WorldWideScience

Sample records for method network delivery

  1. Data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information in a mobile ad hoc network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takuma; Taenaka, Yuzo; Okuda, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE), Chachulski et al. (2007), improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow.

  2. Data Delivery Method Based on Neighbor Nodes’ Information in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kashihara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes’ information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE, Chachulski et al. (2007, improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow.

  3. The effectiveness of the PRISMA integrated service delivery network: preliminary report on methods and baseline data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjean Hébert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The PRISMA study analyzes an innovative coordination-type integrated service delivery (ISD system developed to improve continuity and increase the effectiveness and efficiency of services, especially for older and disabled populations. The objective of the PRISMA study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this system to improve health, empowerment and satisfaction of frail older people, modify their health and social services utilization, without increasing the burden of informal caregivers. The objective of this paper is to present the methodology and give baseline data on the study participants. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with pre-test, multiple post-tests, and a comparison group was used to evaluate the impact of PRISMA ISD. Elders at risk of functional decline (501 experimental, 419 control participated in the study. Results: At entry, the two groups were comparable for most variables. Over the first year, when the implementation rate was low (32%, participants from the control group used fewer services than those from the experimental group. After the first year, no significant statistical difference was observed for functional decline and changes in the other outcome variables. Conclusion: This first year must be considered a baseline year, showing the situation without significant implementation of PRISMA ISD systems. Results for the following years will have to be examined with consideration of these baseline results.

  4. Content Delivery in Future Mobile Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Karl; Raber, Sergey

    2003-07-01

    With the fast progress in the deployment of wireless networks during the last few years, the global communication market requires the development of new methods for content delivery towards mobile users. It is currently characterised by the introduction of the 3rd generation of terrestrial mobile networks based on 3GPP's UMTS standard. It is expected that this will eventually lead to integrated all-IP-based infrastructures supporting a variety of radio access technologies (so-called beyond-3G-networks or 4th Generation networks). The integration of mobility support, security and accounting and provisioning of differentiated qualities of service are among the issues which are currently researched in the 4G framework.Since it is not possible to change network protocols and infrastructure at once in order to optimize them for mobile services, it is very important to find an appropriate way for the migration from the current infrastructure towards an integrated architecture, where fixed and mobile networks coexist and interoperate in the most effective and flexible way.The integration of satellite communication networks into the terrestrial mobile communication environment is the focus of R&D activities at the Competence Centre for Advanced Satellite Communication of the FhG FOKUS institute. These activities are presented in this article, with a focus on the CoDeSat Content Delivery over Satellite project.In the remainder of this article we first summarize services and service requirements as they are considered in our work. We then discuss the challenges derived from these requirements with respect to current network and protocol architectures. Finally, we describe our approach, and the current status of our prototype implementation.

  5. Understanding Process in Group-Based Intervention Delivery: Social Network Analysis and Intra-entity Variability Methods as Windows into the "Black Box".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy Elreda, Lauren; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gest, Scott D; Ram, Nilam; Bamberger, Katharine

    2016-11-01

    Although the majority of evidence-based programs are designed for group delivery, group process and its role in participant outcomes have received little empirical attention. Data were collected from 20 groups of participants (94 early adolescents, 120 parents) enrolled in an efficacy trial of a mindfulness-based adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program (MSFP). Following each weekly session, participants reported on their relations to group members. Social network analysis and methods sensitive to intraindividual variability were integrated to examine weekly covariation between group process and participant progress, and to predict post-intervention outcomes from levels and changes in group process. Results demonstrate hypothesized links between network indices of group process and intervention outcomes and highlight the value of this unique analytic approach to studying intervention group process.

  6. Primary health care service delivery networks for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: using social network methods to describe interorganisational collaboration in a rural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Julie; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Harris, Mark Fort

    2011-01-01

    Adults with type 2 diabetes or with behavioural risk factors require comprehensive and well coordinated responses from a range of health care providers who often work in different organisational settings. This study examines three types of collaborative links between organisations involved in a rural setting. Social network methods were employed using survey data on three types of links, and data was collected from a purposive sample of 17 organisations representing the major provider types. The analysis included a mix of unconfirmed and confirmed links, and network measures. General practices were the most influential provider group in initiating referrals, and they referred to the broadest range of organisations in the network. Team care arrangements formed a small part of the general practice referral network. They were used more for access to private sector allied health care providers and less for sharing care with public sector health services. Involvement in joint programs/activities was limited to public and non-government sector services, with no participation from the private sector. The patterns of interactions suggest that informal referral networks provide access to services and coordination of care for individual patients with diabetes. Two population subgroups would benefit from more proactive approaches to ensure equitable access to services and coordination of care across organisational boundaries: people with more complex health care needs and people at risk of developing diabetes.

  7. Practical guide to content delivery networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    With a practical and organized approach to learning and implementation, A Practical Guide to Content Delivery Networks presents a step-by-step process for building a highly available and highly scalable content delivery network (CDN). CDN refers to the infrastructure behind any service that provides utility or access to data to an end user. This book offers terminology, tactics, potential problems to avoid, and individual layers of design, providing clear understanding of the framework for CDNs using a structural and visual approach. The text emphasizes a best-of-breed strategy, allowing a tec

  8. Construction of Injectable Double-Network Hydrogels for Cell Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Mengnan; Yang, Di; Wang, Qian; Liang, Fuxin; Qu, Xiaozhong; Qiu, Dong; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2017-07-10

    Herein we present a unique method of using dynamic cross-links, which are dynamic covalent bonding and ionic interaction, for the construction of injectable double-network (DN) hydrogels, with the objective of cell delivery for cartilage repair. Glycol chitosan and dibenzaldhyde capped poly(ethylene oxide) formed the first network, while calcium alginate formed the second one, and in the resultant DN hydrogel, either of the networks could be selectively removed. The moduli of the DN hydrogel were significantly improved compared to that of the parent single-network hydrogels and were tunable by changing the chemical components. In situ 3D cell encapsulation could be easily performed by mixing cell suspension to the polymer solutions and transferred through a syringe needle before sol-gel transition. Cell proliferation and mediated differentiation of mouse chondrogenic cells were achieved in the DN hydrogel extracellular matrix.

  9. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Innovative Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Lohani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have always been valuable excipients in conventional dosage forms, also have shown excellent performance into the parenteral arena, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions such as controlled drug release and drug targeting. Advances in polymer science have led to the development of several novel drug delivery systems. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs have shown superior performances over the conventional individual polymers and, consequently, the ranges of applications have grown rapidly for such class of materials. The advanced properties of IPNs like swelling capacity, stability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity and biodegradability have attracted considerable attention in pharmaceutical field especially in delivering bioactive molecules to the target site. In the past few years various research reports on the IPN based delivery systems showed that these carriers have emerged as a novel carrier in controlled drug delivery. The present review encompasses IPNs, their types, method of synthesis, factors which affects the morphology of IPNs, extensively studied IPN based drug delivery systems, and some natural polymers widely used for IPNs.

  10. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  11. Random Linear Network Coding for 5G Mobile Video Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Vukobratovic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential increase in mobile video delivery will continue with the demand for higher resolution, multi-view and large-scale multicast video services. Novel fifth generation (5G 3GPP New Radio (NR standard will bring a number of new opportunities for optimizing video delivery across both 5G core and radio access networks. One of the promising approaches for video quality adaptation, throughput enhancement and erasure protection is the use of packet-level random linear network coding (RLNC. In this review paper, we discuss the integration of RLNC into the 5G NR standard, building upon the ideas and opportunities identified in 4G LTE. We explicitly identify and discuss in detail novel 5G NR features that provide support for RLNC-based video delivery in 5G, thus pointing out to the promising avenues for future research.

  12. Spatial Tiling and Streaming in an Immersive Media Delivery Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niamut, O.A.; Prins, M.J.; Brandenburg, R. van; Havekes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU FP7 project FascinatE, a capture, production and delivery system capable of supporting pan/tilt/zoom interaction with immersive media is being developed. Intelligent networks with processing components are needed to repurpose the content to suit different device types and framing

  13. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  14. Performance Analysis of Cyber Security Awareness Delivery Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abawajy, Jemal; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    In order to decrease information security threats caused by human-related vulnerabilities, an increased concentration on information security awareness and training is necessary. There are numerous information security awareness training delivery methods. The purpose of this study was to determine what delivery method is most successful in providing security awareness training. We conducted security awareness training using various delivery methods such as text based, game based and a short video presentation with the aim of determining user preference delivery methods. Our study suggests that a combined delvery methods are better than individual secrity awareness delivery method.

  15. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  16. Applying a rateless code in content delivery networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Zarlis, Muhammad; Parulian Sitorus, Sahat; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Content delivery network (CDN) allows internet providers to locate their services, to map their coverage into networks without necessarily to own them. CDN is part of the current internet infrastructures, supporting multi server applications especially social media. Various works have been proposed to improve CDN performances. Since accesses on social media servers tend to be short but frequent, providing redundant to the transmitted packets to ensure lost packets not degrade the information integrity may improve service performances. This paper examines the implementation of rateless code in the CDN infrastructure. The NS-2 evaluations show that rateless code is able to reduce packet loss up to 50%.

  17. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system.

  18. FastStats: Births -- Method of Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1990–2013 [PDF – 423 KB] Primary Cesarean Delivery Rates, by State: Results From the Revised Birth Certificate, 2006–2012 [PDF – 274 KB] Related Links Vital Statistics downloadable public use data files American College of ...

  19. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY AND METHODS TO ENHANCE IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the common methods employed in recent years for enhancing transdermal delivery of drug substances when applying transdermal therapeutic delivery systems. The chemical, physical and mechanical methods to enhance the transport of macromolecular compounds through the skin are considered in details. 

  20. Microneedles: quick and easy delivery methods of vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is the most efficient method for infectious disease prevention. Parenteral injections such as intramuscular, intradermal, and subcutaneous injections have several advantages in vaccine delivery, but there are many drawbacks. Thus, the development of a new vaccine delivery system has long been required. Recently, microneedles have been attracting attention as new vaccination tools. Microneedle is a highly effective transdermal vaccine delivery method due to its mechanism of action, painlessness, and ease of use. Here, we summarized the characteristics of microneedles and the possibilities as a new vaccine delivery route. PMID:28775980

  1. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, Karl Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  2. Network modelling methods for FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen M; Miller, Karla L; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Webster, Matthew; Beckmann, Christian F; Nichols, Thomas E; Ramsey, Joseph D; Woolrich, Mark W

    2011-01-15

    There is great interest in estimating brain "networks" from FMRI data. This is often attempted by identifying a set of functional "nodes" (e.g., spatial ROIs or ICA maps) and then conducting a connectivity analysis between the nodes, based on the FMRI timeseries associated with the nodes. Analysis methods range from very simple measures that consider just two nodes at a time (e.g., correlation between two nodes' timeseries) to sophisticated approaches that consider all nodes simultaneously and estimate one global network model (e.g., Bayes net models). Many different methods are being used in the literature, but almost none has been carefully validated or compared for use on FMRI timeseries data. In this work we generate rich, realistic simulated FMRI data for a wide range of underlying networks, experimental protocols and problematic confounds in the data, in order to compare different connectivity estimation approaches. Our results show that in general correlation-based approaches can be quite successful, methods based on higher-order statistics are less sensitive, and lag-based approaches perform very poorly. More specifically: there are several methods that can give high sensitivity to network connection detection on good quality FMRI data, in particular, partial correlation, regularised inverse covariance estimation and several Bayes net methods; however, accurate estimation of connection directionality is more difficult to achieve, though Patel's τ can be reasonably successful. With respect to the various confounds added to the data, the most striking result was that the use of functionally inaccurate ROIs (when defining the network nodes and extracting their associated timeseries) is extremely damaging to network estimation; hence, results derived from inappropriate ROI definition (such as via structural atlases) should be regarded with great caution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PEG-based degradable networks for drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroha, Jamie L.

    The controlled delivery of therapeutic agents by biodegradable hydrogels has become a popular mechanism for drug administration in recent years. Hydrogels are three-dimensional networks of polymer chains held together by crosslinks. Although the changes which the hydrogel undergoes in solution are important to a wide range of experimental studies, they have not been investigated systematically and the factors which influence the degree of swelling have not been adequately described. Hydrogels made of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) will generally resist degradation in aqueous conditions, while a hydrogel made from a copolymer of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and PEG will degrade via hydrolysis of the lactic acid group. This ability to degrade makes these hydrogels promising candidates for controlled release drug delivery systems. The goal of this research was to characterize the swelling and degradation of both degradable and non-degradable gels and to evaluate the release of different drugs from these hydrogels, where the key variable is the molecular weight of the PEG segment. These hydrogels were formed by the addition and subsequent chemically crosslinking of methacrylate end groups. During crosslinking, both PEG and LA-PEG-LA hydrogels of varied PEG molecular weight were loaded with Vitamin B12, Insulin, Haloperidol, and Dextran. It was shown that increasing PEG molecular weight produces a hydrogel with larger pores, thus increasing water uptake and degradation rate. While many environmental factors do not affect the swelling behavior, they do significantly impact the degradation of the hydrogel, and thus the release of incorporated therapeutic agents.

  4. Efficient and effective implementation of alternative project delivery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Over the past decade, the Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway : Administration (MDOT SHA) has implemented Alternative Project Delivery (APD) methods : in a number of transportation projects. While these innovative practices have produ...

  5. Improvement on the Performance of Canal Network and Method of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the required improvement on the performance of canal network and method of on-farm water application systems at Tunga-Kawo irrigation scheme, Wushishi, Niger state. The problems of poor delivery of water to the farmland were identified to include erosion of canal embarkment, lack of water ...

  6. Quantitative Efficiency Evaluation Method for Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An effective evaluation of transportation network efficiency/performance is essential to the establishment of sustainable development in any transportation system. Based on a redefinition of transportation network efficiency, a quantitative efficiency evaluation method for transportation network is proposed, which could reflect the effects of network structure, traffic demands, travel choice, and travel costs on network efficiency. Furthermore, the efficiency-oriented importance measure for network components is presented, which can be used to help engineers identify the critical nodes and links in the network. The numerical examples show that, compared with existing efficiency evaluation methods, the network efficiency value calculated by the method proposed in this paper can portray the real operation situation of the transportation network as well as the effects of main factors on network efficiency. We also find that the network efficiency and the importance values of the network components both are functions of demands and network structure in the transportation network.

  7. Project configured supply networks: Governance of delivery and failures in operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2008-01-01

    of delivery types; parts, components and subsystems. The project configuration and orchestrated governance forms are not always successful, and failures emerge. The paper aims at studying governance forms in delivery networks using operational failures as litmus. Operation management approaches is used...... failures occurred during three month observation. The costs were 8 pct. of the production budget. None of the mobilised governance forms fully prevented failures, especially subsystem delivery and internal integration was underperforming.......  Supply networks in complex B2B- construction deliver knowledge, materials, components, subsystems, competences, workforce and management. The delivery network and its governance forms are partly permanent, partly project specific. Integration upstream varies by project, constituting a range...

  8. Locality-Driven Parallel Static Analysis for Power Delivery Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Zhiyu

    2011-06-01

    Large VLSI on-chip Power Delivery Networks (PDNs) are challenging to analyze due to the sheer network complexity. In this article, a novel parallel partitioning-based PDN analysis approach is presented. We use the boundary circuit responses of each partition to divide the full grid simulation problem into a set of independent subgrid simulation problems. Instead of solving exact boundary circuit responses, a more efficient scheme is proposed to provide near-exact approximation to the boundary circuit responses by exploiting the spatial locality of the flip-chip-type power grids. This scheme is also used in a block-based iterative error reduction process to achieve fast convergence. Detailed computational cost analysis and performance modeling is carried out to determine the optimal (or near-optimal) number of partitions for parallel implementation. Through the analysis of several large power grids, the proposed approach is shown to have excellent parallel efficiency, fast convergence, and favorable scalability. Our approach can solve a 16-million-node power grid in 18 seconds on an IBM p5-575 processing node with 16 Power5+ processors, which is 18.8X faster than a state-of-the-art direct solver. © 2011 ACM.

  9. Methods and metrics challenges of delivery-system research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jeffrey A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many delivery-system interventions are fundamentally about change in social systems (both planned and unplanned. This systems perspective raises a number of methodological challenges for studying the effects of delivery-system change--particularly for answering questions related to whether the change will work under different conditions and how the change is integrated (or not into the operating context of the delivery system. Methods The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodological and measurement challenges posed by five key issues in delivery-system research: (1 modeling intervention context; (2 measuring readiness for change; (3 assessing intervention fidelity and sustainability; (4 assessing complex, multicomponent interventions; and (5 incorporating time in delivery-system models to discuss recommendations for addressing these issues. For each issue, we provide recommendations for how research may be designed and implemented to overcome these challenges. Results and conclusions We suggest that a more refined understanding of the mechanisms underlying delivery-system interventions (treatment theory and the ways in which outcomes for different classes of individuals change over time are fundamental starting points for capturing the heterogeneity in samples of individuals exposed to delivery-system interventions. To support the research recommendations outlined in this paper and to advance understanding of the "why" and "how" questions of delivery-system change and their effects, funding agencies should consider supporting studies with larger organizational sample sizes; longer duration; and nontraditional, mixed-methods designs. A version of this paper was prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ, US Department of Health and Human Services for presentation and discussion at a meeting on "The Challenge and Promise of Delivery System Research," held in Sterling, VA, on

  10. Optimization of a truck-drone in tandem delivery network using K-means and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mourelo Ferrandez, Sergio; Harbison, Timothy; Webwer, Troy; Sturges, Robert; Rich, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of implementing unmanned aerial delivery vehicles in delivery networks. We investigate the notion of the reduced overall delivery time and energy for a truck-drone network by comparing the in-tandem system with a stand-alone delivery effort. The objectives are (1) to investigate the time and energy associated to a truck-drone delivery network compared to standalone truck or drone, (2) to propose an optimizat...

  11. The African Field Epidemiology Network-Networking for effective field epidemiology capacity building and service delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mukanga, David; Babirye, Rebecca; Dahlke, Melissa; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Networks are a catalyst for promoting common goals and objectives of their membership. Public Health networks in Africa are crucial, because of the severe resource limitations that nations face in dealing with priority public health problems. For a long time, networks have existed on the continent and globally, but many of these are disease-specific with a narrow scope. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to helping ministries of health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. AFENET has a unique tripartite working relationship with government technocrats from human health and animal sectors, academicians from partner universities, and development partners, presenting the Network with a distinct vantage point. Through the Network, African nations are making strides in strengthening their health systems. Members are able to: leverage resources to support field epidemiology and public health laboratory training and service delivery notably in the area of outbreak investigation and response as well as disease surveillance; by-pass government bureaucracies that often hinder and frustrate development partners; and consolidate efforts of different partners channelled through the FELTPs by networking graduates through alumni associations and calling on them to offer technical support in various public health capacities as the need arises

  12. A new electrospray method for targeted gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Stephan; Ruzgys, Paulius; Tamò, Luca; Šatkauskas, Saulius; Geiser, Thomas; Gazdhar, Amiq; Hradetzky, David

    2018-03-05

    A challenge for gene therapy is absence of safe and efficient local delivery of therapeutic genetic material. An efficient and reproducible physical method of electrospray for localized and targeted gene delivery is presented. Electrospray works on the principle of coulombs repulsion, under influence of electric field the liquid carrying genetic material is dispersed into micro droplets and is accelerated towards the targeted tissue, acting as a counter electrode. The accelerated droplets penetrate the targeted cells thus facilitating the transfer of genetic material into the cell. The work described here presents the principle of electrospray for gene delivery, the basic instrument design, and the various optimized parameters to enhance gene transfer in vitro. We estimate a transfection efficiency of up to 60% was achieved. We describe an efficient gene transfer method and a potential electrospray-mediated gene transfer mechanism.

  13. Delivery Device and Method for Forming the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peter X. (Inventor); Liu, Xiaohua (Inventor); McCauley, Laurie (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A delivery device includes a hollow container, and a plurality of biodegradable and/or erodible polymeric layers established in the container. A layer including a predetermined substance is established between each of the plurality of polymeric layers, whereby degradation of the polymeric layer and release of the predetermined substance occur intermittently. Methods for forming the device are also disclosed herein.

  14. Level-2 Milestone 6007: Sierra Early Delivery System Deployed to Secret Restricted Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This report documents the delivery and installation of Shark, a CORAL Sierra early delivery system deployed on the LLNL SRD network. Early ASC program users have run codes on the machine in support of application porting for the final Sierra system which will be deployed at LLNL in CY2018. In addition to the SRD resource, Shark, unclassified resources, Rzmanta and Ray, have been deployed on the LLNL Restricted Zone and Collaboration Zone networks in support of application readiness for the Sierra platform.

  15. A Short-Circuit Method for Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, P. P.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method of network analysis that allows avoidance of Kirchoff's Laws (providing the network is symmetrical) by reduction to simple series/parallel resistances. The method can be extended to symmetrical alternating current, capacitance or inductance if corresponding theorems are used. Symmetric cubic network serves as an example. (JM)

  16. Optical broadband in-home networks for converged service delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Broadband access networks, and in particular fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks, are offering abundantly available bandwidth in the local loop with high quality of services. Under such broadband connectivity conditions, in-home networks should not represent the bottleneck for high capacity service

  17. Frank Gilbreth and health care delivery method study driven learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towill, Denis R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to look at method study, as devised by the Gilbreths at the beginning of the twentieth century, which found early application in hospital quality assurance and surgical "best practice". It has since become a core activity in all modern methods, as applied to healthcare delivery improvement programmes. The article traces the origin of what is now currently and variously called "business process re-engineering", "business process improvement" and "lean healthcare" etc., by different management gurus back to the century-old pioneering work of Frank Gilbreth. The outcome is a consistent framework involving "width", "length" and "depth" dimensions within which healthcare delivery systems can be analysed, designed and successfully implemented to achieve better and more consistent performance. Healthcare method (saving time plus saving motion) study is best practised as co-joint action learning activity "owned" by all "players" involved in the re-engineering process. However, although process mapping is a key step forward, in itself it is no guarantee of effective re-engineering. It is not even the beginning of the end of the change challenge, although it should be the end of the beginning. What is needed is innovative exploitation of method study within a healthcare organisational learning culture accelerated via the Gilbreth Knowledge Flywheel. It is shown that effective healthcare delivery pipeline improvement is anchored into a team approach involving all "players" in the system especially physicians. A comprehensive process study, constructive dialogue, proper and highly professional re-engineering plus managed implementation are essential components. Experience suggests "learning" is thereby achieved via "natural groups" actively involved in healthcare processes. The article provides a proven method for exploiting Gilbreths' outputs and their many successors in enabling more productive evidence-based healthcare delivery as summarised

  18. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J.; Forrest, M. Laird; Detamore, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that “fits-all” cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications. PMID:23099792

  19. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Forrest, M Laird; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications.

  20. Reliable Download Delivery in a Terrestrial DAB Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Shao, X.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable file transfer is important in broadcast networks. In this paper, we have investigated if it is useful to extend the DAB standard with Fountain codes. To evaluate this, results from measurements in a live Single Frequency Network (SFN) were used. Our results show that the existing error

  1. Rural and urban women entrepreneurs: A comparison of service needs and delivery methods priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurs face a wide variety of barriers and challenges throughout the life and growth of their entrepreneurial venture. This study expands the knowledge base on women entrepreneurs’ needs, specifically their needs in terms of service areas and service delivery method preferences. Twenty three “needed” service areas were identified by 95 Manitoba based women entrepreneurs. The first five included: finding new customers, growth benefits and tools, market expansion, general marketing, and networking skills. This study also examined the differences between urban and rural based entrepreneurs. Two service need areas “how to find mentors and role models” and “legal issues” exhibited statistically significant priority differences. Service delivery methods did not produce any statistically significant differences. Overall, this study concludes that regardless of location, women entrepreneurs’ training and support needs are not significantly that different. The effects of entrepreneurial stage and years in business on entrepreneurial support needs are also examined.

  2. Cut Based Method for Comparing Complex Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun; Dong, Zhishan; Wang, En

    2018-03-23

    Revealing the underlying similarity of various complex networks has become both a popular and interdisciplinary topic, with a plethora of relevant application domains. The essence of the similarity here is that network features of the same network type are highly similar, while the features of different kinds of networks present low similarity. In this paper, we introduce and explore a new method for comparing various complex networks based on the cut distance. We show correspondence between the cut distance and the similarity of two networks. This correspondence allows us to consider a broad range of complex networks and explicitly compare various networks with high accuracy. Various machine learning technologies such as genetic algorithms, nearest neighbor classification, and model selection are employed during the comparison process. Our cut method is shown to be suited for comparisons of undirected networks and directed networks, as well as weighted networks. In the model selection process, the results demonstrate that our approach outperforms other state-of-the-art methods with respect to accuracy.

  3. A random network based, node attraction facilitated network evolution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, I present a method of network evolution that based on random network, and facilitated by node attraction. In this method, I assume that the initial network is a random network, or a given initial network. When a node is ready to connect, it tends to link to the node already owning the most connections, which coincides with the general rule (Barabasi and Albert, 1999 of node connecting. In addition, a node may randomly disconnect a connection i.e., the addition of connections in the network is accompanied by the pruning of some connections. The dynamics of network evolution is determined of the attraction factor Lamda of nodes, the probability of node connection, the probability of node disconnection, and the expected initial connectance. The attraction factor of nodes, the probability of node connection, and the probability of node disconnection are time and node varying. Various dynamics can be achieved by adjusting these parameters. Effects of simplified parameters on network evolution are analyzed. The changes of attraction factor Lamda can reflect various effects of the node degree on connection mechanism. Even the changes of Lamda only will generate various networks from the random to the complex. Therefore, the present algorithm can be treated as a general model for network evolution. Modeling results show that to generate a power-law type of network, the likelihood of a node attracting connections is dependent upon the power function of the node's degree with a higher-order power. Matlab codes for simplified version of the method are provided.

  4. Buffer Management and Hybrid Probability Choice Routing for Packet Delivery in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the features of long connection delays, frequent network partitions, and topology unsteadiness, the design of opportunistic networks faces the challenge of how to effectively deliver data based only on occasional encountering of nodes, where the conventional routing schemes do not work properly. This paper proposes a hybrid probability choice routing protocol with buffer management for opportunistic networks. A delivery probability function is set up based on continuous encounter duration time, which is used for selecting a better node to relay packets. By combining the buffer management utility and the delivery probability, a total utility is used to decide whether the packet should be kept in the buffer or be directly transmitted to the encountering node. Simulation results show that the proposed routing outperforms the existing one in terms of the delivery rate and the average delay.

  5. An adaptive routing strategy for packet delivery in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huan; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Ming; Hui, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present an efficient routing approach for delivering packets in complex networks. On delivering a message from a node to a destination, a node forwards the message to a neighbor by estimating the waiting time along the shortest path from each of its neighbors to the destination. This projected waiting time is dynamical in nature and the path through which a message is delivered would be adapted to the distribution of messages in the network. Implementing the approach on scale-free networks, we show that the present approach performs better than the shortest-path approach and another approach that takes into account of the waiting time only at the neighboring nodes. Key features in numerical results are explained by a mean field theory. The approach has the merit that messages are distributed among the nodes according to the capabilities of the nodes in handling messages

  6. Sampling of temporal networks: Methods and biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luis E. C.; Masuda, Naoki; Holme, Petter

    2017-11-01

    Temporal networks have been increasingly used to model a diversity of systems that evolve in time; for example, human contact structures over which dynamic processes such as epidemics take place. A fundamental aspect of real-life networks is that they are sampled within temporal and spatial frames. Furthermore, one might wish to subsample networks to reduce their size for better visualization or to perform computationally intensive simulations. The sampling method may affect the network structure and thus caution is necessary to generalize results based on samples. In this paper, we study four sampling strategies applied to a variety of real-life temporal networks. We quantify the biases generated by each sampling strategy on a number of relevant statistics such as link activity, temporal paths and epidemic spread. We find that some biases are common in a variety of networks and statistics, but one strategy, uniform sampling of nodes, shows improved performance in most scenarios. Given the particularities of temporal network data and the variety of network structures, we recommend that the choice of sampling methods be problem oriented to minimize the potential biases for the specific research questions on hand. Our results help researchers to better design network data collection protocols and to understand the limitations of sampled temporal network data.

  7. Method and system for mesh network embedded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ray (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method and system for managing mesh network devices. A mesh network device with integrated features creates an N-way mesh network with a full mesh network topology or a partial mesh network topology.

  8. Efficient health care service delivery using network analysis: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    critical path) and less important together with their time duration. The average total time spent in the hospital was 43 minutes but with effective capacity planning using network analysis the total time was reduced to 18 minutes and the critical path ...

  9. Networking in the sport delivery system in South African Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Network theory, the cluster concept of Porter (1998) and the social capital ... for case study analysis of 60 sport-related entities at the 23 public universities in South ... them to schools and community clubs in the value chain of service provision.

  10. A Systematic, Automated Network Planning Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens Åge; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a case study conducted to evaluate the viability of a systematic, automated network planning method. The motivation for developing the network planning method was that many data networks are planned in an adhoc manner with no assurance of quality of the solution with respect...... structures, that are ready to implement in a real world scenario, are discussed in the end of the paper. These are in the area of ensuring line independence and complexity of the design rules for the planning method....

  11. An improved sampling method of complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Ding, Xintong; Pan, Feng; Li, Weixing

    2014-12-01

    Sampling subnet is an important topic of complex network research. Sampling methods influence the structure and characteristics of subnet. Random multiple snowball with Cohen (RMSC) process sampling which combines the advantages of random sampling and snowball sampling is proposed in this paper. It has the ability to explore global information and discover the local structure at the same time. The experiments indicate that this novel sampling method could keep the similarity between sampling subnet and original network on degree distribution, connectivity rate and average shortest path. This method is applicable to the situation where the prior knowledge about degree distribution of original network is not sufficient.

  12. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  13. Integrated project delivery methods for energy renovation of social housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimised project delivery methods forsocial housing energy renovations European Social Housing Organisations (SHOs are currently facing challenging times. The ageing of their housing stock and the economic crisis, which has affected both their finances and the finances of their tenants, are testing their capacity to stick to their aim of providing decent and affordable housing. Housing renovation projects offer the possibility of upgrading the health and comfort levels of their old housing stock to current standards and improve energy efficiency, and this solution also addresses the fuel poverty problems suffered by some tenants. Unfortunately, the limited financial capacity of SHOs is hampering the scale of housing renovation projects and the energy savings achieved.  At the same time, the renovation of the existing housing stock is seen as one of the most promising alternative routes to achieving the ambitious CO2 emissions reduction targets set by European authorities – namely, to reduce EU CO2 emissions to 20% below their 1990 levels by 2020. The synergy between European targets and the aims of SHOs has been addressed by the energy policies of the member states, which focus on the potential energy savings achievable by renovating social housing. In fact, the European initiatives have prioritised energy savings in social housing renovations to such an extent that these are referred to as ‘energy renovations’. Energy renovation is therefore a renovation project with higher energy savings target than a regular renovation project. In total, European SHOs own 21.5 million dwellings representing around 9.4% of the total housing stock. Each SHO owns a large number of dwellings, which means there are fewer people to convince of the need to make energy savings through building renovations, maximising the potentially high impact of decisions. Moreover, SHOs are responsible for maintaining and upgrading their properties in order to continue

  14. Complex networks principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Latora, Vito; Russo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Networks constitute the backbone of complex systems, from the human brain to computer communications, transport infrastructures to online social systems and metabolic reactions to financial markets. Characterising their structure improves our understanding of the physical, biological, economic and social phenomena that shape our world. Rigorous and thorough, this textbook presents a detailed overview of the new theory and methods of network science. Covering algorithms for graph exploration, node ranking and network generation, among the others, the book allows students to experiment with network models and real-world data sets, providing them with a deep understanding of the basics of network theory and its practical applications. Systems of growing complexity are examined in detail, challenging students to increase their level of skill. An engaging presentation of the important principles of network science makes this the perfect reference for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in physics, ...

  15. Optimization of European call options considering physical delivery network and reservoir operation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Chen; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2011-10-01

    This paper develops alternative strategies for European call options for water purchase under hydrological uncertainties that can be used by water resources managers for decision making. Each alternative strategy maximizes its own objective over a selected sequence of future hydrology that is characterized by exceedance probability. Water trade provides flexibility and enhances water distribution system reliability. However, water trade between two parties in a regional water distribution system involves many issues, such as delivery network, reservoir operation rules, storage space, demand, water availability, uncertainty, and any existing contracts. An option is a security giving the right to buy or sell an asset; in our case, the asset is water. We extend a flow path-based water distribution model to include reservoir operation rules. The model simultaneously considers both the physical distribution network as well as the relationships between water sellers and buyers. We first test the model extension. Then we apply the proposed optimization model for European call options to the Tainan water distribution system in southern Taiwan. The formulation lends itself to a mixed integer linear programming model. We use the weighing method to formulate a composite function for a multiobjective problem. The proposed methodology provides water resources managers with an overall picture of water trade strategies and the consequence of each strategy. The results from the case study indicate that the strategy associated with a streamflow exceedence probability of 50% or smaller should be adopted as the reference strategy for the Tainan water distribution system.

  16. Binary Classification Method of Social Network Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Poryadin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is a binary classification method of social network users based on the data analysis they have placed. Relevance of the task to gain information about a person by examining the content of his/her pages in social networks is exemplified. The most common approach to its solution is a visual browsing. The order of the regional authority in our country illustrates that its using in school education is needed. The article shows restrictions on the visual browsing of pupil’s pages in social networks as a tool for the teacher and the school psychologist and justifies that a process of social network users’ data analysis should be automated. Explores publications, which describe such data acquisition, processing, and analysis methods and considers their advantages and disadvantages. The article also gives arguments to support a proposal to study the classification method of social network users. One such method is credit scoring, which is used in banks and credit institutions to assess the solvency of clients. Based on the high efficiency of the method there is a proposal for significant expansion of its using in other areas of society. The possibility to use logistic regression as the mathematical apparatus of the proposed method of binary classification has been justified. Such an approach enables taking into account the different types of data extracted from social networks. Among them: the personal user data, information about hobbies, friends, graphic and text information, behaviour characteristics. The article describes a number of existing methods of data transformation that can be applied to solve the problem. An experiment of binary gender-based classification of social network users is described. A logistic model obtained for this example includes multiple logical variables obtained by transforming the user surnames. This experiment confirms the feasibility of the proposed method. Further work is to define a system

  17. Performance analysis of data delivery schemes for a multi-sink wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.P.; Gabor, A.F.; Seah, W.K.G.; Lee, P.W.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to be deployed in harsh environments characterised by extremely poor and fluctuating channel conditions. With the commonly adopted single-sink architecture, such conditions are exemplified by contention near the sink as a result of multipath delivery. This may

  18. Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1989-01-01

    to formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...... demonstrated that this method offers good starting values for a Newton-Raphson iteration....

  19. Diagnosis method utilizing neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.; Tamayama, K.

    1990-01-01

    Studies have been made on the technique of neural networks, which will be used to identify a cause of a small anomalous state in the reactor coolant system of the ATR (Advance Thermal Reactor). Three phases of analyses were carried out in this study. First, simulation for 100 seconds was made to determine how the plant parameters respond after the occurence of a transient decrease in reactivity, flow rate and temperature of feed water and increase in the steam flow rate and steam pressure, which would produce a decrease of water level in a steam drum of the ATR. Next, the simulation data was analysed utilizing an autoregressive model. From this analysis, a total of 36 coherency functions up to 0.5 Hz in each transient were computed among nine important and detectable plant parameters: neutron flux, flow rate of coolant, steam or feed water, water level in the steam drum, pressure and opening area of control valve in a steam pipe, feed water temperature and electrical power. Last, learning of neural networks composed of 96 input, 4-9 hidden and 5 output layer units was done by use of the generalized delta rule, namely a back-propagation algorithm. These convergent computations were continued as far as the difference between the desired outputs, 1 for direct cause or 0 for four other ones and actual outputs reached less than 10%. (1) Coherency functions were not governed by decreasing rate of reactivity in the range of 0.41x10 -2 dollar/s to 1.62x10 -2 dollar /s or by decreasing depth of the feed water temperature in the range of 3 deg C to 10 deg C or by a change of 10% or less in the three other causes. Change in coherency functions only depended on the type of cause. (2) The direct cause from the other four ones could be discriminated with 0.94+-0.01 of output level. A maximum of 0.06 output height was found among the other four causes. (3) Calculation load which is represented as products of learning times and numbers of the hidden units did not depend on the

  20. Building Service Delivery Networks: Partnership Evolution Among Children's Behavioral Health Agencies in Response to New Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Alicia C; Doogan, Nathan J; Cao, Yiwen

    2014-12-01

    Meeting the complex needs of youth with behavioral health problems requires a coordinated network of community-based agencies. Although fiscal scarcity or retrenchment can limit coordinated services, munificence can stimulate service delivery partnerships as agencies expand programs, hire staff, and spend more time coordinating services. This study examines the 2-year evolution of referral and staff expertise sharing networks in response to substantial new funding for services within a regional network of children's mental health organizations. Quantitative network survey data were collected from directors of 22 nonprofit organizations that receive funding from a county government-based behavioral health service fund. Both referral and staff expertise sharing networks changed over time, but results of a stochastic actor-oriented model of network dynamics suggest the nature of this change varies for these networks. Agencies with higher numbers of referral and staff expertise sharing partners tend to maintain these ties and/or develop new relationships over the 2 years. Agencies tend to refer to agencies they trust, but trust was not associated with staff expertise sharing ties. However, agencies maintain or form staff expertise sharing ties with referral partners, or with organizations that provide similar services. In addition, agencies tend to reciprocate staff expertise sharing, but not referrals. Findings suggest that during periods of resource munificence and service expansion, behavioral health organizations build service delivery partnerships in complex ways that build upon prior collaborative history and coordinate services among similar types of providers. Referral partnerships can pave the way for future information sharing relationships.

  1. Artificial neural network intelligent method for prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Roumen; Yoshinov, Radoslav; Pavlova, Galya; Tsochev, Georgi

    2017-09-01

    Accounting and financial classification and prediction problems are high challenge and researchers use different methods to solve them. Methods and instruments for short time prediction of financial operations using artificial neural network are considered. The methods, used for prediction of financial data as well as the developed forecasting system with neural network are described in the paper. The architecture of a neural network used four different technical indicators, which are based on the raw data and the current day of the week is presented. The network developed is used for forecasting movement of stock prices one day ahead and consists of an input layer, one hidden layer and an output layer. The training method is algorithm with back propagation of the error. The main advantage of the developed system is self-determination of the optimal topology of neural network, due to which it becomes flexible and more precise The proposed system with neural network is universal and can be applied to various financial instruments using only basic technical indicators as input data.

  2. Leveraging socially networked mobile ICT platforms for the last-mile delivery problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyo; Smith, Timothy; Linhoff, Michelle

    2012-09-04

    Increasing numbers of people are managing their social networks on mobile information and communication technology (ICT) platforms. This study materializes these social relationships by leveraging spatial and networked information for sharing excess capacity to reduce the environmental impacts associated with "last-mile" package delivery systems from online purchases, particularly in low population density settings. Alternative package pickup location systems (PLS), such as a kiosk on a public transit platform or in a grocery store, have been suggested as effective strategies for reducing package travel miles and greenhouse gas emissions, compared to current door-to-door delivery models (CDS). However, our results suggest that a pickup location delivery system operating in a suburban setting may actually increase travel miles and emissions. Only once a social network is employed to assist in package pickup (SPLS) are significant reductions in the last-mile delivery distance and carbon emissions observed across both urban and suburban settings. Implications for logistics management's decades-long focus on improving efficiencies of dedicated distribution systems through specialization, as well as for public policy targeting carbon emissions of the transport sector are discussed.

  3. Reduction Method for Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raboni, Pietro; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    On-line security assessment is traditionally performed by Transmission System Operators at the transmission level, ignoring the effective response of distributed generators and small loads. On the other hand the required computation time and amount of real time data for including Distribution...... Networks also would be too large. In this paper an adaptive aggregation method for subsystems with power electronic interfaced generators and voltage dependant loads is proposed. With this tool may be relatively easier including distribution networks into security assessment. The method is validated...... by comparing the results obtained in PSCAD® with the detailed network model and with the reduced one. Moreover the control schemes of a wind turbine and a photovoltaic plant included in the detailed network model are described....

  4. A Framework for Secure Data Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas PERLEPES

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical sensor nodes are resource constrained devices containing user level applications, operating system components, and device drivers in a single address space, with no form of memory protection. A malicious user could easily capture a node and tamper the applications running on it, in order to perform different types of attacks. In this paper, we propose a 3-layer Security Framework composed by physical security schemes, cryptography of communication channels and live forensics protection techniques that allows for secure WSN deployments. Each of the abovementioned techniques maximizes the security levels leading to a tamper proof sensor node. By applying the proposed security framework, secure communication between nodes is guaranteed, identified captured nodes are silenced and their destructive effect on the rest of the network infrastructure is minimized due to the early measures applied. Our main concern is to propose a framework that balances its attributes between robustness, as long as security is concerned and cost effective implementation as far as resources (energy consumption are concerned.

  5. Exploring trade-offs between VMAT dose quality and delivery efficiency using a network optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salari, Ehsan; Craft, David; Wala, Jeremiah

    2012-01-01

    To formulate and solve the fluence-map merging procedure of the recently-published VMAT treatment-plan optimization method, called vmerge, as a bi-criteria optimization problem. Using an exact merging method rather than the previously-used heuristic, we are able to better characterize the trade-off between the delivery efficiency and dose quality. vmerge begins with a solution of the fluence-map optimization problem with 180 equi-spaced beams that yields the ‘ideal’ dose distribution. Neighboring fluence maps are then successively merged, meaning that they are added together and delivered as a single map. The merging process improves the delivery efficiency at the expense of deviating from the initial high-quality dose distribution. We replace the original merging heuristic by considering the merging problem as a discrete bi-criteria optimization problem with the objectives of maximizing the treatment efficiency and minimizing the deviation from the ideal dose. We formulate this using a network-flow model that represents the merging problem. Since the problem is discrete and thus non-convex, we employ a customized box algorithm to characterize the Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier is then used as a benchmark to evaluate the performance of the standard vmerge algorithm as well as two other similar heuristics. We test the exact and heuristic merging approaches on a pancreas and a prostate cancer case. For both cases, the shape of the Pareto frontier suggests that starting from a high-quality plan, we can obtain efficient VMAT plans through merging neighboring fluence maps without substantially deviating from the initial dose distribution. The trade-off curves obtained by the various heuristics are contrasted and shown to all be equally capable of initial plan simplifications, but to deviate in quality for more drastic efficiency improvements. This work presents a network optimization approach to the merging problem. Contrasting the trade-off curves of the

  6. Exploring trade-offs between VMAT dose quality and delivery efficiency using a network optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Ehsan; Wala, Jeremiah; Craft, David

    2012-09-07

    To formulate and solve the fluence-map merging procedure of the recently-published VMAT treatment-plan optimization method, called VMERGE, as a bi-criteria optimization problem. Using an exact merging method rather than the previously-used heuristic, we are able to better characterize the trade-off between the delivery efficiency and dose quality. VMERGE begins with a solution of the fluence-map optimization problem with 180 equi-spaced beams that yields the 'ideal' dose distribution. Neighboring fluence maps are then successively merged, meaning that they are added together and delivered as a single map. The merging process improves the delivery efficiency at the expense of deviating from the initial high-quality dose distribution. We replace the original merging heuristic by considering the merging problem as a discrete bi-criteria optimization problem with the objectives of maximizing the treatment efficiency and minimizing the deviation from the ideal dose. We formulate this using a network-flow model that represents the merging problem. Since the problem is discrete and thus non-convex, we employ a customized box algorithm to characterize the Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier is then used as a benchmark to evaluate the performance of the standard VMERGE algorithm as well as two other similar heuristics. We test the exact and heuristic merging approaches on a pancreas and a prostate cancer case. For both cases, the shape of the Pareto frontier suggests that starting from a high-quality plan, we can obtain efficient VMAT plans through merging neighboring fluence maps without substantially deviating from the initial dose distribution. The trade-off curves obtained by the various heuristics are contrasted and shown to all be equally capable of initial plan simplifications, but to deviate in quality for more drastic efficiency improvements. This work presents a network optimization approach to the merging problem. Contrasting the trade-off curves of the merging

  7. Geometrical methods for power network analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Tiwari, Bhupendra Nath [Istituto Nazioneale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Frascati; Gupta, Neeraj [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Uses advanced geometrical methods to analyse power networks. Provides a self-contained and tutorial introduction. Includes a fully worked-out example for the IEEE 5 bus system. This book is a short introduction to power system planning and operation using advanced geometrical methods. The approach is based on well-known insights and techniques developed in theoretical physics in the context of Riemannian manifolds. The proof of principle and robustness of this approach is examined in the context of the IEEE 5 bus system. This work addresses applied mathematicians, theoretical physicists and power engineers interested in novel mathematical approaches to power network theory.

  8. Coherent detection passive optical access network enabling converged delivery of broadcast and dedicated broadband services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Prince, Kamau; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We propose a passive optical network architecture based on coherent detection for converged delivery of broadcast services from a dedicated remote broadcast server and user-specific services from a local central office. We experimentally demonstrate this architecture with mixed traffic types....... The broadcast channels were transmitted over 78 km of single mode fiber to a central office where they were multiplexed with the unicast channels for further fiber transmission over 34-km to reach the access network. Successful detection of all channels is demonstrated....

  9. Customer satisfaction of mobile telecommunication networks in Ghana: service delivery perspective

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. ABDUL-AZIZ; Bashiru I.I. SAEED; Ayogyam ALEXANDER

    2014-01-01

    Organizations, both private and public, in today’s dynamic marketplaces are increasingly leaving antiquated marketing philosophies and strategies to the adoption of more customer driven initiatives that seek to understand, attract, retain and build intimate long term relationship with profitable customers. This article analyzed customer satisfaction with the service delivery of mobile telecommunication networks in Ghana using a binary logistic regression model. Primary data was collected thro...

  10. Method Accelerates Training Of Some Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    Three-layer networks trained faster provided two conditions are satisfied: numbers of neurons in layers are such that majority of work done in synaptic connections between input and hidden layers, and number of neurons in input layer at least as great as number of training pairs of input and output vectors. Based on modified version of back-propagation method.

  11. Hybrid recommendation methods in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiasconaro, A; Tumminello, M; Nicosia, V; Latora, V; Mantegna, R N

    2015-07-01

    We propose two recommendation methods, based on the appropriate normalization of already existing similarity measures, and on the convex combination of the recommendation scores derived from similarity between users and between objects. We validate the proposed measures on three data sets, and we compare the performance of our methods to other recommendation systems recently proposed in the literature. We show that the proposed similarity measures allow us to attain an improvement of performances of up to 20% with respect to existing nonparametric methods, and that the accuracy of a recommendation can vary widely from one specific bipartite network to another, which suggests that a careful choice of the most suitable method is highly relevant for an effective recommendation on a given system. Finally, we study how an increasing presence of random links in the network affects the recommendation scores, finding that one of the two recommendation algorithms introduced here can systematically outperform the others in noisy data sets.

  12. Fault Activity Aware Service Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are increasingly used in smart cities which involve multiple city services having quality of service (QoS requirements. When misbehaving devices exist, the performance of current delivery protocols degrades significantly. Nonetheless, the majority of existing schemes either ignore the faulty behaviors’ variability and time-variance in city environments or focus on homogeneous traffic for traditional data services (simple text messages rather than city services (health care units, traffic monitors, and video surveillance. We consider the problem of fault-aware multiservice delivery, in which the network performs secure routing and rate control in terms of fault activity dynamic metric. To this end, we first design a distributed framework to estimate the fault activity information based on the effects of nondeterministic faulty behaviors and to incorporate these estimates into the service delivery. Then we present a fault activity geographic opportunistic routing (FAGOR algorithm addressing a wide range of misbehaviors. We develop a leaky-hop model and design a fault activity rate-control algorithm for heterogeneous traffic to allocate resources, while guaranteeing utility fairness among multiple city services. Finally, we demonstrate the significant performance of our scheme in routing performance, effective utility, and utility fairness in the presence of misbehaving sensors through extensive simulations.

  13. NILDE, Network Inter Library Document Exchange: An Italian Document Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.; Mangiaracina, S.

    2007-10-01

    This poster presents NILDE, a document delivery system supporting the exchange of documents via the internet. The system has been set up by the Central Library of the National Research Council of Bologna (Italy) in order to make use of new internet technology, to promote cooperation between Italian university libraries and research libraries, and to achieve quick response times in satisfying DD requests. The Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory Library was the first astronomical library to join the NILDE project from its earliest days in 2002. Many were the reasons for this choice: automation of the DD processes, security and reliability of the network, creation of usage statistics and reports, reduction of DD System management costs and so on. This work describes the benefits of NILDE and discusses the role of an organized document delivery system as an important tool to cope with the difficult constraints of the publishing market.

  14. Web Page Classification Method Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Ali; Omatu, Sigeru; Yanagimoto, Hidekazu; Fujinaka, Toru; Yoshioka, Michifumi

    Automatic categorization is the only viable method to deal with the scaling problem of the World Wide Web (WWW). In this paper, we propose a news web page classification method (WPCM). The WPCM uses a neural network with inputs obtained by both the principal components and class profile-based features (CPBF). Each news web page is represented by the term-weighting scheme. As the number of unique words in the collection set is big, the principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to select the most relevant features for the classification. Then the final output of the PCA is combined with the feature vectors from the class-profile which contains the most regular words in each class before feeding them to the neural networks. We have manually selected the most regular words that exist in each class and weighted them using an entropy weighting scheme. The fixed number of regular words from each class will be used as a feature vectors together with the reduced principal components from the PCA. These feature vectors are then used as the input to the neural networks for classification. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that the WPCM method provides acceptable classification accuracy with the sports news datasets.

  15. Software Delivery Risk Management: Application of Bayesian Networks in Agile Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancveire Ieva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The information technology industry cannot be imagined without large- or small-scale projects. They are implemented to develop systems enabling key business processes and improving performance and enterprise resource management. However, projects often experience various difficulties during their execution. These problems are usually related to the three objectives of the project – costs, quality and deadline. A way these challenges can be solved is project risk management. However, not always the main problems and their influencing factors can be easily identified. Usually there is a need for a more profound analysis of the problem situation. In this paper, we propose the use of a Bayesian Network concept for quantitative risk management in agile projects. The Bayesian Network is explored using a case study focusing on a project that faces difficulties during the software delivery process. We explain why an agile risk analysis is needed and assess the potential risk factors, which may occur during the project. Thereafter, we design the Bayesian Network to capture the actual problem situation and make suggestions how to improve the delivery process based on the measures to be taken to reduce the occurrence of project risks.

  16. Spectral Analysis Methods of Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks (such as Facebook, Twitter, VKontakte, etc. being an important channel for disseminating information are often used to arrange an impact on the social consciousness for various purposes - from advertising products or services to the full-scale information war thereby making them to be a very relevant object of research. The paper reviewed the analysis methods of social networks (primarily, online, based on the spectral theory of graphs. Such methods use the spectrum of the social graph, i.e. a set of eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix, and also the eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix.Described measures of centrality (in particular, centrality based on the eigenvector and PageRank, which reflect a degree of impact one or another user of the social network has. A very popular PageRank measure uses, as a measure of centrality, the graph vertices, the final probabilities of the Markov chain, whose matrix of transition probabilities is calculated on the basis of the adjacency matrix of the social graph. The vector of final probabilities is an eigenvector of the matrix of transition probabilities.Presented a method of dividing the graph vertices into two groups. It is based on maximizing the network modularity by computing the eigenvector of the modularity matrix.Considered a method for detecting bots based on the non-randomness measure of a graph to be computed using the spectral coordinates of vertices - sets of eigenvector components of the adjacency matrix of a social graph.In general, there are a number of algorithms to analyse social networks based on the spectral theory of graphs. These algorithms show very good results, but their disadvantage is the relatively high (albeit polynomial computational complexity for large graphs.At the same time it is obvious that the practical application capacity of the spectral graph theory methods is still underestimated, and it may be used as a basis to develop new methods.The work

  17. METHOD OF CHOOSING THE TECHNOLOGY OF VEHICLE OPERATION ON DELIVERY ROUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Nagornyi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A method for determining the technology of vehicles operation on delivery (team routes, which allows to determine the optimal sequence of cargo delivery to customers by vehicles of certain capacity in order to meet the requirements of cargo owners regarding the conditions of service is offered. Recommendations for creation of an automated system of forming the technology of vehicles operation on delivery routes are developed.

  18. Feature Extraction Method for High Impedance Ground Fault Localization in Radial Power Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kåre Jean; Munk, Steen M.; Sørensen, John Aasted

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to the localization of high impedance ground faults in compensated radial power distribution networks is presented. The total size of such networks is often very large and a major part of the monitoring of these is carried out manually. The increasing complexity of industrial...... of three phase voltages and currents. The method consists of a feature extractor, based on a grid description of the feeder by impulse responses, and a neural network for ground fault localization. The emphasis of this paper is the feature extractor, and the detection of the time instance of a ground fault...... processes and communication systems lead to demands for improved monitoring of power distribution networks so that the quality of power delivery can be kept at a controlled level. The ground fault localization method for each feeder in a network is based on the centralized frequency broadband measurement...

  19. Optimization of a truck-drone in tandem delivery network using k-means and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrandez, S. M.; Harbison, T.; Weber, T.; Sturges, R.; Rich, R.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of implementing unmanned aerial delivery vehicles in delivery networks. We investigate the notion of the reduced overall delivery time, energy, and costs for a truck-drone network by comparing the in-tandem system with a stand-alone delivery effort. The objectives are (1) to investigate the time, energy, and costs associated to a truck-drone delivery network compared to standalone truck or drone, (2) to propose an optimization algorithm that determines the optimal number of launch sites and locations given delivery requirements, and drones per truck, (3) to develop mathematical formulations for closed form estimations for the optimal number of launch locations, optimal total time, as well as the associated cost for the system. The design of the algorithm herein computes the minimal time of delivery utilizing K-means clustering to find launch locations, as well as a genetic algorithm to solve the truck route as a traveling salesmen problem (TSP). The optimal solution is determined by finding the minimum cost associated to the parabolic convex cost function. The optimal min-cost is determined by finding the most efficient launch locations using K-means algorithms to determine launch locations and a genetic algorithm to determine truck route between those launch locations. Results show improvements with in-tandem delivery efforts as opposed to standalone systems. Further, multiple drones per truck are more optimal and contribute to savings in both energy and time. For this, we sampled various initialization variables to derive closed form mathematical solutions for the problem. Ultimately, this provides the necessary analysis of an integrated truck-drone delivery system which could be implemented by a company in order to maximize deliveries while minimizing time and energy. Closed-form mathematical solutions can be used as close estimators for final costs and time. (Author)

  20. Optimization of a truck-drone in tandem delivery network using k-means and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mourelo Ferrandez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of implementing unmanned aerial delivery vehicles in delivery networks. We investigate the notion of the reduced overall delivery time, energy, and costs for a truck-drone network by comparing the in-tandem system with a stand-alone delivery effort. The objectives are (1 to investigate the time, energy, and costs associated to a truck-drone delivery network compared to standalone truck or drone, (2 to propose an optimization algorithm that determines the optimal number of launch sites and locations given delivery requirements, and drones per truck, (3 to develop mathematical formulations for closed form estimations for the optimal number of launch locations, optimal total time, as well as the associated cost for the system. Design/methodology/approach: The design of the algorithm herein computes the minimal time of delivery utilizing K-means clustering to find launch locations, as well as a genetic algorithm to solve the truck route as a traveling salesmen problem (TSP. The optimal solution is determined by finding the minimum cost associated to the parabolic convex cost function. The optimal min-cost is determined by finding the most efficient launch locations using K-means algorithms to determine launch locations and a genetic algorithm to determine truck route between those launch locations.  Findings: Results show improvements with in-tandem delivery efforts as opposed to standalone systems. Further, multiple drones per truck are more optimal and contribute to savings in both energy and time. For this, we sampled various initialization variables to derive closed form mathematical solutions for the problem. Originality/value: Ultimately, this provides the necessary analysis of an integrated truck-drone delivery system which could be implemented by a company in order to maximize deliveries while minimizing time and energy. Closed-form mathematical solutions can be used as

  1. Design of Drug Delivery Methods for the Brain and Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueshen, Eric

    Due to the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to macromolecules delivered systemically, drug delivery to the brain and central nervous system (CNS) is quite difficult and has become an area of intense research. Techniques such as convection-enhanced intraparenchymal delivery and intrathecal magnetic drug targeting offer a means of circumventing the blood-brain barrier for targeted delivery of therapeutics. This dissertation focuses on three aspects of drug delivery: pharmacokinetics, convection-enhanced delivery, and intrathecal magnetic drug targeting. Classical pharmacokinetics mainly uses black-box curve fitting techniques without biochemical or biological basis. This dissertation advances the state-of-the-art of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics by incorporating first principles and biochemical/biotransport mechanisms in the prediction of drug fate in vivo. A whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) modeling framework is engineered which creates multiscale mathematical models for entire organisms composed of organs, tissues, and a detailed vasculature network to predict drug bioaccumulation and to rigorously determine kinetic parameters. These models can be specialized to account for species, weight, gender, age, and pathology. Systematic individual therapy design using the proposed mechanistic PBPK modeling framework is also a possibility. Biochemical, anatomical, and physiological scaling laws are also developed to accurately project drug kinetics in humans from small animal experiments. Our promising results demonstrate that the whole-body mechanistic PBPK modeling approach not only elucidates drug mechanisms from a biochemical standpoint, but offers better scaling precision. Better models can substantially accelerate the introduction of drug leads to clinical trials and eventually to the market by offering more understanding of the drug mechanisms, aiding in therapy design, and serving as an accurate dosing tool. Convection

  2. Network-Coded Content Delivery in Femtocaching-Assisted Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shnaiwer, Yousef N.; Sorour, Sameh; Aboutorab, Neda; Sadeghi, Parastoo; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation cellular networks are expected to be assisted by femtocaches (FCs), which collectively store the most popular files for the clients. Given any arbitrary non-fragmented placement of such files, a strict no-latency constraint, and clients' prior knowledge, new file download requests could be efficiently handled by both the FCs and the macrocell base station (MBS) using opportunistic network coding (ONC). In this paper, we aim to find the best allocation of coded file downloads to the FCs so as to minimize the MBS involvement in this download process. We first formulate this optimization problem over an ONC graph, and show that it is NP-hard. We then propose a greedy approach that maximizes the number of files downloaded by the FCs, with the goal to reduce the download share of the MBS. This allocation is performed using a dual conflict ONC graph to avoid conflicts among the FC downloads. Simulations show that our proposed scheme almost achieves the optimal performance and significantly saves on the MBS bandwidth.

  3. Network-Coded Content Delivery in Femtocaching-Assisted Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shnaiwer, Yousef N.

    2015-12-06

    Next-generation cellular networks are expected to be assisted by femtocaches (FCs), which collectively store the most popular files for the clients. Given any arbitrary non-fragmented placement of such files, a strict no-latency constraint, and clients\\' prior knowledge, new file download requests could be efficiently handled by both the FCs and the macrocell base station (MBS) using opportunistic network coding (ONC). In this paper, we aim to find the best allocation of coded file downloads to the FCs so as to minimize the MBS involvement in this download process. We first formulate this optimization problem over an ONC graph, and show that it is NP-hard. We then propose a greedy approach that maximizes the number of files downloaded by the FCs, with the goal to reduce the download share of the MBS. This allocation is performed using a dual conflict ONC graph to avoid conflicts among the FC downloads. Simulations show that our proposed scheme almost achieves the optimal performance and significantly saves on the MBS bandwidth.

  4. Hyaluronan microgel as a potential carrier for protein sustained delivery by tailoring the crosslink network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunhong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Jianhao, E-mail: jhzhao@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong; Rong, Jianhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) microgels with different crosslink network, i.e. HGPs-1, HGPs-1.5, HGPs-3, HGPs-6 and HGPs-15, were synthesized using divinyl sulfone (DVS) as the crosslinker in an inverse microemulsion system for controlling the sustained delivery of bovine serum albumin (BSA). With increasing the crosslinker content, the average particle size slightly increased from 1.9 ± 0.3 μm to 3.6 ± 0.5 μm by dynamic laser scattering analysis. However, the crosslinker content had no significant effect on the morphology of HA microgels by scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis proved more sulfur participated in the crosslink reaction when raising the crosslinker amount. The water swelling test confirmed the increasing crosslink density with the crosslinker content by calculating the average molecular weight between two crosslink points to be 8.25 ± 2.51 × 10{sup 5}, 1.26 ± 0.43 × 10{sup 5}, 0.96 ± 0.09 × 10{sup 5}, 0.64 ± 0.03 × 10{sup 5}, and 0.11 ± 0.01 × 10{sup 5} respectively. The degradation of HA microgels by hyaluronidase slowed down by enhancing the crosslink density, only about 5% of HGPs-15 was degraded as opposed to over 90% for HGPs-1. BSA loading had no obvious influence on the surface morphology of HA microgels but seemed to induce their aggregation. The increase of crosslink density decreased the BSA loading capacity but facilitated its long-term sustained delivery. When the molar ratio of DVS to repeating unit of HA reached 3 or higher, similar delivery profiles were obtained. Among all these HA microgels, HGPs-3 was the optimal carrier for BSA sustained delivery in this system because it possessed both high BSA loading capacity and long-term delivery profile simultaneously. - Highlights: • HA microgels with different crosslink densities were prepared. • The crosslinker content had little effect on the morphology and size of HA microgels. • The crosslink density

  5. Facile method of building hydroxyapatite 3D scaffolds assembled from porous hollow fibers enabling nutrient delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamon, David; Da Silva Teixeira, Sandra; Dutczak, S.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, diffusion through scaffold and tissue usually limits transport, and forms potentially hypoxic regions. Several methods are used for preparation of 3D hydroxyapatite scaffolds, however, production of a scaffold including porous hollow fibers for nutrition delivery is difficult and

  6. A Community-Based Event Delivery Protocol in Publish/Subscribe Systems for Delay Tolerant Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigang Gong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic operation of a Delay Tolerant Sensor Network (DTSN is to finish pervasive data gathering in networks with intermittent connectivity, while the publish/subscribe (Pub/Sub for short paradigm is used to deliver events from a source to interested clients in an asynchronous way. Recently, extension of Pub/Sub systems in DTSNs has become a promising research topic. However, due to the unique frequent partitioning characteristic of DTSNs, extension of a Pub/Sub system in a DTSN is a considerably difficult and challenging problem, and there are no good solutions to this problem in published works. To ad apt Pub/Sub systems to DTSNs, we propose CED, a community-based event delivery protocol. In our design, event delivery is based on several unchanged communities, which are formed by sensor nodes in the network according to their connectivity. CED consists of two components: event delivery and queue management. In event delivery, events in a community are delivered to mobile subscribers once a subscriber comes into the community, for improving the data delivery ratio. The queue management employs both the event successful delivery time and the event survival time to decide whether an event should be delivered or dropped for minimizing the transmission overhead. The effectiveness of CED is demonstrated through comprehensive simulation studies.

  7. A community-based event delivery protocol in publish/subscribe systems for delay tolerant sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nianbo; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Jinqi; Gong, Haigang

    2009-01-01

    The basic operation of a Delay Tolerant Sensor Network (DTSN) is to finish pervasive data gathering in networks with intermittent connectivity, while the publish/subscribe (Pub/Sub for short) paradigm is used to deliver events from a source to interested clients in an asynchronous way. Recently, extension of Pub/Sub systems in DTSNs has become a promising research topic. However, due to the unique frequent partitioning characteristic of DTSNs, extension of a Pub/Sub system in a DTSN is a considerably difficult and challenging problem, and there are no good solutions to this problem in published works. To ad apt Pub/Sub systems to DTSNs, we propose CED, a community-based event delivery protocol. In our design, event delivery is based on several unchanged communities, which are formed by sensor nodes in the network according to their connectivity. CED consists of two components: event delivery and queue management. In event delivery, events in a community are delivered to mobile subscribers once a subscriber comes into the community, for improving the data delivery ratio. The queue management employs both the event successful delivery time and the event survival time to decide whether an event should be delivered or dropped for minimizing the transmission overhead. The effectiveness of CED is demonstrated through comprehensive simulation studies.

  8. Drawbacks and benefits associated with inter-organizational collaboration along the discovery-development-delivery continuum: a cancer research network case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Provan, Keith G; Johnson, Kimberly J; Leischow, Scott J

    2012-07-25

    The scientific process around cancer research begins with scientific discovery, followed by development of interventions, and finally delivery of needed interventions to people with cancer. Numerous studies have identified substantial gaps between discovery and delivery in health research. Team science has been identified as a possible solution for closing the discovery to delivery gap; however, little is known about effective ways of collaborating within teams and across organizations. The purpose of this study was to determine benefits and drawbacks associated with organizational collaboration across the discovery-development-delivery research continuum. Representatives of organizations working on cancer research across a state answered a survey about how they collaborated with other cancer research organizations in the state and what benefits and drawbacks they experienced while collaborating. We used exponential random graph modeling to determine the association between these benefits and drawbacks and the presence of a collaboration tie between any two network members. Different drawbacks and benefits were associated with discovery, development, and delivery collaborations. The only consistent association across all three was with the drawback of difficulty due to geographic differences, which was negatively associated with collaboration, indicating that those organizations that had collaborated were less likely to perceive a barrier related to geography. The benefit, enhanced access to other knowledge, was positive and significant in the development and delivery networks, indicating that collaborating organizations viewed improved knowledge exchange as a benefit of collaboration. 'Acquisition of additional funding or other resources' and 'development of new tools and methods' were negatively significantly related to collaboration in these networks. So, although improved knowledge access was an outcome of collaboration, more tangible outcomes were not being

  9. Measurement methods on the complexity of network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Lin; DING Gang; CHEN Guo-song

    2010-01-01

    Based on the size of network and the number of paths in the network,we proposed a model of topology complexity of a network to measure the topology complexity of the network.Based on the analyses of the effects of the number of the equipment,the types of equipment and the processing time of the node on the complexity of the network with the equipment-constrained,a complexity model of equipment-constrained network was constructed to measure the integrated complexity of the equipment-constrained network.The algorithms for the two models were also developed.An automatic generator of the random single label network was developed to test the models.The results show that the models can correctly evaluate the topology complexity and the integrated complexity of the networks.

  10. Analyzing collaboration networks and developmental patterns of nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD for brain cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of new and emerging science & technologies (NESTs brings unprecedented challenges, but also opportunities. In this paper, we use bibliometric and social network analyses, at country, institution, and individual levels, to explore the patterns of scientific networking for a key nano area – nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD. NEDD has successfully been used clinically to modulate drug release and to target particular diseased tissues. The data for this research come from a global compilation of research publication information on NEDD directed at brain cancer. We derive a family of indicators that address multiple facets of research collaboration and knowledge transfer patterns. Results show that: (1 international cooperation is increasing, but networking characteristics change over time; (2 highly productive institutions also lead in influence, as measured by citation to their work, with American institutes leading; (3 research collaboration is dominated by local relationships, with interesting information available from authorship patterns that go well beyond journal impact factors. Results offer useful technical intelligence to help researchers identify potential collaborators and to help inform R&D management and science & innovation policy for such nanotechnologies.

  11. A feasible method for clinical delivery verification and dose reconstruction in tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapatoes, J.M.; Olivera, G.H.; Ruchala, K.J.; Smilowitz, J.B.; Reckwerdt, P.J.; Mackie, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Delivery verification is the process in which the energy fluence delivered during a treatment is verified. This verified energy fluence can be used in conjunction with an image in the treatment position to reconstruct the full three-dimensional dose deposited. A method for delivery verification that utilizes a measured database of detector signal is described in this work. This database is a function of two parameters, radiological path-length and detector-to-phantom distance, both of which are computed from a CT image taken at the time of delivery. Such a database was generated and used to perform delivery verification and dose reconstruction. Two experiments were conducted: a simulated prostate delivery on an inhomogeneous abdominal phantom, and a nasopharyngeal delivery on a dog cadaver. For both cases, it was found that the verified fluence and dose results using the database approach agreed very well with those using previously developed and proven techniques. Delivery verification with a measured database and CT image at the time of treatment is an accurate procedure for tomotherapy. The database eliminates the need for any patient-specific, pre- or post-treatment measurements. Moreover, such an approach creates an opportunity for accurate, real-time delivery verification and dose reconstruction given fast image reconstruction and dose computation tools

  12. Can the delivery method influence lower urinary tract symptoms triggered by the first pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Botelho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The increase of the intensity of urinary symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum has been well documented by several authors, but their causes remain uncertain, partly because of its probable multifactor origin. There are also controversies whether the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms during pregnancy is the same as postpartum and whether the method of delivery could influence the risk of onset of urinary symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the urinary symptoms triggered during pregnancy and its evolution in the late puerperium, correlating them with the delivery method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted, which included 75 primigravidae women, classified according to method of delivery as: (VD vaginal delivery with right mediolateral episiotomy (n = 28; (CS elective caesarean section (n = 26; and (EC emergency caesarean section (n = 21. Urinary symptoms were assessed in the last trimester of pregnancy and at 45 days (± 10 of puerperium with validated versions for Portuguese language of the following questionnaires: International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB. RESULTS: It was observed that frequency, urgency, nocturia and urge incontinence, triggered during pregnancy, decreased significantly in the postpartum period, regardless of the delivery method (p = 0.0001. However, symptoms related to urinary loss due to stress persisted after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Urgency, frequency and nocturia triggered during pregnancy tend to disappear in the late postpartum period, regardless of the delivery method, but the symptoms related to urinary loss due to stress tend to persist in late postpartum period after vaginal delivery.

  13. Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Albuquerque, NM; Phillips, Cynthia A [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-03-14

    A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

  14. Control and estimation methods over communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous framework in which to study problems in the analysis, stability and design of networked control systems. Four dominant sources of difficulty are considered: packet dropouts, communication bandwidth constraints, parametric uncertainty, and time delays. Past methods and results are reviewed from a contemporary perspective, present trends are examined, and future possibilities proposed. Emphasis is placed on robust and reliable design methods. New control strategies for improving the efficiency of sensor data processing and reducing associated time delay are presented. The coverage provided features: ·        an overall assessment of recent and current fault-tolerant control algorithms; ·        treatment of several issues arising at the junction of control and communications; ·        key concepts followed by their proofs and efficient computational methods for their implementation; and ·        simulation examples (including TrueTime simulations) to...

  15. A new hierarchical method to find community structure in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoud, Bilal; Moussaoui, Abdelouahab

    2018-04-01

    Community structure is very important to understand a network which represents a context. Many community detection methods have been proposed like hierarchical methods. In our study, we propose a new hierarchical method for community detection in networks based on genetic algorithm. In this method we use genetic algorithm to split a network into two networks which maximize the modularity. Each new network represents a cluster (community). Then we repeat the splitting process until we get one node at each cluster. We use the modularity function to measure the strength of the community structure found by our method, which gives us an objective metric for choosing the number of communities into which a network should be divided. We demonstrate that our method are highly effective at discovering community structure in both computer-generated and real-world network data.

  16. Social network analysis: Presenting an underused method for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, James Michael; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2018-06-01

    This paper introduces social network analysis as a versatile method with many applications in nursing research. Social networks have been studied for years in many social science fields. The methods continue to advance but remain unknown to most nursing scholars. Discussion paper. English language and interpreted literature was searched from Ovid Healthstar, CINAHL, PubMed Central, Scopus and hard copy texts from 1965 - 2017. Social network analysis first emerged in nursing literature in 1995 and appears minimally through present day. To convey the versatility and applicability of social network analysis in nursing, hypothetical scenarios are presented. The scenarios are illustrative of three approaches to social network analysis and include key elements of social network research design. The methods of social network analysis are underused in nursing research, primarily because they are unknown to most scholars. However, there is methodological flexibility and epistemological versatility capable of supporting quantitative and qualitative research. The analytic techniques of social network analysis can add new insight into many areas of nursing inquiry, especially those influenced by cultural norms. Furthermore, visualization techniques associated with social network analysis can be used to generate new hypotheses. Social network analysis can potentially uncover findings not accessible through methods commonly used in nursing research. Social networks can be analysed based on individual-level attributes, whole networks and subgroups within networks. Computations derived from social network analysis may stand alone to answer a research question or incorporated as variables into robust statistical models. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Delay Tolerant Networking with Data Triage Method based on Emergent User Policies for Disaster Information Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriki Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When Disaster Information Network System is considered in local areas that were heavy damaged by the East Japan Great Earthquake in 2011, the resiliency of the network system is one of significant subjects for the restoration of the areas. DTN (Delay Tolerant Network has been focused for the effective methods for such inoperable network circumstances. However, when DTN is applied for the local areas, there are some problems such as message delivery rate and latency because there are fewer roads, cars, and pedestrians than in urban areas. In this paper, we propose the Enhanced Media Coordinate System for its architecture, and Data Triage method by emergent user policies is introduced to improve the QoS in Disaster Information Network System in local areas. In the proposed method, every message is tagged with the priority levels by data types with considering emergent user policies, and the high priority messages are firstly duplicated to transmittable nodes. Then, the experimental results by the GIS map of a Japanese coastal town and the future studies are discussed.

  18. Solution Method of Multi-Product Two-Stage Logistics Problem with Constraints of Delivery Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataka, Shinichiro; Gen, Mitsuo

    The logistics network design is one of the important phase of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and it is the problem that should be optimized for long-term promotion of efficiency of the whole supply chain. Usually a plant produces different type of products. Even if it is a factory of the same company, delivery is different by a kind of a produced product. The restrictions which this model has are deeply concerned with TP in the real world. In this paper, we consider the logistics network design problems with multi-products and constraints for delivery course. To solve the problem, we used a hybrid priority-based Genetic Algorithm (h-priGA), and we tried the comparison experiment with priority-based Genetic Algorithm (priGA)and h-priGA, we show it about the effectiveness of h-priGA.

  19. Measurement of integrated healthcare delivery: a systematic review of methods and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Strandberg-Larsen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated healthcare delivery is a policy goal of healthcare systems. There is no consensus on how to measure the concept, which makes it difficult to monitor progress. Purpose: To identify the different types of methods used to measure integrated healthcare delivery with emphasis on structural, cultural and process aspects. Methods: Medline/Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, WHOLIS, and conventional internet search engines were systematically searched for methods to measure integrated healthcare delivery (published – April 2008. Results: Twenty-four published scientific papers and documents met the inclusion criteria. In the 24 references we identified 24 different measurement methods; however, 5 methods shared theoretical framework. The methods can be categorized according to type of data source: a questionnaire survey data, b automated register data, or c mixed data sources. The variety of concepts measured reflects the significant conceptual diversity within the field, and most methods lack information regarding validity and reliability. Conclusion: Several methods have been developed to measure integrated healthcare delivery; 24 methods are available and some are highly developed. The objective governs the method best used. Criteria for sound measures are suggested and further developments should be based on an explicit conceptual framework and focus on simplifying and validating existing methods.

  20. SCM: A method to improve network service layout efficiency with network evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Chuanhao

    2017-01-01

    Network services are an important component of the Internet, which are used to expand network functions for third-party developers. Network function virtualization (NFV) can improve the speed and flexibility of network service deployment. However, with the evolution of the network, network service layout may become inefficient. Regarding this problem, this paper proposes a service chain migration (SCM) method with the framework of “software defined network + network function virtualization” (SDN+NFV), which migrates service chains to adapt to network evolution and improves the efficiency of the network service layout. SCM is modeled as an integer linear programming problem and resolved via particle swarm optimization. An SCM prototype system is designed based on an SDN controller. Experiments demonstrate that SCM could reduce the network traffic cost and energy consumption efficiently. PMID:29267299

  1. SCM: A method to improve network service layout efficiency with network evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Chuanhao; Zhao, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Network services are an important component of the Internet, which are used to expand network functions for third-party developers. Network function virtualization (NFV) can improve the speed and flexibility of network service deployment. However, with the evolution of the network, network service layout may become inefficient. Regarding this problem, this paper proposes a service chain migration (SCM) method with the framework of "software defined network + network function virtualization" (SDN+NFV), which migrates service chains to adapt to network evolution and improves the efficiency of the network service layout. SCM is modeled as an integer linear programming problem and resolved via particle swarm optimization. An SCM prototype system is designed based on an SDN controller. Experiments demonstrate that SCM could reduce the network traffic cost and energy consumption efficiently.

  2. Quasi-Experimental Study of the Effectiveness of an Integrated Service Delivery Network for the Frail Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, Andre; Durand, Pierre J.; Bonin, Lucie; Hebert, Rejean; Rochette, Louis

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a new, integrated service delivery (ISD) network of health and social services for frail elderly living in a semi-urban community. A quasi-experimental study was conducted from 1997 to 2000, with measures taken before implementation (T0) and every 12 months after implementation for a 3-year…

  3. A flood-based information flow analysis and network minimization method for gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Mozhayskiy, Vadim; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2013-04-24

    Biological networks tend to have high interconnectivity, complex topologies and multiple types of interactions. This renders difficult the identification of sub-networks that are involved in condition- specific responses. In addition, we generally lack scalable methods that can reveal the information flow in gene regulatory and biochemical pathways. Doing so will help us to identify key participants and paths under specific environmental and cellular context. This paper introduces the theory of network flooding, which aims to address the problem of network minimization and regulatory information flow in gene regulatory networks. Given a regulatory biological network, a set of source (input) nodes and optionally a set of sink (output) nodes, our task is to find (a) the minimal sub-network that encodes the regulatory program involving all input and output nodes and (b) the information flow from the source to the sink nodes of the network. Here, we describe a novel, scalable, network traversal algorithm and we assess its potential to achieve significant network size reduction in both synthetic and E. coli networks. Scalability and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed method scales well with the size of the network, and is robust to noise and missing data. The method of network flooding proves to be a useful, practical approach towards information flow analysis in gene regulatory networks. Further extension of the proposed theory has the potential to lead in a unifying framework for the simultaneous network minimization and information flow analysis across various "omics" levels.

  4. Social network extraction based on Web: 1. Related superficial methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin Matyuso Nasution, Mahyuddin

    2018-01-01

    Often the nature of something affects methods to resolve the related issues about it. Likewise, methods to extract social networks from the Web, but involve the structured data types differently. This paper reveals several methods of social network extraction from the same sources that is Web: the basic superficial method, the underlying superficial method, the description superficial method, and the related superficial methods. In complexity we derive the inequalities between methods and so are their computations. In this case, we find that different results from the same tools make the difference from the more complex to the simpler: Extraction of social network by involving co-occurrence is more complex than using occurrences.

  5. Inequity in ecosystem service delivery: Socioeconomic gaps in the public-private conservation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Mogollón, Beatriz; Angermeier, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    private conservation lands included beneficiaries of significantly greater household income than benefit zones of other types of conservation areas. Our analysis of ES flows revealed significant socioeconomic gaps in how the current public-private conservation network benefits the public. These gaps warrant consideration in regional conservation plans and suggest that private conservation initiatives may be best suited for responding to the equity challenge. Enhancing the ecosystem benefits and the equity of benefit delivery from private conservation networks could build public and political support for long-term conservation strategies and ultimately enhance conservation efficacy.

  6. A new fault detection method for computer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lu; Xu, Zhengguo; Wang, Wenhai; Sun, Youxian

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years, fault detection for computer networks has attracted extensive attentions for its importance in network management. Most existing fault detection methods are based on active probing techniques which can detect the occurrence of faults fast and precisely. But these methods suffer from the limitation of traffic overhead, especially in large scale networks. To relieve traffic overhead induced by active probing based methods, a new fault detection method, whose key is to divide the detection process into multiple stages, is proposed in this paper. During each stage, only a small region of the network is detected by using a small set of probes. Meanwhile, it also ensures that the entire network can be covered after multiple detection stages. This method can guarantee that the traffic used by probes during each detection stage is small sufficiently so that the network can operate without severe disturbance from probes. Several simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method

  7. Determining the Effectiveness of Various Delivery Methods in an Information Technology/Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gary Alan; Kovacs, Paul J.; Scarpino, John; Turchek, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of increasingly sophisticated communication technologies and the media-rich extensions of the World Wide Web have prompted universities to use alternatives to the traditional classroom teaching and learning methods. This demand for alternative delivery methods has led to the development of a wide range of eLearning techniques.…

  8. A Method for Upper Bounding on Network Access Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Patel, A.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating an upper bound on network access speed growth and gives guidelines for further research experiments and simulations. The method is aimed at providing a basis for simulation of long term network development and resource management.......This paper presents a method for calculating an upper bound on network access speed growth and gives guidelines for further research experiments and simulations. The method is aimed at providing a basis for simulation of long term network development and resource management....

  9. Apparatus and Methods for Fluid Storage and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott E. (Inventor); Bue, Grant C. (Inventor); Schaefbauer, Mark E. (Inventor); Urban, Kase C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus and method for storing and delivering fluid to a person comprises, in at least one specific embodiment, a fluid reservoir having an internal volume therein with an opening disposed through a first wall or a second wall of the fluid reservoir and located toward a first end of the fluid reservoir. A first portion of a tube can be exterior to the fluid reservoir and a second portion of the tube can be disposed through the opening and within the internal volume. At least one insulation layer can be disposed about the exterior of the first wall of the fluid reservoir. The second wall of the fluid reservoir can be configured for transferring heat from or to the internal volume or from the person. At least one baffle is disposed within the internal volume and connected to the first wall and the second wall of the fluid reservoir.

  10. A divisive spectral method for network community detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Li, Longjie; Yao, Yukai; Chen, Xiaoyun; Leng, Mingwei; Lu, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Community detection is a fundamental problem in the domain of complex network analysis. It has received great attention, and many community detection methods have been proposed in the last decade. In this paper, we propose a divisive spectral method for identifying community structures from networks which utilizes a sparsification operation to pre-process the networks first, and then uses a repeated bisection spectral algorithm to partition the networks into communities. The sparsification operation makes the community boundaries clearer and sharper, so that the repeated spectral bisection algorithm extract high-quality community structures accurately from the sparsified networks. Experiments show that the combination of network sparsification and a spectral bisection algorithm is highly successful, the proposed method is more effective in detecting community structures from networks than the others. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  11. A novel community detection method in bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cangqi; Feng, Liang; Zhao, Qianchuan

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is a common and important feature in many complex networks, including bipartite networks, which are used as a standard model for many empirical networks comprised of two types of nodes. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for detecting community structure in bipartite networks. Firstly, we extend the widely-used Louvain algorithm to bipartite networks. The effectiveness and efficiency of the Louvain algorithm have been proved by many applications. However, there lacks a Louvain-like algorithm specially modified for bipartite networks. Based on bipartite modularity, a measure that extends unipartite modularity and that quantifies the strength of partitions in bipartite networks, we fill the gap by developing the Bi-Louvain algorithm that iteratively groups the nodes in each part by turns. This algorithm in bipartite networks often produces a balanced network structure with equal numbers of two types of nodes. Secondly, for the balanced network yielded by the first algorithm, we use an agglomerative clustering method to further cluster the network. We demonstrate that the calculation of the gain of modularity of each aggregation, and the operation of joining two communities can be compactly calculated by matrix operations for all pairs of communities simultaneously. At last, a complete hierarchical community structure is unfolded. We apply our method to two benchmark data sets and a large-scale data set from an e-commerce company, showing that it effectively identifies community structure in bipartite networks.

  12. Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kubeček, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate

  13. An Improved Method for Magnetic Nanocarrier Drug Delivery across the Cell Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mehrafrooz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the crucial issues in the pharmacological field is developing new drug delivery systems. The main concern is to develop new methods for improving the drug delivery efficiencies such as low disruptions, precise control of the target of delivery and drug sustainability. Nowadays, there are many various methods for drug delivery systems. Carbon-based nanocarriers are a new efficient tool for translocating drug into the defined area or cells inside the body. These nanocarriers can be functionalized with proteins, peptides and used to transport their freight to cells or defined areas. Since functionalized carbon-based nanocarriers show low toxicity and high biocompatibility, they are used in many nanobiotechnology fields. In this study, different shapes of nanocarrier are investigated, and the suitable magnetic field, which is applied using MRI for the delivery of the nanocarrier, is proposed. In this research, based on the force required to cross the membrane and MD simulations, the optimal magnetic field profile is designed. This optimal magnetic force field is derived from the mathematical model of the system and magnetic particle dynamics inside the nanocarrier. The results of this paper illustrate the effects of the nanocarrier’s shapes on the percentage of success in crossing the membrane and the optimal required magnetic field.

  14. Multilevel method for modeling large-scale networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safro, I. M. (Mathematics and Computer Science)

    2012-02-24

    Understanding the behavior of real complex networks is of great theoretical and practical significance. It includes developing accurate artificial models whose topological properties are similar to the real networks, generating the artificial networks at different scales under special conditions, investigating a network dynamics, reconstructing missing data, predicting network response, detecting anomalies and other tasks. Network generation, reconstruction, and prediction of its future topology are central issues of this field. In this project, we address the questions related to the understanding of the network modeling, investigating its structure and properties, and generating artificial networks. Most of the modern network generation methods are based either on various random graph models (reinforced by a set of properties such as power law distribution of node degrees, graph diameter, and number of triangles) or on the principle of replicating an existing model with elements of randomization such as R-MAT generator and Kronecker product modeling. Hierarchical models operate at different levels of network hierarchy but with the same finest elements of the network. However, in many cases the methods that include randomization and replication elements on the finest relationships between network nodes and modeling that addresses the problem of preserving a set of simplified properties do not fit accurately enough the real networks. Among the unsatisfactory features are numerically inadequate results, non-stability of algorithms on real (artificial) data, that have been tested on artificial (real) data, and incorrect behavior at different scales. One reason is that randomization and replication of existing structures can create conflicts between fine and coarse scales of the real network geometry. Moreover, the randomization and satisfying of some attribute at the same time can abolish those topological attributes that have been undefined or hidden from

  15. A conserved signaling network monitors delivery of sphingolipids to the plasma membrane in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jesse; Dephoure, Noah; Horecka, Ira; Gygi, Steven; Kellogg, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    In budding yeast, cell cycle progression and ribosome biogenesis are dependent on plasma membrane growth, which ensures that events of cell growth are coordinated with each other and with the cell cycle. However, the signals that link the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis to membrane growth are poorly understood. Here we used proteome-wide mass spectrometry to systematically discover signals associated with membrane growth. The results suggest that membrane trafficking events required for membrane growth generate sphingolipid-dependent signals. A conserved signaling network appears to play an essential role in signaling by responding to delivery of sphingolipids to the plasma membrane. In addition, sphingolipid-dependent signals control phosphorylation of protein kinase C (Pkc1), which plays an essential role in the pathways that link the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis to membrane growth. Together these discoveries provide new clues as to how growth--dependent signals control cell growth and the cell cycle. © 2017 Clarke et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Do-it-yourself networks: a novel method of generating weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, D W; Salau, K R; Baggio, J A

    2017-11-01

    Network theory is finding applications in the life and social sciences for ecology, epidemiology, finance and social-ecological systems. While there are methods to generate specific types of networks, the broad literature is focused on generating unweighted networks. In this paper, we present a framework for generating weighted networks that satisfy user-defined criteria. Each criterion hierarchically defines a feature of the network and, in doing so, complements existing algorithms in the literature. We use a general example of ecological species dispersal to illustrate the method and provide open-source code for academic purposes.

  17. A method for assessing fidelity of delivery of telephone behavioral support for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencatto, F.; West, R.; Bruguera, C.; Michie, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral support for smoking cessation is delivered through different modalities, often guided by treatment manuals. Recently developed methods for assessing fidelity of delivery have shown that face-to-face behavioral support is often not delivered as specified in the service treatment manual. This study aimed to extend this method to evaluate fidelity of telephone-delivered behavioral support. \\ud \\ud Method: A treatment manual and transcripts of 75 audio-recorded behavioral s...

  18. Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevlud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with detection of network anomalies. Network anomalies include everything that is quite different from the normal operation. For detection of anomalies were used machine learning systems. Machine learning can be considered as a support or a limited type of artificial intelligence. A machine learning system usually starts with some knowledge and a corresponding knowledge organization so that it can interpret, analyse, and test the knowledge acquired. There are several machine learning techniques available. We tested Decision tree learning and Bayesian networks. The open source data-mining framework WEKA was the tool we used for testing the classify, cluster, association algorithms and for visualization of our results. The WEKA is a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks.

  19. Mean field methods for cortical network dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, J.; Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    We review the use of mean field theory for describing the dynamics of dense, randomly connected cortical circuits. For a simple network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate- and-fire neurons, we can show how the firing irregularity, as measured by the Fano factor, increases...... with the strength of the synapses in the network and with the value to which the membrane potential is reset after a spike. Generalizing the model to include conductance-based synapses gives insight into the connection between the firing statistics and the high- conductance state observed experimentally in visual...

  20. The association between cesarean delivery on maternal request and method of newborn feeding in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxue Liu

    Full Text Available Cesarean delivery has increased significantly during the last decades. This study aimed to investigate the association between planned mode of delivery and method of feeding.A cohort was created retrospectively using data from a population-based maternal and child health surveillance system, which covers 27 study sites in China from 1993 to 2006. The cohort consisted of 431,704 women for analysis, including 22,462 women with planned cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR and 409,242 women with planned vaginal delivery (VD. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between mode of delivery and method of feeding adjusting for selected covariates. In this cohort, 398,176 (92.2% women exclusively breastfed their baby, 28,798 (6.7% women chose mixed feeding, and 4,730 (1.1% women chose formula feeding before hospital discharge. Women who planned CDMR were less likely to exclusively breastfeed and more likely to formula feed their babies than those who planned VD. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.89 for exclusive breastfeeding and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45-1.79 for formula feeding. Associations between planned mode of delivery and method of feeding in the south, north, rural and urban areas yielded similar results.This study demonstrated that planned CDMR was associated with a lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding and a higher rate of formula feeding in a low-risk Chinese population.

  1. Influence of Course Delivery Method and Proctoring on Performance in Introductory Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenheim, Cheryl J.

    2011-01-01

    This work was published in the Review of Agricultural Economics. See Wachenheim, C.J. 2009. Final Exam Scores in Introductory Economics Courses: Effect of Course Delivery Method and Proctoring. Review of Agricultural Economics 31(3), pp. 640-652.

  2. Training Delivery Methods as Source of Dynamic Capabilities: The Case of Sports' Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraya, Marco António Mexia; Porfírio, Jose António

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Training as an important source of dynamic capabilities (DC) is important to the performance of sports' organisations (SO) both to athletes and to non-athletic staff. There are a variety of training delivery methods (TDMs). The purpose of this study is to determine from a set of six TDMs which one is considered to be the most suitable to…

  3. Diverse Delivery Methods and Strong Psychological Benefits: A Review of Online Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, T.; Yan, Z.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a review of literature on online formative assessment (OFA). It includes a narrative summary that synthesizes the research on the diverse delivery methods of OFA, as well as the empirical literature regarding the strong psychological benefits and limitations. Online formative assessment can be delivered using many traditional…

  4. A Method for Automated Planning of FTTH Access Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a method for automated planning of Fiber to the Home (FTTH) access networks is proposed. We introduced a systematic approach for planning access network infrastructure. The GIS data and a set of algorithms were employed to make the planning process more automatic. The method explains...... method. The method, however, does not fully automate the planning but make the planning process significantly fast. The results and discussion are presented and conclusion is given in the end....

  5. Is home delivery really preferred? a mixed-methods national study in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Shamsa; Sikander, Siham; Ahmad, Ikhlaq; Ahmad, Mansoor; Parveen, Nazia; Saleem, Shumaila; Nawaz, Tayyba; Suleman, Zainab; Suleman, Nadia; ulAin, Noor; Naeem, Ayesha; Bashir, Asma

    2015-11-25

    Pakistan has a high maternal mortality ratio and a low rate of skilled birth attendants (SBAs). To address these two important issues, the Pakistan Maternal Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) programme launched the community midwives (CMW) initiative in 2007. CMWs are supposed to conduct deliveries at community level outside health facilities. The purpose of the current study is to document perceptions about CMWs and preferences for birthing place. A mixed-methods study was conducted covering four provinces. For the quantitative survey, households were selected through a multistage sampling technique from rural districts. In 1,450 rural households, preferences of respondents about CMW-conducted deliveries were recorded. Qualitative data were obtained through focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with women, community elders, CMWs, and MNCH programme personnel in the same areas where the quantitative study was carried out. In both studies, preferences and the reasons behind particular respondent preferences were recorded. Frequencies of responses were analysed for the quantitative study. Narration and quotes from various types of participants were used to present findings from FGDs and IDIs. In the quantitative study, 42% of respondents expressed a preference for birthing stations, i.e. a place where CMWs conduct deliveries; 22% preferred home deliveries. Birthing stations were favoured because of the availability of space and equipment and the proximity to women's homes. These findings were largely supported by the qualitative component, although a range of views about where a CMW should conduct deliveries were expressed. Insights into where CMWs might provide delivery services were obtained through this study. Birthing stations may be an option as a preferred location for delivery care and should be considered as part of Pakistan's national CMW programme.

  6. Mixed Methods Analysis of Enterprise Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Richter, Alexander; Trier, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of enterprise social networks (ESN) generates vast amounts of data, giving researchers and managerial decision makers unprecedented opportunities for analysis. However, more transparency about the available data dimensions and how these can be combined is needed to yield accurate...

  7. [Surgical methods for delivery in modern obstetrics and their influence on maternal and infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanevych, Ie V; Mitsoda, R M; Konoplianko, T V; Konoplianko, V V

    2000-03-01

    The article addresses issues of comparative characterization of deliveries involving surgery and impact thereof on the health of the mother and her child. Risk factors are identified that the mother and her child run in sectio cesarea, in application of obstetrical forceps, and in vacuum-extraction of the fetus. Cesarean section was found out to be the most acceptable mode of delivery in origination of organic and functional nervous system involvement in children but the most ill-chosen and unpropitious one in the mother, especially so in those groups at risk for bleeding, septic complications, and genital endometriosis. Among those surgical methods of delivery being the least traumatic to the mother are obstetrical forceps and vacuum-extraction of the fetus.

  8. Dynamic baseline detection method for power data network service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic baseline Traffic detection Method which is based on the historical traffic data for the Power data network. The method uses Cisco's NetFlow acquisition tool to collect the original historical traffic data from network element at fixed intervals. This method uses three dimensions information including the communication port, time, traffic (number of bytes or number of packets) t. By filtering, removing the deviation value, calculating the dynamic baseline value, comparing the actual value with the baseline value, the method can detect whether the current network traffic is abnormal.

  9. A low complexity method for the optimization of network path length in spatially embedded networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guang; Yang, Xu-Hua; Xu, Xin-Li; Ming, Yong; Chen, Sheng-Yong; Wang, Wan-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The average path length of a network is an important index reflecting the network transmission efficiency. In this paper, we propose a new method of decreasing the average path length by adding edges. A new indicator is presented, incorporating traffic flow demand, to assess the decrease in the average path length when a new edge is added during the optimization process. With the help of the indicator, edges are selected and added into the network one by one. The new method has a relatively small time computational complexity in comparison with some traditional methods. In numerical simulations, the new method is applied to some synthetic spatially embedded networks. The result shows that the method can perform competitively in decreasing the average path length. Then, as an example of an application of this new method, it is applied to the road network of Hangzhou, China. (paper)

  10. Responsive and resilient supply chain network design under operational and disruption risks with delivery lead-time sensitive customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattahi, Mohammad; Govindan, Kannan; Keyvanshokooh, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    We address a multi-period supply chain (SC) network design where demands of customers depend on facilities serving them based on their delivery lead-times. Potential customer demands are stochastic, and facilities’ capacity varies randomly because of possible disruptions. Accordingly, we develop...... a multi-stage stochastic program, and model disruptions’ effect on facilities’ capacity. The SC responsiveness risk is limited and, to obtain a resilient network, both mitigation and contingency strategies are exploited. Computational results on a real-life case study and randomly generated problem...... instances demonstrate the model's applicability, risk-measurement policies’ performance, and the influence of mitigation and contingency strategies on SC's resiliency....

  11. Freeze-dried, mucoadhesive system for vaginal delivery of the HIV microbicide, dapivirine: optimisation by an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, A David; Umrethia, Manish L; Kett, Victoria L; Malcolm, R Karl

    2010-03-30

    Dapivirine mucoadhesive gels and freeze-dried tablets were prepared using a 3x3x2 factorial design. An artificial neural network (ANN) with multi-layer perception was used to investigate the effect of hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC): polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) ratio (X1), mucoadhesive concentration (X2) and delivery system (gel or freeze-dried mucoadhesive tablet, X3) on response variables; cumulative release of dapivirine at 24h (Q(24)), mucoadhesive force (F(max)) and zero-rate viscosity. Optimisation was performed by minimising the error between the experimental and predicted values of responses by ANN. The method was validated using check point analysis by preparing six formulations of gels and their corresponding freeze-dried tablets randomly selected from within the design space of contour plots. Experimental and predicted values of response variables were not significantly different (p>0.05, two-sided paired t-test). For gels, Q(24) values were higher than their corresponding freeze-dried tablets. F(max) values for freeze-dried tablets were significantly different (2-4 times greater, p>0.05, two-sided paired t-test) compared to equivalent gels. Freeze-dried tablets having lower values for X1 and higher values for X2 components offered the best compromise between effective dapivirine release, mucoadhesion and viscosity such that increased vaginal residence time was likely to be achieved. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Provisional-Ideal-Point-Based Multi-objective Optimization Method for Drone Delivery Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omagari, Hiroki; Higashino, Shin-Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new evolutionary multi-objective optimization method for solving drone delivery problems (DDP). It can be formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. In our previous research, we proposed the "aspiration-point-based method" to solve multi-objective optimization problems. However, this method needs to calculate the optimal values of each objective function value in advance. Moreover, it does not consider the constraint conditions except for the objective functions. Therefore, it cannot apply to DDP which has many constraint conditions. To solve these issues, we proposed "provisional-ideal-point-based method." The proposed method defines a "penalty value" to search for feasible solutions. It also defines a new reference solution named "provisional-ideal point" to search for the preferred solution for a decision maker. In this way, we can eliminate the preliminary calculations and its limited application scope. The results of the benchmark test problems show that the proposed method can generate the preferred solution efficiently. The usefulness of the proposed method is also demonstrated by applying it to DDP. As a result, the delivery path when combining one drone and one truck drastically reduces the traveling distance and the delivery time compared with the case of using only one truck.

  13. Computational Experiment Study on Selection Mechanism of Project Delivery Method Based on Complex Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Project delivery planning is a key stage used by the project owner (or project investor for organizing design, construction, and other operations in a construction project. The main task in this stage is to select an appropriate project delivery method. In order to analyze different factors affecting the PDM selection, this paper establishes a multiagent model mainly to show how project complexity, governance strength, and market environment affect the project owner’s decision on PDM. Experiment results show that project owner usually choose Design-Build method when the project is very complex within a certain range. Besides, this paper points out that Design-Build method will be the prior choice when the potential contractors develop quickly. This paper provides the owners with methods and suggestions in terms of showing how the factors affect PDM selection, and it may improve the project performance.

  14. An introduction to neural network methods for differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Neha; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces a variety of neural network methods for solving differential equations arising in science and engineering. The emphasis is placed on a deep understanding of the neural network techniques, which has been presented in a mostly heuristic and intuitive manner. This approach will enable the reader to understand the working, efficiency and shortcomings of each neural network technique for solving differential equations. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a sound understanding of the foundations of neural networks, and a comprehensive introduction to neural network methods for solving differential equations together with recent developments in the techniques and their applications. The book comprises four major sections. Section I consists of a brief overview of differential equations and the relevant physical problems arising in science and engineering. Section II illustrates the history of neural networks starting from their beginnings in the 1940s through to the renewed...

  15. Non-Viral Transfection Methods Optimized for Gene Delivery to a Lung Cancer Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Jaberipour, Mansooreh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Mehr-80 is a newly established adherent human large cell lung cancer cell line that has not been transfected until now. This study aims to define the optimal transfection conditions and effects of some critical elements for enhancing gene delivery to this cell line by utilizing different non-viral transfection Procedures. Methods In the current study, calcium phosphate (CaP), DEAE-dextran, superfect, electroporation and lipofection transfection methods were used to optimize deliver...

  16. Is home delivery really preferred? a mixed-methods national study in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Shamsa; Sikander, Siham; Ahmad, Ikhlaq; Ahmad, Mansoor; Parveen, Nazia; Saleem, Shumaila; Nawaz, Tayyba; Suleman, Zainab; Suleman, Nadia; ulAin, Noor; Naeem, Ayesha; Bashir, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Background Pakistan has a high maternal mortality ratio and a low rate of skilled birth attendants (SBAs). To address these two important issues, the Pakistan Maternal Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) programme launched the community midwives (CMW) initiative in 2007. CMWs are supposed to conduct deliveries at community level outside health facilities. The purpose of the current study is to document perceptions about CMWs and preferences for birthing place. Methods A mixed-methods study was co...

  17. Link Prediction Methods and Their Accuracy for Different Social Networks and Network Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, we are experiencing a rapid growth of the number of social-based online systems. The availability of the vast amounts of data gathered in those systems brings new challenges that we face when trying to analyse it. One of the intensively researched topics is the prediction of social connections between users. Although a lot of effort has been made to develop new prediction approaches, the existing methods are not comprehensively analysed. In this paper we investigate the correlation between network metrics and accuracy of different prediction methods. We selected six time-stamped real-world social networks and ten most widely used link prediction methods. The results of the experiments show that the performance of some methods has a strong correlation with certain network metrics. We managed to distinguish “prediction friendly” networks, for which most of the prediction methods give good performance, as well as “prediction unfriendly” networks, for which most of the methods result in high prediction error. Correlation analysis between network metrics and prediction accuracy of prediction methods may form the basis of a metalearning system where based on network characteristics it will be able to recommend the right prediction method for a given network.

  18. Learning Methods for Radial Basis Functions Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Kudová, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 21, - (2005), s. 1131-1142 ISSN 0167-739X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/03/P163; GA ČR GA201/02/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : radial basis function networks * hybrid supervised learning * genetic algorithms * benchmarking Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.555, year: 2005

  19. Classification Method in Integrated Information Network Using Vector Image Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Integrated Information Network (WMN consists of integrated information that can get data from its surrounding, such as image, voice. To transmit information, large resource is required which decreases the service time of the network. In this paper we present a Classification Approach based on Vector Image Comparison (VIC for WMN that improve the service time of the network. The available methods for sub-region selection and conversion are also proposed.

  20. Spectral Methods for Immunization of Large Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Given a network of nodes, minimizing the spread of a contagion using a limited budget is a well-studied problem with applications in network security, viral marketing, social networks, and public health. In real graphs, virus may infect a node which in turn infects its neighbour nodes and this may trigger an epidemic in the whole graph. The goal thus is to select the best k nodes (budget constraint that are immunized (vaccinated, screened, filtered so as the remaining graph is less prone to the epidemic. It is known that the problem is, in all practical models, computationally intractable even for moderate sized graphs. In this paper we employ ideas from spectral graph theory to define relevance and importance of nodes. Using novel graph theoretic techniques, we then design an efficient approximation algorithm to immunize the graph. Theoretical guarantees on the running time of our algorithm show that it is more efficient than any other known solution in the literature. We test the performance of our algorithm on several real world graphs. Experiments show that our algorithm scales well for large graphs and outperforms state of the art algorithms both in quality (containment of epidemic and efficiency (runtime and space complexity.

  1. Tensor network method for reversible classical computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Cheng; Kourtis, Stefanos; Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Ruckenstein, Andrei E.

    2018-03-01

    We develop a tensor network technique that can solve universal reversible classical computational problems, formulated as vertex models on a square lattice [Nat. Commun. 8, 15303 (2017), 10.1038/ncomms15303]. By encoding the truth table of each vertex constraint in a tensor, the total number of solutions compatible with partial inputs and outputs at the boundary can be represented as the full contraction of a tensor network. We introduce an iterative compression-decimation (ICD) scheme that performs this contraction efficiently. The ICD algorithm first propagates local constraints to longer ranges via repeated contraction-decomposition sweeps over all lattice bonds, thus achieving compression on a given length scale. It then decimates the lattice via coarse-graining tensor contractions. Repeated iterations of these two steps gradually collapse the tensor network and ultimately yield the exact tensor trace for large systems, without the need for manual control of tensor dimensions. Our protocol allows us to obtain the exact number of solutions for computations where a naive enumeration would take astronomically long times.

  2. Semigroup methods for evolution equations on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mugnolo, Delio

    2014-01-01

    This concise text is based on a series of lectures held only a few years ago and originally intended as an introduction to known results on linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations.  Yet the topic of differential equations on graphs, ramified spaces, and more general network-like objects has recently gained significant momentum and, well beyond the confines of mathematics, there is a lively interdisciplinary discourse on all aspects of so-called complex networks. Such network-like structures can be found in virtually all branches of science, engineering and the humanities, and future research thus calls for solid theoretical foundations.      This book is specifically devoted to the study of evolution equations – i.e., of time-dependent differential equations such as the heat equation, the wave equation, or the Schrödinger equation (quantum graphs) – bearing in mind that the majority of the literature in the last ten years on the subject of differential equations of graphs has been devoted to ellip...

  3. Non-Viral Transfection Methods Optimized for Gene Delivery to a Lung Cancer Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Jaberipour, Mansooreh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Mehr-80 is a newly established adherent human large cell lung cancer cell line that has not been transfected until now. This study aims to define the optimal transfection conditions and effects of some critical elements for enhancing gene delivery to this cell line by utilizing different non-viral transfection Procedures. Methods In the current study, calcium phosphate (CaP), DEAE-dextran, superfect, electroporation and lipofection transfection methods were used to optimize delivery of a plasmid construct that expressed Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Transgene expression was detected by fluorescent microscopy and flowcytometry. Toxicities of the methods were estimated by trypan blue staining. In order to evaluate the density of the transfected gene, we used a plasmid construct that expressed the Stromal cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) gene and measured its expression by real-time PCR. Results Mean levels of GFP-expressing cells 48 hr after transfection were 8.4% (CaP), 8.2% (DEAE-dextran), 4.9% (superfect), 34.1% (electroporation), and 40.1% (lipofection). Lipofection had the highest intense SDF-1 expression of the analyzed methods. Conclusion This study has shown that the lipofection and electroporation methods were more efficient at gene delivery to Mehr-80 cells. The quantity of DNA per transfection, reagent concentration, and incubation time were identified as essential factors for successful transfection in all of the studied methods. PMID:23799175

  4. Study of high-pressure cryogenic pumps with different methods of delivery control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.M.; Brailovskii, Y.L.; Pavlenko, Y.A.; Tsokalo, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes new reciprocating pumps with smooth control of delivery in a running pump. Control is effected either by changing the length of the piston stroke or by changing the speed of the driving motor. The individual features of the two methods are described. In the first method (mechanical), delivery is controlled in the range 50 to 100%. A separate actuating mechanism is needed to connect the pump to an automatic control system. This method complicates the driving mechanism and increases the bulk and cost of production. In the second method of controlling the speed of the electric motor, an electric drive fitted with a frequency thyristor is used. AC induction motors series 4A working at current frequencies of 60 HZ are used. By this method, delivery control could be enhanced by 1.3 times. Comparative tests were made on pumps using the above methods of control. The tests demonstrated the possibilities of using the frequency thyristor converters. The complexity and high cost of EKT type drives is largely compensated by the convenience and simplicity of control in a wide range. The mechanical control is advantageous only in low-output units

  5. A modified method of planning and delivery for dynamic multileaf collimator intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, Nesrin; Leybovich, Leonid B.; Sethi, Anil; Krasin, Matthew; Emami, Bahman

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a modified planning and delivery technique that reduces dose nonuniformity for tomographic delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The NOMOS-CORVUS system delivers IMRT in a tomographic paradigm. This type of delivery is prone to create multiple dose nonuniformity regions at the arc abutment regions. The modified technique was based on the cyclical behavior of arc positions as a function of a target length. With the modified technique, two plans are developed for the same patient, one with the original target and the second with a slightly increased target length and the abutment regions shifted by ∼5 mm compared to the first plan. Each plan is designed to deliver half of the target prescription dose delivered on alternate days, resulting in periodic shifts of abutment regions. This method was experimentally tested in phantoms with and without intentionally introduced errors in couch indexing. Results: With the modified technique, the degree of dose nonuniformity was reduced. For example, with 1 mm error in couch indexing, the degree of dose nonuniformity changed from ∼25% to ∼12%. Conclusion: Use of the modified technique reduces dose nonuniformity due to periodic shifts of abutment regions during treatment delivery

  6. Optimization-based Method for Automated Road Network Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, D

    2001-01-01

    Automated road information extraction has significant applicability in transportation. It provides a means for creating, maintaining, and updating transportation network databases that are needed for purposes ranging from traffic management to automated vehicle navigation and guidance. This paper is to review literature on the subject of road extraction and to describe a study of an optimization-based method for automated road network extraction

  7. Diagrammatic perturbation methods in networks and sports ranking combinatorics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Juyong

    2010-01-01

    Analytic and computational tools developed in statistical physics are being increasingly applied to the study of complex networks. Here we present recent developments in the diagrammatic perturbation methods for the exponential random graph models, and apply them to the combinatoric problem of determining the ranking of nodes in directed networks that represent pairwise competitions

  8. Non-viral transfection methods optimized for gene delivery to a lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Jaberipour, Mansooreh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2013-04-01

    Mehr-80 is a newly established adherent human large cell lung cancer cell line that has not been transfected until now. This study aims to define the optimal transfection conditions and effects of some critical elements for enhancing gene delivery to this cell line by utilizing different non-viral transfection Procedures. In the current study, calcium phosphate (CaP), DEAE-dextran, superfect, electroporation and lipofection transfection methods were used to optimize delivery of a plasmid construct that expressed Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Transgene expression was detected by fluorescent microscopy and flowcytometry. Toxicities of the methods were estimated by trypan blue staining. In order to evaluate the density of the transfected gene, we used a plasmid construct that expressed the Stromal cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) gene and measured its expression by real-time PCR. Mean levels of GFP-expressing cells 48 hr after transfection were 8.4% (CaP), 8.2% (DEAE-dextran), 4.9% (superfect), 34.1% (electroporation), and 40.1% (lipofection). Lipofection had the highest intense SDF-1 expression of the analyzed methods. This study has shown that the lipofection and electroporation methods were more efficient at gene delivery to Mehr-80 cells. The quantity of DNA per transfection, reagent concentration, and incubation time were identified as essential factors for successful transfection in all of the studied methods.

  9. Method of optimization onboard communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platoshin, G. A.; Selvesuk, N. I.; Semenov, M. E.; Novikov, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this article the optimization levels of onboard communication network (OCN) are proposed. We defined the basic parameters, which are necessary for the evaluation and comparison of modern OCN, we identified also a set of initial data for possible modeling of the OCN. We also proposed a mathematical technique for implementing the OCN optimization procedure. This technique is based on the principles and ideas of binary programming. It is shown that the binary programming technique allows to obtain an inherently optimal solution for the avionics tasks. An example of the proposed approach implementation to the problem of devices assignment in OCN is considered.

  10. Decreased rates of nosocomial endometritis and urinary tract infection after vaginal delivery in a French surveillance network, 1997-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Girard, Raphaële; Chapuis, Catherine; Depaix, Florence; Dumas, Anne-Marie; Gignoux, Chantal; Haond, Catherine; Lafarge-Leboucher, Joëlle; Launay, Carine; Tissot-Guerraz, Françoise; Vincent, Agnès; Fabry, Jacques

    2008-06-01

    To identify independent risk factors for endometritis and urinary tract infection (UTI) after vaginal delivery, and to monitor changes in nosocomial infection rates and derive benchmarks for prevention. Prospective study. We analyzed routine surveillance data for all vaginal deliveries between January 1997 and December 2003 at 66 maternity units participating in the Mater Sud-Est surveillance network. Adjusted odds ratios for risk of endometritis or UTI were obtained using a logistic regression model. The overall incidence rates were 0.5% for endometritis and 0.3% for UTI. There was a significant decrease in the incidence and risk of endometritis but not of UTI during the 7-year period. Significant risk factors for endometritis were fever during labor, parity of 1, and instrumental delivery and/or manual removal of the placenta. Significant risk factors for UTI were urinary infection on admission, premature rupture of membranes (more than 12 hours before admission), blood loss of more than 800 mL, parity of 1, instrumental delivery, and receipt of more than 5 vaginal digital examinations. Each maternity unit received a poster showing graphs of the number of expected and observed cases of UTI and endometritis associated with vaginal deliveries, which enabled each maternity unit to determine their rank within the network and to initiate prevention programs. Although routine surveillance means additional work for maternity units, our results demonstrate the usefulness of regular targeted monitoring of risk factors and of the most common nosocomial infections in obstetrics. Most of the information needed for monitoring is already present in the patients' records.

  11. Network Forensics Method Based on Evidence Graph and Vulnerability Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet becomes larger in scale, more complex in structure and more diversified in traffic, the number of crimes that utilize computer technologies is also increasing at a phenomenal rate. To react to the increasing number of computer crimes, the field of computer and network forensics has emerged. The general purpose of network forensics is to find malicious users or activities by gathering and dissecting firm evidences about computer crimes, e.g., hacking. However, due to the large volume of Internet traffic, not all the traffic captured and analyzed is valuable for investigation or confirmation. After analyzing some existing network forensics methods to identify common shortcomings, we propose in this paper a new network forensics method that uses a combination of network vulnerability and network evidence graph. In our proposed method, we use vulnerability evidence and reasoning algorithm to reconstruct attack scenarios and then backtrack the network packets to find the original evidences. Our proposed method can reconstruct attack scenarios effectively and then identify multi-staged attacks through evidential reasoning. Results of experiments show that the evidence graph constructed using our method is more complete and credible while possessing the reasoning capability.

  12. High-resolution method for evolving complex interface networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shucheng; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we describe a high-resolution transport formulation of the regional level-set approach for an improved prediction of the evolution of complex interface networks. The novelty of this method is twofold: (i) construction of local level sets and reconstruction of a global level set, (ii) local transport of the interface network by employing high-order spatial discretization schemes for improved representation of complex topologies. Various numerical test cases of multi-region flow problems, including triple-point advection, single vortex flow, mean curvature flow, normal driven flow, dry foam dynamics and shock-bubble interaction show that the method is accurate and suitable for a wide range of complex interface-network evolutions. Its overall computational cost is comparable to the Semi-Lagrangian regional level-set method while the prediction accuracy is significantly improved. The approach thus offers a viable alternative to previous interface-network level-set method.

  13. Mental Illness Stigma Intervention in African Americans: Examining Two Delivery Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Ebony S; Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L

    2016-05-01

    Stigma surrounding mental illness and mental health treatment remains a significant problem, particularly among African Americans. This study sought to examine the effects of 2 intervention delivery methods in reducing reported stigma. African Americans (n = 158) were nonrandomly assigned to an in-person contact or video condition and administered a survey immediately before, after, and 2 weeks following the stigma intervention. The in vivo contact condition consisted of an African American man discussing his experiences with mental illness and psychotherapy. The session was recorded, and the recording was used for the video condition. There were no significant effects based on delivery method; however, there was a significant effect for time on stigma and help-seeking attitude measures. Further research is needed to determine the overall effectiveness of the intervention.

  14. Coupling surfactants with permanganate for DNAPL removal : coinjection or sequential application as delivery methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, P.J. [Carus Corp., Peru, IL (United States); Siegrist, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Crimi, M.L. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a study conducted to test the effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced permanganate for the remediation of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). When DNAPL enters the environment, it can pollute millions of gallons of ground water and create huge dissolved plumes that act as long-term sources of contamination. Surfactants were used to enhance the solubilization and mobilization of DNAPL during the remediation process. In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) was then used to deliver oxidants into the sub-surface to destroy organic contaminants in the soil and ground water. Experimental 2-D flow-through cell studies of 72 surfactants were conducted with the permanganate to evaluate delivery methods and determine compatible co-solvents for the surfactant process. Delivery methods included co-injection and sequential application. Four compatible surfactants were found to be compatible with the permanganate. A 90 percent DNAPL remediation rate was achieved using relatively low surfactant and oxidant concentrations. tabs., figs.

  15. Inference of time-delayed gene regulatory networks based on dynamic Bayesian network hybrid learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Xu, Jia-Meng; Li, Shan; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Rui-Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ming-Hui

    2017-10-06

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) research reveals complex life phenomena from the perspective of gene interaction, which is an important research field in systems biology. Traditional Bayesian networks have a high computational complexity, and the network structure scoring model has a single feature. Information-based approaches cannot identify the direction of regulation. In order to make up for the shortcomings of the above methods, this paper presents a novel hybrid learning method (DBNCS) based on dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) to construct the multiple time-delayed GRNs for the first time, combining the comprehensive score (CS) with the DBN model. DBNCS algorithm first uses CMI2NI (conditional mutual inclusive information-based network inference) algorithm for network structure profiles learning, namely the construction of search space. Then the redundant regulations are removed by using the recursive optimization algorithm (RO), thereby reduce the false positive rate. Secondly, the network structure profiles are decomposed into a set of cliques without loss, which can significantly reduce the computational complexity. Finally, DBN model is used to identify the direction of gene regulation within the cliques and search for the optimal network structure. The performance of DBNCS algorithm is evaluated by the benchmark GRN datasets from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in Escherichia coli , and compared with other state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the rationality of the algorithm design and the outstanding performance of the GRNs.

  16. Method of targeted delivery of laser beam to isolated retinal rods by fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Nigel; Bessarab, Dmitri; Jones, C Michael; Krivitsky, Leonid

    2011-11-01

    A method of controllable light delivery to retinal rod cells using an optical fiber is described. Photo-induced current of the living rod cells was measured with the suction electrode technique. The approach was tested with measurements relating the spatial distribution of the light intensity to photo-induced current. In addition, the ion current responses of rod cells to polarized light at two different orientation geometries of the cells were studied.

  17. The Impact of Nutrition Information Delivery Methods on Restaurant Consumers' Attitudes and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jiaqi

    2013-01-01

    Zhu, Jiaqi. M.S., Purdue University, December 2013. The Impact of Nutrition Information Delivery Methods on Restaurant Consumers' Attitudes and Behavior. Major Professors: Barbara A. Almanza, Carl A. Behnke. Obesity is a major public health threat. It not only creates challenges for those who are obese and overweight, but also brings an economic burden to the whole society. One important contributing factor for obesity is food eaten away from home, which accounts for more than 40% of Ameri...

  18. Optical methods for creating delivery systems of chemical compounds to plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Arefeva, Oksana A.; Minin, Dmitryi V.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.

    2004-08-01

    Spectrophotometric and fluorescence methods have been used for creation and investigation of various systems of target delivery of chemical compounds to roots of plants. The possibility of using liposomes, incrusted by polysaccharides of the external surface of nitrogen-fixing rizospheric bacteria Azospirillum brasilense SP 245, and nanoparticles incrusted by polysaccharides of wheat roots, as the named systems has been shown. The important role of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the adsorption processes of bacteria on wheat roots has been demonstrated.

  19. QoE Power-Efficient Multimedia Delivery Method for LTE-A

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, M. Sajid; Mellouk, Abdelhamid; Augustin, Brice; Fowler, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The fastest growing of multimedia services overfuture wireless communication system demand more networkresources, efficient delivery of multimedia service with highusers satisfaction, and power optimization of User Equipments(UEs). The resources and power optimization are significant infuture mobile computing systems, because emerging multimediaservices consume more resources and power. The 4G standard ofLTE-A wireless system has adopted the Discontinuous Reception(DRX) method to extend and o...

  20. Systems and methods for modeling and analyzing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Colin C; Church, Bruce W; McDonagh, Paul D; Khalil, Iya G; Neyarapally, Thomas A; Pitluk, Zachary W

    2013-10-29

    The systems and methods described herein utilize a probabilistic modeling framework for reverse engineering an ensemble of causal models, from data and then forward simulating the ensemble of models to analyze and predict the behavior of the network. In certain embodiments, the systems and methods described herein include data-driven techniques for developing causal models for biological networks. Causal network models include computational representations of the causal relationships between independent variables such as a compound of interest and dependent variables such as measured DNA alterations, changes in mRNA, protein, and metabolites to phenotypic readouts of efficacy and toxicity.

  1. Structural reliability calculation method based on the dual neural network and direct integration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; He, Yun; Nie, Xiaobo

    2018-01-01

    Structural reliability analysis under uncertainty is paid wide attention by engineers and scholars due to reflecting the structural characteristics and the bearing actual situation. The direct integration method, started from the definition of reliability theory, is easy to be understood, but there are still mathematics difficulties in the calculation of multiple integrals. Therefore, a dual neural network method is proposed for calculating multiple integrals in this paper. Dual neural network consists of two neural networks. The neural network A is used to learn the integrand function, and the neural network B is used to simulate the original function. According to the derivative relationships between the network output and the network input, the neural network B is derived from the neural network A. On this basis, the performance function of normalization is employed in the proposed method to overcome the difficulty of multiple integrations and to improve the accuracy for reliability calculations. The comparisons between the proposed method and Monte Carlo simulation method, Hasofer-Lind method, the mean value first-order second moment method have demonstrated that the proposed method is an efficient and accurate reliability method for structural reliability problems.

  2. Non-invasive Oil-Based Method to Increase Topical Delivery of Nucleic Acids to Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Manika; Alam, Shamshad; Gupta, Nidhi; Gotherwal, Vishvabandhu; Gautam, Hemlata; Ansari, Kausar M; Santhiya, Deenan; Natarajan, Vivek T; Ganguli, Munia

    2017-06-07

    Topical delivery of nucleic acids to skin has huge prospects in developing therapeutic interventions for cutaneous disorders. In spite of initial success, clinical translation is vastly impeded by the constraints of bioavailability as well as stability in metabolically active environment of skin. Various physical and chemical methods used to overcome these limitations involve invasive procedures or compounds that compromise skin integrity. Hence, there is an increasing demand for developing safe skin penetration enhancers for efficient nucleic acid delivery to skin. Here, we demonstrate that pretreatment of skin with silicone oil can increase the transfection efficiency of non-covalently associated peptide-plasmid DNA nanocomplexes in skin ex vivo and in vivo. The method does not compromise skin integrity, as indicated by microscopic evaluation of cellular differentiation, tissue architecture, enzyme activity assessment, dye penetration tests using Franz assay, and cytotoxicity and immunogenicity analyses. Stability of nanocomplexes is not hampered on pretreatment, thereby avoiding nuclease-mediated degradation. The mechanistic insights through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy reveal some alterations in the skin hydration status owing to possible occlusion effects of the enhancer. Overall, we describe a topical, non-invasive, efficient, and safe method that can be used to increase the penetration and delivery of plasmid DNA to skin for possible therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comet Assay: A Method to Evaluate Genotoxicity of Nano-Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandghanooni, Somayeh; Eskandani, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Drug delivery systems could induce cellular toxicity as side effect of nanomaterials. The mechanism of toxicity usually involves DNA damage. The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) is a sensitive method for detecting strand damages in the DNA of a cell with applications in genotoxicity testing and molecular epidemiology as well as fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. Methods In the current study, we reviewed recent drug delivery researches related to SCGE. Results We found that one preference for choosing the assay is that comet images may result from apoptosis-mediated nuclear fragmentation. This method has been widely used over the last decade in several different areas. Overall cells, such as cultured cells are embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, lysed with detergent, and treated with high salt. Nucleoids are supercoiled DNA form. When the slide is faced to alkaline electrophoresis any breakages present in the DNA cause the supercoiling to relax locally and loops of DNA extend toward the anode as a ‘‘comet tail’’. Conclusion This article provides a relatively comprehensive review upon potentiality of the comet assay for assessment of DNA damage and accordingly it can be used as an informative platform in genotoxicity studies of drug delivery systems. PMID:23678412

  4. [Methods of pushing at vaginal delivery and pelvi-perineal consequences. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratier, N; Balenbois, E; Letouzey, V; Marès, P; de Tayrac, R

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of that review was to evaluate the pelvi-perineal consequences of the different methods of pushing at vaginal delivery. A review on PubMed, the Cochrane Library and EM-Premium was performed from 1984 to 2014. Among 29 manuscripts analysed, only nine randomised controlled trials (including one meta-analysis of three trials) comparing Valsalva and spontaneous pushing were selected. A 10 th study, secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing different methods of perineal protection (warm compresses, massage and manual protection), was also selected. Two trials have shown that spontaneous pushing reduces the risk of perineal tears, but studies were heterogeneous and discordant results do not allowed definitive conclusions. Results on the duration of the second stage of labour are conflicting. The method of pushing does not seem to affect the rate of episiotomy, instrumental delivery and cesarean section. Maternal satisfaction seems to be better after spontaneous pushing. It seems that there is no negative effect of spontaneous pushing on neonate well-being, and one study has shown a significant improvement of prenatal fetal parameters during the expulsive phase. According to current knowledge, both techniques of pushing during the expulsive phase at delivery seem comparable in terms of duration, risk of perineal tears and neonatal outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective teaching strategies and methods of delivery for patient education: a systematic review and practice guideline recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Audrey Jusko; Cosby, Roxanne; Boyko, Susan; Hatton-Bauer, Jane; Turnbull, Gale

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effective teaching strategies and methods of delivery for patient education (PE). A systematic review was conducted and reviews with or without meta-analyses, which examined teaching strategies and methods of delivery for PE, were included. Teaching strategies identified are traditional lectures, discussions, simulated games, computer technology, written material, audiovisual sources, verbal recall, demonstration, and role playing. Methods of delivery focused on how to deliver the teaching strategies. Teaching strategies that increased knowledge, decreased anxiety, and increased satisfaction included computer technology, audio and videotapes, written materials, and demonstrations. Various teaching strategies used in combination were similarly successful. Moreover, structured-, culturally appropriate- and patient-specific teachings were found to be better than ad hoc teaching or generalized teaching. Findings provide guidance for establishing provincial standards for the delivery of PE. Recommendations concerning the efficacy of the teaching strategies and delivery methods are provided.

  6. Protocol independent transmission method in software defined optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuze; Li, Hui; Hou, Yanfang; Qiu, Yajun; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of big data and cloud computing technology, the traditional software-defined network is facing new challenges (e.i., ubiquitous accessibility, higher bandwidth, more flexible management and greater security). Using a proprietary protocol or encoding format is a way to improve information security. However, the flow, which carried by proprietary protocol or code, cannot go through the traditional IP network. In addition, ultra- high-definition video transmission service once again become a hot spot. Traditionally, in the IP network, the Serial Digital Interface (SDI) signal must be compressed. This approach offers additional advantages but also bring some disadvantages such as signal degradation and high latency. To some extent, HD-SDI can also be regard as a proprietary protocol, which need transparent transmission such as optical channel. However, traditional optical networks cannot support flexible traffics . In response to aforementioned challenges for future network, one immediate solution would be to use NFV technology to abstract the network infrastructure and provide an all-optical switching topology graph for the SDN control plane. This paper proposes a new service-based software defined optical network architecture, including an infrastructure layer, a virtualization layer, a service abstract layer and an application layer. We then dwell on the corresponding service providing method in order to implement the protocol-independent transport. Finally, we experimentally evaluate that proposed service providing method can be applied to transmit the HD-SDI signal in the software-defined optical network.

  7. An algebra-based method for inferring gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Licona, Paola; Jarrah, Abdul; Garcia-Puente, Luis David; McGee, John; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-03-26

    The inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from experimental observations is at the heart of systems biology. This includes the inference of both the network topology and its dynamics. While there are many algorithms available to infer the network topology from experimental data, less emphasis has been placed on methods that infer network dynamics. Furthermore, since the network inference problem is typically underdetermined, it is essential to have the option of incorporating into the inference process, prior knowledge about the network, along with an effective description of the search space of dynamic models. Finally, it is also important to have an understanding of how a given inference method is affected by experimental and other noise in the data used. This paper contains a novel inference algorithm using the algebraic framework of Boolean polynomial dynamical systems (BPDS), meeting all these requirements. The algorithm takes as input time series data, including those from network perturbations, such as knock-out mutant strains and RNAi experiments. It allows for the incorporation of prior biological knowledge while being robust to significant levels of noise in the data used for inference. It uses an evolutionary algorithm for local optimization with an encoding of the mathematical models as BPDS. The BPDS framework allows an effective representation of the search space for algebraic dynamic models that improves computational performance. The algorithm is validated with both simulated and experimental microarray expression profile data. Robustness to noise is tested using a published mathematical model of the segment polarity gene network in Drosophila melanogaster. Benchmarking of the algorithm is done by comparison with a spectrum of state-of-the-art network inference methods on data from the synthetic IRMA network to demonstrate that our method has good precision and recall for the network reconstruction task, while also predicting several of the

  8. Electromagnetic field computation by network methods

    CERN Document Server

    Felsen, Leopold B; Russer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This monograph proposes a systematic and rigorous treatment of electromagnetic field representations in complex structures. The book presents new strong models by combining important computational methods. This is the last book of the late Leopold Felsen.

  9. Distribution network planning method considering distributed generation for peak cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wu; Cheng Haozhong; Zhang Xiubin; Yao Liangzhong

    2010-01-01

    Conventional distribution planning method based on peak load brings about large investment, high risk and low utilization efficiency. A distribution network planning method considering distributed generation (DG) for peak cutting is proposed in this paper. The new integrated distribution network planning method with DG implementation aims to minimize the sum of feeder investments, DG investments, energy loss cost and the additional cost of DG for peak cutting. Using the solution techniques combining genetic algorithm (GA) with the heuristic approach, the proposed model determines the optimal planning scheme including the feeder network and the siting and sizing of DG. The strategy for the site and size of DG, which is based on the radial structure characteristics of distribution network, reduces the complexity degree of solving the optimization model and eases the computational burden substantially. Furthermore, the operation schedule of DG at the different load level is also provided.

  10. Information loss method to measure node similarity in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongli; Luo, Peng; Wu, Chong

    2014-09-01

    Similarity measurement for the network node has been paid increasing attention in the field of statistical physics. In this paper, we propose an entropy-based information loss method to measure the node similarity. The whole model is established based on this idea that less information loss is caused by seeing two more similar nodes as the same. The proposed new method has relatively low algorithm complexity, making it less time-consuming and more efficient to deal with the large scale real-world network. In order to clarify its availability and accuracy, this new approach was compared with some other selected approaches on two artificial examples and synthetic networks. Furthermore, the proposed method is also successfully applied to predict the network evolution and predict the unknown nodes' attributions in the two application examples.

  11. Comparison of different decontaminant delivery methods for sterilizing unoccupied commercial airliner cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Qingyan [National Air Transport Center of Excellence for Research in the Intermodal Transport Environment (RITE), School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Effective decontamination is crucial if an airliner cabin is contaminated by biological contaminants, such as infectious disease viruses or intentionally released biological agents. This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method as a tool and vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an exemplary decontaminant and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores as a simulant contaminant to investigate three VHP delivery methods for sterilizing two different airliner cabins. The CFD first determined the airflow and the transient distributions of the contaminant and decontaminant in cabins. Auxiliary equations were implemented into the CFD model for evaluating efficacy of the sterilization process. The improved CFD model was validated by the measured airflow and simulated contaminant distributions obtained from a cabin mockup and the measured efficacy data from the literature. The three decontaminant delivery methods were (1) to supply the mixed VHP and air through the environmental control system of a cabin, (2) to send mixed VHP and air through a front door and to extract them from a back door of a cabin, and (3) to send directly VHP to a cabin and enhance the mixing with air in the cabin by fans. The two air cabins studied were a single-aisle and a twin-aisle airliner one. The results show that the second decontaminant delivery method (displacement method) was the best because the VHP distributions in the cabins were most uniform, the sterilization time was moderate, and the corrosion risk was low. The method displaced the existing air by the air/disinfectant solution, rather than dispersive mixing as the other two methods. (author)

  12. Momentum integral network method for thermal-hydraulic transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new momentum integral network method has been developed, and tested in the MINET computer code. The method was developed in order to facilitate the transient analysis of complex fluid flow and heat transfer networks, such as those found in the balance of plant of power generating facilities. The method employed in the MINET code is a major extension of a momentum integral method reported by Meyer. Meyer integrated the momentum equation over several linked nodes, called a segment, and used a segment average pressure, evaluated from the pressures at both ends. Nodal mass and energy conservation determined nodal flows and enthalpies, accounting for fluid compression and thermal expansion

  13. A link prediction method for heterogeneous networks based on BP neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-chao; Zhao, Dan-ling; Ge, Bing-Feng; Yang, Ke-Wei; Chen, Ying-Wu

    2018-04-01

    Most real-world systems, composed of different types of objects connected via many interconnections, can be abstracted as various complex heterogeneous networks. Link prediction for heterogeneous networks is of great significance for mining missing links and reconfiguring networks according to observed information, with considerable applications in, for example, friend and location recommendations and disease-gene candidate detection. In this paper, we put forward a novel integrated framework, called MPBP (Meta-Path feature-based BP neural network model), to predict multiple types of links for heterogeneous networks. More specifically, the concept of meta-path is introduced, followed by the extraction of meta-path features for heterogeneous networks. Next, based on the extracted meta-path features, a supervised link prediction model is built with a three-layer BP neural network. Then, the solution algorithm of the proposed link prediction model is put forward to obtain predicted results by iteratively training the network. Last, numerical experiments on the dataset of examples of a gene-disease network and a combat network are conducted to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed MPBP. It shows that the MPBP with very good performance is superior to the baseline methods.

  14. Delivery mode and intraventricular hemorrhage risk in very-low-birth-weight infants: Observational data of the German Neonatal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humberg, Alexander; Härtel, Christoph; Paul, Pia; Hanke, Kathrin; Bossung, Verena; Hartz, Annika; Fasel, Laura; Rausch, Tanja K; Rody, Achim; Herting, Egbert; Göpel, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) are frequently delivered by cesarean section (CS). However, it is unclear at what gestational age the benefits of spontaneous delivery outweigh the perinatal risks, i.e. intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or death. To assess the short-term outcome of VLBWI on IVH according to mode of delivery in a population-based cohort of the German Neonatal Network (GNN). A total cohort of 2203 singleton VLBWI with a birth weight 30 weeks of gestation prevalence for IVH was not significantly different in VD and planned CS (5.3% vs. 4.4%). Our observational data demonstrate that elective cesarean section is associated with a reduced risk of IVH in preterm infants <30 weeks gestational age when presenting with preterm labor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Leadership training and delivery prospects of team leaders in Communication Network Support Services Limited, Ilorin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi G. Olatunji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Training and development of staff has been one of the key focuses of every human resources department of any formal work organisation. This is as a result of the realisation that training is an important determinant of people’s behaviour as well as their general delivery ability at work. In realisation of this, intellectuals and researchers in industrial relations generally have put vested interest in the phenomena of training and work delivery ability. However, despite the enormous volume of literatures available in this regard, very few among them have specifically examined the importance of leadership training as a possible determinant of work delivery. Thus, this study is an attempt to cover this gap. In order to achieve this objective, survey design was used as the research design for the study. A questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents, while simple random sampling technique was used to select the study sample. Frequency distribution and percentage were used as descriptive tools, while chi-square was used as an inferential statistical tool in the study. The study found out that leadership training has a significant relationship with the identified work delivery elements measured in the study. The study concluded that leadership training has a significant effect on delivery ability of team leaders and thus recommended that leadership training should be given utmost priority in work organisations so that work delivery prospects of the employees could be realised.

  16. Self-reinforcement and protein sustained delivery of hyaluronan hydrogel by tailoring a dually cross-linked network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Chunhong; Xu, Guoguang; Wang, Xinghui; Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong; Rong, Jianhua; Zhao, Jianhao

    2015-01-01

    A series of self-reinforcing hyaluronan hydrogels were developed to improve mechanical properties and protein sustained delivery thanks to a dually cross-linked network. Hyaluronan gel particles (HGPs, 1–5 μm in diameter) with different cross-linking densities, i.e. HGPs-1.5, HGPs-3 and HGPs-15, were prepared in an inverse emulsion system and used as the reinforcing phase after glycidyl methacrylation, while glycidyl methacrylated hyaluronan with a substitution degree of 45.2% was synthesized as the matrix phase. These two phases were cross-linked under ultraviolet irradiation to form self-reinforcing hyaluronan hydrogels (srHAs) that showed typical cross-linked structure of HGPs connecting the matrix phase by cross-section observation. In comparison to hyaluronan bulk gels and their blends with HGPs, srHAs distinctly enhanced the mechanical properties and BSA long-term sustained delivery, especially srHA-1.5 showed the highest compressive modulus of 220 ± 15 kPa and the slowest BSA delivery (67% release at 14 d). The 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that all the srHAs had no cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • New self-reinforcing HA hydrogels with a dually cross-linked network were developed. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels greatly enhanced the mechanical properties. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels prolonged the sustained delivery of BSA. • The self-reinforcing mechanism and BSA diffusion mechanism were discussed. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels had no cytotoxicity to 3T3 fibroblast cells

  17. Self-reinforcement and protein sustained delivery of hyaluronan hydrogel by tailoring a dually cross-linked network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunhong; Xu, Guoguang; Wang, Xinghui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong; Rong, Jianhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Jianhao, E-mail: jhzhao@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2015-01-01

    A series of self-reinforcing hyaluronan hydrogels were developed to improve mechanical properties and protein sustained delivery thanks to a dually cross-linked network. Hyaluronan gel particles (HGPs, 1–5 μm in diameter) with different cross-linking densities, i.e. HGPs-1.5, HGPs-3 and HGPs-15, were prepared in an inverse emulsion system and used as the reinforcing phase after glycidyl methacrylation, while glycidyl methacrylated hyaluronan with a substitution degree of 45.2% was synthesized as the matrix phase. These two phases were cross-linked under ultraviolet irradiation to form self-reinforcing hyaluronan hydrogels (srHAs) that showed typical cross-linked structure of HGPs connecting the matrix phase by cross-section observation. In comparison to hyaluronan bulk gels and their blends with HGPs, srHAs distinctly enhanced the mechanical properties and BSA long-term sustained delivery, especially srHA-1.5 showed the highest compressive modulus of 220 ± 15 kPa and the slowest BSA delivery (67% release at 14 d). The 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that all the srHAs had no cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • New self-reinforcing HA hydrogels with a dually cross-linked network were developed. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels greatly enhanced the mechanical properties. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels prolonged the sustained delivery of BSA. • The self-reinforcing mechanism and BSA diffusion mechanism were discussed. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels had no cytotoxicity to 3T3 fibroblast cells.

  18. Dynamics of Indel Profiles Induced by Various CRISPR/Cas9 Delivery Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicki, Michael; Rajan, Sandeep S; Lorenzetti, Flaminia C

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in mammalian cells is a scientific breakthrough, which has greatly affected basic research and gene therapy. The simplicity and general access to CRISPR/Cas9 reagents has in an unprecedented manner "democratized" gene targeting in biomedical research...... approach. In this study we review the most commonly used indel detection methods and using a robust, sensitive, and cost efficient Indel Detection by Amplicon Analysis method, we have investigated the impact of the most commonly used CRISPR/Cas9 delivery formats, including lentivirus transduction, plasmid...

  19. An algebraic topological method for multimodal brain networks comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago eSimas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding brain connectivity is one of the most important issues in neuroscience. Nonetheless, connectivity data can reflect either functional relationships of brain activities or anatomical connections between brain areas. Although both representations should be related, this relationship is not straightforward. We have devised a powerful method that allows different operations between networks that share the same set of nodes, by embedding them in a common metric space, enforcing transitivity to the graph topology. Here, we apply this method to construct an aggregated network from a set of functional graphs, each one from a different subject. Once this aggregated functional network is constructed, we use again our method to compare it with the structural connectivity to identify particular brain regions that differ in both modalities (anatomical and functional. Remarkably, these brain regions include functional areas that form part of the classical resting state networks. We conclude that our method -based on the comparison of the aggregated functional network- reveals some emerging features that could not be observed when the comparison is performed with the classical averaged functional network.

  20. Communication devices for network-hopping communications and methods of network-hopping communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttles, John W

    2013-04-23

    Wireless communication devices include a software-defined radio coupled to processing circuitry. The system controller is configured to execute computer programming code. Storage media is coupled to the system controller and includes computer programming code configured to cause the system controller to configure and reconfigure the software-defined radio to operate on each of a plurality of communication networks according to a selected sequence. Methods for communicating with a wireless device and methods of wireless network-hopping are also disclosed.

  1. Preclinical evaluation of gene delivery methods for the treatment of loco-regional disease in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2011-04-01

    Preclinical results with various gene therapy strategies indicate significant potential for new cancer treatments. However, many therapeutics fail at clinical trial, often due to differences in tissue physiology between animal models and humans, and tumor phenotype variation. Clinical data relevant to treatment strategies may be generated prior to clinical trial through experimentation using intact patient tissue ex vivo. We developed a novel tumor slice model culture system that is universally applicable to gene delivery methods, using a realtime luminescence detection method to assess gene delivery. Methods investigated include viruses (adenovirus [Ad] and adeno-associated virus), lipofection, ultrasound (US), electroporation and naked DNA. Viability and tumor populations within the slices were well maintained for seven days, and gene delivery was qualitatively and quantitatively examinable for all vectors. Ad was the most efficient gene delivery vector with transduction efficiency >50%. US proved the optimal non-viral gene delivery method in human tumor slices. The nature of the ex vivo culture system permitted examination of specific elements. Parameters shown to diminish Ad gene delivery included blood, regions of low viability and secondary disease. US gene delivery was significantly reduced by blood and skin, while tissue hyperthermia improved gene delivery. US achieved improved efficacy for secondary disease. The ex vivo model was also suitable for examination of tissue-specific effects on vector expression, with Ad expression mediated by the CXCR4 promoter shown to provide a tumor selective advantage over the ubiquitously active cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, this is the first study incorporating patient tissue models in comparing gene delivery from various vectors, providing knowledge on cell-type specificity and examining the crucial biological factors determining successful gene delivery. The results highlight the importance of in

  2. Preclinical evaluation of gene delivery methods for the treatment of loco-regional disease in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2012-01-31

    Preclinical results with various gene therapy strategies indicate significant potential for new cancer treatments. However, many therapeutics fail at clinical trial, often due to differences in tissue physiology between animal models and humans, and tumor phenotype variation. Clinical data relevant to treatment strategies may be generated prior to clinical trial through experimentation using intact patient tissue ex vivo. We developed a novel tumor slice model culture system that is universally applicable to gene delivery methods, using a realtime luminescence detection method to assess gene delivery. Methods investigated include viruses (adenovirus [Ad] and adeno-associated virus), lipofection, ultrasound (US), electroporation and naked DNA. Viability and tumor populations within the slices were well maintained for seven days, and gene delivery was qualitatively and quantitatively examinable for all vectors. Ad was the most efficient gene delivery vector with transduction efficiency >50%. US proved the optimal non-viral gene delivery method in human tumor slices. The nature of the ex vivo culture system permitted examination of specific elements. Parameters shown to diminish Ad gene delivery included blood, regions of low viability and secondary disease. US gene delivery was significantly reduced by blood and skin, while tissue hyperthermia improved gene delivery. US achieved improved efficacy for secondary disease. The ex vivo model was also suitable for examination of tissue-specific effects on vector expression, with Ad expression mediated by the CXCR4 promoter shown to provide a tumor selective advantage over the ubiquitously active cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, this is the first study incorporating patient tissue models in comparing gene delivery from various vectors, providing knowledge on cell-type specificity and examining the crucial biological factors determining successful gene delivery. The results highlight the importance of in

  3. Dominant mechanisms for the delivery of fine sediment and phosphorus to fluvial networks draining grassland dominated headwater catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, M T; Owen, G J; Benskin, C McW H; Jonczyk, J; Deasy, C; Burke, S; Reaney, S M; Haygarth, P M

    2015-08-01

    Recent advances in monitoring technology have enabled high frequency, in-situ measurements of total phosphorus and total reactive phosphorus to be undertaken with high precision, whilst turbidity can provide an excellent surrogate for suspended sediment. Despite these measurements being fundamental to understanding the mechanisms and flow paths that deliver these constituents to river networks, there is a paucity of such data for headwater agricultural catchments. The aim of this paper is to deduce the dominant mechanisms for the delivery of fine sediment and phosphorus to an upland river network in the UK through characterisation of the temporal variability of hydrological fluxes, and associated soluble and particulate concentrations for the period spanning March 2012-February 2013. An assessment of the factors producing constituent hysteresis is undertaken following factor analysis (FA) on a suite of measured environmental variables representing the fluvial and wider catchment conditions prior to, and during catchment-wide hydrological events. Analysis indicates that suspended sediment is delivered to the fluvial system predominantly via rapidly responding pathways driven by event hydrology. However, evidence of complex, figure-of-eight hysteresis is observed following periods of hydrological quiescence, highlighting the importance of preparatory processes. Sediment delivery via a slow moving, probably sub-surface pathway does occur, albeit infrequently and during low magnitude events at the catchment outlet. Phosphorus is revealed to have a distinct hysteretic response to that of suspended sediment, with sub-surface pathways dominating. However, high magnitude events were observed to exhibit threshold-like behaviour, whereby activation and connection of usually disconnected depositional zones to the fluvial networks results in the movement of vast phosphorus fluxes. Multiple pathways are observed for particulate and soluble constituents, highlighting the

  4. A new method to construct co-author networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Li, Yunpeng; Ruan, Zichan; Fu, Guangyuan; Chen, Xiaowu; Sadiq, Rehan; Deng, Yong

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to evaluate the importance of nodes in a given network. The proposed method is based on the PageRank algorithm. However, we have made necessary improvements to combine the importance of the node itself and that of its community status. First, we propose an improved method to better evaluate the real impact of a paper. The proposed method calibrates the real influence of a paper over time. Then we propose a scheme of evaluating the contribution of each author in a paper. We later develop a new method to combine the information of the author itself and the structure of the co-author network. We use the number of co-authorship to calculate the effective distance between two authors, and evaluate the strength of their influence to each other with the law of gravity. The strength of influence is used to build a new network of authors, which is a comprehensive topological representation of both the quality of the node and its role in network. Finally, we apply our method to the Erdos co-author community and AMiner Citation Network to identify the most influential authors.

  5. Handwritten Javanese Character Recognition Using Several Artificial Neural Network Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Javanese characters are traditional characters that are used to write the Javanese language. The Javanese language is a language used by many people on the island of Java, Indonesia. The use of Javanese characters is diminishing more and more because of the difficulty of studying the Javanese characters themselves. The Javanese character set consists of basic characters, numbers, complementary characters, and so on. In this research we have developed a system to recognize Javanese characters. Input for the system is a digital image containing several handwritten Javanese characters. Preprocessing and segmentation are performed on the input image to get each character. For each character, feature extraction is done using the ICZ-ZCZ method. The output from feature extraction will become input for an artificial neural network. We used several artificial neural networks, namely a bidirectional associative memory network, a counterpropagation network, an evolutionary network, a backpropagation network, and a backpropagation network combined with chi2. From the experimental results it can be seen that the combination of chi2 and backpropagation achieved better recognition accuracy than the other methods.

  6. Synthesis of PLGA-Lipid Hybrid Nanoparticles for siRNA Delivery Using the Emulsion Method PLGA-PEG-Lipid Nanoparticles for siRNA Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Griffel, Benjamin; Xu, Xiaoyang

    2017-01-01

    The effective delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to tumor cells remains a challenge for applications in cancer therapy. The development of polymeric nanoparticles with high siRNA loading efficacy has shown great potential for cancer targets. Double emulsion solvent evaporation technique is a useful tool for encapsulation of hydrophilic molecules (e.g., siRNA). Here we describe a versatile platform for siRNA delivery based on PLGA-PEG-cationic lipid nanoparticles by using the double emulsion method. The resulting nanoparticles show high encapsulation efficiency for siRNA (up to 90%) and demonstrate effective downregulation of the target genes in vitro and vivo.

  7. An Entropy-Based Network Anomaly Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Bereziński

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning and statistics. One of the data mining tasks is anomaly detection which is the analysis of large quantities of data to identify items, events or observations which do not conform to an expected pattern. Anomaly detection is applicable in a variety of domains, e.g., fraud detection, fault detection, system health monitoring but this article focuses on application of anomaly detection in the field of network intrusion detection.The main goal of the article is to prove that an entropy-based approach is suitable to detect modern botnet-like malware based on anomalous patterns in network. This aim is achieved by realization of the following points: (i preparation of a concept of original entropy-based network anomaly detection method, (ii implementation of the method, (iii preparation of original dataset, (iv evaluation of the method.

  8. Dynamic Subsidy Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic subsidy (DS) is a locational price paid by the distribution system operator (DSO) to its customers in order to shift energy consumption to designated hours and nodes. It is promising for demand side management and congestion management. This paper proposes a new DS method for congestion...... management in distribution networks, including the market mechanism, the mathematical formulation through a two-level optimization, and the method solving the optimization by tightening the constraints and linearization. Case studies were conducted with a one node system and the Bus 4 distribution network...... of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DS method for congestion management in distribution networks. Studies in this paper show that the DS method offers the customers a fair opportunity...

  9. Decomposition method for analysis of closed queuing networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Nesterov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the method to estimate the average residence time in nodes of closed queuing networks with priorities and a wide range of conservative disciplines to be served. The method is based on a decomposition of entire closed queuing network into a set of simple basic queuing systems such as M|GI|m|N for each node. The unknown average residence times in the network nodes are interrelated through a system of nonlinear equations. The fact that there is a solution of this system has been proved. An iterative procedure based on Newton-Kantorovich method is proposed for finding the solution of such system. This procedure provides fast convergence to solution. Today possibilities of proposed method are limited by known analytical solutions for simple basic queuing systems of M|GI|m|N type.

  10. Action research to improve methods of delivery and feedback in an Access Grid Room environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Lynne C.; Klass, Lara; Eberhard, Andrew; Stacey, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    This article describes a qualitative study which was undertaken to improve the delivery methods and feedback opportunity in honours mathematics lectures which are delivered through Access Grid Rooms. Access Grid Rooms are facilities that provide two-way video and audio interactivity across multiple sites, with the inclusion of smart boards. The principal aim was to improve the student learning experience, given the new environment. The specific aspects of the course delivery that the study focused on included presentation of materials and provision of opportunities for interaction between the students and between students and lecturers. The practical considerations in the delivery of distance learning are well documented in the literature, and similar problems arise in the Access Grid Room environment; in particular, those of limited access to face-to-face interaction and the reduction in peer support. The nature of the Access Grid Room classes implies that students studying the same course can be physically situated in different cities, and possibly in different countries. When studying, it is important that students have opportunity to discuss new concepts with others; particularly their peers and their lecturer. The Access Grid Room environment also presents new challenges for the lecturer, who must learn new skills in the delivery of materials. The unique nature of Access Grid Room technology offers unprecedented opportunity for effective course delivery and positive outcomes for students, and was developed in response to a need to be able to interact with complex data, other students and the instructor, in real-time, at a distance and from multiple sites. This is a relatively new technology and as yet there has been little or no studies specifically addressing the use and misuse of the technology. The study found that the correct placement of cameras and the use of printed material and smart boards were all crucial to the student experience. In addition, the

  11. Network 'small-world-ness': a quantitative method for determining canonical network equivalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Humphries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many technological, biological, social, and information networks fall into the broad class of 'small-world' networks: they have tightly interconnected clusters of nodes, and a shortest mean path length that is similar to a matched random graph (same number of nodes and edges. This semi-quantitative definition leads to a categorical distinction ('small/not-small' rather than a quantitative, continuous grading of networks, and can lead to uncertainty about a network's small-world status. Moreover, systems described by small-world networks are often studied using an equivalent canonical network model--the Watts-Strogatz (WS model. However, the process of establishing an equivalent WS model is imprecise and there is a pressing need to discover ways in which this equivalence may be quantified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We defined a precise measure of 'small-world-ness' S based on the trade off between high local clustering and short path length. A network is now deemed a 'small-world' if S>1--an assertion which may be tested statistically. We then examined the behavior of S on a large data-set of real-world systems. We found that all these systems were linked by a linear relationship between their S values and the network size n. Moreover, we show a method for assigning a unique Watts-Strogatz (WS model to any real-world network, and show analytically that the WS models associated with our sample of networks also show linearity between S and n. Linearity between S and n is not, however, inevitable, and neither is S maximal for an arbitrary network of given size. Linearity may, however, be explained by a common limiting growth process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown how the notion of a small-world network may be quantified. Several key properties of the metric are described and the use of WS canonical models is placed on a more secure footing.

  12. Explicit integration of extremely stiff reaction networks: partial equilibrium methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M W; Hix, W R; Billings, J J

    2013-01-01

    In two preceding papers (Guidry et al 2013 Comput. Sci. Disc. 6 015001 and Guidry and Harris 2013 Comput. Sci. Disc. 6 015002), we have shown that when reaction networks are well removed from equilibrium, explicit asymptotic and quasi-steady-state approximations can give algebraically stabilized integration schemes that rival standard implicit methods in accuracy and speed for extremely stiff systems. However, we also showed that these explicit methods remain accurate but are no longer competitive in speed as the network approaches equilibrium. In this paper, we analyze this failure and show that it is associated with the presence of fast equilibration timescales that neither asymptotic nor quasi-steady-state approximations are able to remove efficiently from the numerical integration. Based on this understanding, we develop a partial equilibrium method to deal effectively with the approach to equilibrium and show that explicit asymptotic methods, combined with the new partial equilibrium methods, give an integration scheme that can plausibly deal with the stiffest networks, even in the approach to equilibrium, with accuracy and speed competitive with that of implicit methods. Thus we demonstrate that such explicit methods may offer alternatives to implicit integration of even extremely stiff systems and that these methods may permit integration of much larger networks than have been possible before in a number of fields. (paper)

  13. A Global Network Alignment Method Using Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaxiang; Gong, Maoguo; Ma, Lijia

    2016-10-19

    Molecular interactions data increase exponentially with the advance of biotechnology. This makes it possible and necessary to comparatively analyse the different data at a network level. Global network alignment is an important network comparison approach to identify conserved subnetworks and get insight into evolutionary relationship across species. Network alignment which is analogous to subgraph isomorphism is known to be an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we introduce a novel heuristic Particle-Swarm-Optimization based Network Aligner (PSONA), which optimizes a weighted global alignment model considering both protein sequence similarity and interaction conservations. The particle statuses and status updating rules are redefined in a discrete form by using permutation. A seed-and-extend strategy is employed to guide the searching for the superior alignment. The proposed initialization method "seeds" matches with high sequence similarity into the alignment, which guarantees the functional coherence of the mapping nodes. A greedy local search method is designed as the "extension" procedure to iteratively optimize the edge conservations. PSONA is compared with several state-of-art methods on ten network pairs combined by five species. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed aligner can map the proteins with high functional coherence and can be used as a booster to effectively refine the well-studied aligners.

  14. S-curve networks and an approximate method for estimating degree distributions of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jin-Li

    2010-01-01

    In the study of complex networks almost all theoretical models have the property of infinite growth, but the size of actual networks is finite. According to statistics from the China Internet IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) addresses, this paper proposes a forecasting model by using S curve (logistic curve). The growing trend of IPv4 addresses in China is forecasted. There are some reference values for optimizing the distribution of IPv4 address resource and the development of IPv6. Based on the laws of IPv4 growth, that is, the bulk growth and the finitely growing limit, it proposes a finite network model with a bulk growth. The model is said to be an S-curve network. Analysis demonstrates that the analytic method based on uniform distributions (i.e., Barabási-Albert method) is not suitable for the network. It develops an approximate method to predict the growth dynamics of the individual nodes, and uses this to calculate analytically the degree distribution and the scaling exponents. The analytical result agrees with the simulation well, obeying an approximately power-law form. This method can overcome a shortcoming of Barabási-Albert method commonly used in current network research. (general)

  15. S-curve networks and an approximate method for estimating degree distributions of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Li

    2010-12-01

    In the study of complex networks almost all theoretical models have the property of infinite growth, but the size of actual networks is finite. According to statistics from the China Internet IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) addresses, this paper proposes a forecasting model by using S curve (logistic curve). The growing trend of IPv4 addresses in China is forecasted. There are some reference values for optimizing the distribution of IPv4 address resource and the development of IPv6. Based on the laws of IPv4 growth, that is, the bulk growth and the finitely growing limit, it proposes a finite network model with a bulk growth. The model is said to be an S-curve network. Analysis demonstrates that the analytic method based on uniform distributions (i.e., Barabási-Albert method) is not suitable for the network. It develops an approximate method to predict the growth dynamics of the individual nodes, and uses this to calculate analytically the degree distribution and the scaling exponents. The analytical result agrees with the simulation well, obeying an approximately power-law form. This method can overcome a shortcoming of Barabási-Albert method commonly used in current network research.

  16. A study of reactor monitoring method with neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, Kunihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the methodology of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) monitoring with neural networks, which create the plant models by the learning of the past normal operation patterns. The concept of this method is to detect the symptom of small anomalies by monitoring the deviations between the process signals measured from an actual plant and corresponding output signals from the neural network model, which might not be equal if the abnormal operational patterns are presented to the input of the neural network. Auto-associative network, which has same output as inputs, can detect an kind of anomaly condition by using normal operation data only. The monitoring tests of the feedforward neural network with adaptive learning were performed using the PWR plant simulator by which many kinds of anomaly conditions can be easily simulated. The adaptively trained feedforward network could follow the actual plant dynamics and the changes of plant condition, and then find most of the anomalies much earlier than the conventional alarm system during steady state and transient operations. Then the off-line and on-line test results during one year operation at the actual NPP (PWR) showed that the neural network could detect several small anomalies which the operators or the conventional alarm system didn't noticed. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis suggests that the plant models by neural networks are appropriate. Finally, the simulation results show that the recurrent neural network with feedback connections could successfully model the slow behavior of the reactor dynamics without adaptive learning. Therefore, the recurrent neural network with adaptive learning will be the best choice for the actual reactor monitoring system. (author)

  17. An evaluation of gating window size, delivery method, and composite field dosimetry of respiratory-gated IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Solberg, Timothy D.

    2002-01-01

    A respiratory gating system has been developed based on a commercial patient positioning system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the ability of the gating system to reproduce normal, nongated IMRT operation and to quantify the errors produced by delivering a nongated IMRT treatment onto a moving target. A moving phantom capable of simultaneous two-dimensional motion was built, and an analytical liver motion function was used to drive the phantom. Studies were performed to assess the effect of gating window size and choice of delivery method (segmented and dynamic multileaf collimation). Additionally, two multiple field IMRT cases were delivered to quantify the error in gated and nongated IMRT with motion. Dosimetric error between nonmoving and moving deliveries is related to gating window size. By reducing the window size, the error can be reduced. Delivery error can be reduced for both dynamic and segmented delivery with gating. For the implementation of dynamic IMRT delivery in this study, dynamic delivery was found to generate larger delivery errors than segmented delivery in most cases studied. For multiple field IMRT delivery, the largest errors were generated in regions where high field modulation was present parallel to the axis of motion. Gating was found to reduce these large errors to clinically acceptable levels

  18. Validated spectrofluorometric method for determination of gemfibrozil in self nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Villar, Ana M.; Calpena Campmany, Ana C.; Bellowa, Lyda Halbaut; Trenchs, Monserrat Aróztegui; Naveros, Beatriz Clares

    2013-09-01

    A spectrofluorometric method has been developed and validated for the determination of gemfibrozil. The method is based on the excitation and emission capacities of gemfibrozil with excitation and emission wavelengths of 276 and 304 nm respectively. This method allows de determination of the drug in a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for improve its intestinal absorption. Results obtained showed linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.999) and low limits of detection and quantification (LOD of 0.075 μg mL-1 and LOQ of 0.226 μg mL-1) in the range of 0.2-5 μg mL-1, equally this method showed a good robustness and stability. Thus the amounts of gemfibrozil released from SNEDDS contained in gastro resistant hard gelatine capsules were analysed, and release studies could be performed satisfactorily.

  19. New Method for Leakage Detection by Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Attari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays water loss has been turned into a global concern and on the other hand the demand for water is increasing. This problem has made the demand management and consumption pattern reform necessary. One of the most important methods for managing water consumption is to decrease the water loss. In this study by using neural networks, a new method is presented to specify the location and quantity of leakages in water distribution networks.  In this method, by producing the training data and applying it to neural network, the network is able to determine approximate location and quantity of nodal leakage with receiving the nodal pressure. Production of training data is carried out by applying assumed leakage to specific nodes in the network and calculating the new nodal pressures. The results show that by minimum use of hydraulic data taken from pressures, not only this method can determine the location of nodal leakages, but also it can specify the amount of leakage on each node with reasonable accuracy.

  20. Modified network simulation model with token method of bus access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Stribulevich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the characteristics of the local network with the marker method of access to the bus its modified simulation model was developed. Methodology. Defining characteristics of the network is carried out on the developed simulation model, which is based on the state diagram-layer network station with the mechanism of processing priorities, both in steady state and in the performance of control procedures: the initiation of a logical ring, the entrance and exit of the station network with a logical ring. Findings. A simulation model, on the basis of which can be obtained the dependencies of the application the maximum waiting time in the queue for different classes of access, and the reaction time usable bandwidth on the data rate, the number of network stations, the generation rate applications, the number of frames transmitted per token holding time, frame length was developed. Originality. The technique of network simulation reflecting its work in the steady condition and during the control procedures, the mechanism of priority ranking and handling was proposed. Practical value. Defining network characteristics in the real-time systems on railway transport based on the developed simulation model.

  1. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  2. A MODIFICATION OF THE METHOD CALLED “SUM” WITH THE TIME CONSTRAINTS OF DELIVERY OF GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Prosov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The heuristic procedure considered the shift-daily planning of delivery routes method “amounts”. We present the solution of the transportation problem or the routing problem in efficiency optimization of transportation.

  3. An efficient parallel stochastic simulation method for analysis of nonviral gene delivery systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy has a great potential to become an effective treatment for a wide variety of diseases. One of the main challenges to make gene therapy practical in clinical settings is the development of efficient and safe mechanisms to deliver foreign DNA molecules into the nucleus of target cells. Several computational and experimental studies have shown that the design process of synthetic gene transfer vectors can be greatly enhanced by computational modeling and simulation. This paper proposes a novel, effective parallelization of the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) for pharmacokinetic models that characterize the rate-limiting, multi-step processes of intracellular gene delivery. While efficient parallelizations of the SSA are still an open problem in a general setting, the proposed parallel simulation method is able to substantially accelerate the next reaction selection scheme and the reaction update scheme in the SSA by exploiting and decomposing the structures of stochastic gene delivery models. This, thus, makes computationally intensive analysis such as parameter optimizations and gene dosage control for specific cell types, gene vectors, and transgene expression stability substantially more practical than that could otherwise be with the standard SSA. Here, we translated the nonviral gene delivery model based on mass-action kinetics by Varga et al. [Molecular Therapy, 4(5), 2001] into a more realistic model that captures intracellular fluctuations based on stochastic chemical kinetics, and as a case study we applied our parallel simulation to this stochastic model. Our results show that our simulation method is able to increase the efficiency of statistical analysis by at least 50% in various settings. © 2011 ACM.

  4. Stories in Networks and Networks in Stories: A Tri-Modal Model for Mixed-Methods Social Network Research on Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2015-01-01

    Social network research on teachers and schools has risen exponentially in recent years as an innovative method to reveal the role of social networks in education. However, scholars are still exploring ways to incorporate traditional quantitative methods of Social Network Analysis (SNA) with qualitative approaches to social network research. This…

  5. Obstetric care and method of delivery in Mexico: results from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Heredia-Pi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the current clinical, socio-demographic and obstetric factors associated with the various types of delivery strategies in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study based on the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT of 6,736 women aged 12 to 49 years. Delivery types discussed in this paper include vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean section and planned cesarean section. Using bivariate analyses, sub-population group differences were identified. Logistic regression models were applied, including both binary and multinomial outcome variables from the survey. The logistic regression results identify those covariates associated with the type of delivery. RESULTS: 53.1% of institutional births in the period 2006 through 2012 were vaginal deliveries, 46.9% were either a planned or emergency cesarean sections. The highest rates of this procedure were among women who reported a complication during delivery (OR: 4.21; 95%CI: 3.66-4.84, between the ages of 35 and 49 at the time of their last child birth (OR: 2.54; 95%CI: 2.02-3.20 and women receiving care through private healthcare providers during delivery (OR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.84-3.03. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of different socio-demographic and obstetric profiles among women who receive care for vaginal or cesarean delivery, are supported by the findings of the present study. The frequency of vaginal delivery is higher in indigenous women, when the care provider is public and, in women with two or more children at time of the most recent child birth. Planned cesarean deliveries are positively associated with years of schooling, a higher socioeconomic level, and higher age. The occurrence of emergency cesarean sections is elevated in women with a diagnosis of a health issue during pregnancy or delivery, and it is reduced in highly marginalized settings.

  6. Approximation methods for efficient learning of Bayesian networks

    CERN Document Server

    Riggelsen, C

    2008-01-01

    This publication offers and investigates efficient Monte Carlo simulation methods in order to realize a Bayesian approach to approximate learning of Bayesian networks from both complete and incomplete data. For large amounts of incomplete data when Monte Carlo methods are inefficient, approximations are implemented, such that learning remains feasible, albeit non-Bayesian. The topics discussed are: basic concepts about probabilities, graph theory and conditional independence; Bayesian network learning from data; Monte Carlo simulation techniques; and, the concept of incomplete data. In order to provide a coherent treatment of matters, thereby helping the reader to gain a thorough understanding of the whole concept of learning Bayesian networks from (in)complete data, this publication combines in a clarifying way all the issues presented in the papers with previously unpublished work.

  7. Utilization of Selected Data Mining Methods for Communication Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ondryhal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to analyze the behavior of military communication networks based on work with real data collected continuously since 2005. With regard to the nature and amount of the data, data mining methods were selected for the purpose of analyses and experiments. The quality of real data is often insufficient for an immediate analysis. The article presents the data cleaning operations which have been carried out with the aim to improve the input data sample to obtain reliable models. Gradually, by means of properly chosen SW, network models were developed to verify generally valid patterns of network behavior as a bulk service. Furthermore, unlike the commercially available communication networks simulators, the models designed allowed us to capture nonstandard models of network behavior under an increased load, verify the correct sizing of the network to the increased load, and thus test its reliability. Finally, based on previous experience, the models enabled us to predict emergency situations with a reasonable accuracy.

  8. An adaptive drug delivery design using neural networks for effective treatment of infectious diseases: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Radhakant; Bhardhwaj, Jayender R

    2009-06-01

    An adaptive drug delivery design is presented in this paper using neural networks for effective treatment of infectious diseases. The generic mathematical model used describes the coupled evolution of concentration of pathogens, plasma cells, antibodies and a numerical value that indicates the relative characteristic of a damaged organ due to the disease under the influence of external drugs. From a system theoretic point of view, the external drugs can be interpreted as control inputs, which can be designed based on control theoretic concepts. In this study, assuming a set of nominal parameters in the mathematical model, first a nonlinear controller (drug administration) is designed based on the principle of dynamic inversion. This nominal drug administration plan was found to be effective in curing "nominal model patients" (patients whose immunological dynamics conform to the mathematical model used for the control design exactly. However, it was found to be ineffective in curing "realistic model patients" (patients whose immunological dynamics may have off-nominal parameter values and possibly unwanted inputs) in general. Hence, to make the drug delivery dosage design more effective for realistic model patients, a model-following adaptive control design is carried out next by taking the help of neural networks, that are trained online. Simulation studies indicate that the adaptive controller proposed in this paper holds promise in killing the invading pathogens and healing the damaged organ even in the presence of parameter uncertainties and continued pathogen attack. Note that the computational requirements for computing the control are very minimal and all associated computations (including the training of neural networks) can be carried out online. However it assumes that the required diagnosis process can be carried out at a sufficient faster rate so that all the states are available for control computation.

  9. A Network Reconfiguration Method Considering Data Uncertainties in Smart Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-yan Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method for distribution network reconfiguration with the simultaneous consideration of distributed generation (DG allocation. The uncertainties of load fluctuation before the network reconfiguration are also considered. Three optimal objectives, including minimal line loss cost, minimum Expected Energy Not Supplied, and minimum switch operation cost, are investigated. The multi-objective optimization problem is further transformed into a single-objective optimization problem by utilizing weighting factors. The proposed network reconfiguration method includes two periods. The first period is to create a feasible topology network by using binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO. Then the DG allocation problem is solved by utilizing sensitivity analysis and a Harmony Search algorithm (HSA. In the meanwhile, interval analysis is applied to deal with the uncertainties of load and devices parameters. Test cases are studied using the standard IEEE 33-bus and PG&E 69-bus systems. Different scenarios and comparisons are analyzed in the experiments. The results show the applicability of the proposed method. The performance analysis of the proposed method is also investigated. The computational results indicate that the proposed network reconfiguration algorithm is feasible.

  10. DASH-based network performance-aware solution for personalised video delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rovcanin, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Video content is an increasingly prevalent contributor of Internet traffic. The proliferation of available video content has been fuelled by both Internet expansion and the growing power and affordability of viewing devices. Such content can be consumed anywhere and anytime, using a variety of technologies. The high data rates required for streaming video content and the large volume of requests for such content degrade network performance when devices compete for finite network bandwidth. Th...

  11. Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Dinda, Amit K [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Gupta, Asheesh, E-mail: veenak_iitd@yahoo.co [Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Ministry of Defense, New Delhi 110059 (India)

    2010-12-15

    A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt {approx} 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 {+-} 1.4 to 75 {+-} 2.7 kPa (p < 0.02) with increasing Cs (from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%), while it decreased from 162 {+-} 6.4 to 23 {+-} 1.4 kPa (p < 0.05) with decreasing PAm/G ratio. Cell viability studies by MTT assay showed excellent cytocompatibility of matrices with fibroblast L929 cells. Curcumin, a hydrophobic phytochemical, was loaded by a diffusion method and its release profile was investigated in 4% w/v aqueous BSA solution at 75 rpm (at 37 {+-} 0.2 {sup 0}C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 < n < 1.0; M{sub t}/M{sub {infinity} {<=}} 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.

  12. A hierarchical network modeling method for railway tunnels safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Liu, Xumin

    2017-02-01

    Using network theory to model risk-related knowledge on accidents is regarded as potential very helpful in risk management. A large amount of defects detection data for railway tunnels is collected in autumn every year in China. It is extremely important to discover the regularities knowledge in database. In this paper, based on network theories and by using data mining techniques, a new method is proposed for mining risk-related regularities to support risk management in railway tunnel projects. A hierarchical network (HN) model which takes into account the tunnel structures, tunnel defects, potential failures and accidents is established. An improved Apriori algorithm is designed to rapidly and effectively mine correlations between tunnel structures and tunnel defects. Then an algorithm is presented in order to mine the risk-related regularities table (RRT) from the frequent patterns. At last, a safety assessment method is proposed by consideration of actual defects and possible risks of defects gained from the RRT. This method cannot only generate the quantitative risk results but also reveal the key defects and critical risks of defects. This paper is further development on accident causation network modeling methods which can provide guidance for specific maintenance measure.

  13. Method and device for monitoring distortion in an optical network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A method and a device for monitoring of distortion in an optical network are provided, wherein at least one reference signal and at least one data signal are conveyed via an optical link and wherein a distortion of the at least one data signal is determined based on the at least one reference

  14. Delivery of video-on-demand services using local storages within passive optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywickrama, Sandu; Wong, Elaine

    2013-01-28

    At present, distributed storage systems have been widely studied to alleviate Internet traffic build-up caused by high-bandwidth, on-demand applications. Distributed storage arrays located locally within the passive optical network were previously proposed to deliver Video-on-Demand services. As an added feature, a popularity-aware caching algorithm was also proposed to dynamically maintain the most popular videos in the storage arrays of such local storages. In this paper, we present a new dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm to improve Video-on-Demand services over passive optical networks using local storages. The algorithm exploits the use of standard control packets to reduce the time taken for the initial request communication between the customer and the central office, and to maintain the set of popular movies in the local storage. We conduct packet level simulations to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality-of-Service attributes between two passive optical networks, namely the conventional passive optical network and one that is equipped with a local storage. Results from our analysis highlight that strategic placement of a local storage inside the network enables the services to be delivered with improved Quality-of-Service to the customer. We further formulate power consumption models of both architectures to examine the trade-off between enhanced Quality-of-Service performance versus the increased power requirement from implementing a local storage within the network.

  15. Analysis of Cumulative Dose to Implanted Pacemaker According to Various IMRT Delivery Methods: Optimal Dose Delivery Versus Dose Reduction Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Woo; Hong, Se Mie [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Cancer patients with implanted cardiac pacemaker occasionally require radiotherapy. Pacemaker may be damaged or malfunction during radiotherapy due to ionizing radiation or electromagnetic interference. Although radiotherapy should be planned to keep the dose to pacemaker as low as possible not to malfunction ideally, current radiation treatment planning (RTP) system does not accurately calculate deposited dose to adjacent field border or area beyond irradiated fields. In terms of beam delivery techniques using multiple intensity modulated fields, dosimetric effect of scattered radiation in high energy photon beams is required to be detailed analyzed based on measurement data. The aim of this study is to evaluate dose discrepancies of pacemaker in a RTP system as compared to measured doses. We also designed dose reduction strategy limited value of 2 Gy for radiation treatment patients with cardiac implanted pacemaker. Total accumulated dose of 145 cGy based on in-vivo dosimetry was satisfied with the recommendation criteria to prevent malfunction of pacemaker in SS technique. However, the 2 mm lead shielder enabled the scattered doses to reduce up to 60% and 40% in the patient and the phantom, respectively. The SS technique with the lead shielding could reduce the accumulated scattered doses less than 100 cGy. Calculated and measured doses were not greatly affected by the beam delivery techniques. In-vivo and measured doses on pacemaker position showed critical dose discrepancies reaching up to 4 times as compared to planned doses in RTP. The current SS technique could deliver lower scattered doses than recommendation criteria, but use of 2 mm lead shielder contributed to reduce scattered doses by 60%. The tertiary lead shielder can be useful to prevent malfunction or electrical damage of implanted pacemakers during radiotherapy. It is required to estimate more accurate scattered doses of the patient or medical device in RTP to design proper dose reduction strategy.

  16. Analysis of Cumulative Dose to Implanted Pacemaker According to Various IMRT Delivery Methods: Optimal Dose Delivery Versus Dose Reduction Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Woo; Hong, Se Mie

    2011-01-01

    Cancer patients with implanted cardiac pacemaker occasionally require radiotherapy. Pacemaker may be damaged or malfunction during radiotherapy due to ionizing radiation or electromagnetic interference. Although radiotherapy should be planned to keep the dose to pacemaker as low as possible not to malfunction ideally, current radiation treatment planning (RTP) system does not accurately calculate deposited dose to adjacent field border or area beyond irradiated fields. In terms of beam delivery techniques using multiple intensity modulated fields, dosimetric effect of scattered radiation in high energy photon beams is required to be detailed analyzed based on measurement data. The aim of this study is to evaluate dose discrepancies of pacemaker in a RTP system as compared to measured doses. We also designed dose reduction strategy limited value of 2 Gy for radiation treatment patients with cardiac implanted pacemaker. Total accumulated dose of 145 cGy based on in-vivo dosimetry was satisfied with the recommendation criteria to prevent malfunction of pacemaker in SS technique. However, the 2 mm lead shielder enabled the scattered doses to reduce up to 60% and 40% in the patient and the phantom, respectively. The SS technique with the lead shielding could reduce the accumulated scattered doses less than 100 cGy. Calculated and measured doses were not greatly affected by the beam delivery techniques. In-vivo and measured doses on pacemaker position showed critical dose discrepancies reaching up to 4 times as compared to planned doses in RTP. The current SS technique could deliver lower scattered doses than recommendation criteria, but use of 2 mm lead shielder contributed to reduce scattered doses by 60%. The tertiary lead shielder can be useful to prevent malfunction or electrical damage of implanted pacemakers during radiotherapy. It is required to estimate more accurate scattered doses of the patient or medical device in RTP to design proper dose reduction strategy.

  17. Experience of using heat citric acid disinfection method in central dialysis fluid delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Koji; Uchiumi, Nobuko; Sato, Sumihiko; Aida, Nobuhiko; Ishimatsu, Taketo; Igoshi, Tadaaki; Kodama, Yoshihiro; Hotta, Hiroyuki

    2010-09-01

    We applied the heat citric acid disinfection method in the main part of the central dialysis fluid delivery system (MPCDDS), which consists of a multiple-patient dialysis fluid supply unit, dialysis console units, and dialysis fluid piping. This disinfection method has been used for single-patient dialysis machines, but this is the first trial in the MPCDDS. We examined, by points of safety and disinfection effect, whether this disinfection method is comparable to conventional disinfection methods in Japan. The conventional disinfection method is a combination of two disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid, used separately for protein removal and decalcification. Consequently, total microbial counts and endotoxin concentrations fully satisfied the microbiological requirements for standard dialysis fluid of ISO 11663. From our results and discussion, this heat citric acid disinfection method is proved to be safe and reliable for MPCDDS. However, to satisfy the microbiological requirements for ultrapure dialysis fluid, further consideration for this method in MPCDDS including the reverse osmosis device composition and piping is necessary.

  18. Load management in electrical networks. Objectives, methods, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabioud, D.

    2008-01-01

    This illustrated article takes up the problems related to the variation of the load in electricity networks. How to handle the peak load? Different solutions in the energy demand management are discussed. Method based on the price, method based on the reduction of the load by electric utilities. Information systems are presented which gives the consumer the needed data to participate in the local load management.

  19. Quartet-based methods to reconstruct phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jialiang; Grünewald, Stefan; Xu, Yifei; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2014-02-20

    Phylogenetic networks are employed to visualize evolutionary relationships among a group of nucleotide sequences, genes or species when reticulate events like hybridization, recombination, reassortant and horizontal gene transfer are believed to be involved. In comparison to traditional distance-based methods, quartet-based methods consider more information in the reconstruction process and thus have the potential to be more accurate. We introduce QuartetSuite, which includes a set of new quartet-based methods, namely QuartetS, QuartetA, and QuartetM, to reconstruct phylogenetic networks from nucleotide sequences. We tested their performances and compared them with other popular methods on two simulated nucleotide sequence data sets: one generated from a tree topology and the other from a complicated evolutionary history containing three reticulate events. We further validated these methods to two real data sets: a bacterial data set consisting of seven concatenated genes of 36 bacterial species and an influenza data set related to recently emerging H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in China. QuartetS, QuartetA, and QuartetM have the potential to accurately reconstruct evolutionary scenarios from simple branching trees to complicated networks containing many reticulate events. These methods could provide insights into the understanding of complicated biological evolutionary processes such as bacterial taxonomy and reassortant of influenza viruses.

  20. Constructing financial network based on PMFG and threshold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chun-Xiao; Song, Fu-Tie

    2018-04-01

    Based on planar maximally filtered graph (PMFG) and threshold method, we introduced a correlation-based network named PMFG-based threshold network (PTN). We studied the community structure of PTN and applied ISOMAP algorithm to represent PTN in low-dimensional Euclidean space. The results show that the community corresponds well to the cluster in the Euclidean space. Further, we studied the dynamics of the community structure and constructed the normalized mutual information (NMI) matrix. Based on the real data in the market, we found that the volatility of the market can lead to dramatic changes in the community structure, and the structure is more stable during the financial crisis.

  1. Neural network and area method interpretation of pulsed experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulla, S.; Picca, P.; Ravetto, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Energetica, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 - 10129 Torino (Italy); Canepa, S. [Lab of Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour LRS, Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The determination of the subcriticality level is an important issue in accelerator-driven system technology. The area method, originally introduced by N. G. Sjoestrand, is a classical technique to interpret flux measurement for pulsed experiments in order to reconstruct the reactivity value. In recent times other methods have also been developed, to account for spatial and spectral effects, which were not included in the area method, since it is based on the point kinetic model. The artificial neural network approach can be an efficient technique to infer reactivities from pulsed experiments. In the present work, some comparisons between the two methods are carried out and discussed. (authors)

  2. A fully electronic intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) process implemented in a network comprised of independent treatment planning, record and verify, and delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Daniel W; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to implement an electronic method to perform and analyze intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) using an aSi megavoltage electronic portal imaging device in a network comprised of independent treatment planning, record and verify (R&V), and delivery systems. A verification plan was generated in the treatment planning system using the actual treatment plan of a patient. After exporting the treatment fields to the R&V system, the fields were delivered in QA mode with the aSi imager deployed. The resulting dosimetric images are automatically stored in a DICOM-RT format in the delivery system treatment console computer. The relative dose density images are subsequently pushed to the R&V system. The absolute dose images are then transferred electronically from the treatment console computer to the treatment planning system and imported into the verification plan in the dosimetry work space for further analysis. Screen shots of the gamma evaluation and isodose comparison are imported into the R&V system as an electronic file (e.g. PDF) to be reviewed prior to initiation of patient treatment. A relative dose image predicted by the treatment planning system can also be sent to the R&V system to be compared with the relative dose density image measured with the aSi imager. Our department does not have integrated planning, R&V, and delivery systems. In spite of this, we are able to fully implement a paperless and filmless IMRT QA process, allowing subsequent analysis and approval to be more efficient, while the QA document is directly attached to its specific patient chart in the R&V system in electronic form. The calculated and measured relative dose images can be compared electronically within the R&V system to analyze the density differences and ensure proper dose delivery to patients. In the absence of an integrated planning, verifying, and delivery system, we have shown that it is nevertheless possible to develop a

  3. A Lindenmayer system-based approach for the design of nutrient delivery networks in tissue constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasar, Ozlem; Starly, Binil [School of Industrial Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Lan, S-F [University of Oklahoma Bioengineering Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Large thick tissue constructs have reported limited success primarily due to the inability of cells to survive deep within the scaffold. Without access to adequate nutrients, cells placed deep within the tissue construct will die out, leading to non-uniform tissue regeneration. Currently, there is a necessity to design nutrient conduit networks within the tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the matrix. However, the design of complex networks within a tissue construct is challenging. In this paper, we present the Lindenmayer system, an elegant fractal-based language algorithm framework, to generate conduit networks in two- and three-dimensional architecture with several degrees of complexity. The conduit network maintains a parent-child relationship between each branch of the network. Several L-system parameters have been studied-branching angle, branch length, ratio of parent to child branch diameter, etc-to simulate several architectures under a given L-system notation. We have also presented a layered manufacturing-based UV-photopolymerization process using the Texas Instruments DLP(TM) system to fabricate the branched structures. This preliminary work showcases the applicability of L-system-based construct designs to drive scaffold fabrication systems.

  4. A Lindenmayer system-based approach for the design of nutrient delivery networks in tissue constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, Ozlem; Starly, Binil; Lan, S-F

    2009-01-01

    Large thick tissue constructs have reported limited success primarily due to the inability of cells to survive deep within the scaffold. Without access to adequate nutrients, cells placed deep within the tissue construct will die out, leading to non-uniform tissue regeneration. Currently, there is a necessity to design nutrient conduit networks within the tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the matrix. However, the design of complex networks within a tissue construct is challenging. In this paper, we present the Lindenmayer system, an elegant fractal-based language algorithm framework, to generate conduit networks in two- and three-dimensional architecture with several degrees of complexity. The conduit network maintains a parent-child relationship between each branch of the network. Several L-system parameters have been studied-branching angle, branch length, ratio of parent to child branch diameter, etc-to simulate several architectures under a given L-system notation. We have also presented a layered manufacturing-based UV-photopolymerization process using the Texas Instruments DLP(TM) system to fabricate the branched structures. This preliminary work showcases the applicability of L-system-based construct designs to drive scaffold fabrication systems.

  5. Deterministic Greedy Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in 3D Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With both computational complexity and storage space bounded by a small constant, greedy routing is recognized as an appealing approach to support scalable routing in wireless sensor networks. However, significant challenges have been encountered in extending greedy routing from 2D to 3D space. In this research, we develop decentralized solutions to achieve greedy routing in 3D sensor networks. Our proposed approach is based on a unit tetrahedron cell (UTC mesh structure. We propose a distributed algorithm to realize volumetric harmonic mapping (VHM of the UTC mesh under spherical boundary condition. It is a one-to-one map that yields virtual coordinates for each node in the network without or with one internal hole. Since a boundary has been mapped to a sphere, node-based greedy routing is always successful thereon. At the same time, we exploit the UTC mesh to develop a face-based greedy routing algorithm and prove its success at internal nodes. To deliver a data packet to its destination, face-based and node-based greedy routing algorithms are employed alternately at internal and boundary UTCs, respectively. For networks with multiple internal holes, a segmentation and tunnel-based routing strategy is proposed on top of VHM to support global end-to-end routing. As far as we know, this is the first work that realizes truly deterministic routing with constant-bounded storage and computation in general 3D wireless sensor networks.

  6. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Jr., John W.

    1991-01-01

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken.

  7. Methods of pushing during vaginal delivery and pelvic floor and perineal outcomes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tayrac, Renaud; Letouzey, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, several randomized studies have compared Valsalva and spontaneous pushing techniques during vaginal delivery. This review summarizes current medical knowledge concerning their maternal and fetal consequences, focusing on pelvic and perineal outcomes. We selected nine randomized controlled trials comparing Valsalva and spontaneous pushing, and a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing different methods of perineal protection. Two trials showed that spontaneous pushing reduces the risk of perineal tears, but no firm conclusions can be drawn given the heterogeneity and inconsistent results of these studies. Conflicting results have been reported regarding the duration of the second stage of labor. Pushing technique does not seem to affect episiotomy, instrumental delivery or cesarean rates. Maternal satisfaction seems to be better after spontaneous pushing. Spontaneous pushing appears to have no adverse effects on neonatal well being, and one study showed a significant improvement in prenatal fetal parameters during the expulsive phase. Valsalva and spontaneous pushing techniques currently appear comparable in terms of duration, pelvic floor, perineal, and neonatal outcomes. In the absence of strong evidence in favor of either technique, the decision should be guided by patient preference and the clinical situation. Additional, well-designed randomized controlled trials are required.

  8. A novel word spotting method based on recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinken, Volkmar; Fischer, Andreas; Manmatha, R; Bunke, Horst

    2012-02-01

    Keyword spotting refers to the process of retrieving all instances of a given keyword from a document. In the present paper, a novel keyword spotting method for handwritten documents is described. It is derived from a neural network-based system for unconstrained handwriting recognition. As such it performs template-free spotting, i.e., it is not necessary for a keyword to appear in the training set. The keyword spotting is done using a modification of the CTC Token Passing algorithm in conjunction with a recurrent neural network. We demonstrate that the proposed systems outperform not only a classical dynamic time warping-based approach but also a modern keyword spotting system, based on hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we analyze the performance of the underlying neural networks when using them in a recognition task followed by keyword spotting on the produced transcription. We point out the advantages of keyword spotting when compared to classic text line recognition.

  9. The relationship between quality of life and methods of delivery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Nazanin; Tavalaee, Zahra; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Sharifi, Nasibeh; Daliri, Salman

    2018-04-01

    Some physical, emotional and social changes arise in mothers during the postpartum periods which can affect the quality of life (QOL) of the mother and family. Given the importance of the quality of life in the postpartum period and its influencing factors such as method of delivery, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between the quality of life and methods of delivery in the world, using a systematic review and meta-analysis method. The present study is a systematic review and meta-analysis on the relationship between aspects of quality of life and method of delivery in the world conducted in Persian and English language articles published by the end of 2015. For this purpose, the databases of Medlib, SID, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Google scholar, Irandoc, Magiran and Iranmedex were searched using key words and their compounds. The results of studies were combined using the random effects model in the meta-analysis. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using I2 index and Cochran test and data were analyzed using STATA Version 11.1 and SPSS Version 16. Based on the results of the meta-analysis of studies, the aspect of physical functioning had the highest quality of life mean score in women with vaginal delivery: 74.37 (95% CI: 67.7-81) and mental health had the highest QOL mean score in women with cesarean delivery: 65.8 (95% CI: 62.7-69). Also, based on the time elapsed since delivery, mental health had the highest mean score in less than 1 month, 2 months and 4 months' postpartum. Physical pain had the highest mean score 6 months after giving birth, and mental functioning in 8 months after giving birth. The results of the present meta-analysis showed that the mean scores for most dimensions of quality of life in women with vaginal delivery were higher than in women with cesarean delivery.

  10. Neural node network and model, and method of teaching same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G. (Inventor); Atiya, Amir F. (Inventor); Fernandez, Benito (Inventor); Tsai, Wei K. (Inventor); Chong, Kil T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a fully connected feed forward network that includes at least one hidden layer 16. The hidden layer 16 includes nodes 20 in which the output of the node is fed back to that node as an input with a unit delay produced by a delay device 24 occurring in the feedback path 22 (local feedback). Each node within each layer also receives a delayed output (crosstalk) produced by a delay unit 36 from all the other nodes within the same layer 16. The node performs a transfer function operation based on the inputs from the previous layer and the delayed outputs. The network can be implemented as analog or digital or within a general purpose processor. Two teaching methods can be used: (1) back propagation of weight calculation that includes the local feedback and the crosstalk or (2) more preferably a feed forward gradient decent which immediately follows the output computations and which also includes the local feedback and the crosstalk. Subsequent to the gradient propagation, the weights can be normalized, thereby preventing convergence to a local optimum. Education of the network can be incremental both on and off-line. An educated network is suitable for modeling and controlling dynamic nonlinear systems and time series systems and predicting the outputs as well as hidden states and parameters. The educated network can also be further educated during on-line processing.

  11. Clinical evaluation of a novel microneedle device for intradermal delivery of an influenza vaccine: are all delivery methods the same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Yotam; Kochba, Efrat; Kenney, Richard

    2014-07-23

    The skin provides the largest immune barrier to infection and is a readily accessible site for vaccination, although intradermal (ID) injection can be challenging. The MicronJet™ microneedle is a novel device that consistently injects antigens very close to the skin's dendritic cells. A dose-sparing ID injection study was conducted in 280 healthy adult volunteers using trivalent virosomal adjuvanted influenza vaccine. ID injection of 3 μg using the MicronJet™ was well tolerated and showed a statistically higher geometric mean fold rise than the same dose ID using a conventional needle (Mantoux technique) for the H1N1 and B strains or a 15 μg intramuscular (IM) injection for the H3N2 strain. Thus, the immune response appears to partially depend on the delivery device and route of injection. The MicronJet™ may allow dose-sparing, yet give a superior response in influenza vaccination and warrants further clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A New Drug Release Method in Early Development of Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro drug release tests are a widely used tool to measure the variance between transdermal product performances and required by many authorities. However, the result cannot provide a good estimation of the in vivo drug release. In the present work, a new method for measuring drug release from patches has been explored and compared with the conventional USP apparatus 2 and 5 methods. Durogesic patches, here used as a model patch, were placed on synthetic skin simulator and three moisture levels (29, 57, 198 μL cm−2 were evaluated. The synthetic skin simulators were collected after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours and extracted with pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution. The drug concentrations in the extractions were measured by isocratic reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The results showed that, with the increasing moisture level on the synthetic skin simulator, the drug release rate increased. In comparison with the conventional USP method, the drug release results performed by the new method were in more correlation to the release rate claimed in the product label. This new method could help to differentiate the drug release rates among assorted formulations of transdermal drug delivery systems in the early stage of development.

  13. Dynamic optical fiber delivery of Ka-band packet transmissions for wireless access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Madsen, Peter; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2017-01-01

    A Reconfigurable Radio Access Unit is presented and experimentally demonstrated. In the unit, an optical switching system is set to dynamically deliver different packets to different points in the network. The packets are transmitted wirelesslty on the Ka-band (26–40 GHz), achieving BER values...

  14. Phylogenetic comparative methods on phylogenetic networks with reticulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Paul; Solís-Lemus, Claudia; Kriebel, Ricardo; Sparks, K William; Ané, Cécile

    2018-04-25

    The goal of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods (PCMs) is to study the distribution of quantitative traits among related species. The observed traits are often seen as the result of a Brownian Motion (BM) along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. Reticulation events such as hybridization, gene flow or horizontal gene transfer, can substantially affect a species' traits, but are not modeled by a tree. Phylogenetic networks have been designed to represent reticulate evolution. As they become available for downstream analyses, new models of trait evolution are needed, applicable to networks. One natural extension of the BM is to use a weighted average model for the trait of a hybrid, at a reticulation point. We develop here an efficient recursive algorithm to compute the phylogenetic variance matrix of a trait on a network, in only one preorder traversal of the network. We then extend the standard PCM tools to this new framework, including phylogenetic regression with covariates (or phylogenetic ANOVA), ancestral trait reconstruction, and Pagel's λ test of phylogenetic signal. The trait of a hybrid is sometimes outside of the range of its two parents, for instance because of hybrid vigor or hybrid depression. These two phenomena are rather commonly observed in present-day hybrids. Transgressive evolution can be modeled as a shift in the trait value following a reticulation point. We develop a general framework to handle such shifts, and take advantage of the phylogenetic regression view of the problem to design statistical tests for ancestral transgressive evolution in the evolutionary history of a group of species. We study the power of these tests in several scenarios, and show that recent events have indeed the strongest impact on the trait distribution of present-day taxa. We apply those methods to a dataset of Xiphophorus fishes, to confirm and complete previous analysis in this group. All the methods developed here are available in the Julia package PhyloNetworks.

  15. New knowledge network evaluation method for design rationale management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shikai; Zhan, Hongfei; Liu, Jihong; Wang, Kuan; Jiang, Hao; Zhou, Jingtao

    2015-01-01

    Current design rationale (DR) systems have not demonstrated the value of the approach in practice since little attention is put to the evaluation method of DR knowledge. To systematize knowledge management process for future computer-aided DR applications, a prerequisite is to provide the measure for the DR knowledge. In this paper, a new knowledge network evaluation method for DR management is presented. The method characterizes the DR knowledge value from four perspectives, namely, the design rationale structure scale, association knowledge and reasoning ability, degree of design justification support and degree of knowledge representation conciseness. The DR knowledge comprehensive value is also measured by the proposed method. To validate the proposed method, different style of DR knowledge network and the performance of the proposed measure are discussed. The evaluation method has been applied in two realistic design cases and compared with the structural measures. The research proposes the DR knowledge evaluation method which can provide object metric and selection basis for the DR knowledge reuse during the product design process. In addition, the method is proved to be more effective guidance and support for the application and management of DR knowledge.

  16. Experimental methods and transport models for drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bingmei M

    2012-06-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic barrier essential for maintaining the micro-environment of the brain. Although the special anatomical features of the BBB determine its protective role for the central nervous system (CNS) from blood-born neurotoxins, however, the BBB extremely limits the therapeutic efficacy of drugs into the CNS, which greatly hinders the treatment of major brain diseases. This review summarized the unique structures of the BBB, described a variety of in vivo and in vitro experimental methods for determining the transport properties of the BBB, e.g., the permeability of the BBB to water, ions, and solutes including nutrients, therapeutic agents and drug carriers, and presented newly developed mathematical models which quantitatively correlate the anatomical structures of the BBB with its barrier functions. Finally, on the basis of the experimental observations and the quantitative models, several strategies for drug delivery through the BBB were proposed.

  17. Technologic advances in aural rehabilitation: applications and innovative methods of service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetow, Robert W; Sabes, Jennifer Henderson

    2007-06-01

    The level of interest in aural rehabilitation has increased recently, both in clinical use and in research presentations and publications. Advances in aural rehabilitation have seen previous techniques such as speech tracking and analytic auditory training reappear in computerized forms. These new delivery methods allow for a consistent, cost-effective, and convenient training program. Several computerized aural rehabilitation programs for hearing aid wearers and cochlear implant recipients have recently been developed and were reported on at the 2006 State of the Science Conference of the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Hearing Enhancement at Gallaudet University. This article reviews these programs and outlines the similarities and differences in their design. Another promising area of aural rehabilitation research is the use of pharmaceuticals in the rehabilitation process. The results from a study of the effect of d-amphetamine in conjunction with intensive aural rehabilitation with cochlear implant patients are also described.

  18. A rapid protection switching method in carrier ethernet ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; Ji, Meng

    2008-11-01

    Abstract: Ethernet is the most important Local Area Network (LAN) technology since more than 90% data traffic in access layer is carried on Ethernet. From 10M to 10G, the improving Ethernet technology can be not only used in LAN, but also a good choice for MAN even WAN. MAN are always constructed in ring topology because the ring network could provide resilient path protection by using less resource (fibre or cable) than other network topologies. In layer 2 data networks, spanning tree protocol (STP) is always used to protect transmit link and preventing the formation of logic loop in networks. However, STP cannot guarantee the efficiency of service convergence when link fault happened. In fact, convergent time of networks with STP is about several minutes. Though Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multi-Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) improve the STP technology, they still need a couple of seconds to achieve convergence, and can not provide sub-50ms protection switching. This paper presents a novel rapid ring protection method (RRPM) for carrier Ethernet. Unlike other link-fault detection method, it adopts distributed algorithm to detect link fault rapidly (sub-50ms). When networks restore from link fault, it can revert to the original working state. RRPM can provide single ring protection and interconnected ring protection without the formation of super loop. In normal operation, the master node blocks the secondary port for all non-RRPM Ethernet frames belonging to the given RRPM Ring, thereby avoiding a loop in the ring. When link fault happens, the node on which the failure happens moves from the "ring normal" state to the "ring fault" state. It also sends "link down" frame immediately to other nodes and blocks broken port and flushes its forwarding database. Those who receive "link down" frame will flush forwarding database and master node should unblock its secondary port. When the failure restores, the whole ring will revert to the normal state. That is

  19. Gamma-index method sensitivity for gauging plan delivery accuracy of volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong In; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Jung-In; Park, So-Yeon; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of the gamma-index method according to various gamma criteria for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Twenty head and neck (HN) and twenty prostate VMAT plans were retrospectively selected for this study. Both global and local 2D gamma evaluations were performed with criteria of 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/2 mm and 2%/1 mm. In this study, the global and local gamma-index calculated the differences in doses relative to the maximum dose and the dose at the current measurement point, respectively. Using log files acquired during delivery, the differences in parameters at every control point between the VMAT plans and the log files were acquired. The differences in dose-volumetric parameters between reconstructed VMAT plans using the log files and the original VMAT plans were calculated. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs) were calculated between the passing rates and those differences. Considerable correlations with statistical significances were observed between global 1%/2 mm, local 1%/2 mm and local 2%/1 mm and the MLC position differences (rs = -0.712, -0.628 and -0.581). The numbers of rs values with statistical significance between the passing rates and the changes in dose-volumetric parameters were largest in global 2%/2 mm (n = 16), global 2%/1 mm (n = 15) and local 2%/1 mm (n = 13) criteria. Local gamma-index method with 2%/1 mm generally showed higher sensitivity to detect deviations between a VMAT plan and the delivery of the VMAT plan. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of milk sample delivery methods and arrival conditions on bacterial contamination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, R P; English, P B; Matthews, J C; Sears, P M

    1990-07-01

    A cross sectional study was performed of factors believed to contribute to the contamination of bovine milk sample cultures submitted to the Ithaca Regional Laboratory of the Quality Milk Promotion Services/New York State Mastitis Control. Of 871 samples entered in the study, 137 (15.7%) were contaminated. There were interactions between the sample source (veterinarian vs dairyman), delivery method, and time between sample collection and arrival at the laboratory. If only those samples collected and hand delivered by the dairyman within 1 day of collection were compared to a like subset of samples collected and hand delivered by veterinarians, no statistically significant differences in milk sample contamination rate (MSCR) were found. Samples were delivered to the laboratory by hand, US Postal Service, United Parcel Service, via the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine Diagnostic Laboratory, or Northeast Dairy Herd Improvement Association Courier. The MSCR was only 7.6% for hand delivered samples, while 26% of Postal Service samples were contaminated. These rates differed significantly from other delivery methods (P less than 0.0001). The USPS samples arrived a longer time after sampling than did samples sent by other routes, and time had a significant effect on MSCR (0 to 1 day, 8.9%; greater than 1 day, 25.9%; P less than 0.01). Samples packaged with ice packs sent by routes other than the Postal Service had a lower MSCR than those not packaged with ice packs, but ice packs did not reduce the MSCR for samples sent by the Postal Service.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Modeling foam delivery mechanisms in deep vadose-zone remediation using method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roostapour, A.; Kam, S.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new mathematical framework established for vadose-zone foam remediation. ► Graphical solutions presented by Method of Characteristics quantitatively. ► Effects of design parameters in the field applications thoroughly investigated. ► Implication of modeling study for successful field treatment discussed. - Abstract: This study investigates foam delivery mechanisms in vadose-zone remediation by using Method of Characteristics (MoC), a mathematical tool long been used for the analysis of miscible and immiscible flooding in porous media in petroleum industry. MoC converts the governing material-balance partial differential equations into a series of ordinary differential equations, and the resulting solutions are in a form of wave propagation (more specifically, for chemical species and phase saturations) through the system as a function of time and space. Deep vadose-zone remediation has special features compared to other conventional remediation applications. They include, not limited to, a high level of heterogeneity, a very dry initial condition with low water saturation (S w ), pollutants such as metals and radionuclides fully dissolved in groundwater, and a serious concern about downward migration during the remediation treatments. For the vadose-zone remediation processes to be successful, the injected aqueous phase should carry chemicals to react with pollutants and precipitate them for immobilization and stabilization purposes. As a result, foams are believed to be an effective means, and understanding foam flow mechanism in situ is a key to the optimal design of field applications. Results show that foam delivery mechanism is indeed very complicated, making the optimum injection condition field-specific. The five major parameters selected (i.e., initial saturation of the medium, injection foam quality, surfactant adsorption, foam strength, and foam stability) are shown to be all important, interacting with each other. Results also

  2. A method for assessing fidelity of delivery of telephone behavioral support for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorencatto, Fabiana; West, Robert; Bruguera, Carla; Michie, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Behavioral support for smoking cessation is delivered through different modalities, often guided by treatment manuals. Recently developed methods for assessing fidelity of delivery have shown that face-to-face behavioral support is often not delivered as specified in the service treatment manual. This study aimed to extend this method to evaluate fidelity of telephone-delivered behavioral support. A treatment manual and transcripts of 75 audio-recorded behavioral support sessions were obtained from the United Kingdom's national Quitline service and coded into component behavior change techniques (BCTs) using a taxonomy of 45 smoking cessation BCTs. Interrater reliability was assessed using percentage agreement. Fidelity was assessed by comparing the number of BCTs identified in the manual with those delivered in telephone sessions by 4 counselors. Fidelity was assessed according to session type, duration, counselor, and BCT. Differences between self-reported and actual BCT use were examined. Average coding reliability was high (81%). On average, 41.8% of manual-specified BCTs were delivered per session (SD = 16.2), with fidelity varying by counselor from 32% to 49%. Fidelity was highest in pre-quit sessions (46%) and for BCT "give options for additional support" (95%). Fidelity was lowest for quit-day sessions (35%) and BCT "set graded tasks" (0%). Session duration was positively correlated with fidelity (r = .585; p reliably coded in terms of BCTs. This can be used to assess fidelity to treatment manuals and to in turn identify training needs. The observed low fidelity underlines the need to establish routine procedures for monitoring delivery of behavioral support. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Realtime Delivery of Alarms and Key Observables in a Deployed Hydrological Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, I. W.; Price, M. C.; Li, H.; Boyd, N.; Boult, S.

    2007-12-01

    It has widely [1-3] been proposed that sensor networks are a good solution for environmental monitoring. However, this application presents a number of major challenges for current technology. In particular environmental science involves the study of coupled non-equilibrium dynamic processes that generate time series with non-stationary means and strongly dependent variables and which operate in the presence of large amounts of noise/interference (thermal, chemical and biological) and multiple quasi-periodic forcing factors (diurnal cycles, tides, etc). This typically means that any analysis must be based on large data samples obtained at multiple scales of space and time. In addition the areas of interest are large, relatively inaccessible and typically extremely hostile to electronic instrumentation. Our analysis of these factors has encouraged us to focus on this list of generic requirements; a) Node lifetime (between visits) should be 1 yr or greater b) Communication range should be ~250m c) Nodes should be portable, unobtrusive, low cost, etc. d) Networks are expected to be sparse since areas of interest are large and budgets are small However, the characteristics of each environment, the dominant processes operating in it and the measurements that are of interest are sufficiently different that the design of an appropriate sensor network solution is normally most determined by site specific constraints. Most importantly the opportunities for exploiting contextual correlation to disambiguate observations and improve the maintenance and robustness of a deployed sensor network are always site specific. We will describe the design and initial deployment of a hydrological sensor network we are developing to assess the hydro-dynamics of surface water drainage into Great Crowden Brook in the Peak District (UK). The complete network will observe soil moisture, temperature and rainfall on a number of transects across the valley, and will also investigate water quality

  4. Development of strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in iran 2012-2014: A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the change in population policy from birth control toward encouraging birth and population growth in Iran, repeated cesarean deliveries as a main reason of cesarean section are associated with more potential adverse consequences. The aim of this research was to explore effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in Iran. Methods: A mixed methodological study was designed and implemented. First, using a qualitative approach, concepts and influencing factors of increased cesarean delivery were explored. Based on the findings of this phase of the study, a questionnaire including the proposed strategies to reduce cesarean delivery was developed. Then in a quantitative phase, the questionnaire was assessed by key informants from across the country and evaluated to obtain more effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery. Ten participants in the qualitative study included policy makers from the Ministry of Health, obstetricians, midwives and anthropologists. In the next step, 141 participants from private and public hospitals, insurance experts, Academic Associations of Midwifery, and policy makers in Maternity Health Affairs of Ministry of Health were invited to assess and provide feedback on the strategies that work to reduce cesarean deliveries. Results: Qualitative data analysis showed four concept related to increased cesarean delivery rates including; "standardization", "education", "amending regulations", and "performance supervision". Effective strategies extracted from qualitative data were rated by participants then, using ACCEPT derived from A as attainability, C as costing, C as complication, E as effectiveness, P as popularity, and T as timing table 19 strategies were detected as priorities. Conclusions: Although developing effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates is complex process because of the multi-factorial nature of increased cesarean deliveries, in this study we have achieved

  5. BinAligner: a heuristic method to align biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jialiang; Li, Jun; Grünewald, Stefan; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The advances in high throughput omics technologies have made it possible to characterize molecular interactions within and across various species. Alignments and comparison of molecular networks across species will help detect orthologs and conserved functional modules and provide insights on the evolutionary relationships of the compared species. However, such analyses are not trivial due to the complexity of network and high computational cost. Here we develop a mixture of global and local algorithm, BinAligner, for network alignments. Based on the hypotheses that the similarity between two vertices across networks would be context dependent and that the information from the edges and the structures of subnetworks can be more informative than vertices alone, two scoring schema, 1-neighborhood subnetwork and graphlet, were introduced to derive the scoring matrices between networks, besides the commonly used scoring scheme from vertices. Then the alignment problem is formulated as an assignment problem, which is solved by the combinatorial optimization algorithm, such as the Hungarian method. The proposed algorithm was applied and validated in aligning the protein-protein interaction network of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and that of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Interestingly, we identified several putative functional orthologous proteins with similar functions but very low sequence similarity between the two viruses. For example, KSHV open reading frame 56 (ORF56) and VZV ORF55 are helicase-primase subunits with sequence identity 14.6%, and KSHV ORF75 and VZV ORF44 are tegument proteins with sequence identity 15.3%. These functional pairs can not be identified if one restricts the alignment into orthologous protein pairs. In addition, BinAligner identified a conserved pathway between two viruses, which consists of 7 orthologous protein pairs and these proteins are connected by conserved links. This pathway might be crucial for virus packing and

  6. Relabeling exchange method (REM) for learning in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Mammone, Richard J.

    1994-02-01

    The supervised training of neural networks require the use of output labels which are usually arbitrarily assigned. In this paper it is shown that there is a significant difference in the rms error of learning when `optimal' label assignment schemes are used. We have investigated two efficient random search algorithms to solve the relabeling problem: the simulated annealing and the genetic algorithm. However, we found them to be computationally expensive. Therefore we shall introduce a new heuristic algorithm called the Relabeling Exchange Method (REM) which is computationally more attractive and produces optimal performance. REM has been used to organize the optimal structure for multi-layered perceptrons and neural tree networks. The method is a general one and can be implemented as a modification to standard training algorithms. The motivation of the new relabeling strategy is based on the present interpretation of dyslexia as an encoding problem.

  7. An outer approximation method for the road network design problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Bagloee, Saeed; Sarvi, Majid

    2018-01-01

    Best investment in the road infrastructure or the network design is perceived as a fundamental and benchmark problem in transportation. Given a set of candidate road projects with associated costs, finding the best subset with respect to a limited budget is known as a bilevel Discrete Network Design Problem (DNDP) of NP-hard computationally complexity. We engage with the complexity with a hybrid exact-heuristic methodology based on a two-stage relaxation as follows: (i) the bilevel feature is relaxed to a single-level problem by taking the network performance function of the upper level into the user equilibrium traffic assignment problem (UE-TAP) in the lower level as a constraint. It results in a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem which is then solved using the Outer Approximation (OA) algorithm (ii) we further relax the multi-commodity UE-TAP to a single-commodity MILP problem, that is, the multiple OD pairs are aggregated to a single OD pair. This methodology has two main advantages: (i) the method is proven to be highly efficient to solve the DNDP for a large-sized network of Winnipeg, Canada. The results suggest that within a limited number of iterations (as termination criterion), global optimum solutions are quickly reached in most of the cases; otherwise, good solutions (close to global optimum solutions) are found in early iterations. Comparative analysis of the networks of Gao and Sioux-Falls shows that for such a non-exact method the global optimum solutions are found in fewer iterations than those found in some analytically exact algorithms in the literature. (ii) Integration of the objective function among the constraints provides a commensurate capability to tackle the multi-objective (or multi-criteria) DNDP as well.

  8. Triple-component nanocomposite films prepared using a casting method: Its potential in drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Gilani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to fabricate a triple-component nanocomposite system consisting of chitosan, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and drug for assessing the application of chitosan–PEG nanocomposites in drug delivery and also to assess the effect of different molecular weights of PEG on nanocomposite characteristics. The casting/solvent evaporation method was used to prepare chitosan–PEG nanocomposite films incorporating piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin. In order to characterize the morphology and structure of nanocomposites, X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy were used. Drug content uniformity test, swelling studies, water content, erosion studies, dissolution studies, and anti-inflammatory activity were also performed. The permeation studies across rat skin were also performed on nanocomposite films using Franz diffusion cell. The release behavior of films was found to be sensitive to pH and ionic strength of release medium. The maximum swelling ratio and water content was found in HCl buffer pH 1.2 as compared to acetate buffer of pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer pH 7.4. The release rate constants obtained from kinetic modeling and flux values of ex vivo permeation studies showed that release of piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin increased with an increase in concentration of PEG. The formulation F10 containing 75% concentration of PEG showed the highest swelling ratio (3.42±0.02 in HCl buffer pH 1.2, water content (47.89±1.53% in HCl buffer pH 1.2, maximum cumulative drug permeation through rat skin (2405.15±10.97 μg/cm2 in phosphate buffer pH 7.4, and in vitro drug release (35.51±0.26% in sequential pH change mediums, and showed a significantly (p<0.0001 higher anti-inflammatory effect (0.4 cm. It can be concluded from the results that film composition had a particular impact on drug release properties. The different molecular weights of PEG have a

  9. An in vivo dose verification method for SBRT–VMAT delivery using the EPID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCowan, P. M., E-mail: peter.mccowan@cancercare.mb.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Van Uytven, E.; Van Beek, T.; Asuni, G. [Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); McCurdy, B. M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, 820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Radiation treatments have become increasingly more complex with the development of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and the use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). SBRT involves the delivery of substantially larger doses over fewer fractions than conventional therapy. SBRT–VMAT treatments will strongly benefit from in vivo patient dose verification, as any errors in delivery can be more detrimental to the radiobiology of the patient as compared to conventional therapy. Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are available on most commercial linear accelerators (Linacs) and their documented use for dosimetry makes them valuable tools for patient dose verification. In this work, the authors customize and validate a physics-based model which utilizes on-treatment EPID images to reconstruct the 3D dose delivered to the patient during SBRT–VMAT delivery. Methods: The SBRT Linac head, including jaws, multileaf collimators, and flattening filter, were modeled using Monte Carlo methods and verified with measured data. The simulation provides energy spectrum data that are used by their “forward” model to then accurately predict fluence generated by a SBRT beam at a plane above the patient. This fluence is then transported through the patient and then the dose to the phosphor layer in the EPID is calculated. Their “inverse” model back-projects the EPID measured focal fluence to a plane upstream of the patient and recombines it with the extra-focal fluence predicted by the forward model. This estimate of total delivered fluence is then forward projected onto the patient’s density matrix and a collapsed cone convolution algorithm calculates the dose delivered to the patient. The model was tested by reconstructing the dose for two prostate, three lung, and two spine SBRT–VMAT treatment fractions delivered to an anthropomorphic phantom. It was further validated against actual patient data for a lung and spine SBRT–VMAT plan. The

  10. Network Theory and Effects of Transcranial Brain Stimulation Methods on the Brain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Demirci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a shift from classic localizational approaches to new approaches where the brain is considered as a complex system. Therefore, there has been an increase in the number of studies involving collaborations with other areas of neurology in order to develop methods to understand the complex systems. One of the new approaches is graphic theory that has principles based on mathematics and physics. According to this theory, the functional-anatomical connections of the brain are defined as a network. Moreover, transcranial brain stimulation techniques are amongst the recent research and treatment methods that have been commonly used in recent years. Changes that occur as a result of applying brain stimulation techniques on physiological and pathological networks help better understand the normal and abnormal functions of the brain, especially when combined with techniques such as neuroimaging and electroencephalography. This review aims to provide an overview of the applications of graphic theory and related parameters, studies conducted on brain functions in neurology and neuroscience, and applications of brain stimulation systems in the changing treatment of brain network models and treatment of pathological networks defined on the basis of this theory.

  11. Quantifying the interplay effect in prostate IMRT delivery using a convolution-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haisen S.; Chetty, Indrin J.; Solberg, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a segment-based convolution method to account for the interplay effect between intrafraction organ motion and the multileaf collimator position for each particular segment in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered in a step-and-shoot manner. In this method, the static dose distribution attributed to each segment is convolved with the probability density function (PDF) of motion during delivery of the segment, whereas in the conventional convolution method (''average-based convolution''), the static dose distribution is convolved with the PDF averaged over an entire fraction, an entire treatment course, or even an entire patient population. In the case of IMRT delivered in a step-and-shoot manner, the average-based convolution method assumes that in each segment the target volume experiences the same motion pattern (PDF) as that of population. In the segment-based convolution method, the dose during each segment is calculated by convolving the static dose with the motion PDF specific to that segment, allowing both intrafraction motion and the interplay effect to be accounted for in the dose calculation. Intrafraction prostate motion data from a population of 35 patients tracked using the Calypso system (Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA) was used to generate motion PDFs. These were then convolved with dose distributions from clinical prostate IMRT plans. For a single segment with a small number of monitor units, the interplay effect introduced errors of up to 25.9% in the mean CTV dose compared against the planned dose evaluated by using the PDF of the entire fraction. In contrast, the interplay effect reduced the minimum CTV dose by 4.4%, and the CTV generalized equivalent uniform dose by 1.3%, in single fraction plans. For entire treatment courses delivered in either a hypofractionated (five fractions) or conventional (>30 fractions) regimen, the discrepancy in total dose due to interplay effect was negligible

  12. Effect of administration method, animal weight and age on the intranasal delivery of drugs to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Jishnu K S; Arun, Peethambaran; Chembukave, Bhadra; Appu, Abhilash P; Vijayakumar, Nivetha; Moffett, John R; Puthillathu, Narayanan; Namboodiri, Aryan M A

    2017-07-15

    The intranasal route of administration has proven to be an effective method for bypassing the blood brain barrier and avoiding first pass hepatic metabolism when targeting drugs to the brain. Most small molecules gain rapid access to CNS parenchyma when administered intranasally. However, bioavailability is affected by various factors ranging from the molecular weight of the drug to the mode of intranasal delivery. We examined the effects of animal posture, intranasal application method and animal weight and age on the delivery of radiolabeled pralidoxime ( 3 H-2-PAM) to the brain of rats. We found that using upright vs. supine posture did not significantly affect 3 H-2-PAM concentrations in different brain regions. Older animals with higher weights required increased doses to achieve the same drug concentration throughout the brain when compared to young animals with lower body weights. The use of an intranasal aerosol propelled delivery device mainly increased bioavailability in the olfactory bulbs, but did not reliably increase delivery of the drug to various other brain regions, and in some regions of the brain delivered less of the drug than simple pipette administration. In view of the emerging interest in the use of intranasal delivery of drugs to combat cognitive decline in old age, we tested effectiveness in very old rats and found the method to be as effective in the older rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Serving our communities better. Guidelines for planning and developing integrated delivery networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prybil, L; Golden, P; Ballance, X

    1995-04-01

    In 1994 the Daughters of Charity National Health System-East Central (DCNHS-East Central) adopted 11 guidelines to help corporate staff and local leaders plan and develop integrated networks. Guideline 1 emphasizes needs-based strategic planning. Guideline 2 focuses on the community-based network planning process, recommending a team approach and ongoing communication with the local ordinary. In guidelines 3 through 5, the DCNHS-East Central Board of Directors spells out key issues that must be covered in proposals ultimately presented for governance action. Guideline 6 presents three core elements that should characterize all CBNs in which DCNHS-East Central institutions participate. Guideline 7 emphasizes that all CBN proposals and agreements must be clear with respect to the Catholic identity of DCNHS-East Central institutions. Guidelines 8 and 9 require that proposed changes to traditional policies and management practices be explicit in CBN proposals. The tenth guideline requires that all CBN proposals indicate an explicit evaluation function. The final guideline underscores that regardless of the strategic fit or how well a CBN is designed, it is unlikely to succeed unless both internal and external relationships are based on a solid foundation of honesty, mutual respect, and trust.

  14. Novel method for fog monitoring using cellular networks infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2012-08-01

    A major detrimental effect of fog is visibility limitation which can result in serious transportation accidents, traffic delays and therefore economic damage. Existing monitoring techniques including satellites, transmissometers and human observers - suffer from low spatial resolution, high cost or lack of precision when measuring near ground level. Here we show a novel technique for fog monitoring using wireless communication systems. Communication networks widely deploy commercial microwave links across the terrain at ground level. Operating at frequencies of tens of GHz they are affected by fog and are, effectively, an existing, spatially world-wide distributed sensor network that can provide crucial information about fog concentration and visibility. Fog monitoring potential is demonstrated for a heavy fog event that took place in Israel. The correlation between transmissomters and human eye observations to the visibility estimates from the nearby microwave links was found to be 0.53 and 0.61, respectively. These values indicate the high potential of the proposed method.

  15. Distance Based Method for Outlier Detection of Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distance based method for the outlier detection of body sensor networks. Firstly, we use a Kernel Density Estimation (KDE to calculate the probability of the distance to k nearest neighbors for diagnosed data. If the probability is less than a threshold, and the distance of this data to its left and right neighbors is greater than a pre-defined value, the diagnosed data is decided as an outlier. Further, we formalize a sliding window based method to improve the outlier detection performance. Finally, to estimate the KDE by training sensor readings with errors, we introduce a Hidden Markov Model (HMM based method to estimate the most probable ground truth values which have the maximum probability to produce the training data. Simulation results show that the proposed method possesses a good detection accuracy with a low false alarm rate.

  16. A Review of Analytical Methods for the Identification and Characterization of Nano Delivery Systems in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luykx, D.M.A.M.; Peters, R.J.B.; Ruth, van S.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2008-01-01

    Detection and characterization of nano delivery systems is an essential part of understanding the benefits as well as the potential toxicity of these systems in food. This review gives a detailed description of food nano delivery systems based on lipids, proteins, and/or polysaccharides and

  17. A Review of Research Methods Used to Examine Employee Assistance Program Delivery Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiernik, Rick

    1995-01-01

    This review of literature on Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) focuses on EAP delivery options. More than half of the 48 studies reviewed used a case study approach. EAPs provided by on-staff professionals were the most frequently discussed delivery option, although this is not the most dominant form of EAP provision. (SLD)

  18. MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound as a New Method of Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thanou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery under the guidance of an imaging modality can improve drug disposition and achieve site-specific drug delivery. The term focal drug delivery has been introduced to describe the focal targeting of drugs in tissues with the help of imaging and focused ultrasound. Focal drug delivery aims to improve the therapeutic profile of drugs by improving their specificity and their permeation in defined areas. Focused-ultrasound- (FUS- mediated drug delivery has been applied with various molecules to improve their local distribution in tissues. FUS is applied with the aid of microbubbles to enhance the permeability of bioactive molecules across BBB and improve drug distribution in the brain. Recently, FUS has been utilised in combination with MRI-labelled liposomes that respond to temperature increase. This strategy aims to “activate” nanoparticles to release their cargo locally when triggered by hyperthermia induced by FUS. MRI-guided FUS drug delivery provides the opportunity to improve drug bioavailability locally and therefore improve the therapeutic profiles of drugs. This drug delivery strategy can be directly translated to clinic as MRg FUS is a promising clinically therapeutic approach. However, more basic research is required to understand the physiological mechanism of FUS-enhanced drug delivery.

  19. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Hussain, Saber M. [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory/RHBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Rowe, John J. [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Nielsen, Mark G., E-mail: Mark.Nielsen@notes.udayton.edu [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  20. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood; Hussain, Saber M.; Rowe, John J.; Nielsen, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  1. Acute and Impaired Wound Healing: Pathophysiology and Current Methods for Drug Delivery, Part 2: Role of Growth Factors in Normal and Pathological Wound Healing: Therapeutic Potential and Methods of Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, reviewing the role that growth factors play in this process and describing the current methods for growth factor delivery into the wound bed. PMID:22820962

  2. Modeling foam delivery mechanisms in deep vadose-zone remediation using method of characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roostapour, A. [Craft and Hawkins Department of Petroleum Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Kam, S.I., E-mail: kam@lsu.edu [Craft and Hawkins Department of Petroleum Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new mathematical framework established for vadose-zone foam remediation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphical solutions presented by Method of Characteristics quantitatively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of design parameters in the field applications thoroughly investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implication of modeling study for successful field treatment discussed. - Abstract: This study investigates foam delivery mechanisms in vadose-zone remediation by using Method of Characteristics (MoC), a mathematical tool long been used for the analysis of miscible and immiscible flooding in porous media in petroleum industry. MoC converts the governing material-balance partial differential equations into a series of ordinary differential equations, and the resulting solutions are in a form of wave propagation (more specifically, for chemical species and phase saturations) through the system as a function of time and space. Deep vadose-zone remediation has special features compared to other conventional remediation applications. They include, not limited to, a high level of heterogeneity, a very dry initial condition with low water saturation (S{sub w}), pollutants such as metals and radionuclides fully dissolved in groundwater, and a serious concern about downward migration during the remediation treatments. For the vadose-zone remediation processes to be successful, the injected aqueous phase should carry chemicals to react with pollutants and precipitate them for immobilization and stabilization purposes. As a result, foams are believed to be an effective means, and understanding foam flow mechanism in situ is a key to the optimal design of field applications. Results show that foam delivery mechanism is indeed very complicated, making the optimum injection condition field-specific. The five major parameters selected (i.e., initial saturation of the medium, injection foam quality, surfactant adsorption, foam

  3. Pregnancy and Delivery in Patients with Mastocytosis Treated at the Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Ciach

    Full Text Available To present current guidelines regarding treatment of mastocytosis in pregnancy on the example of observed patients.Case control national study.Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM.23 singleton spontaneous pregnancies in 17 women diagnosed with mastocytosis in years 1999-2014, before becoming pregnant.Prospective analysis outcomes of pregnancies and deliveries.Survey developed in cooperation with the Spanish Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla-La Mancha (CLMast, Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, Red Espańola de Mastocitosis (REMA, Spain.All 23 pregnancies resulted from natural conception. Obstetrical complications recorded in the first trimester included spontaneous miscarriage (5 pregnancies. Four patients delivered preterm, including one delivery due to preeclampsia at 26 weeks which resulted with neonate death due to extreme prematurity. Five women delivered via cesarean: four due to obstetrical indications and one due to mastocytosis, during which no anesthesia related complications were recorded. Of patients delivering vaginally, two received extradural anesthesia, three required oxytocin infusion due to uterine hypotonia. No labor complications were recorded. In one woman with pregnancy-induced hypertension, early puerperium was complicated by the presence of persistent arterial hypertension. One neonate was born with the signs of cutaneous mastocytosis. Another neonate was diagnosed with Patau syndrome. Four women were treated for mastocytosis prior to conception and continued therapy after becoming pregnant. One patient was put on medications in the first trimester due to worsening of her symptoms. Pregnancy exerted only a slight effect on the intensity and frequency of mastocytosis-related symptoms observed. Worsening of the disease-related symptoms was documented in only four patients (23%. None of the patients showed the signs of anaphylaxis, either before becoming pregnant, or during

  4. Pregnancy and Delivery in Patients with Mastocytosis Treated at the Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciach, Katarzyna; Niedoszytko, Marek; Abacjew-Chmylko, Anna; Pabin, Izabela; Adamski, Przemyslaw; Leszczynska, Katarzyna; Preis, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Hanna; Wydra, Dariusz G; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita

    2016-01-01

    To present current guidelines regarding treatment of mastocytosis in pregnancy on the example of observed patients. Case control national study. Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM). 23 singleton spontaneous pregnancies in 17 women diagnosed with mastocytosis in years 1999-2014, before becoming pregnant. Prospective analysis outcomes of pregnancies and deliveries. Survey developed in cooperation with the Spanish Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla-La Mancha (CLMast), Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, Red Espańola de Mastocitosis (REMA), Spain. All 23 pregnancies resulted from natural conception. Obstetrical complications recorded in the first trimester included spontaneous miscarriage (5 pregnancies). Four patients delivered preterm, including one delivery due to preeclampsia at 26 weeks which resulted with neonate death due to extreme prematurity. Five women delivered via cesarean: four due to obstetrical indications and one due to mastocytosis, during which no anesthesia related complications were recorded. Of patients delivering vaginally, two received extradural anesthesia, three required oxytocin infusion due to uterine hypotonia. No labor complications were recorded. In one woman with pregnancy-induced hypertension, early puerperium was complicated by the presence of persistent arterial hypertension. One neonate was born with the signs of cutaneous mastocytosis. Another neonate was diagnosed with Patau syndrome. Four women were treated for mastocytosis prior to conception and continued therapy after becoming pregnant. One patient was put on medications in the first trimester due to worsening of her symptoms. Pregnancy exerted only a slight effect on the intensity and frequency of mastocytosis-related symptoms observed. Worsening of the disease-related symptoms was documented in only four patients (23%). None of the patients showed the signs of anaphylaxis, either before becoming pregnant, or during pregnancy

  5. Connecting the dots and merging meaning: using mixed methods to study primary care delivery transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, Debra L; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Rachel L; Day, Julie; Kim, Jaewhan; Waitzman, Norman J; Farrell, Timothy W; Magill, Michael K

    2013-12-01

    To demonstrate the value of mixed methods in the study of practice transformation and illustrate procedures for connecting methods and for merging findings to enhance the meaning derived. An integrated network of university-owned, primary care practices at the University of Utah (Community Clinics or CCs). CC has adopted Care by Design, its version of the Patient Centered Medical Home. Convergent case study mixed methods design. Analysis of archival documents, internal operational reports, in-clinic observations, chart audits, surveys, semistructured interviews, focus groups, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services database, and the Utah All Payer Claims Database. Each data source enriched our understanding of the change process and understanding of reasons that certain changes were more difficult than others both in general and for particular clinics. Mixed methods enabled generation and testing of hypotheses about change and led to a comprehensive understanding of practice change. Mixed methods are useful in studying practice transformation. Challenges exist but can be overcome with careful planning and persistence. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Validation of a pretreatment delivery quality assurance method for the CyberKnife Synchrony system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastella, E., E-mail: edoardo.mastella@cnao.it [Medical Physics Unit, CNAO Foundation—National Centre for Oncological Hadron Therapy, Pavia I-27100, Italy and Medical Physics Unit, IEO—European Institute of Oncology, Milan I-20141 (Italy); Vigorito, S.; Rondi, E.; Cattani, F. [Medical Physics Unit, IEO—European Institute of Oncology, Milan I-20141 (Italy); Piperno, G.; Ferrari, A.; Strata, E.; Rozza, D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, IEO—European Institute of Oncology, Milan I-20141 (Italy); Jereczek-Fossa, B. A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, IEO—European Institute of Oncology, Milan I-20141, Italy and Department of Oncology and Hematology Oncology, University of Milan, Milan I-20122 (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the geometric and dosimetric accuracies of the CyberKnife Synchrony respiratory tracking system (RTS) and to validate a method for pretreatment patient-specific delivery quality assurance (DQA). Methods: An EasyCube phantom was mounted on the ExacTrac gating phantom, which can move along the superior–inferior (SI) axis of a patient to simulate a moving target. The authors compared dynamic and static measurements. For each case, a Gafchromic EBT3 film was positioned between two slabs of the EasyCube, while a PinPoint ionization chamber was placed in the appropriate space. There were three steps to their evaluation: (1) the field size, the penumbra, and the symmetry of six secondary collimators were measured along the two main orthogonal axes. Dynamic measurements with deliberately simulated errors were also taken. (2) The delivered dose distributions (from step 1) were compared with the planned ones, using the gamma analysis method. The local gamma passing rates were evaluated using three acceptance criteria: 3% local dose difference (LDD)/3 mm, 2%LDD/2 mm, and 3%LDD/1 mm. (3) The DQA plans for six clinical patients were irradiated in different dynamic conditions, to give a total of 19 cases. The measured and planned dose distributions were evaluated with the same gamma-index criteria used in step 2 and the measured chamber doses were compared with the planned mean doses in the sensitive volume of the chamber. Results: (1) A very slight enlargement of the field size and of the penumbra was observed in the SI direction (on average <1 mm), in line with the overall average CyberKnife system error for tracking treatments. (2) Comparison between the planned and the correctly delivered dose distributions confirmed the dosimetric accuracy of the RTS for simple plans. The multicriteria gamma analysis was able to detect the simulated errors, proving the robustness of their method of analysis. (3) All of the DQA clinical plans passed the tests, both in

  7. Efficient Pruning Method for Ensemble Self-Generating Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Inoue

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multiple classifier systems (MCS have been used for practical applications to improve classification accuracy. Self-generating neural networks (SGNN are one of the suitable base-classifiers for MCS because of their simple setting and fast learning. However, the computation cost of the MCS increases in proportion to the number of SGNN. In this paper, we propose an efficient pruning method for the structure of the SGNN in the MCS. We compare the pruned MCS with two sampling methods. Experiments have been conducted to compare the pruned MCS with an unpruned MCS, the MCS based on C4.5, and k-nearest neighbor method. The results show that the pruned MCS can improve its classification accuracy as well as reducing the computation cost.

  8. Use of a mobile social networking intervention for weight management: a mixed-methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Liliana; Lau, Annie Y S; Martin, Paige; Tong, Huong Ly; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-07-12

    Obesity and physical inactivity are major societal challenges and significant contributors to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. Information and communication technologies are increasingly being used in interventions to promote behaviour change in diet and physical activity. In particular, social networking platforms seem promising for the delivery of weight control interventions.We intend to pilot test an intervention involving the use of a social networking mobile application and tracking devices ( Fitbit Flex 2 and Fitbit Aria scale) to promote the social comparison of weight and physical activity, in order to evaluate whether mechanisms of social influence lead to changes in those outcomes over the course of the study. Mixed-methods study involving semi-structured interviews and a pre-post quasi-experimental pilot with one arm, where healthy participants in different body mass index (BMI) categories, aged between 19 and 35 years old, will be subjected to a social networking intervention over a 6-month period. The primary outcome is the average difference in weight before and after the intervention. Secondary outcomes include BMI, number of steps per day, engagement with the intervention, social support and system usability. Semi-structured interviews will assess participants' expectations and perceptions regarding the intervention. Ethics approval was granted by Macquarie University's Human Research Ethics Committee for Medical Sciences on 3 November 2016 (ethics reference number 5201600716).The social network will be moderated by a researcher with clinical expertise, who will monitor and respond to concerns raised by participants. Monitoring will involve daily observation of measures collected by the fitness tracker and the wireless scale, as well as continuous supervision of forum interactions and posts. Additionally, a protocol is in place to monitor for participant misbehaviour and direct participants-in-need to appropriate sources of help

  9. A novel method for sub-arc VMAT dose delivery verification based on portal dosimetry with an EPID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Ruud A M; Dirkx, Maarten L P; Heijmen, Ben J M

    2017-11-01

    The EPID-based sub-arc verification of VMAT dose delivery requires synchronization of the acquired electronic portal images (EPIs) with the VMAT delivery, that is, establishment of the start- and stop-MU of the acquired images. To realize this, published synchronization methods propose the use of logging features of the linac or dedicated hardware solutions. In this study, we developed a novel, software-based synchronization method that only uses information inherently available in the acquired images. The EPIs are continuously acquired during pretreatment VMAT delivery and converted into Portal Dose Images (PDIs). Sub-arcs of approximately 10 MU are then defined by combining groups of sequentially acquired PDIs. The start- and stop-MUs of measured sub-arcs are established in a synchronization procedure, using only dosimetric information in measured and predicted PDIs. Sub-arc verification of a VMAT dose delivery is based on comparison of measured sub-arc PDIs with synchronized, predicted sub-arc PDIs, using γ-analyses. To assess the accuracy of this new method, measured and predicted PDIs were compared for 20 clinically applied VMAT prostate cancer plans. The sensitivity of the method for detection of delivery errors was investigated using VMAT deliveries with intentionally inserted, small perturbations (25 error scenarios; leaf gap deviations ≤ 1.5 mm, leaf motion stops during ≤ 15 MU, linac output error ≤ 2%). For the 20 plans, the average failed pixel rates (FPR) for full-arc and sub-arc dose QA were 0.36% ± 0.26% (1 SD) and 0.64% ± 0.88%, based on 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm γ-analyses, respectively. Small systematic perturbations of up to 1% output error and 1 mm leaf offset were detected using full-arc QA. Sub-arc QA was able to detect positioning errors in three leaves only during approximately 20 MU and small dose delivery errors during approximately 40 MU. In an ROC analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for the combined full-arc/sub-arc approach was

  10. Ted Madden's Network Methods: Applications to the Earth's Schumann Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. R.; Yu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ted Madden made clever use of electrical circuit concepts throughout his long career in geophysical research: induced polarization, DC resistivity, magnetotellurics, Schumann resonances, the transport properties of rocks and even elasticity and the brittle failure of stressed rocks. The general methods on network analogies were presented in a terse monograph (Madden, 1972) which came to be called "The Grey Peril" by his students, named more for the challenge of deciphering the material as for the color of its cover. This talk will focus on Ted's first major use of the transmission line analogy in treating the Earth's Schumann resonances. This approach in Madden and Thompson (1965) provided a greatly simplified two-dimensional treatment of an electromagnetic problem with a notable three-dimensional structure. This skillful treatment that included the role of the Earth's magnetic field also led to predictions that the Schumann resonance energy would leak into space, predictions that have been verified nearly 50 years later in satellite observations. An extension of the network analogy by Nelson (1967) using Green's function methods provides a means to treat the inverse problem for the background Schumann resonances for the global lightning activity. The development of Madden's methods will be discussed along with concrete results based on them for the monitoring of global lightning.

  11. An accelerated training method for back propagation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robert O. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective is to provide a training procedure for a feed forward, back propagation neural network which greatly accelerates the training process. A set of orthogonal singular vectors are determined from the input matrix such that the standard deviations of the projections of the input vectors along these singular vectors, as a set, are substantially maximized, thus providing an optimal means of presenting the input data. Novelty exists in the method of extracting from the set of input data, a set of features which can serve to represent the input data in a simplified manner, thus greatly reducing the time/expense to training the system.

  12. Time and Frequency Transfer and Dissemination Methods Using Optical Fiber Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amemiya, Masaki; Imae, Michito; Fuji, Yasuhisa; Suzuyama, Tomonari; Ohshima, Shin-ichi

    2005-01-01

    ... developing. This study shows two methods using optical fiber networks to satisfy these demands. First, it is an economical remote calibration method using existing synchronous optical fiber communication networks...

  13. Efficient parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay; Snir, Sagi; Tuller, Tamir

    2007-01-15

    Phylogenies--the evolutionary histories of groups of organisms-play a major role in representing relationships among biological entities. Although many biological processes can be effectively modeled as tree-like relationships, others, such as hybrid speciation and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), result in networks, rather than trees, of relationships. Hybrid speciation is a significant evolutionary mechanism in plants, fish and other groups of species. HGT plays a major role in bacterial genome diversification and is a significant mechanism by which bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics. Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for phylogenetic tree inference. Roughly speaking, inference based on this criterion seeks the tree that minimizes the amount of evolution. In 1990, Jotun Hein proposed using this criterion for inferring the evolution of sequences subject to recombination. Preliminary results on small synthetic datasets. Nakhleh et al. (2005) demonstrated the criterion's application to phylogenetic network reconstruction in general and HGT detection in particular. However, the naive algorithms used by the authors are inapplicable to large datasets due to their demanding computational requirements. Further, no rigorous theoretical analysis of computing the criterion was given, nor was it tested on biological data. In the present work we prove that the problem of scoring the parsimony of a phylogenetic network is NP-hard and provide an improved fixed parameter tractable algorithm for it. Further, we devise efficient heuristics for parsimony-based reconstruction of phylogenetic networks. We test our methods on both synthetic and biological data (rbcL gene in bacteria) and obtain very promising results.

  14. Application of social network analysis in the assessment of organization infrastructure for service delivery: a three district case study from post-conflict northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Freddie; Kawooya, Vincent; Namakula, Justine; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-10-01

    In post-conflict settings, service coverage indices are unlikely to be sustained if health systems are built on weak and unstable inter-organization networks-here referred to as infrastructure. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-organization infrastructure that supports the provision of selected health services in the reconstruction phase after conflict in northern Uganda. Applied social network analysis was used to establish the structure, size and function among organizations supporting the provision of (1) HIV treatment, (2) maternal delivery services and (3) workforce strengthening. Overall, 87 organizations were identified from 48 respondent organizations in the three post-conflict districts in northern Uganda. A two-stage snowball approach was used starting with service provider organizations in each district. Data included a list of organizations and their key attributes related to the provision of each service for the year 2012-13. The findings show that inter-organization networks are mostly focused on HIV treatment and least for workforce strengthening. The networks for HIV treatment and maternal services were about 3-4 times denser relative to the network for workforce strengthening. The network for HIV treatment accounted for 69-81% of the aggregated network in Gulu and Kitgum districts. In contrast, the network for workforce strengthening contributed the least (6% and 10%) in these two districts. Likewise, the networks supporting a young district (Amuru) was under invested with few organizations and sparse connections. Overall, organizations exhibited a broad range of functional roles in supporting HIV treatment compared to other services in the study. Basic information about the inter-organization setup (infrastructure)-can contribute to knowledge for building organization networks in more equitable ways. More connected organizations can be leveraged for faster communication and resource flow to boost the delivery of health services

  15. Testing a model of facilitated reflection on network feedback: a mixed method study on integration of rural mental healthcare services for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Oster, Candice; Muir Cochrane, Eimear; Dawson, Suzanne; Lawn, Sharon; Henderson, Julie; O'Kane, Deb; Gerace, Adam; McPhail, Ruth; Sparkes, Deb; Fuller, Michelle; Reed, Richard L

    2015-11-11

    To test a management model of facilitated reflection on network feedback as a means to engage services in problem solving the delivery of integrated primary mental healthcare to older people. Participatory mixed methods case study evaluating the impact of a network management model using organisational network feedback (through social network analysis, key informant interviews and policy review). A model of facilitated network reflection using network theory and methods. A rural community in South Australia. 32 staff from 24 services and 12 senior service managers from mental health, primary care and social care services. Health and social care organisations identified that they operated in clustered self-managed networks within sectors, with no overarching purposive older people's mental healthcare network. The model of facilitated reflection revealed service goal and role conflicts. These discussions helped local services to identify as a network, and begin the problem-solving communication and referral links. A Governance Group assisted this process. Barriers to integrated servicing through a network included service funding tied to performance of direct care tasks and the lack of a clear lead network administration organisation. A model of facilitated reflection helped organisations to identify as a network, but revealed sensitivity about organisational roles and goals, which demonstrated that conflict should be expected. Networked servicing needed a neutral network administration organisation with cross-sectoral credibility, a mandate and the resources to monitor the network, to deal with conflict, negotiate commitment among the service managers, and provide opportunities for different sectors to meet and problem solve. This requires consistency and sustained intersectoral policies that include strategies and funding to facilitate and maintain health and social care networks in rural communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  16. A convenient method to prepare emulsified polyacrylate nanoparticles from powders [corrected] for drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay-Jimenez, Julio C; Turos, Edward

    2011-08-01

    We describe a method to obtain purified, polyacrylate nanoparticles in a homogeneous powdered form that can be readily reconstituted in aqueous media for in vivo applications. Polyacrylate-based nanoparticles can be easily prepared by emulsion polymerization using a 7:3 mixture of butyl acrylate and styrene in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate as a surfactant and potassium persulfate as a water-soluble radical initiator. The resulting emulsions contain nanoparticles measuring 40-50 nm in diameter with uniform morphology, and can be purified by centrifugation and dialysis to remove larger coagulants as well as residual surfactant and monomers associated with toxicity. These purified emulsions can be lyophilized in the presence of maltose (a non-toxic cryoprotectant) to provide a homogeneous dried powder, which can be reconstituted as an emulsion by addition of an aqueous diluent. Dynamic light scattering and microbiological experiments were carried out on the reconstituted nanoparticles. This procedure allows for ready preparation of nanoparticle emulsions for drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison between Synchronous and Asynchronous Instructional Delivery Method of Training Programme on In-Service Physical Educators' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Derri, Vassiliki; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kyrgiridis, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the influences of a training programme's instructional delivery method (synchronous and asynchronous) on Greek in-service physical educators' cognitive understanding on student assessment. Forty nine participants were randomly divided into synchronous, asynchronous, and control group. The experimental groups…

  18. Effects of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolate, inoculum delivery method, flood, and drought on vigor, disease severity and mortality of blueberry plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four studies evaluated the effect of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates, inoculum delivery methods, and flood and drought conditions on vigor, disease severity scores, and survival of blueberry plants grown in pots in the greenhouse. Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates were obtained from blueberry plants ...

  19. 20 CFR 652.208 - How are core services and intensive services related to the methods of service delivery described...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are core services and intensive services related to the methods of service delivery described in § 652.207(b)(2)? 652.208 Section 652.208 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND...

  20. Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena; Dinda, Amit K; Gupta, Asheesh

    2010-01-01

    A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt ∼ 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 ± 1.4 to 75 ± 2.7 kPa (p 0 C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 t /M ∞ ≤ 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.

  1. Microencapsulation as a novel delivery method for the potential antidiabetic drug, Probucol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooranian A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Armin Mooranian,1 Rebecca Negrulj,1 Nigel Chen-Tan,2 Hesham S Al-Sallami,3 Zhongxiang Fang,4 TK Mukkur,5 Momir Mikov,6,7 Svetlana Golocorbin-Kon,6,7 Marc Fakhoury,8 Gerald F Watts,9 Vance Matthews,10 Frank Arfuso,5 Hani Al-Salami1 1Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 3School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 4School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 5Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, School of Biomedical Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 6Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia; 7Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia; 8Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 9School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia; 10Laboratory for Metabolic Dysfunction, UWA Centre for Medical Research, Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, Perth, Western Australia, Australia Introduction: In previous studies, we successfully designed complex multicompartmental microcapsules as a platform for the oral targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Probucol (PB is an antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant drug with the potential to show benefits in T2D. We aimed to create a novel microencapsulated formulation of PB and to examine the shape, size, and chemical, thermal, and rheological properties of these microcapsules in vitro. Method: Microencapsulation was carried out using the Büchi-based microencapsulating system developed in our laboratory. Using the polymer, sodium

  2. Review of Congestion Management Methods for Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing congestion management methods for distribution networks with high penetration of DERs documented in the recent research literatures. The congestion management methods for distribution networks reviewed can be grouped into two categories – market methods and direct...... control methods. The market methods consist of dynamic tariff, distribution capacity market, shadow price and flexible service market. The direct control methods are comprised of network reconfiguration, reactive power control and active power control. Based on the review of the existing methods...

  3. Cell number and transfection volume dependent peptide nucleic acid antisense activity by cationic delivery methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovera Nadal, Laia; Berthold, Peter; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    have now quantitatively compared the cellular activity (in the pLuc705 HeLa cell splice correction system) of PNA antisense oligomers using lipoplex delivery of cholesterol- and bisphosphonate-PNA conjugates, polyplex delivery via a PNA-polyethyleneimine conjugate and CPP delivery via a PNA......Efficient intracellular delivery is essential for high activity of nucleic acids based therapeutics, including antisense agents. Several strategies have been developed and practically all rely on auxiliary transfection reagents such as cationic lipids, cationic polymers and cell penetrating...... peptides as complexing agents and carriers of the nucleic acids. However, uptake mechanisms remain rather poorly understood, and protocols always require optimization of transfection parameters. Considering that cationic transfection complexes bind to and thus may up-concentrate on the cell surface, we...

  4. Experimental method to predict avalanches based on neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhdanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental use of currently available statistical methods to classify the avalanche‑dangerous precipitations and snowfalls in the Kishi Almaty river basin. The avalanche service of Kazakhstan uses graphical methods for prediction of avalanches developed by I.V. Kondrashov and E.I. Kolesnikov. The main objective of this work was to develop a modern model that could be used directly at the avalanche stations. Classification of winter precipitations into dangerous snowfalls and non‑dangerous ones was performed by two following ways: the linear discriminant function (canonical analysis and artificial neural networks. Observational data on weather and avalanches in the gorge Kishi Almaty in the gorge Kishi Almaty were used as a training sample. Coefficients for the canonical variables were calculated by the software «Statistica» (Russian version 6.0, and then the necessary formula had been constructed. The accuracy of the above classification was 96%. Simulator by the authors L.N. Yasnitsky and F.М. Cherepanov was used to learn the neural networks. The trained neural network demonstrated 98% accuracy of the classification. Prepared statistical models are recommended to be tested at the snow‑avalanche stations. Results of the tests will be used for estimation of the model quality and its readiness for the operational work. In future, we plan to apply these models for classification of the avalanche danger by the five‑point international scale.

  5. Influence of polymer network parameters of tragacanth gum-based pH responsive hydrogels on drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, Vikrant

    2014-01-30

    The present article deals with design of tragacanth gum-based pH responsive hydrogel drug delivery systems. The characterization of hydrogels has been carried out by SEMs, EDAX, FTIR, (13)C NMR, XRD, TGA/DTA/DTG and swelling studies. The correlation between reaction conditions and structural parameters of polymer networks such as polymer volume fraction in the swollen state (ϕ), Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), molecular weight of the polymer chain between two neighboring cross links (M¯c), crosslink density (ρ) and mesh size (ξ) has been determined. The different kinetic models such as zero order, first order, Higuchi square root law, Korsmeyer-Peppas model and Hixson-Crowell cube root model were applied and it has been observed that release profile of amoxicillin best followed the first order model for the release of drug from the polymer matrix. The swelling of the hydrogels and release of drug from the drug loaded hydrogels occurred through non-Fickian diffusion mechanism in pH 7.4 solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preisach hysteresis implementation in reluctance network method, comparison with finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Allag , Hicham; Kedous-Lebouc , Afef; Latreche , Mohamed E. H.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this work, an implementation of static magnetic hysteresis in the reluctance network method is presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated. This implementation is achieved by a succession of iterative steps in the form of algorithm explained and developed for simple examples. However it remains valid for any magnetic circuit. The results obtained are compared to those given by finite element method simulation and essentially the effect of relaxation is discussed...

  7. Comparing two instructional methods of role playing and lecture on primigravida females, decision about type of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedian, Zahra; Navaee, Maryam; Sani, Hossein Jafari; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Each mother has the legal right to decide about her delivery, but this decision should be made based on scientific knowledge. Instructions during pregnancy help to choose the proper type of delivery. This study conducted aimed to compare two instructional methods of role playing and lecture on primigravida decision about type of delivery. In this single-blind clinical trial 67 primigravida, 34-36 week were selected using multi-stage sampling and assigned into two groups randomly. Decision-making (before, 2-week after, and at admission in maternity department) was tested by a questionnaire. In role-playing group, advantages and disadvantages of two type delivery were presented by role-playing in 90-min by three scenarios. In lecture group, it was also presented in a 90-min lecture. Data were analyzed by mean difference test, Fisher test, independent and paired t -test. Two groups showed a significant difference in terms of decision at admission to maternity department ( P = 0.000). 75% of lecture group and 100% of role-playing group selected normal delivery. Postintervention knowledge score in lecture group was 18 ± 5.3 and in role-playing group 17.1 ± 4.0. Percent of change in knowledge scores in two groups was significant ( P = 0.001). Participants' attitude, before and after the intervention, in both groups was significant ( P 0.05). In this research, lecture was more effective in raising knowledge level, and role playing was more effective in raising decision to vaginal delivery and reducing elective caesarean section. It is therefore suggested to use both teaching methods altogether for pregnant women to decrease the rate of unnecessary cesarean.

  8. A method of network topology optimization design considering application process characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Huang, Ning; Bai, Yanan; Zhang, Shuo

    2018-03-01

    Communication networks are designed to meet the usage requirements of users for various network applications. The current studies of network topology optimization design mainly considered network traffic, which is the result of network application operation, but not a design element of communication networks. A network application is a procedure of the usage of services by users with some demanded performance requirements, and has obvious process characteristic. In this paper, we first propose a method to optimize the design of communication network topology considering the application process characteristic. Taking the minimum network delay as objective, and the cost of network design and network connective reliability as constraints, an optimization model of network topology design is formulated, and the optimal solution of network topology design is searched by Genetic Algorithm (GA). Furthermore, we investigate the influence of network topology parameter on network delay under the background of multiple process-oriented applications, which can guide the generation of initial population and then improve the efficiency of GA. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness and validity of our proposed method. Network topology optimization design considering applications can improve the reliability of applications, and provide guidance for network builders in the early stage of network design, which is of great significance in engineering practices.

  9. Delivery of a urology online course using Moodle versus didactic lectures methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Ikari, Osamu; Taha-Neto, Khaled A; Gugliotta, Antonio; Denardi, Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    To subjectively and objectively compare an accessible interactive electronic library using Moodle with lectures for urology teaching of medical students. Forty consecutive fourth-year medical students and one urology teacher were exposed to two teaching methods (4 weeks each) in the form of problem-based learning: - lectures and - student-centered group discussion based on Moodle (modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment) full time online delivered (24/7) with video surgeries, electronic urology cases and additional basic principles of the disease process. All 40 students completed the study. While 30% were moderately dissatisfied with their current knowledge base, online learning course delivery using Moodle was considered superior to the lectures by 86% of the students. The study found the following observations: (1) the increment in learning grades ranged from 7.0 to 9.7 for students in the online Moodle course compared to 4.0-9.6 to didactic lectures; (2) the self-reported student involvement in the online course was characterized as large by over 60%; (3) the teacher-student interaction was described as very frequent (50%) and moderately frequent (50%); and (4) more inquiries and requisitions by students as well as peer assisting were observed from the students using the Moodle platform. The Moodle platform is feasible and effective, enthusing medical students to learn, improving immersion in the urology clinical rotation and encouraging the spontaneous peer assisted learning. Future studies should expand objective evaluations of knowledge acquisition and retention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating time between birth to cry or bag and mask ventilation using mobile delivery room timers in India: the NICHD Global Network's Helping Babies Breathe Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somannavar, Manjunath S; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Revankar, Amit P; Moore, Janet L; McClure, Elizabeth M; Destefanis, Pablo; DeCain, Martha; Goco, Norman; Wright, Linda L

    2015-08-06

    The Golden Minute®, the first minute following birth of a newborn, is a critical period for establishing ventilation after delivery, as emphasized in the Helping Babies Breathe® and other resuscitation training programs. Previous studies have reinforced training through observers' evaluation of this time period; although observation is useful for research, it may not be a sustainable method to support resuscitation practice in low-resource settings where few birth attendants are available. In order to reinforce resuscitation within The Golden Minute®, we sought to develop a simple mobile delivery-room timer on an Android cell phone platform for birth attendants to use at the time of delivery. We developed and evaluated a mobile delivery room timer to document the time interval from birth to the initiation of newborn crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation in a convenience sample of women who delivered in five hospitals in Karnataka, India. The mobile delivery room timer is an Android cell phone-based application that recorded key events including crowning, delivery, and crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation. The mobile delivery room timer recorded the birth attendant verbally indicating the time of crowning, birth-(defined as when the entire baby was delivered), crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation. The mobile delivery room timer results were validated in a subsample by a trained observer (nurse) who independently recorded the time between delivery and initiation of crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation. Of the total 4,597 deliveries, 2,107 (46%) were timed; a sample (n = 438) of these deliveries was also observed by a trained nurse. There was high concordance between the mobile delivery room timer and observed time elapsed between birth and crying/spontaneous respiration or ventilation (correlation =0.94, p cried/breathed spontaneously or received bag and mask ventilation by 1

  11. Method for assessing reliability of a network considering probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.

    2005-01-01

    A method for assessment of reliability of the network is developed, which uses the features of the fault tree analysis. The method is developed in a way that the increase of the network under consideration does not require significant increase of the model. The method is applied to small examples of network consisting of a small number of nodes and a small number of their connections. The results give the network reliability. They identify equipment, which is to be carefully maintained in order that the network reliability is not reduced, and equipment, which is a candidate for redundancy, as this would improve network reliability significantly. (author)

  12. The Dissolved Oxygen Prediction Method Based on Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved oxygen (DO is oxygen dissolved in water, which is an important factor for the aquaculture. Using BP neural network method with the combination of purelin, logsig, and tansig activation functions is proposed for the prediction of aquaculture’s dissolved oxygen. The input layer, hidden layer, and output layer are introduced in detail including the weight adjustment process. The breeding data of three ponds in actual 10 consecutive days were used for experiments; these ponds were located in Beihai, Guangxi, a traditional aquaculture base in southern China. The data of the first 7 days are used for training, and the data of the latter 3 days are used for the test. Compared with the common prediction models, curve fitting (CF, autoregression (AR, grey model (GM, and support vector machines (SVM, the experimental results show that the prediction accuracy of the neural network is the highest, and all the predicted values are less than 5% of the error limit, which can meet the needs of practical applications, followed by AR, GM, SVM, and CF. The prediction model can help to improve the water quality monitoring level of aquaculture which will prevent the deterioration of water quality and the outbreak of disease.

  13. Application of Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) Method of 3D Printing in Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jingjunjiao; Gholizadeh, Hamideh; Lu, Jun; Bunt, Craig; Seyfoddin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging manufacturing technology for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a low cost extrusion-based 3D printing technique that can deposit materials layer-by-layer to create solid geometries. This review article aims to provide an overview of FDM based 3D printing application in developing new drug delivery systems. The principle methodology, suitable polymers and important parameters in FDM technology and its applications in fabrication of personalised tablets and drug delivery devices are discussed in this review. FDM based 3D printing is a novel and versatile manufacturing technique for creating customised drug delivery devices that contain accurate dose of medicine( s) and provide controlled drug released profiles. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  15. Tools and Methods for Hardening Communication Security of Energy Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Shrirang [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Lin, Yow-Jian [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Ghosh, Abhrajit [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Samtani, Sunil [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Kang, Jaewon [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Siegell, Bruce [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Kaul, Vikram [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Unger, John [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); De Bruet, Andre [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Martinez, Catherine [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Vermeulen, Gerald [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Rasche, Galen [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Sternfeld, Scott [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Berthier, Robin [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Bobba, Rakesh [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Campbell, Roy [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Sanders, Williams [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-09-28

    This document summarizes the research and development work the TT Government Solutions (TTGS), d.b.a. Applied Communication Sciences (ACS), team performed for the Department of Energy Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program. It addresses the challenges in protecting critical grid control and data communication, including the identification of vulnerabilities and deficiencies of communication protocols commonly used in energy delivery systems (e.g., ICCP, DNP3, C37.118, C12.22), as well as the development of effective means to detect and prevent the exploitation of such vulnerabilities and deficiencies.

  16. A Method to Design Synthetic Cell-Cycle Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke-Ke, Miao

    2009-01-01

    The interactions among proteins, DNA and RNA in an organism form elaborate cell-cycle networks which govern cell growth and proliferation. Understanding the common structure of cell-cycle networks will be of great benefit to science research. Here, inspired by the importance of the cell-cycle regulatory network of yeast which has been studied intensively, we focus on small networks with 11 nodes, equivalent to that of the cell-cycle regulatory network used by Li et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101(2004)4781] Using a Boolean model, we study the correlation between structure and function, and a possible common structure. It is found that cascade-like networks with a great number of interactions between nodes are stable. Based on these findings, we are able to construct synthetic networks that have the same functions as the cell-cycle regulatory network. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  17. Fast Detection Method in Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR technology improves the utilization of spectrum highly via opportunistic spectrum sharing, which requests fast detection as the spectrum utilization is dynamic. Taking into consideration the characteristic of wireless channels, we propose a fast detection scheme for a cooperative cognitive radio network, which consists of multiple CRs and a central control office. Specifically, each CR makes individual detection decision using the sequential probability ratio test combined with Neyman Pearson detection with respect to a specific observation window length. The proposed method upper bounds the detection delay. In addition, a weighted K out of N fusion rule is also proposed for the central control office to reach fast global decision based on the information collected from CRs, with more weights assigned for CRs with good channel conditions. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve fast detection while maintaining the detection accuracy.

  18. A Method for Assessing Quality of Service in Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of Quality of Service (QoS) in high-speed Internet infrastructure is a challenging task. However, precise assessments must take into account the fact that the requirements for the given quality level are service-dependent. Backbone QoS monitoring and analysis requires processing of large...... taken from the description of system sockets. This paper proposes a new method for measuring the Quality of Service (QoS) level in broadband networks, based on our Volunteer-Based System for collecting the training data, Machine Learning Algorithms for generating the classification rules and application...... and provide C5.0 high-quality training data, divided into groups corresponding to different types of applications. It was found that currently existing means of collecting data (classification by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification, public data sources) are not sufficient and they do...

  19. Cellular Neural Network-Based Methods for Distributed Network Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the problems of current distributed architecture intrusion detection systems (DIDS, a new online distributed intrusion detection model based on cellular neural network (CNN was proposed, in which discrete-time CNN (DTCNN was used as weak classifier in each local node and state-controlled CNN (SCCNN was used as global detection method, respectively. We further proposed a new method for design template parameters of SCCNN via solving Linear Matrix Inequality. Experimental results based on KDD CUP 99 dataset show its feasibility and effectiveness. Emerging evidence has indicated that this new approach is affordable to parallelism and analog very large scale integration (VLSI implementation which allows the distributed intrusion detection to be performed better.

  20. Methods to model and predict the ViewRay treatment deliveries to aid patient scheduling and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2016-03-08

    A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of

  1. Integrated circuit and method of arbitration in a network on an integrated circuit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an integrated circuit and to a method of arbitration in a network on an integrated circuit. According to the invention, a method of arbitration in a network on an integrated circuit is provided, the network comprising a router unit, the router unit comprising a first input

  2. Wireless Lan Network Security Method Wep (Wired Equivalent Privacy)

    OpenAIRE

    Ogy Charles Sario Tamawiwy; Nenny Anggraini, Skom., MT

    2008-01-01

    Scientific writing is about the WEP configuration on the WLAN network with RC4 encryption. The problem that arises is related aspects network security threats, strategic security and confidentiality of data in the network computer, the definition of encryption, definition kriptography algorithm, and algorithm functions.

  3. A joint classification method to integrate scientific and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neshati, Mahmood; Asgari, Ehsaneddin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Beigy, Hamid

    In this paper, we address the problem of scientific-social network integration to find a matching relationship between members of these networks. Utilizing several name similarity patterns and contextual properties of these networks, we design a focused crawler to find high probable matching pairs,

  4. Social Network Methods for the Educational and Psychological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Tracy M.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks are especially applicable in educational and psychological studies involving social interactions. A social network is defined as a specific relationship among a group of individuals. Social networks arise in a variety of situations such as friendships among children, collaboration and advice seeking among teachers, and coauthorship…

  5. Heuristic urban transportation network design method, a multilayer coevolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain bin; Manan, Mohd Shahrudin Abd; Li, Rong; Wu, Jianjun

    2017-08-01

    The design of urban transportation networks plays a key role in the urban planning process, and the coevolution of urban networks has recently garnered significant attention in literature. However, most of these recent articles are based on networks that are essentially planar. In this research, we propose a heuristic multilayer urban network coevolution model with lower layer network and upper layer network that are associated with growth and stimulate one another. We first use the relative neighbourhood graph and the Gabriel graph to simulate the structure of rail and road networks, respectively. With simulation we find that when a specific number of nodes are added, the total travel cost ratio between an expanded network and the initial lower layer network has the lowest value. The cooperation strength Λ and the changeable parameter average operation speed ratio Θ show that transit users' route choices change dramatically through the coevolution process and that their decisions, in turn, affect the multilayer network structure. We also note that the simulated relation between the Gini coefficient of the betweenness centrality, Θ and Λ have an optimal point for network design. This research could inspire the analysis of urban network topology features and the assessment of urban growth trends.

  6. Methods for extracting social network data from chatroom logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osesina, O. Isaac; McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Bartley, Cecilia; Tudoreanu, M. Eduard

    2012-06-01

    Identifying social network (SN) links within computer-mediated communication platforms without explicit relations among users poses challenges to researchers. Our research aims to extract SN links in internet chat with multiple users engaging in synchronous overlapping conversations all displayed in a single stream. We approached this problem using three methods which build on previous research. Response-time analysis builds on temporal proximity of chat messages; word context usage builds on keywords analysis and direct addressing which infers links by identifying the intended message recipient from the screen name (nickname) referenced in the message [1]. Our analysis of word usage within the chat stream also provides contexts for the extracted SN links. To test the capability of our methods, we used publicly available data from Internet Relay Chat (IRC), a real-time computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool used by millions of people around the world. The extraction performances of individual methods and their hybrids were assessed relative to a ground truth (determined a priori via manual scoring).

  7. Radio-over-optical waveguide system-on-wafer for massive delivery capacity 5G MIMO access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Le N.

    2017-01-01

    Delivering maximum information capacity over MIMO antennae systems beam steering is critical so as to achieve the flexibility via beam steering, maximizing the number of users or community of users in Gb/s rate per user over distributed cloud-based optical-wireless access networks. This paper gives an overview of (i) demands of optical - wireless delivery with high flexibility, especially the beam steering of multi-Tbps information channels to information hungry community of users via virtualized beam steering MIMO antenna systems at the free-license mmW region; (ii) Proposing a novel photonic planar integrated waveguide systems composing several passive and active, passive and amplification photonic devices so as to generate mmW carrier and embedded baseband information channels to feed to antenna elements; (iii) Integration techniques to generate a radio over optical waveguide (RoOW) system-on-wafer (SoW) comprising MIMO planar antenna elements and associate photonic integrated circuits for both up- and down- links; (iv) Challenges encountered in the implementation of the SoW in both wireless and photonic domains; (v) Photonic modulation techniques to achieve maximum transmission capacity per wavelength per MIMO antenna system. (vi) A view on control-feedback systems for fast and accurate generation of phase pattern for MIMO beam steering via a bank of optical phase modulators to mmW carrier phases and their preservation in the converted mmW domain . (vi) The overall operational principles of the novel techniques and technologies based on the coherent mixing of two lightwave channels The entire SoW can be implemented on SOI Si-photonic technology or via hybrid integration. These technological developments and their pros- and cons- will be discussed to achieve 50Tera-bps over the extended 110 channel Cband single mode fiber with mmW centered at 58.6GHz and 7GHz free-license band.

  8. Women's social networks and use of facility delivery services for uncomplicated births in North West Ethiopia: a community-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrese, Kerebih; Adamek, Margaret E

    2017-12-28

    High maternal mortality has remained an unmet public health challenge in the developing world. Maternal mortality in Ethiopia is among the highest in the world. Since most maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, facility delivery with skilled birth attendants is recommended to reduce maternal mortality. Nonetheless, the majority of women in Ethiopia give birth at home. Individual attributes and availability and accessibility of services deter service utilization. The role of social networks that may facilitate or constrain service use is not well studied. Community-based case-control study was conducted between February and March 2014 in Jabi Tehinan District, North West Ethiopia. Retrospective data were collected from 134 women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 140 women who had uncomplicated births at home within a year preceding the survey. Interviews were held with eight women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 11 who had uncomplicated births at home. The quantitative data were entered and analyzed using SPSS for Windows versions 16.0 and hierarchical logistic regression model was used for analysis. The qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and data were used to substantiate the quantitative data. The results indicated that social network variables were significantly associated with the use of health facilities for delivery. Taking social networks into account improved the explanation of facility use for delivery services over women's individual attributes. Women embedded within homogeneous network members (Adjusted OR 2.53; 95% CI: 1.26-5.06) and embedded within high SBA endorsement networks (Adjusted OR 7.97; 95% CI: 4.07-12.16) were more likely to deliver at health facilities than their counterparts. Women living in urban areas (Adjusted OR 3.32; 95% CI: 1.37-8.05) and had better knowledge of obstetric complications (Adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI: 1.46-6.18) were more likely to

  9. A Transient Cell-shielding Method for Viable MSC Delivery Within Hydrophobic Scaffolds Polymerized in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-27

    Transport phenomena. New York: Wiley; 1960. [52] Caplan AI, Dennis JE. Mesenchymal stem cells as trophic mediators. J Cell Biochem 2006;98:1076e84. [53... Caplan AI. Why are MSCs therapeutic? New data: new insight. J Pathol 2009;217:318e24. [54] Dennis JE, Cohen N, Goldberg VM, Caplan AI. Targeted delivery

  10. Method for Targeted Therapeutic Delivery of Proteins into Cells | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Protein Expression Laboratory at the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, MD is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop a platform technology for the targeted intra-cellular delivery of proteins using virus-like particles (VLPs).

  11. Control of beam halo-chaos using neural network self-adaptation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Huang Guoxian; Luo Xiaoshu

    2004-11-01

    Taking the advantages of neural network control method for nonlinear complex systems, control of beam halo-chaos in the periodic focusing channels (network) of high intensity accelerators is studied by feed-forward back-propagating neural network self-adaptation method. The envelope radius of high-intensity proton beam is reached to the matching beam radius by suitably selecting the control structure of neural network and the linear feedback coefficient, adjusted the right-coefficient of neural network. The beam halo-chaos is obviously suppressed and shaking size is much largely reduced after the neural network self-adaptation control is applied. (authors)

  12. A Capacity Dimensioning Method for Broadband Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Bergheim, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents capacity dimensioning for a hypothetical distribution network in the Danish municipality of Aalborg. The number of customers in need for a better service level and the continuous increase in network traffic makes it harder for ISPs to deliver high levels of service to their cu......This paper presents capacity dimensioning for a hypothetical distribution network in the Danish municipality of Aalborg. The number of customers in need for a better service level and the continuous increase in network traffic makes it harder for ISPs to deliver high levels of service...... to their customers. This paper starts by defining three levels of services, together with traffic demands based on research of traffic distribution and generation in networks. Calculations for network dimension are then calculated. The results from the dimensioning are used to compare different network topologies...

  13. Fuzzy Entropy Method for Quantifying Supply Chain Networks Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihui; Xu, Junqin

    Supply chain is a special kind of complex network. Its complexity and uncertainty makes it very difficult to control and manage. Supply chains are faced with a rising complexity of products, structures, and processes. Because of the strong link between a supply chain’s complexity and its efficiency the supply chain complexity management becomes a major challenge of today’s business management. The aim of this paper is to quantify the complexity and organization level of an industrial network working towards the development of a ‘Supply Chain Network Analysis’ (SCNA). By measuring flows of goods and interaction costs between different sectors of activity within the supply chain borders, a network of flows is built and successively investigated by network analysis. The result of this study shows that our approach can provide an interesting conceptual perspective in which the modern supply network can be framed, and that network analysis can handle these issues in practice.

  14. Mode of anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery: secondary analysis from the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Caesarean Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butwick, A J; El-Sayed, Y Y; Blumenfeld, Y J; Osmundson, S S; Weiniger, C F

    2015-08-01

    Preterm delivery is often performed by Caesarean section. We investigated modes of anaesthesia and risk factors for general anaesthesia among women undergoing preterm Caesarean delivery. Women undergoing Caesarean delivery between 24(+0) and 36(+6) weeks' gestation were identified from a multicentre US registry. The mode of anaesthesia was classified as neuraxial anaesthesia (spinal, epidural, or combined spinal and epidural) or general anaesthesia. Logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristic, obstetric, and peripartum risk factors associated with general anaesthesia. Within the study cohort, 11 539 women had preterm Caesarean delivery; 9510 (82.4%) underwent neuraxial anaesthesia and 2029 (17.6%) general anaesthesia. In our multivariate model, African-American race [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.7-2.2], Hispanic ethnicity (aOR=1.5; 95% CI=1.2-1.8), other race (aOR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1-1.9), and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome or eclampsia (aOR=2.8; 95% CI=2.2-3.5) were independently associated with receiving general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Women with an emergency Caesarean delivery indication had the highest odds for general anaesthesia (aOR=3.5; 95% CI=3.1-3.9). For every 1 week decrease in gestational age at delivery, the adjusted odds of general anaesthesia increased by 13%. In our study cohort, nearly one in five women received general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Although potential confounding by unmeasured factors cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that early gestational age at delivery, emergent Caesarean delivery indications, hypertensive disease, and non-Caucasian race or ethnicity are associated with general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Private sector delivery of health services in developing countries: a mixed-methods study on quality assurance in social franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Schlein, Karen; De La Cruz, Anna York; Gopalakrishnan, Tisha; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Across the developing world health care services are most often delivered in the private sector and social franchising has emerged, over the past decade, as an increasingly popular method of private sector health care delivery. Social franchising aims to strengthen business practices through economies of scale: branding clinics and purchasing drugs in bulk at wholesale prices. While quality is one of the established goals of social...

  16. Preparation of Starch/Gelatin Blend Microparticles by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Method for Controlled Release Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Phromsopha, Theeraphol; Baimark, Yodthong

    2014-01-01

    Information on the preparation and properties of starch/gelatin blend microparticles with and without crosslinking for drug delivery is presented. The blend microparticles were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method. Glutaraldehyde and methylene blue were used as the crosslinker and the water-soluble drug model, respectively. The blend microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spe...

  17. Connecting research discovery with care delivery in dementia: the development of the Indianapolis Discovery Network for Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boustani MA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaz A Boustani,1–3 Amie Frame,1,2 Stephanie Munger,1,2 Patrick Healey,4 Jessie Westlund,5 Martin Farlow,6,7 Ann Hake,8 Mary Guerriero Austrom,6,9 Polly Shepard,10 Corby Bubp,10 Jose Azar,3 Arif Nazir,3 Nadia Adams,11 Noll L Campbell,1,2,12,13 Azita Chehresa,5 Paul Dexter2,31Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 2Regenstrief Institute, Inc, 3Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM, 4St Vincent Health Network, 5Community Health Network, 6Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, IUSM, 7Department of Neurology, IUSM, 8Eli Lilly and Company, 9Department of Psychiatry, IUSM, 10The Memory Clinic of Indianapolis, 11Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 12Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, West Lafayette, IN, USA; 13Department of Pharmacy, Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: The US Institute of Medicine has recommended an integrated, locally sensitive collaboration among the various members of the community, health care systems, and research organizations to improve dementia care and dementia research.Methods: Using complex adaptive system theory and reflective adaptive process, we developed a professional network called the “Indianapolis Discovery Network for Dementia” (IDND. The IDND facilitates effective and sustainable interactions among a local and diverse group of dementia researchers, clinical providers, and community advocates interested in improving care for dementia patients in Indianapolis, Indiana.Results: The IDND was established in February 2006 and now includes more than 250 members from more than 30 local (central Indiana organizations representing 20 disciplines. The network uses two types of communication to connect its members. The first is a 2-hour face-to-face bimonthly meeting open to all members. The second is a web-based resource center (http://www.indydiscoverynetwork.org. To date, the network has: (1 accomplished the

  18. [Preparation of panax notoginseng saponins-tanshinone H(A) composite method for pulmonary delivery with spray-drying method and its characterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Mei; Fu, Ting-Ming; Guo, Li-Wei

    2013-02-01

    To prepare panax notoginseng saponins-tanshinone II(A) composite particles for pulmonary delivery, in order to explore a dry powder particle preparation method ensuring synchronized arrival of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicine compounds at absorption sites. Panax notoginseng saponins-tanshinone II(A) composite particles were prepared with spray-drying method, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared analysis (IR), dry laser particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the aerodynamic behavior was evaluated by a Next Generation Impactor (NGI). The dry powder particles produced had narrow particle size distribution range and good aerodynamic behavior, and could realize synchronized administration of multiple components. The spray-drying method is used to combine traditional Chinese medicine components with different physical and chemical properties in the same particle, and product into traditional Chinese medicine compound particles in line with the requirements for pulmonary delivery.

  19. Application of Network Analysis Method to VHTR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hun; Yoon, Su Jong; Park, Goon Cherl

    2012-01-01

    A Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is currently envisioned as a promising future reactor concept because of its high-efficiency and capability of generating hydrogen. Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the main VHTR concepts, which consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of nuclear grade graphite. However their shape could be changed by neutron damage during the reactor operation and the shape change can makes the gaps between the blocks inducing bypass flow. Most of reactor coolant flows through the coolant channel within the fuel block, but some portion of the reactor coolant bypasses to the interstitial gaps. The vertical gap and horizontal gap are called bypass gap and cross gap, respectively. CFD simulation for the full core of VHTR might be possible but it requires vast computational cost and time. Therefore, fast, flexible and reliable code is required to predict the flow distribution corresponding to the various bypass gap distribution. Consequently in this study, the flow network analysis method is applied to analyze the core flow of VHTR. The applied method was validated by comparing with SNU VHTR multiblock experiment. As a result, the calculated results show good agreements with experimental data although computational time and cost of the developed code was very small

  20. Portable Rule Extraction Method for Neural Network Decisions Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius PLIKYNAS

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural network (NN methods are sometimes useless in practical applications, because they are not properly tailored to the particular market's needs. We focus thereinafter specifically on financial market applications. NNs have not gained full acceptance here yet. One of the main reasons is the "Black Box" problem (lack of the NN decisions explanatory power. There are though some NN decisions rule extraction methods like decompositional, pedagogical or eclectic, but they suffer from low portability of the rule extraction technique across various neural net architectures, high level of granularity, algorithmic sophistication of the rule extraction technique etc. The authors propose to eliminate some known drawbacks using an innovative extension of the pedagogical approach. The idea is exposed by the use of a widespread MLP neural net (as a common tool in the financial problems' domain and SOM (input data space clusterization. The feedback of both nets' performance is related and targeted through the iteration cycle by achievement of the best matching between the decision space fragments and input data space clusters. Three sets of rules are generated algorithmically or by fuzzy membership functions. Empirical validation of the common financial benchmark problems is conducted with an appropriately prepared software solution.

  1. Measurement of company effectiveness using analytic network process method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Janjić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of an organisation is monitored through the organisation’s performance, which beforehand incorporates all stakeholders’ requirements in its strategy. The strategic management concept enables organisations to monitor and evaluate their effectiveness along with efficiency by monitoring of the implementation of set strategic goals. In the process of monitoring and measuring effectiveness, an organisation can use multiple-criteria decision-making methods as help. This study uses the method of analytic network process (ANP to define the weight factors of the mutual influences of all the important elements of an organisation’s strategy. The calculation of an organisation’s effectiveness is based on the weight factors and the degree of fulfilment of the goal values of the strategic map measures. New business conditions influence the changes in the importance of certain elements of an organisation’s business in relation to competitive advantage on the market, and on the market, increasing emphasis is given to non-material resources in the process of selection of the organisation’s most important measures.

  2. Measurement of company effectiveness using analytic network process method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Janjić; Zorana, Tanasić; Borut, Kosec

    2017-07-01

    The sustainable development of an organisation is monitored through the organisation's performance, which beforehand incorporates all stakeholders' requirements in its strategy. The strategic management concept enables organisations to monitor and evaluate their effectiveness along with efficiency by monitoring of the implementation of set strategic goals. In the process of monitoring and measuring effectiveness, an organisation can use multiple-criteria decision-making methods as help. This study uses the method of analytic network process (ANP) to define the weight factors of the mutual influences of all the important elements of an organisation's strategy. The calculation of an organisation's effectiveness is based on the weight factors and the degree of fulfilment of the goal values of the strategic map measures. New business conditions influence the changes in the importance of certain elements of an organisation's business in relation to competitive advantage on the market, and on the market, increasing emphasis is given to non-material resources in the process of selection of the organisation's most important measures.

  3. Fault diagnosis method for nuclear power plants based on neural networks and voting fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Gang; Ge Shengqi; Yang Li

    2010-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method based on multiple neural networks (ANNs) and voting fusion for nuclear power plants (NPPs) was proposed in view of the shortcoming of single neural network fault diagnosis method. In this method, multiple neural networks that the types of neural networks were different were trained for the fault diagnosis of NPP. The operation parameters of NPP, which have important affect on the safety of NPP, were selected as the input variable of neural networks. The output of neural networks is fault patterns of NPP. The last results of diagnosis for NPP were obtained by fusing the diagnosing results of different neural networks by voting fusion. The typical operation patterns of NPP were diagnosed to demonstrate the effect of the proposed method. The results show that employing the proposed diagnosing method can improve the precision and reliability of fault diagnosis results of NPPs. (authors)

  4. Laser beam uniformity and stability using homogenizer-based fiber optic launch method: square core fiber delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-03-01

    Over the years, technological achievements within the laser medical diagnostic, treatment, and therapy markets have led to ever increasing requirements for greater control of critical laser beam parameters. Increased laser power/energy stabilization, temporal and spatial beam shaping and flexible laser beam delivery systems with ergonomic focusing or imaging lens systems are sought by leading medical laser system producers. With medical procedures that utilize laser energy, there is a constant emphasis on reducing adverse effects that come about by the laser itself or its optical system, but even when these variables are well controlled the medical professional will still need to deal with the multivariate nature of the human body. Focusing on the variables that can be controlled, such as accurate placement of the laser beam where it will expose a surface being treated as well as laser beam shape and uniformity is critical to minimizing adverse conditions. This paper covers the use of fiber optic beam delivery as a means of defining the beam shape (intensity/power distribution uniformity) at the target plane as well as the use of fiber delivery as a means to allow more flexible articulation of the laser beam over the surface being treated. The paper will present a new concept of using a square core fiber beam delivery design utilizing a unique micro lens array (MLA) launch method that improves the overall stability of the system, by minimizing the impact of the laser instability. The resulting performance of the prototype is presented to demonstrate its stability in comparison to simple lens launch techniques, with an emphasis on homogenization and articulated fiber delivery.

  5. A method for estimation of accuracy of dose delivery with dynamic slit windows in medical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, R.; Binukumar, J.P.; Sivakumar, S.S.; Krishnamurthy, K.; Davis, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) clinical dose delivery is based on computer-controlled multileaf movements at different velocities. To test the accuracy of modulation of the beam periodically, quality assurance (QA) methods are necessary. Using a cylindrical phantom, dose delivery was checked at a constant geometry for sweeping fields. Repeated measurements with an in-house designed methodology over a period of 1 year indicate that the method is very sensitive to check the proper functioning of such dose delivery in medical linacs. A cylindrical perspex phantom with facility to accurately position a 0.6- cc (FC 65) ion chamber at constant depth at isocenter, (SA 24 constancy check tool phantom for MU check, Scanditronix Wellhofer) was used. Dosimeter readings were integrated for 4-mm, 10-mm, 20-mm sweeping fields and for 3 angular positions of the gantry periodically. Consistency of standard sweeping field output (10-mm slit width) and the ratios of outputs against other slit widths over a long period were reported. A 10-mm sweeping field output was found reproducible within an accuracy of 0.03% (n = 25) over 1 year. Four-millimeter, 20-mm outputs expressed as ratio with respect to 10- mm sweep output remained within a mean deviation of 0.2% and 0.03% respectively. Outputs at 3 gantry angles remained within 0.5%, showing that the effect of dynamic movements of multileaf collimator (MLC) on the output is minimal for angular positions of gantry. This method of QA is very simple and is recommended in addition to individual patient QA measurements, which reflect the accuracy of dose planning system. In addition to standard output and energy checks of linacs, the above measurements can be complemented so as to check proper functioning of multileaf collimator for dynamic field dose delivery. (author)

  6. The impact of calcium carbonate as pore forming agent and drug entrapment method towards drug dissolution mechanism of amoxicillin trihydrate encapsulated by chitosan-methyl cellulose semi-IPN hydrogel for floating drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewantara, Fauzi; Budianto, Emil

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan-methyl cellulose semi-IPN hydrogel is used as floating drug delivery system, and calcium carbonate also added as pore forming agent. The hydrogel network arranged by not only using biopolymer chitosan and methyl cellulose, but also the crosslink agent that is glutaraldehyde. Amoxicillin trihydrate entrapped into the polymer network with two different method, in situ loading and post loading. Furthermore both method has been tested for drug entrapment efficiency along with drug dissolution test, and the result for drug entrapment efficiency is in situ loading method has highest value of 100%, compared to post loading method which has value only 71%. Moreover, at the final time of drug dissolution test shows in situ loading method has value of 96% for total accumulative of drug dissolution, meanwhile post loading method has 72%. The value of drug dissolution test from both method is used for analyzing drug dissolution mechanism of amoxicillin trihydrate from hydrogel network with four mathematical drug mechanism models as parameter. The polymer network encounter destructive degradation causes by acid solution which used as dissolution medium, and the level of degradation is observed with optical microscope. However the result shows that degradation of the polymer network doesn't affect drug dissolution mechanism directly. Although the pore forming agent causes the pore inside the hydrogel network create interconnection and it was quite influential to drug dissolution mechanism. Interconnected pore is observed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and shows that the amount and area of interconnected pore inside the hydrogel network is increasing as drug dissolution goes on.

  7. Methods for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Up until recently, very little consideration has been given towards reducing the energy consumption of the networks supporting mobile communication. This has now become an important issue since with the predicted boost in traffic, network operators are required to upgrade and extend their networks......, increasing also their overall energy consumption. However, traffic analysis shows that during a 24 hour period, the volume of carried traffic varies continuously, with the network operating anywhere close to its full capacity for very short periods of time. The problem is that during hours of low network...... traffic the energy consumption remains high. This article proposes two major solutions for mitigating this problem. In the first case, an energy saving between 14% and 36% is observed by allowing the network to dynamically optimize its available capacity based on the traffic being carried. In the second...

  8. Design and Implementation of a MAC Protocol for Timely and Reliable Delivery of Command and Data in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Van Vinh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and implements a new TDMA-based MAC protocol for providing timely and reliable delivery of data and command for monitoring and control networks. In this kind of network, sensor nodes are required to sense data from the monitoring environment periodically and then send the data to a sink. The sink determines whether the environment is safe or not by analyzing the acquired data. Sometimes, a command or control message is sent from the sink to a particular node or a group of nodes to execute the services or request further interested data. The proposed MAC protocol enables bidirectional communication, controls active and sleep modes of a sensor node to conserve energy, and addresses the problem of load unbalancing between the nodes near a sink and the other nodes. It can improve reliability of communication significantly while extending network lifetime. These claims are supported by the experimental results.

  9. Morphological analysis: a method for selecting ICT applications in South African government service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Plauché, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available by trial and error, as every attempt counts signi?cantly. 6. Wicked problems do not have an enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated... scheduled clinical visits. Access to information about entitled services alone has been found to improve the delivery of health and social services to resource-poor popula- tions (Pandey, Sehgal, Riboud, Levine, & Goyal, 2007). In South Africa, however...

  10. Stochastic model and method of zoning water networks

    OpenAIRE

    Тевяшев, Андрей Дмитриевич; Матвиенко, Ольга Ивановна

    2014-01-01

    Water consumption at different time of the day is uneven. The model of steady flow distribution in water-supply networks is calculated for maximum consumption and effectively used in the network design and reconstruction. Quasi-stationary modes, in which the parameters are random variables and vary relative to their mean values are more suitable for operational management and planning of rational network operation modes.Leaks, which sometimes exceed 50 % of the volume of water supplied, are o...

  11. Methods of Profile Cloning Detection in Online Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabielski Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of online social networks, the importance of privacy on the Internet has increased dramatically. Thus, it is important to develop mechanisms that will prevent our hidden personal data from unauthorized access and use. In this paper an attempt was made to present a concept of profile cloning detection in Online Social Networks (OSN using Graph and Networks Theory. By analysing structural similarity of network and value of attributes of user personal profile, we will be able to search for attackers which steal our identity.

  12. A generic method for estimating system reliability using Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doguc, Ozge; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a holistic method for constructing a Bayesian network (BN) model for estimating system reliability. BN is a probabilistic approach that is used to model and predict the behavior of a system based on observed stochastic events. The BN model is a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where the nodes represent system components and arcs represent relationships among them. Although recent studies on using BN for estimating system reliability have been proposed, they are based on the assumption that a pre-built BN has been designed to represent the system. In these studies, the task of building the BN is typically left to a group of specialists who are BN and domain experts. The BN experts should learn about the domain before building the BN, which is generally very time consuming and may lead to incorrect deductions. As there are no existing studies to eliminate the need for a human expert in the process of system reliability estimation, this paper introduces a method that uses historical data about the system to be modeled as a BN and provides efficient techniques for automated construction of the BN model, and hence estimation of the system reliability. In this respect K2, a data mining algorithm, is used for finding associations between system components, and thus building the BN model. This algorithm uses a heuristic to provide efficient and accurate results while searching for associations. Moreover, no human intervention is necessary during the process of BN construction and reliability estimation. The paper provides a step-by-step illustration of the method and evaluation of the approach with literature case examples

  13. A generic method for estimating system reliability using Bayesian networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doguc, Ozge [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)], E-mail: jmarquez@stevens.edu

    2009-02-15

    This study presents a holistic method for constructing a Bayesian network (BN) model for estimating system reliability. BN is a probabilistic approach that is used to model and predict the behavior of a system based on observed stochastic events. The BN model is a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where the nodes represent system components and arcs represent relationships among them. Although recent studies on using BN for estimating system reliability have been proposed, they are based on the assumption that a pre-built BN has been designed to represent the system. In these studies, the task of building the BN is typically left to a group of specialists who are BN and domain experts. The BN experts should learn about the domain before building the BN, which is generally very time consuming and may lead to incorrect deductions. As there are no existing studies to eliminate the need for a human expert in the process of system reliability estimation, this paper introduces a method that uses historical data about the system to be modeled as a BN and provides efficient techniques for automated construction of the BN model, and hence estimation of the system reliability. In this respect K2, a data mining algorithm, is used for finding associations between system components, and thus building the BN model. This algorithm uses a heuristic to provide efficient and accurate results while searching for associations. Moreover, no human intervention is necessary during the process of BN construction and reliability estimation. The paper provides a step-by-step illustration of the method and evaluation of the approach with literature case examples.

  14. Co-Designing a Collaborative Chronic Care Network (C3N) for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Development of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellal, George; Peterson, Laura E; Provost, Lloyd; Gloor, Peter A; Fore, David Livingstone; Margolis, Peter A

    2018-01-01

    Background Our health care system fails to deliver necessary results, and incremental system improvements will not deliver needed change. Learning health systems (LHSs) are seen as a means to accelerate outcomes, improve care delivery, and further clinical research; yet, few such systems exist. We describe the process of codesigning, with all relevant stakeholders, an approach for creating a collaborative chronic care network (C3N), a peer-produced networked LHS. Objective The objective of this study was to report the methods used, with a diverse group of stakeholders, to translate the idea of a C3N to a set of actionable next steps. Methods The setting was ImproveCareNow, an improvement network for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. In collaboration with patients and families, clinicians, researchers, social scientists, technologists, and designers, C3N leaders used a modified idealized design process to develop a design for a C3N. Results Over 100 people participated in the design process that resulted in (1) an overall concept design for the ImproveCareNow C3N, (2) a logic model for bringing about this system, and (3) 13 potential innovations likely to increase awareness and agency, make it easier to collect and share information, and to enhance collaboration that could be tested collectively to bring about the C3N. Conclusions We demonstrate methods that resulted in a design that has the potential to transform the chronic care system into an LHS. PMID:29472173

  15. A method to determine the kink resistance of stents and stent delivery systems according to international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt-Wunderlich Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The kink behavior of vascular stents is of particular interest for clinicians, stent manufacturers and regulatory as a kinked stent generates a lumen loss in the stented vessel and can lead to in-stent restenosis. In this study methods to determine the kink resistance of stents and stent delivery systems according to the ISO 25539-2 and FDA guidance no. 1545 were presented. The methods are applicable for balloon expandable stents as well as for self-expanding stents and determine the lumen loss and residual diameter change dependent on the specific bending radius.

  16. Using mixed methods to assess fidelity of delivery and its influencing factors in a complex self-management intervention for people with osteoarthritis and low back pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, Elaine

    2017-08-04

    Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of fidelity of delivery within complex behaviour change interventions, it is often poorly assessed. This mixed methods study aimed to establish the fidelity of delivery of a complex self-management intervention and explore the reasons for these findings using a convergent\\/triangulation design.

  17. Investigation of the Relationship between Green Design and Project Delivery Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilec, Melissa M.; Ries, Robert J.

    2008-04-24

    The selection of the project delivery method (PDM) for any project is critical--it establishes communication, coordination, and contractual issues between the owner, contractor, and designer. With an increase in the number of green design projects, understanding the relationship between the PDM and green design is paramount to project and contract management. It is reasonable to assume that a positive relationship between green design and design-build (DB) exists since both theoretically are intended to foster an integrated, holistic, and collaborative project. This research examines the relationship between the design-bid-build (DBB), construction management (CM), and DB PDMs and green design with the goal of establishing best practices and identifying potential synergies between them. The research collected information by conducting primarily telephone interviews with approximately twenty-five individuals, including owners, contractors, and designers involved in completed green design projects, mainly in the public sector. The interviews developed a general understanding of the current state of knowledge and experience and not a rigorous quantitative analysis. Upon completion of the interviews, the tabulated results were summarized and green project characteristics and project-PDM interactions emerged. Existing published research was evaluated to reveal aspects of PDMs independent of green design. Best practices were ascertained by combining information from the interviews and published research. Best practices are as follows: (1) Project implementation features--The decision to use DB as PDM on green design or other projects should be based on the specific project features; e.g., well-defined scope and adequate owner staffing. DB will not produce successful results on all projects. (2) Collaboration--Project team collaboration early in the design and construction process is an important aspect of green projects, and collaboration was considered somewhat more

  18. Statistical methods for studying the evolution of networks and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweinberger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Studying longitudinal network and behavior data is important for understanding social processes, because human beings are interrelated, and the relationships among human beings (human networks) on one hand and human behavior on the other hand are not independent. The complex nature of longitudinal

  19. HEART ABNORMALITY CLASSIFICATIONS USING FOURIER TRANSFORMS METHOD AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Purwanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Health problems with cardiovascular system disorder are still ranked high globally. One way to detect abnormalities in the cardiovascular system especially in the heart is through the electrocardiogram (ECG reading. However, reading ECG recording needs experience and expertise, software-based neural networks has designed to help identify any abnormalities ofthe heart through electrocardiogram digital image. This image is processed using image processing methods to obtain ordinate chart which representing the heart’s electrical potential. Feature extraction using Fourier transforms which are divided into several numbers of coefficients. As the software input, Fourier transforms coefficient have been normalized. Output of this software is divided into three classes, namely heart with atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease and normal. Maximum accuracy rate ofthis software is 95.45%, with the distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/8 and number of nodes 5, while minimum accuracy rate of this software at least 68.18% by distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/32 and the number of nodes 32. Overall result accuracy rate of this software has an average of86.05% and standard deviation of7.82.

  20. CEO emotional bias and investment decision, Bayesian network method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarboui Anis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the determinants of firms’ investment introducing a behavioral perspective that has received little attention in corporate finance literature. The following central hypothesis emerges from a set of recently developed theories: Investment decisions are influenced not only by their fundamentals but also depend on some other factors. One factor is the biasness of any CEO to their investment, biasness depends on the cognition and emotions, because some leaders use them as heuristic for the investment decision instead of fundamentals. This paper shows how CEO emotional bias (optimism, loss aversion and overconfidence affects the investment decisions. The proposed model of this paper uses Bayesian Network Method to examine this relationship. Emotional bias has been measured by means of a questionnaire comprising several items. As for the selected sample, it has been composed of some 100 Tunisian executives. Our results have revealed that the behavioral analysis of investment decision implies leader affected by behavioral biases (optimism, loss aversion, and overconfidence adjusts its investment choices based on their ability to assess alternatives (optimism and overconfidence and risk perception (loss aversion to create of shareholder value and ensure its place at the head of the management team.

  1. A novel Bayesian learning method for information aggregation in modular neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Pan; Xu, Lida; Zhou, Shang-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Modular neural network is a popular neural network model which has many successful applications. In this paper, a sequential Bayesian learning (SBL) is proposed for modular neural networks aiming at efficiently aggregating the outputs of members of the ensemble. The experimental results on eight...... benchmark problems have demonstrated that the proposed method can perform information aggregation efficiently in data modeling....

  2. Detecting Network Vulnerabilities Through Graph TheoreticalMethods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarz, Patrick; Pomann, Gina-Maria; Torre, Luis de la; Villarosa, Greta; Flournoy, Tamara; Pinar, Ali; Meza Juan

    2007-09-30

    Identifying vulnerabilities in power networks is an important problem, as even a small number of vulnerable connections can cause billions of dollars in damage to a network. In this paper, we investigate a graph theoretical formulation for identifying vulnerabilities of a network. We first try to find the most critical components in a network by finding an optimal solution for each possible cutsize constraint for the relaxed version of the inhibiting bisection problem, which aims to find loosely coupled subgraphs with significant demand/supply mismatch. Then we investigate finding critical components by finding a flow assignment that minimizes the maximum among flow assignments on all edges. We also report experiments on IEEE 30, IEEE 118, and WSCC 179 benchmark power networks.

  3. Real-time method for establishing a detection map for a network of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D; Koch, Mark W; Giron, Casey; Rondeau, Daniel M; Russell, John L

    2012-09-11

    A method for establishing a detection map of a dynamically configurable sensor network. This method determines an appropriate set of locations for a plurality of sensor units of a sensor network and establishes a detection map for the network of sensors while the network is being set up; the detection map includes the effects of the local terrain and individual sensor performance. Sensor performance is characterized during the placement of the sensor units, which enables dynamic adjustment or reconfiguration of the placement of individual elements of the sensor network during network set-up to accommodate variations in local terrain and individual sensor performance. The reconfiguration of the network during initial set-up to accommodate deviations from idealized individual sensor detection zones improves the effectiveness of the sensor network in detecting activities at a detection perimeter and can provide the desired sensor coverage of an area while minimizing unintentional gaps in coverage.

  4. Multitask Learning-Based Security Event Forecast Methods for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks have strong dynamics and uncertainty, including network topological changes, node disappearance or addition, and facing various threats. First, to strengthen the detection adaptability of wireless sensor networks to various security attacks, a region similarity multitask-based security event forecast method for wireless sensor networks is proposed. This method performs topology partitioning on a large-scale sensor network and calculates the similarity degree among regional subnetworks. The trend of unknown network security events can be predicted through multitask learning of the occurrence and transmission characteristics of known network security events. Second, in case of lacking regional data, the quantitative trend of unknown regional network security events can be calculated. This study introduces a sensor network security event forecast method named Prediction Network Security Incomplete Unmarked Data (PNSIUD method to forecast missing attack data in the target region according to the known partial data in similar regions. Experimental results indicate that for an unknown security event forecast the forecast accuracy and effects of the similarity forecast algorithm are better than those of single-task learning method. At the same time, the forecast accuracy of the PNSIUD method is better than that of the traditional support vector machine method.

  5. Approximation Methods for Inference and Learning in Belief Networks: Progress and Future Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pazzan, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... In this research project, we have investigated methods and implemented algorithms for efficiently making certain classes of inference in belief networks, and for automatically learning certain...

  6. Selection of variables for neural network analysis. Comparisons of several methods with high energy physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proriol, J.

    1994-01-01

    Five different methods are compared for selecting the most important variables with a view to classifying high energy physics events with neural networks. The different methods are: the F-test, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a decision tree method: CART, weight evaluation, and Optimal Cell Damage (OCD). The neural networks use the variables selected with the different methods. We compare the percentages of events properly classified by each neural network. The learning set and the test set are the same for all the neural networks. (author)

  7. Research on the method of measuring space information network capacity in communication service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Shichao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the large scale characteristic of space information network in terms of space and time and the increasing of its complexity,existing measuring methods of information transmission capacity have been unable to measure the existing and future space information networkeffectively.In this study,we firstly established a complex model of space information network,and measured the whole space information network capacity by means of analyzing data access capability to the network and data transmission capability within the network.At last,we verified the rationality of the proposed measuring method by using STK and Matlab simulation software for collaborative simulation.

  8. A method for identifying hierarchical sub-networks / modules and weighting network links based on their similarity in sub-network / module affiliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Some networks, including biological networks, consist of hierarchical sub-networks / modules. Based on my previous study, in present study a method for both identifying hierarchical sub-networks / modules and weighting network links is proposed. It is based on the cluster analysis in which between-node similarity in sets of adjacency nodes is used. Two matrices, linkWeightMat and linkClusterIDs, are achieved by using the algorithm. Two links with both the same weight in linkWeightMat and the same cluster ID in linkClusterIDs belong to the same sub-network / module. Two links with the same weight in linkWeightMat but different cluster IDs in linkClusterIDs belong to two sub-networks / modules at the same hirarchical level. However, a link with an unique cluster ID in linkClusterIDs does not belong to any sub-networks / modules. A sub-network / module of the greater weight is the more connected sub-network / modules. Matlab codes of the algorithm are presented.

  9. Approximation methods for the stability analysis of complete synchronization on duplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenchen; Yang, Junzhong

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the synchronization on multi-layer networks has drawn a lot of attention. In this work, we study the stability of the complete synchronization on duplex networks. We investigate effects of coupling function on the complete synchronization on duplex networks. We propose two approximation methods to deal with the stability of the complete synchronization on duplex networks. In the first method, we introduce a modified master stability function and, in the second method, we only take into consideration the contributions of a few most unstable transverse modes to the stability of the complete synchronization. We find that both methods work well for predicting the stability of the complete synchronization for small networks. For large networks, the second method still works pretty well.

  10. Assessment of the coordination of integrated health service delivery networks by the primary health care: COPAS questionnaire validation in the Brazilian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira; Dos Santos, Claudia Benedita; Goyatá, Sueli Leiko Takamatsu; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Yamamura, Mellina; Deon, Keila Christiane; Lapão, Luis Miguel Veles; Santos Neto, Marcelino; Uchoa, Severina Alice da Costa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2015-07-22

    Health systems organized as networks and coordinated by the Primary Health Care (PHC) may contribute to the improvement of clinical care, sanitary conditions, satisfaction of patients and reduction of local budget expenditures. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate a questionnaire - COPAS - to assess the coordination of Integrated Health Service Delivery Networks by the Primary Health Care. A cross sectional approach was used. The population was pooled from Family Health Strategy healthcare professionals, of the Alfenas region (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Data collection was performed from August to October 2013. The results were checked for the presence of floor and ceiling effects and the internal consistency measured through Cronbach alpha. Construct validity was verified through convergent and discriminant values following Multitrait-Multimethod (MTMM) analysis. Floor and ceiling effects were absent. The internal consistency of the instrument was satisfactory; as was the convergent validity, with a few correlations lower then 0.30. The discriminant validity values of the majority of items, with respect to their own dimension, were found to be higher or significantly higher than their correlations with the dimensions to which they did not belong. The results showed that the COPAS instrument has satisfactory initial psychometric properties and may be used by healthcare managers and workers to assess the PHC coordination performance within the Integrated Health Service Delivery Network.

  11. A rapid reliability estimation method for directed acyclic lifeline networks with statistically dependent components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won-Hee; Kliese, Alyce

    2014-01-01

    Lifeline networks, such as transportation, water supply, sewers, telecommunications, and electrical and gas networks, are essential elements for the economic and societal functions of urban areas, but their components are highly susceptible to natural or man-made hazards. In this context, it is essential to provide effective pre-disaster hazard mitigation strategies and prompt post-disaster risk management efforts based on rapid system reliability assessment. This paper proposes a rapid reliability estimation method for node-pair connectivity analysis of lifeline networks especially when the network components are statistically correlated. Recursive procedures are proposed to compound all network nodes until they become a single super node representing the connectivity between the origin and destination nodes. The proposed method is applied to numerical network examples and benchmark interconnected power and water networks in Memphis, Shelby County. The connectivity analysis results show the proposed method's reasonable accuracy and remarkable efficiency as compared to the Monte Carlo simulations

  12. Applying Statistical and Complex Network Methods to Explore the Key Signaling Molecules of Acupuncture Regulating Neuroendocrine-Immune Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of acupuncture are still unclear. In order to reveal the regulatory effect of manual acupuncture (MA on the neuroendocrine-immune (NEI network and identify the key signaling molecules during MA modulating NEI network, we used a rat complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA model to observe the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of MA, and, what is more, we used statistical and complex network methods to analyze the data about the expression of 55 common signaling molecules of NEI network in ST36 (Zusanli acupoint, and serum and hind foot pad tissue. The results indicate that MA had significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory effects on CFA rats; the key signaling molecules may play a key role during MA regulating NEI network, but further research is needed.

  13. Comparative Study of Various Delivery Methods for the Supply of Alpha-Ketoglutarate to the Neural Cells for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Vishnoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of growth factors or bioactive molecules plays an important role in tissue engineering, as the duration to which these are supplied can modulate the cell fate. Thus, the delivery method plays an important role, and the same is presented in this work wherein the exogenous supply of alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG gave better results for fast proliferating cells as compared to delivery by microspheres or microspheres incorporated scaffolds which can be used while culturing slow growing cells. All these studies were performed in two dimensional (2D and three dimensional (3D setups in which chitosan-gelatin-polypyrrole has been used as 3-D scaffolds. Chitosan and gelatin microspheres alone as well as incorporated in the cryogels were characterized. MTT assay done using neuro-2a cell line showed approximately 42% and 70% increment in cellular proliferation when gelatin and chitosan microspheres were added in a 3-D setup, respectively, as compared to the control. Biochemical analysis of ammonia showed 6-fold reductions in ammonia level in a 3-D setup compared to the control. We also studied the synthesis of a neurotransmitter-like glutamate and found that its concentration increased up to 0.25 mg/ml when the microspheres were added exogenously in a 3-D system.

  14. Microencapsulation as a novel delivery method for the potential antidiabetic drug, Probucol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooranian, Armin; Negrulj, Rebecca; Chen-Tan, Nigel; Al-Sallami, Hesham S; Fang, Zhongxiang; Mukkur, T K; Mikov, Momir; Golocorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Fakhoury, Marc; Watts, Gerald F; Matthews, Vance; Arfuso, Frank; Al-Salami, Hani

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we successfully designed complex multicompartmental microcapsules as a platform for the oral targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Probucol (PB) is an antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant drug with the potential to show benefits in T2D. We aimed to create a novel microencapsulated formulation of PB and to examine the shape, size, and chemical, thermal, and rheological properties of these microcapsules in vitro. Microencapsulation was carried out using the Büchi-based microencapsulating system developed in our laboratory. Using the polymer, sodium alginate (SA), empty (control, SA) and loaded (test, PB-SA) microcapsules were prepared at a constant ratio (1:30). Complete characterizations of microcapsules, in terms of morphology, thermal profiles, dispersity, and spectral studies, were carried out in triplicate. PB-SA microcapsules displayed uniform and homogeneous characteristics with an average diameter of 1 mm. The microcapsules exhibited pseudoplastic-thixotropic characteristics and showed no chemical interactions between the ingredients. These data were further supported by differential scanning calorimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectral studies, suggesting microcapsule stability. The new PB-SA microcapsules have good structural properties and may be suitable for the oral delivery of PB in T2D. Further studies are required to examine the clinical efficacy and safety of PB in T2D.

  15. Net benefits: assessing the effectiveness of clinical networks in Australia through qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Frances C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the 21st century, government and industry are supplementing hierarchical, bureaucratic forms of organization with network forms, compatible with principles of devolved governance and decentralization of services. Clinical networks are employed as a key health policy approach to engage clinicians in improving patient care in Australia. With significant investment in such networks in Australia and internationally, it is important to assess their effectiveness and sustainability as implementation mechanisms. Methods In two purposively selected, musculoskeletal clinical networks, members and stakeholders were interviewed to ascertain their perceptions regarding key factors relating to network effectiveness and sustainability. We adopted a three-level approach to evaluating network effectiveness: at the community, network, and member levels, across the network lifecycle. Results Both networks studied are advisory networks displaying characteristics of the ‘enclave’ type of non-hierarchical network. They are hybrids of the mandated and natural network forms. In the short term, at member level, both networks were striving to create connectivity and collaboration of members. Over the short to medium term, at network level, both networks applied multi-disciplinary engagement in successfully developing models of care as key outputs, and disseminating information to stakeholders. In the long term, at both community and network levels, stakeholders would measure effectiveness by the broader statewide influence of the network in changing and improving practice. At community level, in the long term, stakeholders acknowledged both networks had raised the profile, and provided a ‘voice’ for musculoskeletal conditions, evidencing some progress with implementation of the network mission while pursuing additional implementation strategies. Conclusions This research sheds light on stakeholders’ perceptions of assessing clinical

  16. Method for designing networking adaptive interactive hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L. J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in network technologies enable distributed systems, operating in complex physical environments, to co-ordinate their activities over larger areas within shorter time intervals. Some envisioned application domains for such systems are defence, crisis management, traffic management and public

  17. Creating networking adaptive interactive hybrid systems : A methodic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in network technologies enable distributed systems, operating in complex physical environments, to coordinate their activities over larger areas within shorter time intervals. Some envisioned application domains for such systems are defense, crisis management, traffic management, public

  18. Cyclic delivery scheduling to customers with different priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zofia Gdowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper a cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities is presented. Shops, which are provided with deliveries, are occasionally located in places which are crucial for the proper flow of traffic. In such places coordination of deliveries is crucial; therefore it allows to completely eliminate the phenomenon of the simultaneous arrivals of suppliers. Methods: In this paper the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities was presented. To this theoretical problem a mix integer programming model was developed. Specific approach to the cyclic delivery scheduling problem is inspired by timetabling problem for urban public transport. Results: Mixed integer programming model was employed for solving four cases of cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities. When the value of the synchronization priority assigned to a single customer raised then the total number of synchronizations in the whole network decreased. In order to compare solutions a synchronization rate was utilized. A simple factor was utilized - the proportion of number of synchronizations of deliveries to a given customer to the total number of synchronizations obtained for the whole network. When the value of synchronization priority raised then the value of synchronization rate of this customer improved significantly. Conclusions: The mixed integer programming model for the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities presented in this paper can be utilized for generating schedules of serving customers located in places where only one delivery can be received and unloaded at one go and where there is no space for other suppliers to wait in a queue. Such a schedule can be very useful for organizing deliveries to small shops united in a franchising network, since they operate in a way that is very similar to the network presented in this paper

  19. Research on Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Rule Base Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between fault phenomenon and fault cause is always nonlinear, which influences the accuracy of fault location. And neural network is effective in dealing with nonlinear problem. In order to improve the efficiency of uncertain fault diagnosis based on neural network, a neural network fault diagnosis method based on rule base is put forward. At first, the structure of BP neural network is built and the learning rule is given. Then, the rule base is built by fuzzy theory. An improved fuzzy neural construction model is designed, in which the calculated methods of node function and membership function are also given. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of this method.

  20. Neural network based method for conversion of solar radiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Ali N.; Muneer, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Generalized regression neural network is used to predict the solar radiation on tilted surfaces. ► The above network, amongst many such as multilayer perceptron, is the most successful one. ► The present neural network returns a relative mean absolute error value of 9.1%. ► The present model leads to a mean absolute error value of estimate of 14.9 Wh/m 2 . - Abstract: The receiving ends of the solar energy conversion systems that generate heat or electricity from radiation is usually tilted at an optimum angle to increase the solar incident on the surface. Solar irradiation data measured on horizontal surfaces is readily available for many locations where such solar energy conversion systems are installed. Various equations have been developed to convert solar irradiation data measured on horizontal surface to that on tilted one. These equations constitute the conventional approach. In this article, an alternative approach, generalized regression type of neural network, is used to predict the solar irradiation on tilted surfaces, using the minimum number of variables involved in the physical process, namely the global solar irradiation on horizontal surface, declination and hour angles. Artificial neural networks have been successfully used in recent years for optimization, prediction and modeling in energy systems as alternative to conventional modeling approaches. To show the merit of the presently developed neural network, the solar irradiation data predicted from the novel model was compared to that from the conventional approach (isotropic and anisotropic models), with strict reference to the irradiation data measured in the same location. The present neural network model was found to provide closer solar irradiation values to the measured than the conventional approach, with a mean absolute error value of 14.9 Wh/m 2 . The other statistical values of coefficient of determination and relative mean absolute error also indicate the

  1. Visibility Network Patterns and Methods for Studying Visual Relational Phenomena in Archeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Brughmans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the archeological and non-archeological use of visibility networks reveals the use of a limited range of formal techniques, in particular for representing visibility theories. This paper aims to contribute to the study of complex visual relational phenomena in landscape archeology by proposing a range of visibility network patterns and methods. We propose first- and second-order visibility graph representations of total and cumulative viewsheds, and two-mode representations of cumulative viewsheds. We present network patterns that can be used to represent aspects of visibility theories and that can be used in statistical simulation models to compare theorized networks with observed networks. We argue for the need to incorporate observed visibility network density in these simulation models, by illustrating strong differences in visibility network density in three example landscapes. The approach is illustrated through a brief case study of visibility networks of long barrows in Cranborne Chase.

  2. Recommendations for Filler Material Composition and Delivery Method for Bench-Scale Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-03-01

    This report supplements Joint Workplan on Filler Investigations for DPCs (SNL 2017) providing new and some corrected information for use in planning Phase 1 laboratory testing of slurry cements as possible DPC fillers. The scope description is to "Describe a complete laboratory testing program for filler composition, delivery, emplacement in surrogate canisters, and post-test examination. To the extent possible specify filler material and equipment sources." This report includes results from an independent expert review (Dr. Arun Wagh, retired from Argonne National Laboratory and contracted by Sandia) that helped to narrow the range of cement types for consideration, and to provide further guidance on mix variations to optimize injectability, durability, and other aspects of filler performance.

  3. Investigation of a piezoelectric droplet delivery method for fuel injection and physical property evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Menon, Shyam

    2017-11-01

    A piezoelectric droplet generator is investigated to deliver liquid hydrocarbon fuels to a micro-combustor application. Besides fuel delivery, the setup is intended to measure fuel physical properties such as viscosity and surface tension. These properties are highly relevant to spray generation in internal combustion engines. Accordingly, a drop-on-demand piezoelectric dispenser is used to generate fuel droplet trains, which are studied using imaging and Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA). The diagnostics provide information regarding droplet size and velocity and their evolution over time. The measurements are correlated with results from one-dimensional (1D) models that incorporate sub-models for piezo-electric actuation and droplet vaporization. By validating the 1D models for fuels with known physical properties, a technique is developed that has the capability to meter low-vapor pressure liquid fuels to the microcombustor and use information from the droplet train to calculate physical properties of novel fuels.

  4. a Method for the Seamlines Network Automatic Selection Based on Building Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Dong, Y.; Hu, Y.; Li, X.; Tan, P.

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of large scale orthophoto production of city, this paper presents a method for automatic selection of seamlines network in large scale orthophoto based on the buildings' vector. Firstly, a simple model of the building is built by combining building's vector, height and DEM, and the imaging area of the building on single DOM is obtained. Then, the initial Voronoi network of the measurement area is automatically generated based on the positions of the bottom of all images. Finally, the final seamlines network is obtained by optimizing all nodes and seamlines in the network automatically based on the imaging areas of the buildings. The experimental results show that the proposed method can not only get around the building seamlines network quickly, but also remain the Voronoi network' characteristics of projection distortion minimum theory, which can solve the problem of automatic selection of orthophoto seamlines network in image mosaicking effectively.

  5. Exploring Normalization and Network Reconstruction Methods using In Silico and In Vivo Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Lessons learned from the recent DREAM competitions include: The search for the best network reconstruction method continues, and we need more complete datasets with ground truth from more complex organisms. It has become obvious that the network reconstruction methods t...

  6. Effect of Drug Loading Method and Drug Physicochemical Properties on the Material and Drug Release Properties of Poly (Ethylene Oxide Hydrogels for Transdermal Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Shet Hui Wong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel poly (ethylene oxide (PEO hydrogel films were synthesized via UV cross-linking with pentaerythritol tetra-acrylate (PETRA as cross-linking agent. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel hydrogel film suitable for passive transdermal drug delivery via skin application. Hydrogels were loaded with model drugs (lidocaine hydrochloride (LID, diclofenac sodium (DIC and ibuprofen (IBU via post-loading and in situ loading methods. The effect of loading method and drug physicochemical properties on the material and drug release properties of medicated film samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, swelling studies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, tensile testing, rheometry, and drug release studies. In situ loaded films showed better drug entrapment within the hydrogel network and also better polymer crystallinity. High drug release was observed from all studied formulations. In situ loaded LID had a plasticizing effect on PEO hydrogel, and films showed excellent mechanical properties and prolonged drug release. The drug release mechanism for the majority of medicated PEO hydrogel formulations was determined as both drug diffusion and polymer chain relaxation, which is highly desirable for controlled release formulations.

  7. The Standard Days Method(®): efficacy, satisfaction and demand at regular family planning service delivery settings in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursun, Zerrin; Cali, Sanda; Sakarya, Sibel

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the demand, efficacy, and satisfaction concerning the Standard Days Method(®) (SDM; a fertility awareness method) as an option presented among other contraceptive methods at regular service delivery settings. The survey group consisted of 993 women who presented at the primary care units in Umraniye District of Istanbul, Turkey, between 1 October 2006 and 31 March 2008, and started to use a new method. Women were enrolled until reaching a limit of 250 new users for each method, or expiration of the six-month registration period. Participants were followed for up to one year of method use. The characteristics of women who chose the SDM were similar to those of participants who opted for other methods. The most common reasons for selecting it were that it is natural and causes no side effects. Fifty-one percent used the SDM for the full year, compared to 71% who chose an intrauterine device (IUD). Continuation rates were significantly lower for all other methods. During the one-year follow-up period, 12% of SDM-, 7% of pill-, 7% of condom-, 3% of monthly injection-, 1% of quarterly injection-, and 0.5% of IUD users became pregnant. The SDM had relatively high continuation rates and relatively good levels of satisfaction among participants and their husbands. It should be mentioned among the routinely offered contraceptive methods.

  8. Comparative study of discretization methods of microarray data for inferring transcriptional regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray data discretization is a basic preprocess for many algorithms of gene regulatory network inference. Some common discretization methods in informatics are used to discretize microarray data. Selection of the discretization method is often arbitrary and no systematic comparison of different discretization has been conducted, in the context of gene regulatory network inference from time series gene expression data. Results In this study, we propose a new discretization method "bikmeans", and compare its performance with four other widely-used discretization methods using different datasets, modeling algorithms and number of intervals. Sensitivities, specificities and total accuracies were calculated and statistical analysis was carried out. Bikmeans method always gave high total accuracies. Conclusions Our results indicate that proper discretization methods can consistently improve gene regulatory network inference independent of network modeling algorithms and datasets. Our new method, bikmeans, resulted in significant better total accuracies than other methods.

  9. An ME-PC Enhanced HDMR Method for Efficient Statistical Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Line Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    An efficient method for statistically characterizing multiconductor transmission line (MTL) networks subject to a large number of manufacturing uncertainties is presented. The proposed method achieves its efficiency by leveraging a high

  10. EAP-Kerberos: A Low Latency EAP Authentication Method for Faster Handoffs in Wireless Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrelli, Saber; Okabe, Nobuo; Shinoda, Yoichi

    The wireless medium is a key technology for enabling ubiquitous and continuous network connectivity. It is becoming more and more important in our daily life especially with the increasing adoption of networking technologies in many fields such as medical care and transportation systems. Although most wireless technologies nowadays provide satisfying bandwidth and higher speeds, several of these technologies still lack improvements with regard to handoff performance. In this paper, we focus on wireless network technologies that rely on the Extensible Authentication Protocol for mutual authentication between the station and the access network. Such technologies include local area wireless networks (IEEE 802.11) as well as broadband wireless networks (IEEE 802.16). We present a new EAP authentication method based on a three party authentication scheme, namely Kerberos, that considerably shortens handoff delays. Compared to other methods, the proposed method has the advantage of not requiring any changes on the access points, making it readily deployable at reasonable costs.

  11. AN IMPROVEMENT ON GEOMETRY-BASED METHODS FOR GENERATION OF NETWORK PATHS FROM POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Akbari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining network path is important for different purposes such as determination of road traffic, the average speed of vehicles, and other network analysis. One of the required input data is information about network path. Nevertheless, the data collected by the positioning systems often lead to the discrete points. Conversion of these points to the network path have become one of the challenges which different researchers, presents many ways for solving it. This study aims at investigating geometry-based methods to estimate the network paths from the obtained points and improve an existing point to curve method. To this end, some geometry-based methods have been studied and an improved method has been proposed by applying conditions on the best method after describing and illustrating weaknesses of them.

  12. Research on Large-Scale Road Network Partition and Route Search Method Combined with Traveler Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Xin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with improved Pallottino parallel algorithm, this paper proposes a large-scale route search method, which considers travelers’ route choice preferences. And urban road network is decomposed into multilayers effectively. Utilizing generalized travel time as road impedance function, the method builds a new multilayer and multitasking road network data storage structure with object-oriented class definition. Then, the proposed path search algorithm is verified by using the real road network of Guangzhou city as an example. By the sensitive experiments, we make a comparative analysis of the proposed path search method with the current advanced optimal path algorithms. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can increase the road network search efficiency by more than 16% under different search proportion requests, node numbers, and computing process numbers, respectively. Therefore, this method is a great breakthrough in the guidance field of urban road network.

  13. Spatial Analysis Along Networks Statistical and Computational Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Atsuyuki

    2012-01-01

    In the real world, there are numerous and various events that occur on and alongside networks, including the occurrence of traffic accidents on highways, the location of stores alongside roads, the incidence of crime on streets and the contamination along rivers. In order to carry out analyses of those events, the researcher needs to be familiar with a range of specific techniques. Spatial Analysis Along Networks provides a practical guide to the necessary statistical techniques and their computational implementation. Each chapter illustrates a specific technique, from Stochastic Point Process

  14. Development of a general method for obtaining the geometry of microfluidic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Mohammad Sayed; Salimpour, M. R.; Shirani, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a general method for geometry of fluidic networks is developed with emphasis on pressure-driven flows in the microfluidic applications. The design method is based on general features of network's geometry such as cross-sectional area and length of channels. Also, the method is applicable to various cross-sectional shapes such as circular, rectangular, triangular, and trapezoidal cross sections. Using constructal theory, the flow resistance, energy loss and performance of the network are optimized. Also, by this method, practical design strategies for the fabrication of microfluidic networks can be improved. The design method enables rapid prediction of fluid flow in the complex network of channels and is very useful for improving proper miniaturization and integration of microfluidic networks. Minimization of flow resistance of the network of channels leads to universal constants for consecutive cross-sectional areas and lengths. For a Y-shaped network, the optimal ratios of consecutive cross-section areas (A i+1 /A i ) and lengths (L i+1 /L i ) are obtained as A i+1 /A i = 2 −2/3 and L i+1 /L i = 2 −1/3 , respectively. It is shown that energy loss in the network is proportional to the volume of network. It is also seen when the number of channels is increased both the hydraulic resistance and the volume occupied by the network are increased in a similar manner. Furthermore, the method offers that fabrication of multi-depth and multi-width microchannels should be considered as an integral part of designing procedures. Finally, numerical simulations for the fluid flow in the network have been performed and results show very good agreement with analytic results

  15. Examining Delivery Method and Infant Feeding Intentions between Women in Traditional and Non-Traditional Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risisky, Deb; Chan, Ronna L; Zigmont, Victoria A; Asghar, Syed Masood; DeGennaro, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    Introduction The purpose of the study is to evaluate delivery method and breastfeeding initiation in women enrolled in group prenatal care (CenteringPregnancy) and in traditional prenatal care. Methods Data were obtained from medical records of a hospital-based midwifery practice in south central Connecticut that offered both types of prenatal care programs. Medical information from 307 women enrolled in this practice was included in the analysis. Out of the 307, 80 were enrolled in group prenatal care. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, and previous and current obstetrical information from medical records formed the basis of comparison. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results Women in Centering had fewer planned cesarean sections (1.3 vs. 12.8%) and had a higher breastfeeding initiation (88.7 vs. 80.0%). However, Centering women were found to have a higher portion of unplanned cesarean sections (27.5 vs. 11.0%). Both the unadjusted and the adjusted odds ratios of having a cesarean planned delivery were lower in the group care. Women in Centering had 2.44 (95% CI 1.05, 5.66) times the odds of breastfeeding initiation compared to the odds for women in traditional prenatal care after adjusting for maternal age, smoking status, gestation and race. Discussion CenteringPregnancy can have positive impact for the woman and baby. This program implementation saw lower rates of elective cesarean sections and increased breastfeeding compared to women in traditional care.

  16. Methods for the economic evaluation of changes to the organisation and delivery of health services: principal challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacock, Rachel

    2018-04-20

    There is a requirement for economic evaluation of health technologies seeking public funding across Europe. Changes to the organisation and delivery of health services, including changes to health policy, are not covered by such appraisals. These changes also have consequences for National Health Service (NHS) funds, yet undergo no mandatory cost-effectiveness assessment. The focus on health technologies may have occurred because larger-scale service changes pose more complex challenges to evaluators. This paper discusses the principal challenges faced when performing economic evaluations of changes to the organisation and delivery of health services and provides recommendations for overcoming them. The five principal challenges identified are as follows: undertaking ex-ante evaluation; evaluating impacts in terms of quality-adjusted life years; assessing costs and opportunity costs; accounting for spillover effects; and generalisability. Of these challenges, methods for estimating the impact on costs and quality-adjusted life years are those most in need of development. Methods are available for ex-ante evaluation, assessing opportunity costs and examining generalisability. However, these are rarely applied in practice. The general principles of assessing the cost-effectiveness of interventions should be applied to all NHS spending, not just that involving health technologies. Advancements in this area have the potential to improve the allocation of scarce NHS resources.

  17. S-curve networks and an approximate method for estimating degree distributions of complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jin-Li

    2010-01-01

    In the study of complex networks almost all theoretical models have the property of infinite growth, but the size of actual networks is finite. According to statistics from the China Internet IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) addresses, this paper proposes a forecasting model by using S curve (Logistic curve). The growing trend of IPv4 addresses in China is forecasted. There are some reference value for optimizing the distribution of IPv4 address resource and the development of IPv6. Based o...

  18. A Survivable Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network with Both Point-to-Point Service and Broadcast Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuejiao; Gan, Chaoqin; Deng, Shiqi; Huang, Yan

    2011-11-01

    A survivable wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network enabling both point-to-point service and broadcast service is presented and demonstrated. This architecture provides an automatic traffic recovery against feeder and distribution fiber link failure, respectively. In addition, it also simplifies the protection design for multiple services transmission in wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks.

  19. Dimensioning Method for Conversational Video Applications in Wireless Convergent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Perez Leal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.

  20. Scalable power selection method for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of a scalable dynamic power control (SDPC) for wireless mesh networks (WMNs) based on IEEE 802.11 standards. An SDPC model that accounts for architectural complexities witnessed in multiple radios and hops...

  1. The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), p-q theory, (SAPF), Harmonics, Total ..... Genetic algorithm-based self-learning fuzzy PI controller for shunt active filter, ... Verification of global optimality of the OFC active power filters by means of ...

  2. A network traffic reduction method for cooperative positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kallol; Wymeersch, Henk

    Cooperative positioning is suitable for applications where conventional positioning fails due to lack of connectivity with a sufficient number of reference nodes. In a dense network, as the number of cooperating devices increases, the number of packet exchanges also increases proportionally. This

  3. Assessing the safety of the road network : a simple method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Research by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research in The Netherlands assessing the safety of the Dutch road network is presented. In The Netherlands urban and rural roads and motorways are used roughly equally, however accident rates vary greatly. These are discussed in this paper. Tables show

  4. Dimensioning Method for Conversational Video Applications in Wireless Convergent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso JoséI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.

  5. Coordinator Role Mobility Method for Increasing the Life Expectancy of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurenoks Aleksejs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of wireless sensor network nodes is the low-power batteries that significantly limit the life expectancy of a network. Nowadays the technical solutions related to energy resource management are being rapidly developed and integrated into the daily lives of people. The energy resource management systems use sensor networks for receiving and processing information during the realia time. The present paper proposes using a coordinator role mobility method for controlling the routing processes for energy balancing in nodes, which provides dynamic network reconfiguration possibilities. The method is designed to operate fully in the background and can be integrated into any exiting working system.

  6. Telehealth--an effective delivery method for diabetes self-management education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Karen; Moss, Gail

    2013-06-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that is often comorbid with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, kidney disease, and neuropathy. Its management is complex, requiring ongoing clinical management, lifestyle changes, and self-care. This article examines recent literature on telehealth and emerging technological tools for supporting self-management of diabetes and identifies best practices. The authors conducted a PubMed search (January 2008-2012) that was supplemented by review of meeting materials and a scan of the Internet to identify emerging technologies. Fifty-eight papers were reviewed; 12 were selected for greater analysis. This review supports earlier findings that the delivery of diabetes self-management and training (DSME/T) via telehealth is useful, appropriate, and acceptable to patients and providers. Best practices are emerging; not all technology is appropriate for all populations--interactive technology needs to be appropriate to the patient's age, abilities, and sensitivities. Telehealth is scalable and sustainable provided that it adds value, does not add to the provider's workload, and is fairly reimbursed. However, there are multiple barriers (patient, provider, health system) to remotely provided DSME/T. DSME/T delivered via telehealth offers effective, efficient, and affordable ways to reach and support underserved minorities and other people with diabetes and related comorbidities. The new generation of smartphones, apps, and other technologies increase access, and the newest interventions are designed to meet patient needs, do not increase workloads, are highly appropriate, enhance self-management, and are desired by patients.

  7. Lanreotide depot deep subcutaneous injection: a new method of delivery and its associated benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmichael JD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available John D CarmichaelDepartment of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excessive growth hormone secretion, usually from a pituitary tumor. Treatment options include surgery, medical therapy, and in some cases, radiation therapy. Current medical therapy consists of treatment with somatostatin analog medications or a growth hormone receptor antagonist. There are two somatostatin analogs currently in use, octreotide and lanreotide. Both are supplied in long-acting formulations and are of comparable biochemical efficacy. Lanreotide is supplied in a prefilled syringe and is injected into deep subcutaneous tissue. Studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of self- or partner administration, and have demonstrated that injection of lanreotide can be accomplished reliably and safely outside a physician's office. For patients who have achieved biochemical control with lanreotide, the FDA has recently approved an extended dosing interval. Selected patients may be able to receive the medication less frequently with injections of 120 mg administered every 6 or 8 weeks. This review focuses on the use of lanreotide in the treatment of acromegaly, the safety and efficacy of the drug, and the benefits afforded to patients because of unique aspects of the delivery of lanreotide.Keywords: acromegaly, treatment, lanreotide, somatostatin analog, pituitary tumor

  8. Data Collection Method for Mobile Control Sink Node in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yongfa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a mobile control sink node data collection method in the wireless sensor network based on compressive sensing. This method, with regular track, selects the optimal data collection points in the monitoring area via the disc method, calcu-lates the shortest path by using the quantum genetic algorithm, and hence determines the data collection route. Simulation results show that this method has higher network throughput and better energy efficiency, capable of collecting a huge amount of data with balanced energy consumption in the network.

  9. IP2P K-means: an efficient method for data clustering on sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mirhadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many wireless sensor network applications require data gathering as the most important parts of their operations. There are increasing demands for innovative methods to improve energy efficiency and to prolong the network lifetime. Clustering is considered as an efficient topology control methods in wireless sensor networks, which can increase network scalability and lifetime. This paper presents a method, IP2P K-means – Improved P2P K-means, which uses efficient leveling in clustering approach, reduces false labeling and restricts the necessary communication among various sensors, which obviously saves more energy. The proposed method is examined in Network Simulator Ver.2 (NS2 and the preliminary results show that the algorithm works effectively and relatively more precisely.

  10. A method of reconstructing the spatial measurement network by mobile measurement transmitter for shipbuilding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Siyang; Lin, Jiarui; Yang, Linghui; Ren, Yongjie; Guo, Yin

    2017-01-01

    The workshop Measurement Position System (wMPS) is a distributed measurement system which is suitable for the large-scale metrology. However, there are some inevitable measurement problems in the shipbuilding industry, such as the restriction by obstacles and limited measurement range. To deal with these factors, this paper presents a method of reconstructing the spatial measurement network by mobile transmitter. A high-precision coordinate control network with more than six target points is established. The mobile measuring transmitter can be added into the measurement network using this coordinate control network with the spatial resection method. This method reconstructs the measurement network and broadens the measurement scope efficiently. To verify this method, two comparison experiments are designed with the laser tracker as the reference. The results demonstrate that the accuracy of point-to-point length is better than 0.4mm and the accuracy of coordinate measurement is better than 0.6mm. (paper)

  11. A multi-scale network method for two-phase flow in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, Karim, E-mail: khayratk@ifd.mavt.ethz.ch; Jenny, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Pore-network models of porous media are useful in the study of pore-scale flow in porous media. In order to extract macroscopic properties from flow simulations in pore-networks, it is crucial the networks are large enough to be considered representative elementary volumes. However, existing two-phase network flow solvers are limited to relatively small domains. For this purpose, a multi-scale pore-network (MSPN) method, which takes into account flow-rate effects and can simulate larger domains compared to existing methods, was developed. In our solution algorithm, a large pore network is partitioned into several smaller sub-networks. The algorithm to advance the fluid interfaces within each subnetwork consists of three steps. First, a global pressure problem on the network is solved approximately using the multiscale finite volume (MSFV) method. Next, the fluxes across the subnetworks are computed. Lastly, using fluxes as boundary conditions, a dynamic two-phase flow solver is used to advance the solution in time. Simulation results of drainage scenarios at different capillary numbers and unfavourable viscosity ratios are presented and used to validate the MSPN method against solutions obtained by an existing dynamic network flow solver.

  12. A multi-scale network method for two-phase flow in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayrat, Karim; Jenny, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Pore-network models of porous media are useful in the study of pore-scale flow in porous media. In order to extract macroscopic properties from flow simulations in pore-networks, it is crucial the networks are large enough to be considered representative elementary volumes. However, existing two-phase network flow solvers are limited to relatively small domains. For this purpose, a multi-scale pore-network (MSPN) method, which takes into account flow-rate effects and can simulate larger domains compared to existing methods, was developed. In our solution algorithm, a large pore network is partitioned into several smaller sub-networks. The algorithm to advance the fluid interfaces within each subnetwork consists of three steps. First, a global pressure problem on the network is solved approximately using the multiscale finite volume (MSFV) method. Next, the fluxes across the subnetworks are computed. Lastly, using fluxes as boundary conditions, a dynamic two-phase flow solver is used to advance the solution in time. Simulation results of drainage scenarios at different capillary numbers and unfavourable viscosity ratios are presented and used to validate the MSPN method against solutions obtained by an existing dynamic network flow solver.

  13. Network reliability analysis of complex systems using a non-simulation-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngsuk; Kang, Won-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Civil infrastructures such as transportation, water supply, sewers, telecommunications, and electrical and gas networks often establish highly complex networks, due to their multiple source and distribution nodes, complex topology, and functional interdependence between network components. To understand the reliability of such complex network system under catastrophic events such as earthquakes and to provide proper emergency management actions under such situation, efficient and accurate reliability analysis methods are necessary. In this paper, a non-simulation-based network reliability analysis method is developed based on the Recursive Decomposition Algorithm (RDA) for risk assessment of generic networks whose operation is defined by the connections of multiple initial and terminal node pairs. The proposed method has two separate decomposition processes for two logical functions, intersection and union, and combinations of these processes are used for the decomposition of any general system event with multiple node pairs. The proposed method is illustrated through numerical network examples with a variety of system definitions, and is applied to a benchmark gas transmission pipe network in Memphis TN to estimate the seismic performance and functional degradation of the network under a set of earthquake scenarios.

  14. GeneNetWeaver: in silico benchmark generation and performance profiling of network inference methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffter, Thomas; Marbach, Daniel; Floreano, Dario

    2011-08-15

    Over the last decade, numerous methods have been developed for inference of regulatory networks from gene expression data. However, accurate and systematic evaluation of these methods is hampered by the difficulty of constructing adequate benchmarks and the lack of tools for a differentiated analysis of network predictions on such benchmarks. Here, we describe a novel and comprehensive method for in silico benchmark generation and performance profiling of network inference methods available to the community as an open-source software called GeneNetWeaver (GNW). In addition to the generation of detailed dynamical models of gene regulatory networks to be used as benchmarks, GNW provides a network motif analysis that reveals systematic prediction errors, thereby indicating potential ways of improving inference methods. The accuracy of network inference methods is evaluated using standard metrics such as precision-recall and receiver operating characteristic curves. We show how GNW can be used to assess the performance and identify the strengths and weaknesses of six inference methods. Furthermore, we used GNW to provide the international Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods (DREAM) competition with three network inference challenges (DREAM3, DREAM4 and DREAM5). GNW is available at http://gnw.sourceforge.net along with its Java source code, user manual and supporting data. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. dario.floreano@epfl.ch.

  15. Modeling steady state SO2-dependent changes in capillary ATP concentration using novel O2 micro-delivery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonaim, Nour W.; Fraser, Graham M.; Ellis, Christopher G.; Yang, Jun; Goldman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to be released from the erythrocyte in an oxygen (O2) dependent manner. Since ATP is a potent vasodilator, it is proposed to be a key regulator in the pathway that mediates micro-vascular response to varying tissue O2 demand. We propose that ATP signaling mainly originates in the capillaries due to the relatively long erythrocyte transit times in the capillary and the short ATP diffusion distance to the electrically coupled endothelium. We have developed a computational model to investigate the effect of delivering or removing O2 to limited areas at the surface of a tissue with an idealized parallel capillary array on total ATP concentration. Simulations were conducted when exposing full surface to perturbations in tissue O2 tension (PO2) or locally using a circular micro-outlet (~100 μm in diameter), a square micro-slit (200 × 200 μm), or a rectangular micro-slit (1000 μm wide × 200 μm long). Results indicated the rectangular micro-slit has the optimal dimensions for altering hemoglobin saturations (SO2) in sufficient number capillaries to generate effective changes in total [ATP]. This suggests a threshold for the minimum number of capillaries that need to be stimulated in vivo by imposed tissue hypoxia to induce a conducted micro-vascular response. SO2 and corresponding [ATP] changes were also modeled in a terminal arteriole (9 μm in diameter) that replaces 4 surface capillaries in the idealized network geometry. Based on the results, the contribution of terminal arterioles to the net change in [ATP] in the micro-vascular network is minimal although they would participate as O2 sources thus influencing the O2 distribution. The modeling data presented here provide important insights into designing a novel micro-delivery device for studying micro-vascular O2 regulation in the capillaries in vivo. PMID:24069001

  16. A hybrid network-based method for the detection of disease-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Cai, Meng; Dai, Yang; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-02-01

    Detecting disease-related genes is crucial in disease diagnosis and drug design. The accepted view is that neighbors of a disease-causing gene in a molecular network tend to cause the same or similar diseases, and network-based methods have been recently developed to identify novel hereditary disease-genes in available biomedical networks. Despite the steady increase in the discovery of disease-associated genes, there is still a large fraction of disease genes that remains under the tip of the iceberg. In this paper we exploit the topological properties of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to detect disease-related genes. We compute, analyze, and compare the topological properties of disease genes with non-disease genes in PPI networks. We also design an improved random forest classifier based on these network topological features, and a cross-validation test confirms that our method performs better than previous similar studies.

  17. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification. The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1 elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that

  18. Local transplantation is an effective method for cell delivery in the osteogenesis imperfecta murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauley, Penelope; Matthews, Brya G; Wang, Liping; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Matic, Igor; Rowe, David W; Kalajzic, Ivo

    2014-09-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a serious genetic disorder that results from improper type I collagen production. We aimed to evaluate whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) delivered locally into femurs were able to engraft, differentiate into osteoblasts, and contribute to formation of normal bone matrix in the osteogenesis imperfect murine (oim) model. Donor BMSCs from bone-specific reporter mice (Col2.3GFP) were expanded in vitro and transplanted into the femoral intramedullary cavity of oim mice. Engraftment was evaluated after four weeks. We detected differentiation of donor BMSCs into Col2.3GFP+ osteoblasts and osteocytes in cortical and trabecular bone of transplanted oim femurs. New bone formation was detected by deposition of dynamic label in the proximity to the Col2.3GFP+ osteoblasts, and new bone showed more organized collagen structure and expression of type I α2 collagen. Col2.3GFP cells were not found in the contralateral femur indicating that transplanted osteogenic cells did not disseminate by circulation. No osteogenic engraftment was observed following intravenous transplantation of BMSCs. BMSC cultures derived from transplanted femurs showed numerous Col2.3GFP+ colonies, indicating the presence of donor progenitor cells. Secondary transplantation of cells recovered from recipient femurs and expanded in vitro also showed Col2.3GFP+ osteoblasts and osteocytes confirming the persistence of donor stem/progenitor cells. We show that BMSCs delivered locally in oim femurs are able to engraft, differentiate into osteoblasts and osteocytes and maintain their progenitor potential in vivo. This suggests that local delivery is a promising approach for introduction of autologous MSC in which mutations have been corrected.

  19. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseda, Clement A; Atukorale, Vajini; Kuhn, Jordan; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification). The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that MVA and MVA

  20. Methods for Inferring Health-Related Social Networks among Coworkers from Online Communication Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J.; DeWan, Peter; Rula, Elizabeth Y.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of social networks, mapped using self-reported contacts, have demonstrated the strong influence of social connections on the propensity for individuals to adopt or maintain healthy behaviors and on their likelihood to adopt health risks such as obesity. Social network analysis may prove useful for businesses and organizations that wish to improve the health of their populations by identifying key network positions. Health traits have been shown to correlate across friendship ties, but evaluating network effects in large coworker populations presents the challenge of obtaining sufficiently comprehensive network data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for using online communication data to generate comprehensive network maps that reproduce the health-associated properties of an offline social network. In this study, we examined three techniques for inferring social relationships from email traffic data in an employee population using thresholds based on: (1) the absolute number of emails exchanged, (2) logistic regression probability of an offline relationship, and (3) the highest ranked email exchange partners. As a model of the offline social network in the same population, a network map was created using social ties reported in a survey instrument. The email networks were evaluated based on the proportion of survey ties captured, comparisons of common network metrics, and autocorrelation of body mass index (BMI) across social ties. Results demonstrated that logistic regression predicted the greatest proportion of offline social ties, thresholding on number of emails exchanged produced the best match to offline network metrics, and ranked email partners demonstrated the strongest autocorrelation of BMI. Since each method had unique strengths, researchers should choose a method based on the aspects of offline behavior of interest. Ranked email partners may be particularly useful for purposes related to health traits in a social network. PMID

  1. Methods for inferring health-related social networks among coworkers from online communication patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J; DeWan, Peter; Rula, Elizabeth Y

    2013-01-01

    Studies of social networks, mapped using self-reported contacts, have demonstrated the strong influence of social connections on the propensity for individuals to adopt or maintain healthy behaviors and on their likelihood to adopt health risks such as obesity. Social network analysis may prove useful for businesses and organizations that wish to improve the health of their populations by identifying key network positions. Health traits have been shown to correlate across friendship ties, but evaluating network effects in large coworker populations presents the challenge of obtaining sufficiently comprehensive network data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for using online communication data to generate comprehensive network maps that reproduce the health-associated properties of an offline social network. In this study, we examined three techniques for inferring social relationships from email traffic data in an employee population using thresholds based on: (1) the absolute number of emails exchanged, (2) logistic regression probability of an offline relationship, and (3) the highest ranked email exchange partners. As a model of the offline social network in the same population, a network map was created using social ties reported in a survey instrument. The email networks were evaluated based on the proportion of survey ties captured, comparisons of common network metrics, and autocorrelation of body mass index (BMI) across social ties. Results demonstrated that logistic regression predicted the greatest proportion of offline social ties, thresholding on number of emails exchanged produced the best match to offline network metrics, and ranked email partners demonstrated the strongest autocorrelation of BMI. Since each method had unique strengths, researchers should choose a method based on the aspects of offline behavior of interest. Ranked email partners may be particularly useful for purposes related to health traits in a social network.

  2. Methods for inferring health-related social networks among coworkers from online communication patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J Matthews

    Full Text Available Studies of social networks, mapped using self-reported contacts, have demonstrated the strong influence of social connections on the propensity for individuals to adopt or maintain healthy behaviors and on their likelihood to adopt health risks such as obesity. Social network analysis may prove useful for businesses and organizations that wish to improve the health of their populations by identifying key network positions. Health traits have been shown to correlate across friendship ties, but evaluating network effects in large coworker populations presents the challenge of obtaining sufficiently comprehensive network data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for using online communication data to generate comprehensive network maps that reproduce the health-associated properties of an offline social network. In this study, we examined three techniques for inferring social relationships from email traffic data in an employee population using thresholds based on: (1 the absolute number of emails exchanged, (2 logistic regression probability of an offline relationship, and (3 the highest ranked email exchange partners. As a model of the offline social network in the same population, a network map was created using social ties reported in a survey instrument. The email networks were evaluated based on the proportion of survey ties captured, comparisons of common network metrics, and autocorrelation of body mass index (BMI across social ties. Results demonstrated that logistic regression predicted the greatest proportion of offline social ties, thresholding on number of emails exchanged produced the best match to offline network metrics, and ranked email partners demonstrated the strongest autocorrelation of BMI. Since each method had unique strengths, researchers should choose a method based on the aspects of offline behavior of interest. Ranked email partners may be particularly useful for purposes related to health traits in a

  3. Novel methods of utilizing Jitter for Network Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel paradigm for network congestion control. Instead of perpetual conflict as in TCP, a proof-of-concept first-ever protocol enabling inter-flow communication without infrastructure support thru a side channel constructed on generic FIFO queue behaviour is presented. This enables independent flows passing thru the same bottleneck queue to communicate and achieve fair capacity sharing and a stable equilibrium state in a rapid fashion.

  4. The Kernel Mixture Network: A Nonparametric Method for Conditional Density Estimation of Continuous Random Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrogioni, Luca; Güçlü, Umut; van Gerven, Marcel A. J.; Maris, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the kernel mixture network, a new method for nonparametric estimation of conditional probability densities using neural networks. We model arbitrarily complex conditional densities as linear combinations of a family of kernel functions centered at a subset of training points. The weights are determined by the outer layer of a deep neural network, trained by minimizing the negative log likelihood. This generalizes the popular quantized softmax approach, which can be seen ...

  5. Optimization of hot water transport and distribution networks by analytical method: OPTAL program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, Alain; Caizergues, Robert; Moret-Bailly, Jean

    1977-06-01

    This report presents optimization studies of hot water transport and distribution network by minimizing operating cost. Analytical optimization is used: Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers. Optimum diameter of each pipe is calculated for minimum network operating cost. The characteristics of the computer program used for calculations, OPTAL, are given in this report. An example of network is calculated and described: 52 branches and 27 customers. Results are discussed [fr

  6. Integrated Power Flow and Short Circuit Calculation Method for Distribution Network with Inverter Based Distributed Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shan; Tong, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    Power flow calculation and short circuit calculation are the basis of theoretical research for distribution network with inverter based distributed generation. The similarity of equivalent model for inverter based distributed generation during normal and fault conditions of distribution network and the differences between power flow and short circuit calculation are analyzed in this paper. Then an integrated power flow and short circuit calculation method for distribution network with inverte...

  7. A comparative analysis on computational methods for fitting an ERGM to biological network data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Saha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exponential random graph models (ERGM based on graph theory are useful in studying global biological network structure using its local properties. However, computational methods for fitting such models are sensitive to the type, structure and the number of the local features of a network under study. In this paper, we compared computational methods for fitting an ERGM with local features of different types and structures. Two commonly used methods, such as the Markov Chain Monte Carlo Maximum Likelihood Estimation and the Maximum Pseudo Likelihood Estimation are considered for estimating the coefficients of network attributes. We compared the estimates of observed network to our random simulated network using both methods under ERGM. The motivation was to ascertain the extent to which an observed network would deviate from a randomly simulated network if the physical numbers of attributes were approximately same. Cut-off points of some common attributes of interest for different order of nodes were determined through simulations. We implemented our method to a known regulatory network database of Escherichia coli (E. coli.

  8. Artificial neural network and classical least-squares methods for neurotransmitter mixture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, H G; Greek, L S; Gorzalka, B B; Bree, A V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F

    1995-02-01

    Identification of individual components in biological mixtures can be a difficult problem regardless of the analytical method employed. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was chosen as a prototype analytical method due to its inherent versatility and applicability to aqueous media, making it useful for the study of biological samples. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the classical least-squares (CLS) method were used to identify and quantify the Raman spectra of the small-molecule neurotransmitters and mixtures of such molecules. The transfer functions used by a network, as well as the architecture of a network, played an important role in the ability of the network to identify the Raman spectra of individual neurotransmitters and the Raman spectra of neurotransmitter mixtures. Specifically, networks using sigmoid and hyperbolic tangent transfer functions generalized better from the mixtures in the training data set to those in the testing data sets than networks using sine functions. Networks with connections that permit the local processing of inputs generally performed better than other networks on all the testing data sets. and better than the CLS method of curve fitting, on novel spectra of some neurotransmitters. The CLS method was found to perform well on noisy, shifted, and difference spectra.

  9. A method of generating moving objects on the constrained network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Ma, Linbing

    2008-10-01

    Moving objects databases have become an important research issue in recent years. In case large real data sets acquired by GPS, PDA or other mobile devices are not available, benchmarking requires the generation of artificial data sets following the real-world behavior of spatial objects that change their locations over time. In the field of spatiotemporal databases, a number of publications about the generation of test data are restricted to few papers. However, most of the existing moving-object generators assume a fixed and often unrealistic mobility model and do not consider several important characteristics of the network. In this paper, a new generator is presented to solve these problems. First of all, the network is realistic transportation network of Guangzhou. Second, the observation records of vehicle flow are available. Third, in order to simplify the whole simulation process and to help us visualize the process, this framework is built under .Net development platform of Microsoft and ArcEngine9 environment.

  10. An effective method to improve the robustness of small-world networks under attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zheng-Zhen; Xu Wen-Jun; Lin Jia-Ru; Zeng Shang-You

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the robustness of small-world networks to three types of attack is investigated. Global efficiency is introduced as the network coefficient to measure the robustness of a small-world network. The simulation results prove that an increase in rewiring probability or average degree can enhance the robustness of the small-world network under all three types of attack. The effectiveness of simultaneously increasing both rewiring probability and average degree is also studied, and the combined increase is found to significantly improve the robustness of the small-world network. Furthermore, the combined effect of rewiring probability and average degree on network robustness is shown to be several times greater than that of rewiring probability or average degree individually. This means that small-world networks with a relatively high rewiring probability and average degree have advantages both in network communications and in good robustness to attacks. Therefore, simultaneously increasing rewiring probability and average degree is an effective method of constructing realistic networks. Consequently, the proposed method is useful to construct efficient and robust networks in a realistic scenario. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. Maximum entropy methods for extracting the learned features of deep neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Alex; Song, Jun S

    2017-10-01

    New architectures of multilayer artificial neural networks and new methods for training them are rapidly revolutionizing the application of machine learning in diverse fields, including business, social science, physical sciences, and biology. Interpreting deep neural networks, however, currently remains elusive, and a critical challenge lies in understanding which meaningful features a network is actually learning. We present a general method for interpreting deep neural networks and extracting network-learned features from input data. We describe our algorithm in the context of biological sequence analysis. Our approach, based on ideas from statistical physics, samples from the maximum entropy distribution over possible sequences, anchored at an input sequence and subject to constraints implied by the empirical function learned by a network. Using our framework, we demonstrate that local transcription factor binding motifs can be identified from a network trained on ChIP-seq data and that nucleosome positioning signals are indeed learned by a network trained on chemical cleavage nucleosome maps. Imposing a further constraint on the maximum entropy distribution also allows us to probe whether a network is learning global sequence features, such as the high GC content in nucleosome-rich regions. This work thus provides valuable mathematical tools for interpreting and extracting learned features from feed-forward neural networks.

  12. Investigating the Relationship between Demographic Factors and Choice of Delivery Method in Pregnant Women in the City of Savojbolagh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dadashi Eynsheykh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the increased rate of cesarean section in recent decades and natural desire of women probably due to social, economic& cultural issues in our country. While that in many cases, vaginal delivery can be replaced by unnecessary cesarean. In the absence of need the trend of cesarean section has implications for both future healthy populations and the equitable distribution of maternity resources. The aim of the present study was to investigate demographic factors associated with the choice of delivery method.In this descriptive cross- sectional study with a random sampling, 283 pregnant women who were referred for control of pregnancy to two primary health care centers two health base were interviewed by Completing the questionnaire. After gathering information data by SPSS software &via descriptive statistical indicators were analyzed.35/7% of pregnant women who were studied willing to perform cesarean section. There was a significant relationship between the having a history of cesarean section and referral place for control of pregnancy with selection of the labor type (P 0.001. The reasons for selection of cesarean section were fear of labor pain, Prevention of genital rupture & physician recommendation.The rate of selecting cesarean section is higher than acceptable World Health Organization. Therefore, careful planning should be done to raise awareness, improve attitudes and change false beliefs in pregnant women & their husbands by health service's personnel.

  13. Preparation of Starch/Gelatin Blend Microparticles by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Method for Controlled Release Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phromsopha, Theeraphol; Baimark, Yodthong

    2014-01-01

    Information on the preparation and properties of starch/gelatin blend microparticles with and without crosslinking for drug delivery is presented. The blend microparticles were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method. Glutaraldehyde and methylene blue were used as the crosslinker and the water-soluble drug model, respectively. The blend microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The functional groups of the starch and gelatin blend matrices were determined from the FTIR spectra. Blend microparticles with a nearly spherical shape and internal porous structure were observed from SEM images. The average particle size of the gelatin microparticles depended on the crosslinker ratio but not on the starch/gelatin blend ratio. The in vitro drug release content significantly decreased as the crosslinker ratio increased and the starch blend ratio decreased. The results demonstrated that the starch/gelatin blend microparticles should be a useful controlled release delivery carrier for water-soluble drugs.

  14. Online solving of economic dispatch problem using neural network approach and comparing it with classical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Varahram, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two methods for solving economic dispatch problems, namely Hopfield neural network and lambda iteration method are compared. Three sample of power system with 3, 6 and 20 units have been considered. The time required for CPU, for solving economic dispatch of these two systems has been calculated. It has been Shown that for on-line economic dispatch, Hopfield neural network is more efficient and the time required for Convergence is considerably smaller compared to classical methods. (author)

  15. METHODS OF MANAGING TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosenko, Viktor; Persiyanova, Elena; Belotskyy, Oleksiy; Malyeyeva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The subject matter of the article is information and communication networks (ICN) of critical infrastructure systems (CIS). The goal of the work is to create methods for managing the data flows and resources of the ICN of CIS to improve the efficiency of information processing. The following tasks were solved in the article: the data flow model of multi-level ICN structure was developed, the method of adaptive distribution of data flows was developed, the method of network resource assignment...

  16. A systemic method for evaluating the potential impacts of floods on network infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eleutério

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding network infrastructures and their operation under exceptional circumstances is fundamental for dealing with flood risks and improving the resilience of a territory. This work presents a method for evaluating potential network infrastructure dysfunctions and damage in cases of flooding. In contrast to existing approaches, this method analyses network infrastructures on an elementary scale, by considering networks as a group of elements with specific functions and individual vulnerabilities. Our analysis places assets at the centre of the evaluation process, resulting in the construction of damage-dysfunction matrices based on expert interviews. These matrices permit summarising the different vulnerabilities of network infrastructures, describing how the different components are linked to each other and how they can disrupt the operation of the network. They also identify the actions and resources needed to restore the system to operational status following damage and dysfunctions, an essential point when dealing with the question of resilience. The method promotes multi-network analyses and is illustrated by a French case study. Sixty network experts were interviewed during the analysis of the following networks: drinking water supply, waste water, public lighting, gas distribution and electricity supply.

  17. Input data preprocessing method for exchange rate forecasting via neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Dragan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a method for neural network input parameters selection and preprocessing. The purpose of this network is to forecast foreign exchange rates using artificial intelligence. Two data sets are formed for two different economic systems. Each system is represented by six categories with 70 economic parameters which are used in the analysis. Reduction of these parameters within each category was performed by using the principal component analysis method. Component interdependencies are established and relations between them are formed. Newly formed relations were used to create input vectors of a neural network. The multilayer feed forward neural network is formed and trained using batch training. Finally, simulation results are presented and it is concluded that input data preparation method is an effective way for preprocessing neural network data. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br.TR 35005, br. III 43007 i br. III 44006

  18. Social network extraction based on Web: 3. the integrated superficial method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Sitompul, O. S.; Noah, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Web as a source of information has become part of the social behavior information. Although, by involving only the limitation of information disclosed by search engines in the form of: hit counts, snippets, and URL addresses of web pages, the integrated extraction method produces a social network not only trusted but enriched. Unintegrated extraction methods may produce social networks without explanation, resulting in poor supplemental information, or resulting in a social network of durmise laden, consequently unrepresentative social structures. The integrated superficial method in addition to generating the core social network, also generates an expanded network so as to reach the scope of relation clues, or number of edges computationally almost similar to n(n - 1)/2 for n social actors.

  19. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I [Chicago, IL; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A [Chicago, IL; Behanna, Heather A [Chicago, IL; Anthony, Shawn G [New Stanton, PA

    2009-06-09

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  20. Boundedness and convergence of online gradient method with penalty for feedforward neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huisheng; Wu, Wei; Liu, Fei; Yao, Mingchen

    2009-06-01

    In this brief, we consider an online gradient method with penalty for training feedforward neural networks. Specifically, the penalty is a term proportional to the norm of the weights. Its roles in the method are to control the magnitude of the weights and to improve the generalization performance of the network. By proving that the weights are automatically bounded in the network training with penalty, we simplify the conditions that are required for convergence of online gradient method in literature. A numerical example is given to support the theoretical analysis.

  1. A Biologically Inspired Energy-Efficient Duty Cycle Design Method for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of emerging wireless sensor networks technology has encouraged researchers to develop new energy-efficient duty cycle design algorithm in this field. The energy-efficient duty cycle design problem is a typical NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we investigate an improved elite immune evolutionary algorithm (IEIEA strategy to optimize energy-efficient duty cycle design scheme and monitored area jointly to enhance the network lifetimes. Simulation results show that the network lifetime of the proposed IEIEA method increased compared to the other two methods, which means that the proposed method improves the full coverage constraints.

  2. An configuration method of patient service cloud for the home patient with multi sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noji, Tamotsu; Arino, Masashi; Saito, Mayuko; Horii, Minoru; Ogino, Tadashi; Suto, Yasuzo; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Mansei, Kouiti

    2010-01-01

    We are advancing the research of patient service cloud in the global medical collaboration network system based on 3D electronic referral letters. In this paper it proposes one configuration method of private cloud that aims at the home care patient's health care and independence support based on voice navigation system (VONAVS). We evaluate 3D image compression rate, try image compositing Cloud's configuration by the multi sensor network, and search for the configuration method of the remote image diagnosis. The proposed configuration method expands the possibility to the global medical collaboration network system for new large areas such as a telemedicine, an emergency care, and home medical care. (author)

  3. Methods and procedures for the verification and validation of artificial neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    Neural networks are members of a class of software that have the potential to enable intelligent computational systems capable of simulating characteristics of biological thinking and learning. This volume introduces some of the methods and techniques used for the verification and validation of neural networks and adaptive systems.

  4. Assessment of network inference methods: how to cope with an underdetermined problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Siegenthaler

    Full Text Available The inference of biological networks is an active research area in the field of systems biology. The number of network inference algorithms has grown tremendously in the last decade, underlining the importance of a fair assessment and comparison among these methods. Current assessments of the performance of an inference method typically involve the application of the algorithm to benchmark datasets and the comparison of the network predictions against the gold standard or reference networks. While the network inference problem is often deemed underdetermined, implying that the inference problem does not have a (unique solution, the consequences of such an attribute have not been rigorously taken into consideration. Here, we propose a new procedure for assessing the performance of gene regulatory network (GRN inference methods. The procedure takes into account the underdetermined nature of the inference problem, in which gene regulatory interactions that are inferable or non-inferable are determined based on causal inference. The assessment relies on a new definition of the confusion matrix, which excludes errors associated with non-inferable gene regulations. For demonstration purposes, the proposed assessment procedure is applied to the DREAM 4 In Silico Network Challenge. The results show a marked change in the ranking of participating methods when taking network inferability into account.

  5. Application of Integrated Neural Network Method to Fault Diagnosis of Nuclear Steam Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Gang; Yang Li

    2009-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method based on integrated neural networks for nuclear steam generator (SG) was proposed in view of the shortcoming of the conventional fault monitoring and diagnosis method. In the method, two neural networks (ANNs) were employed for the fault diagnosis of steam generator. A neural network, which was used for predicting the values of steam generator operation parameters, was taken as the dynamics model of steam generator. The principle of fault monitoring method using the neural network model is to detect the deviations between process signals measured from an operating steam generator and corresponding output signals from the neural network model of steam generator. When the deviation exceeds the limit set in advance, the abnormal event is thought to occur. The other neural network as a fault classifier conducts the fault classification of steam generator. So, the fault types of steam generator are given by the fault classifier. The clear information on steam generator faults was obtained by fusing the monitoring and diagnosis results of two neural networks. The simulation results indicate that employing integrated neural networks can improve the capacity of fault monitoring and diagnosis for the steam generator. (authors)

  6. Dynamic neural network-based methods for compensation of nonlinear effects in multimode communication lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidelnikov, O. S.; Redyuk, A. A.; Sygletos, S.

    2017-12-01

    We consider neural network-based schemes of digital signal processing. It is shown that the use of a dynamic neural network-based scheme of signal processing ensures an increase in the optical signal transmission quality in comparison with that provided by other methods for nonlinear distortion compensation.

  7. Smart Collection and Storage Method for Network Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    to the root of an incident or under- stand what goes on in a network may mean looking at data from weeks, months, or even years ago, as has been the...KB 1.01% 69.42 TB 694.20 TB 6,941.99 TB SuSE 6.3 .pcap 51,706 KB 1.01% 104.03 TB 1,040.27 TB 10,402.68 TB HP-UX nettl .trc0 53,391 KB 1.04% 451.13

  8. Energy-efficient algorithm for classification of states of wireless sensor network using machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuldashev, M. N.; Vlasov, A. I.; Novikov, A. N.

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on the development of an energy-efficient algorithm for classification of states of a wireless sensor network using machine learning methods. The proposed algorithm reduces energy consumption by: 1) elimination of monitoring of parameters that do not affect the state of the sensor network, 2) reduction of communication sessions over the network (the data are transmitted only if their values can affect the state of the sensor network). The studies of the proposed algorithm have shown that at classification accuracy close to 100%, the number of communication sessions can be reduced by 80%.

  9. The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several different methods have been used to sense load currents and extract its ... in order to produce a reference current in shunt active power filters (SAPF), and ... technique compared to other similar methods are found quite satisfactory by ...

  10. Preferred delivery method and acceptability of Wheat-Soy Blend (WSB++) as a daily complementary food supplement in northwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Hanif, Abu A M; Merrill, Rebecca D; Campbell, Rebecca K; Kumkum, Mehnaz Alam; Shaikh, Saijuddin; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Parveen, Monira; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are widely used to prevent undernutrition in early childhood in food-insecure settings. We field tested enhanced Wheat Soy Blend (WSB++)-a FBF fortified with micronutrients, milk powder, sugar, and oil-in preparation for a complementary food supplement (CFS) trial in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Formative work was conducted to determine the optimal delivery method (cooked vs. not) for this CFS, to examine mothers' child feeding practices with and acceptance of the WSB++, and to identify potential barriers to adherence. Our results suggest WSB++ is an acceptable CFS in rural Bangladesh and the requirement for mothers to cook WSB++ at home is unlikely to be a barrier to its daily use as a CFS in this population.

  11. Safety of a silicone elastomer vaginal ring as potential microbicide delivery method in African women: A Phase 1 randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Annaléne; Martins, Janine; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ramjee, Gita; Masenga, Gileard; Rees, Helen; van Niekerk, Neliëtte

    2018-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa are in urgent need of female-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventative methods. Vaginal rings are one dosage form in development for delivery of HIV microbicides. However, African women have limited experience with vaginal rings. This Phase I, randomized, crossover trial assessed and compared the safety, acceptability and adherence of a silicone elastomer placebo vaginal ring, intended as a microbicide delivery method, inserted for a 12-week period in healthy, HIV-negative, sexually active women in South Africa and Tanzania. 170 women, aged 18 to 35 years were enrolled with 88 women randomized to Group A, using a placebo vaginal ring for 12 weeks followed by a 12-week safety observation period. 82 women were randomized to Group B and observed for safety first, followed by a placebo vaginal ring for 12 weeks. Safety was assessed by clinical laboratory assessments, pelvic/colposcopy examinations and adverse events. Possible carry-over effect was addressed by ensuring no signs or symptoms of genital irritation at crossover. No safety concerns were identified for any safety variables assessed during the trial. No serious adverse events were reported considered related to the placebo vaginal ring. Vaginal candidiasis was the most common adverse event occurring in 11% of participants during each trial period. Vaginal discharge (2%), vaginal odour (2%), and bacterial vaginitis (2%) were assessed as possibly or probably related to the vaginal ring. Thirty-four percent of participants had sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at screening, compared to 12% of participants who tested positive for STIs at crossover and the final trial visit. Three participants (2%) tested HIV positive during the trial. The silicone elastomer vaginal ring had no safety concerns, demonstrating a profile favorable for further development for topical release of antiretroviral-based microbicides.

  12. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.

  13. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method with MAP (message authentication and passing for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.

  14. A Newly Developed Method for Computing Reliability Measures in a Water Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliability model of a water supply network has beens examined. Its main features are: a topology that can be decomposed by the so-called state factorization into a (relativelysmall number of derivative networks, each having a series-parallel structure (1, binary-state components (either operative or failed with given flow capacities (2, a multi-state character of the whole network and its sub-networks - a network state is defined as the maximal flow between a source (sources and a sink (sinks (3, all capacities (component, network, and sub-network have integer values (4. As the network operates, its state changes due to component failures, repairs, and replacements. A newly developed method of computing the inter-state transition intensities has been presented. It is based on the so-called state factorization and series-parallel aggregation. The analysis of these intensities shows that the failure-repair process of the considered system is an asymptotically homogenous Markov process. It is also demonstrated how certain reliability parameters useful for the network maintenance planning can be determined on the basis of the asymptotic intensities. For better understanding of the presented method, an illustrative example is given. (original abstract

  15. Nuclear power plant monitoring method by neural network and its application to actual nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Katsuo; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Tuerkcan, E.

    1995-11-01

    In this paper, the anomaly detection method for nuclear power plant monitoring and its program are described by using a neural network approach, which is based on the deviation between measured signals and output signals of neural network model. The neural network used in this study has three layered auto-associative network with 12 input/output, and backpropagation algorithm is adopted for learning. Furthermore, to obtain better dynamical model of the reactor plant, a new learning technique was developed in which the learning process of the present neural network is divided into initial and adaptive learning modes. The test results at the actual nuclear reactor shows that the neural network plant monitoring system is successfull in detecting in real-time the symptom of small anomaly over a wide power range including reactor start-up, shut-down and stationary operation. (author)

  16. College-Based Personal Finance Education: Student Interest in Three Delivery Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Joseph; Cude, Brenda J.; Nielsen, Robert B.; Chatterjee, Swarn; Mimura, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Using online survey responses from 509 undergraduate students, three financial education methods (on-campus financial counseling center, online financial management resources, and in-person educational workshops) were examined. Using a social constructionist framework, the analysis controlled for various demographic and financial factors. The…

  17. An Evaluation of the AFIT Teleteach Expanded Delivery System (TEDS) Method of Instruction (Phase 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    34An Analysis of Five Years’ Experience with the Telelecture Method in Wisconsin," American Journal of Pharma - ceutical Education, May 1974, pp. 208...tu,- dents’ Reactions to Tutoring by Telephone in Britain’s O-pen UnIversity," Educat ional Technology, October 1975, Pp. 42-45. 149 BIOGRAPHICAL

  18. Method for delivery of small molecules and proteins across the cell wall of algae using molecular transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geihe, Erika; Trantow, Brian; Wender, Paul; Hyman, Joel M.; Parvin, Bahram

    2017-11-14

    The introduction of tools to study, control or expand the inner-workings of algae has been slow to develop. Provided are embodiments of a molecular method based on guanidinium-rich molecular transporters (GR-MoTrs) for bringing molecular cargos into algal cells. The methods of the disclosure have been shown to work in wild-type algae that have an intact cell wall. Developed using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this method is also successful with less studied algae, including Neochloris oleoabundans and Scenedesmus dimorphus, thus providing a new and versatile tool for algal research and modification. The method of delivering a cargo compound to an algal cell comprises contacting an algal cell with a guanidinium-rich delivery vehicle comprising a guanidinium-rich molecular transporter (GR-MoTr) linked to a cargo compound desired to be delivered to the algal cell, whereby the guanidinium-rich molecular transporter can traverse the algal cell wall, thereby delivering the cargo compound to the algal cell.

  19. Self-management toolkit and delivery strategy for end-of-life pain: the mixed-methods feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael I; Mulvey, Matthew R; Campling, Natasha; Latter, Sue; Richardson, Alison; Bekker, Hilary; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Carder, Paul; Closs, Jose; Farrin, Amanda; Flemming, Kate; Gallagher, Jean; Meads, David; Morley, Stephen; O'Dwyer, John; Wright-Hughes, Alexandra; Hartley, Suzanne

    2017-12-01

    Pain affects most people approaching the end of life and can be severe for some. Opioid analgesia is effective, but evidence is needed about how best to support patients in managing these medicines. To develop a self-management support toolkit (SMST) and delivery strategy and to test the feasibility of evaluating this intervention in a future definitive trial. Phase I - evidence synthesis and qualitative interviews with patients and carers. Phase II - qualitative semistructured focus groups and interviews with patients, carers and specialist palliative care health professionals. Phase III - multicentre mixed-methods single-arm pre-post observational feasibility study. Phase I - six patients and carers. Phase II - 15 patients, four carers and 19 professionals. Phase III - 19 patients recruited to intervention that experienced pain, living at home and were treated with strong opioid analgesia. Process evaluation interviews with 13 patients, seven carers and 11 study nurses. Self-Management of Analgesia and Related Treatments at the end of life (SMART) intervention comprising a SMST and a four-step educational delivery approach by clinical nurse specialists in palliative care over 6 weeks. Recruitment rate, treatment fidelity, treatment acceptability, patient-reported outcomes (such as scores on the Brief Pain Inventory, Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease Scale, Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, EuroQol-5 Dimensions, Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale, and feasibility of collecting data on health-care resource use for economic evaluation). Phase I - key themes on supported self-management were identified from evidence synthesis and qualitative interviews. Phase II - the SMST was developed and refined. The delivery approach was nested within a nurse-patient consultation. Phase III - intervention was delivered to 17 (89%) patients, follow-up data at 6 weeks were available on 15 patients. Overall, the intervention was viewed as acceptable and

  20. A Method for Routing Packets Across Multiple Paths in NoCs with In-Order Delivery and Fault-Tolerance Gaurantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Murali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Networks on Chips (NoCs are required to tackle the increasing delay and poor scalability issues of bus-based communication architectures. Many of today's NoC designs are based on single path routing. By utilizing multiple paths for routing, congestion in the network is reduced significantly, which translates to improved network performance or reduced network bandwidth requirements and power consumption. Multiple paths can also be utilized to achieve spatial redundancy, which helps in achieving tolerance against faults or errors in the NoC. A major problem with multipath routing is that packets can reach the destination in an out-of-order fashion, while many applications require in-order packet delivery. In this work, we present a multipath routing strategy that guarantees in-order packet delivery for NoCs. It is based on the idea of routing packets on partially nonintersecting paths and rebuilding packet order at path reconvergent nodes. We present a design methodology that uses the routing strategy to optimally spread the traffic in the NoC to minimize the network bandwidth needs and power consumption. We also integrate support for tolerance against transient and permanent failures in the NoC links in the methodology by utilizing spatial and temporal redundancy for transporting packets. Our experimental studies show large reduction in network bandwidth requirements (36.86% on average and power consumption (30.51% on average compared to single-path systems. The area overhead of the proposed scheme is small (a modest 5% increase in network area. Hence, it is practical to be used in the on-chip domain.

  1. The QAP weighted network analysis method and its application in international services trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Helian; Cheng, Long

    2016-04-01

    Based on QAP (Quadratic Assignment Procedure) correlation and complex network theory, this paper puts forward a new method named QAP Weighted Network Analysis Method. The core idea of the method is to analyze influences among relations in a social or economic group by building a QAP weighted network of networks of relations. In the QAP weighted network, a node depicts a relation and an undirect edge exists between any pair of nodes if there is significant correlation between relations. As an application of the QAP weighted network, we study international services trade by using the QAP weighted network, in which nodes depict 10 kinds of services trade relations. After the analysis of international services trade by QAP weighted network, and by using distance indicators, hierarchy tree and minimum spanning tree, the conclusion shows that: Firstly, significant correlation exists in all services trade, and the development of any one service trade will stimulate the other nine. Secondly, as the economic globalization goes deeper, correlations in all services trade have been strengthened continually, and clustering effects exist in those services trade. Thirdly, transportation services trade, computer and information services trade and communication services trade have the most influence and are at the core in all services trade.

  2. Evaluation of gene association methods for coexpression network construction and biological knowledge discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Kumari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Constructing coexpression networks and performing network analysis using large-scale gene expression data sets is an effective way to uncover new biological knowledge; however, the methods used for gene association in constructing these coexpression networks have not been thoroughly evaluated. Since different methods lead to structurally different coexpression networks and provide different information, selecting the optimal gene association method is critical. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we compared eight gene association methods - Spearman rank correlation, Weighted Rank Correlation, Kendall, Hoeffding's D measure, Theil-Sen, Rank Theil-Sen, Distance Covariance, and Pearson - and focused on their true knowledge discovery rates in associating pathway genes and construction coordination networks of regulatory genes. We also examined the behaviors of different methods to microarray data with different properties, and whether the biological processes affect the efficiency of different methods. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the Spearman, Hoeffding and Kendall methods are effective in identifying coexpressed pathway genes, whereas the Theil-sen, Rank Theil-Sen, Spearman, and Weighted Rank methods perform well in identifying coordinated transcription factors that control the same biological processes and traits. Surprisingly, the widely used Pearson method is generally less efficient, and so is the Distance Covariance method that can find gene pairs of multiple relationships. Some analyses we did clearly show Pearson and Distance Covariance methods have distinct behaviors as compared to all other six methods. The efficiencies of different methods vary with the data properties to some degree and are largely contingent upon the biological processes, which necessitates the pre-analysis to identify the best performing method for gene association and coexpression network construction.

  3. A Belief Network Decision Support Method Applied to Aerospace Surveillance and Battle Management Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Staker, R

    2003-01-01

    This report demonstrates the application of a Bayesian Belief Network decision support method for Force Level Systems Engineering to a collection of projects related to Aerospace Surveillance and Battle Management...

  4. Methods for the Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation-Mediated Cellular Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Forest M.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Protein phosphorylation-mediated cellular signaling networks regulate almost all aspects of cell biology, including the responses to cellular stimulation and environmental alterations. These networks are highly complex and comprise hundreds of proteins and potentially thousands of phosphorylation sites. Multiple analytical methods have been developed over the past several decades to identify proteins and protein phosphorylation sites regulating cellular signaling, and to quantify the dynamic response of these sites to different cellular stimulation. Here we provide an overview of these methods, including the fundamental principles governing each method, their relative strengths and weaknesses, and some examples of how each method has been applied to the analysis of complex signaling networks. When applied correctly, each of these techniques can provide insight into the topology, dynamics, and regulation of protein phosphorylation signaling networks.

  5. A BHR Composite Network-Based Visualization Method for Deformation Risk Level of Underground Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    Full Text Available This study proposes a visualization processing method for the deformation risk level of underground space. The proposed method is based on a BP-Hopfield-RGB (BHR composite network. Complex environmental factors are integrated in the BP neural network. Dynamic monitoring data are then automatically classified in the Hopfield network. The deformation risk level is combined with the RGB color space model and is displayed visually in real time, after which experiments are conducted with the use of an ultrasonic omnidirectional sensor device for structural deformation monitoring. The proposed method is also compared with some typical methods using a benchmark dataset. Results show that the BHR composite network visualizes the deformation monitoring process in real time and can dynamically indicate dangerous zones.

  6. NEURAL NETWORKS CONTROL OF THE HYBRID POWER UNIT BASED ON THE METHOD OF ADAPTIVE CRITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formal statement of the optimization problem of hybrid vehicle power unit control is given. Its solving by neural networks method application on the basis of adaptive critic is considered.

  7. A new metric method-improved structural holes researches on software networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhao, Hai; Cai, Wei; Li, Dazhou; Li, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The scale software systems quickly increase with the rapid development of software technologies. Hence, how to understand, measure, manage and control software structure is a great challenge for software engineering. there are also many researches on software networks metrics: C&K, MOOD, McCabe and etc, the aim of this paper is to propose a new and better method to metric software networks. The metric method structural holes are firstly introduced to in this paper, which can not directly be applied as a result of modular characteristics on software network. Hence, structural holes is redefined in this paper and improved, calculation process and results are described in detail. The results shows that the new method can better reflect bridge role of vertexes on software network and there is a significant correlation between degree and improved structural holes. At last, a hydropower simulation system is taken as an example to show validity of the new metric method.

  8. Leadership of healthcare commissioning networks in England: a mixed-methods study on clinical commissioning groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariadis, Markos; Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Zollinger-Read, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relational challenges for general practitioner (GP) leaders setting up new network-centric commissioning organisations in the recent health policy reform in England, we use innovation network theory to identify key network leadership practices that facilitate healthcare innovation. Design Mixed-method, multisite and case study research. Setting Six clinical commissioning groups and local clusters in the East of England area, covering in total 208 GPs and 1 662 000 population. Methods Semistructured interviews with 56 lead GPs, practice managers and staff from the local health authorities (primary care trusts, PCT) as well as various healthcare professionals; 21 observations of clinical commissioning group (CCG) board and executive meetings; electronic survey of 58 CCG board members (these included GPs, practice managers, PCT employees, nurses and patient representatives) and subsequent social network analysis. Main outcome measures Collaborative relationships between CCG board members and stakeholders from their healthcare network; clarifying the role of GPs as network leaders; strengths and areas for development of CCGs. Results Drawing upon innovation network theory provides unique insights of the CCG leaders’ activities in establishing best practices and introducing new clinical pathways. In this context we identified three network leadership roles: managing knowledge flows, managing network coherence and managing network stability. Knowledge sharing and effective collaboration among GPs enable network stability and the alignment of CCG objectives with those of the wider health system (network coherence). Even though activities varied between commissioning groups, collaborative initiatives were common. However, there was significant variation among CCGs around the level of engagement with providers, patients and local authorities. Locality (sub) groups played an important role because they linked commissioning decisions with

  9. Turbofan engine diagnostics neuron network size optimization method which takes into account overlaerning effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.С. Якушенко

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the problem of gas turbine engine (GTE technical state class automatic recognition with operation parameters by neuron networks. The one of main problems for creation the neuron networks is determination of their optimal structures size (amount of layers in network and count of neurons in each layer.The method of neuron network size optimization intended for classification of GTE technical state is considered in the article. Optimization is cared out with taking into account of overlearning effect possibility when a learning network loses property of generalization and begins strictly describing educational data set. To determinate a moment when overlearning effect is appeared in learning neuron network the method  of three data sets is used. The method is based on the comparison of recognition quality parameters changes which were calculated during recognition of educational and control data sets. As the moment when network overlearning effect is appeared the moment when control data set recognition quality begins deteriorating but educational data set recognition quality continues still improving is used. To determinate this moment learning process periodically is terminated and simulation of network with education and control data sets is fulfilled. The optimization of two-, three- and four-layer networks is conducted and some results of optimization are shown. Also the extended educational set is created and shown. The set describes 16 GTE technical state classes and each class is represented with 200 points (200 possible technical state class realizations instead of 20 points using in the former articles. It was done to increase representativeness of data set.In the article the algorithm of optimization is considered and some results which were obtained with it are shown. The results of experiments were analyzed to determinate most optimal neuron network structure. This structure provides most high-quality GTE

  10. Statistical and optimization methods to expedite neural network training for transient identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Vitela, E.J.; Lee, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two complementary methods, statistical feature selection and nonlinear optimization through conjugate gradients, are used to expedite feedforward neural network training. Statistical feature selection techniques in the form of linear correlation coefficients and information-theoretic entropy are used to eliminate redundant and non-informative plant parameters to reduce the size of the network. The method of conjugate gradients is used to accelerate the network training convergence and to systematically calculate the Teaming and momentum constants at each iteration. The proposed techniques are compared with the backpropagation algorithm using the entire set of plant parameters in the training of neural networks to identify transients simulated with the Midland Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 simulator. By using 25% of the plant parameters and the conjugate gradients, a 30-fold reduction in CPU time was obtained without degrading the diagnostic ability of the network

  11. Prioritized Degree Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks with a Network Coded Data Collection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jan; Xiong, Naixue; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Qinchao; Wan, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be greatly affected by failures of sensor nodes due to energy exhaustion or the influence of brutal external environment conditions. Such failures seriously affect the data persistence and collection efficiency. Strategies based on network coding technology for WSNs such as LTCDS can improve the data persistence without mass redundancy. However, due to the bad intermediate performance of LTCDS, a serious ‘cliff effect’ may appear during the decoding period, and source data are hard to recover from sink nodes before sufficient encoded packets are collected. In this paper, the influence of coding degree distribution strategy on the ‘cliff effect’ is observed and the prioritized data storage and dissemination algorithm PLTD-ALPHA is presented to achieve better data persistence and recovering performance. With PLTD-ALPHA, the data in sensor network nodes present a trend that their degree distribution increases along with the degree level predefined, and the persistent data packets can be submitted to the sink node according to its degree in order. Finally, the performance of PLTD-ALPHA is evaluated and experiment results show that PLTD-ALPHA can greatly improve the data collection performance and decoding efficiency, while data persistence is not notably affected. PMID:23235451

  12. Prioritized degree distribution in wireless sensor networks with a network coded data collection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jan; Xiong, Naixue; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Qinchao; Wan, Zheng

    2012-12-12

    The reliability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be greatly affected by failures of sensor nodes due to energy exhaustion or the influence of brutal external environment conditions. Such failures seriously affect the data persistence and collection efficiency. Strategies based on network coding technology for WSNs such as LTCDS can improve the data persistence without mass redundancy. However, due to the bad intermediate performance of LTCDS, a serious 'cliff effect' may appear during the decoding period, and source data are hard to recover from sink nodes before sufficient encoded packets are collected. In this paper, the influence of coding degree distribution strategy on the 'cliff effect' is observed and the prioritized data storage and dissemination algorithm PLTD-ALPHA is presented to achieve better data persistence and recovering performance. With PLTD-ALPHA, the data in sensor network nodes present a trend that their degree distribution increases along with the degree level predefined, and the persistent data packets can be submitted to the sink node according to its degree in order. Finally, the performance of PLTD-ALPHA is evaluated and experiment results show that PLTD-ALPHA can greatly improve the data collection performance and decoding efficiency, while data persistence is not notably affected.

  13. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation ... The mother can walk, rock, and try different delivery positions during labor to help encourage the baby ...

  14. Artificial Neural Network Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is one of the industries that provide high export value by occupying the third position in Indonesia. The process of inspection on traditional textile enterprises by relying on human vision that takes an average scanning time of 19.87 seconds. Each roll of cloth should be inspected twice to avoid missed defects. This inspection process causes the buildup at the inspection station. This study proposes the automation of inspection systems using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The input for ANN comes from GLCM extraction. The automation system on the defect inspection resulted in a detection time of 0.56 seconds. The degree of accuracy gained in classifying the three types of defects is 88.7%. Implementing an automated inspection system results in faster processing time.

  15. System and method for time synchronization in a wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonia, Patrick S.; Kolavennu, Soumitri N.; Mahasenan, Arun V.; Budampati, Ramakrishna S.

    2010-03-30

    A system includes multiple wireless nodes forming a cluster in a wireless network, where each wireless node is configured to communicate and exchange data wirelessly based on a clock. One of the wireless nodes is configured to operate as a cluster master. Each of the other wireless nodes is configured to (i) receive time synchronization information from a parent node, (ii) adjust its clock based on the received time synchronization information, and (iii) broadcast time synchronization information based on the time synchronization information received by that wireless node. The time synchronization information received by each of the other wireless nodes is based on time synchronization information provided by the cluster master so that the other wireless nodes substantially synchronize their clocks with the clock of the cluster master.

  16. Methods for Examining Electrophysiological Coherence in Epileptic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine eSong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy may reflect a focal abnormality of cerebral tissue, but the generation of seizures typically involves propagation of abnormal activity through cerebral networks. We examined epileptiform discharges (spikes with dense array electroencephalography (dEEG in five patients to search for the possible engagement of pathological networks. Source analysis was conducted with individual electrical head models for each patient, including sensor position measurement for registration with MRI with geodesic photogrammetry; tissue segmentation and skull conductivity modeling with an atlas skull CT warped to each patient’s MRI; cortical surface extraction and tessellation into 1 square cm equivalent dipole patches; inverse source estimation with either minimum norm or cortical surface Laplacian constraints; and spectral coherence computed among equivalent dipoles aggregated within Brodmann areas with 1 Hz resolution from 1 to 70 Hz. These analyses revealed characteristic source coherence patterns in each patient during the pre-spike, spike, and post-spike intervals. For one patient with both spikes and seizure onset localized to a single temporal lobe, we observed a cluster of apparently abnormal coherences over the involved temporal lobe. For the other patients, there were apparently characteristic coherence patterns associated with the discharges, and in some cases these appeared to reflect abnormal temporal lobe synchronization, but the coherence patterns for these patients were not easily related to an unequivocal epileptogenic zone. In contrast, simple localization of the site of onset of the spike discharge, and/or the site of onset of the seizure, with noninvasive 256 dEEG was useful in predicting the characteristic site of seizure onset for those cases that were verified by intracranial EEG and/or by surgical outcome.

  17. Methods for Examining Electrophysiological Coherence in Epileptic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jasmine; Tucker, Don M.; Gilbert, Tara; Hou, Jidong; Mattson, Chelsea; Luu, Phan; Holmes, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy may reflect a focal abnormality of cerebral tissue, but the generation of seizures typically involves propagation of abnormal activity through cerebral networks. We examined epileptiform discharges (spikes) with dense array electroencephalography (dEEG) in five patients to search for the possible engagement of pathological networks. Source analysis was conducted with individual electrical head models for each patient, including sensor position measurement for registration with MRI with geodesic photogrammetry; tissue segmentation and skull conductivity modeling with an atlas skull warped to each patient’s MRI; cortical surface extraction and tessellation into 1 cm2 equivalent dipole patches; inverse source estimation with either minimum norm or cortical surface Laplacian constraints; and spectral coherence computed among equivalent dipoles aggregated within Brodmann areas with 1 Hz resolution from 1 to 70 Hz. These analyses revealed characteristic source coherence patterns in each patient during the pre-spike, spike, and post-spike intervals. For one patient with both spikes and seizure onset localized to a single temporal lobe, we observed a cluster of apparently abnormal coherences over the involved temporal lobe. For the other patients, there were apparently characteristic coherence patterns associated with the discharges, and in some cases these appeared to reflect abnormal temporal lobe synchronization, but the coherence patterns for these patients were not easily related to an unequivocal epileptogenic zone. In contrast, simple localization of the site of onset of the spike discharge, and/or the site of onset of the seizure, with non-invasive 256 dEEG was useful in predicting the characteristic site of seizure onset for those cases that were verified by intracranial EEG and/or by surgical outcome. PMID:23720650

  18. Comparative study of key exchange and authentication methods in application, transport and network level security mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathirad, Iraj; Devlin, John; Jiang, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The key-exchange and authentication are two crucial elements of any network security mechanism. IPsec, SSL/TLS, PGP and S/MIME are well-known security approaches in providing security service to network, transport and application layers; these protocols use different methods (based on their requirements) to establish keying materials and authenticates key-negotiation and participated parties. This paper studies and compares the authenticated key negotiation methods in mentioned protocols.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) Cross Linked Polymeric Network for the Delivery of Analgesic Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.; Ahmad, M.; Minhas, M. U.; Aamir, M. F.; Sohail, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective of the study was to synthesize a chemically cross-linked poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) hydrogel (p(HEMA-co-MAA hydrogel)) for pH-responsive, controlled drug delivery of Flurbiprofen. pH-sensitive hydrogel drug delivery system was synthesized with the help of poly hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) by using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker. The monomers (HEMA and MAA) were successfully cross linked through free radical polymerization process, initiated by benzoyl peroxide in an aqueous medium. All formulations were loaded with Flurbiprofen as a model drug and evaluated at pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 to investigate pH-responsive nature of the system. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to confirm the cross-linking of copolymer while thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed to evaluate the thermal stability of the system. Swelling studies and in-vitro release studies were carried out to evaluate pH-responsive nature of the hydrogels. FTIR confirmed that monomers were successfully cross-linked to form a copolymer. Hydrogel system showed less swelling at lower pH while at higher pH, it showed higher swelling, releasing drug in the same fashion. It was concluded that a stable hydrogel network was chemically cross-linked showing pH-responsive nature and thus, synthesized p(HEMA-co-MAA) hydrogels can be successfully employed as potential candidate for controlled drug delivery. (author)

  20. Method of Creation of “Core-Gisseismic Attributes” Dependences With Use of Trainable Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafurov Denis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study describes methodological techniques and results of geophysical well logging and seismic data interpretation by means of trainable neural networks. Objects of research are wells and seismic materials of Talakan field. The article also presents forecast of construction and reservoir properties of Osa horizon. The paper gives an example of creation of geological (lithological -facial model of the field based on developed methodical techniques of complex interpretation of geologicgeophysical data by trainable neural network. The constructed lithological -facial model allows specifying a geological structure of the field. The developed methodical techniques and the trained neural networks may be applied to adjacent sites for research of carbonate horizons.

  1. Health facility and skilled birth deliveries among poor women with Jamkesmas health insurance in Indonesia: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mohamad I; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Fox, Matthew P; Wirtz, Veronika J; Feeley, Frank G; Sabin, Lora L

    2017-02-02

    The growing momentum for quality and affordable health care for all has given rise to the recent global universal health coverage (UHC) movement. As part of Indonesia's strategy to achieve the goal of UHC, large investments have been made to increase health access for the poor, resulting in the implementation of various health insurance schemes targeted towards the poor and near-poor, including the Jamkesmas program. In the backdrop of Indonesia's aspiration to reach UHC is the high rate of maternal mortality that disproportionally affects poor women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of health facility and skilled birth deliveries among poor women with and without Jamkesmas and explore perceived barriers to health insurance membership and maternal health service utilization. We used a mixed-methods design. Utilizing data from the 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (n = 45,607), secondary analysis using propensity score matching was performed on key outcomes of interest: health facility delivery (HFD) and skilled birth delivery (SBD). In-depth interviews (n = 51) were conducted in the provinces of Jakarta and Banten among poor women, midwives, and government representatives. Thematic framework analysis was performed on qualitative data to explore perceived barriers. In 2012, 63.0% of women did not have health insurance; 19.1% had Jamkesmas. Poor women with Jamkesmas were 19% (OR = 1.19 [1.03-1.37]) more likely to have HFD and 17% (OR = 1.17 [1.01-1.35]) more likely to have SBD compared to poor women without insurance. Qualitative interviews highlighted key issues, including: lack of proper documentation for health insurance registration; the preference of pregnant women to deliver in their parents' village; the use of traditional birth attendants; distance to health facilities; shortage of qualified health providers; overcrowded health facilities; and lack of health facility accreditation. Poor women with

  2. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W.

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods

  3. Quartet-net: a quartet-based method to reconstruct phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jialiang; Grünewald, Stefan; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2013-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks can model reticulate evolutionary events such as hybridization, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. However, reconstructing such networks is not trivial. Popular character-based methods are computationally inefficient, whereas distance-based methods cannot guarantee reconstruction accuracy because pairwise genetic distances only reflect partial information about a reticulate phylogeny. To balance accuracy and computational efficiency, here we introduce a quartet-based method to construct a phylogenetic network from a multiple sequence alignment. Unlike distances that only reflect the relationship between a pair of taxa, quartets contain information on the relationships among four taxa; these quartets provide adequate capacity to infer a more accurate phylogenetic network. In applications to simulated and biological data sets, we demonstrate that this novel method is robust and effective in reconstructing reticulate evolutionary events and it has the potential to infer more accurate phylogenetic distances than other conventional phylogenetic network construction methods such as Neighbor-Joining, Neighbor-Net, and Split Decomposition. This method can be used in constructing phylogenetic networks from simple evolutionary events involving a few reticulate events to complex evolutionary histories involving a large number of reticulate events. A software called "Quartet-Net" is implemented and available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/QuartetNet/.

  4. Smart Magnetically Responsive Hydrogel Nanoparticles Prepared by a Novel Aerosol-Assisted Method for Biomedical and Drug Delivery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. El-Sherbiny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel spray gelation-based method to synthesize a new series of magnetically responsive hydrogel nanoparticles for biomedical and drug delivery applications. The method is based on the production of hydrogel nanoparticles from sprayed polymeric microdroplets obtained by an air-jet nebulization process that is immediately followed by gelation in a crosslinking fluid. Oligoguluronate (G-blocks was prepared through the partial acid hydrolysis of sodium alginate. PEG-grafted chitosan was also synthesized and characterized (FTIR, EA, and DSC. Then, magnetically responsive hydrogel nanoparticles based on alginate and alginate/G-blocks were synthesized via aerosolization followed by either ionotropic gelation or both ionotropic and polyelectrolyte complexation using CaCl2 or PEG-g-chitosan/CaCl2 as crosslinking agents, respectively. Particle size and dynamic swelling were determined using dynamic light scattering (DLS and microscopy. Surface morphology of the nanoparticles was examined using SEM. The distribution of magnetic cores within the hydrogels nanoparticles was also examined using TEM. In addition, the iron and calcium contents of the particles were estimated using EDS. Spherical magnetic hydrogel nanoparticles with average particle size of 811 ± 162 to 941 ± 2 nm were obtained. This study showed that the developed method is promising for the manufacture of hydrogel nanoparticles, and it represents a relatively simple and potential low-cost system.

  5. Effects of carrying a pregnancy and of method of delivery on urinary incontinence: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondor Myrto

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried out to identify risk factors associated with urinary incontinence in women three months after giving birth. Methods Urinary incontinence before and during pregnancy was assessed at study enrolment early in the third trimester. Incontinence was re-assessed three months postpartum. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the role of maternal and obstetric factors in causing postpartum urinary incontinence. This prospective cohort study in 949 pregnant women in Quebec, Canada was nested within a randomised controlled trial of prenatal perineal massage. Results Postpartum urinary incontinence was increased with prepregnancy incontinence (adjusted odds ratio [adj0R] 6.44, 95% CI 4.15, 9.98, incontinence beginning during pregnancy (adjOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.32, 2.83, and higher prepregnancy body mass index (adjOR 1.07/unit of BMI, 95% CI 1.03,1.11. Caesarean section was highly protective (adjOR 0.27, 95% CI 0.14, 0.50. While there was a trend towards increasing incontinence with forceps delivery (adjOR 1.73, 95% CI 0.96, 3.13 this was not statistically significant. The weight of the baby, episiotomy, the length of the second stage of labour, and epidural analgesia were not predictive of urinary incontinence. Nor was prenatal perineal massage, the randomised controlled trial intervention. When the analysis was limited to women having their first vaginal birth, the same risk factors were important, with similar adjusted odds ratios. Conclusions Urinary incontinence during pregnancy is extremely common, affecting over half of pregnant women. Urinary incontinence beginning during pregnancy roughly doubles the likelihood of urinary incontinence at 3 months postpartum, regardless whether delivery is vaginal or by Caesarean section.

  6. Congestion management of electric distribution networks through market based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun

     EVs and HPs. Market-based congestion management methods are the focus of the thesis. They handle the potential congestion at the energy planning stage; therefore, the aggregators can optimally plan the energy consumption and have the least impact on the customers. After reviewing and identifying...... the shortcomings of the existing methods, the thesis fully studies and improves the dynamic tariff (DT) method, and proposes two  new market-based  congestion management methods,  namely the  dynamic subsidy (DS) method and the flexible demand swap method. The thesis improves the DT method from four aspects......Rapidly increasing share of intermittent renewable energy production poses a great challenge of the management and operation of the modern power systems. Deployment of a large number of flexible demands, such as electrical vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs), is believed to be a promising solution...

  7. Network-based ranking methods for prediction of novel disease associated microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duc-Hau

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have shown roles of microRNAs on human disease and a number of computational methods have been proposed to predict such associations by ranking candidate microRNAs according to their relevance to a disease. Among them, machine learning-based methods usually have a limitation in specifying non-disease microRNAs as negative training samples. Meanwhile, network-based methods are becoming dominant since they well exploit a "disease module" principle in microRNA functional similarity networks. Of which, random walk with restart (RWR) algorithm-based method is currently state-of-the-art. The use of this algorithm was inspired from its success in predicting disease gene because the "disease module" principle also exists in protein interaction networks. Besides, many algorithms designed for webpage ranking have been successfully applied in ranking disease candidate genes because web networks share topological properties with protein interaction networks. However, these algorithms have not yet been utilized for disease microRNA prediction. We constructed microRNA functional similarity networks based on shared targets of microRNAs, and then we integrated them with a microRNA functional synergistic network, which was recently identified. After analyzing topological properties of these networks, in addition to RWR, we assessed the performance of (i) PRINCE (PRIoritizatioN and Complex Elucidation), which was proposed for disease gene prediction; (ii) PageRank with Priors (PRP) and K-Step Markov (KSM), which were used for studying web networks; and (iii) a neighborhood-based algorithm. Analyses on topological properties showed that all microRNA functional similarity networks are small-worldness and scale-free. The performance of each algorithm was assessed based on average AUC values on 35 disease phenotypes and average rankings of newly discovered disease microRNAs. As a result, the performance on the integrated network was better than that on individual ones. In

  8. Energy and round time estimation method for mobile wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismat, M.; Qureshi, R.; Imam, M.U.

    2018-01-01

    Clustered WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) is a hierarchical network structure that conserves energy by distributing the task of sensing and data transfer to destination among the non-CH (Cluster-Head) and CH (Cluster Head) node in a cluster. In clustered MWSN (Mobile Wireless Sensor Network), cluster maintenance to increase at a reception at the destination during communication operation is difficult due to the movement of CHs and non-CH nodes in and out of the cluster. To conserve energy and increased data transfer to the destination, it is necessary to find the duration after which sensor node’s role should be changed from CH to non-CH and vice-versa. In this paper, we have proposed an energy independent round time scheme to identify the duration after which re-clustering procedure should be invoked for changing roles of sensor nodes as CHs and associated nodes to conserve energy and increased data delivery. This depends on the dissemination interval of the sensor nodes rather than sensor node’s energy. We have also provided a complete analytical estimate of network energy consumption with energy consumed in every phase of a around. (author)

  9. Use of electronic group method in assessing food safety training needs and delivery methods among international college students in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden-Robinson, Julie; Eighmy, Myron A; Lyonga, Agnes Ngale

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of unfamiliar foods international students in the U.S. encounter and to assess food safety information that international students would like to receive for mitigating risks associated with handling and preparing unfamiliar foods. The study identified preferred instructional delivery methods and media for receiving food safety training or information. An electronic group method was used for this study. The electronic group method was chosen to maximize group efficiency by allowing participants to share ideas simultaneously and anonymously with minimal use of time and resources.Types of different (unfamiliar) foods were grouped into major categories. Fast and ready-to-eat foods, and processed and frozen foods constituted a major change for some international students, who were accustomed to homemade and fresh foods in their countries. Participants were interested in receiving information about how to safely handle and prepare unfamiliar foods in their new environment. Preferred methods for receiving food safety information included written materials, online publications, presentations, and materials provided during student orientation. Food packages, websites, and television programs were other preferred methods of receiving food safety information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MRI in ocular drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery de...

  11. Time motion study using mixed methods to assess service delivery by frontline health workers from South India: methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Samiksha; Upadhyaya, Sanjeev; Deshmukh, Pradeep; Dongre, Amol; Dwivedi, Neha; Dey, Deepak; Kumar, Vijay

    2018-04-02

    In India, amidst the increasing number of health programmes, there are concerns about the performance of frontline health workers (FLHW). We assessed the time utilisation and factors affecting the work of frontline health workers from South India. This is a mixed methods study using time and motion (TAM) direct observations and qualitative enquiry among frontline/community health workers. These included 43 female and 6 male multipurpose health workers (namely, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and male-MPHWs), 12 nutrition and health workers (Anganwadi workers, AWWs) and 53 incentive-based community health workers (accredited social health activists, ASHAs). We conducted the study in two phases. In the formative phase, we conducted an in-depth inductive investigation to develop observation checklists and qualitative tools. The main study involved deductive approach for TAM observations. This enabled us to observe a larger sample to capture variations across non-tribal and tribal regions and different health cadres. For the main study, we developed GPRS-enabled android-based application to precisely record time, multi-tasking and field movement. We conducted non-participatory direct observations (home to home) for consecutively 6 days for each participant. We conducted in-depth interviews with all the participants and 33 of their supervisors and relevant officials. We conducted six focus group discussions (FGDs) with ASHAs and one FGD with ANMs to validate preliminary findings. We established a mechanism for quality assurance of data collection and analysis. We analysed the data separately for each cadre and stratified for non-tribal and tribal regions. On any working day, the ANMs spent median 7:04 h, male-MPHWs spent median 5:44 h and AWWs spent median 6:50 h on the job. The time spent on the job was less among the FLHWs from tribal areas as compared to those from non-tribal areas. ANMs and AWWs prioritised maternal and child health, while male-MPHWs were

  12. Method and apparatus for scheduling broadcasts in social networks

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad Ahmed

    2016-08-25

    A method, apparatus, and computer readable medium are provided for maximizing consumption of broadcasts by a producer. An example method includes receiving selection of a total number of time slots to use for scheduling broadcasts, and receiving information regarding the producer\\'s followers. The example method further 5 includes identifying, by a processor and based on the received information, discount factors associated with the producer\\'s followers, and calculating, by the processor and based on the received information, a predicted number of competitor broadcasts during each time slot of the total number of time slots. Finally, the example method includes determining, by the processor and based on the discount factors and the predicted 10 number of competitor broadcasts during each time slot, a number of broadcasts for the producer to transmit in each time slot of the total number of time slots.

  13. Method and apparatus for scheduling broadcasts in social networks

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad Ahmed; Kalnis, Panos

    2016-01-01

    information regarding the producer's followers. The example method further 5 includes identifying, by a processor and based on the received information, discount factors associated with the producer's followers, and calculating, by the processor and based

  14. System, apparatus and methods to implement high-speed network analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezick, James; Lethin, Richard; Ros-Giralt, Jordi; Szilagyi, Peter; Wohlford, David E

    2015-11-10

    Systems, apparatus and methods for the implementation of high-speed network analyzers are provided. A set of high-level specifications is used to define the behavior of the network analyzer emitted by a compiler. An optimized inline workflow to process regular expressions is presented without sacrificing the semantic capabilities of the processing engine. An optimized packet dispatcher implements a subset of the functions implemented by the network analyzer, providing a fast and slow path workflow used to accelerate specific processing units. Such dispatcher facility can also be used as a cache of policies, wherein if a policy is found, then packet manipulations associated with the policy can be quickly performed. An optimized method of generating DFA specifications for network signatures is also presented. The method accepts several optimization criteria, such as min-max allocations or optimal allocations based on the probability of occurrence of each signature input bit.

  15. Obstetric care and method of delivery in Mexico: results from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Wirtz, Veronika J; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Lozano, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    To identify the current clinical, socio-demographic and obstetric factors associated with the various types of delivery strategies in Mexico. This is a cross-sectional study based on the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) of 6,736 women aged 12 to 49 years. Delivery types discussed in this paper include vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean section and planned cesarean section. Using bivariate analyses, sub-population group differences were identified. Logistic regression models were applied, including both binary and multinomial outcome variables from the survey. The logistic regression results identify those covariates associated with the type of delivery. 53.1% of institutional births in the period 2006 through 2012 were vaginal deliveries, 46.9% were either a planned or emergency cesarean sections. The highest rates of this procedure were among women who reported a complication during delivery (OR: 4.21; 95%CI: 3.66-4.84), between the ages of 35 and 49 at the time of their last child birth (OR: 2.54; 95%CI: 2.02-3.20) and women receiving care through private healthcare providers during delivery (OR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.84-3.03). The existence of different socio-demographic and obstetric profiles among women who receive care for vaginal or cesarean delivery, are supported by the findings of the present study. The frequency of vaginal delivery is higher in indigenous women, when the care provider is public and, in women with two or more children at time of the most recent child birth. Planned cesarean deliveries are positively associated with years of schooling, a higher socioeconomic level, and higher age. The occurrence of emergency cesarean sections is elevated in women with a diagnosis of a health issue during pregnancy or delivery, and it is reduced in highly marginalized settings.

  16. Doxycycline delivery from PLGA microspheres prepared by a modified solvent removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Roshni S; Cho, Daniel Y; Tian, Cheng; Chang, Amy; Estrellas, Kenneth M; Lavin, Danya; Furtado, Stacia; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2012-01-01

    We report on the development of a modified solvent removal method for the encapsulation of hydrophilic drugs within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Using a water/oil/oil double emulsion, hydrophilic doxycycline was encapsulated within PLGA spheres with particle diameters ranging from approximately 600 nm to 19 µm. Encapsulation efficiencies of up to 74% were achieved for theoretical loadings from 1% to 10% (w/w), with biphasic release over 85 days with nearly complete release at the end of this time course. About 1% salt was added to the formulations to examine its effects on doxycycline release; salt modulated release only by increasing the magnitude of initial release without altering kinetics. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated no characteristic differences between doxycycline-loaded and control spheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction suggest that there may be a molecular dispersion of the doxycycline within the spheres and the doxycycline may be in an amorphous state, which could explain the slow, prolonged release of the drug.

  17. Persurf, a new method to improve surfactant delivery: a study in surfactant depleted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Burkhardt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Exogenous surfactant is not very effective in adults with ARDS, since surfactant does not reach atelectatic alveoli. Perfluorocarbons (PFC can recruit atelectatic areas but do not replace impaired endogenous surfactant. A surfactant-PFC-mixture could combine benefits of both therapies. The aim of the proof-of-principal-study was to produce a PFC-in-surfactant emulsion (Persurf and to test in surfactant depleted Wistar rats whether Persurf achieves I. a more homogenous pulmonary distribution and II. a more homogenous recruitment of alveoli when compared with surfactant or PFC alone. METHODS: Three different PFC were mixed with surfactant and phospholipid concentration in the emulsion was measured. After surfactant depletion, animals either received 30 ml/kg of PF5080, 100 mg/kg of stained (green dye Curosurf™ or 30 ml/kg of Persurf. Lungs were fixated after 1 hour of ventilation and alveolar aeration and surfactant distribution was estimated by a stereological approach. RESULTS: Persurf contained 3 mg/ml phospholipids and was stable for more than 48 hours. Persurf-administration improved oxygenation. Histological evaluation revealed a more homogenous surfactant distribution and alveolar inflation when compared with surfactant treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: In surfactant depleted rats administration of PFC-in-surfactant emulsion leads to a more homogenous distribution and aeration of the lung than surfactant alone.

  18. The Prediction of Bandwidth On Need Computer Network Through Artificial Neural Network Method of Backpropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhthison Mekongga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for bandwidth has been increasing recently. This is because the development of internet infrastructure is also increasing so that we need an economic and efficient provider system. This can be achieved through good planning and a proper system. The prediction of the bandwidth consumption is one of the factors that support the planning for an efficient internet service provider system. Bandwidth consumption is predicted using ANN. ANN is an information processing system which has similar characteristics as the biologic al neural network.  ANN  is  chosen  to  predict  the  consumption  of  the  bandwidth  because  ANN  has  good  approachability  to  non-linearity.  The variable used in ANN is the historical load data. A bandwidth consumption information system was built using neural networks  with a backpropagation algorithm to make the use of bandwidth more efficient in the future both in the rental rate of the bandwidth and in the usage of the bandwidth.Keywords: Forecasting, Bandwidth, Backpropagation

  19. PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets synthesized by a facile chemical precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samberg, Joshua P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Engineering Building I, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Kajbafvala, Amir, E-mail: amir.kajbafvala@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Engineering Building I, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Koolivand, Amir [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, 2620 Yarbrough Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of PbO networks through a simple chemical precipitation route. • The synthesis method is rapid and low-cost. • Each network is composed of single crystalline PbO nanosheets. • A possible growth mechanism is proposed for synthesized PbO networks. - Abstract: For the field of energy storage, nanostructured lead oxide (PbO) shows immense potential for increased specific energy and deep discharge for lead acid battery technologies. In this work, PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets were synthesized utilizing a simple, low cost and rapid chemical precipitation method. The PbO networks were prepared in a single reaction vessel from starting reagents of lead acetate dehydrate, ammonium hydroxide and deionized water. Lead acetate dehydrate was chosen as a reagent, as opposed to lead nitrate, to eliminate the possibility of nitrate contamination of the final product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis were used to characterize the synthesized PbO networks. The reproducible method described herein synthesized pure β-PbO (massicot) powders, with no byproducts. A possible formation mechanism for these PbO networks is proposed. The growth is found to proceed predominately in the 〈1 1 1〉 and 〈2 0 0〉 directions while being limited in the 〈0 1 1〉 direction.

  20. PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets synthesized by a facile chemical precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samberg, Joshua P.; Kajbafvala, Amir; Koolivand, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of PbO networks through a simple chemical precipitation route. • The synthesis method is rapid and low-cost. • Each network is composed of single crystalline PbO nanosheets. • A possible growth mechanism is proposed for synthesized PbO networks. - Abstract: For the field of energy storage, nanostructured lead oxide (PbO) shows immense potential for increased specific energy and deep discharge for lead acid battery technologies. In this work, PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets were synthesized utilizing a simple, low cost and rapid chemical precipitation method. The PbO networks were prepared in a single reaction vessel from starting reagents of lead acetate dehydrate, ammonium hydroxide and deionized water. Lead acetate dehydrate was chosen as a reagent, as opposed to lead nitrate, to eliminate the possibility of nitrate contamination of the final product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis were used to characterize the synthesized PbO networks. The reproducible method described herein synthesized pure β-PbO (massicot) powders, with no byproducts. A possible formation mechanism for these PbO networks is proposed. The growth is found to proceed predominately in the 〈1 1 1〉 and 〈2 0 0〉 directions while being limited in the 〈0 1 1〉 direction

  1. Application of Looped Network Analysis Method to Core of Prismatic VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong-Hun; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Park, Goon-Cherl

    2016-01-01

    Most of reactor coolant flows through the coolant channel within the fuel block, but some portion of the reactor coolant bypasses to the interstitial gaps. The vertical gap and horizontal gap are called bypass gap and cross gap, respectively as shown in Fig. 1. CFD simulation for the full core of VHTR might be possible but it requires vast computational cost and time. Moreover, it is hard to cover whole cases corresponding to the various bypass gap distribution in the whole VHTR core. In order to solve this problem, in this study, the flow network analysis code, FastNet (Flow Analysis for Steady-state Network), was developed using the Looped Network Analysis Method. The applied method was validated by comparing with SNU VHTR multi-block experiment. A 3-demensional network modeling was conducted representing flow paths as flow resistances. Flow network analysis code, FastNet, was developed to evaluate the core bypass flow distribution by using looped network analysis method. Complex flow network could be solved simply by converting the non-linear momentum equation to the linearized equation. The FastNet code predicted the flow distribution of the SNU multi-block experiment accurately

  2. Unified pipe network method for simulation of water flow in fractured porous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feng; Ma, Guowei; Wang, Yang; Li, Tuo; Zhu, Hehua

    2017-04-01

    Rock masses are often conceptualized as dual-permeability media containing fractures or fracture networks with high permeability and porous matrix that is less permeable. In order to overcome the difficulties in simulating fluid flow in a highly discontinuous dual-permeability medium, an effective unified pipe network method is developed, which discretizes the dual-permeability rock mass into a virtual pipe network system. It includes fracture pipe networks and matrix pipe networks. They are constructed separately based on equivalent flow models in a representative area or volume by taking the advantage of the orthogonality of the mesh partition. Numerical examples of fluid flow in 2-D and 3-D domain including porous media and fractured porous media are presented to demonstrate the accuracy, robustness, and effectiveness of the proposed unified pipe network method. Results show that the developed method has good performance even with highly distorted mesh. Water recharge into the fractured rock mass with complex fracture network is studied. It has been found in this case that the effect of aperture change on the water recharge rate is more significant in the early stage compared to the fracture density change.

  3. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  4. Evaluation of Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline) Containing Copolymer Networks of Varied Composition as Sustained Metoprolol Tartrate Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kostova, Bistra; Ivanova, Sijka; Balashev, Konstantin; Rachev, Dimitar; Christova, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    Segmented copolymer networks (SCN) based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, and/or methyl methacrylate segments have been evaluated as potential sustained release systems of the water soluble cardioselective β-blocker metoprolol tartrate. The structure and properties of the drug carriers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron ...

  5. Effectiveness of the different methods of inhalation drugs delivery in children with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Nedelska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work — to evaluate the effectiveness of inhalation technique when using different types of inhalers (dry powder inhalers — Turbuhaler, Diskus, metered-dose inhalers, breath-actuated inhalers — Easyhaler. Materials and methods. 45 patients aged 6–17 years underwent the evaluation of inhalation technique accuracy with the use of In-Check-Dial — apparatus, which imitates the airway resistance that should be overcome during inspiration through different inhaler types, and measure inspiration velocity. Incidence of mistakes was studied in different age groups. Results. 80 % of children aged 6–7 years made mistakes while using Turbuhaler, 73.3 % — metered-dose inhaler, 60 % — Easyhaler. There were no mistakes in patients making inhalation by means of Diskhaler. 100 % of children aged 12–14 years incorrectly used metered-dose inhaler. Easyhaler was incorrectly used in 66.6 % of cases, Diskhaler — in 26.6 %. Among elder group, incidence of mistakes when making inhalations through Turbuhaler was lower — 40 % in 12–14-year-old group and 25 % — in 15–17-year-old (р < 0.05. Children of 15–17 years old are able to use Turbuhaler and Diskus (mistakes in 33.3 and 46.6 %, respectively. At the same time, none of the patients have done the correct inhalation by means of metered-dose inhaler, 93.3 % of the patients have mistakes when using Easyhaler. Conclusions. The incidence of mistakes depends on the age and inhaler type and reaches 26–100 %. Minimal quantity of mistakes is seen for Diskus (in all age groups, maxi­mal — for metered-dose inhaler. For the purpose of optimal inhaler choice in a child with bronchial asthma, it is advisable to measure the inspiratory flow with the help of In-Check-Dial before therapy administration.

  6. Improving patient experience in a pediatric ambulatory clinic: a mixed method appraisal of service delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeteman M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marijn Soeteman,1 Vera Peters,2 Jamiu O Busari1,3 1Department of Pediatrics, Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen, 2Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, 3Department of Educational Development and Research, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands Objective: In 2013, customer satisfaction surveys showed that patients were unhappy with the services provided at our ambulatory clinic. In response, we performed an appraisal of our services, which resulted in the development of a strategy to reduce waiting time and improve quality of service. Infrastructural changes to our clinic’s waiting room, consultation rooms, and back offices were performed, and schedules were redesigned to reduce wait time to 10 minutes and increase consultation time to 20 minutes. Our objective was to identify if this would improve 1 accessibility to caregivers and 2 quality of service and available amenities. Design: We conducted a multi-method survey using 1 a patient flow analysis to analyze the flow of service and understand the impact of our interventions on patient flow and 2 specially designed questionnaires to investigate patients’ perceptions of our wait time and how to improve our services. Results: The results showed that 79% of our respondents were called in to see a doctor within 20 minutes upon arrival. More patients (55% felt that 10–20 minutes was an acceptable wait time. We also observed a perceived increase in satisfaction with wait time (94%. Finally, a large number of patients (97% were satisfied with the quality of service and with the accessibility to caregivers (94%. Conclusion: The majority of our patients were satisfied with the accessibility to our ambulatory clinics and with the quality of services provided. The appraisal of our operational processes using a patient flow analysis also demonstrated how this strategy could effectively be applied to investigate and improve quality of

  7. Clinical social networking--a new revolution in provider communication and delivery of clinical information across providers of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolowitz, Brian J; Lauro, Gonzalo Romero; Venturella, James; Georgiev, Veliyan; Barone, Michael; Deible, Christopher; Shrestha, Rasu

    2014-04-01

    The adoption of social media technologies appears to enhance clinical outcomes through improved communications as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). The ability of providers to more effectively, directly, and rapidly communicate among themselves as well as with patients should strengthen collaboration and treatment as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). This paper is a case study in one organization's development of an internally designed and developed social technology solution termed "Unite." The Unite system combines social technologies' features including push notifications, messaging, community groups, and user lists with clinical workflow and applications to construct dynamic provider networks, simplify communications, and facilitate clinical workflow optimization. Modeling Unite as a social technology may ease adoption barriers. Developing a social network that is integrated with healthcare information systems in the clinical space opens the doors to capturing and studying the way in which providers communicate. The Unite system appears to have the potential to breaking down existing communication paradigms. With Unite, a rich set of usage data tied to clinical events may unravel alternative networks that can be leveraged to advance patient care.

  8. Human Detection System by Fusing Depth Map-Based Method and Convolutional Neural Network-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Vu Le

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the depth images and the colour images provided by Kinect sensors are used to enhance the accuracy of human detection. The depth-based human detection method is fast but less accurate. On the other hand, the faster region convolutional neural network-based human detection method is accurate but requires a rather complex hardware configuration. To simultaneously leverage the advantages and relieve the drawbacks of each method, one master and one client system is proposed. The final goal is to make a novel Robot Operation System (ROS-based Perception Sensor Network (PSN system, which is more accurate and ready for the real time application. The experimental results demonstrate the outperforming of the proposed method compared with other conventional methods in the challenging scenarios.

  9. Load forecasting method considering temperature effect for distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiao Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, the temperature factor was introduced into the load forecasting in this paper. This paper analyzed the characteristics of power load variation, and researched the rule of the load with the temperature change. Based on the linear regression analysis, the mathematical model of load forecasting was presented with considering the temperature effect, and the steps of load forecasting were given. Used MATLAB, the temperature regression coefficient was calculated. Using the load forecasting model, the full-day load forecasting and time-sharing load forecasting were carried out. By comparing and analyzing the forecast error, the results showed that the error of time-sharing load forecasting method was small in this paper. The forecasting method is an effective method to improve the accuracy of load forecasting.

  10. Overview of Methods Able to Overcome Impediments to tumor Drug Delivery with Special Attention to Tumor Interstitial Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco eBaronzio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Every drug used to treat cancer (chemotherapeutics, immunologic, monoclonal antibodies, nanoparticles, radionuclides must reach the targeted cells through the tumor environment at adequate concentrations, in order to exert their cell-killing effects. For any of these agents to reach the goal cells they must overcome a number of impediments created by the tumor microenvironment, beginning with tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP and a multifactorial increase in composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM. A primary modifier of tumor microenvironment is hypoxia, which increases the production of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF. These growth factors released by both tumor cells and bone marrow recruited myeloid cells (MDS, form abnormal vasculature characterized by vessels that are tortuous and more permeable. Increased leakiness combined with increased inflammatory byproducts accumulates fluid within the tumor mass [tumor interstitial fluid (TIF], ultimately creating an increased pressure (TIFP. Fibroblasts are also up-regulated by the tumor microenvironment, and deposit fibers that further augment the density of the extracellular matrix (ECM, thus, further worsening the TIFP. Increased TIFP with the ECM are the major obstacles to adequate drug delivery. By decreasing TIFP and decreasing ECM density, we can expect an associated rise in drug concentration within the tumor itself. In this overview we will describe all the methods (drugs, nutraceuticals, physical methods of treatment able to lower TIFP and to modify ECM that can be used for increasing drug concentration within the tumor tissue.

  11. Efficient data replication for the delivery of high-quality video content over P2P VoD advertising networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chien-Peng; Yu, Jen-Yu; Lee, Suh-Yin

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in modern television systems have had profound consequences for the scalability, stability, and quality of transmitted digital data signals. This is of particular significance for peer-to-peer (P2P) video-on-demand (VoD) related platforms, faced with an immediate and growing demand for reliable service delivery. In response to demands for high-quality video, the key objectives in the construction of the proposed framework were user satisfaction with perceived video quality and the effective utilization of available resources on P2P VoD networks. This study developed a peer-based promoter to support online advertising in P2P VoD networks based on an estimation of video distortion prior to the replication of data stream chunks. The proposed technology enables the recovery of lost video using replicated stream chunks in real time. Load balance is achieved by adjusting the replication level of each candidate group according to the degree-of-distortion, thereby enabling a significant reduction in server load and increased scalability in the P2P VoD system. This approach also promotes the use of advertising as an efficient tool for commercial promotion. Results indicate that the proposed system efficiently satisfies the given fault tolerances.

  12. A Latent Variable Clustering Method for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasilev, Vladislav; Iliev, Georgi; Poulkov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we derive a clustering method based on the Hidden Conditional Random Field (HCRF) model in order to maximizes the performance of a wireless sensor. Our novel approach to clustering in this paper is in the application of an index invariant graph that we defined in a previous work and...

  13. Bulk Electric Load Cost Calculation Methods: Iraqi Network Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais M. Alias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is vital in any industry to regain the spent capitals plus running costs and a margin of profits for the industry to flourish. The electricity industry is an everyday life touching industry which follows the same finance-economic strategy. Cost allocation is a major issue in all sectors of the electric industry, viz, generation, transmission and distribution. Generation and distribution service costing’s well documented in the literature, while the transmission share is still of need for research. In this work, the cost of supplying a bulk electric load connected to the EHV system is calculated. A sample basic lump-average method is used to provide a rough costing guide. Also, two transmission pricing methods are employed, namely, the postage-stamp and the load-flow based MW-distance methods to calculate transmission share in the total cost of each individual bulk load. The three costing methods results are then analyzed and compared for the 400kV Iraqi power grid considered for a case study.

  14. Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks based on kshell hybrid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namtirtha, Amrita; Dutta, Animesh; Dutta, Biswanath

    2018-06-01

    Influential spreaders are the key players in maximizing or controlling the spreading in a complex network. Identifying the influential spreaders using kshell decomposition method has become very popular in the recent time. In the literature, the core nodes i.e. with the largest kshell index of a network are considered as the most influential spreaders. We have studied the kshell method and spreading dynamics of nodes using Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model to understand the behavior of influential spreaders in terms of its topological location in the network. From the study, we have found that every node in the core area is not the most influential spreader. Even a strategically placed lower shell node can also be a most influential spreader. Moreover, the core area can also be situated at the periphery of the network. The existing indexing methods are only designed to identify the most influential spreaders from core nodes and not from lower shells. In this work, we propose a kshell hybrid method to identify highly influential spreaders not only from the core but also from lower shells. The proposed method comprises the parameters such as kshell power, node's degree, contact distance, and many levels of neighbors' influence potential. The proposed method is evaluated using nine real world network datasets. In terms of the spreading dynamics, the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed method over the other existing indexing methods such as the kshell method, the neighborhood coreness centrality, the mixed degree decomposition, etc. Furthermore, the proposed method can also be applied to large-scale networks by considering the three levels of neighbors' influence potential.

  15. Evidence reasoning method for constructing conditional probability tables in a Bayesian network of multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuanwei; Guo, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic mechanism of multimorbidity is difficult to recognize and prediction and diagnosis are difficult to carry out accordingly. Bayesian networks can help to diagnose multimorbidity in health care, but it is difficult to obtain the conditional probability table (CPT) because of the lack of clinically statistical data. Today, expert knowledge and experience are increasingly used in training Bayesian networks in order to help predict or diagnose diseases, but the CPT in Bayesian networks is usually irrational or ineffective for ignoring realistic constraints especially in multimorbidity. In order to solve these problems, an evidence reasoning (ER) approach is employed to extract and fuse inference data from experts using a belief distribution and recursive ER algorithm, based on which evidence reasoning method for constructing conditional probability tables in Bayesian network of multimorbidity is presented step by step. A multimorbidity numerical example is used to demonstrate the method and prove its feasibility and application. Bayesian network can be determined as long as the inference assessment is inferred by each expert according to his/her knowledge or experience. Our method is more effective than existing methods for extracting expert inference data accurately and is fused effectively for constructing CPTs in a Bayesian network of multimorbidity.

  16. Integrated Power Flow and Short Circuit Calculation Method for Distribution Network with Inverter Based Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power flow calculation and short circuit calculation are the basis of theoretical research for distribution network with inverter based distributed generation. The similarity of equivalent model for inverter based distributed generation during normal and fault conditions of distribution network and the differences between power flow and short circuit calculation are analyzed in this paper. Then an integrated power flow and short circuit calculation method for distribution network with inverter based distributed generation is proposed. The proposed method let the inverter based distributed generation be equivalent to Iθ bus, which makes it suitable to calculate the power flow of distribution network with a current limited inverter based distributed generation. And the low voltage ride through capability of inverter based distributed generation can be considered as well in this paper. Finally, some tests of power flow and short circuit current calculation are performed on a 33-bus distribution network. The calculated results from the proposed method in this paper are contrasted with those by the traditional method and the simulation method, whose results have verified the effectiveness of the integrated method suggested in this paper.

  17. Social network analysis using k-Path centrality method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniarza, Natya; Adiwijaya; Maharani, Warih

    2018-03-01

    k-Path centrality is deemed as one of the effective methods to be applied in centrality measurement in which the influential node is estimated as the node that is being passed by information path frequently. Regarding this, k-Path centrality has been employed in the analysis of this paper specifically by adapting random-algorithm approach in order to: (1) determine the influential user’s ranking in a social media Twitter; and (2) ascertain the influence of parameter α in the numeration of k-Path centrality. According to the analysis, the findings showed that the method of k-Path centrality with random-algorithm approach can be used to determine user’s ranking which influences in the dissemination of information in Twitter. Furthermore, the findings also showed that parameter α influenced the duration and the ranking results: the less the α value, the longer the duration, yet the ranking results were more stable.

  18. Large deviations and queueing networks: Methods for rate function identification

    OpenAIRE

    Atar, Rami; Dupuis, Paul

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of rate function identification for multidimensional queueing models with feedback. A set of techniques are introduced which allow this identification when the model possesses certain structural properties. The main tools used are representation formulas for exponential integrals, weak convergence methods, and the regularity properties of associated Skorokhod Problems. Two examples are treated as special cases of the general theory: the classical Jackson netwo...

  19. Operator splitting method for simulation of dynamic flows in natural gas pipeline networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, Sergey A.; Zlotnik, Anatoly; Korotkevich, Alexander O.; Chertkov, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We develop an operator splitting method to simulate flows of isothermal compressible natural gas over transmission pipelines. The method solves a system of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) of hydrodynamic type for mass flow and pressure on a metric graph, where turbulent losses of momentum are modeled by phenomenological Darcy-Weisbach friction. Mass flow balance is maintained through the boundary conditions at the network nodes, where natural gas is injected or withdrawn from the system. Gas flow through the network is controlled by compressors boosting pressure at the inlet of the adjoint pipe. Our operator splitting numerical scheme is unconditionally stable and it is second order accurate in space and time. The scheme is explicit, and it is formulated to work with general networks with loops. We test the scheme over range of regimes and network configurations, also comparing its performance with performance of two other state of the art implicit schemes.

  20. Analysis of Heat Transfer in Power Split Device for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Thermal Network Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rational prediction of temperature field on the differential hybrid system (DHS based on the thermal network method (TNM. The whole thermal network model is built by considering both the contact thermal resistance between gasket and planet gear and the temperature effect on the physical property parameters of lubricant. The contact thermal resistance is obtained by using the concept of contact branch thermal resistance and G-W elastic model. By building an elaborate thermal network model and computing models for power losses and thermal resistances between components, the whole temperature field of DHS under typical operating condition is predicted. Results show that thermal network method can be effectively used to predict the temperature distribution and the rule of temperature variation, the surface roughness significantly affects contact thermal conduction, and the decrease in the thermal resistance of the natural convection between air and DHS housing can effectively improve the thermal environment of DHS.