore, lesions in the left hemisphere may be associated with elevated levels of originality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isotopic methods for identifying the origin of metal and organic pollutants in the environment: state of the art and critical approach for implementation. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrel, Ph.

    2011-06-01

    Pollutants identification in media like water, soils and air has been greatly improved with the development of new analytical apparatus like ICP-MS, ICP-MS-MC, GC-MS, GC/IRMS... Contents and behavior of metals are now more known and constrained due to the multi element analysis by ICP-MS. In the frame of pollutants origin studies, numerous tricky questions can thus be answered by coupling metal contents in association with their isotope composition, in particular due to the development of ICP-MS-MC. On the other hand, soils and groundwater pollution by major organic compounds (COV, HAP) represents an increasing problem and classical approaches, mainly based on the contents monitoring are limited. As for metals, these limitations can be overwhelmed by coupling with isotope tracing. The first outcome of this study is the present day view of the whole set of studies carried out and published by the scientific community in the frame of the isotope tracing approach for characterizing organic molecules and metals pollution over a limited number of each. This study also highlighted the benefits of the isotopic tracing in the characterization and the back tracing of pollution sources in the organic molecules degradation processes. (author)

  3. The qualitative research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Klopper

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) of food origin: A comparison of agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzón-Durán, Laura; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are a major concern to public and animal health. Thirty MRS (Staphylococcus aureus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus, S. lugdunensis, S. sciuri, and S. xylosus) isolates from meat and poultry preparations were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials (belonging to seven different categories) of clinical significance using both the standard agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized system (Sensi Test Gram-positive). It is worth stressing that 16 isolates (53.33%) exhibited an extensively drug-resistant phenotype (XDR). The average number of resistances per strain was 4.67. These results suggest that retail meat and poultry preparations are a likely vehicle for the transmission of multi-drug resistant MRS. Resistance to erythromycin was the commonest finding (76.67% of strains), followed by tobramycin, ceftazidime (66.67%), ciprofloxacin (56.67%) and fosfomycin (53.33%). An agreement (kappa coefficient) of 0.64 was found between the two testing methods. Using the agar disc diffusion as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the miniaturized test were 98.44%, 69.44% and 83.33%, respectively. Most discrepancies between the two methods were due to isolates that were susceptible according to the disc diffusion method but resistant according to the miniaturized test (false positives). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Proposed Method for Disaggregation of Secondary Data: The Model for External Reliance of Localities in the Coastal Management Zone (MERLIN-CMZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...

  6. A rapid neutron activation method for the determination of traces of mercury. The mercury content of biological material of differing geographical and chronological origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, H.

    1975-08-01

    A rapid method based on activation analysis has been developed for the determination of mercury in biological material. The method employs the delayed gamma rays as prompt gamma rays have been shown to display insufficient sensitivity. The mercury content of 182 fish derived from the waters of the region of South Western Germany has been determined. Relatively high concentrations (> 1 ppm) have been measured in the muscle of Rhine fish. Similar mercury contents have been observed in aged biological material (birds feathers and human hair) and contemporary living organisms. (orig.) [de

  7. Investigation of Procedures for Automatic Resonance Extraction from Noisy Transient Electromagnetics Data. Volume III. Translation of Prony’s Original Paper and Bibliography of Prony’s Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-17

    Van Blaricum, "On the Source of Parameter Bias in Prony’s Method," 1980 NEM Conference, Disneyland Hotel, August 1980. Auton, J.R., "An Unbiased...Method for the Estimation of the SEM Parameters of an Electromagnetic System," 1980 NEM Conference, Disneyland Hotel, August 1980. Auton, J.R. and M.L...34 1980 NEM Conference, Disneyland Hotel, August 5-7, 1980. Chuang, C.W. and D.L. Moffatt, "Complex Natural Responances of Radar Targets via Prony’s

  8. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10 15 eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O 19 eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author)

  9. The study of the kinetics of drying food raw material of plant origin in the active hydrodynamic regimes and development of dryer engineering calculation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer properties of food raw material formed during the heat treatment. New physical, flavoring and aromatic properties of the products of plant origin, formed during drying due to substantial changes in the composition of the raw materia l occurring as a result of biochemical reactions. In the production of dried and roasted products is very important to follow the parameters that contribute to the passage of biochemical processes aimed at creating a product with high nutritional qualities, strong aroma and pleasant taste. We studied the basic kinetics of the drying process of food raw material (in terms of artichoke in a dense interspersed layer, which formed the basis for the rational choice of the drying regime with due consideration of changes in the moisture content of the product are studied. The nature of the effect of the dried product movement hydrodynamic conditions on a layer height and intensity of drying is established. As a result of food raw material drying process kinetics analysis (in terms of artichoke multistep drying regimes were chosen. Analysis of the artichoke particles drying by air, air-steam mixture and superheated steam intensity showed the presence of two parts: the horizontal one and gradually diminishing one. Kinetic laws of the artichoke drying process in a dense interspersed layer were the basis of engineering calculation of dryer with a transporting body in the form of a "traveling wave". Application of the dryer with the transporting body in the form of a "traveling wave" for food raw material drying allow to achieve uniform drying of the product due to the use of soft, gentle regimes of oversleeping while preserving to the utmost particles of the product; to improve the quality of the finished product through the use of interspersed layer that reduces clumping of product to be dried.

  10. The systematic profiling of false identity documents: method validation and performance evaluation using seizures known to originate from common and different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Simon; Terrasse, Vincent; Pujol, Jean-Philippe; Fritz, Thibaud; Ribaux, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

    2013-10-10

    False identity documents constitute a potential powerful source of forensic intelligence because they are essential elements of transnational crime and provide cover for organized crime. In previous work, a systematic profiling method using false documents' visual features has been built within a forensic intelligence model. In the current study, the comparison process and metrics lying at the heart of this profiling method are described and evaluated. This evaluation takes advantage of 347 false identity documents of four different types seized in two countries whose sources were known to be common or different (following police investigations and dismantling of counterfeit factories). Intra-source and inter-sources variations were evaluated through the computation of more than 7500 similarity scores. The profiling method could thus be validated and its performance assessed using two complementary approaches to measuring type I and type II error rates: a binary classification and the computation of likelihood ratios. Very low error rates were measured across the four document types, demonstrating the validity and robustness of the method to link documents to a common source or to differentiate them. These results pave the way for an operational implementation of a systematic profiling process integrated in a developed forensic intelligence model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developpement of an original aerial-based inventory method: first steps towards the use of mini Unmanned Areal Vehicle in elephant inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Lisein, Jonathan; Vermeulen, Cédric; Bouché, Philippe; Lejeune, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This research aims at developping a new methodology for counting large mammals by means of an unmanned aerial vehicle. Test flights have been performed in the game ranch of Nazinga (Burkina Faso) during the month of february 2012. Aerial images shows that elephant detection is quite feasible. The systems still requires a lot of improvements in order to be able to cover bigger surfaces for a given pixels resolution. Nevertheless, this method seems very promissing and could advantageously repla...

  12. Face recognition based on symmetrical virtual image and original training image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jingcheng; Peng, Yali; Liu, Shigang; Li, Jun; Pei, Zhao

    2018-02-01

    In face representation-based classification methods, we are able to obtain high recognition rate if a face has enough available training samples. However, in practical applications, we only have limited training samples to use. In order to obtain enough training samples, many methods simultaneously use the original training samples and corresponding virtual samples to strengthen the ability of representing the test sample. One is directly using the original training samples and corresponding mirror samples to recognize the test sample. However, when the test sample is nearly symmetrical while the original training samples are not, the integration of the original training and mirror samples might not well represent the test samples. To tackle the above-mentioned problem, in this paper, we propose a novel method to obtain a kind of virtual samples which are generated by averaging the original training samples and corresponding mirror samples. Then, the original training samples and the virtual samples are integrated to recognize the test sample. Experimental results on five face databases show that the proposed method is able to partly overcome the challenges of the various poses, facial expressions and illuminations of original face image.

  13. A hardenability test proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, N.V.S.N. [Ingersoll-Rand (I) Ltd., Bangalore (India)

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for hardenability evaluation and its application to heat treatable steels will be discussed. This will include an overview and deficiencies of the current methods and discussion on the necessity for a new approach. Hardenability terminology will be expanded to avoid ambiguity and over-simplification as encountered with the current system. A new hardenability definition is proposed. Hardenability specification methods are simplified and rationalized. The new hardenability evaluation system proposed here utilizes a test specimen with varying diameter as an alternative to the cylindrical Jominy hardenability test specimen and is readily applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of steels with different cross-section sizes.

  14. A powerful parent-of-origin effects test for qualitative traits on X chromosome in general pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qi-Lei; You, Xiao-Ping; Li, Jian-Long; Fung, Wing Kam; Zhou, Ji-Yuan

    2018-01-05

    Genomic imprinting is one of the well-known epigenetic factors causing the association between traits and genes, and has generally been examined by detecting parent-of-origin effects of alleles. A lot of methods have been proposed to test for parent-of-origin effects on autosomes based on nuclear families and general pedigrees. Although these parent-of-origin effects tests on autosomes have been available for more than 15 years, there has been no statistical test developed to test for parent-of-origin effects on X chromosome, until the parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XPAT) and its extensions were recently proposed. However, these methods on X chromosome are only applicable to nuclear families and thus are not suitable for general pedigrees. In this article, we propose the pedigree parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XPPAT) statistic to test for parent-of-origin effects in the presence of association, which can accommodate general pedigrees. When there are missing genotypes in some pedigrees, we further develop the Monte Carlo pedigree parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XMCPPAT) to test for parent-of-origin effects, by inferring the missing genotypes given the observed genotypes based on a Monte Carlo estimation. An extensive simulation study has been carried out to investigate the type I error rates and the powers of the proposed tests. Our simulation results show that the proposed methods control the size well under the null hypothesis of no parent-of-origin effects. Moreover, XMCPPAT substantially outperforms the existing tests and has a much higher power than XPPAT which only uses complete nuclear families (with both parents) from pedigrees. We also apply the proposed methods to analyze rheumatoid arthritis data for their practical use. The proposed XPPAT and XMCPPAT test statistics are valid and powerful in detecting parent-of-origin effects on X chromosome for qualitative traits based on general pedigrees and thus are recommended.

  15. Influence of a Thiolate Chemical Layer on GaAs (100 Biofunctionalization: An Original Approach Coupling Atomic Force Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Bienaime

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Widely used in microelectronics and optoelectronics; Gallium Arsenide (GaAs is a III-V crystal with several interesting properties for microsystem and biosensor applications. Among these; its piezoelectric properties and the ability to directly biofunctionalize the bare surface, offer an opportunity to combine a highly sensitive transducer with a specific bio-interface; which are the two essential parts of a biosensor. To optimize the biorecognition part; it is necessary to control protein coverage and the binding affinity of the protein layer on the GaAs surface. In this paper; we investigate the potential of a specific chemical interface composed of thiolate molecules with different chain lengths; possessing hydroxyl (MUDO; for 11-mercapto-1-undecanol (HS(CH211OH or carboxyl (MHDA; for mercaptohexadecanoic acid (HS(CH215CO2H end groups; to reconstitute a dense and homogeneous albumin (Rat Serum Albumin; RSA protein layer on the GaAs (100 surface. The protein monolayer formation and the covalent binding existing between RSA proteins and carboxyl end groups were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis. Characterization in terms of topography; protein layer thickness and stability lead us to propose the 10% MHDA/MUDO interface as the optimal chemical layer to efficiently graft proteins. This analysis was coupled with in situ MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry measurements; which proved the presence of a dense and uniform grafted protein layer on the 10% MHDA/MUDO interface. We show in this study that a critical number of carboxylic docking sites (10% is required to obtain homogeneous and dense protein coverage on GaAs. Such a protein bio-interface is of fundamental importance to ensure a highly specific and sensitive biosensor.

  16. Modern human origins: progress and prospects.

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The question of the mode of origin of modern humans (Homo sapiens) has dominated palaeoanthropological debate over the last decade. This review discusses the main models proposed to explain modern human origins, and examines relevant fossil evidence from Eurasia, Africa and Australasia. Archaeological and genetic data are also discussed, as well as problems with the concept of 'modernity' itself. It is concluded that a recent African origin can be supported for H. sapiens, morphologically, be...

  17. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  18. A critical examination of some of the field indicators that have been proposed in connection with sound power determination using the intensity method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    A considerable number of 'field indicators' or 'quality indicators' have been proposed in connection with sound power determination based on measurement of intensity. For example, the ISO 9614-1 standard prescribes the use four indicators, and in the North American ANSI S12.12 standard no less th...

  19. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution: prevention and estimate methods; L'inquinamento di origine agricola: quali strumenti di prevenzione e stima?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffarelli, V.; Rapagnani, M.R.; Triolo, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    Non point source pollutants, such as pesticides and fertilizers derived from agricultural activities, are recognized as an important threat to environment and human health. To prevent the adverse effects of these agrochemicals it is necessary to provide growers and decision makers with easy-to-use information. Attempts have been made to put information on pesticides environmental and health effects into a formula that could summarize, in a single number, these effects. However a single number could be misleading because of the lack of information on chemical-physical parameters and the difficulty to evaluate the relative importance of various environmental and health effects. As an alternative it is here proposed an approach based on schedule containing information, for each pesticides, such as short and long term effects on human health, environmental fate and degradation time, capacity to bio accumulate, toxicity of degradation products. Using information in the schedule, decision makers could make more circumstantiate choices and could program the best agricultural actions under particular environmental circumstances with less impact on man and environment. [Italian] L'inquinamento diffuso derivante dall'uso dei fertilizzanti e dei pesticidi in agricoltura, rappresenta un rischio rilevante per l'ambiente e la salute umana. Al fine di prevenire tale rischio e' necessario fornire a coloro che gestiscono e pianificano le attivita' agricole informazioni facilmente comprensibili, mirate a ridurre o eliminare gli effetti indesiderati derivanti dai prodotti agrochimici. Tentativi sono stati fatti per sviluppare metodologie che sintetizzino queste informazioni in un indice numerico in modo da stilare una graduatoria di pericolosita' dei singoli prodotti. Si propone, in questo lavoro, un approccio basato sulla elaborazione di schede, per ogni principio attivo, che contengono una serie di informazioni quali gli effetti a breve e lungo termine

  20. The accounting methods of the "Opera del Duomo" of Orvieto, from its origins to the 16th century statute reform: single or double-entry bookkeeping?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libero Mario Mari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The “Opera del Duomo” is the institution, still in existence, which was responsible for the construction of the cathedral in Orvieto. Over the centuries there have been many changes to its structure, in part due to continual conflict between the public administration and religious organizations. In accordance with the interpretation of the development of accounting as a result of its historical context, and, in particular, its organizational structure, this paper aims, through an analysis of the accounting registers and books of the Opera, to investigate “if” and “when” it is possible to observe the introduction of the double-entry bookkeeping method, and its role and function in the Opera’s structure.

  1. Propostas de melhorias em um método de avaliação de sistemas de gestão de segurança e saúde no trabalho Proposals of improvements to a method for assessing health and safety management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Abreu Saurin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta propostas de melhorias em um método de avaliação de sistemas de gestão da segurança e saúde no trabalho, o qual tem a engenharia de resiliência (ER como filosofia e foi originalmente aplicado em um estudo de caso em uma metalúrgica. Quatro modificações foram propostas em relação à versão original: (a diretrizes para que a avaliação do atendimento aos princípios da ER seja realizada de modo sistemático; (b diretrizes para elaborar um plano de ação resultante da avaliação; (c reorganização dos instrumentos de coleta de dados, para facilitar sua aplicação por usuários com pouca experiência no método; e (d procedimentos para facilitar a atribuição de pontuações aos itens avaliados. A implantação dessas propostas é ilustrada por meio de um estudo de caso de aplicação do método em uma distribuidora de energia elétrica. As modificações propostas não foram consequência das particularidades do estudo de caso, o que é um indicativo da viabilidade de aplicação do método em outros setores, além da indústria da manufatura.This article presents proposals for improvements of a method for assessing health and safety management systems. This method has resilience engineering (RE as its underlying philosophy and it was originally devised and tested in a case study of a manufacturing plant. Four changes were proposed in comparison with the original version of the method: (a guidelines for assessing the use of RE principles more systematically; (b guidelines for developing an action plan as a result of the assessment; (c re-organization of the data collection tools in order to make it easier for use by inexperienced auditors; and (d procedures for facilitating the assignment of scores to the items assessed. The impact of these changes is illustrated by means of a case study in which the method was applied in a company that distributes electrical energy. The changes in the method were not made

  2. Detection of Herpesvirus anguillae (AngHV-1) in European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) originating from northern Poland-assessment of suitability of selected diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Thuc; Jin, Yeonhwa; Kiełpińska, Jolanta; Bergmann, Sven M; Lenk, Matthias; Panicz, Remigiusz

    2017-11-01

    The Community Action Plan requests EU member states to implement measures that ensure the recovery of the severely depleted European eel stocks. One of the main threats is posed by Anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV-1) leading to increased mortality in both wild and farmed eels. Following recommendations of the OIE to minimize the risk of obtaining false-negative results, the main aim of the study was to optimize diagnostic methods for AngHV-1 detection using conventional PCR, nested PCR and in situ hybridization assay. While 53.3% of the individual organ samples were tested positive for AngHV-1 by PCR, the additional virus analysis via nested PCR revealed that the actual prevalence was 93.3%. In the cell cultivation passages, a cytopathic effect was hardly found in the first two rounds. In the third passage onto cell cultures, a lytic CPE was detected. The identification and confirmation of the viruses obtained from cell cultures as well as directly from the organ tissues were proceeded by PCR, nested PCR and sequencing of the PCR products. While no positive signal was detectable in the first round by PCR using samples from the third cell culture passages, the nested PCR provided weak but visible positive signals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Development of resilience evaluation method for nuclear power plant. Part 1. Proposal of resilience index for assessment of safety of nuclear power plant under severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demachi, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Masaaki; Itoi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    In this research, a new index 'The Resilience Index' was proposed to evaluate the capability of nuclear power plant to recover from the situation of safety function lost. Three elements assumed to evaluate the resilience index are the achievement rate, necessary time, and probability of success of each accident management activity. The resilience index is expected to visualize the improvement of safety of each nuclear power plant against severe accidents. (author)

  4. Origins of magnetospheric physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Allen, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the scientific investigation of the earth magnetosphere during the period 1946-1960 is reviewed, with a focus on satellite missions leading to the discovery of the inner and outer radiation belts. Chapters are devoted to ground-based studies of the earth magnetic field through the 1930s, the first U.S. rocket flights carrying scientific instruments, the rockoon flights from the polar regions (1952-1957), U.S. planning for scientific use of artificial satellites (1956), the launch of Sputnik I (1957), the discovery of the inner belt by Explorers I and III (1958), the Argus high-altitude atomic-explosion tests (1958), the confirmation of the inner belt and discovery of the outer belt by Explorer IV and Pioneers I-V, related studies by Sputniks II and III and Luniks I-III, and the observational and theoretical advances of 1959-1961. Photographs, drawings, diagrams, graphs, and copies of original notes and research proposals are provided. 227 references

  5. MSR - SPHINX concept program Eros (Experimental zero power Salt reactor SR-0) - The proposed experimental program as a basis for validation of reactor physics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hron, M.; Juricek, V.; Kyncl, J.; Mikisek, M.; Rypar, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, Rez (Czech Republic)

    2007-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX) concept solves this principal problem of spent fuel treatment by means of so-called nuclear incineration. It means the burning of fissionable part of its inventory and transmutation of other problematic radionuclides by use of nuclear reactions with neutrons in a MSR-SPHINX system. This reactor system is an actinide burner (most in resonance neutron spectrum) and a radionuclide transmuter in a well-thermalized neutron spectrum. In the frame of the physical part, there are computational analyses and experimental activities. The experimental program has been focused, in its first stage, on a short-term irradiation of small size samples of molten-salt systems as well as structural materials proposed for the MSR blanket in the field of high neutron flux of research reactors. The proposed next stage of the program will focus on a large-scale experimental verification of design inputs by use of MSR-type inserting zones into the existing light water moderated experimental reactor LR-0, which may allow us to modify it into the experimental zero power salt reactor SR-0. There will be a detail description of the proposed program given in the paper together with the so far performed experiments and their first results. These realized experiments help us also to verify computational codes used, and to recognize some anomalies related to molten fluorides utilization. (authors)

  6. The Origin of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Araki,Naoki

    2018-01-01

    There have been a lot of discussions of the origin of language. Some people think that the origin of words is onomatopoeias. Meanwhile, according to expressive theories, the origin of words and language is the innate cries of pain or pleasure produced by nonhuman animals. Others insist that language originated as a means of communication. Another theory holds that a learned vocalization systems, more like birdsong than innate calls, formed a middle term in language evolution. Others claim tha...

  7. Research and development on groundwater dating. Part 11. The proposal of separation method of chloride and sulfate ion for accurate measurement of 36Cl/Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    36 Cl is one of the most powerful tools to estimate the residence time of groundwater about 300-1800 thousand years. AMS(Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy) can provide accurate estimation of 36 Cl. However, estimation of 36 Cl by AMS is usually disturbed by isobar such as 36 S. Thus, separation of Cl (usually Cl - form in groundwater) and S (usually SO 4 -2 form in groundwater) is required for accurate estimation of 36 Cl. In previous studies, a methodology (BaSO 4 Method) that uses the difference in solubility between BaSO 4 and BaCl 2 , had been applied as pretreatment method for 36 Cl estimation by AMS. However BaSO 4 Method has following disadvantages; (1) Cl and SO 4 can not be separated completely, (2) accuracy of separation depends on the skills of operator, (3) it takes a long time for treatment, (4) it can not be applied to dilute solutions. Therefore, new methodology that can overcome disadvantages of BaSO 4 method is required for more accurate estimation of 36 Cl. In this study, Column Method based on column chromatography was investigated for pretreatment method for 36 Cl estimation by AMS to separate Cl and SO 4 ions. The conditions for Column Method were determined and adjusted so that Cl and SO 4 ions were separated completely and sufficient amount of Cl for 36 Cl estimation can be treated. The results of AMS measurement showed Column Method can remove SO 4 from Cl more effectively comparing with BaSO 4 method. Furthermore, Column Method was found to have following advantages over BaSO 4 Method; (1) dependence of accuracy of separation on the skills of operator is quite low, (2) treatment can be done within 6 h, (3) it can be applied to dilute solutions. (author)

  8. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    whites outside this interval, foreign origin can be assumed, since the isotope ratio of the drinking water samples covers natural waters characteristic for Hungary. As a conclusion, the same applies for eggs, as well. The three foreign egg samples can be separated from the Hungarian ones based on their δ 18 O and δD values, however, differences in the shifts compared to their own drinking water samples masks the region-specific information of the drinking water. From the micro elemental composition of the egg shells it can be stated that the identification of the samples can be performed with a precision of 97.1%, therefore differences in the elemental composition are large enough to characterise the origin of the eggs by the elemental analysis of the egg shell. It is recommended from the market protection point of view that to compare the elemental composition data of the shell of the supposedly foreign egg with an information database established for each production plant in Hungary. As on the information stamp of the mislabelled eggs the code of a Hungarian production plant is seen, it would be comparable with the real eggs originating from that plant. In this way, foreign eggs may be filtered out. Of course, to verify this method, further investigations are required.

  9. Generalization of the Moszkovski-Scott method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbutsev, E.B.

    1976-01-01

    A constant separation parameter is proposed to be used in the Moszkovski-Scott method for solving the Bethe-Goldstone equation. After such a modification one can apply the method to odd states of relative motion, not only to even ones. Some essential inaccuracies of the original method are eliminated, as well

  10. A novel electrostatic ion-energy spectrometer by the use of a proposed ``self-collection'' method for secondary-electron emission from a metal collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M.; Nagashima, S.; Cho, T.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshida, M.; Ito, H.; Numakura, T.; Minami, R.; Kondoh, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Yatsu, K.; Miyoshi, S.

    2003-03-01

    For the purpose of end-loss-ion energy analyses in open-field plasmas, a newly developed electrostatic ion-energy spectrometer is proposed on the basis of a "self-collection" principle for secondary-electron emission from a metal collector. The ion-energy spectrometer is designed with multiple grids for analyzing incident ion energies, and a set of parallelly placed metal plates with respect to lines of ambient magnetic forces in an open-ended device. One of the most important characteristic properties of this spectrometer is the use of our proposed principle of a "self-collection" mechanism due to E×B drifts for secondary electrons emitted from the grounded metal-plate collector by the use of no further additional magnetic systems except the ambient open-ended fields B. The proof-of-principle and characterization experiments are carried out by the use of a test-ion-beam line along with an additional use of a Helmholtz coil system for the formation of open magnetic fields similar to those in the GAMMA 10 end region. The applications of the developed ion-energy spectrometer for end-loss-ion diagnostics in the GAMMA 10 plasma experiments are demonstrated under the conditions with simultaneous incidence of energetic electrons produced by electron-cyclotron heatings for end-loss-plugging potential formation, since these electrons have contributed to disturb these ion signals from conventional end-loss-ion detectors.

  11. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staffeldt, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  12. The Origin of the Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramazanov, Sabir

    . For this purpose, we employ the quadratic maximum likelihood method, and apply it to the search of the statistical anisotropy in the seven-year WMAP data. We confirm the large quadrupole anisotropy detected in V and W bands, which has been argued to originate from systematic eects rather than from cosmology. We...

  13. The Specificity of Observational Studies in Physical Activity and Sports Sciences: Moving Forward in Mixed Methods Research and Proposals for Achieving Quantitative and Qualitative Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguera, M Teresa; Camerino, Oleguer; Castañer, Marta; Sánchez-Algarra, Pedro; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods studies are been increasingly applied to a diversity of fields. In this paper, we discuss the growing use-and enormous potential-of mixed methods research in the field of sport and physical activity. A second aim is to contribute to strengthening the characteristics of mixed methods research by showing how systematic observation offers rigor within a flexible framework that can be applied to a wide range of situations. Observational methodology is characterized by high scientific rigor and flexibility throughout its different stages and allows the objective study of spontaneous behavior in natural settings, with no external influence. Mixed methods researchers need to take bold yet thoughtful decisions regarding both substantive and procedural issues. We present three fundamental and complementary ideas to guide researchers in this respect: we show why studies of sport and physical activity that use a mixed methods research approach should be included in the field of mixed methods research, we highlight the numerous possibilities offered by observational methodology in this field through the transformation of descriptive data into quantifiable code matrices, and we discuss possible solutions for achieving true integration of qualitative and quantitative findings.

  14. The Specificity of Observational Studies in Physical Activity and Sports Sciences: Moving Forward in Mixed Methods Research and Proposals for Achieving Quantitative and Qualitative Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Anguera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed methods studies are been increasingly applied to a diversity of fields. In this paper, we discuss the growing use—and enormous potential—of mixed methods research in the field of sport and physical activity. A second aim is to contribute to strengthening the characteristics of mixed methods research by showing how systematic observation offers rigor within a flexible framework that can be applied to a wide range of situations. Observational methodology is characterized by high scientific rigor and flexibility throughout its different stages and allows the objective study of spontaneous behavior in natural settings, with no external influence. Mixed methods researchers need to take bold yet thoughtful decisions regarding both substantive and procedural issues. We present three fundamental and complementary ideas to guide researchers in this respect: we show why studies of sport and physical activity that use a mixed methods research approach should be included in the field of mixed methods research, we highlight the numerous possibilities offered by observational methodology in this field through the transformation of descriptive data into quantifiable code matrices, and we discuss possible solutions for achieving true integration of qualitative and quantitative findings.

  15. Pizza Again? On the Division of Polygons into Sections with a Common Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsky, Ilya; Stupel, Moshe; Sinitsky, Marina

    2018-01-01

    The paper explores the division of a polygon into equal-area pieces using line segments originating at a common point. The mathematical background of the proposed method is very simple and belongs to secondary school geometry. Simple examples dividing a square into two, four or eight congruent pieces provide a starting point to discovering how to…

  16. Origin, development, and evolution of butterfly eyespots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Antónia

    2015-01-07

    This article reviews the latest developments in our understanding of the origin, development, and evolution of nymphalid butterfly eyespots. Recent contributions to this field include insights into the evolutionary and developmental origin of eyespots and their ancestral deployment on the wing, the evolution of eyespot number and eyespot sexual dimorphism, and the identification of genes affecting eyespot development and black pigmentation. I also compare features of old and more recently proposed models of eyespot development and propose a schematic for the genetic regulatory architecture of eyespots. Using this schematic I propose two hypotheses for why we observe limits to morphological diversity across these serially homologous traits.

  17. Historical Development of Origins Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Following the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, many naturalists adopted the idea that living organisms were the historical outcome of gradual transformation of lifeless matter. These views soon merged with the developments of biochemistry and cell biology and led to proposals in which the origin of protoplasm was equated with the origin of life. The heterotrophic origin of life proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s was part of this tradition, which Oparin enriched by transforming the discussion of the emergence of the first cells into a workable multidisciplinary research program. On the other hand, the scientific trend toward understanding biological phenomena at the molecular level led authors like Troland, Muller, and others to propose that single molecules or viruses represented primordial living systems. The contrast between these opposing views on the origin of life represents not only contrasting views of the nature of life itself, but also major ideological discussions that reached a surprising intensity in the years following Stanley Miller’s seminal result which showed the ease with which organic compounds of biochemical significance could be synthesized under putative primitive conditions. In fact, during the years following the Miller experiment, attempts to understand the origin of life were strongly influenced by research on DNA replication and protein biosynthesis, and, in socio-political terms, by the atmosphere created by Cold War tensions. The catalytic versatility of RNA molecules clearly merits a critical reappraisal of Muller’s viewpoint. However, the discovery of ribozymes does not imply that autocatalytic nucleic acid molecules ready to be used as primordial genes were floating in the primitive oceans, or that the RNA world emerged completely assembled from simple precursors present in the prebiotic soup. The evidence supporting the presence of a wide range of organic molecules on the primitive Earth, including membrane

  18. Design for a sustainable society utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) - proposal: a new EcoDesign method and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, J. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, the Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, M. [Fundamental and Environment Labs., NEC Corp. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    We discuss a new EcoDesign method, with a goal of improving the economy, and its application to a sustainable networked society. The new EcoDesign method differs from conventional EcoDesign in three respects: it utilizes a top-down approach, project-style research, and fact-finding and benchmarking. We systematize EcoDesign for a networked society from the viewpoint of technology and divide it into four components. Feasibility studies of the individual components reveal that if we promote ICT diffusion with EcoDesign in mind, we can suppress CO2 emissions and move towards a more sustainable society. (orig.)

  19. Analysis for trace mercury concentration. I. Critical evaluation of current procedures. II. A proposed method for determination by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Current methods of sample pretreatments, digestion, lyophilization and extraction, have been found to lead to considerable loss of mercury, at an initial mercury concentration of 1 μg/g, and less. Storage of solutions of mercury at concentrations of less than 1 μg/ml, in glass, Teflon and polyethylene containers, leads to losses by adsorption. Electrochemical reduction of mercury to the metal, and subsequent volatilization, is postulated as the mechanism of loss from the samples studied during lyophilization. A method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, which obviates the above pretreatments, has been developed for mercury concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml

  20. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabelski, J. [Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10{sup 15} eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O{sup 19} eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author) 101 refs, 19 figs, 7 tabs

  1. The origin of risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J; Lo, Andrew W

    2014-12-16

    Risk aversion is one of the most basic assumptions of economic behavior, but few studies have addressed the question of where risk preferences come from and why they differ from one individual to the next. Here, we propose an evolutionary explanation for the origin of risk aversion. In the context of a simple binary-choice model, we show that risk aversion emerges by natural selection if reproductive risk is systematic (i.e., correlated across individuals in a given generation). In contrast, risk neutrality emerges if reproductive risk is idiosyncratic (i.e., uncorrelated across each given generation). More generally, our framework implies that the degree of risk aversion is determined by the stochastic nature of reproductive rates, and we show that different statistical properties lead to different utility functions. The simplicity and generality of our model suggest that these implications are primitive and cut across species, physiology, and genetic origins.

  2. Establishment of the upper reference limit for thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies according to the guidelines proposed by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: comparison of five different automated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Federica; Metus, Paolo; Polizzi Anselmo, Annalisa; Villalta, Danilo; Ferrari, Anna; Castello, Roberto; Giani, Graziella; Tonutti, Elio; Bizzaro, Nicola; Tozzoli, Renato

    2015-12-01

    The estimation of the upper reference limit (URL) for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAbs) is a controversial issue, because of an uncertainty associated with the criteria used to correctly define the reference population. In addition, the URL of TPOAbs is method-dependent and often arbitrarily established in current laboratory practice. The aim of this study was to determine the reference limits of TPOAbs in a male sample according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines, and to compare them with those obtained in a female group, for five third-generation commercial-automated immunoassay (IMA) platforms. 120 healthy males and 120 healthy females with NACB-required characteristics (younger than 30 years, TSH between 0.5 and 2.0 mIU/L, normal thyroid ultrasound, absence of thyroid disease and absence of other autoimmune diseases) were studied. Sera were analyzed for TPOAbs concentration using five IMA methods applied in automated analyzers: Immulite 2000 XPi (IMM); Maglumi 2000 Plus (MAG); Kryptor Compact Plus (KRY); Phadia 250 (PHA) and Liaison XL (LIA). A statistically significant difference (p reference group for a disease (such as AITD) that affects mainly females. However, in spite of the harmonization among methods provided by the use of an international standard preparation, the wide dispersion of quantitative results still observed in this study suggests the need for further efforts to better understand the cause of these discrepancies, focusing on TPO antigen preparations as the possible source of variability among different assays.

  3. High resolution studies of the origins of polyatomic ions in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, Part I. Identification methods and effects of neutral gas density assumptions, extraction voltage, and cone material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, Jill Wisnewski; Houk, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Common polyatomic ions (ArO + , NO + , H 2 O + , H 3 O + , Ar 2 + , ArN + , OH + , ArH + , O 2 + ) in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are identified using high mass resolution and studied using kinetic gas temperatures (T gas ) determined from a dissociation reaction approach. Methods for making accurate mass measurements, confirming ion identifications, and correcting for mass bias are discussed. The effects of sampler and skimmer cone composition and extraction voltage on polyatomic ion formation are also explored. Neutral species densities at several locations in the extraction interface are estimated and the corresponding effects of the T gas value are calculated. The results provide information about the origins of background ions and indicate possible locations for their formation or removal

  4. Irradiation with x-rays of the energy 18 MV induces radioactivity in transfusion blood: Proposal of a safe method using 6 MV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentzel, Katharina; Badakhshi, Harun

    2016-12-01

    To prevent a fatal transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease, it is recommended to irradiate transfusion blood and blood components with ionizing radiation. Using x-rays from a linear accelerator of the radiotherapy department is an accepted alternative to gamma irradiation devices of the blood bank and to the orthovoltage units that are replacing the gamma irradiators today. However, the use of high energy x-rays may carry a potential risk of induced radioactivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of two different energy levels, 6 and 18 MV, which are executed in routine clinical settings. The research question was if induced radioactivity occurs at one of these standard energy levels. The authors aimed to give a proposal for a blood irradiation procedure that certainly avoids induced radioactivity. For this study, the authors developed a blood bag phantom, irradiated it with x-ray energies of 6 and 18 MV, and measured the induced radioactivity in a well counter. Thereafter, the same irradiation and measuring procedure was performed with a unit of packed red blood cells. A feasible clinical procedure was developed using 6 MV and an acrylic box. With the irradiation planning system XiO, the authors generated an irradiation protocol for the linear accelerator Siemens ONCOR Anvant-Garde. Both measurement setups showed that there was induced radioactivity for 18 MV but not for 6 MV. The induced radioactivity for 18 MV was up to 190 times the background. This is significant and of clinical relevance especially since there are newborn and fetal blood recipients for whom every radiation exposure has to be strictly avoided. The irradiation of blood with x-rays from a linear accelerator of the radiotherapy department is safe and feasible, but by the current state of scientific knowledge, the authors recommend to use an x-ray energy of 6 MV or less to avoid induced radioactivity in transfusion blood.

  5. A Proposal for a Flexible Trend Specification in DSGE Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slanicay Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a flexible trend specification for estimating DSGE models on log differences. I demonstrate this flexible trend specification on a New Keynesian DSGE model of two economies, which I consequently estimate on data from the Czech economy and the euro area, using Bayesian techniques. The advantage of the trend specification proposed is that the trend component and the cyclical component are modelled jointly in a single model. The proposed trend specification is flexible in the sense that smoothness of the trend can be easily modified by different calibration of some of the trend parameters. The results suggest that this method is capable of finding a very reasonable trend in the data. Moreover, comparison of forecast performance reveals that the proposed specification offers more reliable forecasts than the original variant of the model.

  6. Fuel- and wood consumption surveys in developing countries: a proposal of an efficient low-cost method and the results of its application in eastern Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschen, P.; Eiche, G.

    1986-01-01

    The method involves a preliminary survey to establish areas homogeneous for temperature and rainfall regime, natural vegetation, agricultural systems, wood fuel substitutes, housing and cooking habits. Locations are sampled within such areas to reflect variability in presence of forests and other fuel and wood resources, population density, and access to markets. Households are sampled within a location to cover variation in social structure. Results from a survey in the Hararghe highlands differ markedly from previous Ethiopia-wide estimates and show that remaining wood resources supply less than half of the fuel requirements. An effective community forestry programme is urgently required. (Refs. 9).

  7. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in

  8. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  9. Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and near-infrared (NIR, with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA, and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines.

  10. The Natural Origins of Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutto, Daniel; Satne, Glenda Lucila

    2015-01-01

    to be reconceived in terms of explaining the natural origins of content. Second, the pivotal assumption that intentionality is always and everywhere contentful must be abandoned. Reviving and updating Haugeland’s baseball analogy in the light of these changes, we propose ways of redirecting the efforts of players...... on each base of his intentionality All-Star team, enabling them to start functioning effectively as a team. Only then is it likely that they will finally get their innings and maybe, just maybe, even win the game....

  11. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  12. Characterization of Multidrug Resistant E. faecalis Strains from Pigs of Local Origin by ADSRRS-Fingerprinting and MALDI -TOF MS; Evaluation of the Compatibility of Methods Employed for Multidrug Resistance Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nowakiewicz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize multidrug resistant E. faecalis strains from pigs of local origin and to analyse the relationship between resistance and genotypic and proteomic profiles by amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS-fingerprinting and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI -TOF MS. From the total pool of Enterococcus spp. isolated from 90 pigs, we selected 36 multidrug resistant E. faecalis strains, which represented three different phenotypic resistance profiles. Phenotypic resistance to tetracycline, macrolides, phenicols, and lincomycin and high-level resistance to aminoglycosides were confirmed by the occurrence of at least one corresponding resistance gene in each strain. Based on the analysis of the genotypic and phenotypic resistance of the strains tested, five distinct resistance profiles were generated. As a complement of this analysis, profiles of virulence genes were determined and these profiles corresponded to the phenotypic resistance profiles. The demonstration of resistance to a wide panel of antimicrobials by the strains tested in this study indicates the need of typing to determine the spread of resistance also at the local level. It seems that in the case of E. faecalis, type and scope of resistance strongly determines the genotypic pattern obtained with the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method. The ADSRRS-fingerprinting analysis showed consistency of the genetic profiles with the resistance profiles, while analysis of data with the use of the MALDI- TOF MS method did not demonstrate direct reproduction of the clustering pattern obtained with this method. Our observations were confirmed by statistical analysis (Simpson's index of diversity, Rand and Wallace coefficients. Even though the MALDI -TOF MS method showed slightly higher discrimination power than ADSRRS-fingerprinting, only the latter method allowed reproduction of the

  13. Proposed Method for Estimating Health-Promoting Glucosinolates and Hydrolysis Products in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Using Relative Transcript Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Talon M; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2017-01-18

    Due to the importance of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in human nutrition and plant defense, optimizing the content of these compounds is a frequent breeding objective for Brassica crops. Toward this goal, we investigated the feasibility of using models built from relative transcript abundance data for the prediction of glucosinolate and hydrolysis product concentrations in broccoli. We report that predictive models explaining at least 50% of the variation for a number of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products can be built for prediction within the same season, but prediction accuracy decreased when using models built from one season's data for prediction of an opposing season. This method of phytochemical profile prediction could potentially allow for lower phytochemical phenotyping costs and larger breeding populations. This, in turn, could improve selection efficiency for phase II induction potential, a type of chemopreventive bioactivity, by allowing for the quick and relatively cheap content estimation of phytochemicals known to influence the trait.

  14. New methods in order to determine the extent of temporary blinding from laser and LED light and proposal how to allocate into blinding groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter; Ott, Günter; Brose, Martin; Dollinger, Klaus

    2010-02-01

    recovery time tVA has been found to obey the dose relationship: tVA /s ~ 3.7•ln(energy/μJ) - 16.2 in the case of a green HB-LED in the power range 0.12 mW to 1.5 mW and for exposure durations between 1 s and 8 s. Further investigations were performed with other LED colors especially as far as threshold values for temporary blinding are concerned. The afterimage duration tafterimage,fv produced by a red laser beam was determined to be: tafterimage,fv/s ~ 50.6•ln[(P•texp)/μJ] - 13.4, for laser output powers P between 10 μW and 30 μW with exposure durations texp from 0.25 s up to 10 s, when the beam hits the fovea. Additional results have been achieved with a green laser at a wavelength of 532 nm and compared with the respective values at 632.8 nm. The results of the research project suggest classifying light sources like laser and LEDs into so-called blinding groups. In total 3 different groups which reflect the obtained results and are proposed in order to fulfil the requirements of special classification and might be regarded as an appropriate assistance to perform a risk analysis.

  15. TH-AB-207A-07: Radiation Dose Simulation for a Newly Proposed Dynamic Bowtie Filters for CT Using Fast Monte Carlo Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T; Lin, H; Gao, Y; Caracappa, P; Wang, G; Cong, W; Xu, X [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic bowtie filter is an innovative design capable of modulating the X-ray and balancing the flux in the detectors, and it introduces a new way of patient-specific CT scan optimizations. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing fast Monte Carlo dose calculation for a type of dynamic bowtie filter for cone-beam CT (Liu et al. 2014 9(7) PloS one) using MIC coprocessors. Methods: The dynamic bowtie filter in question consists of a highly attenuating bowtie component (HB) and a weakly attenuating bowtie (WB). The HB is filled with CeCl3 solution and its surface is defined by a transcendental equation. The WB is an elliptical cylinder filled with air and immersed in the HB. As the scanner rotates, the orientation of WB remains the same with the static patient. In our Monte Carlo simulation, the HB was approximated by 576 boxes. The phantom was a voxelized elliptical cylinder composed of PMMA and surrounded by air (44cm×44cm×40cm, 1000×1000×1 voxels). The dose to the PMMA phantom was tallied with 0.15% statistical uncertainty under 100 kVp source. Two Monte Carlo codes ARCHER and MCNP-6.1 were compared. Both used double-precision. Compiler flags that may trade accuracy for speed were avoided. Results: The wall time of the simulation was 25.4 seconds by ARCHER on a 5110P MIC, 40 seconds on a X5650 CPU, and 523 seconds by the multithreaded MCNP on the same CPU. The high performance of ARCHER is attributed to the parameterized geometry and vectorization of the program hotspots. Conclusion: The dynamic bowtie filter modeled in this study is able to effectively reduce the dynamic range of the detected signals for the photon-counting detectors. With appropriate software optimization methods, the accelerator-based (MIC and GPU) Monte Carlo dose engines have shown good performance and can contribute to patient-specific CT scan optimizations.

  16. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 (“Release of an acute toxic gas”) in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebert , Pierre; Samaali , Ismahen; Molina , Pauline

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as “Release of an acute toxic gas”: waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, ...

  17. Claimed Effects, Outcome Variables and Methods of Measurement for Health Claims on Foods Related to Vision Proposed Under Regulation (EC) 1924/2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Giorgio; Biasini, Beatrice; Zavaroni, Ivana; Ventura, Marco; Galli, Daniela; Mirandola, Prisco; Vitale, Marco; Bonadonna, Riccardo C.; Passeri, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Adequate visual function has a strong impact on the quality of life of people. Several foods and food components have been hypothesized to play a role in the maintenance of normal visual function and in the prevention of eye diseases. Some of these foods/food components have been the object of a request of authorization for use of health claims under Articles 13(5) or 14 of the Regulation (EC) 1924/2006. Most of these requests have received a negative opinion from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) due to the choice of inappropriate outcome variables (OVs) and/or methods of measurement (MMs) applied in the studies used to substantiate the claims. This manuscript refers to the collection, collation and critical analysis of OVs and MMs related to vision. Guidance document and requests for authorization of health claims were used to collect OVs and MMs related to vision. A literature review was performed to critically analyse OVs and MMs, with the aim of defining their appropriateness in the context of a specific claimed effect related to vision. The results highlight the importance of adequate choices of OVs and MMs for an effective substantiation of claims related to visual function. PMID:29443929

  18. Proposal of method for quantifying uranium weight in the interior of gas centrifuge, and performance evaluation of IF7 treatment reaction product separation and refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ema, Akira; Kado, Kazumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    In uranium enrichment plant decommissioning, it is important to treat and dispose the gas centrifuge reasonably. At the Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center of JAEA, it has been planned to carry out IF 7 treatment for the gas centrifuge in the uranium enrichment plant for decontamination before dismantling. In order to carry out this IF 7 treatment, a nondestructive measurement technology to estimate the uranium weight in the interior of the gas centrifuge was needed. However, it was difficult to estimate exactly uranium weight using former methods. Therefore, in this study, we investigated a new nondestructive measurement. As a result, we succeeded in constructing theoretically the methodology using γ-ray intensity measured outside the gas centrifuge and MCNP code. Furthermore, the UF 6 and IF 5 mixture was recovered by IF 7 treatment. A technology to separate and refine IF 5 from this mixture was needed in order to use as a material of IF 7 gas. Therefore, in this study, we carried out IF 5 separation and refinement examination. This paper shows the investigation result of reasonable separation condition and the full-scale examination result. As a result, it could be proved that 86% of IF 5 was separated and refined from UF 6 and IF 5 mixture. (author)

  19. Computational tool kit for evaluating air kerma with the purpose of radiation protection of hospital inpatients: proposal of a simple experimental evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Gabriela; Fischer, Andreia Caroline Fischer da Silveira, E-mail: ghoff.gesic@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS, (Brazil); Andrade, Jose Rodrigo Mendes; Bacelar, Alexandre [Service of Medical Physics and Radioprotection, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Objective: To present a data analysis toolkit that may be utilized with the purpose of radiation protection of hospital inpatients and workers in areas where mobile apparatuses are used. Materials and methods: an Excel Active Sheet was utilized to develop a computational toolkit with exposure measurements to generate a database of shape factors and to calculate the air kerma around hospital beds. The initial database included data collected with three mobile apparatuses. A non-anthropomorphic phantom was utilized and exposure measurements were performed on a (4.2 x 4.2) m{sup 2} mesh-grid at 0.3 m steps. Results: The toolkit calculates the air kerma (associated with patients' radiation exposure and with ambient equivalent dose) under secondary radiation. For distances lower than 60.0 cm, values above the maximum ambient equivalent dose threshold defined for radiation free areas (0.5 mSv/year) were verified. Data collected at 2.1 m have always presented values lower than 12% of that threshold. Conclusion: The toolkit can aid in the radiological protection of patients and workers, provided it is combined with appropriate data collection, since it allows the determination of radiation free areas around beds in rooms where mobile X-ray apparatuses are utilized. (author)

  20. Computational tool kit for evaluating air kerma with the purpose of radiation protection of hospital inpatients: proposal of a simple experimental evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, Gabriela; Fischer, Andreia Caroline Fischer da Silveira; Andrade, Jose Rodrigo Mendes; Bacelar, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present a data analysis toolkit that may be utilized with the purpose of radiation protection of hospital inpatients and workers in areas where mobile apparatuses are used. Materials and methods: an Excel Active Sheet was utilized to develop a computational toolkit with exposure measurements to generate a database of shape factors and to calculate the air kerma around hospital beds. The initial database included data collected with three mobile apparatuses. A non-anthropomorphic phantom was utilized and exposure measurements were performed on a (4.2 x 4.2) m 2 mesh-grid at 0.3 m steps. Results: The toolkit calculates the air kerma (associated with patients' radiation exposure and with ambient equivalent dose) under secondary radiation. For distances lower than 60.0 cm, values above the maximum ambient equivalent dose threshold defined for radiation free areas (0.5 mSv/year) were verified. Data collected at 2.1 m have always presented values lower than 12% of that threshold. Conclusion: The toolkit can aid in the radiological protection of patients and workers, provided it is combined with appropriate data collection, since it allows the determination of radiation free areas around beds in rooms where mobile X-ray apparatuses are utilized. (author)

  1. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  2. Complexation of biological ligands with lanthanides(III) for MRI: Structure, thermodynamic and methods; Complexation des cations lanthanides trivalents par des ligands d'origine biologique pour l'IRM: Structure, thermodynamique et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, C

    2006-07-15

    New cyclic ligands derived from sugars and amino-acids form a scaffold carrying a coordination sphere of oxygen atoms suitable to complex Ln(III) ions. In spite of their rather low molecular weights, the complexes display surprisingly high relaxivity values, especially at high field. The ACX and BCX ligands, which are acidic derivatives of modified and cyclo-dextrins, form mono and bimetallic complexes with Ln(III). The LnACX and LnBCX complexes show affinities towards Ln(III) similar to those of tri-acidic ligands. In the bimetallic Lu2ACX complex, the cations are deeply embedded in the cavity of the ligand, as shown by the X-ray structure. In aqueous solution, the number of water molecules coordinated to the cation in the LnACX complex depends on the nature and concentration of the alkali ions of the supporting electrolyte, as shown by luminescence and relaxometric measurements. There is only one water molecule coordinated in the LnBCX complex, which enables us to highlight an important second sphere contribution to relaxivity. The NMR study of the RAFT peptidic ligand shows the complexation of Ln(III), with an affinity similar to those of natural ligands derived from calmodulin. The relaxometric study also shows an important second sphere contribution to relaxivity. To better understand the intricate molecular factors affecting relaxivity, we developed new relaxometric methods based on probe solutes. These methods allow us to determine the charge of the complex, weak affinity constants, trans-metallation constants, and the electronic relaxation rate. (author)

  3. Complexation of biological ligands with lanthanides(III) for MRI: Structure, thermodynamic and methods; Complexation des cations lanthanides trivalents par des ligands d'origine biologique pour l'IRM: Structure, thermodynamique et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, C

    2006-07-15

    New cyclic ligands derived from sugars and amino-acids form a scaffold carrying a coordination sphere of oxygen atoms suitable to complex Ln(III) ions. In spite of their rather low molecular weights, the complexes display surprisingly high relaxivity values, especially at high field. The ACX and BCX ligands, which are acidic derivatives of modified and cyclo-dextrins, form mono and bimetallic complexes with Ln(III). The LnACX and LnBCX complexes show affinities towards Ln(III) similar to those of tri-acidic ligands. In the bimetallic Lu2ACX complex, the cations are deeply embedded in the cavity of the ligand, as shown by the X-ray structure. In aqueous solution, the number of water molecules coordinated to the cation in the LnACX complex depends on the nature and concentration of the alkali ions of the supporting electrolyte, as shown by luminescence and relaxometric measurements. There is only one water molecule coordinated in the LnBCX complex, which enables us to highlight an important second sphere contribution to relaxivity. The NMR study of the RAFT peptidic ligand shows the complexation of Ln(III), with an affinity similar to those of natural ligands derived from calmodulin. The relaxometric study also shows an important second sphere contribution to relaxivity. To better understand the intricate molecular factors affecting relaxivity, we developed new relaxometric methods based on probe solutes. These methods allow us to determine the charge of the complex, weak affinity constants, trans-metallation constants, and the electronic relaxation rate. (author)

  4. Marxismo original e Utopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nildo Viana

    2016-01-01

    O marxismo original – desenvolvido por Marx e Engels – geralmente é contraposto ao socialismo utópico como se fosse uma recusa absoluta e total. O objetivo do artigo é discutir a relação entre o marxismo original e o socialismo utópico e com a utopia. A tese defendida no artigo é a de que o caráter antiutópico do marxismo original é uma simplificação, pois o que ele realiza é uma suplantação do utopismo, o que significa manter os seus elementos positivos e negar os seus elementos negativos. P...

  5. ASTM F739 method for testing the permeation resistance of protective clothing materials: critical analysis with proposed changes in procedure and test-cell design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, D H; Zellers, E T; Sulewski, R

    1998-08-01

    ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Method F739-96 specifies a test-cell design and procedures for measuring the permeation resistance of chemical protective clothing. Among the specifications are open-loop collection stream flow rates of 0.050 to 0.150 L/min for a gaseous medium. At elevated temperatures the test must be maintained within 1 degree C of the set point. This article presents a critical analysis of the effect of the collection stream flow rate on the measured permeation rate and on the temperature uniformity within the test cell. Permeation tests were conducted on four polymeric glove materials with 44 solvents at 25 degrees C. Flow rates > 0.5 L/min were necessary to obtain accurate steady-state permeation rate (SSPR) values in 25 percent of the tests. At the lower flow rates the true SSPR typically was underestimated by a factor of two or less, but errors of up to 33-fold were observed. No clear relationship could be established between the need for a higher collection stream flow rate and either the vapor pressure or the permeation rate of the solvent, but test results suggest that poor mixing within the collection chamber was a contributing factor. Temperature gradients between the challenge and collection chambers and between the bottom and the top of the collection chamber increased with the water-bath temperature and the collection stream flow rate. Use of a test cell modified to permit deeper submersion reduced the gradients to < or = 0.5 degrees C. It is recommended that all SSPR measurements include verification of the adequacy of the collection stream flow rate. For testing at nonambient temperatures, the modified test cell described here could be used to ensure temperature uniformity throughout the cell.

  6. Symptom management in complex post-traumatic stress disorder (ICD-11), view and experience of patients and their relatives: a mixed methods approach (Research Proposal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtmann, Manuel P; Maercker, Andreas; Binder, Jochen; Schnepp, Wilfried

    2017-09-07

    Using the framework of IDC-11, complex post-traumatic stress disorder will be diagnosed using the core criteria of a post-traumatic stress disorder and the presence of at least one symptom from the following three domains: symptoms of emotional dysregulation, negative self-concept, and problems in interpersonal relationships. In the literature, these symptoms are discussed as a common reason for seeking treatment. The symptoms can influence and impair the quality of life. This article describes a mixed methods study with a sequential exploratory design. The aim is to describe specific patient characteristics, levels of symptom burden and perspectives of adult inpatients and to describe the experiences, views and needs of patients' relatives. The study will also investigate facilitators of and barriers to symptom management. The research will be conducted in four phases. The first phase will assess patients' symptom burdens. The second phase will use semi-structured interviews to explore attitudes to symptom management and perceptions of patients and their relatives. The third phase will statistically explore hypotheses generated after the qualitative interviews. The fourth phase will mix the quantitative and qualitative results and interpret critically. The present study will add new results to the growing literature on complex post-traumatic stress disorder. These results could serve as the basis for further research into the development of interventions to improve symptom management. Trial registration Ethical approval has been obtained from the Swiss cantonal ethic commission (Nr. 201500096). This research was also registered to the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Search Portal through the German Clinical Trial Register, Trial DRKS00012268 (21/04/2017).

  7. Estimation of intermediate-grade uranium resources II. Proposed method for estimating intermediate-grade uranium resources in roll-front deposits. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambie, F.W.; Yee, S.N.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this and a previous project was to examine the feasibility of estimating intermediate grade uranium (0.01 to 0.05% U 3 O 8 ) on the basis of existing, sparsely drilled holes. All data are from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. DOE makes preliminary estimates of endowment by calculating an Average Area of Influence (AAI) based on densely drilled areas, multiplying that by the thickness of the mineralization and then dividing by a tonnage factor. The resulting tonnage of ore is then multiplied by the average grade of the interval to obtain the estimate of U 3 O 8 tonnage. Total endowment is the sum of these values over all mineralized intervals in all wells in the area. In regions where wells are densely drilled and approximately regularly spaced this technique approaches the classical polygonal estimation technique used to estimate ore reserves and should be fairly reliable. The method is conservative because: (1) in sparsely drilled regions a large fraction of the area is not considered to contribute to endowment; (2) there is a bias created by the different distributions of point grades and mining block grades. A conservative approach may be justified for purposes of ore reserve estimation, where large investments may hinge on local forecasts. But for estimates of endowment over areas as large as 1 0 by 2 0 quadrangles, or the nation as a whole, errors in local predictions are not critical as long as they tend to cancel and a less conservative estimation approach may be justified.One candidate, developed for this study and described is called the contoured thickness technique. A comparison of estimates based on the contoured thickness approach with DOE calculations for five areas of Wyoming roll-fronts in the Powder River Basin is presented. The sensitivity of the technique to well density is examined and the question of predicting intermediate grade endowment from data on higher grades is discussed

  8. Model FRBR in origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Lúcia Pacheco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This article aims at identifying the genesis of the studies the conceptual model Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR, published in 1998 by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA with the proposal to develop new approach to the bibliographic record. Method. For this appealed to bibliographical research, primarily the sources of official information IFLA, in order to investigate the trajectory preceding the publication of the model and determine the intellectual debate on its elaboration. Results. It was found that the FRBR model was born with eminently practical purposes and generates a set of expectations about the reduction of cataloging costs, indicating a minimum level element in bibliographic records that meet the needs of the users associated with the various types of materials and contexts of use. Conclusions. The accumulation of scientific knowledge coupled with sustained and brought experiential dimension in the model, changes the paradigms of traditional cataloging, but model the final report does not present the foundations that support it.

  9. Robust watermarking on copyright protection of digital originals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C; Hu, X Y, E-mail: guchong527@gmail.co, E-mail: emma_huxy@yahoo.com.c [College of Packaging and Printing Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300222 (China)

    2010-06-01

    The issues about the difference between digital vector originals and raster originals were discussed. A new algorithm based on displacing vertices to realize the embedding and extracting of digital watermarking in vector data was proposed after that. The results showed that the watermark produced by the method is resistant against translation, scaling, rotation, additive random noise; it is also resistant, to some extent, against cropping. This paper also modified the DCT raster image watermarking algorithm, using a bitmap image as watermark embedded into target images, instead of some meaningless serial numbers or simple symbols. The embedding and extraction part of these two digital watermark systems achieved with software. Experiments proved that both algorithms are not only imperceptible, but also have strong resistance against the common attracts, which can prove the copyright more effectively.

  10. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  11. Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Peach Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Clement

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is a Neotropical palm domesticated by Native Americans. Its domestication resulted in a set of landraces (var. gasipaes, some with very starchy fruit used for fermentation, others with an equilibrium of starch and oil used as snacks. Which of the three wild types (var. chichagui was involved and where the domestication process began are unclear, with three hypotheses under discussion: an origin in southwestern Amazonia; or in northwestern South America; or multiple origins. We reevaluate one of the wild types, defining it as the incipient domesticate, and then evaluate these hypotheses using the Brazilian peach palm Core Collection and selected herbaria samples to: (1 model the potential distributions of wild and domesticated populations; (2 identify the probable origin of domestication with a phylogeographic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences; and (3 determine the dispersal routes after domestication using spatial analysis of genetic diversity based on 17 nuclear microsatellite loci. The two very small-fruited wild types have distinct distributions in the northern Andes region and across southern Amazonia, both under moderately humid climates, while the incipient domesticate, partly sympatric with the southern wild type, is also found along the Equatorial Andes, in a more humid climatic envelope, more similar to that of the domesticated landraces. Two distribution models for Last Glacial Maximum conditions (CCSM4, MIROC also suggest distinct distributions for the two wild populations. The chloroplast DNA phylogeographic network confirms the area of sympatry of the incipient domesticate and the southern wild type in southwestern Amazonia as the origin of domestication. The spatial patterns of genetic diversity confirm the proposal of two dispersals, one along the Ucayali River, into western Amazonia, northwestern South America and finally Central America; the other along the Madeira River into central and

  12. Quality of Original and Biosimilar Epoetin Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinks, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31395979X; Hawe, A.; Basmeleh, A.H.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337907331; Joachin-Rodriguez, L.; Haselberg, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822647; Somsen, G.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/117149357; Jiskoot, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084557397; Schellekens, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068406762

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality of therapeutic erythropoietin (EPO) products, including two biosimilars, with respect to content, aggregation, isoform profile and potency. Methods: Two original products, Eprex (epoetin alfa) and Dynepo (epoetin delta), and two biosimilar products, Binocrit (epoetin

  13. Proposed guidelines for synthetic accelerogram generation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.E.; Rizzo, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    With the advent of high speed digital computation machines and discrete structural analysis techniques, it has become attractive to use synthetically generated accelerograms as input in the seismic design and analysis of structures. Several procedures are currently available which can generate accelerograms which match a given design response spectra while not paying significant attention to other properties of seismic accelerograms. This paper studies currently available artificial time history generation techniques from the standpoint of various properties of seismic time histories consisting of; 1. Response Spectra; 2. Peak Ground Acceleration; 3. Total Duration; 4. Time dependent enveloping functions defining the rise time to strong motion, duration of significant shaking and decay of the significant shaking portion of the seismic record; 5. Fourier Amplitude and Phase Spectra; 6. Ground Motion Parameters; 7. Apparent Frequency; with the aim of providing guidelines of the time history parameters based on historic strong motion seismic records. (Auth.)

  14. Proposed method for selecting library automation software

    OpenAIRE

    Café, Lígia; Santos, Christophe Dos; Macedo, Flávia

    2001-01-01

    Apresenta um método para avaliação e seleção de softwares de automação de bibliotecas. Consiste na atribuição de critérios e cálculos estatísticos em uma lista elaborada para a seleção e avaliação deste tipo de software. Este método pretender servir como instrumento de apoio à tomada de decisão no processo de escolha do software mais adequado às necessidades de cada instituição. Este trabalho foi motivado por uma demanda do Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia (IBICT) pa...

  15. Origins: science inspires art

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    From 8 December 2011 to 17 February 2012, Geneva University's physics faculty will be holding an exhibition called "L'Origine – un voyage entre la Science et l'Art". Thirty artists from Europe and Africa will be exhibiting their work.   The aim of the exhibition is to take the visitor on an imaginary journey to the origins of mankind and to show how science and art approach the same theme from different angles. The works on display will include pieces of Makonde art, a traditional art form native to Mozambique, created by artists of the Nairucu Arts centre. The cultural programme that will run alongside the exhibition will include lectures on contemporary scientific themes aimed at the general public. Visitors will also have the opportunity to discover "L’Origine", a book of poetry by Beatrice Bressan (Ed. Loreleo, Geneva, 2010), which was awarded the third prize in the “Poeti nella società&...

  16. Origin of solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokorny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The generally accepted concept has it that the Sun and the planets originated almost simultaneously from nebula (the nebular hypothesis). It is assumed that the temperature of the nebula decreased in the direction from the centre which led to the segregation of elements and to the different chemical composition of the individual planets. The planets formed either from the gravitational collapse of part of the nebula or by gradual accretion. In the scenario of the origin of the solar system there are many blank spots, namely as concerns the initial stages of development and the period when the formation of the planets had ''almost been completed''.

  17. Origin of solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The generally accepted concept has it that the Sun and the planets originated almost simultaneously from nebula (the nebular hypothesis). It is assumed that the temperature of the nebula decreased in the direction from the centre which led to the segregation of elements and to the different chemical composition of the individual planets. The planets formed either from the gravitational collapse of part of the nebula or by gradual accretion. In the scenario of the origin of the solar system there are many blank spots, namely as concerns the initial stages of development and the period when the formation of the planets had ''almost been completed''. (Ha)

  18. Authentic, Original, and Valuable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The idea of genetic authenticity and origin has been an important issue within genetics for decades for scientific, political, and economic reasons. The question of where species and populations come from, as well as the linking of genetic traits to particular geographical locations, has resurfaced....... Using the case of human and non-human genetics to compare and contrast the various facets associated with genetic identity, we seek to develop a broader picture of the ways in which genetics plays an important role in stabilizing categories of origin....

  19. Animal evolution: stiff or squishy notochord origins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejnol, Andreas; Lowe, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    The notochord is considered an evolutionary novelty and one of the defining characters of chordates. A new study of an annelid challenges this view and proposes an earlier evolutionary origin in the most recent common ancestor of chordates and annelids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the origin of hyperfast neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an explanation for the origin of hyperfast neutron stars (e.g. PSR B1508+55, PSR B2224+65, RX J0822-4300) based on the hypothesis that they could be the remnants of a symmetric supernova explosion of a high-velocity massive star (or its helium core) which attained its peculiar velocity

  1. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel Part II: Proposal of a method to use shell element model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woong Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I-core sandwich panel that has been used more widely is assembled using high power CO2 laser welding. Kim et al. (2013 proposed a circular cone type heat source model for the T-joint laser welding between face plate and core. It can cover the negative defocus which is commonly adopted in T-joint laser welding to provide deeper penetration. In part I, a volumetric heat source model is proposed and it is verified thorough a comparison of melting zone on the cross section with experiment results. The proposed model can be used for heat transfer analysis and thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation that occurs during laser welding. In terms of computational time, since the thermal elasto-plastic analysis using 3D solid elements is quite time consuming, shell element model with multi-layers have been employed instead. However, the conventional layered approach is not appropriate for the application of heat load at T-Joint. This paper, Part II, suggests a new method to arrange different number of layers for face plate and core in order to impose heat load only to the face plate.

  2. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel Part II : Proposal of a method to use shell element model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jae Woong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I-core sandwich panel that has been used more widely is assembled using high power CO₂laser welding. Kim et al. (2013 proposed a circular cone type heat source model for the T-joint laser welding between face plate and core. It can cover the negative defocus which is commonly adopted in T-joint laser welding to provide deeper penetration. In part I, a volumetric heat source model is proposed and it is verified thorough a comparison of melting zone on the cross section with experiment results. The proposed model can be used for heat transfer analysis and thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation that occurs during laser welding. In terms of computational time, since the thermal elasto-plastic analysis using 3D solid elements is quite time consuming, shell element model with multi-layers have been employed instead. However, the conventional layered approach is not appropriate for the application of heat load at T-Joint. This paper, Part II, suggests a new method to arrange different number of layers for face plate and core in order to impose heat load only to the face plate.

  3. A Systematic Identification Method for Thermodynamic Property Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ana Perederic, Olivia; Cunico, Larissa; Sarup, Bent

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a systematic identification method for thermodynamic property modelling is proposed. The aim of the method is to improve the quality of phase equilibria prediction by group contribution based property prediction models. The method is applied to lipid systems where the Original UNIFAC...... model is used. Using the proposed method for estimating the interaction parameters using only VLE data, a better phase equilibria prediction for both VLE and SLE was obtained. The results were validated and compared with the original model performance...

  4. Headache of cervical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguet, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''. (orig.) [de

  5. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    ... urbanisation, prostitution and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Léopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. This is an essential new perspective on HIV/ AIDS and on the lessons that must be learned if we are to avoi...

  6. Origin (?) of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Origin (?) of the Universe The Big Bang. Jayant V Narlikar. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 6-12. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/03/0006-0012 ...

  7. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners...

  8. Making cocoa origin traceable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acierno, Valentina; Alewijn, Martin; Zomer, Paul; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2018-01-01

    More and more attention is paid to sustainability in the cocoa production. Tools that assist in making sustainable cocoa traceable are therefore welcome. In the present study, the applicability of Flow Infusion-Electrospray Ionization- Mass Spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) to assess the geographical origin

  9. Origin(?) of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    weaknesses of the big bang cosmology, conceptual as well as observational. ... They argue that this event marks the origin of the ... a change of the lowest energy state of matter, normally designated as ... Rapid expansion of this kind produces some lasting effects in the universe. .... This attitude coupled with attempted ...

  10. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  11. 66 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY JAN 2016 ISBN 1595-689X VOL 17 No.1 ..... WOMEN. Social characteristics. No. examined (n = 310). No. positive. (n=30) (%). Education. Illiterate. Primary. Secondary. Tertiary. Occupation. Civil servant. House wife. Students.

  12. The moon's origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, P.; Benz, W.

    1987-01-01

    Planet formation theory is recalled. The different existing hypothesis on the moon's origins are reviewed also to see how much they are compatible with the planet formation theory. Up to now, the giant impact model seems to be the only model to satisfy all the constraints. Computerized simulation results have been presented in colloquiums and their scenarios are recalled [fr

  13. Symbiotic Origin of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Edward F; Vatolin, Sergei

    2018-06-01

    Normally aging cells are characterized by an unbalanced mitochondrial dynamic skewed toward punctate mitochondria. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion cycles can contribute to both accelerated and decelerated cellular or organismal aging. In this work, we connect these experimental data with the symbiotic theory of mitochondrial origin to generate new insight into the evolutionary origin of aging. Mitochondria originated from autotrophic α-proteobacteria during an ancient endosymbiotic event early in eukaryote evolution. To expand beyond individual host cells, dividing α-proteobacteria initiated host cell lysis; apoptosis is a product of this original symbiont cell lytic exit program. Over the course of evolution, the host eukaryotic cell attenuated the harmful effect of symbiotic proto-mitochondria, and modern mitochondria are now functionally interdependent with eukaryotic cells; they retain their own circular genomes and independent replication timing. In nondividing differentiated or multipotent eukaryotic cells, intracellular mitochondria undergo repeated fission/fusion cycles, favoring fission as organisms age. The discordance between cellular quiescence and mitochondrial proliferation generates intracellular stress, eventually leading to a gradual decline in host cell performance and age-related pathology. Hence, aging evolved from a conflict between maintenance of a quiescent, nonproliferative state and the evolutionarily conserved propagation program driving the life cycle of former symbiotic organisms: mitochondria.

  14. Origin of Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Intended for use with college students, this booklet contains a traditional Hupa story (in Hupa and English) followed by information to aid in a critical literary analysis of the story and topics for student discussion. The introduction explains that "Origin of Fire"--first written down by P.E. Goddard in 1902 and still told by…

  15. Origins of Rolling Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2017-01-01

    When a hard object rolls on a soft surface, or vice versa, rolling friction arises from deformation of the soft object or the soft surface. The friction force can be described in terms of an offset in the normal reaction force or in terms of energy loss arising from the deformation. The origin of the friction force itself is not entirely clear. It…

  16. Headache of cervical origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burguet, J L; Wackenheim, A

    1984-08-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''.

  17. On the Origin of Heterotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönheit, Peter; Buckel, Wolfgang; Martin, William F

    2016-01-01

    The theory of autotrophic origins of life posits that the first cells on Earth satisfied their carbon needs from CO2. At hydrothermal vents, spontaneous synthesis of methane via serpentinization links an energy metabolic reaction with a geochemical homologue. If the first cells were autotrophs, how did the first heterotrophs arise, and what was their substrate? We propose that cell mass roughly similar to the composition of Escherichia coli was the substrate for the first chemoorganoheterotrophs. Amino acid fermentations, pathways typical of anaerobic clostridia and common among anaerobic archaea, in addition to clostridial type purine fermentations, might have been the first forms of heterotrophic carbon and energy metabolism. Ribose was probably the first abundant sugar, and the archaeal type III RubisCO pathway of nucleoside monophosphate conversion to 3-phosphoglycerate might be a relic of ancient heterotrophy. Participation of chemiosmotic coupling and flavin-based electron bifurcation--a soluble energy coupling process--in clostridial amino acid and purine fermentations is consistent with an autotrophic origin of both metabolism and heterotrophy, as is the involvement of S(0) as an electron acceptor in the facilitated fermentations of anaerobic heterotrophic archaea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resolution recovery for Compton camera using origin ensemble algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyev, A; Celler, A; Ozsahin, I; Sitek, A

    2016-08-01

    Compton cameras (CCs) use electronic collimation to reconstruct the images of activity distribution. Although this approach can greatly improve imaging efficiency, due to complex geometry of the CC principle, image reconstruction with the standard iterative algorithms, such as ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), can be very time-consuming, even more so if resolution recovery (RR) is implemented. We have previously shown that the origin ensemble (OE) algorithm can be used for the reconstruction of the CC data. Here we propose a method of extending our OE algorithm to include RR. To validate the proposed algorithm we used Monte Carlo simulations of a CC composed of multiple layers of pixelated CZT detectors and designed for imaging small animals. A series of CC acquisitions of small hot spheres and the Derenzo phantom placed in air were simulated. Images obtained from (a) the exact data, (b) blurred data but reconstructed without resolution recovery, and (c) blurred and reconstructed with resolution recovery were compared. Furthermore, the reconstructed contrast-to-background ratios were investigated using the phantom with nine spheres placed in a hot background. Our simulations demonstrate that the proposed method allows for the recovery of the resolution loss that is due to imperfect accuracy of event detection. Additionally, tests of camera sensitivity corresponding to different detector configurations demonstrate that the proposed CC design has sensitivity comparable to PET. When the same number of events were considered, the computation time per iteration increased only by a factor of 2 when OE reconstruction with the resolution recovery correction was performed relative to the original OE algorithm. We estimate that the addition of resolution recovery to the OSEM would increase reconstruction times by 2-3 orders of magnitude per iteration. The results of our tests demonstrate the improvement of image resolution provided by the OE reconstructions

  19. The origin of turtles: a paleontological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Walter G

    2015-05-01

    The origin of turtles and their unusual body plan has fascinated scientists for the last two centuries. Over the course of the last decades, a broad sample of molecular analyses have favored a sister group relationship of turtles with archosaurs, but recent studies reveal that this signal may be the result of systematic biases affecting molecular approaches, in particular sampling, non-randomly distributed rate heterogeneity among taxa, and the use of concatenated data sets. Morphological studies, by contrast, disfavor archosaurian relationships for turtles, but the proposed alternative topologies are poorly supported as well. The recently revived paleontological hypothesis that the Middle Permian Eunotosaurus africanus is an intermediate stem turtle is now robustly supported by numerous characters that were previously thought to be unique to turtles and that are now shown to have originated over the course of tens of millions of years unrelated to the origin of the turtle shell. Although E. africanus does not solve the placement of turtles within Amniota, it successfully extends the stem lineage of turtles to the Permian and helps resolve some questions associated with the origin of turtles, in particular the non-composite origin of the shell, the slow origin of the shell, and the terrestrial setting for the origin of turtles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Origin and transport of sediments in an alpine glaciated catchment (Bossons glacier, France): a quantification combining hydro-sedimentary data, radio-frequency identification of pebbles, cosmogenic nuclides content and probabilistic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Among the most efficient agents of erosion, glaciers react dynamically to climate change, leading to a significant adjustment of downstream sediment flux. Present-day global warming raises the question regarding the evolution of the sediment load originating from partially glaciated catchment. The detrital export from such environment results from erosion processes operating within distinct geomorphologic domains: supra-glacial rock-walls, ice-covered substratum and the pro-glacial area, downstream from the glacier. The general intent of this doctoral research is therefore to characterize the origin and transport of sediments in the watersheds of two streams draining Bossons glacier (Mont-Blanc massif, France).For this purpose, the components of the sediment flux coming from supra-glacial, sub-glacial and pro-glacial domains are separated and quantified by innovating methods: i. Using the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides concentrations as evidence of a supra-glacial transport; ii. Combining meteorological data and hydro-sedimentary data acquired at a high time resolution (2 min) and completed by multi-linear models; iii. Estimating sediment flux by source for 7 years and with a probabilistic method; iv. Associating radio-frequency identification of pebbles in the pro-glacial area with a stochastic transport analysis.Through numerical tools, applying the presented methodologies provides erosion rates of the supra-glacial, sub-glacial and pro-glacial domains, and determines the sediment transfer mechanisms within the catchment.Thus in the terminal part of the glacier, 52±14 to 9±4% of the supra-glacial load is transferred to the sub-glacial drainage network. Moreover, its evolution throughout the melt season leads to the export of the winter sediment production during a limited period. Furthermore, the drainage configuration beneath the glacier and its retreat control the remobilization of a long-term sediment stock. These processes explain the contrast between the