WorldWideScience

Sample records for method crypt heapsort

  1. Using crypts as iris minutiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng; Flynn, Patrick J.

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric technologies for identity recognition and verification, but it has not been used in a forensic context because the representation and matching of iris features are not straightforward for traditional iris recognition techniques. In this paper we concentrate on the iris crypt as a visible feature used to represent the characteristics of irises in a similar way to fingerprint minutiae. The matching of crypts is based on their appearances and locations. The number of matching crypt pairs found between two irises can be used for identity verification and the convenience of manual inspection makes iris crypts a potential candidate for forensic applications.

  2. Transcriptional corepressor MTG16 regulates small intestinal crypt proliferation and crypt regeneration after radiation-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Shenika V; Reddy, Vishruth K; Mittal, Mukul K; Williams, Amanda M; Washington, M Kay; Harris, Elizabeth; Mah, Amanda; Hiebert, Scott W; Singh, Kshipra; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T; Lund, P Kay; Williams, Christopher S

    2015-03-15

    Myeloid translocation genes (MTGs) are transcriptional corepressors implicated in development, malignancy, differentiation, and stem cell function. While MTG16 loss renders mice sensitive to chemical colitis, the role of MTG16 in the small intestine is unknown. Histological examination revealed that Mtg16(-/-) mice have increased enterocyte proliferation and goblet cell deficiency. After exposure to radiation, Mtg16(-/-) mice exhibited increased crypt viability and decreased apoptosis compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Flow cytometric and immunofluorescence analysis of intestinal epithelial cells for phospho-histone H2A.X also indicated decreased DNA damage and apoptosis in Mtg16(-/-) intestines. To determine if Mtg16 deletion affected epithelial cells in a cell-autonomous fashion, intestinal crypts were isolated from Mtg16(-/-) mice. Mtg16(-/-) and WT intestinal crypts showed similar enterosphere forming efficiencies when cultured in the presence of EGF, Noggin, and R-spondin. However, when Mtg16(-/-) crypts were cultured in the presence of Wnt3a, they demonstrated higher enterosphere forming efficiencies and delayed progression to mature enteroids. Mtg16(-/-) intestinal crypts isolated from irradiated mice exhibited increased survival compared with WT intestinal crypts. Interestingly, Mtg16 expression was reduced in a stem cell-enriched population at the time of crypt regeneration. This is consistent with MTG16 negatively regulating regeneration in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MTG16 loss promotes radioresistance and impacts intestinal stem cell function, possibly due to shifting cellular response away from DNA damage-induced apoptosis and towards DNA repair after injury.

  3. Fluorescent labelling of intestinal epithelial cells reveals independent long-lived intestinal stem cells in a crypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Nobukatsu [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kiichiro, E-mail: kii.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Hayashi, Ryohei [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Hiroshima University (Japan); Fukushima, Keita; Hibiya, Shuji; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Yui, Shiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Okamoto, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Department of Advanced Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Watanabe, Mamoru [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Lentivirus mixed with Matrigel enables direct infection of intestinal organoids. • Our original approach allows the marking of a single stem cell in a crypt. • Time-lapse imaging shows the dynamics of a single stem cell. • Our lentivirus transgene system demonstrates plural long-lived stem cells in a crypt. - Abstract: Background and aims: The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour. Methods: Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence. Results: We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1 year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids. Conclusions: The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus.

  4. Fluorescent labelling of intestinal epithelial cells reveals independent long-lived intestinal stem cells in a crypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, Nobukatsu; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Hayashi, Ryohei; Fukushima, Keita; Hibiya, Shuji; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Yui, Shiro; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lentivirus mixed with Matrigel enables direct infection of intestinal organoids. • Our original approach allows the marking of a single stem cell in a crypt. • Time-lapse imaging shows the dynamics of a single stem cell. • Our lentivirus transgene system demonstrates plural long-lived stem cells in a crypt. - Abstract: Background and aims: The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour. Methods: Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence. Results: We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1 year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids. Conclusions: The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus

  5. Quantification of Crypt and Stem Cell Evolution in the Normal and Neoplastic Human Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Marie Baker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal stem cell and crypt dynamics remain poorly characterized because transgenic lineage-tracing methods are impractical in humans. Here, we have circumvented this problem by quantitatively using somatic mtDNA mutations to trace clonal lineages. By analyzing clonal imprints on the walls of colonic crypts, we show that human intestinal stem cells conform to one-dimensional neutral drift dynamics with a “functional” stem cell number of five to six in both normal patients and individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (germline APC−/+. Furthermore, we show that, in adenomatous crypts (APC−/−, there is a proportionate increase in both functional stem cell number and the loss/replacement rate. Finally, by analyzing fields of mtDNA mutant crypts, we show that a normal colon crypt divides around once every 30–40 years, and the division rate is increased in adenomas by at least an order of magnitude. These data provide in vivo quantification of human intestinal stem cell and crypt dynamics.

  6. Colon stem cell and crypt dynamics exposed by cell lineage reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitzhak Reizel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell dynamics in vivo are often being studied by lineage tracing methods. Our laboratory has previously developed a retrospective method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites. This method was applied here to explore different aspects of stem cell dynamics in the mouse colon without the use of stem cell markers. We first demonstrated the reliability of our method for the study of stem cells by confirming previously established facts, and then we addressed open questions. Our findings confirmed that colon crypts are monoclonal and that, throughout adulthood, the process of monoclonal conversion plays a major role in the maintenance of crypts. The absence of immortal strand mechanism in crypts stem cells was validated by the age-dependent accumulation of microsatellite mutations. In addition, we confirmed the positive correlation between physical and lineage proximity of crypts, by showing that the colon is separated into small domains that share a common ancestor. We gained new data demonstrating that colon epithelium is clustered separately from hematopoietic and other cell types, indicating that the colon is constituted of few progenitors and ruling out significant renewal of colonic epithelium from hematopoietic cells during adulthood. Overall, our study demonstrates the reliability of cell lineage reconstruction for the study of stem cell dynamics, and it further addresses open questions in colon stem cells. In addition, this method can be applied to study stem cell dynamics in other systems.

  7. Lack of correlation between villus and crypt damage in irradiated mouse intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; Hamlet, R.; Nias, A.H.W.; Watt, C.

    1979-01-01

    It has been observed that scanning electron microscopy is a more sensitive indicator of mucosal damage at low radiation dose levels than conventional quantitative crypt counting techniques. Three different fractionation schedules were subjected to investigation by both of these methods to try and elucidate some features of irradiation damage to the whole of the intestinal mucosa, at dose levels commonly used in clinical practice. Despite variations in the qualitative observations, there was a marked difference in two of the schedules between damage expressed as crypt counts and that described by the qualitative techniques. In the first case high crypt numbers were associated with severe mucosal damage, whereas the second schedule produced a reduced crypt count in association with low damage to the surface mucosa. A third schedule produced results in which there was a general agreement between low crypt numbers and considerable surface mucosal damage. However, observations were made of mucosal formations not previously seen on damaged mucosa; surfaces. These resembled the appearance normally associated with the gut of patients suffering from coeliac disease. Variations in the qualitative observations were seen in the schedules so that their interpretation in terms of perturbation of cellular kinetics is difficult. (author)

  8. The influence of dibutyryl adenosine cyclic monophosphate on cell proliferation in the epithelium of the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and in colonic carcinomata of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-01-01

    1. Cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced adenocarcinomata of rat colon was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. 2. Dibutryl cyclic adneosine monophosphate (dibutyryl cAMP) was found to inhibit cell proliferation in colonic crypts and in colonic adenocarcinomata. 3. Dibutryl cAMP at very high doses was found to inhibit jejunal crypt cell proliferation but at lower doses was found to accelerate jejunal crypt cell proliferation. 4. Neither bilateral adrenalectomy nor chemical sympathectomy was found to abolish the ability of dibutryl cAMP to stimulate jejunal crypt cell proliferation. 5. The present results are difficult to interpret in terms of known hormonal influences on cell proliferation in the tissues examined and of established actions, of these hormones on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in other tissues.

  9. Crowns and Crypts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 6. Crowns and Crypts - A Fascinating Group of Multidentate Macrocyclic Ligands. Debasis Bandyopadhyay. General Article Volume 6 Issue 6 June 2001 pp 71-79. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Glucose stimulates intestinal epithelial crypt proliferation by modulating cellular energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weinan; Ramachandran, Deepti; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Dailey, Megan J

    2018-04-01

    The intestinal epithelium plays an essential role in nutrient absorption, hormone release, and barrier function. Maintenance of the epithelium is driven by continuous cell renewal by stem cells located in the intestinal crypts. The amount and type of diet influence this process and result in changes in the size and cellular make-up of the tissue. The mechanism underlying the nutrient-driven changes in proliferation is not known, but may involve a shift in intracellular metabolism that allows for more nutrients to be used to manufacture new cells. We hypothesized that nutrient availability drives changes in cellular energy metabolism of small intestinal epithelial crypts that could contribute to increases in crypt proliferation. We utilized primary small intestinal epithelial crypts from C57BL/6J mice to study (1) the effect of glucose on crypt proliferation and (2) the effect of glucose on crypt metabolism using an extracellular flux analyzer for real-time metabolic measurements. We found that glucose increased both crypt proliferation and glycolysis, and the glycolytic pathway inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) attenuated glucose-induced crypt proliferation. Glucose did not enhance glucose oxidation, but did increase the maximum mitochondrial respiratory capacity, which may contribute to glucose-induced increases in proliferation. Glucose activated Akt/HIF-1α signaling pathway, which might be at least in part responsible for glucose-induced glycolysis and cell proliferation. These results suggest that high glucose availability induces an increase in crypt proliferation by inducing an increase in glycolysis with no change in glucose oxidation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Occult progression by Apc-deficient intestinal crypts as a target for chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskay, R.Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although Apc mutation is widely considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, little is known about the earliest stages of tumorigenesis following sporadic Apc loss. Therefore, we have utilized a novel mouse model that facilitates the sporadic inactivation of Apc via frameshift reversion of Cre in single, isolated cells and subsequently tracks the fates of Apc-deficient intestinal cells. Our results suggest that consistent with Apc being a ‘gatekeeper’, loss of Apc early in life during intestinal growth leads to adenomas or increased crypt fission, manifested by fields of mutant but otherwise normal-appearing crypts. In contrast, Apc loss occurring later in life has minimal consequences, with mutant crypts being less prone to either increased crypt fission or adenoma formation. Using the stem cell-specific Lgr5-CreER mouse, we generated different sized fields of Apc-deficient crypts via independent recombination events and found that field size correlates with progression to adenoma. To evaluate this early stage prior to adenoma formation as a therapeutic target, we examined the chemopreventive effects of sulindac on Apc-deficient occult crypt fission. We found that sulindac treatment started early in life inhibits the morphologically occult spread of Apc-deficient crypts and thus reduces adenoma numbers. Taken together these results suggest that: (i) earlier Apc loss promotes increased crypt fission, (ii) a field of Apc-deficient crypts, which can form via occult crypt fission or independent neighboring events, is an important intermediate between loss of Apc and adenoma formation and (iii) normal-appearing Apc-deficient crypts are potential unappreciated targets for cancer screening and chemoprevention. PMID:23996931

  12. File list: Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestinal crypt... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestinal cry...pt http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  14. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnekow Angelika

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. Results The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. Conclusion The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms.

  15. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Dominik; Barnekow, Angelika

    2007-05-29

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms.

  16. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Dominik; Barnekow, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. Results The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. Conclusion The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms. PMID:17535434

  17. File list: ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestinal crypt... SRX871676,SRX871671,SRX871675,SRX871672 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestinal crypt... SRX871676,SRX871672,SRX871675,SRX871671 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestinal cry...pt SRX871676,SRX871675,SRX871671,SRX871672 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  20. How dysregulated colonic crypt dynamics cause stem cell overpopulation and initiate colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Bruce M; Fields, Jeremy Z; Cavanaugh, Kenneth L; Guetter, Arthur; Runquist, Olaf A

    2008-05-01

    Based on investigation of the earliest colonic tissue alteration in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients, we present the hypothesis that initiation of colorectal cancer by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation is mediated by dysregulation of two cellular mechanisms. One involves differentiation, which normally decreases the proportion (proliferative fraction) of colonic crypt cells that can proliferate; the other is a cell cycle mechanism that simultaneously increases the probability that proliferative cells are in S phase. In normal crypts, stem cells (SC) at the crypt bottom generate rapidly proliferating cells, which undergo differentiation while migrating up the crypt. Our modeling of normal crypts suggests that these transitions are mediated by mechanisms that regulate proliferative fraction and S-phase probability. In FAP crypts, the population of rapidly proliferating cells is shifted upwards, as indicated by the labeling index (LI; i.e., crypt distribution of cells in S phase). Our analysis of FAP indicates that these transitions are delayed because the proliferative fraction and S-phase probability change more slowly as a function of crypt level. This leads to expansion of the proliferative cell population, including a subpopulation that has a low frequency of S-phase cells. We previously reported that crypt SC overpopulation explains the LI shift. Here, we determine that SCs (or cells having high stemness) are proliferative cells with a low probability of being in S phase. Thus, dysregulation of mechanisms that control proliferative fraction and S-phase probability explains how APC mutations induce SC overpopulation at the crypt bottom, shift the rapidly proliferating cell population upwards, and initiate colon tumorigenesis.

  1. Association of iris crypts with acute primary angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Victor; Chua, Jacqueline; Shi, Yuan; Thakku, Sri Gowtham; Lee, Ryan; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Baskaran, Mani; Kumar, Rajesh S; Perera, Shamira; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2017-10-01

    To determine the relationship between iris surface features and acute primary angle closure (APAC) in eyes with angle closure. Case-control study involving Asian patients diagnosed with previous APAC, primary angle closure suspect (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) at an eye centre in Singapore between August 2012 and January 2015. Participants underwent ophthalmic examination and digital slit-lamp iris photography. Iris surface features were graded based on crypts, furrows and colour. Fellow eyes of APAC were compared with PACS and PAC/PACG eyes with regard to their iris surface features. Occurrence of APAC. A total of 309 patients (71 APAC, 139 PACS, 47 PAC and 52 PACG) were included (mean age: 67.7±7.2 years and 36.6% male). Compared with PACS, higher crypt grade was significantly associated with lower odds of APAC (OR=0.58 for one grade higher in crypt grade; p=0.027, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and pupil diameter). The results remained similar when compared with PAC/PACG group (OR=0.58 for one grade higher in crypt grade; p=0.043). We did not observe any significant associations between iris furrows or colour with presence of APAC. Our study comprising Asian eyes with angle closure suggests that the presence of a higher crypt grading may be protective for APAC. As such, assessing iris surface architecture for crypts could be a new measure for risk stratification of developing APAC in eyes with angle closure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. File list: NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestinal cry...pt http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  4. Optical coherence tomography imaging of colonic crypts in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge, Weston A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2016-03-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are abnormal epithelial lesions that precede development of colonic polyps. As the earliest morphological change in the development of colorectal cancer, ACF is a highly studied phenomenon. The most common method of imaging ACF is chromoendoscopy using methylene blue as a contrast agent. Narrow- band imaging is a contrast-agent-free modality for imaging the colonic crypts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an attractive alternative to chromoendoscopy and narrow-band imaging because it can resolve the crypt structure at sufficiently high sampling while simultaneously providing depth-resolved data. We imaged in vivo the distal 15 mm of colon in the azoxymethane (AOM) mouse model of colorectal cancer using a commercial swept-source OCT system and a miniature endoscope designed and built in-house. We present en face images of the colonic crypts and demonstrate that different patterns in healthy and adenoma tissue can be seen. These patterns correspond to those reported in the literature. We have previously demonstrated early detection of colon adenoma using OCT by detecting minute thickening of the mucosa. By combining mucosal thickness measurement with imaging of the crypt structure, OCT can be used to correlate ACF and adenoma development in space and time. These results suggest that OCT may be a superior imaging modality for studying the connection between ACF and colorectal cancer.

  5. HIV enteropathy: HAART reduces HIV-induced stem cell hyperproliferation and crypt hypertrophy to normal in jejunal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Philip A; Kapembwa, Moses S; Belmonte, Liliana; Tudor, Gregory; Kotler, Donald P; Potten, Christopher S; Booth, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro; Griffin, George E

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the structural and kinetic response of small intestinal crypt epithelial cells including stem cells to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Crypt size and proliferative activity of transit and stem cells in jejunal mucosa were quantified using morphometric techniques. Crypt length was measured by counting the number of enterocytes along one side of a number of crypts in each biopsy specimen and the mean crypt length was calculated. Proliferating crypt cells were identified with MIB-1 monoclonal antibody, and the percentage of crypt cells in proliferation was calculated at each cell position along the length of the crypt (proliferation index). Data were obtained from 9 HIV-positive test patients co-infected with microsporidia, 34 HIV-positive patients receiving HAART and 13 control cases. Crypt length was significantly greater in test patients than in controls, but crypt length in patients receiving HAART was normal. The proliferation index was greater in test subjects than in controls in stem and transit cell compartments, and was decreased in patients treated with HAART only in the stem cell region of the crypt. Villous atrophy in HIV enteropathy is attributed to crypt hypertrophy and encroachment of crypt cells onto villi. HAART restores normal crypt structure by inhibition of HIV-driven stem cell hyperproliferation at the crypt bases.

  6. Computational models reveal a passive mechanism for cell migration in the crypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara-Jane Dunn

    Full Text Available Cell migration in the intestinal crypt is essential for the regular renewal of the epithelium, and the continued upward movement of cells is a key characteristic of healthy crypt dynamics. However, the driving force behind this migration is unknown. Possibilities include mitotic pressure, active movement driven by motility cues, or negative pressure arising from cell loss at the crypt collar. It is possible that a combination of factors together coordinate migration. Here, three different computational models are used to provide insight into the mechanisms that underpin cell movement in the crypt, by examining the consequence of eliminating cell division on cell movement. Computational simulations agree with existing experimental results, confirming that migration can continue in the absence of mitosis. Importantly, however, simulations allow us to infer mechanisms that are sufficient to generate cell movement, which is not possible through experimental observation alone. The results produced by the three models agree and suggest that cell loss due to apoptosis and extrusion at the crypt collar relieves cell compression below, allowing cells to expand and move upwards. This finding suggests that future experiments should focus on the role of apoptosis and cell extrusion in controlling cell migration in the crypt.

  7. Multi-scale modeling of APC and [Formula: see text]-catenin regulation in the human colonic crypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Brooks; Schleiniger, Gilberto; Boman, Bruce M

    2018-06-01

    Stem cell renewal and differentiation in the human colonic crypt are linked to the [Formula: see text]-catenin pathway. The spatial balance of Wnt factors in proliferative cells within the crypt maintain an appropriate level of cellular reproduction needed for normal crypt homeostasis. Mutational events at the gene level are responsible for deregulating the balance of Wnt factors along the crypt, causing an overpopulation of proliferative cells, a loss of structure of the crypt domain, and the initiation of colorectal carcinomas. We formulate a PDE model describing cell movement and reproduction in a static crypt domain. We consider a single cell population whose proliferative capabilities are determined by stemness, a quantity defined by intracellular levels of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) scaffold protein and [Formula: see text]-catenin. We fit APC regulation parameters to biological data that describe normal protein gradients in the crypt. We also fit cell movement and protein flux parameters to normal crypt characteristics such as renewal time, total cell count, and proportion of proliferating cells. The model is used to investigate abnormal crypt dynamics when subjected to a diminished APC gradient, a scenario synonymous to mutations in the APC gene. We find that a 25% decrease in APC synthesis leads to a fraction of 0.88 proliferative, which is reflective of normal-appearing FAP crypts. A 50% drop in APC activity yields a fully proliferative crypt showing a doubling of the level of stemness, which characterizes the initial stages of colorectal cancer development. A sensitivity analysis of APC regulation parameters shows the perturbation of factors that is required to restore crypt dynamics to normal in the case of APC mutations.

  8. Radiosensitivity of ileum crypt cells in hibernating, arousing, and awake ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroslow, B.N.; Michael Fry, R.J.; Suhrbier, K.M.; Sallese, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of ileal crypt cells, to 60 Co gamma radiation, was studied in ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus) during hibernation, arousal, and the euthermic state. Survival of ileal crypt cells, assayed by the microcolony technique from stained transverse sections of ileum, was greater in animals irradiated in hibernation or 1 hr after initiation of arousal from hibernation. Crypt survival returned to the level of irradiated nonhibernating controls in animals irradiated 3 to 7 hr after initiation of arousal. Over the exposure range of 1500 to 2400 R, the survival of crypt cells for euthermic controls gave a D 0 = 133 +- 12 R and for animals irradiated in hibernation it gave a D 0 = 487 +- 92 R. In animals irradiated 1 hr after initiation of arousal, when core temperature is within the range of euthermic controls, crypt survival was almost as high as in the hibernators. These results suggest that the increased resistance of ileal crypt cells in hibernating animals could be due to hypoxia, although not direct evidence for hypoxia in hibernation was established. The changes in mitotic index of ileal crypt cells during hibernation and arousal indicate an alteration in the distribution of cells in the phases of the cycle. This change in distribution may also have contributed to the increased radioresistance of hibernators

  9. The effect of melatonin on mouse jejunal crypt cell survival and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jin Oh; Ha, Eun Young; Baik, Hyung Hwan; Cho, Yong Ho; Hong, Seong Eon

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate protective mechanism of melatonin against radiation damage and its relationship with apoptosis in mouse jejunum. 168 mice were divided into 28 groups according to radiation dose and melatonin treatment. To analysis crypt survival, microcolony survival assay was done according to Withers and Elkind's method. To analysis apoptosis, TUNEL assay was done according to Labet-Moleur's method. Radiation protection effect of melatonin was demonstrated by crypt survival assay and its effect was stronger in high radiation dose area. Apoptosis index with 8 Gy irradiation was 18.4% in control group and 16.5% in melatonin treated group. After 18 Gy, apoptosis index was 17.2%in control group and 15.4% in melatonin treated group. Apoptosis index did not show statistically significant difference between melatonin shows clear protective effect in mouse jejunum against radiation damage but its protective effect seems not to be related with apoptosis protection effect

  10. Restorative effect of exogenous RNA on the intestinal crypts in mice after abdominal γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Guiying; Han Shichen; Liu Aiping; Xie Xuejun; Zhou Yuankai

    1995-01-01

    The author's previous investigation revealed a restorative effect of exogenous nucleic acids on the intestinal crypt in mice after abdominal γ-irradiation. In the article, the factors influencing the restorative effect of exogenous RNA on the intestinal crypt in mice post-irradiation were studied. The results showed that: (a) RNAs from different sources all showed the crypt survival enhancement capability. (b) Bell-shaped curves correlating the crypt survival fraction and RNA doses were obtained, with the optimal doses for different routes of administration estimated. (c) Comparing the different routes of RNA administration, the intravenous injection seemed to be the most effective. (d) An exponential relationship between the crypt survival fraction and the post-irradiation time of RNA administration was found. The earlier the administration, the more effective it was. (e) Administration of RNA merely once within 6h after irradiation, the increases of crypt survival fraction was statistically significant when compared with that of the irradiated control

  11. Cell organisation in the colonic crypt: a theoretical comparison of the pedigree and niche concepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C van der Wath

    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosa is a monolayer of rapidly self-renewing epithelial cells which is not only responsible for absorption of water and nutrients into the bloodstream but also acts as a protective barrier against harmful microbes entering the body. New functional epithelial cells are produced from stem cells, and their proliferating progeny. These stem cells are found within millions of crypts (tubular pits spaced along the intestinal tract. The entire intestinal epithelium is replaced every 2-3 days in mice (3-5 days in humans and hence cell production, differentiation, migration and turnover need to be tightly regulated. Malfunctions in this regulation are strongly linked to inflammatory bowel diseases and to the formation of adenomas and ultimately cancerous tumours. Despite a great deal of biological experimentation and observation, precisely how colonic crypts are regulated to produce mature colonocytes remains unclear. To assist in understanding how cell organisation in crypts is achieved, two very different conceptual models of cell behaviour are developed here, referred to as the 'pedigree' and the 'niche' models. The pedigree model proposes that crypt cells are largely preprogrammed and receive minimal prompting from the environment as they move through a routine of cell differentiation and proliferation to become mature colonocytes. The niche model proposes that crypt cells are primarily influenced by the local microenvironments along the crypt, and that predetermined cell behaviour plays a negligible role in their development. In this paper we present a computational model of colonic crypts in the mouse, which enables a comparison of the quality and controllability of mature coloncyte production by crypts operating under these two contrasting conceptual models of crypt regulation.

  12. Diurnal variations in proliferation and crypt survival suggest a small target cell population in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbin, J.; Hamilton, E.

    1986-01-01

    Male C57BLasup(t) mice of two ages, 3-5 months (young) and 14-15 months (old) were given 11 or 15Gy whole body irradiation at different times through the day. The mice were killed after 4.5 days and the number of surviving crypts per circumference of jejunum, ileum, transverse colon and descending colon were scored. These results show crypt survival in the small and large intestine of 15-month-old mice. In the ileum the maximum crypt survival was found at 04.00 h and the minimum at 08.00 h. In the jejunum and both regions of the colon the maximum crypt survival occurred at 16.00 h. The nadir of crypt survival after 15 Gy was at 04.00 h in the jejunum and at 20.00 and 24.00 h in the transverse and descending colon, respectively. In young mice, crypt survival levels were similar to those found in old animals except at 04.00 h. when survival in the jejunum and ileum fell to 0.0004+-0.0002 and 0.0007+-0.0004, respectively. The lowest crypt survival in the colon of young mice also occurred at 04.00 h and in all four tissues the greatest number of crypts survived irradiation at 24.00 h. (author)

  13. Effects of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents on split-dose repair in intestinal crypt cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Theodore L.; Ross, Glenda Y.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Many cancer chemotherapeutic agents interact with radiation to enhance the amount of radiation damage observed in both tumor and normal tissues. It is important to predict this interaction and to determine the effect of drug on sublethal damage repair. To evaluate for effects in rapid renewing normal tissues, the intestinal crypt cell in vivo assay is an excellent one to employ. These studies investigate the effect of eleven cancer chemotherapeutic drugs on split-dose repair in the intestinal crypt cell of the mouse. Methods and Materials: LAF1 male mice, age 10-12 weeks, were exposed to whole-body irradiation with orthovoltage x-rays delivered as a single dose or as equally divided doses delivered with intervals between the two exposures of 2 to 24 h. In the experimental group, the cancer chemotherapeutic agent was administered intraperitoneally 2 h before the first radiation dose. At 3.6 days after the second irradiation, the mice were sacrificed; the jejunum was removed, fixed, and sectioned for light microscopy. The number of regenerating crypts were counted and corrected to represent the number of surviving cells per circumference. Results: Of the eleven drugs tested, only carmustine eliminated split-dose repair. Cisplatin delayed repair, and methotrexate caused marked synchronization obliterating the observation of split-dose repair. Conclusions: Most cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents do not inhibit sublethal damage repair in intestinal crypt cells when given 2 h before the first radiation exposure. Absence of the initial increase in survival seen with split-dose radiation is noted with carmustine and high-dose methotrexate

  14. Analysis of cryptographic mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Glet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to analysis how malicious software is using cryptographic mechanisms. Reverse engineering were applied in order to discover mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3. At the end were given some useful advices how to improve CryptXXX.[b]Keyword:[/b] ransomware, software engineering, reverse engineering, RC4, RSA, malicious software

  15. The re-establishment of hypersensitive cells in the crypts of irradiated mouse intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, K.; Potten, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Two doses of γ-radiation separated by various time intervals have been used to investigate when after irradiation the cell population susceptible to acute cell death is re-established. Dead cells were scored 3 or 6 h after the second dose. Within 1-2 days of small doses (0.5 Gy) the sensitive cells, recognized histologically as apoptotic cells, are re-established at the base of the crypt (around cell position 6). After higher doses (9.0 Gy) they are not re-established until about the fourth day after irradiation. Even in the enlarged regenerating crypts the sensitive cells are found at the same position at the crypt base. It has been estimated that the crypt contains five or six cells that are susceptible to low doses (0.5 Gy) (hypersensitive cells) and up to a total of only seven or eight susceptible cells that can be induced by any dose to enter the sequence of changes implicit in apoptosis. Between 4 and 10 days after an intitial irradiation of 9.0 Gy the total number of susceptible cells increased from seven to eight to about 10 to 13 per crypt. (author)

  16. The Development of M Cells in Peyer’s Patches Is Restricted to Specialized Dome-Associated Crypts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Andreas; Fassbender, Susanne; Werner, Kerstin; Weissferdt, Annikka

    1999-01-01

    It is controversial whether the membranous (M) cells of the Peyer’s patches represent a separate cell line or develop from enterocytes under the influence of lymphocytes on the domes. To answer this question, the crypts that produce the dome epithelial cells were studied and the distribution of M cells over the domes was determined in mice. The Ulex europaeus agglutinin was used to detect M cells in mouse Peyer’s patches. Confocal microscopy with lectin-gold labeling on ultrathin sections, scanning electron microscopy, and laminin immuno-histochemistry were combined to characterize the cellular composition and the structure of the dome-associated crypts and the dome epithelium. In addition, the sites of lymphocyte invasion into the dome epithelium were studied after removal of the epithelium using scanning electron microscopy. The domes of Peyer’s patches were supplied with epithelial cells that derived from two types of crypt: specialized dome-associated crypts and ordinary crypts differing not only in shape, size, and cellular composition but also in the presence of M cell precursors. When epithelial cells derived from ordinary crypts entered the domes, they formed converging radial strips devoid of M cells. In contrast to the M cells, the sites where lymphocytes invaded the dome epithelium were not arranged in radial strips, but randomly distributed over the domes. M cell development is restricted to specialized dome-associated crypts. Only dome epithelial cells that derive from these specialized crypts differentiate into M cells. It is concluded that M cells represent a separate cell line that is induced in the dome-associated crypts by still unknown, probably diffusible lymphoid factors. PMID:10329609

  17. Lipopolysaccharide from Crypt-Specific Core Microbiota Modulates the Colonic Epithelial Proliferation-to-Differentiation Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Naito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We identified a crypt-specific core microbiota (CSCM dominated by strictly aerobic, nonfermentative bacteria in murine cecal and proximal colonic (PC crypts and hypothesized that, among its possible functions, it may affect epithelial regeneration. In the present work, we isolated representative CSCM strains using selective media based upon our initial 16S rRNA-based molecular identification (i.e., Acinetobacter, Delftia, and Stenotrophomonas. Their tropism for the crypt was confirmed, and their influence on epithelial regeneration was demonstrated in vivo by monocolonization of germfree mice. We also showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, through its endotoxin activity, was the dominant bacterial agonist controlling proliferation. The relevant molecular mechanisms were analyzed using colonic crypt-derived organoids exposed to bacterial sonicates or highly purified LPS as agonists. We identified a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-dependent program affecting crypts at different stages of epithelial differentiation. LPS played a dual role: it repressed cell proliferation through RIPK3-mediated necroptosis of stem cells and cells of the transit-amplifying compartment and concurrently enhanced cell differentiation, particularly the goblet cell lineage.

  18. Crypt cell population kinetics in mouse jejunum under continuous beta irradiation from tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.; Gupta, M.L.; Saharan, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    The behaviour of crypt cell population in mouse jejunum under continuous beta irradiation from tritiated water (HTO) has been studied. Adult mice were maintained on tritiated drinking water of the activity of 1.25 μCi/ml, after priming injection. The crypts were studied at 1, 5, 7, 15 and 30 days after the initiation of treatment. It is observed that there is a partial recovery in proliferative activity after the first day of the treatment. Again there is a decrease in the crypt cells on the 7th day, after which this population appears to achieve a near-steady-state level at about 8% below normal at the last interval studied. Crypt cell population and mitotic figures showed a simultaneous dip and recovery, while dead cells showed inverse relationship. (orig.) [de

  19. Quantification of crypt and stem cell evolution in the normal and neoplastic human colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Ann-Marie; Cereser, Biancastella; Melton, Samuel; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Tadrous, Paul J.; Humphries, Adam; Elia, George; McDonald, Stuart A. C.; Wright, Nicholas A.; Simons, Benjamin D.; Jansen, Marnix; Graham, Trevor A.

    2014-01-01

    Human intestinal stem cell and crypt dynamics remain poorly characterized because transgenic lineage-tracing methods are impractical in humans. Here, we have circumvented this problem by quantitatively using somatic mtDNA mutations to trace clonal lineages. By analyzing clonal imprints on the walls

  20. DNA mismatch repair protein deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts: a novel indicator of Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Rish K; Dudley, Beth; Karloski, Eve; Brand, Randall E; O'Callaghan, Neil; Rosty, Christophe; Buchanan, Daniel D; Jenkins, Mark A; Thibodeau, Stephen N; French, Amy J; Lindor, Noralane M; Pai, Reetesh K

    2018-06-08

    Lynch syndrome is the most common form of hereditary colorectal carcinoma. However, establishing the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome is challenging, and ancillary studies that distinguish between sporadic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein deficiency and Lynch syndrome are needed, particularly when germline mutation studies are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine if MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic intestinal crypts can help distinguish between patients with and without Lynch syndrome. We evaluated the expression of MMR proteins in non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa obtained from colorectal surgical resection specimens from patients with Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinoma (n = 52) and patients with colorectal carcinoma without evidence of Lynch syndrome (n = 70), including sporadic MMR protein-deficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), MMR protein proficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), and "Lynch-like" syndrome (n = 10). MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts were identified in 19 of 122 (16%) patients. MMR protein-deficient colonic crypts were identified in 18 of 52 (35%) patients with Lynch syndrome compared to only 1 of 70 (1%) patients without Lynch syndrome (p Lynch-like" syndrome and harbored two MSH2-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts. MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts were not identified in patients with sporadic MMR protein-deficient or MMR protein proficient colorectal carcinoma. Our findings suggest that MMR protein-deficient colonic crypts are a novel indicator of Lynch syndrome, and evaluation for MMR protein-deficient crypts may be a helpful addition to Lynch syndrome diagnostics.

  1. Comparison of the dose-response relationship of radiation-induced apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and intestinal crypt of adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Yang, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, D.; Kim, J. C.; Shin, T.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, C.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the dose-response curves for the frequency of apoptosis in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and intestinal crypt using whole-body gamma irradiation. The incidence of gamma-ray-induced apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labelling (TUNEL) method. TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the DG and intestinal crypt were increased in a dose-dependent pattern (0-2 Gy). The dose-response curves were linear-quadratic, with a significant relationship between the appearance of apoptosis and irradiation dose. The slopes of the dose-response curves in the DG were much steeper (∼5-6-fold) than those in the intestinal crypt within the range of 0-1 Gy exposure. Hippocampal DG might be a more effective and sensitive evaluation structure than the intestinal crypt to estimate the degree of radiation exposure in damaged organs of adult mice exposed to low irradiation dose. copy; The Author 2011. Published by Oxford Univ. Press. All rights reserved. (authors)

  2. Radiation-induced hyperproliferation of intestinal crypts results in elevated genome instability with inactive p53-related genomic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Ma, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhenhua; Sun, Chao; Wang, Yupei; He, Yang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-12-15

    Radiation-induced hyperproliferation of intestinal crypts is well documented, but its potential tumorigenic effects remain elusive. Here we aim to determine the genomic surveillance process during crypt hyperproliferation, and its consequential outcome after ionizing radiation. Crypt regeneration in the intestine was induced by a single dose of 12Gy abdominal irradiation. γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and DNA-PKcs were used as DNA repair surrogates to investigate the inherent ability of intestinal crypt cells to recognize and repair double-strand breaks. Ki67 staining and the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay were used to study patterns of cell proliferation in regenerating crypts. Staining for ATM, p53, Chk1 and Chk2 was performed to study checkpoint activation and release. Apoptosis was evaluated through H&E staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP) nick-end labeling. The ATM-p53 pathway was immediately activated after irradiation. A second wave of DSBs in crypt cells was observed in regenerating crypts, accompanied with significantly increased chromosomal bridges. The p53-related genomic surveillance pathway was not active during the regeneration phase despite DSBs and chromosomal bridges in the cells of regenerating crypts. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DSBs repair was involved in the DSBs repair process, as indicated by p-DNA-PKcs staining. Intestinal crypt cells retained hyperproliferation with inactive p53-related genomic surveillance system. NHEJ was involved in the resultant genomic instability during hyperproliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A theoretical investigation of the effect of proliferation and adhesion on monoclonal conversion in the colonic crypt

    KAUST Repository

    Mirams, Gary R.

    2012-11-01

    The surface epithelium lining the intestinal tract renews itself rapidly by a coordinated programme of cell proliferation, migration and differentiation events that is initiated in the crypts of Lieberkühn. It is generally believed that colorectal cancer arises due to mutations that disrupt the normal cellular dynamics of the crypts. Using a spatially structured cell-based model of a colonic crypt, we investigate the likelihood that the progeny of a mutated cell will dominate, or be sloughed out of, a crypt. Our approach is to perform multiple simulations, varying the spatial location of the initial mutation, and the proliferative and adhesive properties of the mutant cells, to obtain statistical distributions for the probability of their domination. Our simulations lead us to make a number of predictions. The process of monoclonal conversion always occurs, and does not require that the cell which initially gave rise to the population remains in the crypt. Mutations occurring more than one to two cells from the base of the crypt are unlikely to become the dominant clone. The probability of a mutant clone persisting in the crypt is sensitive to dysregulation of adhesion. By comparing simulation results with those from a simple one-dimensional stochastic model of population dynamics at the base of the crypt, we infer that this sensitivity is due to direct competition between wild-type and mutant cells at the base of the crypt. We also predict that increases in the extent of the spatial domain in which the mutant cells proliferate can give rise to counter-intuitive, non-linear changes to the probability of their fixation, due to effects that cannot be captured in simpler models. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Enhancement of radiation effect on mouse intestinal crypt survival by timing of 5-fluorouracil administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, E.; Coffey, C.; Maruyama, Y.

    1977-01-01

    There is a marked dependence of mouse crypt survival on the sequence of combined drug-radiation treatment and on the time lapse between irradiation and drug administration. When 5-fluorouracil is administered 6 hours after irradiation or later (up to 18 hours postirradiation), crypt survival drops significantly

  5. Radioprotective effects of miso (fermented soy bean paste) against radiation in B6C3F1 mice. Increased small intestinal crypt survival, crypt lengths and prolongation of average time to death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Masayuki; Lu, Huimei; Shiraki, Katsutomo; Ishimura, Yoshimasa; Uesaka, Toshihiro; Katoh, Osamu; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2001-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of miso, a fermentation product from soy bean, was investigated with reference to the survival time, crypt survival and jejunum crypt length in male B6C3F1 mice. Miso at three different fermentation stages (early-, medium- and long-term fermented miso) was mixed in MF diet into biscuits at 10% and was administered from 1 week before irradiation. Animal survival in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly prolonged as compared with the short-term fermented miso and MF cases after 8 Gy of 60 Co-γ-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2 Gy min -1 . Delay in mortality was evident in all three miso groups, with significantly increased survival. At doses of 10 and 12 Gy X-irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy min -1 , the treatment with long-term fermented miso significantly increased crypt survival. Also the protective influence against irradiation in terms of crypt lengths in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly greater than in the short-term or medium-term fermented miso and MF diet groups. Thus, prolonged fermentation appears to be very important for protection against radiation effects. (author)

  6. Radioprotective effects of miso (fermented soy bean paste) against radiation in B6C3F1 mice: increased small intestinal crypt survival, crypt lengths and prolongation of average time to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, M; Lu, H; Shiraki, K; Ishimura, Y; Uesaka, T; Katoh, O; Watanabe, H

    2001-12-01

    The radioprotective effect of miso, a fermentation product from soy bean, was investigated with reference to the survival time, crypt survival and jejunum crypt length in male B6C3F1 mice. Miso at three different fermentation stages (early-, medium- and long-term fermented miso) was mixed in MF diet into biscuits at 10% and was administered from 1 week before irradiation. Animal survival in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly prolonged as compared with the short-term fermented miso and MF cases after 8 Gy of 60Co-gamma-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2Gy min(-1). Delay in mortality was evident in all three miso groups, with significantly increased survival. At doses of 10 and 12 Gy X-irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy min(-1), the treatment with long-term fermented miso significantly increased crypt survival. Also the protective influence against irradiation in terms of crypt lengths in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly greater than in the short-term or medium-term fermented miso and MF diet groups. Thus, prolonged fermentation appears to be very important for protection against radiation effects.

  7. Adrenergic factors regulating cell division in the colonic crypt epithelium during carcinogenesis and in colonic adenoma and adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1985-09-01

    Evidence exists implicating adrenergic factors in the control of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation in both normal and diseased states. In this report, attention is focussed on changes in the amine requirements of proliferating cells during the chemical induction of tumours in the colon of mouse. Cell proliferation rates were measured stathmokinetically. Tumours were induced by s.c. injection of dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Results with a series of adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists suggest that there is an alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated excitatory effect in normal colon but an alpha 2 adrenoceptor mediated inhibitory effect in adenoma and carcinoma. Alpha 1 adrenoceptors, on the other hand, have an inhibitory effect in normal crypts and in adenomas, and an excitatory effect in carcinomas. Beta adrenoceptors have an inhibitory effect in the normal and DMH-treated crypt, and in adenomas, but not in carcinomas. In the crypt epithelium of DMH-treated mice, two regions on cell proliferation, with differing regulatory factors, could be identified. In the upper region of the carcinogen-exposed crypt is a zone where cell proliferation is stimulated by an alpha 2 adrenergic mechanism, thus resembling the basal region of the normal crypt. By contrast, in the basal region of these crypts, cell proliferation is stimulated by an alpha 1 mechanism, thus resembling a malignant tumour.

  8. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nancy M.; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R.; Stefanski, Casey D.; Strubberg, Ashlee M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl− and HCO3− efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3−)-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3−-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl− concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl− concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl− and HCO3− efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl− and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. PMID:26542396

  10. Single-dose-response curves of murine gastrointestinal crypt stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, K.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.; Chen, K.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Dose-response curves for the reproductive capacity of crypt stem cells of murine colonic, jejunal, and gastric mucosae exposed in situ to multifractionated gamma ray exposures were analyzed and single-dose-survival curves of these cells were constructed. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The single-dose-response curves bend downward over a dose range of approximately 200 to 1500 rad; (2) cell death seems to be due to nonrepairable damage at doses less than 250 rad for colon, and 220 rad for jejunum; (3) there are 21, 110, and 140 stem cells per crypt of gastric, colonic, and jejunal mucosa, respectively; and (4) jejunal stem cells are the most radiosensitive and gastric mucosal stem cells are the most resistant

  11. The protective effect of fermented milk kefir on radiation-induced apoptosis in colonic crypt cells of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fermented milk kefir on X-ray-induced apoptosis in the colon of rats, we examined the apoptotic index, the mean number of apoptotic cells detected by H and E staining per crypt in the colon, in control rats and kefir-pretreated rats drinking kefir for 12 days before irradiation. Apoptotic cells were confirmed by TUNEL staining, and active caspase-3 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. The cell position of apoptotic cells and active caspase-3 positive cells were examined. The apoptotic index of kefir-treated rats was significantly (p<0.05) decreased 2 h after 1 Gy irradiation in comparison with control rats at crypt cell positions 1-3, 5-7, 13, and 15. Active caspase-3 expression in the kefir-treated rats was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced in comparison with control rats 2 h after 1 Gy irradiation at crypt cell positions 1-4, 13, and 15. This study indicated that kefir protects colonic crypt cells against radiation-induced apoptosis, which was most pronounced in the stem cell region of the crypt. The antiapoptotic effect of fermented milk kefir was due to the inhibition of caspase-3 activation. (author)

  12. A two-dimensional model of the colonic crypt accounting for the role of the basement membrane and pericryptal fibroblast sheath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara-Jane Dunn

    Full Text Available The role of the basement membrane is vital in maintaining the integrity and structure of an epithelial layer, acting as both a mechanical support and forming the physical interface between epithelial cells and the surrounding connective tissue. The function of this membrane is explored here in the context of the epithelial monolayer that lines the colonic crypt, test-tube shaped invaginations that punctuate the lining of the intestine and coordinate a regular turnover of cells to replenish the epithelial layer every few days. To investigate the consequence of genetic mutations that perturb the system dynamics and can lead to colorectal cancer, it must be possible to track the emerging tissue level changes that arise in the crypt. To that end, a theoretical crypt model with a realistic, deformable geometry is required. A new discrete crypt model is presented, which focuses on the interaction between cell- and tissue-level behaviour, while incorporating key subcellular components. The model contains a novel description of the role of the surrounding tissue and musculature, based upon experimental observations of the tissue structure of the crypt, which are also reported. A two-dimensional (2D cross-sectional geometry is considered, and the shape of the crypt is allowed to evolve and deform. Simulation results reveal how the shape of the crypt may contribute mechanically to the asymmetric division events typically associated with the stem cells at the base. The model predicts that epithelial cell migration may arise due to feedback between cell loss at the crypt collar and density-dependent cell division, an hypothesis which can be investigated in a wet lab. This work forms the basis for investigation of the deformation of the crypt structure that can occur due to proliferation of cells exhibiting mutant phenotypes, experiments that would not be possible in vivo or in vitro.

  13. Effect of an inhibitor of noradrenaline uptake, desipramine, on cell proliferation in the intestinal crypt epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1989-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa receives an adrenergic innervation for which there is no commonly accepted function. However, in recent years, cell kinetic studies have raised the possibility that this innervation may be an important regulator of crypt cell proliferation. The effects of noradrenaline released from adrenergic nerves is terminated principally by re-uptake of the amine into the nerve and this process can be inhibited by the antidepressant drug, desipramine. In this report desipramine is shown to accelerate crypt cell proliferation in intact, but not in chemically sympathectomized rats, thus adding support to the notion that regulation of crypt cell division is an important function of the sympathetic nervous system.

  14. MicroRNA mir-16 is anti-proliferative in enterocytes and exhibits diurnal rhythmicity in intestinal crypts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Anita, E-mail: anita.balakrishnan@doctors.org.uk [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); School of Clinical Sciences, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE (United Kingdom); Stearns, Adam T. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Park, Peter J. [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harvard Medical School, Center for Biomedical Informatics, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Dreyfuss, Jonathan M. [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Ashley, Stanley W. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rhoads, David B. [Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Pediatric Endocrine Unit, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Tavakkolizadeh, Ali, E-mail: atavakkoli@partners.org [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Background and aims: The intestine exhibits profound diurnal rhythms in function and morphology, in part due to changes in enterocyte proliferation. The regulatory mechanisms behind these rhythms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs are involved in mediating these rhythms, and studied the role of microRNAs specifically in modulating intestinal proliferation. Methods: Diurnal rhythmicity of microRNAs in rat jejunum was analyzed by microarrays and validated by qPCR. Temporal expression of diurnally rhythmic mir-16 was further quantified in intestinal crypts, villi, and smooth muscle using laser capture microdissection and qPCR. Morphological changes in rat jejunum were assessed by histology and proliferation by immunostaining for bromodeoxyuridine. In IEC-6 cells stably overexpressing mir-16, proliferation was assessed by cell counting and MTS assay, cell cycle progression and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cell cycle gene expression by qPCR and immunoblotting. Results: mir-16 peaked 6 hours after light onset (HALO 6) with diurnal changes restricted to crypts. Crypt depth and villus height peaked at HALO 13-14 in antiphase to mir-16. Overexpression of mir-16 in IEC-6 cells suppressed specific G1/S regulators (cyclins D1-3, cyclin E1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6) and produced G1 arrest. Protein expression of these genes exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in rat jejunum, peaking between HALO 11 and 17 in antiphase to mir-16. Conclusions: This is the first report of circadian rhythmicity of specific microRNAs in rat jejunum. Our data provide a link between anti-proliferative mir-16 and the intestinal proliferation rhythm and point to mir-16 as an important regulator of proliferation in jejunal crypts. This function may be essential to match proliferation and absorptive capacity with nutrient availability.

  15. MicroRNA mir-16 is anti-proliferative in enterocytes and exhibits diurnal rhythmicity in intestinal crypts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, Anita; Stearns, Adam T.; Park, Peter J.; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Ashley, Stanley W.; Rhoads, David B.; Tavakkolizadeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims: The intestine exhibits profound diurnal rhythms in function and morphology, in part due to changes in enterocyte proliferation. The regulatory mechanisms behind these rhythms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs are involved in mediating these rhythms, and studied the role of microRNAs specifically in modulating intestinal proliferation. Methods: Diurnal rhythmicity of microRNAs in rat jejunum was analyzed by microarrays and validated by qPCR. Temporal expression of diurnally rhythmic mir-16 was further quantified in intestinal crypts, villi, and smooth muscle using laser capture microdissection and qPCR. Morphological changes in rat jejunum were assessed by histology and proliferation by immunostaining for bromodeoxyuridine. In IEC-6 cells stably overexpressing mir-16, proliferation was assessed by cell counting and MTS assay, cell cycle progression and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cell cycle gene expression by qPCR and immunoblotting. Results: mir-16 peaked 6 hours after light onset (HALO 6) with diurnal changes restricted to crypts. Crypt depth and villus height peaked at HALO 13-14 in antiphase to mir-16. Overexpression of mir-16 in IEC-6 cells suppressed specific G1/S regulators (cyclins D1-3, cyclin E1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6) and produced G1 arrest. Protein expression of these genes exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in rat jejunum, peaking between HALO 11 and 17 in antiphase to mir-16. Conclusions: This is the first report of circadian rhythmicity of specific microRNAs in rat jejunum. Our data provide a link between anti-proliferative mir-16 and the intestinal proliferation rhythm and point to mir-16 as an important regulator of proliferation in jejunal crypts. This function may be essential to match proliferation and absorptive capacity with nutrient availability.

  16. Adrenergic factors involved in the control of crypt cell proliferation in jejunum and descending colon of mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1983-01-01

    The mitotic rates in the crypts of Lieberkühn of the proximal jejunum and descending colon of mouse, following different treatments, were measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Regression coefficients, representing mitotic rates, were then calculated by the method of least squares. Treatment with adrenaline, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, phentolamine, and yohimbine all resulted in decreased mitotic rate of jejunal and colonic crypt cells. Chemical sympathectomy and cryosympathectomy had a similar effect, and chemical sympathectomy was followed by a supersensitivity to clonidine. Intraperitoneal injection of metaraminol, clonidine, propranolol, prazosin, labetolol and simultaneous injection of propranolol and adrenaline all resulted in an increased rate of crypt cell proliferation in both jejunum and colon. A significant increase in mitotic rate was observed in both tissues at night. The amplitude of this diurnal variation was decreased in both jejunum and colon following chemical sympathectomy. In addition, the amplitude of this variation in jejunum was decreased after treatment with yohimbine or phentolamine. The results of the study suggest that the sympathetic nervous system stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in both the small and large intestine and that this effect is mediated by an alpha 2-adrenoceptor. By contrast, stimulation of alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors is inhibitory to cell proliferation in these tissues.

  17. Duodenal crypt health following exposure to Cr(VI): Micronucleus scoring, γ-H2AX immunostaining, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Chad M.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Elbekai, Reem H.; Paranjpe, Madhav G.; Seiter, Jennifer M.; Chappell, Mark A.; Tappero, Ryan V.; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M.; Bichteler, Anne; Haws, Laurie C.; Harris, Mark A.

    2015-08-01

    Lifetime exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal damage and an increase in duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To assess whether these tumors could be the result of a direct mutagenic or genotoxic mode of action, we conducted a GLP-compliant 7-day drinking water study to assess crypt health along the entire length of the duodenum. Mice were exposed to water (vehicle control), 1.4, 21, or 180 ppm Cr(VI) via drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Crypt enterocytes in Swiss roll sections were scored as normal, mitotic, apoptotic, karyorrhectic, or as having micronuclei. A single oral gavage of 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide served as a positive control for micronucleus induction. Exposure to 21 and 180 ppm Cr(VI) significantly increased the number of crypt enterocytes. Micronuclei and γ-H2AX immunostaining were not elevated in the crypts of Cr(VI)-treated mice. In contrast, treatment with cyclophosphamide significantly increased numbers of crypt micronuclei and qualitatively increased γ-H2AX immunostaining. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy revealed the presence of strong Cr fluorescence in duodenal villi, but negligible Cr fluorescence in the crypt compartment. Together, these data indicate that Cr(VI) does not adversely effect the crypt compartment where intestinal stem cells reside, and provide additional evidence that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal cancer in B6C3F1 mice involves chronic villous wounding resulting in compensatory crypt enterocyte hyperplasia.

  18. Cracking ShadowCrypt: Exploring the Limitations of Secure I/O Systems in Internet Browsers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freyberger Michael

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An important line of privacy research is investigating the design of systems for secure input and output (I/O within Internet browsers. These systems would allow for users’ information to be encrypted and decrypted by the browser, and the specific web applications will only have access to the users’ information in encrypted form. The state-of-the-art approach for a secure I/O system within Internet browsers is a system called ShadowCrypt created by UC Berkeley researchers [23]. This paper will explore the limitations of ShadowCrypt in order to provide a foundation for the general principles that must be followed when designing a secure I/O system within Internet browsers. First, we developed a comprehensive UI attack that cannot be mitigated with popular UI defenses, and tested the efficacy of the attack through a user study administered on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Only 1 of the 59 participants who were under attack successfully noticed the UI attack, which validates the stealthiness of the attack. Second, we present multiple attack vectors against Shadow-Crypt that do not rely upon UI deception. These attack vectors expose the privacy weaknesses of Shadow DOM—the key browser primitive leveraged by ShadowCrypt. Finally, we present a sketch of potential countermeasures that can enable the design of future secure I/O systems within Internet browsers.

  19. Radioprotective effect of dextran sulphate and aerogenic hypoxia on intestinal crypt stem cells in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, A.; Bartonickova, A.; Rotkovska, D.; Konoplyanikova, O.A.; Konoplyanikov, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal injection of dextran sulfate given 6 h before irradiation produced higher numbers of microcolonies of intestinal crypt stem cells in whole-body irradiated mice than an injection of saline in control mice. If dextran sulfate and hypoxia are combined, the radioprotective effect of hypoxia on intestinal crypt stem cells depends on the time interval between irradiation and administration of dextran sulfate. (author). 2 figs., 12 refs

  20. The ability of two cooked food mutagens to induce aberrant crypt foci in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1997-01-01

    induced a higher percentage of medium or large sized aberrant crypt foci than PhIP or IQ, The interpretation of the aberrant crypt foci as precursor lesions for colon cancer in the PhIP and IQ mice is difficult because PhIP and IQ have not been reported to be colonic carcinogens, If cooked food mutagens......The aberrant crypt foci assay has been used extensively to study different compounds for chemopreventive action, but almost all investigations have used initiators not normally found in the diet, In the present study two food-borne initiators, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2......-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were used, To simulate the human exposure further, we chose a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ- and PhIP-doses, Throughout the study female mice were given diets with or without 0.03% IQ or 0.03% PhIP, Two additional groups were given...

  1. An investigation of multi-rate sound decay under strongly non-diffuse conditions: The crypt of the Cathedral of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellotta, Francesco; Álvarez-Morales, Lidia; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo

    2018-05-01

    Multi-rate sound decays are often found and studied in complex systems of coupled volumes where diffuse field conditions generally apply, although the openings connecting different sub-spaces are by themselves potential causes of non-diffuse behaviour. However, in presence of spaces in which curved surfaces clearly prevent diffuse field behaviour from being established, things become more complex and require more sophisticated tools (or, better, combinations of them) to be fully understood. As an example of such complexity, the crypt of the Cathedral of Cadiz is a relatively small space characterised by a central vaulted rotunda, with five radial galleries with flat and low ceiling. In addition, the crypt is connected to the main cathedral volume by means of several small openings. Acoustic measurements carried out in the crypt pointed out the existence of at least two decay processes combined, in some points, with flutter echoes. Application of conventional methods of analysis pointed out the existence of significant differences between early decay time and reverberation time, but was inconclusive in explaining the origin of the observed phenomena. The use of more robust Bayesian analysis permitted the conclusion that the late decay appearing in the crypt had a different rate than that observed in the cathedral, thus excluding the explanation based on acoustic coupling of different volumes. Finally, processing impulse responses collected by means of a B-format microphone to obtain directional intensity maps demonstrated that the late decay was originated from the rotunda where a repetitive reflection pattern appeared between the floor and the dome causing both flutter echoes and a longer reverberation time.

  2. Integrated prospecting in the crypt of the Basilica of Saint Nicholas in Bari, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calia, Angela; Leucci, Giovanni; Masini, Nicola; Matera, Loredana; Persico, Raffaele; Sileo, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of non-destructive integrated geophysical surveys (ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic sonic) performed in the crypt of the Basilica of St Nicholas in Bari, Italy. The aim was twofold, namely to investigate the consistency of restoration work performed in 1950 and the presence of features of archaeological interest. The GPR technique has also been exploited to characterize the subsurface water content under the crypt. In particular, the existence of buried anomalies, probably due to the restoration work, has been identified. Moreover, by means of an electromagnetic-wave velocity analysis, an estimation of the volumetric water content under the floor has been achieved. The results indicate the main causes of the deterioration and have provided significant information for the safeguard of this historical building. Furthermore, the GPR survey allowed us to identify some anomalies buried under the crypt that are probably of archaeological interest. Finally, both sonic tomography and a GPR survey have been performed on an important mosaic, and have enabled us to identify probable ‘internal’ reasons for its decay. (paper)

  3. Neutral dynamics and cell renewal of colonic crypts in homeostatic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrik, A. J.; Romanelli, L.; Rotondo, E.

    2018-05-01

    The self renewal process in colonic crypts is the object of several studies. We present here a new compartment model with the following characteristics: (a) we distinguish different classes of cells: stem cells, six generations of transit amplifying cells and the differentiated cells; (b) in order to take into account the monoclonal character of crypts in homeostatic regimes we include symmetric divisions of the stem cells. We first consider the dynamic differential equations that describe the evolution of the mean values of the populations, but the small observed value of the total number of cells involved plus the huge dispersion of experimental data found in the literature leads us to study the stochastic discrete process. This analysis allows us to study fluctuations, the neutral drift that leads to monoclonality, and the effects of the fixation of mutant clones.

  4. Cdx2 modulates proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escaffit, Fabrice; Pare, Frederic; Gauthier, Remy; Rivard, Nathalie; Boudreau, Francois; Beaulieu, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    The homeobox gene Cdx2 is involved in the regulation of the expression of intestine specific markers such as sucrase-isomaltase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Previous studies performed with immortalized or transformed intestinal cell lines have provided evidence that Cdx2 can promote morphological and functional differentiation in these experimental models. However, no data exist concerning the implication of this factor in normal human intestinal cell physiology. In the present work, we have investigated the role of Cdx2 in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cells that lack this transcription factor. The establishment of HIEC cells expressing Cdx2 in an inducible manner shows that forced expression of Cdx2 significantly alters the proliferation of intestinal crypt cells and stimulates dipeptidylpeptidase IV expression but is not sufficient to trigger intestinal terminal differentiation. These observations suggest that Cdx2 requires additional factors to activate the enterocyte differentiation program in normal undifferentiated cells

  5. A kinetic model to study the regulation of β-catenin, APC, and Axin in the human colonic crypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Brooks; Schleiniger, Gilberto; Boman, Bruce M

    2017-11-01

    The Wnt/[Formula: see text]-catenin pathway plays a crucial role in stem cell renewal and differentiation in the normal human colonic crypt. The balance between [Formula: see text]-catenin and APC along the crypt axis determines its normal functionality. The mechanism that deregulates this balance may give insight into the initiation of colorectal cancer. This is significant because the spatial dysregulation of [Formula: see text]-catenin by the mutated tumor suppressor gene/protein APC in human colonic crypts is responsible for the initiation and growth of colorectal cancer. We consider a regulatory function that promotes APC synthesis within the cell and its effect on the accumulation of the Wnt target protein, [Formula: see text]-catenin. It is evident that an APC gradient exists along the crypt axis; however, the mechanism by which APC expression is regulated within the cell is not well known. We investigate the dynamics of an APC regulatory mechanism with an increased level of Axin at the subcellular level. Model output shows an increase of APC for a diminished Wnt signal, which explains the APC gradient along the crypt. We find that the dynamic interplay between [Formula: see text]-catenin, APC, and Axin produces oscillatory behavior, which is controlled by the Wnt stimulus. In the presence of reduced functional APC, the oscillations are amplified, which suggests that the cell remains in a more proliferative state for longer periods of time. Increased Axin levels (typical of mammalian cells) reduce oscillatory behavior and minimize the levels of [Formula: see text]-catenin within the cell while raising the levels of APC.

  6. Radioprotection of the intestinal crypts of mice by recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.G.; Miyamoto, T.

    1990-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha (rHIL-1 alpha or IL-1) protected the intestinal crypt cells of mice against X-ray-induced damage. The survival of crypt cells measured in terms of their ability to form colonies of regenerating duodenal epithelium in situ was increased when IL-1 was given either before or after irradiation. The maximum degree of radioprotection was seen when the drug was given between 13 and 25 h before irradiation. The IL-1 dose producing maximum protection was about 6.3 micrograms/kg. This is the first report indicating that the cytokine IL-1 has a radioprotective effect in the intestine. The finding suggests that IL-1 may be of potential value in preventing radiation injury to the gut in the clinic

  7. Bacterial colonization of colonic crypt mucous gel and disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize total bacterial 16S rRNA quantification in microdissected colonic crypts in healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to characterize the findings with disease activity. BACKGROUND: Microscopic and molecular techniques have recently converged to allow bacterial enumeration in remote anatomic locations [eg, crypt-associated mucous gel (CAMG)]. The aims of this study were to combine laser capture microdissection (LCM) and 16S rRNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine total bacterial copy number in CAMG both in health and in UC and to characterize the findings with disease activity. METHODS: LCM was used to microdissect CAMG from colonic mucosal biopsies from controls (n = 20) and patients with acute (n = 10) or subacute (n = 10) UC. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA copy number per millimeter square in samples from 6 locations across the large bowel was obtained by qPCR using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans as a reference strain. Copy numbers were correlated with the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) and the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). RESULTS: Bacterial colonization of CAMG was detectable in all groups. Copy numbers were significantly reduced in acute UC. In subacute colitis, there was a positive correlation between copy number and UCDAI and SCCAI in the ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a sensitive method of quantitatively assessing bacterial colonization of the colonic CAMG. A positive correlation was found between CAMG bacterial load and subacute disease activity in UC, whereas detectable bacterial load was reduced in acute UC.

  8. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    "Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in urban areas: the sensitive case of historical cities." The Action TU1208 is coordinated by "Roma Tre University" (Rome, Italy) and the TS was hosted by the Cracow University of Technology (Cracow, Poland). It was attended by 25 PhD students and early-career investigators coming from Albania, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovenia. Trainers and Trainees had the great honour and privilege to carry out practical sessions in St Leonard's Crypt, in cooperation with the companies Restauro (Toruń, Poland) and Geoservice (Athens, Greece). Over the centuries, city centres have been continuously changing, developing and adapting to the requirements of society, architectural planning and advancing technology. Under the pressure of urbanisation, many cities and towns have significantly expanded and the limited space in their centres has been exploited more intensively. The shallow subsurface of historical cities is nowadays a very complicated scenario including reams of pipes, cables, rubble, bars and slabs of reinforced concrete, backfilled excavation trenches and pits, cellars, wells, cavities, tunnels, graves, walls and foundations of former houses, churches, monasteries, town fortifications, along with several other modern and ancient structures and manufacts. For the prospection of such a diversified, multilayered, intricate and complex underground environment, both for archaeological and civil-engineering purposes, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very effective non-destructive geophysical method. GPR is a powerful tool not only for the prospection of subsurface but also for the non-invasive testing of historical buildings, fountains, historical bridges, sculptures, frescoes, pottery and other objects collected in museums: it can give information about their state of preservation, it can significantly help to address a restoration project properly, and sometimes it can also help to achieve information of

  9. Algorithms and Their Explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benini, M.; Gobbo, F.; Beckmann, A.; Csuhaj-Varjú, E.; Meer, K.

    2014-01-01

    By analysing the explanation of the classical heapsort algorithm via the method of levels of abstraction mainly due to Floridi, we give a concrete and precise example of how to deal with algorithmic knowledge. To do so, we introduce a concept already implicit in the method, the ‘gradient of

  10. Aberrant crypt foci and colon cancer: comparison between a short- and medium-term bioassay for colon carcinogenesis using dimethylhydrazine in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant crypt foci (ACF in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents are considered to be the earliest hallmark of colon carcinogenesis. In the present study the relationship between a short-term (4 weeks and medium-term (30 weeks assay was assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH in the rat. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were given subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg twice a week for 2 weeks and killed at the end of the 4th or 30th week. ACF were scored for number, distribution pattern along the colon and crypt multiplicity in 0.1% methylene-blue whole-mount preparations. ACF were distinguished from normal crypts by their larger size and elliptical shape. The incidence, distribution and morphology of colon tumors were recorded. The majority of ACF were present in the middle and distal colon of DMH-treated rats and their number increased with time. By the 4th week, 91.5% ACF were composed of one or two crypts and 8.5% had three or more crypts, while by the 30th week 46.9% ACF had three or more crypts. Thus, a progression of ACF consisting of multiple crypts was observed from the 4th to the 30th week. Nine well-differentiated adenocarcinomas were found in 10 rats by the 30th week. Seven tumors were located in the distal colon and two in the middle colon. No tumor was found in the proximal colon. The present data indicate that induction of ACF by DMH in the short-term (4 weeks assay was correlated with development of well-differentiated adenocarcinomas in the medium-term (30 weeks assay.

  11. Direct Measurements of Human Colon Crypt Stem Cell Niche Genetic Fidelity: The Role of Chance in Non-Darwinian Mutation Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeyoun eKang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Perfect human stem cell genetic fidelity would prevent aging and cancer. However, perfection would be difficult to achieve, and aging is universal and cancers common. A hypothesis is that because mutations are inevitable over a human lifetime, downstream mechanisms have evolved to manage the deleterious effects of beneficial and lethal mutations. In the colon, a crypt stem cell architecture reduces the number of mitotic cells at risk for mutation accumulation, and multiple niche stem cells ensure that a lethal mutation within any single stem cell does not lead to crypt death. In addition, the architecture of the colon crypt stem cell niche may harness probability or chance to randomly discard many beneficial mutations that might lead to cancer. An analysis of somatic chromosome copy number alterations (CNAs reveals a lack of perfect fidelity in individual normal human crypts, with age-related increases and higher frequencies in ulcerative colitis, a proliferative, inflammatory disease. The age-related increase in somatic CNAs appears consistent with relatively normal replication error and cell division rates. Surprisingly, and similar to point mutations in cancer genomes, the types of crypt mutations were more consistent with random fixation rather than selection. In theory, a simple non-Darwinian way to nullify selection is to reduce the size of the reproducing population. Fates are more determined by chance rather than selection in very small populations, and therefore selection may be minimized within small crypt niches. The desired effect is that many beneficial mutations that might lead to cancer are randomly lost by drift rather than fixed by selection. The subdivision of the colon into multiple very small stem cell niches may trade Darwinian evolution for non-Darwinian somatic cell evolution, capitulating to aging but reducing cancer risks.

  12. Fractionation study: survival of mouse intestinal crypts to exposure of 60Co and 11 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine a statistical procedure for the quantification of time, dose, fraction relations for mouse intestinal crypt survival after fractionated Co-60 and 11-MeV electron irradiation. In the initial phase of the investigation CDF/1 male mice were exposed to fractionated Co-60 irradiation. A completely randomized experimental design with three factors, total time from initiation to completion of fractionation schedule, number of fractions, and total dose was utilized. The experimental animals were irradiated with a Co-60 panoramic irradiator unit at an absorbed dose rate of approximately 51 rads per minute. Two days after completion of the fractionation schedule, the experimental animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Sections of intestinal jejunum were resected and routine histological preparations performed. The surviving crypts were scored with a compound microscope using a quantitative counting technique. The resulting crypt survival was observed to increase for increasing total times and fraction numbers

  13. Crypt base columnar stem cells in small intestines of mice are radioresistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, G.; Thin, T.H.; Feldman, R.; Haimovitz-Friedman, A.; Clevers, H.; Fuks, Z.; Kolesnick, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adult stem cells have been proposed to be quiescent and radiation resistant, repairing DNA double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end joining. However, the population of putative small intestinal stem cells (ISCs) at position +4 from the crypt base contradicts this model, in that

  14. The effect of 60Co γ-radiation and hydroxyurea on the in vivo chain growth of DNA in crypt cells of the small intestine of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, K.J.; Rydberg, B.

    1977-01-01

    DNA chain growth has been studied in small intestinal crypt cells of the mouse in vivo using a sensitive method. The method was designed primarily to study radiation-induced DNA-breaks and their repair; but since there were breaks in DNA at the replicating fork, it was also possible to study DNA chain growth after a 3 H-thymidine pulse. It was found that DNA chain growth was not depressed by 200 rad of 60 Co γ-radiation. This finding supports the hypothesis that irradiation interferes mainly with the initiation of new replicons in mammalian cells affecting DNA chain growth only at higher doses. Hydroxyurea at sufficient dosage, however, depressed or even stopped DNA chain growth in mouse crypt cells in vivo. (author)

  15. The proliferative response of mouse intestinal crypts during fractionated irradiation of carbon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo, M.; Abe, Y.; Mariya, Y.; Ando, K.

    2000-01-01

    Clonogenic assay of jejunal crypt during carbon beam and X-ray irradiations was performed. Fractionation with top-up dose assay revealed carbon beam irradiations caused more damage than X-ray did. To clarify this problem is urgent. (author)

  16. An APC:WNT counter-current-like mechanism regulates cell division along the colonic crypt axis: a mechanism that explains how APC mutations induce proliferative abnormalities that drive colon cancer development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce M Boman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside. WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g. survivin are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric. APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly-proliferating cells during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes.

  17. BVES Regulates Intestinal Stem Cell Programs and Intestinal Crypt Viability after Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishruth K.; Short, Sarah P.; Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Mittal, Mukul K.; Keating, Cody E.; Thompson, Joshua J.; Harris, Elizabeth I.; Revetta, Frank; Bader, David M.; Brand, Thomas; Washington, M. Kay; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Blood Vessel Epicardial Substance (BVES/Popdc1) is a junctional-associated transmembrane protein that is underexpressed in a number of malignancies and regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We previously identified a role for BVES in regulation of the Wnt pathway, a modulator of intestinal stem cell programs, but its role in small intestinal (SI) biology remains unexplored. We hypothesized that BVES influences intestinal stem cell programs and is critical to SI homeostasis after radiation injury. At baseline, Bves−/− mice demonstrated increased crypt height, as well as elevated proliferation and expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5 compared to wildtype (WT) mice. Intercross with Lgr5-EGFP reporter mice confirmed expansion of the stem cell compartment in Bves−/− mice. To examine stem cell function after BVES deletion, we employed ex vivo 3D-enteroid cultures. Bves−/− enteroids demonstrated increased stemness compared to WT, when examining parameters such as plating efficiency, stem spheroid formation, and retention of peripheral cystic structures. Furthermore, we observed increased proliferation, expression of crypt-base columnar “CBC” and “+4” stem cell markers, amplified Wnt signaling, and responsiveness to Wnt activation in the Bves−/− enteroids. Bves expression was downregulated after radiation in WT mice. Moreover, after radiation, Bves−/− mice demonstrated significantly greater small intestinal crypt viability, proliferation, and amplified Wnt signaling in comparison to WT mice. Bves−/− mice also demonstrated elevations in Lgr5 and Ascl2 expression, and putative damage-responsive stem cell populations marked by Bmi1 and TERT. Therefore, BVES is a key regulator of intestinal stem cell programs and mucosal homeostasis. PMID:26891025

  18. The Effect of Combination of Radiation with 5-Fluorouracil on Mouse Jejunal Crypt Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Charn Il

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of radiation and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) on mouse jejunal crypt cells was studied using the microcolony survival assay. 150mg/kg of 5-FU was injected intraperitoneally 15 minutes before irradiation and 6 hours after irradiation. Jejunal crypt cells of mouse survived more when 5-FU was given 15 minutes before irradiation than giving it 6 hours after irradiation. The mean lethal doses (Do) of each of irradiation alone group, 5-FU injection group of 15 minutes preceding irradiation, and 5-FU injection group of 6 hours post irradiation were 135, 135, and 114 rad respectively. The dose effect factor (DEF) of each of 5-FU injection groups of 15 minutes preceding irradiation and of 6 hours post irradiation were 1.13 and 1.27

  19. The Carcinogenic Agent Azoxymethane (AOM) Enhances Early Inflammation-induced Colon Crypt Pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja Albjerg; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2013-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice transplanted with CD4+ T cells depleted of CD25+ regulatory T cells develop colitis within 2-3 weeks after the T cell transfer. In the present study we studied the effect of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) on the colon crypt pathology of normal SCID...

  20. An APC:WNT Counter-Current-Like Mechanism Regulates Cell Division Along the Human Colonic Crypt Axis: A Mechanism That Explains How APC Mutations Induce Proliferative Abnormalities That Drive Colon Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Bruce M.; Fields, Jeremy Z.

    2013-01-01

    APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT) that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs) at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside). WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside) and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g., survivin) are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric). APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly proliferating cells) during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes. PMID:24224156

  1. Biological intercomparison using gut crypt survivals for proton and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, Akiko; Ando, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2006-01-01

    Charged particle therapy depends on biological information for the dose prescription. Relative biological effectiveness or relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for this requirement could basically be provided by experimental data. As RBE values of protons and carbon ions depend on several factors such as cell/tissue type, endpoint, dose and fractionation schedule, a single RBE value could not function as a master key to open all rooms filled with guests of different radiosensitivities. However, any biological model with accurate reproducibility is useful for comparing biological effectiveness between different facilities. We used mouse gut crypt survivals as endpoint, and compared the cell killing efficiency of proton beams at three Japanese facilities. Three Linac X-ray machines with 4 and 6 MeV were used as reference beams, and there was only a small variation (coefficient of variance <2%) in biological effectiveness among them. The RBE values of protons relative to Linac X-rays ranged from 1.0 to 1.11 at the middle of a 6-cm SOBP (spread-out Bragg peak) and from 0.96 to 1.01 at the entrance plateau. The coefficient of variance for protons ranged between 4.0 and 5.1%. The biological comparison of carbon ions showed fairly good agreement in that the difference in biological effectiveness between National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)/Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI)/Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS) was 1% for three positions within the 6-cm SOBP. The coefficient of variance was <1.7, <0.6 and <1.6% for proximal, middle and distal SOBP, respectively. We conclude that the inter-institutional variation of biological effectiveness is smaller for carbon ions than protons, and that beam-spreading methods of carbon ions do not critically influence gut crypt survival. (author)

  2. Modifications of S-phase cell distribution in the intestinal crypts after multiple daily fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Cremonini, D; Fabbrica, D; Balzi, M [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1983-01-01

    The effects obtained by multiple daily fractionation (3 Gy x2 or 3 Gy x2x2) on the distribution of S-phase cells along the crypt of the small intestine were investigated. The frequency of labelled cell distribution was reduced at early intervals; then the proliferating compartment gradually extended to the villus junctions. During recovery labelled cell frequency in the lower half of the crypts returned to control levels, while labelled cells were present in the differentiating area. With lower total dose modifications were milder and, as early as 72 h before exposure, distribution was already similar to controls. Invertase activity showed an initial increase and a higher reduction during acute damage when fractionation with higher doses was used. A lack of return to normal activity was present even 11 days after exposure when, however, the characteristic circadian pattern was observed.

  3. Identification of a developmental gene expression signature, including HOX genes, for the normal human colonic crypt stem cell niche: overexpression of the signature parallels stem cell overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatlekar, Seema; Addya, Sankar; Salunek, Moreh; Orr, Christopher R; Surrey, Saul; McKenzie, Steven; Fields, Jeremy Z; Boman, Bruce M

    2014-01-15

    Our goal was to identify a unique gene expression signature for human colonic stem cells (SCs). Accordingly, we determined the gene expression pattern for a known SC-enriched region--the crypt bottom. Colonic crypts and isolated crypt subsections (top, middle, and bottom) were purified from fresh, normal, human, surgical specimens. We then used an innovative strategy that used two-color microarrays (∼18,500 genes) to compare gene expression in the crypt bottom with expression in the other crypt subsections (middle or top). Array results were validated by PCR and immunostaining. About 25% of genes analyzed were expressed in crypts: 88 preferentially in the bottom, 68 in the middle, and 131 in the top. Among genes upregulated in the bottom, ∼30% were classified as growth and/or developmental genes including several in the PI3 kinase pathway, a six-transmembrane protein STAMP1, and two homeobox (HOXA4, HOXD10) genes. qPCR and immunostaining validated that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are selectively expressed in the normal crypt bottom and are overexpressed in colon carcinomas (CRCs). Immunostaining showed that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are co-expressed with the SC markers CD166 and ALDH1 in cells at the normal crypt bottom, and the number of these co-expressing cells is increased in CRCs. Thus, our findings show that these two HOX genes are selectively expressed in colonic SCs and that HOX overexpression in CRCs parallels the SC overpopulation that occurs during CRC development. Our study suggests that developmental genes play key roles in the maintenance of normal SCs and crypt renewal, and contribute to the SC overpopulation that drives colon tumorigenesis.

  4. The crypt and cell size kinetics in the irradiated intestinal epithelium in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononenko, A.M.; Gagarin, A.U.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of changes in the average values of the axial cross-sectional area of the crypt and of cell area in this cross-section for eight days after a single whole-body exposure of male mice to 400 rad of X-rays. A small reduction in the crypt area in the destructive period gives way to a much greater increase in the normal dimensions of the area in the regenerative period. Two very considerable waves of anomalous increase are observed in the dimensions of the cryptal cell cross-sections, the first in the destructive and the second in the regenerative period. These fluctuations in cell dimensions do not occur around but above the control level, attaining the latter level only at the minimum (4th day). The size of the cryptal cells of the intact intestinal epithelium is evidently close to the minimum needed for enterocyte proliferation. The considerable increase in crypt dimensions in the regenerative period (beginning from the 6th day) is not due to the larger number of cells (they are even somewhat fewer than normal) but rather to a substantial increase in cell dimensions. Thus, according to these data, on the 6th-8th day after irradiation the intestinal epithelium deviates strongly from the stationary state. The index I sub(v), where I is the mitotic index and v the cell volume, was used to evaluate the changes in the value of the material stream, connected with proliferation, to the intestinal epithelium per cryptal cell. A considerable increase was found in this stream (hypertrophy of proliferative cells) in the intestinal epithelium restored after irradiation. (author)

  5. Biological intercomparison using gut crypt survivals for proton and carbon-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, Akiko; Ando, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2007-01-01

    Charged particle therapy depends on biological information for the dose prescription. Relative biological effectiveness or RBE for this requirement could basically be provided by experimental data. As RBE values of protons and carbon ions depend on several factors such as cell/tissue type, biological endpoint, dose and fractionation schedule, a single RBE value could not deal with all different radiosensitivities. However, any biological model with accurate reproducibility is useful for comparing biological effectiveness between different facilities. We used mouse gut crypt survivals as endpoint, and compared the cell killing efficiency of proton beams at three Japanese facilities. Three Linac X-ray machines with 4 and 6 MeV were used as reference beams, and there was only a small variation (coefficient of variance<2%) in biological effectiveness among them. The RBE values of protons relative to Linac X-rays ranged from 1.0 to 1.11 at the middle of a 6-cm SOBP (spread-out Bragg peak) and from 0.96 to 1.01 at the entrance plateau. The coefficient of variance for protons ranged between 4.0 and 5.1%. The biological comparison of carbon ions showed fairly good agreement in that the difference in biological effectiveness between National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)/ Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI)/Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS) was 1% for three positions within the 6-cm SOBP. The coefficient of variance was <1.7, <0.6 and <1.6% for proximal, middle and distal SOBP, respectively. We conclude that the inter-institutional variation of biological effectiveness is smaller for carbon ions than protons, and that beam-spreading methods of carbon ions do not critically influence gut crypt survival. (author)

  6. Scap is required for sterol synthesis and crypt growth in intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Matthew R; Cantoria, Mary Jo; Linden, Albert G; January, Brandon A; Liang, Guosheng; Engelking, Luke J

    2015-08-01

    SREBP cleavage-activating protein (Scap) is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein required for cleavage and activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which activate the transcription of genes in sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Liver-specific loss of Scap is well tolerated; hepatic synthesis of sterols and fatty acids is reduced, but mice are otherwise healthy. To determine whether Scap loss is tolerated in the intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-Scap(-)) in which tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ER(T2), a fusion protein of Cre recombinase with a mutated ligand binding domain of the human estrogen receptor, ablates Scap in intestinal mucosa. After 4 days of tamoxifen, Vil-Scap(-) mice succumb with a severe enteropathy and near-complete collapse of intestinal mucosa. Organoids grown ex vivo from intestinal crypts of Vil-Scap(-) mice are readily killed when Scap is deleted by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Death is prevented when culture medium is supplemented with cholesterol and oleate. These data show that, unlike the liver, the intestine requires Scap to sustain tissue integrity by maintaining the high levels of lipid synthesis necessary for proliferation of intestinal crypts. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. De Novo Formation of Insulin-Producing “Neo-β Cell Islets” from Intestinal Crypts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to interconvert terminally differentiated cells could serve as a powerful tool for cell-based treatment of degenerative diseases, including diabetes mellitus. To determine which, if any, adult tissues are competent to activate an islet β cell program, we performed an in vivo screen by expressing three β cell “reprogramming factors” in a wide spectrum of tissues. We report that transient intestinal expression of these factors—Pdx1, MafA, and Ngn3 (PMN—promotes rapid conversion of intestinal crypt cells into endocrine cells, which coalesce into “neoislets” below the crypt base. Neoislet cells express insulin and show ultrastructural features of β cells. Importantly, intestinal neoislets are glucose-responsive and able to ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Moreover, PMN expression in human intestinal “organoids” stimulates the conversion of intestinal epithelial cells into β-like cells. Our results thus demonstrate that the intestine is an accessible and abundant source of functional insulin-producing cells.

  8. Radioprotective effects of natural β-carotene on villi and crypts in abdominally radiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurabe, Teruhisa; Itoh, Youko; Matsumura, Eijin; Nakamura, Atsushi; Ayakawa, Yoshio

    2002-01-01

    The protective effect of β-carotene against radiation injury to the small intestine of abdominally radiated mice (15 Gy) was examined with administration given pre-radiation, during (pre- and post-) radiation, and post-radiation. In the β-carotene group, the ratio of villus length to crypt was significantly greater in comparison with the radiation only group at 2 days after radiation. At 7 days after radiation, the ratio of necrotic cells in the crypt vs. the total was significantly lower, and the ratio of necrotic cells in the villus vs. the total was significantly greater with β-carotene administration, which indicated that β-carotene accelerated recovery from radiation injury. Each group administered β-carotene showed a significant radioprotective effect, with pre-radiation administration yielding a smaller effect than administration during radiation and post-radiation. It is concluded that pre-, during, and post-radiation administration of β-carotene protected against radiation injury of the small intestine and accelerated recovery from it. (author)

  9. Induction of colonic aberrant crypts in mice by feeding apparent N-nitroso compounds derived from hot dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael E; Lisowyj, Michal P; Zhou, Lin; Wisecarver, James L; Gulizia, James M; Shostrom, Valerie K; Naud, Nathalie; Corpet, Denis E; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite-preserved meats (e.g., hot dogs) may help cause colon cancer because they contain N-nitroso compounds. We tested whether purified hot-dog-derived total apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC) could induce colonic aberrant crypts, which are putative precursors of colon cancer. We purified ANC precursors in hot dogs and nitrosated them to produce ANC. In preliminary tests, CF1 mice received 1 or 3 i.p. injections of 5mg azoxymethane (AOM)/kg. In Experiments 1 and 2, female A/J mice received ANC in diet. In Experiment 1, ANC dose initially dropped sharply because the ANC precursors had mostly decomposed but, later in Experiment 1 and throughout Experiment 2, ANC remained at 85 nmol/g diet. Mice were killed after 8 (AOM tests) or 17–34 (ANC tests) wk. Median numbers of aberrant crypts in the distal 2 cm of the colon for 1 and 3 AOM injections, CF1 controls, ANC (Experiment 1), ANC (Experiment 2),and untreated A/J mice were 31, 74, 12, 20, 12, and 5–6, with P ANC tests. Experiment 2 showed somewhat increased numbers of colonic mucin-depleted foci in the ANC-treated group. We conclude that hot-dog-derived ANC induced significant numbers of aberrant crypts in the mouse colon. PMID:22293095

  10. Further studies on the effect of adenosine cyclic monophosphate derivatives on cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    1. Cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelium of rat was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. 2. Sodium butyrate was found to promote jejunal crypt cell proliferation. 3. N6, O2'-Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), N6-monobutyryl-cAMP and N6-monobutyryl-8-bromo-cAMP were found to inhibit cell proliferation when compared to sodium butyrate treated tissues. 4. 8-Chlorophenylthio-cAMP was found to inhibit cell division when compared to untreated animals. 5. O2'-Monobutyryl cAMP and 8-bromo-cAMP were not found to inhibit cell proliferation.

  11. The role of the sympathetic nervous system in radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo; Kazuko; Nakamura, Yasuko; Ikeda, Yuji; Naito, Shinji; Ito, Masahiro; Okaichi, Kumio; Sekine, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells, apoptosis levels were compared in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), animals which are a genetic hyperfunction model of the sympathetic nervous system, and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). SHR and WKY were exposed to whole body X-ray irradiation at doses from 0.5 to 2 Gy. The apoptotic index in jejunal crypt cells was significantly greater in SHR than in WKY at each time point after irradiation and at each dose. WKY and SHR were treated with reserpine to induce sympathetic dysfunction, and were subsequently exposed to irradiation. Reserpine administration to SHR or WKY resulted in a significant suppression of apoptosis. p53 accumulation was detected in the jejunum in both WKY and SHR after irradiation by Western blotting analysis. There were no significant differences in the levels of p53 accumulation in irradiated intestine between WKY and SHR. These findings suggested that hyperfunction of the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the mechanism of high susceptibility to radiation-induced apoptosis of the jejunal crypt cells. (author)

  12. The influence of serotonin on the mitotic rate in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1978-01-01

    1. The mitotic rate in the crypts of Lieberkühn of the descending colon and in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomata of the descending colon of rat was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. 2. Intraperitoneal injection of a small dose (10 microgram/kg) of serotonin resulted in an increase in the tumour cell mitotic rate. 3. Blockade of serotonin receptors by 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide and depletion of tissue serotonin levels following injection of DL-6-fluorotryptophan both result in a decrease in the tumour cell mitotic rate. 4. Treatment with serotonin, 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide and DL-6-fluorotryptophan were all without effect on the colonic crypt cell mitotic rate.

  13. Differential effects of oestrogenic hormones on cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic carcinomata of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    A number of hormones, including some steroids, have previously been shown to influence the rate of cell division in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic tumours. In this report the effect of oophorectomy and of treatment with ovarian hormones on cell proliferation in these tissues is compared. Colonic tumours cell proliferation was retarded following oophorectomy and this retardation was reversed by the administration of oestradiol, but not by the administration of progesterone. Oophorectomy did not retard cell proliferation in the colonic crypts. The possible significance of these findings in relation to age-dependent variations in the sex ratio for human bowel cancer is discussed.

  14. Stem cell self-renewal in intestinal crypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, Benjamin D.; Clevers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    As a rapidly cycling tissue capable of fast repair and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium has emerged as a favored model system to explore the principles of adult stem cell biology. However, until recently, the identity and characteristics of the stem cell population in both the small intestine and colon has remained the subject of debate. Recent studies based on targeted lineage tracing strategies, combined with the development of an organotypic culture system, have identified the crypt base columnar cell as the intestinal stem cell, and have unveiled the strategy by which the balance between proliferation and differentiation is maintained. These results show that intestinal stem cells operate in a dynamic environment in which frequent and stochastic stem cell loss is compensated by the proliferation of neighboring stem cells. We review the basis of these experimental findings and the insights they offer into the mechanisms of homeostatic stem cell regulation.

  15. A theoretical investigation of the effect of proliferation and adhesion on monoclonal conversion in the colonic crypt

    KAUST Repository

    Mirams, Gary R.; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Maini, Philip K.; Byrne, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The surface epithelium lining the intestinal tract renews itself rapidly by a coordinated programme of cell proliferation, migration and differentiation events that is initiated in the crypts of Lieberkühn. It is generally believed that colorectal

  16. Autoradiographic investigations on the question of diurnal variations of cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herterich, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    In this work the question was investigated whether the proliferation activity of the crypt epithelia of the small intestine of mice is subject to diurnal variations. The results published so far to settle this question are contradictory. The flow rate at the beginning and end of the S phase was measured as a function of daytime for the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice following a double labelling with 3-H and 14-C-TdR. The quotient of the cell flow rate in and out of the S phase is supposed to be = 1 over the whole day if there are no diurnal variations. The method of measurements of the cell flow rate was chosen above all because the quotient is largely independent of the variation from animal to animal. The experiments provided dues as to the presence of deviations of the quotient of cell flow rate at the end and beginning of the S phase and of the mitotic index from the daily mean value. However, on account of the relatively large statistical variations of the values at the different daytimes it is not possible to state clearly whether the cell proliferation of the jejunal epithelium is subject to diurnal variations. Should there be such variations, then they are not large at any rate. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Effects of cyclic-nucleotide derivatives on the growth of human colonic carcinoma xenografts and on cell production in the rat colonic crypt epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1981-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that various amine hormones are able to influence the growth rate of human colorectal carcinomas propagated as xenografts in immune-deprived mice, and it is now well known that the effects of many amine and other hormones are mediated by cyclic nucleotides, acting as second messengers within cells. In the present study the influence of various derivatives of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate on the growth of two different lines of colorectal cancer growing in immune-deprived mice, and on the cell production rate in the colonic crypt epithelium of the rat, was assessed. Growth of each tumour line, as well as crypt-cell production, was suppressed by treatment wit N6O2' dibutyryl and N6 monobutyryl derivatives of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Dibutyryl cyclic guanosine monophosphate, on the other hand, was found to promote the growth of Tumour HXK4 and to promote crypt cell production, but to have no significant effect on Tumour HXM2.

  18. Coevolved crypts and exocrine glands support mutualistic bacteria in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currie, Cameron R; Poulsen, Michael; Mendenhall, John

    2006-01-01

    Attine ants engage in a quadripartite symbiosis with fungi they cultivate for food, specialized garden parasites, and parasite-inhibiting bacteria. Molecular phylogenetic evidence supports an ancient host-pathogen association between the ant-cultivar mutualism and the garden parasite. Here we show...... that ants rear the antibiotic-producing bacteria in elaborate cuticular crypts, supported by unique exocrine glands, and that these structures have been highly modified across the ants' evolutionary history. This specialized structural evolution, together with the absence of these bacteria and modifications...

  19. Functional morphology, biology and sexual strategy of the circumboreal, adventitious crypt-building, Crenella decussata (Bivalvia: Mytiloidea: Crenellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Brian; Dinesen, Grete E.; Ockelmann, Kurt W.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of Crenella decussata (Mytiloidea) is described. Individuals of this circumboreal species occupy granular crypts composed of sand grains held in place by mucus. The swollen basal region of the tubule is occupied by an individual, which connects to the sediment surface by two posterior...

  20. The protective effects of fermented kefir milk on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt formation in mice colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Aline Freitas de Paula; Mendonça, Monique Culturato Padilha; Rosa-Castro, Raquel de Mendonça

    2018-06-01

    Kefir is a probiotic fermented milk product produced from grains with a complex composition of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. Anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic effects are some of the health beneficial properties of kefir grains. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether regular consumption of kefir milk would be capable of preventing the development of pre-neoplastic lesions induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Aberrant crypt foci were induced in BALB-c mice via 2 subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg) and kefir was administered by daily gavage for 8 weeks (5 ml/kg). Additionally, bacterial growth was monitored in pasteurized and ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milk to compare different fermentation conditions. Our results showed that UHT milk presented better growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus colonies. The aberrant crypt foci were attenuated by approximately 43% (height) and 20% (width) in the kefir group compared to AOM group, suggesting that kefir treatment may contribute to prevent and control the growth of intestinal neoplastic cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogenetically Diverse Burkholderia Associated with Midgut Crypts of Spurge Bugs, Dicranocephalus spp. (Heteroptera: Stenocephalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuechler, Stefan Martin; Matsuura, Yu; Dettner, Konrad; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2016-06-25

    Diverse phytophagous heteropteran insects, commonly known as stinkbugs, are associated with specific gut symbiotic bacteria, which have been found in midgut cryptic spaces. Recent studies have revealed that members of the stinkbug families Coreidae and Alydidae of the superfamily Coreoidea are consistently associated with a specific group of the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia, called the "stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental (SBE)" group, and horizontally acquire specific symbionts from the environment every generation. However, the symbiotic system of another coreoid family, Stenocephalidae remains undetermined. We herein investigated four species of the stenocephalid genus Dicranocephalus. Examinations via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the typical arrangement and ultrastructures of midgut crypts and gut symbionts. Cloning and molecular phylogenetic analyses of bacterial genes showed that the midgut crypts of all species are colonized by Burkholderia strains, which were further assigned to different subgroups of the genus Burkholderia. In addition to the SBE-group Burkholderia, a number of stenocephalid symbionts belonged to a novel clade containing B. sordidicola and B. udeis, suggesting a specific symbiont clade for the Stenocephalidae. The symbiotic systems of stenocephalid bugs may provide a unique opportunity to study the ongoing evolution of symbiont associations in the stinkbug-Burkholderia interaction.

  2. Radioprotection of intestinal crypt cells by cox-inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnar, Paul O.; Dones, Rosa Angela S.A.; Serna, Paulene-Ver A.; Deocaris, Chester C.; Guttierez, Kalangitan V.; Deocaris, Custer C.

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of tissue homeostasis in the gastrointestinal epithelium after epithelial injury focuses on the prostaglandins(PGs) as its major mediators. The two cyclooxygenase isoforms, cox-1 and cox-2, catalyze synthesis of PGs. Cox-1 is the predominant cyclooxygenase isoform found in the normal intestine. In contrast, cox-2 is present at low levels in normal intestine but is elevated at sites of inflammation, and in adenomas and carcinomas. To study the effects of various commercially-available cox-inhibitors (Ketorolac: cox-1 selective; Celecoxib: cox-2 selective; and Indocid: cox-1/2 non-selective), we determine mouse crypt epithelial cell fate after genotoxic injury with whole-body gamma-ray exposure at 15 Gy. Intestinal tissues of mice treated with cox-2 inhibitors that showed invariable apoptotic event, however, have increased occurrence of regenerating cells. Our results suggest a potential application of cox-2 selective inhibitors as radioprotective agent for normal cells after radiotherapy. (Author)

  3. β-Catenin stabilization imparts crypt progenitor phenotype to hyperproliferating colonic epithelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Joseph H.; Wang Yu; Singh, Pomila; Umar, Shahid

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing the Citrobacter rodentium (CR)-induced transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) model, we provide mechanistic basis of changes in β-catenin/APC/CKIε leading to progression and/or regression of hyperplasia in vivo. In response to CR-induced TMCH, crypt lengths increased significantly between days 6-27 post-infection, followed by a steep decline by day 34. β-Cat 45 /total β-catenin were elevated on day 1 post-infection, preceding changes in crypt length, and persisted for 27 days before declining by day 34. Importantly, cellular CKIε and β-catenin co-immunoprecipitated and exhibited remarkable parallel changes in kinetics during hyperplasia/regression phases. β-catenin, phosphorylated at Ser33,37 and Thr41 (β-cat 33,37/41 ), was low till day 12, followed by gradual increase until day 27 before declining by day 34. GSK-3β exhibited significant Ser 9 -phosphorylation/inactivation at days 6-12 with partial recovery at days 27-34. Wild type (wt) APC (p312) levels increased at day 6 with transient proteolysis/truncation to p130 form between days 12 and 15; p312 reappeared by day 19 and returned to baseline by day 34. The kinetics of β-Cat 45 /β-catenin nuclear accumulation and acetylation (Ac-β-Cat Lys49 ) from days 6 to 27, followed by loss of phosphorylation/acetylation by day 34 was almost identical; Tcf-4 co-immunoprecipitated with β-Cat 45 /β-catenin and localized immunohistochemically to β-Cat 41/45 -positive regions leading to elevated cyclin D1 expression, during the hyperproliferative, but not regression phases of TMCH. CKIε mediated phosphorylation of β-Cat 45 , resulting in stabilization/nuclear translocation of β-Cat 45 may be critical for maintaining proliferation at days 6-27. Reversal of GSK-3β phosphorylation and APC changes may be equally critical during the regression phase from days 27 to 34

  4. Effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal cancer in Fischer 344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Schoterman, H.C.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS, Elix'or) on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM). Two groups of 102 male Fischer 344 rats were injected twice with AOM to induce

  5. Cracking ShadowCrypt: Exploring the Limitations of Secure I/O Systems in Internet Browsers

    OpenAIRE

    Freyberger Michael; He Warren; Akhawe Devdatta; Mazurek Michelle L.; Mittal Prateek

    2018-01-01

    An important line of privacy research is investigating the design of systems for secure input and output (I/O) within Internet browsers. These systems would allow for users’ information to be encrypted and decrypted by the browser, and the specific web applications will only have access to the users’ information in encrypted form. The state-of-the-art approach for a secure I/O system within Internet browsers is a system called ShadowCrypt created by UC Berkeley researchers [23]. This paper wi...

  6. The secretory KCa1.1 channel localises to crypts of distal mouse colon: functional and molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Strandsby, Anne Bystrup; Larsen, Casper Kornbech

    2011-01-01

    The colonic epithelium absorbs and secretes electrolytes and water. Ion and water absorption occurs primarily in surface cells, whereas crypt cells perform secretion. Ion transport in distal colon is regulated by aldosterone, which stimulates both Na+ absorption and K+ secretion. The electrogenic...

  7. N-acetylcysteine improves redox status, mitochondrial dysfunction, mucin-depleted crypts and epithelial hyperplasia in dextran sulfate sodium-induced oxidative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrouche-Mekkioui, Ilhem; Djerdjouri, Bahia

    2012-09-15

    The effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a pharmacological antioxidant was investigated in a murine model of chronic colitis. Male NMRI mice were given 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 10 days of water, three times. Compared to control mice given water, DSS-treated mice displayed severe imbalanced redox status with decreased glutathione and catalase, but increased malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase levels, at days 35th (active colitis) and 45th (recovery period). It also resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, mucosal ulcers, mucin-depleted crypts and epithelial cell apoptosis. Crypt abscesses and glandular hyperplasia occurred selectively in distal colon. NAC (150 mg/kg) given in drinking water for 45 days along with 3 DSS cycles improved the hallmarks of DSS-colitis. Interestingly, the moderate impact of NAC on lipids and proteins oxidation correlated with myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide levels.NAC as a mucoregulator and a thiol restoring agent is protective on oxidative crypt alterations, mucin depletion, epithelial cell hyperplasia and apoptosis. Taken together, our results highlight the role of NAC as a scavenger of phagocytes-derived reactive oxygen species in mice DDS-colitis, suggesting that a long term NAC diet might be beneficial in inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of a Dietary Fiber on Development of Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.; Kristiansen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in archived colon tissue from animals in a previous study was examined. The animals were fed a semisynthetic casein-based diet in which the carbohydrate pool was substituted with a dietary beet fiber (Fibeta) as the only source of fiber. Oral doses...... experimental data. The present state of knowledge could indicate that ACF represent true preneoplastic lesions progressing into colon tumors or that ACF and colon tumors represent two parallel independent events as a consequence of the cancer initiation (i.e., the ACF not being preneoplastic lesions per se)....... between duration of intake of high-fiber diet and number of animals with ACF, as well as the total number of ACF and number of small A CF (1-3 crypts) per affected animal. The previously reported data showed no protective effect of the dietary fiber at any stage of the colorectal carcinogenic process...

  9. The effects of herbs on the radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; An, Mi Ra; Nah, Seung Yeol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jae Ha; Shin, Dong Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    This study was performed to determine the effect of several herbs on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells. Longyanrou(Euphoris logana), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus vulgaris), Yuanzhi(Polygala tenuifolia), Rensan(Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos), Muxiang(Saussurea lappa), Chuanxiong(Cnidium offcinale), Baishaoyao(Paeonia lactifolia), Shengma(Cimicifuga heracleifolia), Chaihu(Bupleurum falcatum) and Dongchongxiacao(Paecilomyces japonica) reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Longyanrou, Suanzaoren, Yuanzhi, Rensan, Fuling, Muxiang, Chuanxiong, Baishaoyao, Shengma, Chaihu and Dongchongxiacao might be useful inhibitors of apoptosis, especially since these are relative nontoxic natural products.

  10. Circadian rhythms in the incidence of apoptotic cells and number of clonogenic cells in intestinal crypts after radiation using normal and reversed light conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, K.; Potten, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Variations in the number of radiation-induced morphologically dead or dying cells (apoptotic cells) in the crypts in the small intestine of the mouse have been studied throughout a 24-h period under a normal light regimen. A clear circadian rhythm was displayed in the apoptotic incidence 3 or 6 h after irradiation for each gamma-ray dose studied (range 0.14-9.0 Gy). The most prominent circadian rhythm was obtained after 0.5 Gy. Peak time of day for inducing apoptosis was 06.00-09.00 h, and the trough occurred at 18.00-21.00 h. Some mice were also transferred to a reversed light cycle, and irradiated on different days after transfer. Apoptosis induced by 0.5 Gy or 9.0 Gy, or number of surviving crypts (microcolonies) after 11.0 Gy or 13.0 Gy was examined. The transition point for reversal of circadian rhythm in apoptosis (after 0.5 Gy) occurred 7 days after transfer and the rhythm was reversed by 14 days. The rhythm for crypt survival (i.e. for clonogenic cell radiosensitivity) was disturbed on 1 day and transition point for reversal occurred 3 days after transfer. The rhythm became reversed by 7 days. (author)

  11. Saint-Quentin (Aisne, la collégiale et la crypte de la basilique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sapin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La courte campagne d’intervention fin juillet 2003, dans la crypte archéologique créée vers 1955 sous le sol du sanctuaire de la collégiale de Saint-Quentin, avait pour objet une meilleure compréhension des niveaux et des structures du haut Moyen Âge apparus lors des travaux des XIXe et XXe siècles. Un nettoyage complet, un plan et des relevés de maçonnerie sans nouvelle fouille, nous ont convaincu de l’important potentiel d’informations conservées. À partir de sondages anciens, il a été pos...

  12. Molecular mapping to species level of the tonsillar crypt microbiota associated with health and recurrent tonsillitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Fagö-Olsen, Helena; Sørensen, Christian Hjort

    2013-01-01

    and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium...... were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults...

  13. Dietary sucrose and starch affect dysplastic characteristics in carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Lancioni, L; Luceri, C; Giannini, A; Lodovici, M; Biggeri, A; Dolara, P

    1997-03-19

    To study whether dietary carbohydrates affect dysplasia in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), rats treated with 1,2-dimethilhydrazine (DMH) were fed for three months with diets containing 46% sucrose or corn starch. The number of ACF/colon in the two dietary groups was similar (P = 0.58), but ACF were smaller in the starch than in sucrose group (P colon carcinogenesis while sucrose in the diet is detrimental, promoting the dysplasia of preneoplastic lesions like ACF.

  14. Cell Adhesion Molecule CD166/ALCAM Functions Within the Crypt to Orchestrate Murine Intestinal Stem Cell HomeostasisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Smith

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Intestinal epithelial homeostasis is maintained by active-cycling and slow-cycling stem cells confined within an instructive crypt-based niche. Exquisite regulating of these stem cell populations along the proliferation-to-differentiation axis maintains a homeostatic balance to prevent hyperproliferation and cancer. Although recent studies focus on how secreted ligands from mesenchymal and epithelial populations regulate intestinal stem cells (ISCs, it remains unclear what role cell adhesion plays in shaping the regulatory niche. Previously we have shown that the cell adhesion molecule and cancer stem cell marker, CD166/ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, is highly expressed by both active-cycling Lgr5+ ISCs and adjacent Paneth cells within the crypt base, supporting the hypothesis that CD166 functions to mediate ISC maintenance and signal coordination. Methods: Here we tested this hypothesis by analyzing a CD166–/– mouse combined with immunohistochemical, flow cytometry, gene expression, and enteroid culture. Results: We found that animals lacking CD166 expression harbored fewer active-cycling Lgr5+ ISCs. Homeostasis was maintained by expansion of the transit-amplifying compartment and not by slow-cycling Bmi1+ ISC stimulation. Loss of active-cycling ISCs was coupled with deregulated Paneth cell homeostasis, manifested as increased numbers of immature Paneth progenitors due to decreased terminal differentiation, linked to defective Wnt signaling. CD166–/– Paneth cells expressed reduced Wnt3 ligand expression and depleted nuclear β-catenin. Conclusions: These data support a function for CD166 as an important cell adhesion molecule that shapes the signaling microenvironment by mediating ISC–niche cell interactions. Furthermore, loss of CD166 expression results in decreased ISC and Paneth cell homeostasis and an altered Wnt microenvironment. Keywords: Intestinal Stem Cell, Homeostasis

  15. Serotonin receptors influencing cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1986-01-01

    Serotonin has previously been shown to stimulate cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelium and in colonic tumours. The original classification of serotonin receptors into D and M groups was not conductive to the understanding of these observations. The more recent classification of serotonin receptors into 5HT1 and 5HT2 groups is considered in this report. On the balance of evidence it appears that similar receptors mediate the response to serotonin in the two tissues under consideration and that these receptors resemble those of the 5HT1 group. Such receptors are usually positively linked to adenylate cyclase.

  16. Do aberrant crypt foci have predictive value for the occurrence of colorectal tumours? Potential of gene expression profiling in tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Erk, van M.J.; Doornbos, R.P.; Krul, C.A.M.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different dietary compounds on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours and on the expression of a selection of genes were studied in rats. Azoxymethane-treated male F344 rats were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 10% wheat bran (WB), 0.2%

  17. Protection of the Peyer's patch-associated crypt and villus epithelium against methotrexate-induced damage is based on its distinct regulation of proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, Ingrid B.; Verburg, Melissa; Bulsing, Nathalie P.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Büller, Hans A.; Dekker, Jan; Einerhand, Alexandra W. C.

    2002-01-01

    The crypt and villus epithelium associated with Peyer's patches (PPs) is largely spared from methotrexate (MTX)-induced damage, compared with the non-patch (NP) epithelium. To assess the mechanism(s) preventing damage to the PP epithelium after MTX treatment, epithelial proliferation, apoptosis, and

  18. Smoothsort, an alternative for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Like heapsort - which inspired it - smoothsort is an algorithm for sorting in situ. It is of order N · log N in the worst case, but of order N in the best case, with a smooth transition between the two. (Hence its name.)

  19. The Sommersdorf mummies-An interdisciplinary investigation on human remains from a 17th-19th century aristocratic crypt in southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterauge, Amelie; Kellinghaus, Manuel; Jackowski, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Rühli, Frank; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Lösch, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle's church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data. Today, the crypt houses eleven wooden coffins from the 17th to 19th century AD. In ten of these, mummified and scattered human remains were found. Archive records were studied in order to identify names, ancestry, titles, occupation, date of birth and death, and place of interment of the individuals. The coffins were visually inspected and dated by typo-chronology, and the mummified and scattered skeletal remains were subjected to a physical anthropological examination. In total, the crypt contains the remains of a minimum number of nine individuals, among them three adult males, five adult females and one infant. A detailed scientific examination, including prior conservation, ancient DNA analyses, and computed tomography (CT), was performed on five mummies. By means of the CT data age at death, sex, body height, pathologies, and anatomical variants were investigated. CT analysis further showed that the bodies were naturally mummified. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the tested individuals are not maternally related. In addition, health, living conditions and circumstances of death of the entombed individuals could be highlighted. Being confronted with the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of each methodological approach, probable identification was achieved in two cases.

  20. The Sommersdorf mummies—An interdisciplinary investigation on human remains from a 17th-19th century aristocratic crypt in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellinghaus, Manuel; Jackowski, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Rühli, Frank; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Lösch, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle’s church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data. Today, the crypt houses eleven wooden coffins from the 17th to 19th century AD. In ten of these, mummified and scattered human remains were found. Archive records were studied in order to identify names, ancestry, titles, occupation, date of birth and death, and place of interment of the individuals. The coffins were visually inspected and dated by typo-chronology, and the mummified and scattered skeletal remains were subjected to a physical anthropological examination. In total, the crypt contains the remains of a minimum number of nine individuals, among them three adult males, five adult females and one infant. A detailed scientific examination, including prior conservation, ancient DNA analyses, and computed tomography (CT), was performed on five mummies. By means of the CT data age at death, sex, body height, pathologies, and anatomical variants were investigated. CT analysis further showed that the bodies were naturally mummified. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the tested individuals are not maternally related. In addition, health, living conditions and circumstances of death of the entombed individuals could be highlighted. Being confronted with the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of each methodological approach, probable identification was achieved in two cases. PMID:28859116

  1. Further textile artefacts from the Royal Crypt at Prague Castle (CZ). A tablet-woven silk band and fragments of a child's funeral tunic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bravermanová, M.; Březinová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 57 (2015), s. 104-110 ISSN 2245-7135 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06451S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Royal Crypt * Anna Falcká * tablet-weaving * archaeological textile Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. Molecular features of colorectal polyps presenting Kudo’s type II mucosal crypt pattern: are they based on the same mechanism of tumorigenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmura, Kensuke; Konishi, Kazuo; Yamochi, Toshiko; Kubota, Yutaro; Yano, Yuichiro; Katagiri, Atsushi; Muramoto, Takashi; Kihara, Toshihiro; Tojo, Masayuki; Konda, Kenichi; Tagawa, Teppei; Yanagisawa, Fumito; Kogo, Mari; Makino, Reiko; Takimoto, Masafumi; Yoshida, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: The molecular features of serrated polyps (SPs) with hyperplastic crypt pattern, also called Kudo’s type II observed by chromoendoscopy, were evaluated. Methods: The clinicopathological and molecular features of 114 SPs with a hyperplastic pit pattern detected under chromoendoscopy (five dysplastic SPs, 63 sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps), 36 microvesicular hyperplastic polyps (MVHPs), and 10 goblet cell-rich hyperplastic polyps (GCHPs)) were examined. The frequency of KRAS and BRAF mutations and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) were investigated. Results: Dysplastic SPs and SSA/Ps were frequently located in the proximal colon compared to others (SSA/Ps vs. MVHPs or GCHPs, P GCHP (60 % for dysplastic SPs, 44 % for SSA/Ps, 47 % for MVHPs, and 0 % for GCHPs). The frequency of CIMP was higher in dysplastic SPs or SSA/Ps than in MVHPs or GCHPs (60 % for dysplastic SPs, 56 % for SSA/Ps, 32 % for MVHPs, and 10 % for GCHPs) (SSA/Ps vs. GCHP, P = 0.0068). When serrated neoplasias (SNs) and MVHPs were classified into proximal and distal lesions, the frequency of CIMP was significantly higher in the proximal compared to the distal SNs (64 % vs. 11 %, P = 0.0032). Finally, multivariate analysis showed that proximal location and BRAF mutation were significantly associated with an increased risk of CIMP. Conclusions: Distinct molecular features were observed between proximal and distal SPs with hyperplastic crypt pattern. Proximal MVHPs may develop more frequently through SSA/Ps to CIMP cancers than distal MVHPs. PMID:26134964

  3. MET Signaling Mediates Intestinal Crypt-Villus Development, Regeneration, and Adenoma Formation and Is Promoted by Stem Cell CD44 Isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Sander P J; Zeilstra, Jurrit; van Andel, Harmen; Mijnals, R Clinton; Zaunbrecher, Joost; Duivenvoorden, Annet A M; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T

    2017-10-01

    Resistance of metastatic human colorectal cancer cells to drugs that block epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling could be caused by aberrant activity of other receptor tyrosine kinases, activating overlapping signaling pathways. One of these receptor tyrosine kinases could be MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We investigated how MET signaling, and its interaction with CD44 (a putative MET coreceptor regulated by Wnt signaling and highly expressed by intestinal stem cells [ISCs] and adenomas) affects intestinal homeostasis, regeneration, and adenoma formation in mini-gut organoids and mice. We established organoid cultures from ISCs stimulated with HGF or EGF and assessed intestinal differentiation by immunohistochemistry. Mice with total epithelial disruption of MET (Ah Cre /Met fl/fl /LacZ) or ISC-specific disruption of MET (Lgr5 Creert2 /Met fl/fl /LacZ) and control mice (Ah Cre /Met +/+ /LacZ, Lgr5 Creert2 /Met +/+ /LacZ) were exposed to 10 Gy total body irradiation; intestinal tissues were collected, and homeostasis and regeneration were assessed by immunohistochemistry. We investigated adenoma organoid expansion stimulated by HGF or EGF using adenomas derived from Lgr5 Creert2 /Met fl/fl /Apc fl/fl and Lgr5 Creert2 /Met +/+ /Apc fl/fl mice. The same mice were evaluated for adenoma prevalence and size. We also quantified adenomas in Ah Cre /Met fl/fl /Apc fl/+ mice compared with Ah Cre /Met +/+ /Apc fl/+ control mice. We studied expansion of organoids generated from crypts and adenomas, stimulated by HGF or EGF, that were derived from mice expressing different CD44 splice variants (Cd44 +/+ , Cd44 -/- , Cd44 s/s , or Cd44 v4-10/v4-10 mice). Crypts incubated with EGF or HGF expanded into self-organizing mini-guts with similar levels of efficacy and contained all differentiated cell lineages. MET-deficient mice did not have defects in intestinal homeostasis. Total body irradiation reduced numbers of proliferating crypts in Ah Cre

  4. An introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.; Gasteren, van A.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a crisp introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ, viz. insertion sort, heapsort and smoothsort. The more complicated the algorithm, the more elaborate the justification for the design decisions embodied by it. In passing we offer a style for the

  5. Design and Large-Scale Evaluation of Educational Games for Teaching Sorting Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, Paulo Eduardo; von Wangenheim, Christiane Gresse; von Wangenheim, Aldo; Martina, Jean Everson

    2017-01-01

    The teaching of sorting algorithms is an essential topic in undergraduate computing courses. Typically the courses are taught through traditional lectures and exercises involving the implementation of the algorithms. As an alternative, this article presents the design and evaluation of three educational games for teaching Quicksort and Heapsort.…

  6. IGF-II transgenic mice display increased aberrant colon crypt multiplicity and tumor volume after 1,2-dimethylhydrazine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oesterle Doris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In colorectal cancer insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II is frequently overexpressed. To evaluate, whether IGF-II affects different stages of tumorigenesis, we induced neoplastic alterations in the colon of wild-type and IGF-II transgenic mice using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF served as markers of early lesions in the colonic mucosa, whereas adenomas and carcinomas characterized the endpoints of tumor development. DMH-treatment led initially to significantly more ACF in IGF-II transgenic than in wild-type mice. This increase in ACF was especially prominent for those consisting of ≥three aberrant crypts (AC. Nevertheless, adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the colon, present after 34 weeks in both genetic groups, were not found at different frequency. Tumor volumes, however, were significantly higher in IGF-II transgenic mice and correlated with serum IGF-II levels. Immunohistochemical staining for markers of proliferation and apoptosis revealed increased cell proliferation rates in tumors of IGF-II transgenic mice without significant affection of apoptosis. Increased proliferation was accompanied by elevated localization of β-catenin in the cytosol and cell nuclei and reduced appearance at the inner plasma membrane. In conclusion, we provide evidence that IGF-II, via activation of the β-catenin signaling cascade, promotes growth of ACF and tumors without affecting tumor numbers.

  7. Hypersensitive responses of cells in the thymus, spleen, and intestinal crypt of mice to interphase death after treatment with x rays and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuta, Masakatsu

    1986-01-01

    Upon whole-body exposure of mice to X rays or administration of chemical mutagens, cells in thymus, spleen and intestinal crypt undergo sensitive response to interphase death. We developed an effective method for detecting dead cells in the interphase by scoring stained cells in situ in exposed tissues after staining frozen section with erythrosin B. Cell killing was detected at doses as low as 1 % of lethal doses after treatment with X rays and chemicals. Strain N4 was highly sensitive to interphase-cell-death and hybrids of N4 and resistant strain HT or C3H were also sensitive to cell-death, indicating a dominant trait of the sensitive cell-death response. (author)

  8. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Maeda, Shin; Morita, Satoshi; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Nagase, Hajime; Nakajima, Atsushi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Iida, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ezuka, Akiko; Uchiyama, Shiori; Yamada, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemoprevention trials, in general, the incidence of polyps or of the cancer itself is set as the study endpoint. Although the incidence rate of CRC would be the most reliable endpoint, use of this endpoint would be unsuitable for chemoprevention trials, because of the relatively low occurrence rate of CRC in the general population and the long-term observation period that it would necessitate. Moreover, there is an ethical problem in conducting long-term trials to determine whether a test drug might be effective or harmful. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), defined as lesions containing crypts that are larger in diameter and stain more darkly with methylene blue than normal crypts, are considered as a reliable surrogate biomarker of CRC. Thus, we devised a prospective randomized controlled trial as a preliminary study prior to a CRC chemoprevention trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of EPA against colorectal ACF formation and the safety of this drug, in patients scheduled for polypectomy. This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral 900-mg EPA capsules thrice daily (total daily

  9. Smoothsort revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, Coenraad; Hesselink, Wim H.

    1991-01-01

    A renewed analysis of Dijkstra's array sorting algorithm Smoothsort showed that the removal of a complexity improved the performance. The resulting algorithm has a worst-case behaviour of order N.log N. In the average case, it has more or less the same speed as heapsort. For arrays that are

  10. Long-term aerobic swimming training by rats reduces the number of aberrant crypt foci in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lunz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of long-term aerobic swimming training regimens of different intensities on colonic carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats (11 weeks old were given 4 subcutaneous injections (40 mg/kg body weight each of 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH, dissolved in 0.9% NaCl containing 1.5% EDTA, pH 6.5, at 3-day intervals and divided into three exercise groups that swam with 0% body weight (EG1, N = 11, 2% body weight (EG2, N = 11, and 4% body weight of load (EG3, N = 10, 20 min/day, 5 days/week for 35 weeks, and one sedentary control group (CG, N = 10. At sacrifice, the colon was removed and counted for tumors and aberrant crypt foci. Tumor size was measured and intra-abdominal fat was weighed. The mean number of aberrant crypt foci was reduced only for EG2 compared to CG (26.21 ± 2.99 vs 36.40 ± 1.53 crypts; P < 0.05. Tumor incidence was not significantly different among groups (CG: 90%; EG1: 72.7%; EG2: 90%; EG3: 80%. Swimming training did not affect either tumor multiplicity (CG: 2.30 ± 0.58; EG1: 2.09 ± 0.44; EG2: 1.27 ± 0.19; EG3: 1.50 ± 0.48 tumors or size (CG: 1.78 ± 0.24; EG1: 1.81 ± 0.14; EG2: 1.55 ± 0.21; EG3: 2.17 ± 0.22 cm³. Intra-abdominal fat was not significantly different among groups (CG: 10.54 ± 2.73; EG1: 6.12 ± 1.15; EG2: 7.85 ± 1.24; EG3: 5.11 ± 0.74 g. Aerobic swimming training with 2% body weight of load protected against the DMH-induced preneoplastic colon lesions, but not against tumor development in the rat.

  11. Specific dose-dependent damage of Lieberkuehn crypts promoted by large doses of type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein nigrin b intravenous injection to mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayoso, M.J.; Munoz, R.; Arias, Y.; Villar, R.; Rojo, M.A.; Jimenez, P.; Ferreras, J.M.; Aranguez, I.; Girbes, T.

    2005-01-01

    Nigrin b is a non-toxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein as active as ricin at ribosomal level but 10 5 and 5 x 10 3 times less toxic for animal cell cultures and mice, respectively, than ricin. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of intravenous injection of large amounts of nigrin b to the mouse. Injection through the tail vein of 16 mg/kg body weight killed all mice studied before 2 days. Analysis of several major tissues by light microscopy did not reveal gross nigrin b-promoted changes, except in the intestines which appeared highly damaged. As a consequence of the injury, the villi and crypt structures of the small intestine disappeared, leading to profuse bleeding and death. In contrast, intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg body weight was not lethal to mice but did trigger reversible toxic effects. In both cases, lethal and sub-lethal doses, the target of nigrin b appeared to be the highly proliferating stem cells of the intestinal crypts, which had undergone apoptotic changes. In contrast to nigrin b, the injection of 3 μg/kg of ricin kills all mice in 5 days but does not trigger apoptosis in the crypts. Therefore, the effect seen with sub-lethal nigrin b concentrations seems to be specific. Nigrin b killed COLO 320 human colon adenocarcinoma cells with an IC 50 of 3.1 x 10 -8 M and the effect was parallel to the extent of DNA fragmentation of these cells. Accordingly, despite the low general toxicity exerted by nigrin b as compared with ricin, intravenous injection of large amounts of nigrin b is able to kill mouse intestinal stem cells without threatening the lives of the animals, thereby opening a door for its use for the targeting of intestinal stem cells

  12. The circadian rhythm for the number and sensitivity of radiation-induced apoptosis in the crypts of mouse small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, K.; Potten, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Survival curves were constructed from dose-incidence curves for apoptosis in the crypts of mouse small intestine, using the number of apoptotic cells after high doses (N M ) as maximum cell population size. The mean lethal doses (D 0 ) for the dose range 0-0.5 Gy were calculated for each time of day. A circadian rhythm in both D 0 and N M values was detected, indicating that both the number and sensitivity of radiation-induced apoptosis were changing throughout the day. (author)

  13. RBE of the NCT beam at Petten (The Netherlands) for intestinal crypt regeneration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueulette, J.; Coster, B.M. de; Wambersie, A.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Huiskamp, R.; Moss, R.; Morrissey, J.

    2000-01-01

    RBE of the BNCT epithermal neutron beam at Petten (The Netherlands) has been determined for intestinal crypt regeneration in mice i.e. an in vivo system. No boron was administered. This experiment is part of an IAEA programme aiming at intercomparing radiobiologically the NCT neutron beams of different facilities world-wide. Six MV photons were used as the reference radiation. For the NCT beam at Petten, irradiation times ranging between 1 and 3 hours were applied. These low dose rate irradiations (∼3 Gy/hour) were found ∼2.4 more effective than acute photon irradiations. This type of experiment - repeated at different BNCT facilities - will improve harmonisation in the radiobiological specification of NCT neutron beams and facilitate exchange of clinical information. (author)

  14. Molecular Mapping to Species Level of the Tonsillar Crypt Microbiota Associated with Health and Recurrent Tonsillitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders; Fagö-Olsen, Helena; Sørensen, Christian Hjort; Kilian, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the understanding of the

  15. Molecular mapping to species level of the tonsillar crypt microbiota associated with health and recurrent tonsillitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Jensen

    Full Text Available The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the

  16. Mast cells in Canine parvovirus-2-associated enteritis with crypt abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemeskel, M W; Saliki, J T; Blas-Machado, U; Whittington, L

    2013-11-01

    The role of mast cells (MCs) in allergic reactions and parasitic infections is well established. Their involvement in host immune response against bacterial and viral infections is reported. In this study, investigation is made to determine if MCs are associated with Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2)-induced enteritis with crypt abscess (ECA). Mast cell count (MCC) was made on toluidine blue-stained intestinal sections from a total of 34 dogs. These included 16 dogs exhibiting ECA positive for CPV-2 and negative for Canine distemper virus and Canine coronavirus by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent antibody test, 12 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 6 non-ECA/non-IBD (control) dogs. The average total MCC per high-power field in ECA (40.8 ± 2.2) and IBD (24.7 ± 2.1) was significantly higher (P .05), MCC was also higher in ECA than in IBD. The present study for the first time has documented significantly increased MCs in CPV-2-associated ECA as was previously reported for IBD, showing that MCs may also play an important role in CPV-2-associated ECA. Further studies involving more CPV-infected dogs are recommended to substantiate the findings.

  17. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, H. van den; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of

  18. Quality assurance (QA) program in BNCT. RBE of 7 NCT beams for intestinal crypt regeneration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Gueulette; De Coster, Blanche-Marie; Wambersie, Andre; Gregoire, Vincent; Rasmussen, Finn S.; Auterinen, Iiro; Binns, Peter; Blaumann, Herman; Matsumura, Akira; Liu Hongming

    2006-01-01

    The epithermal neutron beams presently used for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) differ substantially in their composition (relative contribution of the different dose components to the total dose), in their dose rate (depending on the power of the reactor) as well as in their general feature (e.g. beam delivery system). Each of these elements might alter significantly the biological effectiveness of the beams. Therefore, the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of 7 NCT beams was intercompared, for a reference biological system (crypt regeneration in mice) and under well-defined irradiation conditions. This type of experiments - which should facilitate the exchange of radiobiological/clinical information - should take part of the Quality Assurance (QA) procedure of all NCT beams. (author)

  19. Chemopreventive effect of myrtenal on bacterial enzyme activity and the development of 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine-induced aberrant crypt foci in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Kumar Booupathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer remains as a serious health problem around the world despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Dietary fibers are considered to reduce the risk of colon cancer as they are converted to short chain fatty acids by the presence of anaerobic bacteria in the intestine, but imbalanced diet and high fat consumption may promote tumor formation at different sites, including the large bowel via increased bacterial enzymes activity. The present study was conducted to characterize the inhibitory action of myrtenal on bacterial enzymes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF. Experimental colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine is histologically, morphologically, and anatomically similar to human colonic epithelial neoplasm. Discrete microscopic mucosal lesions such as ACF and malignant tumors function as important biomarkers in the diagnosis of colon cancer. Methylene blue staining was carried out to visualize the impact of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and myrtenal. Myrtenal-treated animals showed decreased levels of bacterial enzymes such as β-glucuronidase, β-glucosidase, and mucinase. Characteristic changes in the colon were noticed by inhibiting ACF formation in the colon. In conclusion, treatment with myrtenal provided altered pathophysiological condition in colon cancer-bearing animals with evidence of decreased crypt multiplicity and tumor progression.

  20. Effects of dark chocolate on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Nulton, Emily; Shelechi, Mahshid; Hernández, Lisa M; Nemoseck, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence supports that diets rich in polyphenols promote health and may delay the onset of colon cancer. Cocoa and chocolate products have some of the highest polyphenolic concentrations compared to other polyphenolic food sources. This study tested the hypothesis that a diet including dark chocolate can protect against colon cancer by inhibiting aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, downregulating gene expression of inflammatory mediators, and favorably altering cell kinetics. We also investigated whether bloomed dark chocolate retains the antioxidant capacity and protects against colon cancer. Forty-eight rats received either a diet containing control (no chocolate), regular dark chocolate, or bloomed dark chocolate and were injected subcutaneously with saline or azoxymethane. Relative to control, both regular and bloomed dark chocolate diets lowered the total number of ACF (P = 0.022). Chocolate diet-fed animals downregulated transcription levels of COX-2 (P = 0.035) and RelA (P = 0.045). Both chocolate diets lowered the proliferation index (P = 0.001). These results suggest that a diet including dark chocolate can reduce cell proliferation and some gene expression involving inflammation, which may explain the lower number of early preneoplastic lesions. These results provide new insight on polyphenol-rich chocolate foods and colon cancer prevention.

  1. Short curcumin treatment modulates oxidative stress, arginase activity, aberrant crypt foci, and TGF-β1 and HES-1 transcripts in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-colon carcinogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounaama, Abdelkader; Djerdjouri, Bahia; Laroche-Clary, Audrey; Le Morvan, Valérie; Robert, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) toxicity was driven by oxidative stress. ► Arginase activity correlated to aberrant crypt foci (ACF). ► Curcumin diet restored redox status and induced apoptosis of dysplastic ACF. ► Curcumin reduced arginase activity and up regulated TGF-β1 and HES-1 transcripts. -- Abstract: This study investigated the effect of short curcumin treatment, a natural antioxidant on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice. The incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was 100%, with 54 ± 6 per colon, 10 weeks after the first DMH injection and reached 67 ± 12 per colon after 12 weeks. A high level of undifferentiated goblet cells and a weak apoptotic activity were shown in dysplastic ACF. The morphological alterations of colonic mucosa were associated to severe oxidative stress ratio with 43% increase in malondialdehyde vs. 36% decrease in GSH. DMH also increased inducible nitric synthase (iNOS) mRNA transcripts (250%), nitrites level (240%) and arginase activity (296%), leading to nitrosative stress and cell proliferation. Curcumin treatment, starting at week 10 post-DMH injection for 14 days, reduced the number of ACF (40%), iNOS expression (25%) and arginase activity (73%), and improved redox status by approximately 46%, compared to DMH-treated mice. Moreover, curcumin induced apoptosis of dysplastic ACF cells without restoring goblet cells differentiation. Interestingly, curcumin induced a parallel increase in TGF-β1 and HES-1 transcripts (42% and 26%, respectively). In conclusion, the protective effect of curcumin was driven by the reduction of arginase activity and nitrosative stress. The up regulation of TGF-β1 and HES-1 expression by curcumin suggests for the first time, a potential interplay between these signalling pathways in the chemoprotective mechanism of curcumin.

  2. Is the presence of 6 or fewer crypt apoptotic bodies sufficient for diagnosis of graft versus host disease? A decade of experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingmei; Fan, Rong; Zhao, Zijin; Cummings, Oscar W; Chen, Shaoxiong

    2013-04-01

    Histopathology assessment is crucial for the diagnosis of graft versus host disease (GVHD), as the presence of crypt apoptosis is the cardinal criterion required. However, crypt apoptosis is not limited to GVHD; it also occurs in other conditions such as infection, drug reaction, or inflammatory reactions unrelated to GVHD. To better determine whether the presence of 6 or fewer apoptotic bodies is sufficient for the diagnosis of GVHD, we retrospectively reviewed 78 colon biopsies from 66 patients who received either hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) or cord blood cell transplantation and whose colon biopsies exhibited apoptotic bodies. Among them, 41 cases contained 6 or fewer apoptotic bodies in the colon biopsy. These biopsies were compared with 141 colon biopsy controls that showed no significant pathologic changes as well as 16 colon biopsies with cytomegalovirus colitis from patients without a history of bone marrow transplantation. Among the 41 cases reviewed, 7 patients had coexisting GVHD in other organs (skin or liver). However, gastrointestinal symptoms of at least 4 HSCT patients whose colon biopsies contained 6 or fewer apoptotic bodies completely resolved in the absence of further intervention for GVHD. The discrepancy between pathologic findings and the clinical course may be due to confounding factors, such as infection or medication-induced injury. Our data suggest that identifying 6 or fewer crypt apoptotic bodies in colon biopsies from HSCT patients is worth reporting in order to alert the clinicians of the possibility of GVHD but not sufficient to render a diagnosis on the pathologic grounds alone. The colon biopsies containing 6 or fewer apoptotic bodies represent a heterogenous group. We suggest this group to be classified as indeterminate for GVHD, instead of diagnosing GVHD outright. Synthesis of all clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic information, including the status of infection, coexisting GVHD involvement in the other organs, and

  3. Molecular features of colorectal polyps presenting Kudo's type II mucosal crypt pattern: are they based on the same mechanism of tumorigenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmura, Kensuke; Konishi, Kazuo; Yamochi, Toshiko; Kubota, Yutaro; Yano, Yuichiro; Katagiri, Atsushi; Muramoto, Takashi; Kihara, Toshihiro; Tojo, Masayuki; Konda, Kenichi; Tagawa, Teppei; Yanagisawa, Fumito; Kogo, Mari; Makino, Reiko; Takimoto, Masafumi; Yoshida, Hitoshi

    2014-09-01

    The molecular features of serrated polyps (SPs) with hyperplastic crypt pattern, also called Kudo's type II observed by chromoendoscopy, were evaluated. The clinicopathological and molecular features of 114 SPs with a hyperplastic pit pattern detected under chromoendoscopy (five dysplastic SPs, 63 sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps), 36 microvesicular hyperplastic polyps (MVHPs), and 10 goblet cell-rich hyperplastic polyps (GCHPs)) were examined. The frequency of KRAS and BRAF mutations and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) were investigated. Dysplastic SPs and SSA/Ps were frequently located in the proximal colon compared to others (SSA/Ps vs. MVHPs or GCHPs, P GCHP (60 % for dysplastic SPs, 44 % for SSA/Ps, 47 % for MVHPs, and 0 % for GCHPs). The frequency of CIMP was higher in dysplastic SPs or SSA/Ps than in MVHPs or GCHPs (60 % for dysplastic SPs, 56 % for SSA/Ps, 32 % for MVHPs, and 10 % for GCHPs) (SSA/Ps vs. GCHP, P = 0.0068). When serrated neoplasias (SNs) and MVHPs were classified into proximal and distal lesions, the frequency of CIMP was significantly higher in the proximal compared to the distal SNs (64 % vs. 11 %, P = 0.0032). Finally, multivariate analysis showed that proximal location and BRAF mutation were significantly associated with an increased risk of CIMP. Distinct molecular features were observed between proximal and distal SPs with hyperplastic crypt pattern. Proximal MVHPs may develop more frequently through SSA/Ps to CIMP cancers than distal MVHPs.

  4. Effect of postradiation bleeding on proliferative activity of cells in small intestine crypts of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, N V [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Vinca (Yugoslavia)

    1975-12-01

    The effect of postradiation bleeding on the dynamics of duodenal crypt's cell proliferation in rats was studied. The animals, females, three months old, weighing 170 or 180 g, were exposed to radiation of 800 R (115 R/min) and immediately after irradiation were bled by cardiac puncture to 50% of total blood volume. Proliferative activity of duodenal epithelium cells was monitored for a period of five days after irradiation. For control purposes normal, irradiated and only bled animals were used. The results demonstrated that although there are no significant differences in proliferative activity of duodenal epithelium cells in irradiated and bled animals and only irradiated animals, the postradiation reparative processes in irradiated and bled animals is considerably more stable. It is considered that bleeding itself by its hypoxic activity reduced the sensitivity of epithelium to the dose of radiation used. On the other hand, bleeding removed the damaging agents which appear after total body irradiation.

  5. Naturally Occurring Deletion Mutants of the Pig-Specific, Intestinal Crypt Epithelial Cell Protein CLCA4b without Apparent Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plog

    Full Text Available The human CLCA4 (chloride channel regulator, calcium-activated modulates the intestinal phenotype of cystic fibrosis (CF patients via an as yet unknown pathway. With the generation of new porcine CF models, species-specific differences between human modifiers of CF and their porcine orthologs are considered critical for the translation of experimental data. Specifically, the porcine ortholog to the human CF modulator gene CLCA4 has recently been shown to be duplicated into two separate genes, CLCA4a and CLCA4b. Here, we characterize the duplication product, CLCA4b, in terms of its genomic structure, tissue and cellular expression patterns as well as its in vitro electrophysiological properties. The CLCA4b gene is a pig-specific duplication product of the CLCA4 ancestor and its protein is exclusively expressed in small and large intestinal crypt epithelial cells, a niche specifically occupied by no other porcine CLCA family member. Surprisingly, a unique deleterious mutation of the CLCA4b gene is spread among modern and ancient breeds in the pig population, but this mutation did not result in an apparent phenotype in homozygously affected animals. Electrophysiologically, neither the products of the wild type nor of the mutated CLCA4b genes were able to evoke a calcium-activated anion conductance, a consensus feature of other CLCA proteins. The apparently pig-specific duplication of the CLCA4 gene with unique expression of the CLCA4b protein variant in intestinal crypt epithelial cells where the porcine CFTR is also present raises the question of whether it may modulate the porcine CF phenotype. Moreover, the naturally occurring null variant of CLCA4b will be valuable for the understanding of CLCA protein function and their relevance in modulating the CF phenotype.

  6. PENGGUNAAN BRUTE FORCE ATTACK DALAM PENERAPANNYA PADA CRYPT8 DAN CSA-RAINBOW TOOL UNTUK MENCARI BISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Gunawan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Algoritma Brute Force merupakan suatu aritmatika untuk mencari dan mengetahui sebuah jenis sandi atau kode yang salh satunya sebuah kode acakan misalnya jenis acakan BISS (Basic Interoperable Scrambling System. Algoritma brute force yang umumnya dipakai untuk mencari kasus kode acakan seperti ini umumnya disebut Brute Force Attack.    Brute force attack menggunakan sebuah himpunan karakter atau teks yang akan dipakai untuk referensi karakter-karakter dari kode yang ingin dicari. Himpunan karakter yang dipakai akan menjadi sebuah ukuran keefektifan dari algoritma itu sendiri. Semakin banyak anggota himpunan karakter ini, tentunya persentasi kode biss untuk sebuah kode biss dapat dicari akan tinggi. Namun, semakin banyak karakter yang ada di dalam himpunan itu harus dibayar dengan waktu pengerjaan yang lebih lama. Brute Force ini sudah mulai dikembangkan untuk mencari kode. Salah satu pengembangannya adalah pengumpulan chain sebagai database dan penggunaan Crypt8 dan CSA-Rainbow Tool yang menggunakan algoritma brute force sehingga memungkinkan untuk memangkas waktu yang diperlukan Brute Force Attack.

  7. Chemopreventive efficacy of Andrographis paniculata on azoxymethane-induced aberrant colon crypt foci in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Henhena, Nawal; Ying, Rozaida Poh Yuen; Ismail, Salmah; Najm, Walaa; Najm, Wala; Khalifa, Shaden A M; El-Seedi, Hesham; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a grass-shaped medicinal herb, traditionally used in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoprotective effects of A. paniculata on colorectal cancer. A. paniculata ethanol extract was tested on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo and in vitro. A. paniculata treated groups showed a significant reduction in the number of ACF of the treated rats. Microscopically, ACF showed remarkably elongated and stratified cells, and depletion of the submucosal glands of AOM group compared to the treated groups. Histologically, staining showed slightly elevated masses above the surrounding mucosa with oval or slit-like orifices. Immunohistochemically, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and β-catenin protein were down-regulated in the A. paniculata treated groups compared to the AOM group. When colon tissue was homogenized, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in the treated groups compared to the AOM group. A. paniculata ethanol extract showed antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, as elucidated by the measure of oxidative stress markers. Further, the active fractions were assessed against cell lines of CCD841 and HT29 colon cancer cells.

  8. Changes in the transcriptional profile of transporters in the intestine along the anterior-posterior and crypt-villus axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delorenzi Mauro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this work was to characterize the expression of drug and nutrient carriers along the anterior-posterior and crypt-villus axes of the intestinal epithelium and to study the validity of utilizing whole gut tissue rather than purified epithelial cells to examine regional variations in gene expression. Results We have characterized the mRNA expression profiles of 76 % of all currently known transporters along the anterior-posterior axis of the gut. This is the first study to describe the expression profiles of the majority of all known transporters in the intestine. The expression profiles of transporters, as defined according to the Gene Ontology consortium, were measured in whole tissue of the murine duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon using high-density microarrays. For nine transporters (Abca1, Abcc1, Abcc3, Abcg8, Slc10a2, Slc28a2, Slc2a1, Slc34a2 and Slc5a8, the mRNA profiles were further measured by RT-PCR in laser micro-dissected crypt and villus epithelial cells corresponding to the aforementioned intestinal regions. With respect to differentially regulated transporters, the colon had a distinct expression profile from small intestinal segments. The majority (59 % for p cutoff ≤ 0.05 of transporter mRNA levels were constant across the intestinal sections studied. For the transporter subclass "carrier activity", which contains the majority of known carriers for biologically active compounds, a significant change (p ≤ 0.05 along the anterior-posterior axis was observed. Conclusion All nine transporters examined in laser-dissected material demonstrated good replication of the region-specific profiles revealed by microarray. Furthermore, we suggest that the distribution characteristics of Slc5a8 along the intestinal tract render it a suitable candidate carrier for monocarboxylate drugs in the posterior portion of the intestine. Our findings also predict that there is a significant difference in the

  9. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  10. Influence of Different Diets on Development of DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate certain dietary factors known to affect the development of colon cancer for their ability to modulate aberrant crypt foci (ACI;). Male Wistar rats were initiated with oral noses of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once...... a week for to or 20 weeks. Throughout the study the animals were fed I) semisynthetic casein-based control diet, 2) control diet with 20% lard, 3) control diet with 20% lard and 20% dietary fiber, or 4) control diet where most of the carbohydrate pool was substituted with sucrose and dextrin....... The composition of the different diets was designed to achieve equivalent intakes of essential nutrients. Animals were killed after 10, 20, and 31 weeks. The study showed a pronounced effect of dietary composition on the development of DMH-induced ACF. The diet high in sucrose and dextrin caused a statistically...

  11. The influence of simple sugars and starch given during pre- or post-initiation on aberrant crypt foci in rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Thorup, Inger

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the enhancing effect of dietary sugar on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in male F344 rats initiated with azoxymethane (AOM). The potential role of sugar as either a co-initiator or a promoter was investigated by giving diets high...... in sucrose and dextrin (61%) during either the pre-initiation, the initiation, and/or the post initiation stage of the ACF development. The colonic cell proliferation, activity of colonic phase II enzymes, and a biomarker of lipid peroxidation were additionally examined in order to obtain information...... on the specific mechanisms involved in the suggested effect of sucrose and dextrin on ACF development. The number of large sized and the total number of ACF were significantly increased by feeding sucrose and dextrin in the post-initiation period. No positive association between colonic cell proliferation and ACF...

  12. Influência da suplementação de glutamina sobre o desempenho e o desenvolvimento de vilos e criptas do intestino delgado de frangos Influence of glutamine supplementation on performance and intestinal villous and crypt development in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maiorka

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da suplementação de glutamina na dieta sobre o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar e sobre a estrutura da mucosa intestinal de frangos. Foram utilizados 320 pintos de corte machos distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com dois tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo T1 suplementado com 1% de L-glutamina na dieta e T2 controle. Os índices de desempenho foram analisados aos 7, 21 e 49 dias de idade das aves. Aos 7 e 14 dias de idade oito aves foram sacrificadas para colheita de fragmentos de cada porção do intestino delgado para avaliação da morfometria intestinal em microscopia de luz em sistema analisador de imagens "Video Plan". As variáveis estudadas foram altura dos vilos, profundidade de cripta e relação vilo: cripta. A adição de 1% de glutamina à dieta de frangos não influenciou (P>0,05 o seu desempenho zootécnico. Entretanto, 1% de glutamina na ração foi capaz de alterar (PThis investigation was carried out in order to study the influence of glutamine supplementation in the ration on performance and on the intestinal structure development of broiler chickens. Three hundred and twenty day-old broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized experiment with two treatments and four repetitions, being T1 supplemented with 1% L-glutamine and T2 - control (not supplemented. The performance was evaluated (feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion at 7, 21 and 49 days of age. At the same ages birds were sacrificed and samples from different parts of the intestine were collected (duodenum, jejunum and ileum to be submitted to morphometric studies under light microscopy using an image analysis system (Video Plan. The variables studied were villous height, crypt depth and villous:crypt ratio. It was demonstrated that 1% glutamine supplementation in the ration did not influence the broiler chicken performance (P>0.05 during the different phases of growth

  13. Crowns and Crypts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    size of the ring. Metal cat- ion of appropriate size is trapped in this cavity to form a stable ... The formation of auride ion (Au-), characterisation of the so- called zind .... method of synthesis of these complexes is the use of so-called. 'template ...

  14. Meat and cancer: haemoglobin and haemin in a low-calcium diet promote colorectal carcinogenesis at the aberrant crypt stage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Fabrice; Taché, Sylviane; Petit, Claude R; Van Der Meer, Roelof; Corpet, Denis E

    2003-01-01

    High intake of red meat, but not of white meat, is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. However, red meat does not promote cancer in rodents. Haemin, added to low-calcium diets, increases colonic proliferation, and haemoglobin, added to high-fat diets, increases the colon tumour incidence in rats, an effect possibly due to peroxyl radicals. We thus speculated that haem might be the promoting agent in meat, and that prevention strategies could use calcium and antioxidants. These hypotheses were tested in rats at the aberrant crypt foci (ACF) stage at 100 days. F344 rats (n=124) were given an injection of azoxymethane and were then randomised to 11 groups fed with low-calcium (20μmol/g) AIN76-based diets, containing 5% safflower oil. Haemin (0.25, 0.5 and 1.5μmol/g) or haemoglobin (1.5 and 3 μmol haem/g) was added to five experimental diets, compared to a control diet without haem. Three other high-haemin diets (1.5μmol/g) were supplemented with calcium (250μmol/g), antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole and rutin (0.05% each), and olive oil, which replaced safflower oil. Faecal water was assayed for lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) test, and for cytolytic activity. Haemin strikingly increased the ACF size, dose-dependently, from 2.6 to 11.4 crypts/ACF (all p<0.001). The high-haemin diet also increased the number of ACF per colon (p<0.001). Promotion was associated with increased faecal water TBARs and cytotoxicity. Calcium, olive oil, and antioxidants each inhibited the haemin-induced ACF promotion, and normalised the faecal TBARs and cytotoxicity. The haemoglobin diets increased the number of ACF and faecal TBARs, but not the ACF size or the faecal cytotoxicity. In conclusion, dietary haemin is the most potent known ACF promoter. Haemoglobin is also a potent promoter of colorectal carcinogenesis. The results suggest that myoglobin in red meat could promote colon cancer. Diets high in calcium, or in oxidation

  15. Optimization of visibility and quantification of aberrant crypt foci in colonic mucosa in Wistar rats Otimização da visibilidade e quantificação de focos de criptas aberrantes em mucosa cólica de ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idália Maria Brasil Burlamaqui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Test immersion of microscopy samples in water as an aid to visualizing and quantifying aberrant crypt foci (ACF in rat colon mucosa. METHODS: Carcinogenesis was induced with azoxymethane in Wistar rats kept on a conventional diet or a hypercaloric diet containing unsaturated fat. Fifteen weeks after induction, colon samples were retrieved and fixated in a 10% formaldehyde solution. The samples were divided into segments (distal, middle, proximal and stained with 1% toluidine blue. The technique tested in the study consisted of immersing microscopy samples in distilled water in order to eliminate the problem of light reflection known from conventional microscopy. RESULTS: When samples were immersed in water during microscopy, significantly more ACF could be visualized in all colon segments than with the conventional method proposed by Bird. CONCLUSION: Immersing microscopy samples in water aids the visualization and quantification of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon mucosa fixed in formaldehyde.OBJETIVO: Otimizar a visibilização de focos de criptas aberrantes (FCA em mucosa cólica de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Colo de rato Wistar, sob diferentes dietas e submetidos a iniciação de carcinogênese pelo azoximetano há 4 meses, foram previamente lavados, abertos e fixados em solução de formalina a 10% por 24 horas. Após serem corados em azul de toluidina a 1%, foram divididos em segmentos distal, médio e proximal e imersos em água destilada para quantificação de FCA. RESULTADOS: No método de imersão foi visibilizado maior quantidade de focos de criptas aberrantes em todos os segmentos cólicos, com diferença significante, quando comparado com o método de Bird. CONCLUSÃO: O método de imersão otimiza a visibilização e quantificação de focos de criptas aberrantes em mucosa cólica (ratos Wistar fixada em solução de formalina a 10%.

  16. The influence of androgens, anti-androgens, and castration on cell proliferation in the jejunal and colonic crypt epithelia, and in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinoma of rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    Androgenic hormones have previously been shown to promote cell proliferation in the small intestine of rat and androgen receptors have been demonstrated in carcinomata of the large intestine of rat. In this study the influence of testosterone and of castration on epithelial cell proliferation in the small intestine, the large intestine and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumours is compared. Cell proliferation in the small intestine and in colonic tumours was accelerated by testosterone treatment, and cell proliferation in colonic tumours, but not in the small intestine, was retarded following castration. Cell proliferation in colonic tumours was also inhibited by the anti-androgenic drug, Flutamide. Testosterone and castration each failed to influence cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium of both normal and carcinogen-treated animals.

  17. Commonly used bowel preparations have significant and different effects upon cell proliferation in the colon: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Stuart A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Methods Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3. Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. Results There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI between biopsies taken after Klean-prep and those taken after Picolax preparation, for both Ki67 (p = 0.019 and pHH3 (p = 0.017. A similar trend was seen for whole-mount mitotic figure counts. Suppression or elevation of proliferation parameters by bowel preparation may mask any effect due to an intervention or disease. Conclusion Commonly used bowel preparations may have significant and different effects on crypt cell proliferation. This should be taken into account when designing studies and when considering the findings of existing studies.

  18. Synbiotic preparation with Lactic acid bacteria and inulin as a functional food: In vivo evaluation of microbial activities, and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    Full Text Available Abstract Host microbiome and metabolome are associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CC, one of the major health problems in developed countries. The pro and prebiotic supplementation helps to improve the host health. Inulin is one such prebiotic used for the enhancement of naïve probiotic bacterial population. This paper explains the impact of inulin (PRE extracted from Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Lactobacillus plantarum HII11 (PRO, and synbiotic (SYN; inulin + L. plantarum HII11 preparation on Azoxymethane mediated CC induced rat model with respect to changes in microbial load, microbial enzymes, and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci. The results suggested that the PRE and SYN supplementation effectively reduced the selected pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli, microbial enzymes and increased the probiotic load. The intervention of SYN significantly reduced the colonic ACF in CC model. The study results revealed that the supplementation of SYN diet (inulin and L. plantarum HII11 protects the AOM-mediated colon cancer induced host.

  19. Hydrolysed inulin alleviates the azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci by altering selected intestinal microbiota in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattananandecha, Thanawat; Sirilun, Sasithorn; Duangjitcharoen, Yodsawee; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Suwannalert, Prasit; Peerajan, Sartjin; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat

    2016-09-01

    Context Inulin, a non-digestible carbohydrate isolated from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae), has been shown to alter the gut beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria. Inulin also influences the activities of intestinal microbiota that could prevent the colon cancer development. Objective This study determines the effect of hydrolysed inulin with different degrees of polymerisation on alteration of intestinal microbiota and their activities on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Materials and methods Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (three control and three AOM-treated groups) and the animal were fed with either a normal diet or diet containing 10% of long-chain inulin (InuL) or short-chain inulin (InuS), respectively, for 17 weeks. Colon cancer was induced in rats by injecting AOM subcutaneously at the 8th and 9th week of the study period. At the end of the experiment, cecal contents of rats were examined for selected microbiota, organic acids, putrefactive compounds and microbial enzymes. ACF formation was microscopically examined. Results The inulin diets significantly increased the weight and decreased the pH of the caecal content. The rats fed with InuL-supplemented diet showed approximately 2.9- and 6.8-fold increases in the biomass of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria, respectively. Naive and AOM-treated rats fed with inulin-supplemented diet showed ∼1.3- and ∼2.2-fold decreases in the biomass of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, respectively. Inulins significantly decreased the colonic concentration of phenol, p-cresol and indole. Reduction in the activity of microbial enzymes such as β-glucuronidase, azoreductase and nitroreductase were observed in inulin-treated animals. Reduction in the ACF formation has been observed in inulin-treated groups. Discussion and conclusion The present study demonstrates that dietary

  20. Bax and Bak Do Not Exhibit Functional Redundancy in Mediating Radiation-Induced Endothelial Apoptosis in the Intestinal Mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotolo, Jimmy A.; Maj, Jerzy G.; Feldman, Regina; Ren, Decheng; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Cheng, Emily H.-Y.; Kolesnick, Richard; Fuks, Zvi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To address in vivo the issue of whether Bax and Bak are functionally redundant in signaling apoptosis, capable of substituting for each other. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to whole-body radiation, and endothelial cell apoptosis was quantified using double immunostaining with TUNEL and anti-CD31 antibody. Crypt survival was determined at 3.5 days after whole-body radiation by the microcolony survival assay. Actuarial animal survival was calculated by the product-limit Kaplan-Meier method, and autopsies were performed to establish cause of death. Results: Radiation exposure of Bax- and Bak-deficient mice, both expressing a wild-type acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) phenotype, indicated that Bax and Bak are both mandatory, though mutually independent, for the intestinal endothelial apoptotic response. However, neither affected epithelial apoptosis at crypt positions 4-5, indicating specificity toward endothelium. Furthermore, Bax deficiency and Bak deficiency each individually mimicked ASMase deficiency in inhibiting crypt lethality in the microcolony assay and in rescuing mice from the lethal gastrointestinal syndrome. Conclusions: The data indicate that Bax and Bak have nonredundant functional roles in the apoptotic response of the irradiated intestinal endothelium. The observation that Bax deficiency and Bak deficiency also protect crypts in the microcolony assay provides strong evidence that the microvascular apoptotic component is germane to the mechanism of radiation-induced damage to mouse intestines, regulating reproductive cell death of crypt stem cell clonogens

  1. IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f ]quinoline) – induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumour development in rats fed two different carbohydrate diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, A. M.; Meyer, Otto A.; Kristiansen, E.

    2001-01-01

    associated with enhanced development of ACF and colorectal cancer in humans. The present study was designed as an integrated part of our earlier published ACF study and follows the animals until tumour development. The aim of the study was to investigate (1) the effect of a refined carbohydrate-rich diet...... on the development of IQ-induced ACF over time and (2) possible correlation between early and late ACF and/or colorectal tumour development. The study showed that a feeding regimen with continuous doses of 0.03% IQ in the diet for 14 weeks, followed by 32 weeks without IQ was able to induce tumours in the rat colon......In most aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumour studies, chemical carcinogens not normally found in food have been used as initiators. In the present study the food-related compound, IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), has been used. A diet high in refined carbohydrates has been...

  2. Refined carbohydrate enhancement of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon induced by the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1996-01-01

    ,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) and azoxymethane (AOM), the use of a diet-related colon cancer initiator, such as the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) formed during meat cooking, would probably give a more relevant insight into diet-related colon carcinogenesis......The aberrant crypt foci (ACF) bioassay has been used extensively to study the early effects of different dietary components on the colonic mucosa of laboratory rodents. ACF are proposed to represent preneoplastic lesions of colon cancer. Compared to the normally used initiators 1....... In the present study it is shown that a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ doses (0.03% in the diet) throughout a study period of 10 weeks has a significant effect on the induction of ACF in the colon of male F344 rats. In addition, the study illustrates that the incidence of the IQ-induced ACF can...

  3. Cell Survival in irradiation mouse intestine is increased by DNA-Binding radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coultas, P.; Martin, R.

    1996-01-01

    Crypt survival in the mouse intestine has been used to examine effects of bisbenzimide radioprotectors. Intravenous delivery has been used for the present study in which the effects of methyl proamine (MP), a second generation Hoechst 33342 analogue have been examined. Recent results using the lung model suggest that MP is both more potent as a protector and less toxic than H 33342. The rapid nature of the crypt microcolony survival assay in mouse intestine provides an efficient way to examining factors which could impinge on the extent of radioprotection, for example, the interval between protector administration and radiation exposure. The data clearly show that for MP at 100 mg/kg, there is substantially increased crypt survival equivalent to a dose modification of about 1.33. The crypt scoring methods used indicate that protection is throughout the small intestine and preliminary data indicate that colon is also protected to a similar or slightly greater extent

  4. Combination of aging and dimethylhydrazine treatment causes an increase in cancer-stem cell population of rat colonic crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Edi; Misra, Sandhya; Du, Jianhua; Patel, Bhaumik B; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2009-07-31

    Aging is associated with increased incidence of colon cancers. It is also becoming evident that cancer stem cells (CSC) play a vital role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of colon cancer. Recently, we reported the presence of colon cancer stem-like cells in macroscopically normal mucosa in patients with adenomatous polyps and that they increase with aging, suggesting that aging may predispose the colon to carcinogenesis. In the current study we have examined the combined effects of aging and carcinogen exposure on the status of colon CSCs in an experimental model. We used young (4-6 months) and aged (22-24 months) rats and exposed them to the carcinogen, dimethylhydroxide (DMH). We investigated the expression of colon cancer stem cell markers, CD44, CD166, EpCam, and ALDH1 as well as EGFR expression in normal colonic crypt epithelium following carcinogen treatment. Our results demonstrate that aging per se or carcinogen treatment alone causes an increase in the number of colon cancer stems cells, as evidenced by increased immunoreactive-CSC-markers positive cells in the colonic mucosa. In aged rats, carcinogen exposure results in a more pronounced increase in colon cancer stem cells. Our study shows that in aging colon the effects of carcinogens are more pronounced, and an increase in colon CSCs is one of the earliest changes preceding tumor development. Moreover, the current investigation of the use of a panel of immunohistochemical markers of colon CSC can potentially serve as a prognostic marker during screening for colon cancer.

  5. Differential effect of IP- and IV-injected nitrogen mustard on subsequently-irradiated intestinal crypts: implications for 'dose-effect factors' predicted by experimental, combined modality therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    In experimental chemotherapy-radiotherapy, cytotoxic drugs are almost invariably injected by the intraperitoneal (IP) route. This contrasts with normal clinical practice, which is to employ the intravenous (IV) route. We have used a clonogenic assay of gastrointestinal (GI) injury in mice to show that a given administered dose of nitrogen mustard (HN 2 ), injected IP, results in a much greater reduction in the subsequent radiation dose required to achieve an isoeffect, than if the drug is injected IV. At an administered dose of 3.5 mg kg -1 of HN 2 (the animal LDsub(10/30) for IP injection), the radiation dose-reduction factor for 10% survival of intestinal crypts, was 1.94 for IP HN 2 and only 1.28 for IV HN 2 . Even the grossly-equitoxic (mouse LDsub(10/30)) dose of IV HN 2 resulted in a smaller predicted radiation dose reduction for GI injury, by a factor of 1.45. The validity of using the IP route in combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy studies designed to generate quantitative estimates of toxicity is discussed. (author)

  6. Neural control of colonic cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-03-15

    The mitotic rate in rat colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinomas was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. In sympathectomized animals cell proliferation was retarded in the crypts but not in the tumors, whereas in animals treated with Metaraminol, a drug which releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, crypt cell but not tumor cell proliferation was accelerated. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors also inhibited crypt cell proliferation. However, stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors inhibited and blockade of beta-adrenoceptors accelerated tumor cell proliferation without influencing crypt cell proliferation. Injection of either serotonin or histamine stimulated tumor but not crypt cell proliferation and blockade or serotonin receptors or histamine H2-receptors inhibited tumor cell proliferation. It is postulated that cell proliferation in the colonic crypts, like that in the jejunal crypts, is under both endocrine and autonomic neural control whereas colonic tumor cell division is subject to endocrine regulation alone.

  7. Evidence of tuberculosis among children in medieval (13th–15th century Wrocław: A case study of hip joint tuberculosis in a juvenile skeleton excavated from the crypt of the St. Elizabeth church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Agata Izabela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleopathological examinations of the skeletal remains of people who died centuries ago are material source of knowledge about health and diseases in the past. In this article, a case of skeletal tuberculosis from historical (13th-15th c. Wrocław, Poland has been presented. The juvenile skeleton excavated from grave No 93, from the crypt located under the church of St. Elizabeth, displayed pathological lesions within the right hip joint resulting from a chronic inflammation, which might have been assigned to signs typical for skeletal tuberculosis. The results of macroscopic and radiological analyses appeared to be consistent, and allowed to determine a reliable diagnosis of this paleopathological case.

  8. Recruitment of cells in the small intestine into rapid cell cycle by small doses of external γ or internal β-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubouchi, Susumu; Potten, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Epithelial cell recruitment was examined in mouse ileum after external γ-irradiation (50 cGy) or internal β-irradiation (0.148 MBq/g of [ 3 H]thymidine), using the per cent-labelled-mitoses method and by analysing the distribution of mitotic cells in the crypts. In the presumptive stem cell zone at the lower cell positions of the crypt, the slowly cycling cells decreased their cell cycle 6 or 12 hours after a dose of 50 cGy. In the higher cell positions, a slight shortening of the cell cycle was also observed. After administration of a high dose of [ 3 H]thymidine, dormant (G 0 ) cells also entered the cell cycle in the lower cell positions. The results suggest that stem cells in the crypt may react to irradiation in two ways: first, by shortening the cell cycle in cycling cells; secondly, by an entry into the cell cycle by other dormant cells. There was destruction of some cycling stem cells before any recruitment. The data support the idea that the stem cell population in the crypt is heterogeneous. (author)

  9. The chemopreventive potential of Curcuma purpurascens rhizome in reducing azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhollahi, Elham; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Henhena, Nawal; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Hasanpourghadi, Mohadeseh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Awang, Khalijah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome, a member of the Zingiberaceae family, is a popular spice in Indonesia that is traditionally used in assorted remedies. Dichloromethane extract of C. purpurascens BI. rhizome (DECPR) has previously been shown to have an apoptosis-inducing effect on colon cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the potential of DECPR to prevent colon cancer development in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM) (15 mg/kg) by determining the percentage inhibition in incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Starting from the day immediately after AOM treatment, three groups of rats were orally administered once a day for 2 months either 10% Tween 20 (5 mL/kg, cancer control), DECPR (250 mg/kg, low dose), or DECPR (500 mg/kg, high dose). Meanwhile, the control group was intraperitoneally injected with 5-fluorouracil (35 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. After euthanizing the rats, the number of ACF was enumerated in colon tissues. Bax, Bcl-2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expressions were examined using immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Antioxidant enzymatic activity was measured in colon tissue homogenates and associated with malondialdehyde level. The percentage inhibition of ACF was 56.04% and 68.68% in the low- and high-dose DECPR-treated groups, respectively. The ACF inhibition in the treatment control group was 74.17%. Results revealed that DECPR exposure at both doses significantly decreased AOM-induced ACF formation, which was accompanied by reduced expression of PCNA. Upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 suggested the involvement of apoptosis in the chemopreventive effect of DECPR. In addition, the oxidative stress resulting from AOM treatment was significantly attenuated after administration of DECPR, which was shown by the elevated antioxidant enzymatic activity and reduced malondialdehyde level. Taken together, the present data clearly indicate that DECPR significantly inhibits ACF formation

  10. Dietary milk fat globule membrane reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci in Fischer-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Dallin R; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Ward, Robert E; Cambell, Jesse; Young, Michael J; Nemere, Ilka; Hintze, Korry J

    2010-02-24

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a biopolymer composed primarily of membrane proteins and lipids that surround the fat globules in milk. Although it is considered to have potential as a bioactive ingredient, few feeding studies have been conducted to measure its potential benefits. The aim of this investigation was to determine if dietary MFGM confers protection against colon carcinogenesis compared to diets containing corn oil (CO) or anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Male, weanling Fischer-344 rats were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments that differed only in the fat source: (1) AIN-76A diet, corn oil; (2) AIN-76A diet, AMF; and (3) AIN-76A diet, 50% MFGM, 50% AMF. Each diet contained 50 g/kg diet of fat. With the exception of the fat source, diets were formulated to be identical in macro and micro nutrient content. Animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine once per week at weeks 3 and 4, and fed experimental diets for a total of 13 weeks. Over the course of the study dietary treatment did not affect food consumption, weight gain or body composition. After 13 weeks animals were sacrificed, colons were removed and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were counted by microscopy. Rats fed the MFGM diet (n = 16) had significantly fewer ACF (20.9 +/- 5.7) compared to rats fed corn oil (n = 17) or AMF (n = 16) diets (31.3 +/- 9.5 and 29.8 +/- 11.4 respectively; P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis of colonic mucosa did not reveal differential expression of candidate colon cancer genes, and the sphingolipid profile of the colonic mucosa was not affected by diet. While there were notable and significant differences in plasma and red blood cell lipids, there was no relationship to the cancer protection. These results support previous findings that dietary sphingolipids are protective against colon carcinogenesis yet extend this finding to MFGM, a milk fat fraction available as a food ingredient.

  11. Crypts, Phantoms, and Cultural Trauma: A Hauntological Approach to Recent British First World War Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Branach-Kallas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In my article, I analyse selected British novels about the First World War published at the turn of the 20th century, from the theoretical perspectives proposed by Maria Torok and Nicolas Abraham in The Shell and the Kernel: Renewals of Psychoanalysis. Pat Barker in Toby’s Room (2012 and Sue Gee in Earth and Heaven (2000 imagine their protagonists’ difficult evolution from melancholia to mourning after the loss of brothers and/or lovers, at the front. The concepts of incorporation and illness of mourning are used to explore the complicated process of bereavement in Barker’s novel, where hauntology becomes a form of honte-ology, from the French honte, shame. In Gee’s beautifully melancholic novel, the haunting trauma of loss is subtly evoked by images of empty fields, neglected farms, urban vistas filled with spectral figures of unemployed veterans. Moreover, Earth and Heaven affects the reader so deeply because the understated pain of loss becomes movingly tangible after the accidental death of the central protagonist’s six-year-old son, which seems to “condense” the pain of war bereavements a decade after the conflict. My intention is also to demonstrate that Sebastian Faulks in Birdsong (1993, Esther Freud in Summer at Gaglow (1997 and Pat Barker in Another World (1998 approach the Great War as a phantom haunting their contemporary protagonists. The persistence of the unknown past has a profound impact on these characters and only by trying to relate to the Great War do they find answers to their existential dilemmas. This directs our attention to the incomplete processes of First World War mourning, the persistence of endless grief and the potential continuity of unresolved trauma(s in transgenerational memory. The five novels under consideration also problematise the issue of silence—the unsayable family secret and/or the collective disregard for the national past. The psychoanalytic concept of crypt illuminates the relation

  12. Effects of Ginger Supplementation on Cell Cycle Biomarkers in the Normal-Appearing Colonic Mucosa of Patients at Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Results from a Pilot, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citronberg, Jessica; Bostick, Roberd; Ahearn, Thomas; Turgeon, D. Kim; Ruffin, Mack T.; Djuric, Zora; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E.; Zick, Suzanna M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the effects of ginger on apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa, we randomized 20 people at increased risk for colorectal cancer to 2.0 g of ginger or placebo daily for 28 days in a pilot trial. Overall expression and distributions of Bax, Bcl-2, p21, hTERT and MIB-1 (Ki-67) in colorectal crypts in rectal mucosa biopsies were measured using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Relative to placebo, Bax expression in the ginger group decreased 15.6% (p = 0.78) in the whole crypts, 6.6% (p = 0.95) in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) of crypts, and 21.7% (p = 0.67) in the lower 60% (proliferative zone) of crypts; however, there was a 19% increase (p = 0.14) in Bax expression in the upper 40% relative to the whole crypt. While p21 and Bcl-2 expression remained relatively unchanged, hTERT expression in the whole crypts decreased by 41.2% (p = 0.05); the estimated treatment effect on hTERT expression was larger in the upper 40% of crypts (−47.9%; p = 0.04). In the ginger group, MIB-1 expression decreased in the whole crypts, upper 40% of crypts, and lower 60% of crypts by 16.9% (p = 0.39), 46.8% (p = 0.39), and 15.3% (p = 0.41), respectively. These pilot study results suggest that ginger may reduce proliferation in the normal-appearing colorectal epithelium and increase apoptosis and differentiation relative to proliferation—especially in the differentiation zone of the crypts, and support a larger study to further investigate these results. PMID:23303903

  13. Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Tahir Rasool; Syed, Fatima; Nasir, Muhammad; Rehman, Habib; Zahid, Muhammad Nauman; Liu, Rui Hai; Iqbal, Sanaullah

    2016-08-01

    The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76-151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention.

  14. Chemopreventive Effects of Germinated Rough Rice Crude Extract in Inhibiting Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Saki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to low success rate of current therapeutic modalities. Diet plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer. This research was carried out to study the chemopreventive properties of germinated rough rice (GRR crude extract in Sprague-Dawley rats induced with azoxymethane. Germination of rough rice causes significant changes in several chemical compositions of presently bioactive compounds. These compounds may prevent or postpone the inception of cancer. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age were randomly divided into 5 groups which were (G1 induced with azoxymethane (AOM and not given GRR (positive control, (G2 induced with AOM and given 2000 mg/kg GRR, (G3 induced with AOM and given 1000 mg/kg GRR, (G4 induced with AOM and given 500 mg/kg GRR, and (G5 not induced with AOM and not given GRR crude extract (negative control. To induce colon cancer, rats received two IP injections of AOM in saline (15 mg/kg for two subsequent weeks. Organs were removed and weighed. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF were evaluated histopathologically. β-Catenin expressions were determined by Western blot. Treatment with 2000 mg/kg GRR crude extract not only resulted in the greatest reduction in the size and number of ACF but also displayed the highest percentage of nondysplastic ACF. Treatment with 2000 mg/kg GRR also gave the lowest level of expression in β-catenin. Thus, GRR could be a promising dietary supplement for prevention of CRC.

  15. A study of the effects of pinealectomy on intestinal cell proliferation in infant newborn rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalio Marcelo Belini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Study the proliferation rate of jejunum and large intestine crypt epithelial cells, in rats pinealectomized immediately after borning. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: Acute group (n=12 and Chronic group (n=12. Six animals of each group were operated for removal of the pineal gland (pinealectomy-PnX, and other six were controls (sham pinealectomy-C. Animals from acute and chronic group were sacrificed 15 and 90 days after the surgery, respectively. RESULTS: In acute group, pinealectomy of new-born rats has not caused significant alteration in cell proliferation (PnX=58,77?1,77 and C=60,88?1,10 in the descending colon/ PnX=31,56?0,45 and C=31,73?0,47 in the proximal jejunum and in crypt cell population (PnX=24,92?4,82 and C=23,60?2,48 in the descending colon/ PnX=39,92?3,49 and C=44,32?5,56 in the proximal jejunum. However, in chronic group there was an uprising crypt cell production per crypt in the proximal jejunum (PnX=57,54?2,19 and C=47,19?7,3and in the descending colon (PnX=37,78?2,22 and C=17,92?2,28. CONCLUSION: As the increase of intestinal crypts epithelial cells in chronic group is a carcinogenesis predetermining factor, the understanding of the interaction between pineal gland and this event has great importance.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy of mouse intestinal mucosa after cobalt 60 and D-T neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, R.; Carr, K.R.; Toner, P.G.; Nias, A.H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The stem-cell population of the intestinal crypt is an important model system in experimental radiobiology. Standardized techniques have been developed to allow quantitation of the response of crypt cells to radiation injury following doses of 0 to 2 krad of D-T neutrons or 60 Co γ rays. These techniques rely on the identification of regenerating crypt cells three-and-a-half days after irradiation. The results were expressed as the number of regenerating crypts per circumference of small intestine, as determined by conventional histological examination; the more profound the injury, the smaller the the crypt count. The practical relevance of crypt-counting techniques to clinical radiotherapy is limited by their relative insensitivity; the dose levels commonly used in fractionated radiotherapy produced no detectable response. Scanning electron microscopy of the mucosal surface provided a more sensitive measure of radiation injury. The earliest detectable changes occurred at the level of 300 rad of γ radiation, well below the threshold of the crypt-counting technique. At around 1,000 rad, where the first drop in crypt counts occurred, there were well-marked morphological changes which became more severe with increasing dose levels. Some differences have been observed between the morphological effects of γ and neutron irradiation at points of radiobiological equivalence in terms of crypt counts (using RBE value of about 2). The changes observed may reflect more than the disruption of epithelial cell kinetics. Mucosal morphology is the total expression of many different biological parameters of which the regenerative ability of the crypt cells is only one. The surface microanatomy of the gut may be the most sensitive indicator of radiation injury which is conveniently available for study. (author)

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of mouse intestinal mucosa after cobalt 60 and D-T neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, R [Belvidere Hospital, Glasgow (UK). Institute of Radiotherapeutics and Oncology; Carr, K R; Toner, P G; Nias, A H.W.

    1976-07-01

    The stem-cell population of the intestinal crypt is an important model system in experimental radiobiology. Standardized techniques have been developed to allow quantitation of the response of crypt cells to radiation injury following doses of 0 to 2 krad of D-T neutrons or /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays. These techniques rely on the identification of regenerating crypt cells three-and-a-half days after irradiation. The results were expressed as the number of regenerating crypts per circumference of small intestine, as determined by conventional histological examination; the more profound the injury, the smaller the the crypt count. The practical relevance of crypt-counting techniques to clinical radiotherapy is limited by their relative insensitivity; the dose levels commonly used in fractionated radiotherapy produced no detectable response. Scanning electron microscopy of the mucosal surface provided a more sensitive measure of radiation injury. The earliest detectable changes occurred at the level of 300 rad of ..gamma.. radiation, well below the threshold of the crypt-counting technique. At around 1,000 rad, where the first drop in crypt counts occurred, there were well-marked morphological changes which became more severe with increasing dose levels. Some differences have been observed between the morphological effects of ..gamma.. and neutron irradiation at points of radiobiological equivalence in terms ofCrypt counts (using RBE value of about 2). The changes observed may reflect more than the disruption of epithelial cell kinetics. Mucosal morphology is the total expression of many different biological parameters of which the regenerative ability of the crypt cells is only one. The surface microanatomy of the gut may be the most sensitive indicator of radiation injury which is conveniently available for study.

  18. Deficient Pms2, ERCC1, Ku86, CcOI in field defects during progression to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy; Loustaunau, Cristy; Facista, Alexander; Ramsey, Lois; Hassounah, Nadia; Taylor, Hilary; Krouse, Robert; Payne, Claire M; Tsikitis, V Liana; Goldschmid, Steve; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Perini, Rafael F; Bernstein, Carol

    2010-07-28

    In carcinogenesis, the "field defect" is recognized clinically because of the high propensity of survivors of certain cancers to develop other malignancies of the same tissue type, often in a nearby location. Such field defects have been indicated in colon cancer. The molecular abnormalities that are responsible for a field defect in the colon should be detectable at high frequency in the histologically normal tissue surrounding a colonic adenocarcinoma or surrounding an adenoma with advanced neoplasia (well on the way to a colon cancer), but at low frequency in the colonic mucosa from patients without colonic neoplasia. Using immunohistochemistry, entire crypts within 10 cm on each side of colonic adenocarcinomas or advanced colonic neoplasias were found to be frequently reduced or absent in expression for two DNA repair proteins, Pms2 and/or ERCC1. Pms2 is a dual role protein, active in DNA mismatch repair as well as needed in apoptosis of cells with excess DNA damage. ERCC1 is active in DNA nucleotide excision repair. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 would create cells with both increased ability to survive (apoptosis resistance) and increased level of mutability. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 is likely an early step in progression to colon cancer. DNA repair gene Ku86 (active in DNA non-homologous end joining) and Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (involved in apoptosis) had each been reported to be decreased in expression in mucosal areas close to colon cancers. However, immunohistochemical evaluation of their levels of expression showed only low to modest frequencies of crypts to be deficient in their expression in a field defect surrounding colon cancer or surrounding advanced colonic neoplasia. We show, here, our method of evaluation of crypts for expression of ERCC1, Pms2, Ku86 and CcOI. We show that frequency of entire crypts deficient for Pms2 and ERCC1 is often as great as 70% to 95% in 20 cm long areas

  19. Long-term expansion of epithelial organoids from human colon, adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and Barrett's epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, T.; Stange, D.E.; Ferrante, M.; Vries, R.G.J.; van Es, J.H.; van den Brink, S.; Houdt, W.J.; Pronk, A.; van Gorp, J.; Siersema, P.D.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We previously established long-term culture conditions under which single crypts or stem cells derived from mouse small intestine expand over long periods. The expanding crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, simultaneously generating villus-like epithelial domains that

  20. Element concentrations in the intestinal mucosa of the mouse as measured by X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zglinicki, T. von; Roomans, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Subcellular ion distribution in villus, crypt, Paneth and smooth muscle cells of the mouse small intestine under resting conditions was investigated by X-ray microanalysis of ultrathin cryosections. In addition, the mass distribution was estimated by measuring the optical transmission of the compartments in transmission electron micrographs. Each cell type is characterized by a special composition in terms of the major monovalent ions Na, K, and Cl. In particular, among crypt epithelial cells, those cells containing small secretion granula (termed crypt A cells) also display cytoplasmic ion concentrations significantly different from crypt epithelial cells lacking secretion granula (crypt B cells). Monovalent ion concentrations in the cytoplasm of Paneth cells, muscle cells, and crypt epithelial cells lacking secretion granula are higher than expected from osmotic considerations. Hence, significant binding of ions to cytoplasmic polyelectrolytes is assumed in these cells. There are gradients of dry mass and K concentration from the luminal to the basal side of the cell, both in crypt and in villus cells. The terminal web in these cells is rich in Na and Cl. The elemental composition of the large, dark secretion granula in Paneth cells is similar to that of the small dark granula in crypt cells. However, the two morphologically different types of granula within the Paneth cells have a significantly different elemental composition, which might reflect maturation of secretion granula

  1. Cell proliferation and migration in the jejunum of suckling rats submitted to progressive fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation and migration in the intestinal crypts, and cell migration in the villus are controlled by different mechanisms in adult rats. In the present study, weanling rats and fasting rats were used to quantitatively study the correlation of cell cycle parameters and epithelial cell migration in crypts and intestinal villi. Eighteen-day-old rats received a single injection of tritiated thymidine [3H]TdR (23:00 h; half of the pups were submitted to fasting 5 h earlier. Cell proliferation was determined in radioautographs of jejunal crypts, on the basis of the labeling indices (LI taken 1, 8, 13 and 19 h after [3H]TdR. The results showed that the labeling index did not differ 1 h or 19 h after [3H]TdR between the fed (38.7% or 48% and fasting groups (34.6% or 50.4%. The modified method of grain count halving indicated that cell cycle time did not differ between fed (16.5 h and fasting rats (17.8 h; the growth fraction, however, had lower values in fasting (59% than in fed rats (77%. Cell migration in the crypt, estimated by the LI obtained for each cell position, did not change with treatment. As for the villi, the cell migration rate was significantly retarded by 3 cell positions (8%. These results suggest that the cell migration in the villi of weanling pups does not depend directly on the cell proliferation and migration in the intestinal crypt, but is directly affected by the absence of food in the lumen

  2. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Sarah; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Cartier, Christel; Coméra, Christine; Gaultier, Eric; Dupuy, Jacques; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Grysan, Patrick; Reguer, Solenn; Thieriet, Nathalie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Carrière, Marie; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Pierre, Fabrice H; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Houdeau, Eric

    2017-01-20

    Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO 2 -NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO 2 -NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO 2 -NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO 2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO 2 -treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO 2 from dietary sources.

  3. Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane- induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high- fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Sonoda, Shigeru; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment.

  4. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P.J. [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wensveen, Felix M. [Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dessing, Mark C.; Schuetze, Denise M. [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eldering, Eric [Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Spaargaren, Marcel [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pals, Steven T., E-mail: s.t.pals@amc.uva.nl [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Intestinal adenomas initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT pathway displayed an increased sensitivity to apoptosis. {yields} Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes in Apc{sup Min/+} mice revealed the differential expression of pro-apoptotic Bok and Bax. {yields} APC-mutant adenomatous crypts in FAP patients showed strongly increased BAX immunoreactivity. {yields} Blocking of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in colon cancer cells reduced the expression of BOK and BAX. -- Abstract: In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or {beta}-catenin causes constitutively active {beta}-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the transformation of intestinal crypts to cancer precursor lesions, called dysplastic aberrant crypt foci. Deregulated apoptosis is a hallmark of adenomatous colon tissue. However, the contribution of WNT signaling to this process is not fully understood. We addressed this role by analyzing the rate of epithelial apoptosis in aberrant crypts and adenomas of the Apc{sup Min/+} mouse model. In comparison with normal crypts and adenomas, aberrant crypts displayed a dramatically increased rate of apoptotic cell death. Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes along the crypt-villus axis and in Apc mutant adenomas revealed increased expression of two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in intestinal adenomas, Bok and Bax. Analysis of the colon of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients along the crypt-to-surface axis, and of dysplastic crypts, corroborated this expression pattern. Disruption of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in the colorectal cancer cell line Ls174T significantly decreased BOK and BAX expression, confirming WNT-dependent regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a feedback mechanism by which

  6. WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P.J.; Wensveen, Felix M.; Dessing, Mark C.; Schuetze, Denise M.; Eldering, Eric; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Intestinal adenomas initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT pathway displayed an increased sensitivity to apoptosis. → Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes in Apc Min/+ mice revealed the differential expression of pro-apoptotic Bok and Bax. → APC-mutant adenomatous crypts in FAP patients showed strongly increased BAX immunoreactivity. → Blocking of β-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in colon cancer cells reduced the expression of BOK and BAX. -- Abstract: In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or β-catenin causes constitutively active β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the transformation of intestinal crypts to cancer precursor lesions, called dysplastic aberrant crypt foci. Deregulated apoptosis is a hallmark of adenomatous colon tissue. However, the contribution of WNT signaling to this process is not fully understood. We addressed this role by analyzing the rate of epithelial apoptosis in aberrant crypts and adenomas of the Apc Min/+ mouse model. In comparison with normal crypts and adenomas, aberrant crypts displayed a dramatically increased rate of apoptotic cell death. Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes along the crypt-villus axis and in Apc mutant adenomas revealed increased expression of two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in intestinal adenomas, Bok and Bax. Analysis of the colon of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients along the crypt-to-surface axis, and of dysplastic crypts, corroborated this expression pattern. Disruption of β-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in the colorectal cancer cell line Ls174T significantly decreased BOK and BAX expression, confirming WNT-dependent regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a feedback mechanism by which uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation in the

  7. Sepsis reveals compartment-specific responses in intestinal proliferation and apoptosis in transgenic mice whose enterocytes re-enter the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John D; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Otani, Shunsuke; Mittal, Rohit; Liang, Zhe; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-12-01

    Cell production and death are tightly regulated in the rapidly renewing gut epithelium, with proliferation confined to crypts and apoptosis occurring in villi and crypts. This study sought to determine how stress alters these compartmentalized processes. Wild-type mice made septic via cecal ligation and puncture had decreased crypt proliferation and increased crypt and villus apoptosis. Fabpi -TAg mice expressing large T-antigen solely in villi had ectopic enterocyte proliferation with increased villus apoptosis in unmanipulated animals. Septic fabpi -TAg mice had an unexpected increase in villus proliferation compared with unmanipulated littermates, whereas crypt proliferation was decreased. Cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 were decreased in jejunal tissue in septic transgenic mice. In contrast, villus and crypt apoptosis were increased in septic fabpi -TAg mice. To examine the relationship between apoptosis and proliferation in a compartment-specific manner, fabpi -TAg mice were crossed with fabpl -Bcl-2 mice, resulting in expression of both genes in the villus but Bcl-2 alone in the crypt. Septic bi-transgenic animals had decreased crypt apoptosis but had a paradoxical increase in villus apoptosis compared with septic fabpi -TAg mice, associated with decreased proliferation in both compartments. Thus, sepsis unmasks compartment-specific proliferative and apoptotic regulation that is not present under homeostatic conditions.-Lyons, J. D., Klingensmith, N. J., Otani, S., Mittal, R., Liang, Z., Ford, M. L., Coopersmith, C. M. Sepsis reveals compartment-specific responses in intestinal proliferation and apoptosis in transgenic mice whose enterocytes re-enter the cell cycle. © FASEB.

  8. Colonic aberrant crypt formation accompanies an increase of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Liu, Zhenhua; Bukowski, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    The increasing worldwide incidence of colon cancer has been linked to obesity and consumption of a high-fat Western diet. To test the hypothesis that a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes colonic aberrant crypt (AC) formation in a manner associated with gut bacterial dysbiosis, we examined the susceptibility to azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic AC and microbiome composition in C57/BL6 mice fed a modified AIN93G diet (AIN, 16% fat, energy) or an HFD (45% fat, energy) for 14 weeks. Mice receiving the HFD exhibited increased plasma leptin, body weight, body fat composition and inflammatory cell infiltration in the ileum compared with those in the AIN group. Consistent with the gut inflammatory phenotype, we observed an increase in colonic AC, plasma interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the ileum of the HFD-AOM group compared with the AIN-AOM group. Although the HFD and AIN groups did not differ in bacterial species number, the HFD and AIN diets resulted in different bacterial community structures in the colon. The abundance of certain short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria (e.g., Barnesiella) and fecal SCFA (e.g., acetic acid) content were lower in the HFD-AOM group compared with the AIN and AIN-AOM groups. Furthermore, we identified a high abundance of Anaeroplasma bacteria, an opportunistic pathogen in the HFD-AOM group. Collectively, we demonstrate that an HFD promotes AC formation concurrent with an increase of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the colon of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Chemopreventive effects of PBI-Se, a selenium-containing analog of PBIT, on AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Ravillah, Durgadevi; Choi, Chang In; Zhang, Yuting; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2013-08-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a potential target for the treatment of inflammation and cancer. Previously, we showed that the selective iNOS inhibitor S,S'-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isothiourea (PBIT) caused significant inhibition of colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM), although it did not completely abrogate NO production due to the exogenous bioavailability of NO and NO generation by eNOS in tumor tissues. To create an iNOS-targeting molecule that may have additional benefits, a novel isosteric analog of PBIT, PBI-Se, was developed, in which sulfur was replaced with selenium. Chemopreventive efficacy of PBI-Se was evaluated in an AOM-induced rat colon carcinogenesis model using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as the endpoint. At 7 weeks of age, rats (12/group) were fed the control diet (AIN 76A) and then colonic ACF were induced with two AOM treatments. Three days later, rats were fed diets containing PBI-Se (0-20 ppm) for 8 weeks, and then ACF were evaluated histopathologically. Dietary administration of 10 or 20 ppm of PBI-Se significantly suppressed AOM-induced total colonic ACF formation (32 or 41%, pPBI-Se was dose-dependent and was half the dose of PBIT for inhibiting total ACF in rats. Both PBIT and PBI-Se induced dose-dependent apoptosis in CaCo2 cells and caused a significant decrease in the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1 (70%, pPBI-Se (2 and 4  µM) significantly decreased the LPS-induced cytokine interleukin-6 level. Incorporation of selenium into the structure of PBIT provided the agent with additional novel cytotoxic and immunologic properties. Results from the in vitro and in vivo bioassays suggest that PBI-Se could be developed further for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer.

  10. Differential effects of β-catenin and NF-κB interplay in the regulation of cell proliferation, inflammation and tumorigenesis in response to bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathy Chandrakesan

    Full Text Available Both β-catenin and NF-κB have been implicated in our laboratory as candidate factors in driving proliferation in an in vivo model of Citrobacter rodentium (CR-induced colonic crypt hyper-proliferation and hyperplasia. Herein, we test the hypothesis that β-catenin and not necessarily NF-κB regulates colonic crypt hyperplasia or tumorigenesis in response to CR infection. When C57Bl/6 wild type (WT mice were infected with CR, sequential increases in proliferation at days 9 and 12 plateaued off at day 19 and paralleled increases in NF-κB signaling. In Tlr4(-/- (KO mice, a sequential but sustained proliferation which tapered off only marginally at day 19, was associated with TLR4-dependent and independent increases in NF-κB signaling. Similarly, increases in either activated or total β-catenin in the colonic crypts of WT mice as early as day 3 post-infection coincided with cyclinD1 and c-myc expression and associated crypt hyperplasia. In KO mice, a delayed kinetics associated predominantly with increases in non-phosphorylated (active β-catenin coincided with increases in cyclinD1, c-myc and crypt hyperplasia. Interestingly, PKCζ-catalyzed Ser-9 phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β and not loss of wild type APC protein accounted for β-catenin accumulation and nuclear translocation in either strain. In vitro studies with Wnt2b and Wnt5a further validated the interplay between the Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB pathways, respectively. When WT or KO mice were treated with nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNA to β-catenin (si-β-Cat, almost complete loss of nuclear β-catenin coincided with concomitant decreases in CD44 and crypt hyperplasia without defects in NF-κB signaling. si-β-Cat treatment to Apc(Min/+ mice attenuated CR-induced increases in β-catenin and CD44 that halted the growth of mutated crypts without affecting NF-κB signaling. The predominant β-catenin-induced crypt proliferation was further validated in a Castaneus strain (B6

  11. Analysis of iris surface features in populations of diverse ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S.; Johnson, Monique; Parra, Esteban J.

    2016-01-01

    There are many textural elements that can be found in the human eye, including Fuchs’ crypts, Wolfflin nodules, pigment spots, contraction furrows and conjunctival melanosis. Although iris surface features have been well-studied in populations of European ancestry, the worldwide distribution of these traits is poorly understood. In this paper, we develop a new method of characterizing iris features from photographs of the iris. We then apply this method to a diverse sample of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. All five iris features showed significant differences in frequency between the three populations, indicating that iris features are largely population dependent. Although none of the features were correlated with each other in the East and South Asian groups, Fuchs’ crypts were significantly correlated with contraction furrows and pigment spots and contraction furrows were significantly associated with pigment spots in the European group. The genetic marker SEMA3A rs10235789 was significantly associated with Fuchs’ crypt grade in the European, East Asian and South Asian samples and a borderline association between TRAF3IP1 rs3739070 and contraction furrow grade was found in the European sample. The study of iris surface features in diverse populations may provide valuable information of forensic, biomedical and ophthalmological interest. PMID:26909168

  12. Computer Aided Diagnosis for Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Advanced Colorectal Adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ştefănescu, Daniela; Streba, Costin; Cârţână, Elena Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    functions, a module for fractal analysis, grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) computation module, and a feature identification module based on the Marching Squares and linear interpolation methods. A two-layer neural network was trained to automatically interpret the imaging data and diagnose...... the pathological samples based on the fractal dimension and the characteristic features of the biological tissues. RESULTS: Normal colon mucosa is characterized by regular polyhedral crypt structures whereas malignant colon mucosa is characterized by irregular and interrupted crypts, which can be diagnosed by CAD.......14, validation: 17.42, testing: 15.48. The diagnosis accuracy error was 15.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Computed aided diagnosis via fractal analysis of glandular structures can complement the traditional histological and minimally invasive imaging methods. A larger dataset from colorectal and other pathologies should...

  13. A study of the small intestine as a limiting normal tissue in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, R.

    1980-09-01

    The thesis describes intestinal crypt survival and scanning electron microscopy of the mucosa of the small intestine after single whole doses of neutron or gamma irradiation. The results demonstrate that scanning electron microscopy of the surface mucosa of the intestine, although difficult to quantitate, is a much more sensitive indicator of intestinal damage at low dose levels than the more standard methods involving the enumeration of surviving crypts of Lieberkuhn in a section of intestine. The results also show that the morphology of the jejunal mucosa follows a different pattern following neutron irradiation than after gamma irradiation. Survival and surface morphology after fractionated x and gamma irradiation is also discussed. There was lack of correlation between damage expressed in terms of crypt survival of mucosal damage in two out of three schedules. an investigation of the alternating fractionation formula of the Cumulative Radiation Effect model is discussed, together with possible reasons underlying differences between predictions and experimental results, and an assessment of the formula in general use. (U.K.)

  14. Effect of probiotics on the development of dimethylhydrazine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the mice colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Costa Liboredo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the effect of probiotics on the development of chemically induced (1, 2-dimethylhydrazine colonic preneoplastic lesions, in mice. METHODS: The animals were divided into five groups. The control group was injected with carcinogen alone and the other groups also received probiotics (1- Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV-H2b20; 2- Bifidobacterium animalis var. lactis Bb12; 3- L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 plus B. animalis var. lactis Bb12; and 4- Saccharomyces boulardii administered orally in drinking water throughout fourteen weeks. RESULTS: Consumption of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria alone resulted in a significant reduction of the total number of aberrant crypt foci (55.7% and 45.1%, respectively. Significant reduction in the number of these small foci (3 aberrant crypts crypts had no significant reduction. CONCLUSION: L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 and B. animalis var. lactis Bb12 administered alone protect colonic preneoplastic lesions in mice, while the combined treatment of these bacteria and the administration of S.boulardii were not effective in reducing such colonic lesions.

  15. Advanced three-dimensional culture of equine intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A Stieler; Freund, J M; Gonzalez, L M

    2018-03-01

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells are critical to epithelial repair following gastrointestinal injury. The culture of intestinal stem cells has quickly become a cornerstone of a vast number of new research endeavours that range from determining tissue viability to testing drug efficacy for humans. This study aims to describe the methods of equine stem cell culture and highlights the future benefits of these techniques for the advancement of equine medicine. To describe the isolation and culture of small intestinal stem cells into three-dimensional (3D) enteroids in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities. Descriptive study. Intestinal samples were collected by sharp dissection immediately after euthanasia. Intestinal crypts containing intestinal stem cells were dissociated from the underlying tissue layers, plated in a 3D matrix and supplemented with growth factors. After several days, resultant 3D enteroids were prepared for immunofluorescent imaging and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to detect and characterise specific cell types present. Intestinal crypts were cryopreserved immediately following collection and viability assessed. Intestinal crypts were successfully cultured and matured into 3D enteroids containing a lumen and budding structures. Immunofluorescence and PCR were used to confirm the existence of stem cells and all post mitotic, mature cell types, described to exist in the horse intestinal epithelium. Previously frozen crypts were successfully cultured following a freeze-thaw cycle. Tissues were all derived from normal horses. Application of this technique for the study of specific disease was not performed at this time. The successful culture of equine intestinal crypts into 3D "mini-guts" allows for in vitro studies of the equine intestine. Additionally, these results have relevance to future development of novel therapies that harness the regenerative potential of equine intestine in horses with gastrointestinal disease

  16. Transepithelial SCFA fluxes link intracellular and extracellular pH regulation of mouse colonocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S; Montrose, M H

    1997-10-01

    We have studied pH regulation in both intracellular and extracellular compartments of mouse colonic crypts, using distal colonic mucosa with intact epithelial architecture. In this work, we question how transepithelial SCFA gradients affect intracellular pH (pHi) and examine interactions between extracellular pH (pHo) and pHi regulation in crypts of distal colonic epithelium from mouse. We studied pH regulation in three adjacent compartments of distal colonic epithelium (crypt lumen, crypt epithelial cell cytosol, and lamina propria) with SNARF-1 (a pH sensitive fluorescent dye), digital imaging microscopy (for pHi), and confocal microscopy (for pHo). Combining results from the three compartments allows us to find how pHi and pHo are regulated and related under the influence of physiological transepithelial SCFA gradients, and develop a better understanding of pH regulation mechanisms in colonic crypts. Results suggest a complex interdependency between SCFA fluxes and pHo values, which can directly affect how strongly SCFAs acidify colonocytes.

  17. Time dependence of intestinal proliferative cell risk vs. stem cell risk to radiation or colcemid cytotoxicity following hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.R.; Henninger, D.L.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the time dependence between intestinal crypt damage by hydroxyurea (HU) and crypt cell or clonogenic cell risk to colcemid (COL) cytotoxicity was made to determine if rapidly cycling cells are clonogenic or if crypt damage by HU induces clonogenic cells into rapid cycle. B6CF 1 /An1 mice were given 15 mg HU 15 min before or after increments of 137 Csγ-irradiation for the crypt colony assay. HU reduced the crypt cells from 254 + - 11 to 170 + - 8; however, the clonogenic cell survival curve was unaltered. At 2 hours after administration of HU, the dose for clonogenic cell survival giving rise to 10 microcolonies/circumference was reduced from 1625 rad in controls to 1375 rad; but at 6 hours after HU, the dose was 2200 rad. Hydroxyurea appears to stimulate stem cells from G 1 into rapid cycle. To test this, groups of mice were given HU and at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 hr, a 12 hr treatment of COL was given to kill cells in M phase of the cell cycle. At 3 hr after the last COL injection, mice were killed for crypt cell counts or given 1100 rad 137 Csγ for the microcolony assay. The greatest clonogenic cell risk (38/40) occurred when COL was begun 12 hr after HU, but the greatest total crypt cell risk (183/254) occurred when COL was begun 24 hr after HU at a time when clonogenic cell risk was 10/40. The data suggest that the cell cycle kinetics of clonogenic and rapidly proliferating cells are different. Further, damage to crypts by HU stimulates G 1 clonogenic cells into rapid cycle

  18. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support in vitro and in vivo growth of human small intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lahar

    Full Text Available The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough off into the intestinal lumen. The intestinal niche consists of various cell types, extracellular matrix, and growth factors and surrounds the intestinal progenitor cells. There have recently been advances in the understanding of the interactions that regulate the behavior of the intestinal epithelium and there is great interest in methods for isolating and expanding viable intestinal epithelium. However, there is no method to maintain primary human small intestinal epithelium in culture over a prolonged period of time. Similarly no method has been published that describes isolation and support of human intestinal epithelium in an in vivo model. We describe a technique to isolate and maintain human small intestinal epithelium in vitro from surgical specimens. We also describe a novel method to maintain human intestinal epithelium subcutaneously in a mouse model for a prolonged period of time. Our methods require various growth factors and the intimate interaction between intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs and the intestinal epithelial cells to support the epithelial in vitro and in vivo growth. Absence of these myofibroblasts precluded successful maintenance of epithelial cell formation and proliferation beyond just a few days, even in the presence of supportive growth factors. We believe that the methods described here can be used to explore the molecular basis of human intestinal stem cell support, maintenance, and growth.

  19. Effect of Ovarian Steroids on Colonic Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Altunbas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of steroid hormones on proliferation and apoptosis in the colon crypt epithelium. The research was conducted on adult ovariectomized (Ovx rats (Sprague Dawley. Ovx rats were injected for 15 days with 0.2 ml of sesame oil (control; C, or 17β-oestradiol (10 μg/d; E, or progesterone (2 mg/d; P, or E + P. Proliferative activity in the colon was assessed by using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA antibody. The proliferation index (PI, the number of PCNA positive cells divided by the total number of cells counted in the crypt column multiplied by 100, was calculated. PI was lower in the hormonetreated groups, especially in group P compared to that in group C. The apoptotic index (AI, the mean number of apoptotic cells, was detected by active caspase 3 immunoreactivity per crypt in the colon. AI was lower in the colon crypt epithelium of group E than that of the other groups. However, AI in the colon crypt epithelium in groups P and E + P was higher than that of both group E and group C. In addition, the colon crypt size (the number of epithelial cells lining one side of 10 well-oriented, longitudinally cut crypts was considerably lower in group E than that of the other groups. In conclusion, we showed that the decrease of AI in group E was balanced by progesterone; the decrease of PI in group P was also depressed by oestrogen.

  20. Gastrointestinal Epithelial Organoid Cultures from Postsurgical Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Soojung; Yoo, Jongman

    2017-08-17

    An organoid is a cellular structure three-dimensionally (3D) cultured from self-organizing stem cells in vitro, which has a cell population, architectures, and organ specific functions like the originating organs. Recent advances in the 3D culture of isolated intestinal crypts or gastric glands have enabled the generation of human gastrointestinal epithelial organoids. Gastrointestinal organoids recapitulate the human in vivo physiology because of all the intestinal epithelial cell types that differentiated and proliferated from tissue resident stem cells. Thus far, gastrointestinal organoids have been extensively used for generating gastrointestinal disease models. This protocol describes the method of isolating a gland or crypt using stomach or colon tissue after surgery and establishing them into gastroids or colonoids.

  1. The fate of epithelial cells in the human large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Gibson, P R

    1999-08-01

    One hundred and forty biopsies of the colon and rectum, collected during routine colonoscopies of 51 patients aged 19 to 74 years, were examined using light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that surface epithelial cells undergo apoptosis, passing through fenestrations in the basement membrane to where they enter the lamina propria and are taken up by macrophages; and it is hypothesized that apoptotic cells are carried through the fenestrations on a current of fluid. The study also found that epithelial cells positioned over the crypts are better attached and more robust than those more distant from the crypt opening; and it is further hypothesized that, after reaching the top of the crypts, some goblet cells cease secreting mucus and pass onto the surface compartment of absorptive cells. An unexpected finding was that the lower regions of the crypts commonly contain isolated necrotic colonocytes. Apoptotic cells were rarely observed in the crypt epithelium. The findings of this study support the "recycling" model of epithelial cell death in the surface compartment of the human colon.

  2. The influence of arachidonic acid metabolites on cell division in the intestinal epithelium and in colonic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, F M; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1984-09-01

    Various metabolites of arachidonic acid are now known to influence cell division. In this paper the effects on cell proliferation of arachidonic acid, some inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism and some analogs of arachidonic acid metabolites is described. The epithelial cell proliferation rate in the jejunum, in the descending colon and in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors of rat colon was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Administration of arachidonic acid resulted in retardation of cell proliferation in each of the tissues examined. A cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Flurbiprofen) prevented this effect of arachidonic acid in the jejunal crypts and in colonic tumors, but not in colonic crypts. In contrast, inhibitors of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase (Benoxaprofen and BW755c) prevented the effect of arachidonic acid in the colonic crypts and reduced its effect on colonic tumours but did not alter its effect on the jejunum. An inhibitor of thromoboxane A2 synthetase (U51,605) was also able to prevent the inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid on colonic tumors. Treatment with 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 inhibited cell proliferation in jejunal crypts and in colonic tumors, as did a thromboxane A2 mimicking agent, U46619. Nafazatrom, an agent that stimulates prostacyclin synthesis and inhibits lypoxygenase, promoted cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts and colonic crypts, but inhibited cell proliferation in colonic tumours.

  3. Alanyl-glutamine attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (APOE=gene, apoE=protein is a known factor regulating the inflammatory response that may have regenerative effects during tissue recovery from injury. We investigated whether apoE deficiency reduces the healing effect of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln treatment, a recognized gut-trophic nutrient, during tissue recovery after 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. APOE-knockout (APOE-/- and wild-type (APOE+/+ C57BL6J male and female mice (N=86 were given either Ala-Gln (100 mM or phosphate buffered saline (PBS by gavage 3 days before and 5 days after a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU challenge (450 mg/kg, via intraperitoneal injection. Mouse body weight was monitored daily. The 5-FU cytotoxic effect was evaluated by leukometry. Intestinal villus height, villus/crypt ratio, and villin expression were monitored to assess recovery of the intestinal absorptive surface area. Crypt length, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic crypt indexes, and quantitative real-time PCR for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 intestinal mRNA transcripts were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial cell turnover. 5-FU challenge caused significant weight loss and leukopenia (P<0.001 in both mouse strains, which was not improved by Ala-Gln. Villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, and reduced villus/crypt ratio (P<0.05 were found in all 5-FU-challenged mice but not in PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus/crypt ratio, crypt length and mitotic index in all challenged mice, compared with PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus height only in APOE-/- mice. Crypt cell apoptosis and necrotic scores were increased in all mice challenged by 5-FU, compared with untreated controls. Those scores were significantly lower in Ala-Gln-treated APOE+/+ mice than in controls. Bcl-2 and IGF-1 mRNA transcripts were reduced only in the APOE-/--challenged mice. Altogether our findings suggest APOE-independent Ala-Gln regenerative effects after 5-FU challenge.

  4. Alanyl-glutamine attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, C.V. [Laboratório da Biologia da Cicatrização, Ontogenia e Nutrição de Tecidos, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Lazzarotto, C.R. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e do Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Aquino, C.C.; Figueiredo, I.L.; Costa, T.B.; Oliveira Alves, L.A. de [Laboratório da Biologia da Cicatrização, Ontogenia e Nutrição de Tecidos, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.A. [Laboratório da Inflamação e Câncer, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Bertolini, L.R. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e do Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Lima, A.A.M. [Laboratório de Doenças Infecciosas, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Brito, G.A.C. [Laboratório da Inflamação e Câncer, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Oriá, R.B. [Laboratório da Biologia da Cicatrização, Ontogenia e Nutrição de Tecidos, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2015-04-28

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE=gene, apoE=protein) is a known factor regulating the inflammatory response that may have regenerative effects during tissue recovery from injury. We investigated whether apoE deficiency reduces the healing effect of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) treatment, a recognized gut-trophic nutrient, during tissue recovery after 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. APOE-knockout (APOE{sup -/-}) and wild-type (APOE{sup +/+}) C57BL6J male and female mice (N=86) were given either Ala-Gln (100 mM) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by gavage 3 days before and 5 days after a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) challenge (450 mg/kg, via intraperitoneal injection). Mouse body weight was monitored daily. The 5-FU cytotoxic effect was evaluated by leukometry. Intestinal villus height, villus/crypt ratio, and villin expression were monitored to assess recovery of the intestinal absorptive surface area. Crypt length, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic crypt indexes, and quantitative real-time PCR for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) intestinal mRNA transcripts were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial cell turnover. 5-FU challenge caused significant weight loss and leukopenia (P<0.001) in both mouse strains, which was not improved by Ala-Gln. Villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, and reduced villus/crypt ratio (P<0.05) were found in all 5-FU-challenged mice but not in PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus/crypt ratio, crypt length and mitotic index in all challenged mice, compared with PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus height only in APOE{sup -/-} mice. Crypt cell apoptosis and necrotic scores were increased in all mice challenged by 5-FU, compared with untreated controls. Those scores were significantly lower in Ala-Gln-treated APOE{sup +/+} mice than in controls. Bcl-2 and IGF-1 mRNA transcripts were reduced only in the APOE{sup -/-}-challenged mice. Altogether our findings suggest APOE-independent Ala-Gln regenerative effects after 5-FU

  5. Alanyl-glutamine attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, C.V.; Lazzarotto, C.R.; Aquino, C.C.; Figueiredo, I.L.; Costa, T.B.; Oliveira Alves, L.A. de; Ribeiro, R.A.; Bertolini, L.R.; Lima, A.A.M.; Brito, G.A.C.; Oriá, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE=gene, apoE=protein) is a known factor regulating the inflammatory response that may have regenerative effects during tissue recovery from injury. We investigated whether apoE deficiency reduces the healing effect of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) treatment, a recognized gut-trophic nutrient, during tissue recovery after 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. APOE-knockout (APOE -/- ) and wild-type (APOE +/+ ) C57BL6J male and female mice (N=86) were given either Ala-Gln (100 mM) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by gavage 3 days before and 5 days after a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) challenge (450 mg/kg, via intraperitoneal injection). Mouse body weight was monitored daily. The 5-FU cytotoxic effect was evaluated by leukometry. Intestinal villus height, villus/crypt ratio, and villin expression were monitored to assess recovery of the intestinal absorptive surface area. Crypt length, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic crypt indexes, and quantitative real-time PCR for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) intestinal mRNA transcripts were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial cell turnover. 5-FU challenge caused significant weight loss and leukopenia (P<0.001) in both mouse strains, which was not improved by Ala-Gln. Villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, and reduced villus/crypt ratio (P<0.05) were found in all 5-FU-challenged mice but not in PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus/crypt ratio, crypt length and mitotic index in all challenged mice, compared with PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus height only in APOE -/- mice. Crypt cell apoptosis and necrotic scores were increased in all mice challenged by 5-FU, compared with untreated controls. Those scores were significantly lower in Ala-Gln-treated APOE +/+ mice than in controls. Bcl-2 and IGF-1 mRNA transcripts were reduced only in the APOE -/- -challenged mice. Altogether our findings suggest APOE-independent Ala-Gln regenerative effects after 5-FU challenge

  6. WRN conditioned media is sufficient for in vitro propagation of intestinal organoids from large farm and small companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robin H; Behnke, Michael S

    2017-05-15

    Recent years have seen significant developments in the ability to continuously propagate organoids derived from intestinal crypts. These advancements have been applied to mouse and human samples providing models for gastrointestinal tissue development and disease. We adapt these methods for the propagation of intestinal organoids (enteroids) from various large farm and small companion (LF/SC) animals, including cat, dog, cow, horse, pig, sheep and chicken. We show that LF/SC enteroids propagate and expand in L-WRN conditioned media containing signaling factors Wnt3a, R-spondin-3, and Noggin (WRN). Multiple successful isolations were achieved for each species, and the growth of LF/SC enteroids was maintained to high passage number. LF/SC enteroids expressed crypt stem cell marker LGR5 and low levels of mesenchymal marker VIM. Labeling with EdU also showed distinct regions of cell proliferation within the enteroids marking crypt-like regions. The ability to grow and maintain LF/SC enteroid cell lines provides additional models for the study of gastrointestinal developmental biology as well as platforms for the study of host-pathogen interactions between intestinal cells and zoonotic enteric pathogens of medical importance. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. WRN conditioned media is sufficient for in vitro propagation of intestinal organoids from large farm and small companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin H. Powell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen significant developments in the ability to continuously propagate organoids derived from intestinal crypts. These advancements have been applied to mouse and human samples providing models for gastrointestinal tissue development and disease. We adapt these methods for the propagation of intestinal organoids (enteroids from various large farm and small companion (LF/SC animals, including cat, dog, cow, horse, pig, sheep and chicken. We show that LF/SC enteroids propagate and expand in L-WRN conditioned media containing signaling factors Wnt3a, R-spondin-3, and Noggin (WRN. Multiple successful isolations were achieved for each species, and the growth of LF/SC enteroids was maintained to high passage number. LF/SC enteroids expressed crypt stem cell marker LGR5 and low levels of mesenchymal marker VIM. Labeling with EdU also showed distinct regions of cell proliferation within the enteroids marking crypt-like regions. The ability to grow and maintain LF/SC enteroid cell lines provides additional models for the study of gastrointestinal developmental biology as well as platforms for the study of host-pathogen interactions between intestinal cells and zoonotic enteric pathogens of medical importance.

  8. Chronic Dietary Intake of Enniatin B in Broiler Chickens Has Low Impact on Intestinal Morphometry and Hepatic Histology, and Shows Limited Transfer to Liver Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Fraeyman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B is a so-called emerging mycotoxin frequently contaminating poultry feed. To investigate the impact of chronic ENN B exposure on animal health, broiler chickens were fed either a diet naturally contaminated with ENN B (2352 µg/kg or a control diet (135 µg/kg for 2, 7, 14, or 21 days. ENN B concentrations were determined in plasma and liver using a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry UHPLC-MS/MS method. Liver was evaluated histologically, and the villus length and crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were measured. Histopathology of the livers did not reveal major abnormalities. Feeding an ENN B-contaminated diet could possibly inhibit the proliferation of enterocytes in the duodenal crypts, but did not affect villus length, crypt depth, or villus length-crypt depth ratio of the jejunum and ileum. ENN B levels in plasma and liver were significantly higher in the ENN B-fed group and ranged between <25–264 pg/mL and <0.05–0.85 ng/g, respectively. ENN B carry-over rates from feed to liver tissue were 0.005–0.014% and 0.034–0.109% in the ENN B and control group, respectively. Carry-over rates were low and indicated a limited contribution of poultry tissue-derived products to the total dietary ENN B intake for humans. The above results support the opinion of the European Food Safety Authority stating that adverse health effects from ENN B in broiler chickens are unlikely.

  9. A dose-surviving fraction curve for mouse colonic mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, S.L.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A dose-surviving fraction curve representing the response of the mouse colonic mucosa to single doses of 137 Cs gamma radiation was obtained from the results of a multifraction in vivo colony assay. Construction of the curve required an estimated of the average number of clonogens initially present per colonic crypt. The estimated clonogen count (88) was determined by a statistical method based on the use of doses per fraction common to different fractionation protocols. Parameters for the LQ and TC models of cell survival were obtained by weighted least-squares fits to the data. A comparison of the survival characteristics of cells from the mouse colonic and jejunal crypts suggested that the epithelium of the colon is less radiosensitive than that of the jejunum. (author)

  10. Sexual dimorphism and oestrogen regulation of KCNE3 expression modulates the functional properties of KCNQ1 K channels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    The KCNQ1 potassium channel associates with various KCNE ancillary subunits that drastically affect channel gating and pharmacology. Co-assembly with KCNE3 produces a current with nearly instantaneous activation, some time-dependent activation at very positive potentials, a linear current-voltage relationship and a 10-fold higher sensitivity to chromanol 293B. KCNQ1:KCNE3 channels are expressed in colonic crypts and mediate basolateral K(+) recycling required for Cl(-) secretion. We have previously reported the female-specific anti-secretory effects of oestrogen via KCNQ1:KCNE3 channel inhibition in colonic crypts. This study was designed to determine whether sex and oestrogen regulate the expression and function of KCNQ1 and KCNE3 in rat distal colon. Colonic crypts were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for whole-cell patch-clamp and to extract total RNA and protein. Sheets of epithelium were used for short-circuit current recordings. KCNE1 and KCNE3 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly higher in male than female crypts. No expression of KCNE2 was found and no difference was observed in KCNQ1 expression between male and female (at oestrus) colonic crypts. Male crypts showed a 2.2-fold higher level of association of KCNQ1 and KCNE3 compared to female cells. In female colonic crypts, KCNQ1 and KCNE3 protein expression fluctuated throughout the oestrous cycle and 17beta-oestradiol (E2 10 nM) produced a rapid (<15 min) dissociation of KCNQ1 and KCNE3 in female crypts only. Whole-cell K(+) currents showed a linear current-voltage relationship in male crypts, while K(+) currents in colonic crypts isolated from females displayed voltage-dependent outward rectification. Currents in isolated male crypts and epithelial sheets were 10-fold more sensitive to specific KCNQ1 inhibitors, such as chromanol 293B and HMR-1556, than in female. The effect of E2 on K(+) currents mediated by KCNQ1 with or without different beta-subunits was assayed from current

  11. Programmed Cell Death, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and p53 Expression in Mouse Colon Mucosa during Diet-Induced Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Risio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Western‐style diets (WDs trigger and sustain the early phases of tumorigenesis in mouse colon, and when continued throughout the life span lead to the development of dysplastic crypts. In order to evaluate the roles both of cell proliferation and programmed cell death (PCD in WD‐induced tumorigenesis, immunohistochemical detection of proliferating nuclear antigen (PCNA, in situ end labeling (TUNEL of DNA breaks, and p53 protein were carried out in mouse colonic mucosa during prolonged feeding of two WDs. PCNA Labeling Index of colonic crypts was significantly higher in WD‐treated animals than in controls only at the beginning of the nutritional study, the gap rapidly bridged by increased cell proliferation spontaneously occurring in the colonic mucosa during aging. A transient early homeostatic activation of PCD at the base of the crypt also was observed in WD groups. No changes in PCD were seen in the upper third of the crypt or in surface epithelium throughout the study, indicating that PCD in that colonic crypt segment produces a constant flux of cell loss, uninfluenced by homeostatic fluctuations. A major finding was an irreversible, progressive, age‐related decline of PCD at the crypt base in both control and treated animals that occurred during the second half of the rodents  life span. p53 protein was not immunohistochemically detected, suggesting that neither overexpression of wild‐type nor mutated forms of the protein are involved in the above mentioned changes.

  12. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.

    1978-01-01

    The descending colon of 4 month and 2 year old mice was exposed to 1250 rad X-rays. This killed most of the epithelial cells. The surviving cells formed new crypts and surface epithelium in animals of both ages. Not all of the crypts were replaced. The irradiated area contained not more than 80% of the control number of crypts per section for at least 6 weeks after irradiation. In the young mice new crypts were much larger and the labelling index (LI) was much higher than in unirradiated animals during the first week after irradiation. In the old mice the overshoot in LI and crypt size began later and continued longer than in young animals. This may be because the control of cell proliferation was much less precise in old than in young mice. The irradiation was repeated, in attempt to age prematurely the epithelial cells by increasing the number of divisions they underwent. The overshoot in LI and cells per crypt was smaller after a second dose than after the first in both young and old mice. There was almost no overshoot after a third dose was given to young mice. Increasing the number of divisions undergone by the surviving epithelial cells did not change the timing of repopulation in young mice compared to that found in old mice. Little evidence was found for the presence of a limited proliferative lifespan in colon epithelial cells. (author)

  13. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequentially from the crypt-villus axis of the rat small intestine. In separate experiments, urokinase activity and epithelial kinetics (measured stathmokinetically) were measured in homogenates of distal colonic mucosa of 14 groups of eight rats fed diets known to alter epithelial turnover. 
Results—From the crypt base, an ascending gradient of expression and activity of urokinase was associated with the epithelial cells. Median mucosal urokinase activities in each of the dietary groups of rats correlated positively with autologous median number of metaphase arrests per crypt (r=0.68; p<0.005) and per 100 crypt cells (r=0.75; p<0.001), but not with crypt column height. 
Conclusions—Localisation of an enzyme capable of leading to digestion of cell substratum in the region where cells are loosely attached to their basement membrane, and the association of its activity with indexes of cell turnover, suggest a role for urokinase in facilitating epithelial cell loss in the intestine. 

 Keywords: urokinase; intestinal epithelium; colon; epithelial proliferation PMID:9824347

  14. Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zakrzewska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal

  15. The stem cell organisation, and the proliferative and gene expression profile of Barrett's epithelium, replicates pyloric-type gastric glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavery, Danielle L.; Nicholson, Anna M.; Poulsom, Richard; Jeffery, Rosemary; Hussain, Alia; Gay, Laura J.; Jankowski, Janusz A.; Zeki, Sebastian S.; Barr, Hugh; Harrison, Rebecca; Going, James; Kadirkamanathan, Sritharan; Davis, Peter; Underwood, Timothy; Novelli, Marco R.; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Shepherd, Neil; Jansen, Marnix; Wright, Nicholas A.; McDonald, Stuart A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's oesophagus shows appearances described as 'intestinal metaplasia', in structures called 'crypts' but do not typically display crypt architecture. Here, we investigate their relationship to gastric glands. Cell proliferation and migration within Barrett's glands was assessed by Ki67 and

  16. Test of equal effect per fraction and estimation of initial clonogen number in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.; Withers, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    In the use of multifraction microcolony assays to infer the low-dose response of in situ renewal systems such as intestinal crypts, the assumption of equal effect per dose fraction is required. Moreover, the construction of a cell-survival curve requires knowledge of the initial count of cells capable of repopulating each renewal structure. We describe a method of designing fractionation protocols which provides a regression estimate of the initial number of clonogens per renewal structure and a test of the hypothesis of equal effect per fraction. The essential factor in the experimental design is the use of common dose fractions (use of the same dose per fraction in series with different numbers of fractions). Applications of the method to data for which the assumption of equal effect per fraction holds (four-hour fractionation interval murine testis study) and does not hold (one-hour fractionation interval murine jejunal crypt study) are presented. (author)

  17. Wnt target gene analysis in colorectal cancer and intestinal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Flier, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a specialized simple epithelium that lines the gut and performs primary functions of digestion, absorption and forms a barrier against luminal pathogens. It is organized in invaginations called crypts and finger-like protrusions called villi. The crypts harbor

  18. Skull deformations in craniosynostosis and endocrine disorders: morphological and tomographic analysis of the skull from the crypt of the Silesian Piasts in Brzeg (16th-17th century), Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, T; Cybulska, M; Błaszczyk, B; Krajewska, M; Jeśman, C

    2014-10-01

    of morphological and tomographic (CT) studies of the skull that was found in the crypt of the Silesian Piasts in the St. Jadwiga church in Brzeg (Silesia, Poland) are presented and discussed here. The established date of burial of probably a 20-30 years old male was 16th-17th century. The analyzed skull showed premature obliteration of the major skull sutures. It resulted in the braincase deformation, similar to the forms found in oxycephaly and microcephaly. Tomographic analysis revealed gross pathology. Signs of increased intracranial pressure, basilar invagination and hypoplasia of the occipital bone were observed. Those results suggested the occurrence of the very rare Arnold-Chiari syndrome. Lesions found in the sella turcica indicated the development of pituitary macroadenoma, which resulted in the occurrence of discreet features of acromegaly in the facial bones. The studied skull was characterized by a significantly smaller size of the neurocranium (horizontal circumference 471 mm, cranial capacity ∼ 1080 ml) and strongly expressed brachycephaly (cranial index=86.3), while its height remained within the range for non-deformed skulls. A narrow face, high eye-sockets and prognathism were also observed. Signs of alveolar process hypertrophy with rotation and displacement of the teeth were noted. The skull showed significant morphological differences compared to both normal and other pathological skulls such as those with pituitary gigantism, scaphocephaly and microcephaly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacologic ATM but not ATR kinase inhibition abrogates p21-dependent G1 arrest and promotes gastrointestinal syndrome after total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Frank P; Leibowitz, Brian J; Barnes, Jennifer; Schamus, Sandy; Kiesel, Brian F; Abberbock, Shira; Conrads, Thomas; Clump, David Andy; Cadogan, Elaine; O'Connor, Mark J; Yu, Jian; Beumer, Jan H; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    We show that ATM kinase inhibition using AZ31 prior to 9 or 9.25 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) reduced median time to moribund in mice to 8 days. ATR kinase inhibition using AZD6738 prior to TBI did not reduce median time to moribund. The striking finding associated with ATM inhibition prior to TBI was increased crypt loss within the intestine epithelium. ATM inhibition reduced upregulation of p21, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and blocked G1 arrest after TBI thereby increasing the number of S phase cells in crypts in wild-type but not Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice. In contrast, ATR inhibition increased upregulation of p21 after TBI. Thus, ATM activity is essential for p21-dependent arrest while ATR inhibition may potentiate arrest in crypt cells after TBI. Nevertheless, ATM inhibition reduced median time to moribund in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice after TBI. ATM inhibition also increased cell death in crypts at 4 h in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/-, earlier than at 24 h in wild-type mice after TBI. In contrast, ATR inhibition decreased cell death in crypts in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice at 4 h after TBI. We conclude that ATM activity is essential for p21-dependent and p21-independent mechanisms that radioprotect intestinal crypts and that ATM inhibition promotes GI syndrome after TBI.

  20. Intrinsic denervation of the colon is associated with a decrease of some colonic preneoplastic markers in rats treated with a chemical carcinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.O. Vespúcio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Denervation of the colon is protective against the colon cancer; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the denervated colonic mucosa could be less responsive to the action of the chemical carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH. Three groups of 32 male Wistar rats were treated as follows: group 1 (G1 had the colon denervated with 0.3 mL 1.5 mM benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (benzalkonium chloride, BAC; G2 received a single ip injection of 125 mg/kg DMH; G3 was treated with BAC + the same dose and route of DMH. A control group (Sham, N = 32 did not receive any treatment. Each group was subdivided into four groups according to the sacrifice time (1, 2, 6, and 12 weeks after DMH. Crypt fission index, ß-catenin accumulated crypts, aberrant crypt foci, and cell proliferation were evaluated and analyzed by ANOVA and the Student t-test. G3 animals presented a small number of aberrant crypt foci and low crypt fission index compared to G2 animals after 2 and 12 weeks, respectively. From the second week on, the index of ß-catenin crypt in G3 animals increased slower than in G2 animals. From the 12th week on, G2 animals presented a significant increase in cell proliferation when compared to the other groups. Colonic denervation plays an anticarcinogenic role from early stages of colon cancer development. This finding can be of importance for the study of the role of the enteric nervous system in the carcinogenic process.

  1. A comparison of mode of attachment and histopathogenicity of four tapeworm species representing two orders infecting the spiral intestine of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucinska, J; Caira, J N

    1993-04-01

    This study was undertaken to compare 2 species of Tetraphyllidea and 2 species of Trypanorhyncha with regard to the relationship between attachment structure morphology, mode of attachment, and tapeworm size, to damage at the sites of attachment in the Atlantic nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Regions of the spiral intestine with worms attached were removed from 8 nurse sharks and sectioned according to conventional techniques. Sections of 5-50 specimens of each tapeworm species were examined. Regions of the spiral intestine devoid of worms were processed for characterization of the normal mucosa. The normal mucosa was found to consist of a folded surface covered with round-to-oval primary mucosal crypts. In the first 7 or 8 chambers of the spiral intestine the mucosal surface was thrown into secondary folds, forming ridges and secondary crypts. The primary mucosal crypts were lined with a single layer of columnar epithelium resting on a basement membrane. A highly cellular lamina propria and submucosa were found between the crypts and the muscularis mucosa. The small tetraphyllidean Pedibothrium brevispine was found with its scolex lying within the primary mucosal crypts with its hooks embedded in the basement membrane. Epithelial denudation was evident. The large tetraphyllidean Pedibothrium globicephalum was found with its bothridia engulfing large portions of the mucosa and its hooks embedded into the lamina propria. It was associated with moderate to severe mucosal necrosis. The small trypanorhynch Prochristianella tenuispine was found lying between the mucosal ridges in the secondary crypts with its tentacles either penetrating the epithelium, or occasionally, the lamina propria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. The Lgr5 intestinal stem cell signature: robust expression of proposed quiescent '+4' cell markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, Javier; Stange, Daniel E.; Schepers, Arnout G.; van de Wetering, Marc; Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Volckmann, Richard; Kung, Kevin S.; Koster, Jan; Radulescu, Sorina; Myant, Kevin; Versteeg, Rogier; Sansom, Owen J.; van Es, Johan H.; Barker, Nick; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J. R.; Clevers, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Two types of stem cells are currently defined in small intestinal crypts: cycling crypt base columnar (CBC) cells and quiescent '+4' cells. Here, we combine transcriptomics with proteomics to define a definitive molecular signature for Lgr5(+) CBC cells. Transcriptional profiling of FACS-sorted

  3. Late effects of irradiation in mouse jejunum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, A.; Travis, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The response of mouse jejunum at intervals up to 1 year after single 'priming' doses of X-rays has been assessed by crypt survival after retreatment with single doses of X-rays and morphometric analysis of changes in the intestinal submucosa. The crypt dose-survival curves in mice re-irradiated at 2, 6, or 12 months after priming irradiation were displaced to higher doses in pre-treated than in non-pre-treated mice and were characterized by higher D 0 values. Misonidazole given before the test exposure reversed this effect so that the dose survival curve for crypts in pre-treated mice were superimposed on that for mice not previously irradiated, suggesting that the increase in isoeffect dose and the change in the D 0 in previously exposed mice was due to crypt hypoxia. Quantifications of the area of the submucosa showed that its area was increased at all three times after the priming doses and was a result of collagen deposition and oedema. Thus, the hypoxia in the crypts was probably secondary to these changes. Deaths began at 6-7 months after priming irradiation and were due to intestinal obstruction and stenosis. Thus, as in other tissues, two phases of injury can be assayed in the intestine of experimental animals. (author)

  4. Morphological differences in the response of mouse small intestine to radiobiologically equivalent doses of X and neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; Hamlet, R.; Nias, A.H.; Watt, C.

    1984-01-01

    A scale has been developed to describe the effects of radiation on small intestinal villi. The scale has been used to compare the damage done to the villi in the period 0-5 days after irradiation by X-irradiation or neutron irradiation, using 10 Gy X-rays and 5 Gy neutrons, doses which are radiobiologically equivalent when assessed by the microcolony assay method. Use of the scale indicates that the damage done to the villi by neutrons is greater than that produced by X-rays. This has implications for the interpretation of radiobiological equivalent doses (R.B.E.). Resin light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (T.E.M.) have also been used to examine small intestinal damage after 10 Gy X-irradiation and 5 Gy neutron irradiation. Differences include variations in crypt shape, mitotic activity and the proportion of crypts which are heavily parasitised. As well as the differences in villous shape which have been reflected in the different values on the scoring system, there are also variations in the response of the constituent cells of the epithelial compartment of the villi. In general, the effect of the neutron irradiation is more severe than that of the X-rays, particularly as would be suggested by a simple quantitation of crypt regeneration

  5. Sustained glucagon-like peptide-2 infusion is required for intestinal adaptation, and cessation reverses increased cellularity in rats with intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopmann, Matthew C; Chen, Xueyan; Holst, Jens Juul

    2010-01-01

    in duodenum and jejunum mucosal dry mass, protein, DNA, and sucrase activity compared with TPN control. The increased jejunum cellularity reflected significantly decreased apoptosis and increased crypt mitosis and crypt fission due to GLP-2. When GLP-2 infusion stopped at 7 days, these effects were reversed...

  6. Colonic cell proliferation in normal mucosa of patients with colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becciolini, A.; Balzi, M.; Faraoni, P.; Tisti, E.; Thyrion, G.Z.; Giache, V.; Bandettini, L.; Potten, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Cell kinetics parameters have been analysed in colonic mucosa at different distances from a tumour in patients with colon carcinoma. Total cell number (TCN), 3 H thymidine labelling index (TLI), mitotic index (MI), Goblet cell index (GCI) and the distribution of labelled cells along the crypt column (cell position frequency plot) were determined in well-aligned crypts. Total cell number, GCI and the labelled cell position frequency plots were similar in different samples from the same individual. A negative linear correlation between TCN and TLI was observed. The analysis of the cell position plots showed two patterns (1) with a high concentration in the bottom fifth of the crypt and (2) with frequent labelled cells at high positions. Whereas a negative correlation between overall TLI and the percent contribution to the TLI of the lowermost fifth was seen, the correlation was positive for the next 3 fifths and labelling was absent in the last part of the crypt. (orig.)

  7. Cellular and molecular basis of tooth eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, GE

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Tooth eruption requires the presence of a dental follicle (DF), alveolar bone resorption for an eruption pathway, and alveolar bone formation at the base of the bony crypt. The objectives of our investigations have been to determine how the DF regulates both the osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis needed for eruption. Material & Methods Multiple experimental methods have been employed. Results The DF regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis by regulating the expression of critical genes in both a chronological and spatial fashion. In the rat 1st mandibular molar there is a major burst of osteoclastogenesis at day 3 postnatally and a minor burst at day 10. At day 3, the DF maximally expresses colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) to down-regulate the expression of osteoprotegerin such that osteoclastogenesis can occur. At day 10, the minor burst of osteoclastogenesis is promoted by upregulation of VEGF and RANKL in the DF. Spatially, the bone resorption is in the coronal portion of the bony crypt and genes such as RANKL are expressed more in the coronal region of the DF than in its basal one-half. For osteogenesis, bone formation begins at day 3 at the base of the bony crypt and maximal growth is at days 9–14. Osteo-inductive genes such as BMP-2 appear to promote this and are expressed more in the basal half of the DF than in the coronal. Conclusion The osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis needed for eruption are regulated by differential gene expression in the DF both chronologically and spatially. PMID:19419449

  8. Targeting of the MUC1-C Oncoprotein in Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    separated by infiltrates of inflammatory cells and the presence of crypt abscess (lower left panel). With progression to dysplasia, the crypts are...Rajabi, H, et al., MUC1-C oncoprotein induces TCF7L2 activation and promotes cyclin D1 expression in human breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem, 2012

  9. Early establishment of epithelial apoptosis in the developing human small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, P H; Cardin, E; Harnois, C; Reed, J C; Vézina, A

    2000-12-01

    In the adult small intestine, the dynamic renewal of the epithelium is characterized by a sequence of cell production in the crypts, cell maturation and cell migration to the tip of villi, where apoptosis is undertaken. Little is known about enterocytic apoptosis during development. In man, intestinal architectural features and functions are acquired largely by mid-gestation (18-20 wks); the question whether the establishment of enterocytic apoptotic processes parallels or not the acquisition of other intestinal functional features remains open. In the present study, we approached this question by examining enterocytic apoptosis during development of the human jejunum (9-20 wks gestation), using the ISEL (in situ terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl nick-end labelling) method. Between 9 and 17 wks, apoptotic enterocytes were not evidenced. However, beginning at the 18 wks stage, ISEL-positive enterocytes were regularly observed at the tip of villi. Since the Bcl-2 family of proteins constitutes a critical checkpoint in apoptosis, acting upstream of the apoptotic machinery, we investigated the expression of six Bcl-2 homologs (Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, Bax, Bak, Bad) and one non-homologous associated molecule (Bag-1). By immunofluorescence, we found that all homologs analyzed were expressed by enterocytes between 9 and 20 wks. However, Bcl-2 homologs underwent a gradual compartmentalization of epithelial expression along the maturing crypt-villus axis, to establish gradients of expression by 18-20 wks. Western blot analyses indicated that the expression levels of Bcl-2 homologs were modulated during morphogenesis of the crypt-villus axis, in parallel to their gradual compartmentalization of expression. Altogether, these data suggest that regulatory mechanisms of human enterocytic apoptosis become established by mid-gestation (18-20 wks) and coincide with the maturation of the crypt-villus axis of cell proliferation, differentiation and renewal.

  10. Interactive 3D computer model of the human corneolimbal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvaer, Rikke K; Andreasen, Arne; Heegaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    in the limbal region: limbal epithelial crypts (LECs), limbal crypts (LCs) and focal stromal projections (FSPs). In all, eight LECs, 25 LCs and 105 FSPs were identified in the limbal region. The LECs, LCs and FSPs were predominantly located in the superior limbal region with seven LECs, 19 LCs and 93 FSPs...

  11. Wnt signaling and colon tumorigenesis — A view from the periphery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, Antony W.; Faux, Maree C.; Layton, Meredith J.; Ramsay, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    In this brief overview we discuss the association between Wnt signaling and colon cell biology and tumorigenesis. Our current understanding of the role of Apc in the β-catenin destruction complex is compared with potential roles for Apc in cell adhesion and migration. The requirement for phosphorylation in the proteasomal-mediated degradation of β-catenin is contrasted with roles for phospho-β-catenin in the activation of transcription, cell adhesion and migration. The synergy between Myb and β-catenin regulation of transcription in crypt stem cells during Wnt signaling is discussed. Finally, potential effects of growth factor regulatory systems, Apc or truncated-Apc on crypt morphogenesis, stem cell localization and crypt fission are considered.

  12. Rectification of radiation-induced damage in swiss albino mice by aloe vera leaf extracts (AVE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, P.; Goyal, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    From the time immemorial man has been exposed to ionizing radiation from the environment in which he lives. Radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. Materials and Methods: The radioprotective of effect of Aloe vera leaf extract (1000 mg/kg b.wt. orally for 15 consecutive days) has been studied against 6 Gy of gamma radiation in the intestine of Swiss albino mice at various post irradiation intervals viz. 12 hours, 24 hours. and 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Results: Crypt survival, villus length, apoptic cells, mitotic figures and goblet cells in jejunum were studied after irradiation. Irradiation produced a significant decrease in crypt survival, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas goblet and apoptic cells showed a significant increase from sham irradiated animals. The major changes were observed on day 3 after irradiation. AVE pre-treated irradiated animals resulted in a significant increase in the number of crypt cells, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas the counts of apoptic and goblet cells showed a significant decrease from respective control group at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiated animals resulted in the elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione activity. On contrary, AVE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione activity. Conclusion: The present study suggests the possible radioprotective ability of Aloe vera leaf extract

  13. Aging effects on intestinal homeostasis associated with expansion and dysfunction of intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorefield, Emily C; Andres, Sarah F; Blue, R Eric; Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Mah, Amanda T; Santoro, M Agostina; Ding, Shengli

    2017-08-29

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) are critical to maintain intestinal epithelial function and homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that aging promotes IESC dysfunction using old (18-22 months) and young (2-4 month) Sox9-EGFP IESC reporter mice. Different levels of Sox9-EGFP permit analyses of active IESC (Sox9-EGFP Low ), activatable reserve IESC and enteroendocrine cells (Sox9-EGFP High ), Sox9-EGFP Sublow progenitors, and Sox9-EGFP Negative differentiated lineages. Crypt-villus morphology, cellular composition and apoptosis were measured by histology. IESC function was assessed by crypt culture, and proliferation by flow cytometry and histology. Main findings were confirmed in Lgr5-EGFP and Lgr5-LacZ mice. Aging-associated gene expression changes were analyzed by Fluidigm mRNA profiling. Crypts culture from old mice yielded fewer and less complex enteroids. Histology revealed increased villus height and Paneth cells per crypt in old mice. Old mice showed increased numbers and hyperproliferation of Sox9-EGFP Low IESC and Sox9-EGFP High cells. Cleaved caspase-3 staining demonstrated increased apoptotic cells in crypts and villi of old mice. Gene expression profiling revealed aging-associated changes in mRNAs associated with cell cycle, oxidative stress and apoptosis specifically in IESC. These findings provide new, direct evidence for aging associated IESC dysfunction, and define potential biomarkers and targets for translational studies to assess and maintain IESC function during aging.

  14. Influence of a highly purified senna extract on colonic epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorkom, B A; Karrenbeld, A; van Der Sluis, T; Koudstaal, J; de Vries, E G; Kleibeuker, J H

    2000-01-01

    Chronic use of sennoside laxatives often causes pseudomelanosis coli. A recent study suggested that pseudomelanosis coli is associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. A single high dose of highly purified senna extract increased proliferation rate and reduced crypt length in the sigmoid colon compared to historical controls. To evaluate in a controlled study the effects of highly purified senna extract on cell proliferation and crypt length in the entire colon and on p53 and bcl-2 expression. Addition of a senna extract to colonic lavage was studied in 184 consecutive outpatients. From 32 randomised patients, 15 with sennosides (Sen), 17 without (NSen), biopsies were taken. Proliferative activity was studied in 4 areas of the colon, using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labelling and immunohistochemistry (labelling index, LI). Expression of p53 and bcl-2 in the sigmoid colon was determined immunohistochemically. Crypts were shorter in Sen than in NSen in the transverse and sigmoid colon. LI was higher in Sen than in NSen in the entire colon. No difference in p53 expression was seen. Bcl-2 expression was higher in both groups when crypts were shorter and/or proliferation was increased. Sennosides induce acute massive cell loss probably by apoptosis, causing shorter crypts, and increased cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis to restore cellularity. These effects may reflect the mechanism for the suggested cancer-promoting effect of chronic sennoside use. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Radioprotection of mouse intestine by inhibitors of cyclic amp phosphodiesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, S.

    1979-01-01

    The survival of colony-forming units of the jejunal crypt was used to assay the radioprotective capacity of various inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. DL-152, RO-20-1724 and the methyl xanthines, caffeine, theophylline, and methyl isbutyl xanthine (MIX) were all found to have some radioprotective effect. The degree of radioprotecton depended on the route of administration of the drug and on the timing of administration with respect to irradiation. Optimum survival of crypt stem cells was found following intraperitoneal administration of DL-152 (60 min before irradiation) or MIX (30 min before irradiaton), and following intravenous administration of caffeine (60 to 120 min before irradiaton) or theophylline (60 min before irradiation). When these protocols were used, crypt stem cell survival could be enhanced by a factor of from 6 to 7. All the compounds investigated produced some elevation of cyclic AMP content of the whole jejunum; this was found to be simultaneous with or to precede the period of maximum radioprotection. Cyclic AMP was localized with immunofluorescent staining; following injection of DL-152 it was found to be elevated in all parts of the jejunum but to the greatest extent in the lower part of the crypt. Survival curves for crypt stem cells from MIX and DL-152 treated mice were found to have almost the same exponential slope as the saline-injected control, suggesting that the mechanism of protection does not depend on induction of hypoxia

  16. Chemoprevention of Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci by Novel Schiff Based Dichlorido(4-Methoxy-2-{[2-(Piperazin-4-Ium-1-Yl)Ethyl]Iminomethyl}Phenolate)Cd Complex in Azoxymethane-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Karimian, Hamed; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    Schiff-based complexes as a source of cancer chemotherapeutic compounds have been subjected to the variety of anticancer studies. The in-vitro analysis confirmed the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex possess cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction properties in colon cancer cells, so lead to investigate the inhibitory efficiency of the compound on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Five groups of adult male rats were used in this study: Vehicle, cancer control, positive control groups and the groups treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg of complex for 10 weeks. The rats in vehicle group were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg of sterile normal saline once a week for 2 weeks and orally administered with 5% Tween-20 (5 ml/kg) for 10 weeks, other groups were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once a week for 2 weeks. The rats in positive groups were injected intra-peritoneally with 35 mg/kg 5-Flourouracil four times in a month. Administration of the complex suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 73.4% (P < 0.05). The results also showed that treatment with the complex significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde while increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Furthermore, the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl2 and the up-regulation of Bax was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. PMID:26201720

  17. Distraction induced enterogenesis: a unique mouse model using polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawada, Manabu; Maria, Haytham Mustafa; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the small intestine can be lengthened by applying mechanical forces to the bowel lumen-distraction-induced enterogenesis. However, the mechanisms which account for this growth are unknown, and might be best examined using a mouse model. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of developing distractive-induced small bowel growth in mouse. Twelve-week old C57BL/6J mice had a jejunal segment taken out of continuity, and distended with polyethylene glycol (PEG: 3350 KDa); this group was compared with a control group without stretching. Segment length and diameter were measured intra-operatively and after 5 d. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscle thickness in the isolated segment were assessed. Rate of epithelial cell proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine: BrdU incorporation) in crypts were also examined. The mucosal mRNA expression of targeted factors was performed to investigate potential mechanisms which might lead to distraction-induced enterogenesis. At harvest, the PEG-stretched group showed a significant increase in length and diameter versus controls. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscular layer thickness increased in the PEG group. The PEG group also showed significantly increased rates of epithelial cell proliferation versus controls. Real-time PCR showed a trend toward higher β-catenin and c-myc mRNA expression in the PEG-stretched group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Radial distraction-induced enterogenesis with PEG is a viable method for increasing small intestinal length and diameter. This model may provide a new method for studying the mechanisms leading to distraction-induced enterogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of diet or intrarectal bile acid injections on colon epithelial cell proliferation in rats previously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauert, H.P.; Bennink, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of varying colon bile acid concentrations on rat colon epithelial cell proliferation were studied. Bile acid concentrations were altered by intrarectally injecting either deoxycholic or lithocholic acid for 4 weeks or by increasing the dietary fat or fiber (wheat bran, agar, or carrageenan) intake for 4 weeks. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was s.c. injected into half of the rats 1 week before treatments began. Colon epithelial cell proliferation was measured by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography of colon crypts. Rats injected with DMH had more DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. Neither bile acid injection nor any of the diets altered the number of DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. DMH injections, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid intrarectal injections, and dietary agar and wheat bran all increased the total number of cells per crypt. High fat diets and dietary carrageenan did not affect cell number. All diets containing fiber lowered total fecal bile acid concentrations, but increasing the fat content of the diet did not affect them. These results indicate that the bile acid injections and dietary agar and wheat bran induce a slight hyperplasia in the colon

  19. Levamisole improves histomorphometric parameters of small intestinal wall of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shomali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty one-day old chickens were divided into 6 equal groups and treated with 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 mg/kg levamisole from day 1 to 45. Then, all birds sacrificed and samples were taken from duode-num, jejunum and ileum. Cross-sections were made and H&E stained. Histomorphometric parameters including villus height, crypt depth, villus width, sub mucosal width, muscular layer width and the villus height/crypt depth ratio were determined. Duodenal villi became wider in all levamisole treated groups but only the highest dose resulted in taller villi. Jejunal villi became taller without significant change in their width. This was accompanied by a decrease in crypt depth and increased villus height/crypt depth ratio in all treated groups. In ileum, only birds treated with the highest dose had higher villus height, although levamisole at all doses resulted in wider villi. Sub mucosal width in-creased in birds treated with 15 and 25 mg/kg levamisole. In conclusion, levamisole can improve histomorphometric parameters of small intestinal wall of broiler chickens. This can partly explain the mechanism for previously described positive effects of levamisole on performance of broilers.

  20. Protective effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    The protective properties of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) against intestinal damage were examined by evaluating its effects on jejunal crypt survival, morphological changes, and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 12 Gy for the examination of jejunal crypt survival and any morphological changes and with 2 Gy for the detection of apoptosis and Ki-67 labeling. Irradiation was conducted using (60)Co gamma-rays. HemoHIM treatment was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight at 36 and 12 hours pre-irradiation and 30 minutes post-irradiation or orally at a dosage of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 or 11 days before necropsy. The HemoHIM-treated group displayed a significant increase in survival of jejunal crypts, when compared to the irradiation controls. HemoHIM treatment decreased intestinal morphological changes such as crypt depth, villus height, mucosal length, and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes after irradiation. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM protected intestinal cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that HemoHIM may be therapeutically useful to reduce intestinal injury following irradiation.

  1. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Bozorg Nia, Shahrzad; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2014-02-10

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  2. Between Localization and Delocalization: Ru(cod)2+ Units in the Zintl Clusters [Bi9 {Ru(cod)}2 ]3- and [Tl2 Bi6 {Ru(cod)}]2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Niels; Spang, Nils; Eichhöfer, Andreas; Dehnen, Stefanie

    2017-10-16

    Reactions of [K(crypt-222)] 2 (TlBi 3 )⋅0.5 en (1 b) with [Ru(cod)(H 2 CC(Me)CH 2 ) 2 ] (A) in 1,2-diaminoethane (en) led to the formation of two compounds with new bismuth-rich cluster anions, [K(crypt-222)] 3 [Bi 9 {Ru(cod)} 2 ]⋅1.5 en (2) and [K(crypt-222)] 2 [Tl 2 Bi 6 {Ru(cod)}]⋅2 tol (3), alongside the salt of a binary nido cluster, [K(crypt-222)] 3 (Tl 4 Bi 5 )⋅2 en (4). The anions in 2 and 3 are two further examples of rare heterometallic clusters containing Ru atoms. As one cod ligand is retained on each Ru atom in both clusters, the anions may be viewed as intermediates on the way towards larger, ligand-free intermetalloid clusters. Quantum-chemical studies provided insight into the bonding situation in these clusters. According to these studies, the anion of 2 features both electron-precise and electron-deficient parts. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the clusters undergo stepwise fragmentation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Role of heterozygous APC mutation in niche succession and initiation of colorectal cancer--a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roschen Sasikumar

    Full Text Available Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene are found in most colorectal cancers. They cause constitutive activation of proliferative pathways when both alleles of the gene are mutated. However studies on individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP have shown that a single mutated APC allele can also create changes in the precancerous colon crypt, like increased number of stem cells, increased crypt fission, greater variability of DNA methylation patterns, and higher somatic mutation rates. In this paper, using a computational model of colon crypt dynamics, we evolve and investigate a hypothesis on the effect of heterozygous APC mutation that explains these different observations. Based on previous reports and the results from the computational model we propose the hypothesis that heterozygous APC mutation has the effect of increasing the chances for a stem cell to divide symmetrically, producing two stem cell daughters. We incorporate this hypothesis into the model and perform simulation experiments to investigate the consequences of the hypothesis. Simulations show that this hypothesis links together the changes in FAP crypts observed in previous studies. The simulations also show that an APC(+/- stem cell gets selective advantages for dominating the crypt and progressing to cancer. This explains why most colon cancers are initiated by APC mutation. The results could have implications for preventing or retarding the onset of colon cancer in people with inherited or acquired mutation of one APC allele. Experimental validation of the hypothesis as well as investigation into the molecular mechanisms of this effect may therefore be worth undertaking.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA polymerase editing mutation, PolgD257A, disturbs stem-progenitor cell cycling in the small intestine and restricts excess fat absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Raymond G; Magness, Scott; Kujoth, Gregory C; Prolla, Tomas A; Maeda, Nobuyo

    2012-05-01

    Changes in intestinal absorption of nutrients are important aspects of the aging process. To address this issue, we investigated the impact of accelerated mitochondrial DNA mutations on the stem/progenitor cells in the crypts of Lieberkühn in mice homozygous for a mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma mutation, Polg(D257A), that exhibit accelerated aging phenotype. As early as 3-7 mo of age, the small intestine was significantly enlarged in the PolgD257A mice. The crypts of the PolgD257A mice contained 20% more cells than those of their wild-type littermates and exhibited a 10-fold increase in cellular apoptosis primarily in the stem/progenitor cell zones. Actively dividing cells were proportionally increased, yet a significantly smaller proportion of cells was in the S phase of the cell cycle. Stem cell-derived organoids from PolgD257A mice failed to develop fully in culture and exhibited fewer crypt units, indicating an impact of the mutation on the intestinal epithelial stem/progenitor cell maintenance. In addition, epithelial cell migration along the crypt-villus axis was slowed and less organized, and the ATP content in the villi was significantly reduced. On a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, PolgD257A mice showed significantly restricted absorption of excess lipids accompanied by an increase in fecal steatocrits. We conclude that the PolgD257A mutation causes cell cycle dysregulation in the crypts leading to the age-associated changes in the morphology of the small intestine and contributes to the restricted absorption of dietary lipids.

  5. Epimorphin Regulates the Intestinal Stem Cell Niche via Effects on the Stromal Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishy, Courtney E; Swietlicki, Elzbieta A; Gazit, Vered; Amara, Suneetha; Heslop, Gabriela; Lu, Jianyun; Levin, Marc S; Rubin, Deborah C

    2018-04-06

    Stem cell therapy is a potential therapeutic approach for disorders characterized by intestinal injury or loss of functional surface area. Stem cell function and proliferation are mediated by the stem cell niche. Stromal cells such as intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) are important but poorly studied components of the stem cell niche. To examine the role of ISEMFs, we have previously generated mice with deletion of epimorphin (Epim), an ISEMF protein and member of the syntaxin family of intracellular vesicle docking proteins that regulate cell secretion. Herein we explore the mechanisms for previous observations that Epim deletion increases gut crypt cell proliferation, crypt fission and small bowel length in vivo. Stem cell derived crypt culture techniques were used to explore the interaction between enteroids and myofibroblasts from Epim -/- and WT mice. Enteroids co-cultured with ISEMFS had increased growth and crypt-like budding compared to enteroids cultured without stromal support. Epim deletion in ISEMFs resulted in increased enteroid budding and surface area compared to co-cultures with WT ISEMFs. In primary crypt cultures, Epim -/- enteroids had significantly increased surface area and budding compared WTs. However stem cell assays comparing the number of Epim -/- vs WT colony forming units after first passage showed no differences in the absence of ISEMF support. Epim -/- vs. WT ISEMFs had increased Wnt4 expression and addition of Wnt4 to WT co-cultures enhanced budding. We conclude that ISEMFs play an important role in the stem cell niche. Epim regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation via stromal contributions to the niche microenvironment.

  6. Female-Specific Specialization of a Posterior End Region of the Midgut Symbiotic Organ in Plautia splendens and Allied Stinkbugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshinari; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Meng, Xian-Ying; Koga, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    Many stinkbugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) are associated with bacterial symbionts in a posterior region of the midgut. In these stinkbugs, adult females excrete symbiont-containing materials from the anus for transmission of the beneficial symbionts to their offspring. For ensuring the vertical symbiont transmission, a variety of female-specific elaborate traits at the cellular, morphological, developmental, and behavioral levels have been reported from diverse stinkbugs of the families Plataspidae, Urostylididae, Parastrachiidae, etc. Meanwhile, such elaborate female-specific traits for vertical symbiont transmission have been poorly characterized for the largest and economically important stinkbug family Pentatomidae. Here, we investigated the midgut symbiotic system of a pentatomid stinkbug, Plautia splendens. A specific gammaproteobacterial symbiont was consistently present extracellularly in the cavity of numerous crypts arranged in four rows on the midgut fourth section. The symbiont was smeared on the egg surface upon oviposition by adult females, orally acquired by newborn nymphs, and thereby transmitted vertically to the next generation and important for growth and survival of the host insects. We found that, specifically in adult females, several rows of crypts at the posterior end region of the symbiotic midgut were morphologically differentiated and conspicuously enlarged, often discharging the symbiotic bacteria from the crypt cavity to the main tract of the symbiotic midgut. The female-specific enlarged end crypts were also found in other pentatomid stinkbugs Plautia stali and Carbula crassiventris. These results suggest that the enlarged end crypts represent a female-specific specialized morphological trait for vertical symbiont transmission commonly found among stinkbugs of the family Pentatomidae. PMID:25636847

  7. Isolation and characterization of populations of mature and immature rat colonocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnen, D.J.; Reed, T.A.; Bozdech, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A nonenzymatic method is described for the isolation of viable populations of mature and immature rat colonocytes. Histology was used to monitor colonocyte dissociation and to systematically characterize the amount of cross-contamination between populations of mature luminal cells and immature crypt cells. The mature coloncytes were 87 ± 9% pure with respect to contamination from cells from the lower half of the colonic crypt, and the immature populations were 98% pure with respect to contamination with cells from the upper half of the colonic crypt. Neither population contained significant numbers of cells from the lamina propria. Cell viability and synthetic function were maintained from 10-12 h in short-term culture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was 1.59 ± 0.01-fold higher in the mature cells than in the immature cells, and in vivo [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation was 2.9 ± 0.4-fold greater in the immature than the mature populations. These studies demonstrate that highly enriched populations of mature and immature rat colonocytes that maintain viability and synthetic function in short-term culture can be prepared. The intrinsic rate of protein synthesis is higher in immature colonocytes, and a shift to synthesis of a higher percentage of fucoproteins occurs during colonocyte differentiation. In contrast to result in the small intestine, only modest gradients of differentiation markers and cell surface protein expression were observed between mature and immature colonocytes

  8. Transgenic and conventional Brazilian soybeans don't cause or prevent preneoplastic colon lesions or oxidative stress in a 90-day in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Sbruzzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study presents the results of a 90-day safety assessment of rats fed with four varieties of soybeans, BRS 245 RR and BRS Valiosa RR (transgenic, BRS 133 and MG BR46 Conquista (non-transgenic. METHODS: Diets were prepared by incorporating toasted soybean flour to a commercial diet at 1%, 10% or 20% weight In the in vivo experimental the rats' body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, number of aberrant crypt foci, oxidative stress biomarkers, urea and creatinine levels were analyzed and compared between experimental groups, as well as histopathological observations (digestive tract, liver, kidneys. RESULTS: The results indicate that glyphosate-tolerant soy varieties neither induce nor prevent aberrant crypt foci induction, nor do their conventional counterparts. Similarly, none of the four soybean varieties tested induced changes in the digestive tract, liver or kidney. Serum biochemical parameters were also unchanged. CONCLUSION: The consumption of both, conventional and transgenic soybeans, were insufficient to ameliorate dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress.

  9. Bodies Folded in Migrant Crypts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Tzokas, Spyros; Tympas, Aristotle

    2016-01-01

    This article considers media narratives that suggest that hiding in trucks, buses, and other vehicles to cross borders has, in fact, been a common practice in the context of migration to, and within, Europe. We aim to problematize how the tension between the materiality of bordering practices...

  10. Protective Role of R-spondin1, an Intestinal Stem Cell Growth Factor, against Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanja, Payel; Saha, Subhrajit; Kabarriti, Rafi; Liu, Laibin; Roy-Chowdhury, Namita; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Sellers, Rani S.; Alfieri, Alan A.; Guha, Chandan

    2009-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) results from a combination of direct cytocidal effects on intestinal crypt and endothelial cells and subsequent loss of the mucosal barrier, resulting in electrolyte imbalance, diarrhea, weight loss, infection and mortality. Because R-spondin1 (Rspo1) acts as a mitogenic factor for intestinal stem cells, we hypothesized that systemic administration of Rspo1 would amplify the intestinal crypt cells and accelerate the regeneration of...

  11. Population kinetics studies in mouse jejunum exposed prenatally to gamma rays at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godha, Meena; Nand Chahal, K.

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice of 18 days post conception were exposed to 0.80 Gy, 0.40 Gy and 0.20 Gy of gamma rays from a Cobalt-60 source at different dose rates (.0584 Gy/min and .00091 Gy/min). Post irradiation variations in the cell population of crypts and villus of jejunum were studied in the F 1 -generation at 1 day, 3 day and 1,2,4,6 and 12 weeks of post-partum age. In all the exposure groups at 1 day post-partum age, crypts show a decrease in total cells, mitotic figures and goblet cells on one hand and an increase in PNNC on the other hand in comparison to coeval controls. At this interval a decrease in the number of total cells as well as goblet cells/villus column was also noticeable. Dead cells which were prominently seen in crypts were totally absent in villi. The first signs of recovery can be observed on day 3 p.p. when total cell population, mitotic activity and goblet cells of crypt registered an increase while percentage of PNNC showed a fall. Percentage of total cell population and goblet cells/villus column also increased. The recovery continued up to 2 week of p.p. age. At p.p. age of 4 weeks a relapse of damage was observed when values for all the parameters of crypt and villi registered a fall except PNNC. This is followed by a second phase of recovery and by 6 and 12 weeks of post-partum age, normal value were obtained for all the parameters. (author)

  12. Radiation, an ideal cytotoxic for the study of cell biology in the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.

    2003-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are highly polarised with the proliferative compartment sometimes subdivided into units of proliferation in many instances. My interests have been in trying to understand how many cellular constituents exist, what their function is and intercommunicants are that ensure appropriate steady state cell replacement rates. Radiation has proved to be a valuable tool to induce cell death, reproductive sterilisation, and regenerative proliferation in these systems, the responses to which can provide information on the number of regenerative cells (a function associated with stem cells). Such studies have helped define the epidermal proliferative units and the structurally similar units on the dorsal surface of the tongue. The radiation responses considered in conjunction with a wide range of cell kinetic lineage tracking and somatic mutation studies with complex mathematical modelling, provide insights into the functioning of the poliferative units (crypts) of the small intestine. Comparative studies have then been undertaken with the crypts in the large bowel. In the small intestine, which rarely develops cancer, various protective mechanisms have evolved to ensure the genetic integrity of the stem cell compartment. Stem cells in the small intestinal crypts have an intolerance of genotoxic damage (including that induced by very low doses of radiation), they do not undergo cell cycle arrest and repair but commit an altruistic p53 dependent cell suicide (apoptosis). This process is compromised in the large bowel by bcl-2 expression. Recent studies have suggested a second genome protection mechanism operating in the stem cells of the small intestinal crypts that may also have a p53 dependence. Such studies have allowed the cell lineages and genome protection mechanisms operating in the small intestinal crypts to be defined

  13. Assessment of the mode of action underlying development of rodent small intestinal tumors following oral exposure to hexavalent chromium and relevance to humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C.; Kirman, Christopher R.; Harris, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in drinking water causes intestinal adenomas and carcinomas in mice, but not in rats. Cr(VI) causes damage to intestinal villi and crypt hyperplasia in mice after only one week of exposure. After two years of exposure, intestinal damage and crypt hyperplasia are evident in mice (but not rats), as are intestinal tumors. Although Cr(VI) has genotoxic properties, these findings suggest that intestinal tumors in mice arise as a result of chronic mucosal injury. To better understand the mode of action (MOA) of Cr(VI) in the intestine, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted to collect histological, biochemical, toxicogenomic and pharmacokinetic data in intestinal tissues. Using MOA analyses and human relevance frameworks proposed by national and international regulatory agencies, the weight of evidence supports a cytotoxic MOA with the following key events: (a) absorption of Cr(VI) from the intestinal lumen, (b) toxicity to intestinal villi, (c) crypt regenerative hyperplasia and (d) clonal expansion of mutations within the crypt stem cells, resulting in late onset tumorigenesis. This article summarizes the data supporting each key event in the MOA, as well as data that argue against a mutagenic MOA for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors. PMID:23445218

  14. The recruitability and cell-cycle state of intestinal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.; Chadwick, C.; Ijiri, K.; Tsubouchi, S.; Hanson, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is presented which suggests that the crypts of the small intestine contain at least two discrete but interdependent classes of stem cells, some with discrete cell kinetic properties and some with discrete radiation responses or radiosensitivities. Very low doses of X rays or gamma rays, or neutrons, kill a few cells in the stem cell regions of the crypt in a sensitive dose-dependent manner. Similar doses generate several different cell kinetic responses within either the clonogenic fraction or the cells at the stem cell position within the crypt. The cell kinetic responses range from apparent recruitment of G0 clonogenic cells into cycle, to a marked shortening of the average cell cycle of the cells at the stem cell position. It is suggested that the cell kinetic changes may be the consequence of the cell destruction

  15. Bile acids in experimental colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Rainey, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Cogent epidemiological and experimental data implicate bile acids as endogenous co-carcinogens in colorectal cancer. A series of experiments was designed to test the ability of sodium deoxycholate (SDC) to promote intestinal hyperplasia and neoplasia in rats (n = 265). The intermediary role of faecal anaerobes was explored in animals receiving oral metronidazole. Intrarectal instillation of SDC trebled tumour yield in functioning large bowel and increased both crypt depth and crypt cell produ...

  16. PKH26 staining defines distinct subsets of normal human colon epithelial cells at different maturation stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pastò

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colon crypts are characterized by a hierarchy of cells distributed along the crypt axis. Aim of this paper was to develop an in vitro system for separation of epithelial cell subsets in different maturation stages from normal human colon. METHODOLOGY AND MAJOR FINDINGS: Dissociated colonic epithelial cells were stained with PKH26, which allows identification of distinct populations based on their proliferation rate, and cultured in vitro in the absence of serum. The cytofluorimetric expression of CK20, Msi-1 and Lgr5 was studied. The mRNA levels of several stemness-associated genes were also compared in cultured cell populations and in three colon crypt populations isolated by microdissection. A PKH(pos population survived in culture and formed spheroids; this population included subsets with slow (PKH(high and rapid (PKH(low replicative rates. Molecular analysis revealed higher mRNA levels of both Msi-1 and Lgr-5 in PKH(high cells; by cytofluorimetric analysis, Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells were only found within PKH(high cells, whereas Msi-1(+/Lgr5(- cells were also observed in the PKH(low population. As judged by qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of several stemness-associated markers (Bmi-1, EphB2, EpCAM, ALDH1 was highly enriched in Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells. While CK20 expression was mainly found in PKH(low and PKH(neg cells, a small PKH(high subset co-expressed both CK20 and Msi-1, but not Lgr5; cells with these properties also expressed Mucin, and could be identified in vivo in colon crypts. These results mirrored those found in cells isolated from different crypt portions by microdissection, and based on proliferation rates and marker expression they allowed to define several subsets at different maturation stages: PKH(high/Lgr5(+/Msi-1(+/CK20(-, PKH(high/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/CK20(+, PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/Ck20(-, and PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(-/CK20(+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the possibility of deriving in vitro, without any

  17. The proliferative status of intestinal epithelial clonogenic cells: sensitivity to S phase specific cytotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarder, T A; Blackett, N M

    1976-11-01

    High concentrations of tritiated thymidine and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) have been used to selectively kill cells in the crypts of Lieberkuhn that are synthesizing DNA. The effect of these agents on the number of regenerating microcolonies seen 3 1/2 days after a range of radiation doses indicates that a majority of the clonogenic cells are proliferating rapidly and that the slowly proliferating cells at the base of the crypt do not represent the whole clonogenic population.

  18. The MicroRNA Repertoire in Enteroendocrine Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lina A; Petersen, Natalia; Schwartz, Thue W

    2015-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for many biological processes, but their role in the enteroendocrine development and differentiation has been neglected due to the elusive nature of the enteroendocrine cells. However, transgenic mice expressing fluorescent reporter proteins under the control...... of promoters for Cck, Gpr41, and Lgr5, ie, two different enteroendocrine markers and a marker for the stem cells, now enables identification and FACS purification of enteroendocrine cells at different stages of their differentiation along the crypt-villus axis. Surprisingly few of the 746 analyzed mi......RNAs differed in their expression pattern between enteroendocrine and nonenteroendocrine cells of the gut mucosa and between enteroendocrine cells of the crypt versus the villus. Thus, only let-7g-3p, miR-7b-5p (miR-7b), and miR-375-3p (miR-375) were up-regulated in the enteroendocrine cells of both the crypt...

  19. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Enacts Wnt Signaling in Intestinal Homeostasis and Contributes to the Instigation of Stemness in Diseases Entailing Epithelial Hyperplasia or Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oittinen, Mikko; Popp, Alina; Kurppa, Kalle; Lindfors, Katri; Mäki, Markku; Kaikkonen, Minna U; Viiri, Keijo

    2017-02-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium by controlling the balance between intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation but epigenetic mechanisms enacting the process are not known. We hypothesized that epigenetic regulator, Polycomb Repressive Complex-2 (PRC2), is involved in Wnt-mediated epithelial homeostasis on the crypt-villus axis and aberrancies therein are implicated both in celiac disease and in intestinal malignancies. We found that PRC2 establishes repressive crypt and villus specific trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) signature on genes responsible for, for example, nutrient transport and cell killing in crypts and, for example, proliferation and differentiation in mature villi, suggesting that PRC2 facilitates the Wnt-governed intestinal homeostasis. When celiac patients are on gluten-containing diet PRC2 is out-of-bounds active and consequently its target genes were found affected in intestinal epithelium. Significant set of effective intestinal PRC2 targets are also differentially expressed in colorectal adenoma and carcinomas. Our results suggest that PRC2 gives rise and maintains polar crypt and villus specific H3K27me3 signatures. As H3K27me3 is a mark enriched in developmentally important genes, identified intestinal PRC2 targets are possibly imperative drivers for enterocyte differentiation and intestinal stem cell maintenance downstream to Wnt-signaling. Our work also elucidates the mechanism sustaining the crypt hyperplasia in celiac disease and suggest that PRC2-dependent fostering of epithelial stemness is a common attribute in intestinal diseases in which epithelial hyperplasia or neoplasia prevails. Finally, this work demonstrates that in intestine PRC2 represses genes having both pro-stemness and pro-differentiation functions, fact need to be considered when designing epigenetic therapies including PRC2 as a drug target. Stem Cells 2017;35:445-457. © 2016 Alpha

  20. Characterization of the cell polarity gene crumbs during the early development and maintenance of the squid-vibrio light organ symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2017-11-01

    The protein Crumbs is a determinant of apical-basal cell polarity and plays a role in apoptosis of epithelial cells and their protection against photodamage. Using the squid-vibrio system, a model for development of symbiotic partnerships, we examined the modulation of the crumbs gene in host epithelial tissues during initiation and maintenance of the association. The extracellular luminous symbiont Vibrio fischeri colonizes the apical surfaces of polarized epithelia in deep crypts of the Euprymna scolopes light organ. During initial colonization each generation, symbiont harvesting is potentiated by the biochemical and biophysical activity of superficial ciliated epithelia, which are several cell layers from the crypt epithelia where the symbionts reside. Within hours of crypt colonization, the symbionts induce the cell death mediated regression of the remote superficial ciliated fields. However, the crypt cells directly interacting with the symbiont are protected from death. In the squid host, we characterized the gene and encoded protein during light organ morphogenesis and in response to symbiosis. Features of the protein sequence and structure, phylogenetic relationships, and localization patterns in the eye supported assignment of the squid protein to the Crumbs family. In situ hybridization revealed that the crumbs transcript shows opposite expression at the onset of symbiosis in the two different regions of the light organ: elevated levels in the superficial epithelia were attenuated whereas low levels in the crypt epithelia were turned up. Although a rhythmic association in which the host controls the symbiont population over the day-night cycle begins in the juvenile upon colonization, cycling of crumbs was evident only in the adult organ with peak expression coincident with maximum symbiont population and luminescence. Our results provide evidence that crumbs responds to symbiont cues that induce developmental apoptosis and to symbiont population

  1. Butyrate and bioactive proteolytic form of Wnt-5a regulate colonic epithelial proliferation and spatial development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Hasebe, Takumu; Musch, Mark W.; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasushi; He, Tong-Chuan; Lichtenstein, Lev; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Jabri, Bana; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Chang, Eugene B.

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo, intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical β-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial β-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation. PMID:27561676

  2. Protective effects of the fermented milk Kefir on X-ray irradiation-induced intestinal damage in B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Kiichiro; Nakamichi, Noboru; Shirahata, Sanetaka; Myojin-Maekawa, Yuki; Shimamoto, Fumio; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Tokumaru, Koichiro; Tokumaru, Sennosuke

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal damage associated with radiation therapy is currently an inevitable outcome. The protective effect of Kefir was assessed for its usefulness against radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage. A Kefir supernatant was diluted by 2- or 10-fold and administered for 1 week prior to 8 Gray (Gy) X-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2 Gy/min, with an additional 15d of administration post-irradiation. The survival rate of control mice with normal drinking water dropped to 70% on days 4 through 9 post-irradiation. On the other hand, 100% of mice in the 10- and 2-fold-diluted Kefir groups survived up to day 9 post-irradiation (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Examinations for crypt regeneration against 8, 10 and 12 Gy irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy/min revealed that the crypt number was significantly increased in the mice administered both diluted Kefir solutions (p<0.01 for each). Histological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the diluted Kefir solutions protected the crypts from radiation, and promoted crypt regeneration. In addition, lyophilized Kefir powder was found to significantly recover the testis weights (p<0.05), but had no effects on the body and spleen weights, after 8 Gy irradiation. These findings suggest that Kefir could be a promising candidate as a radiation-protective agent. (author)

  3. Early colonic dysplasia: comparison of differential mucin staining and tritiated thymidine labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.A.; Colacchio, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Controversy has arisen regarding the interpretation and significance of histochemical changes in the mucin produced by the globlet cells in colonic mucosa. The shift from sulfomucin to sialomucin, which is readily identified utilizing high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques, has been alternately interpreted as a specific, early dysplastic and premalignant change or a nonspecific generalized response to trauma and inflammation, among others. An attempt to clarify this issue was made by comparing mucin changes identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques with increases in DNA synthetic activity identified utilizing autoradiographic analysis of tritiated thymidine uptake. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 15 weekly subcutaneous injections of dimethylhydrazine (30 mg/kg per week) (10 rats) or placebo (10 rats). The colons were prepared and fixed, sequential sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or high iron diamine-alcian blue, autoradiography was performed. Analyses of labeling index showed no difference in normal background crypts between the control and treatment groups nor in crypts adjacent to those displaying abnormal mucin staining. Crypts with abnormal mucin production (sialomucin dominant) had significantly higher labeling indexes when compared with those of control animals (p less than 0.005). These findings indicate that the shifts in mucin production identified with high iron diamine-alcian blue staining represent crypts with increased and abnormally distributed mitotic activity that is an early dysplastic response to the carcinogenic stimulus

  4. Long-term expansion of epithelial organoids from human colon, adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and Barrett's epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiro; Stange, Daniel E; Ferrante, Marc; Vries, Robert G J; Van Es, Johan H; Van den Brink, Stieneke; Van Houdt, Winan J; Pronk, Apollo; Van Gorp, Joost; Siersema, Peter D; Clevers, Hans

    2011-11-01

    We previously established long-term culture conditions under which single crypts or stem cells derived from mouse small intestine expand over long periods. The expanding crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, simultaneously generating villus-like epithelial domains that contain all differentiated types of cells. We have adapted the culture conditions to grow similar epithelial organoids from mouse colon and human small intestine and colon. Based on the mouse small intestinal culture system, we optimized the mouse and human colon culture systems. Addition of Wnt3A to the combination of growth factors applied to mouse colon crypts allowed them to expand indefinitely. Addition of nicotinamide, along with a small molecule inhibitor of Alk and an inhibitor of p38, were required for long-term culture of human small intestine and colon tissues. The culture system also allowed growth of mouse Apc-deficient adenomas, human colorectal cancer cells, and human metaplastic epithelia from regions of Barrett's esophagus. We developed a technology that can be used to study infected, inflammatory, or neoplastic tissues from the human gastrointestinal tract. These tools might have applications in regenerative biology through ex vivo expansion of the intestinal epithelia. Studies of these cultures indicate that there is no inherent restriction in the replicative potential of adult stem cells (or a Hayflick limit) ex vivo. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Embryonic Development of the Light Organ of the Sepiolid Squid Euprymna scolopes Berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, M K; McFall-Ngai, M

    1993-06-01

    The sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes maintains luminous bacterial symbionts of the species Vibrio fischeri in a bilobed light organ partially embedded in the ventral surface of the ink sac. Anatomical and ultrastructural observations of the light organ during embryogenesis indicate that the organ begins development as a paired proliferation of the mesoderm of the hindgut-ink sac complex. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the incipient light organ of a newly hatched juvenile revealed the presence of three pairs of sacculate crypts, each crypt joined to a pore on the surface of the light organ by a ciliated duct. The crypts, which become populated with bacterial symbionts within hours after the juvenile hatches, appear to result from sequential paired invaginations of the surface epithelium of the hindgut-ink sac complex during embryogenesis. A pair of anterior and a pair of posterior ciliated epithelial appendages, which may facilitate infection of the incipient light organ with symbiotic bacteria, develop by extension and growth of the surface epithelium. The ink sac and reflector develop dorsal to the crypts and together function to direct luminescence ventrally. These two accessory tissues are present at the time of hatching, although changes in their overall structure accompany growth and maturation of the light organ. A third accessory tissue, the muscle-derived lens, appears during post-hatch maturation of the light organ.

  6. Solution Synthesis, Structure, and CO2 Reduction Reactivity of a Scandium(II) Complex, {Sc[N(SiMe3 )2 ]3 }.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woen, David H; Chen, Guo P; Ziller, Joseph W; Boyle, Timothy J; Furche, Filipp; Evans, William J

    2017-02-13

    The first crystallographically characterizable complex of Sc 2+ , [Sc(NR 2 ) 3 ] - (R=SiMe 3 ), has been obtained by LnA 3 /M reactions (Ln=rare earth metal; A=anionic ligand; M=alkali metal) involving reduction of Sc(NR 2 ) 3 with K in the presence of 2.2.2-cryptand (crypt) and 18-crown-6 (18-c-6) and with Cs in the presence of crypt. Dark maroon [K(crypt)] + , [K(18-c-6)] + , and [Cs(crypt)] + salts of the [Sc(NR 2 ) 3 ] - anion are formed, respectively. The formation of this oxidation state of Sc is also indicated by the eight-line EPR spectra arising from the I=7/2 45 Sc nucleus. The Sc(NR 2 ) 3 reduction differs from Ln(NR 2 ) 3 reactions (Ln=Y and lanthanides) in that it occurs under N 2 without formation of isolable reduced dinitrogen species. [K(18-c-6)][Sc(NR 2 ) 3 ] reacts with CO 2 to produce an oxalate complex, {K 2 (18-c-6) 3 }{[(R 2 N) 3 Sc] 2 (μ-C 2 O 4 -κ 1 O:κ 1 O'')}, and a CO 2 - radical anion complex, [(R 2 N) 3 Sc(μ-OCO-κ 1 O:κ 1 O')K(18-c-6)] n . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Human Primary Intestinal Epithelial Cells as an Improved In Vitro Model for Cryptosporidium parvum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Nichols, Joan; Gomez, Guillermo; White, A. Clinton

    2013-01-01

    The study of human intestinal pathogens has been limited by the lack of methods for the long-term culture of primary human intestinal epithelial cells (PECs). The development of infection models with PECs would allow a better understanding of host-parasite interactions. The objective of this study was to develop a novel method for prolonged in vitro cultivation of PECs that can be used to study Cryptosporidium infection. We isolated intact crypts from human intestines removed during weight loss surgery. The fragments of intestinal layers were cultivated with culture medium supplemented with growth factors and antiapoptotic molecules. After 7 days, the PECs formed self-regenerating cell clusters, forming villi that resemble intestinal epithelium. The PECs proliferated and remained viable for at least 60 days. The cells expressed markers for intestinal stem cells, epithelial cells, and mature enterocytes. The PECs were infected with Cryptosporidium. In contrast to older models in which parasite numbers decay, the burden of parasites increased for >120 h. In summary, we describe here a novel method for the cultivation of self-regenerating human epithelial cells from small intestinal crypts, which contain both intestinal stem cells and mature villus cells. We present data that suggest these cells support Cryptosporidium better than existing cell lines. PECs should provide an improved tool for studying host-parasite interactions involving Cryptosporidium and other intestinal pathogens. PMID:23509153

  8. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.; Franks, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Cell kinetic parameters in the descending colon of unirradiated mice, 3-30-months-old were compared with those in mice irradiated repeatedly from the age of 6 or 24 months. The latter animals were given 1250 rad local X-irradiation to the colon every 6 weeks. Dose-survival curves showed the colon crypts of 6 and 24-months-old mice were similarly radiosensitive. In unirradiated mice the number of crypts per colon section decreased significantly at 30 months, but no significant age-related changes were seen in crypt size or labelling index (LI). Cell proliferation returned to control levels within 6 weeks of each X-ray dose and remained at this level for 20 weeks after the final dose. Later, cell proliferation in the irradiated colon fell significantly below control. A total of 6 or 7 doses each of 1250 rad produced only 1 colon carcinoma amongst 50 mice kept until they died. (author)

  9. The protective effect of lycopene against radiation injury to the small intestine of abdominally radiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Youko; Kurabe, Teruhisa; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    To reduce the side effects of radiotherapy, radioprotective effects of lycopene on villi and crypts in the small intestine of abdominally radiated mice (15 Gy) were examined with administration pre-, continuous and post-radiation. In the lycopene group, the ratio of the villus length to the crypt was significantly increased in comparison with the radiation only group at 2 days after radiation. At 7 days after radiation, the ratio of necrotic cells in crypt/total was significantly decreased and the ratio of necrotic cells in villus/total was significantly increased by lycopene administration, which indicated an acceleration of the recovery from the radiation injury with lycopene. Each lycopene administered group showed a significant radioprotective effect, with the pre-radiation administration inducing a smaller effect than that of continuous and post-radiation administration. Radiation induced apoptosis was also decreased by lycopene administration. It is concluded that pre-, continuous and post-radiation administration of lycopene protects against radiation injury of the small intestine and accelerate the recovery. (author)

  10. Replacement of Lost Lgr5-Positive Stem Cells through Plasticity of Their Enterocyte-Lineage Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Basak, Onur; Farin, Henner F; Wiebrands, Kay; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; de Sauvage, Frederic; van Es, Johan H; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans

    2016-02-04

    Intestinal crypts display robust regeneration upon injury. The relatively rare secretory precursors can replace lost stem cells, but it is unknown if the abundant enterocyte progenitors that express the Alkaline phosphate intestinal (Alpi) gene also have this capacity. We created an Alpi-IRES-CreERT2 (Alpi(CreER)) knockin allele for lineage tracing. Marked clones consist entirely of enterocytes and are all lost from villus tips within days. Genetic fate-mapping of Alpi(+) cells before or during targeted ablation of Lgr5-expressing stem cells generated numerous long-lived crypt-villus "ribbons," indicative of dedifferentiation of enterocyte precursors into Lgr5(+) stems. By single-cell analysis of dedifferentiating enterocytes, we observed the generation of Paneth-like cells and proliferative stem cells. We conclude that the highly proliferative, short-lived enterocyte precursors serve as a large reservoir of potential stem cells during crypt regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epithelial WNT Ligands Are Essential Drivers of Intestinal Stem Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Y. Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal stem cells (ISCs maintain and repair the intestinal epithelium. While regeneration after ISC-targeted damage is increasingly understood, injury-repair mechanisms that direct regeneration following injuries to differentiated cells remain uncharacterized. The enteric pathogen, rotavirus, infects and damages differentiated cells while sparing all ISC populations, thus allowing the unique examination of the response of intact ISC compartments during injury-repair. Upon rotavirus infection in mice, ISC compartments robustly expand and proliferating cells rapidly migrate. Infection results specifically in stimulation of the active crypt-based columnar ISCs, but not alternative reserve ISC populations, as is observed after ISC-targeted damage. Conditional ablation of epithelial WNT secretion diminishes crypt expansion and ISC activation, demonstrating a previously unknown function of epithelial-secreted WNT during injury-repair. These findings indicate a hierarchical preference of crypt-based columnar cells (CBCs over other potential ISC populations during epithelial restitution and the importance of epithelial-derived signals in regulating ISC behavior.

  12. The effect on the small bowel of 5-FU and oxaliplatin in combination with radiation using a microcolony survival assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjellén Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In locally advanced rectal cancer, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU-based chemoradiation is the standard treatment. The main acute toxicity of this treatment is enteritis. Due to its potential radiosensitizing properties, oxaliplatin has recently been incorporated in many clinical chemoradiation protocols. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 5-FU and oxaliplatin influence the radiation (RT induced small bowel mucosal damage when given in conjunction with single or split dose RT. Methods Immune competent balb-c mice were treated with varying doses of 5-FU, oxaliplatin (given intraperitoneally and total body RT, alone or in different combinations in a series of experiments. The small bowel damage was studied by a microcolony survival assay. The treatment effect was evaluated using the inverse of the slope (D0 of the exponential part of the dose-response curve. Results In two separate experiments the dose-response relations were determined for single doses of RT alone, yielding D0 values of 2.79 Gy (95% CI: 2.65 - 2.95 and 2.98 Gy (2.66 - 3.39, for doses in the intervals of 5-17 Gy and 5-10 Gy, respectively. Equitoxic low doses (IC5 of the two drugs in combination with RT caused a decrease in jejunal crypt count with significantly lower D0: 2.30 Gy (2.10 - 2.56 for RT+5-FU and 2.27 Gy (2.08 - 2.49 for RT+oxaliplatin. Adding both drugs to RT did not further decrease D0: 2.28 Gy (1.97 - 2.71 for RT+5-FU+oxaliplatin. A clearly higher crypt survival was noted for split course radiation (3 × 2.5 Gy compared to a single fraction of 7.5 Gy. The same difference was seen when 5-FU and/or oxaliplatin were added. Conclusion Combining 5-FU or oxaliplatin with RT lead to an increase in mucosal damage as compared to RT alone in our experimental setting. No additional reduction of jejunal crypt counts was noted when both drugs were combined with single dose RT. The higher crypt survival with split dose radiation indicates a

  13. Malignant transformation of colonic epithelial cells by a colon-derived long noncoding RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Rankin, Carl R.; Levy, Shawn; Snoddy, Jay R.; Zhang, Bing; Washington, Mary Kay; Thomson, J. Michael; Whitehead, Robert H.; Coffey, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Non-coding RNAs are found in the colonic crypt progenitor compartment. •Colonocytes transformed by ncNRFR are highly invasive and metastatic. •ncNRFR has a region similar to the miRNA, let-7 family. •ncNRFR expression alters let-7 activity as measured by reporter construct. •ncNRFR expression upregulates let-7b targets. -- Abstract: Recent progress has been made in the identification of protein-coding genes and miRNAs that are expressed in and alter the behavior of colonic epithelia. However, the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colonic homeostasis is just beginning to be explored. By gene expression profiling of post-mitotic, differentiated tops and proliferative, progenitor-compartment bottoms of microdissected adult mouse colonic crypts, we identified several lncRNAs more highly expressed in crypt bottoms. One identified lncRNA, designated non-coding Nras functional RNA (ncNRFR), resides within the Nras locus but appears to be independent of the Nras coding transcript. Stable overexpression of ncNRFR in non-transformed, conditionally immortalized mouse colonocytes results in malignant transformation, as determined by growth in soft agar and formation of highly invasive tumors in nude mice. Moreover, ncNRFR appears to inhibit the function of the tumor suppressor let-7. These results suggest precise regulation of ncNRFR is necessary for proper cell growth in the colonic crypt, and its misregulation results in neoplastic transformation

  14. Comparison of Biological Effectiveness of Carbon-Ion Beams in Japan and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, Akiko; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Takai, Nobuhiko; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Scholz, Michael; Elsaesser, Thilo; Peschke, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the biological effectiveness of 290 MeV/amu carbon-ion beams in Chiba, Japan and in Darmstadt, Germany, given that different methods for beam delivery are used for each. Methods and Materials: Murine small intestine and human salivary gland tumor (HSG) cells exponentially growing in vitro were irradiated with 6-cm width of spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) adjusted to achieve nearly identical beam depth-dose profiles at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, and the SchwerIonen Synchrotron in Darmstadt. Cell kill efficiencies of carbon ions were measured by colony formation for HSG cells and jejunum crypts survival in mice. Cobalt-60 γ rays were used as the reference radiation. Isoeffective doses at given survivals were used for relative biological effectiveness (RBE) calculations and interinstitutional comparisons. Results: Isoeffective D 10 doses (mean ± standard deviation) of HSG cells ranged from 2.37 ± 0.14 Gy to 3.47 ± 0.19 Gy for Chiba and from 2.31 ± 0.11 Gy to 3.66 ± 0.17 Gy for Darmstadt. Isoeffective D 10 doses of gut crypts after single doses ranged from 8.25 ± 0.17 Gy to 10.32 ± 0.14 Gy for Chiba and from 8.27 ± 0.10 Gy to 10.27 ± 0.27 Gy for Darmstadt, whereas isoeffective D 30 doses after three fractionated doses were 9.89 ± 0.17 Gy through 13.70 ± 0.54 Gy and 10.14 ± 0.20 Gy through 13.30 ± 0.41 Gy for Chiba and Darmstadt, respectively. Overall difference of RBE between the two facilities was 0-5% or 3-7% for gut crypt survival or HSG cell kill, respectively. Conclusion: The carbon-ion beams at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany are biologically identical after single and daily fractionated irradiation.

  15. Is epidermal growth factor involved in development of duodenal polyps in familial polyposis coli?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1988-01-01

    Duodenal adenomas are a frequent extracolonic manifestation in patients with familial polyposis coli (FPC). Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a polypeptide that stimulates cellular growth and differentiation, is localized in Paneth cells in the small intestine. In two patients with FPC, we found EGF...... immunoreactivity in duodenal adenomas. Numerous EGF immunoreactive Paneth cells were localized, not as usually, in the bottom of the crypts, but scattered along the crypts alone or in clusters. We do not know whether EGF is involved in the development of duodenal polyps in FPC patients, or whether the present...

  16. Effects of glucocorticoid hormones on cell proliferation in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumours in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1981-01-01

    Adrenocortical hormones have previously been shown to influence cell proliferation in many tissues. In this report, their influence on cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinomata is compared. Colonic tumour cell proliferation was found to be retarded following adrenalectomy and this retardation was reversible by administration of hydrocortisone, or by administration of synthetic steroids with predominantly glucocorticoid activity. Tumour cell proliferation in adrenalectomized rats was not promoted by the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. Neither adrenalectomy, nor adrenocortical hormone treatment, significantly influenced colonic crypt cell proliferation.

  17. Morphological profiles of neutron and X-irradiated small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; O'Shea, O.; Hazzard, R.A.; McCullough, J.S.; Hume, S.P.; Nelson, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the response of mouse small intestine, at several time points after treatment with neutron or X-irradiation, using doses expected to give similar effects in terms of crypt/microcolony survival. Using resin histology, the effects of radiation on the numbers of duodenal cell types and measurements of tissue areas were assessed. The results for individual parameters and for an estimate of overall damage are given in a data display, which summarises the morphological profile of the organ after both types of radiation. Damage and recovery were seen for many of the parameters studied but there was no standard response pattern applicable for all parameters. In particular, the response of individual crypt cell types could not be predicted from knowledge of the change in crypt numbers. With regard to the holistic response of the gut, neutron irradiation appeared to have caused more damage and produced more early effects than the X-irradiation. More specifically, neutron treatment led to more damage to the neuromuscular components of the wall, while X-irradiation produced early vascular changes. (author)

  18. An experimental study of radioprotective effect of ginseng alkaloid fraction on cellular damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Hwan [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    This paper is to assess the effect of Adaptagen as a radioprotector in which main component is alkaloid fraction of ginseng. Evaluation was made in vitro and in vivo study with NIGP(S) mouse by the measurement of regeneration of jejunal crypt cell and micronucleus assay to analyze radioprotective effect of ginseng alkaloid fraction in comparison with that of water fraction after whole body irradiation. The results were as follows, 1. The degree of radiation damage of mouse jejunal crypt cell was diminished in both of alkaloid and water fraction groups compared to control group but more in alkaloid fraction group than water fraction group. 2. Regeneration of mouse jejunal crypt cell was higher both in alkaloid and water fraction groups than control group. 3. In vitro study, frequency of micronucleus was diminished in tendency for the treated groups than control group but statistically insignificant. 4. In vitro study, frequency of micronucleus was diminished in both alkaloid and water fraction groups compared to control group but more in alkaloid fraction group than water fraction group.

  19. Cytochemical localization of small intestinal glycoconjugates by lectin histochemistry in controls and subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, L R; De Fontes, D; Cox, K L

    1983-05-01

    Human mucosal glycoconjugates were examined in normal small intestinal biopsies from five control subjects using six different fluorescein-conjugated lectins: Triticum vulgare agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA1), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), glycin max-soy bean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichus biflorus agglutinin (DBA), and Arachis hypogaea peanut agglutinin (PNA). These plant agglutinins bind to specific nonreducing end-terminal carbohydrate residues. Only the lectins derived from WGA, which produced the strongest staining, and UEA1 consistently bound to both intestinal goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell microvillar membranes. The intensity of lectin binding was greatest in the upper villus and diminished down towards the crypt, being weakest in the crypt base. Similar histochemical studies carried out on small bowel biopsies from five patients with cystic fibrosis revealed no major qualitative differences between the intestinal glycoconjugates in normal subjects and those with cystic fibrosis. These results suggest that glycoconjugate biosynthesis of human intestinal goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell membranes may be complete and hence full differentiation achieved only when these cells have migrated out of the crypt and onto the villus.

  20. Transient, heat-induced thermal resistance in the small intestine of mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, S.P.; Marigold, J.C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Heat-induced thermal resistance has been investigated in mouse jejunum by assaying crypt survival 24 h after treatment. Hyperthermia was achieved by immersing an exteriorized loop of intestine in a bath of Krebs-Ringer solution. Two approaches have been used. In the first, thermal survival curves were obtained following single hyperthermal treatments at temperatures in the range 42 to 44 0 C. Transient thermal resistance, inducted by a plateau in the crypt survival curve, developed during heating at temperatures around 42.5 0 C after 60 to 80 min. In the second series of experiments, a priming heat treatment (40.0, 41.0, 41.5, or 42.0 0 C for 60 min) was followed at varying intervals by a test treatment at 43.0 0 C. A transient resistance to the second treatment was induced, the extent and time of development being dependent upon the priming treatment. Crypt survival curves for thermally resistant intestine showed an increase in thermal D 0 and a decrease in n compared with curves from previously unheated intestine

  1. Influence of prostaglandin analogues on epithelial cell proliferation and xenograft growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-01-01

    The influence of two prostaglandin (PG) analogues, 16,16-dimethyl PG E2 and 16,16-dimethyl PG F2 alpha and of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, on epithelial cell proliferation was assessed using a stathmokinetic technique. The epithelia examined were those of the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and that of dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomas of rat colon. The influence of the two prostaglandin analogues, and of flurbiprofen, on the growth of a human colorectal tumour propagated as xenografts in immune-deprived mice was also assessed. The PG E2 analogue transiently inhibited xenograft growth, but was without effect on the mitotic rate in the rat tissues. The PG F2 alpha analogue was also found to inhibit xenograft growth but, unlike the PG E2 analogue, it was found to be a strong inhibitor of cell proliferation in rat colonic tumours, and an accelerator of proliferation in jejunal-crypt cells. The only statistically significant effect of flurbiprofen was to accelerate cell division in the rat colonic tumours.

  2. Sampling the light-organ microenvironment of Euprymna scolopes: description of a population of host cells in association with the bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, S V; McFall-Ngai, M J

    1998-10-01

    The symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri has a pronounced diel rhythm, one component of which is the venting of the contents of the light organ into the surrounding seawater each day at dawn. In this study, we explored the use of this behavior to sample the microenvironment of the light-organ crypts. Intact crypt contents, which emerge from the lateral pores of the organ as a thick paste-like exudate, were collected from anesthetized host animals that had been exposed to a light cue. Microscopy revealed that the expelled material is composed of a conspicuous population of host cells in association with the bacterial symbionts, all of which are embedded in a dense acellular matrix that strongly resembles the bacteria-based biofilms described in other systems. Assays of the viability of expelled crypt cells revealed no dead bacterial symbionts and a mixture of live and dead host cells. Analyses of the ultrastructure, biochemistry, and phagocytic activity of a subset of the host cell population suggested that some of these cells are macrophage-like molluscan hemocytes.

  3. Solution synthesis, structure, and CO{sub 2} reduction reactivity of a Scandium(II) complex, {Sc[N(SiMe_3)_2]_3}{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woen, David H.; Chen, Guo P.; Ziller, Joseph W.; Furche, Filipp; Evans, William J. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Boyle, Timothy J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Advanced Materials Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-13

    The first crystallographically characterizable complex of Sc{sup 2+}, [Sc(NR{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup -} (R=SiMe{sub 3}), has been obtained by LnA{sub 3}/M reactions (Ln=rare earth metal; A=anionic ligand; M=alkali metal) involving reduction of Sc(NR{sub 2}){sub 3} with K in the presence of 2.2.2-cryptand (crypt) and 18-crown-6 (18-c-6) and with Cs in the presence of crypt. Dark maroon [K(crypt)]{sup +}, [K(18-c-6)]{sup +}, and [Cs(crypt)]{sup +} salts of the [Sc(NR{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup -} anion are formed, respectively. The formation of this oxidation state of Sc is also indicated by the eight-line EPR spectra arising from the I=7/2 {sup 45}Sc nucleus. The Sc(NR{sub 2}){sub 3} reduction differs from Ln(NR{sub 2}){sub 3} reactions (Ln=Y and lanthanides) in that it occurs under N{sub 2} without formation of isolable reduced dinitrogen species. [K(18-c-6)][Sc(NR{sub 2}){sub 3}] reacts with CO{sub 2} to produce an oxalate complex, {K_2(18-c-6)_3}{[(R_2N)_3Sc]_2(μ-C_2O_4-κ"1O:κ"1O'')}, and a CO{sub 2}{sup -} radical anion complex, [(R{sub 2}N){sub 3}Sc(μ-OCO-κ{sup 1}O:κ{sup 1}O')K(18-c-6)]{sub n}. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Effect of corn particle size and inclusion of organic acid in the diet on growth performance and gastrointestinal structure in young chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassare Fronte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 3 corn particle sizes (dgw: 375, 1117, and 2402 µm combined with or without organic acids (0.3 g/kg of Galliacid S® was investigated on broilers from Day 1 to Day 21; 540 1-day old Ross 708 males were raised in 36 pens (3x2 factorial design, 6 blocks each. We measured: body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, liver weight, pH weight and height of empty gizzard, pH and length of intestine and caeca, height and width of ileal villi, crypt depth/gland diameter, total bacteria count. Different corn particle sizes and organic acid supplements only affected feed intake (Days 14 and 21, feed conversion ratio (Day 14, villus height, and crypt depth. On Day 21, fine milling had negative effects on body weights compared with larger feed particle size (816 vs 848 and 844 g; acidic additive had a positive effect on broiler growth (859 vs 813 g. Length of small intestinal villi and crypt depth were affected by both particle size and organic acids (fine to coarse small intestinal villi: 1869a, 1401c, and 1039d µm in non-acidified; 1708b, 1535c, and 942e µm in acidified. Fine to coarse crypt depth: 102ab, 98b; 65c µm in non-acidified; 106a, 70c, and 66c µm in acidified. No difference was observed in total bacteria counts of the gut in relation to the different treatments. Use of organic acids during starter phase is useful, especially when the milling process is inappropriate.

  5. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 is a marker for normal and malignant human colonic stem cells (SC) and tracks SC overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Emina H; Hynes, Mark J; Zhang, Tao; Ginestier, Christophe; Dontu, Gabriela; Appelman, Henry; Fields, Jeremy Z; Wicha, Max S; Boman, Bruce M

    2009-04-15

    Although the concept that cancers originate from stem cells (SC) is becoming scientifically accepted, mechanisms by which SC contribute to tumor initiation and progression are largely unknown. For colorectal cancer (CRC), investigation of this problem has been hindered by a paucity of specific markers for identification and isolation of SC from normal and malignant colon. Accordingly, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) was investigated as a possible marker for identifying colonic SC and for tracking them during cancer progression. Immunostaining showed that ALDH1(+) cells are sparse and limited to the normal crypt bottom, where SCs reside. During progression from normal epithelium to mutant (APC) epithelium to adenoma, ALDH1(+) cells increased in number and became distributed farther up the crypt. CD133(+) and CD44(+) cells, which are more numerous and broadly distributed in normal crypts, showed similar changes during tumorigenesis. Flow cytometric isolation of cancer cells based on enzymatic activity of ALDH (Aldefluor assay) and implantation of these cells in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient mice (a) generated xenograft tumors (Aldefluor(-) cells did not), (b) generated them after implanting as few as 25 cells, and (c) generated them dose dependently. Further isolation of cancer cells using a second marker (CD44(+) or CD133(+) serially) only modestly increased enrichment based on tumor-initiating ability. Thus, ALDH1 seems to be a specific marker for identifying, isolating, and tracking human colonic SC during CRC development. These findings also support our original hypothesis, derived previously from mathematical modeling of crypt dynamics, that progressive colonic SC overpopulation occurs during colon tumorigenesis and drives CRC development.

  6. Live imaging of symbiosis: spatiotemporal infection dynamics of a GFP-labelled Burkholderia symbiont in the bean bug Riptortus pedestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-01-01

    Many insects possess endosymbiotic bacteria inside their body, wherein intimate interactions occur between the partners. While recent technological advancements have deepened our understanding of metabolic and evolutionary features of the symbiont genomes, molecular mechanisms underpinning the intimate interactions remain difficult to approach because the insect symbionts are generally uncultivable. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris is associated with the betaproteobacterial Burkholderia symbiont in a posterior region of the midgut, which develops numerous crypts harbouring the symbiont extracellularly. Distinct from other insect symbiotic systems, R. pedestris acquires the Burkholderia symbiont not by vertical transmission but from the environment every generation. By making use of the cultivability and the genetic tractability of the symbiont, we constructed a transgenic Burkholderia strain labelled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), which enabled detailed observation of spatiotemporal dynamics and the colonization process of the symbiont in freshly prepared specimens. The symbiont live imaging revealed that, at the second instar, colonization of the symbiotic midgut M4 region started around 6 h after inoculation (hai). By 24 hai, the symbiont cells appeared in the main tract and also in several crypts of the M4. By 48 hai, most of the crypts were colonized by the symbiont cells. By 72 hai, all the crypts were filled up with the symbiont cells and the symbiont localization pattern continued during the subsequent nymphal development. Quantitative PCR of the symbiont confirmed the infection dynamics quantitatively. These results highlight the stinkbug-Burkholderia gut symbiosis as an unprecedented model for comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underpinning insect symbiosis. PMID:24103110

  7. Geographical aspects of the development of photovoltaic industry in Slovakia, focusing on the spatial distribution; Geograficke aspekty rozvoja fotovoltickeho priemyslu na Slovensku so zameranim na priestorove rozmiestnenie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chovanec, M [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra regionalnej geografie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    The aim of the study is the demonstration of the use of geophysical methods for exploration of groundwater hollow structures. The survey was conducted in the premises of the cemetery in Dvorniky (district Hlohovec) to detect a crypt, which had to be a relique of a demolited church. In this survey there were used in parallel three different geophysical methods - micro-gravimetry, electrical resistivity tomography and geo-radar, while each of them showed the presence of empty space in the area of interest, moreover relics of the original walls of the building were also captured in some parts. (author)

  8. Expression of Gast, Cckbr, Reg1α genes in rat duodenal epithelial cells upon long-term gastric hypoacidity and after a multiprobiotic administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dranitsina A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Determination of the Cckbr, Gast and Reg1α genes expression in rat duodenal epithelial cells upon long- term hypoacidity and with the administration of the multiprobiotic Symbiter. Methods. The experiments were carried out on white non-strain male rats. The hypoacidic state was induced through intraperitoneal injection of omeprazole for 28 days. The level of genes expression was determined by semi-quantitative analysis with RT-PCR Results. The elevation of mRNA levels of the Cckbr and Gast genes in rat duodenal villus and crypt epitheliocytes, the increased expression of the Reg1A gene in crypt epithelial cells were shown as well as the appearance of the Reg1a gene expression in villus epitheliocytes upon hypoacidic conditions were shown. The content of mRNAs of the above mentioned genes decreased or remained at the control level upon the treatment of hypoacidic rats with the multiprobiotic Symbiter. Conclusions. Long-term gastric hypoacidity is accompanied by the changes in expression of the Cckbr, Gast and Reg1a genes in rat duodenum, whereas upon administration of the multiprobiotic Symbiter the pattern of studied gene expression did not changed in the most cases.

  9. Comparison of the effects of an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor on the intestinal epithelium and on intestinal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1986-12-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of polyamines, it has a short half-life, and its synthesis is under hormonal control. Recently, insight into the role of ODC and thus into the physiology of polyamines has been gained by the use of an inhibitor of ODC, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). In the present report cell proliferation was measured by a stathmokinetic method in the crypt epithelium of the jejunum and colon of normal rats and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumors. Growth of human colon tumor xenografts in immunosuppressed mice and mouse colon tumor isografts was also assessed. Cell proliferation in primary colonic tumors was substantially suppressed by a single dose of DFMO at 100 mg/kg whereas the normal crypt epithelium of the small and large intestine required two doses at 400 mg/kg to produce a similar magnitude of inhibition of cell proliferation. DFMO was also found to suppress cell proliferation in, and the growth of, the transplantable colon cancers. Because of the apparent selectivity of the antimitotic activity of DFMO towards tumors, ODC inhibitors may prove to be useful anticancer drugs.

  10. Effect of Rapeseed Meal on Nutrient Digestibility and Gut Morphology in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Peric

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the effect of rapeseed meal (RSM on nutrient digestibility and intestinal parameters of jejunum of 21 days old broiler chickens. Three groups of Ross 308 chickens were formed and fed with corn-soy based feed (control group or feed with inclusion of 10% or 15% of rapeseed meal (low glucosinolate and low eruca acid content. All mixtures were balanced to the same energy and crude protein level.  To determine digestibility, 20 male chickens per treatment were put into metabolic cages. Digestibility was determined by using the method of total collection. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, fat and energy was determined. At 21 days of age, chickens were sacrificed to obtain samples for morphometric parameters of jejunum. On jejunal samples, villus height and area, crypt depth and villus to crypt ratio were measured as indicators of gut integrity. No significant differences (P>0.05 were observed in any measured digestibility or gut health parameter. Addition of up to 15% of rapeseed meal in well balanced diets of young broiler chicken does not have an adverse effect on both digestibility of nutrients and broiler gut health.

  11. Mechanism of induction of nuclear anomalies by gamma-radiation in the colonic epithelium of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.M.; Heddle, J.A.; Blakey, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The induction of karyorrhexis and nuclear anomalies in colonic crypt cells has been correlated positively with the induction of colonic tumors by chemical treatment. These nuclear anomalies occur in the proliferative region of the crypt and exhibit a variety of morphological characteristics. Some nuclear anomalies resemble the micronuclei that arise from chromosomal fragments after mitosis. Here, we report that the nuclear anomalies observed within the first few hr of insult with gamma-radiation are independent of mitosis for their expression, as evidenced by failure of colchicine to inhibit their induction, and do not arise from chromosomal material lost during mitosis

  12. A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell growth and differentiation: characterization of a novel gut-specific N-myristoylated annexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wice, B M; Gordon, J I

    1992-01-01

    The human intestinal epithelium is rapidly and perpetually renewed as the descendants of multipotent stem cells located in crypts undergo proliferation, differentiation, and eventual exfoliation during a very well organized migration along the crypt to villus axis. The mechanisms that establish and maintain this balance between proliferation and differentiation are largely unknown. We have utilized HT-29 cells, derived from a human colon adenocarcinoma, as a model system for identifying gene products that may regulate these processes. Proliferating HT-29 cells cultured in the absence of glucose (e.g., using inosine as the carbon source) have some of the characteristics of undifferentiated but committed crypt epithelial cells while postconfluent cells cultured in the absence of glucose resemble terminally differentiated enterocytes or goblet cells. A cDNA library, constructed from exponentially growing HT-29 cells maintained in inosine-containing media, was sequentially screened with a series of probes depleted of sequences encoding housekeeping functions and enriched for intestine-specific sequences that are expressed in proliferating committed, but not differentiated, epithelial cells. Of 100,000 recombinant phage surveyed, one was found whose cDNA was derived from an apparently gut-specific mRNA. It encodes a 316 residue, 35,463-D protein that is a new member of the annexin/lipocortin family. Other family members have been implicated in regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. RNA blot and in situ hybridization studies indicate that the gene encoding this new annexin exhibits region-specific expression along both axes of the human gut: (a) highest levels of mRNA are present in the jejunum with marked and progressive reductions occurring distally; (b) its mRNA appears in crypt-associated epithelial cells and increases in concentration as they exit the crypt. Villus-associated epithelial cells continue to transcribe this gene during their

  13. Comparative DNA adduct formation and induction of colonic aberrant crypt foci in mice exposed to 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline and azoxymethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangyub; Guo, Jingshu; O’Sullivan, M. Gerald; Gallaher, Daniel D.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that environmental factors, including diet and cigarette smoke, are involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Carcinogenic nitroso compounds (NOC), such as N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), are present in tobacco and processed red meat, and NOC have been implicated in colon cancer. Azoxymethane (AOM), commonly used for experimental colon carcinogenesis, is an isomer of NDMA, and it produces the same DNA adducts as does NDMA. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed during the combustion of tobacco and high-temperature cooking of meats are also associated with an elevated risk of colon cancer. The most abundant carcinogenic HAA formed in tobacco smoke is 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), whereas 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) is the most potent carcinogenic HAA formed during the cooking of meat and fish. However, the comparative tumor-initiating potential of AαC, MeIQ, and AOM is unknown. In this report, we evaluate the formation of DNA adducts as a measure of genotoxicity, and the induction of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and dysplastic ACF, as an early measure of carcinogenic potency of these compounds in the colon of male A/J mice. Both AαC and AOM induced a greater number of DNA adducts than MeIQ in the liver and colon. AOM induced a greater number of ACF and dysplastic ACF than either AαC or MeIQ. Conversely, based on adduct levels, MeIQ-DNA adducts were more potent than AαC- and AOM-DNA adducts at inducing ACF. Long-term feeding studies are required to relate levels of DNA adducts, induction of ACF, and colon cancer by these colon genotoxicants. PMID:26734915

  14. In vitro and in vivo study of a nanoliposomal cisplatin as a radiosensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiaomeng Zhang1*, Huanjun Yang1*, Ke Gu1, Jian Chen2, Mengjie Rui2, Guo-Liang Jiang11Departments of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center; Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College,Fudan University,Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; *Xiaomeng Zhang and Huanjun Yang share the first authorshipObjective: To investigate the in vitro and in vivo radiosensitization effect of an institutionally designed nanoliposome encapsulated cisplatin (NLE-CDDP.Materials and methods: NLE-CDDP was developed by our institute. In vitro radiosensitization of NLE-CDDP was evaluated by colony forming assay in A549 cells. In vivo radiosensitization was studied with tumor growth delay (TGD in Lewis lung carcinoma. The radiosensitization for normal tissue was investigated by jejunal crypt survival. The radiosensitization studies were carried out with a 72 h interval between drug administration and irradiation. The mice were treated with 6 mg/kg of NLE-CDDP or CDDP followed by single doses of 2 Gy, 6 Gy, 16 Gy, and 28 Gy. Sensitization enhancement ratio (SER was calculated by D0s of cell survival curves for A549 cells, doses needed to yield TGD of 20 days in Lewis lung carcinoma, or D0s of survival curves in crypt cells in radiation alone and radiation plus drug groups.Results: Our NLE-CDDP could inhibit A549 cells in vitro with half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.12 µg/mL, and its toxicity was 2.35 times that observed in CDDP. For in vitro studies of A549 cells, SERs of NLE-CDDP and CDDP were 1.40 and 1.14, respectively, when combined with irradiation. For in vivo studies of Lewis lung carcinoma, the strongest radiosensitization was found in the 72 h interval between NLE-CDDP and irradiation. When given 72 h prior to irradiation, NLE-CDDP yielded higher radiosensitization than CDDP (SER of 4.92 vs 3.21 and slightly increased injury in jejunal

  15. Mitotic and apoptotic activity in colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutova, Darina; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Bures, Jan

    2018-05-18

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. The aim of the prospective study was to evaluate mitosis and apoptosis of epithelial cells at each stage of colorectal neoplasia. A total of 61 persons were enrolled into the study: 18 patients with non-advanced colorectal adenoma (non-a-A), 13 patients with advanced colorectal adenoma (a-A), 13 patients with CRC and 17 controls: individuals with normal findings on colonoscopy. Biopsy samples were taken from pathology (patients) and healthy mucosa (patients and healthy controls). Samples were formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Mitotic and apoptotic activity were evaluated in lower and upper part of the crypts and in the superficial compartment. Apoptotic activity was also assessed using detection of activated caspase-3. In controls, mitotic activity was present in lower part of crypts, accompanied with low apoptotic activity. Mitotic and apoptotic activity decreased (to almost zero) in upper part of crypts. In superficial compartment, increase in apoptotic activity was observed. Transformation of healthy mucosa into non-a-A was associated with significant increase of mitotic activity in lower and upper part of the crypts and with significant increase of apoptotic activity in all three compartments; p colorectal neoplasia were observed. Detection of activated caspase-3 confirmed the above findings in apoptotic activity. Significant dysregulation of mitosis and apoptosis during the progression of colorectal neoplasia, corresponding with histology, was confirmed. In patients with sporadic colorectal neoplasia, healthy mucosa does not display different mitotic and apoptotic activity compared to mucosa in healthy controls and therefore adequate endoscopic/surgical removal of colorectal neoplasia is sufficient.

  16. Krüppel-like factor 5 is essential for proliferation and survival of mouse intestinal epithelial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandayam O. Nandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5 is a pro-proliferative transcription factor that is expressed in dividing epithelial cells of the intestinal crypt. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 has been identified as a stem cell marker in both small intestinal and colonic epithelial cells. To determine whether KLF5 regulates proliferation of intestinal stem cells, we investigated the effects of Klf5 deletion specifically from the intestinal stem cells in adult mice. Mice with inducible intestinal stem cell-specific deletion of Klf5 (Lgr5-Klf5fl/fl were injected with tamoxifen for 5 consecutive days to induce Lgr5-driven Cre expression. Intestinal and colonic tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry at various time points up to 112 days following start of tamoxifen treatment. Klf5 is co-localized in the crypt-based columnar (CBC cells that express Lgr5. By 11 days following the start of tamoxifen treatment, Lgr5-positive crypts from which Klf5 was deleted exhibited a loss of proliferation that was accompanied by an increase in apoptosis. Beginning at 14 days following the start of tamoxifen treatment, both Klf5 expression and proliferation were re-established in the transit-amplifying epithelial cells but not in the Lgr5-positive CBC cells. By 112 days post-treatment, up to 90% of the Lgr5-positive cells from which Klf5 was deleted were lost from the intestinal crypts. These results indicate a critical role for KLF5 in the survival and maintenance of intestinal stem cells.

  17. GM-CSF produced by non-hematopoietic cells is required for early epithelial cell proliferation and repair of injured colonic mucosa1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Laia; McAllister, Christopher S.; Lakhdari, Omar; Minev, Ivelina; Shenouda, Steve; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    GM-CSF is a growth factor that promotes the survival and activation of macrophages and granulocytes, and dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and survival in vitro. The mechanism by which exogenous GM-CSF ameliorates the severity of Crohn’s disease in humans and colitis in murine models has been considered mainly to reflect its activity on myeloid cells. We used GM-CSF deficient (GM-CSF−/−) mice to probe the functional role of endogenous host-produced GM-CSF in a colitis model induced after injury to the colon epithelium. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) at doses that resulted in little epithelial damage and mucosal ulceration in wild type (WT) mice resulted in marked colon ulceration and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice. Colon crypt epithelial cell proliferation in vivo was significantly decreased in GM-CSF−/− mice at early times after DSS injury. This was paralleled by decreased expression of crypt epithelial cell genes involved in cell cycle, proliferation, and wound healing. Decreased crypt cell proliferation and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice were rescued by exogenous GM-CSF, indicating the lack of a developmental abnormality in the epithelial cell proliferative response in those mice. Non-hematopoietic cells and not myeloid cells produced the GM-CSF important for colon epithelial proliferation after DSS-induced injury as revealed by bone marrow chimera and DC depletion experiments, with colon epithelial cells being the cellular source of GM-CSF. Endogenous epithelial cell produced GM-CSF has a novel non-redundant role in facilitating epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer healing in response to injury of the colon crypt epithelium. PMID:23325885

  18. Response of intestinal cells of differing topographical and hierarchical status to ten cytotoxic drugs and five sources of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, K.; Potter, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    The spatial distribution of cell death among the epithelial cells lining the adult mouse small intestinal mucosa at various times after a range of doses of 10 different drugs as well as after internal or external irradiation (#betta# particles from tritium, #betta#- and X-rays and neutrons) has been recorded. Cell death, expressed as pycnosis or apoptosis, has been recorded for each cell position up the side of the crypts of the small intestine. Adriamycin and the various forms of radiation tend to kill cells preferentially at cell position 4-5 i.e. on cells very early in the lineage, probably stem cells. Isopropyl-methane-sulphonate, nitrogen mustard and possibly Actinomycin-D act on cell position 6-7, while 5-fluorouracil, Myleran, cyclophosphamide, and cycloheximide tend to kill cells at cell position 7-9. Vincristine and hydroxyurea are the 2 agents that exhibit a specificity for cells highest up the crypt, i.e. latest in transit population of the cell lineage by acting on cell positions 10 or 11. The data also suggest that normal healthy cells continue to migrate up the crypt and onto the villus in spite of considerable cell death and reduced cell production. (author)

  19. Effects of Enzyme Treated Palm Kernel Expeller on Metabolizable Energy, Growth Performance, Villus Height and Digesta Viscosity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saenphoom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether pre-treating palm kernel expeller (PKE with exogenous enzyme would degrade its fiber content; thus improving its metabolizable energy (ME, growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing PKE. Our results showed that enzyme treatment decreased (p0.05 among treatment groups in the finisher period, ADG of chickens in the control (PKE-free diet was higher (p0.05 FCR. The intestinal villus height and crypt depth (duodenum, jejunum and ileum were not different (p>0.05 among treatments except for duodenal crypt depth. The villus height and crypt depth of birds in enzyme treated PKE diets were higher (p0.05 among treatments. Results of this study suggest that exogenous enzyme is effective in hydrolyzing the fiber (hemicellulose and cellulose component and improved the ME values of PKE, however, the above positive effects were not reflected in the growth performance in broiler chickens fed the enzyme treated PKE compared to those received raw PKE. The results suggest that PKE can be included up to 5% in the grower diet and 20% in the finisher diet without any significant negative effect on FCR in broiler chickens.

  20. Response of intestinal cells of differing topographical and hierarchical status to ten cytotoxic drugs and five sources of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijiri, K; Potter, C S [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK). Paterson Labs.

    1983-02-01

    The spatial distribution of cell death among the epithelial cells lining the adult mouse small intestinal mucosa at various times after a range of doses of 10 different drugs as well as after internal or external irradiation (..beta.. particles from tritium, ..gamma..- and X-rays and neutrons) has been recorded. Cell death, expressed as pycnosis or apoptosis, has been recorded for each cell position up the side of the crypts of the small intestine. Adriamycin and the various forms of radiation tend to kill cells preferentially at cell position 4-5 i.e. on cells very early in the lineage, probably stem cells. Isopropyl-methane-sulphonate, nitrogen mustard and possibly Actinomycin-D act on cell position 6-7, while 5-fluorouracil, Myleran, cyclophosphamide, and cycloheximide tend to kill cells at cell position 7-9. Vincristine and hydroxyurea are the 2 agents that exhibit a specificity for cells highest up the crypt, i.e. latest in transit population of the cell lineage by acting on cell positions 10 or 11. The data also suggest that normal healthy cells continue to migrate up the crypt and onto the villus in spite of considerable cell death and reduced cell production.

  1. Changes of Tight Junction Protein Claudins in Small Intestine and Kidney Tissues of Mice Fed a DDC Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Yukie; Kojima, Takashi; Murata, Masaki; Tsujiwaki, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Masaya; Sawada, Norimasa; Mori, Michio

    2013-12-01

    DDC (3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine)-fed mice are widely used as a model for cholestatic liver disease. We examined the expression of tight junction protein claudin subspecies by immunofluorescent histochemistry in small intestine and kidney tissues of mice fed a DDC diet for 12 weeks. In the small intestine, decreases in claudin-3, claudin-7 and claudin-15 were observed in villous epithelial cells corresponding to the severity of histological changes while leaving the abundance of these claudin subspecies unchanged in crypt cells. Nevertheless, the proliferative activity of intestinal crypt cells measured by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 decreased in the mice fed the DDC diet compared with that of control mice. These results suggest the possibility that DDC feeding affects the barrier function of villous epithelial cells and thus inhibits the proliferative activity of crypt epithelial cells. On the other hand, in the kidney, remarkable changes were found in the subcellular localization of claudin subspecies in a segment-specific manner, although histological changes of renal epithelial cells were quite minimal. These results indicate that immunohistochemistry for claudin subspecies can serve as a useful tool for detecting minute functional alterations of intestinal and renal epithelial cells.

  2. Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetism of Tris(amide) {Ln[N(SiMe3)2]3}1- Complexes of the Non-Traditional +2 Lanthanide Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Austin Jack; Darago, Lucy E; Balasubramini, Sree Ganesh; Chen, Guo P; Ziller, Joseph W; Furche, Filipp; Long, Jeffrey R; Evans, William J

    2018-02-28

    A new series of Ln2+ complexes has been synthesized that overturns two previous generalizations in rare-earth metal reduction chemistry: that amide ligands do not form isolable complexes of the highly-reducing non-traditional Ln2+ ions and that yttrium is a good model for the late lanthanides in these reductive reactions. Reduction of Ln(NR2)3 (R = SiMe3) complexes in THF under Ar with M = K or Rb in the presence of 2.2.2-cryptand (crypt) forms crystallographically-characterizable [M(crypt)][Ln(NR2)3] complexes not only for the traditional Tm2+ ion and the configurational crossover ions, Nd2+ and Dy2+, but also for the non-traditional Gd2+, Tb2+, Ho2+, and Er2+ ions. Crystallographic data as well as UV-visible, magnetic susceptibility, and density functional theory studies are consistent with the accessibility of 4fn5d1 configurations for Ln2+ ions in this tris(silylamide) ligand environment. The Dy2+ complex, [K(crypt)][Dy(NR2)3], has a higher magnetic moment than previously observed for any monometallic complex: 11.67 µB. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The effects of different multiple daily fractionation (MDF) on the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becciolini, A.; Balzi, M.; Cremonini, D.; Fabbrica, D.; Giache, V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of 3 MDF were studied: 2Gyx3 x 2 with 8 h intervals (A), 2Gyx3 with 4 h intervals and after 16 h again 2Gyx3 (B), 3Gyx2 x 2 with 12 h intervals among fractions (C). The anaesthetized animals were exposed to a 60Co unit only on the abdomen. Brush border enzyme activity, lysosomal enzymes, protein content were studied. Qualitative and quantitative morphologic observations were carried on the proximal jejunum. Number of crypt and villus epithelial cells, mitotic and labelling indices, number of goblet cells and distribution of labelled cells in the crypt (after /sup 3/H Thymidine administration) were determined

  4. Tests of equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.G.

    1985-01-01

    H.D Thames, Jr. and H.R. Withers propose a test of an equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays after fractionated radiation, in which the total effect is measured by counting microcolonies derived from surviving cells in a tissue. The factors considered to influence the cytocidal effect per fraction are incomplete repair, repopulation, and synchrony. The statistics used in the method are criticized and conditions are given under which the test should not be used. An alternative method of testing for an equal effect per fraction is proposed. The pros and cons of each test are discussed and compared using some mouse jejunal crypt cell survival data

  5. Stem cell self-renewal in intestinal crypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, B.D.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    As a rapidly cycling tissue capable of fast repair and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium has emerged as a favored model system to explore the principles of adult stem cell biology. However, until recently, the identity and characteristics of the stem cell population in both the small intestine

  6. The jagged-2/notch-1/hes-1 pathway is involved in intestinal epithelium regeneration after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Chen

    Full Text Available Notch signaling plays a critical role in the maintenance of intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Notch signaling in the proliferation and regeneration of intestinal epithelium after intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham operation or I/R by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA for 20 min. Intestinal tissue samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after reperfusion. Proliferation of the intestinal epithelium was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of proliferating nuclear antigen (PCNA. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch signaling components were examined using Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Immunofluorescence was also performed to detect the expression and location of Jagged-2, cleaved Notch-1, and Hes-1 in the intestine. Finally, the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT and the siRNA for Jagged-2 and Hes-1 were applied to investigate the functional role of Notch signaling in the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells in an in vitro IEC-6 culture system.I/R injury caused increased intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation and increased mRNA and protein expression of Jagged-2, Notch-1, and Hes-1. The immunofluorescence results further confirmed increased protein expression of Jagged-2, cleaved Notch-1, and Hes-1 in the intestinal crypts. The inhibition of Notch signaling with DAPT and the suppression of Jagged-2 and Hes-1 expression using siRNA both significantly inhibited the proliferation of IEC-6 cells.The Jagged-2/Notch-1/Hes-1 signaling pathway is involved in intestinal epithelium regeneration early after I/R injury by increasing crypt epithelial cell proliferation.

  7. ADAM10 regulates Notch function in intestinal stem cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Hwai; VanDussen, Kelli L; Sawey, Eric T; Wade, Alex W; Kasper, Chelsea; Rakshit, Sabita; Bhatt, Riha G; Stoeck, Alex; Maillard, Ivan; Crawford, Howard C; Samuelson, Linda C; Dempsey, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) is a cell surface sheddase that regulates physiologic processes, including Notch signaling. ADAM10 is expressed in all intestinal epithelial cell types, but the requirement for ADAM10 signaling in crypt homeostasis is not well defined. We analyzed intestinal tissues from mice with constitutive (Vil-Cre;Adam10(f/f) mice) and conditional (Vil-CreER;Adam10(f/f) and Leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCR5 [Lgr5]-CreER;Adam10(f/f) mice) deletion of ADAM10. We performed cell lineage-tracing experiments in mice that expressed a gain-of-function allele of Notch in the intestine (Rosa26(NICD)), or mice with intestine-specific disruption of Notch (Rosa26(DN-MAML)), to examine the effects of ADAM10 deletion on cell fate specification and intestinal stem cell maintenance. Loss of ADAM10 from developing and adult intestine caused lethality associated with altered intestinal morphology, reduced progenitor cell proliferation, and increased secretory cell differentiation. ADAM10 deletion led to the replacement of intestinal cell progenitors with 2 distinct, post-mitotic, secretory cell lineages: intermediate-like (Paneth/goblet) and enteroendocrine cells. Based on analysis of Rosa26(NICD) and Rosa26(DN-MAML) mice, we determined that ADAM10 controls these cell fate decisions by regulating Notch signaling. Cell lineage-tracing experiments showed that ADAM10 is required for survival of Lgr5(+) crypt-based columnar cells. Our findings indicate that Notch-activated stem cells have a competitive advantage for occupation of the stem cell niche. ADAM10 acts in a cell autonomous manner within the intestinal crypt compartment to regulate Notch signaling. This process is required for progenitor cell lineage specification and crypt-based columnar cell maintenance. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) vs. traditional serrated adenoma (TSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakovic, Emina Emilia; Gomez, Jose D; Driman, David K; Parfitt, Jeremy R; Wang, Chang; Benerjee, Tama; Snover, Dale C

    2008-01-01

    The morphologic distinction between various serrated polyps of the colorectum may be challenging. The distinction between sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) and traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) may be difficult using currently available criteria mostly based on cytologic characteristics. We have evaluated 66 serrated polyps including 29 SSA, 18 TSA, and 19 hyperplastic polyps for overall shape of the polyps, architectural features of individual crypts, the presence of eosinophilic cytoplasm, size and distribution of the proliferation and maturation zones, as well as Ki-67 and CK20 expression. The extent of the expression of CK20 and Ki-67 could not distinguish between the 3 types of serrated polyps, but the distribution of their expression was very helpful and differences were statistically significant. The distribution of Ki-67+ cells was the single most helpful distinguishing feature of the serrated polyp type (PTSA had low Ki-67 expression, which was limited to "ectopic crypts" and admixed tubular adenomalike areas. In serrated polyps, ectopic crypt formation (ECF) defined by the presence of ectopic crypts with their bases not seated adjacent to the muscularis mucosae was nearly exclusive to TSA and was found in all cases, while the presence of cytologic atypia and eosinophilia of the cytoplasm were characteristic, but not limited to TSA. No evidence of ECF, but nevertheless abnormal distribution of proliferation zone was characteristic of SSA, whereas HP had neither. The presence of the ECF defines TSA in a more rigorous fashion than previous diagnostic criteria and also explains the biologic basis of exuberant protuberant growth associated with TSA and the lack of such growth in SSA. Recognition of this phenomenon may also help in exploring the genetic and molecular basis for differences between SSA and TSA, because these architectural abnormalities may well be a reflection of abnormalities in genetically programmed mucosal development.

  9. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Gary E.; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L.; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-01-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6), was inhibited by injection of the 1st mandibular molar of the rat with an siRNA targeted against BMP6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption either was delayed or completely inhibited (7 molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced as compared to the erupted first molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that BMP6 may be an essential gene for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  10. Reductive effects of poria cocos on radiation-induced damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Heon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2002-01-01

    In order to screen a radioprotective material from nontoxic natural products, the effects of Poria cocos (PC), known as a blood tonic of traditional Oriental herbs, were investigated in HL-60 cells and ICR mice. The water extract of PC was administrated to mice and then the mice were irradiated with - rays. The jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells were investigated in mice irradiated with 12 Gy, 6.5 Gy, 2 Gy of -rays, respectively. The administration of the PC extract protected the jejunal crypts (p<0.005) and decreased the apoptosis frequency (p<0.05). The formation of endogenous spleen colony was increased but not significantly. The micronuclei (MN) formation and the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) were investigated in HL- 60 cells irradiated 2 Gy of -rays. The frequency of MN was decreased (p<0.001) and the tail movement, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in the SCGE, was decreased in groups treated with PC extract (p<0.01) before exposure to-irradiation. These results indicated that PC protects stem cells and reduces DNA damage induced by -rays. Therefore, Poria cocos might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic product

  11. Impaired Growth of Small Intestinal Epithelium by Adrenalectomy in Weaning Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Tohru; Minai, Yuji; Haga, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    Functional maturation of the small intestine occurs during the weaning period in rats. It is known that this development is facilitated by glucocorticoid. However, the effect of glucocorticoid on morphological development of small intestine has yet to be clarified. The present study evaluated the morphological development and cell proliferation of the small intestine in adrenalectomized (ADX) rat pups. To further understand the mechanism of glucocorticoid effects on intestinal development, we examined the localization of the glucocorticoid receptor in the small intestine. Microscopic analysis showed that growth of villi and crypts is age-dependent, and is significantly attenuated in ADX rats compared with sham-operated rats. BrdU-positive cells, i.e. proliferating cells, were primarily observed in crypt compartments and rapidly increased in number during the early weaning period. The increase in BrdU-positive cells could be attenuated by adrenalectomy. The morphological development of small intestine may be associated with increased proliferation of epithelial cells. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptors were found in epithelial cells of the mid- and lower villi and not in crypts where BrdU-positive cells were localized. These results indicate that the growth of small intestine is attenuated by adrenalectomy, and that glucocorticoid indirectly acts on proliferation of epithelial cells during the weaning period

  12. Attenuative effects of G-CSF in radiation induced intestinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joong Sun; Gong, Eun Ji; Kim, Sung Dae; Heo, Kyu; Ryoo, Seung Bum; Yang, Kwang Mo

    2011-01-01

    Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported to protect from radiationinduced myelosuppression. Growing evidence suggests that G-CSF also has many important non-hematopoietic functions in other tissues, including the intestine (Kim et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2011). However, little is known about the influence of G-CSF on intestinal injury. Examination 12 hours after radiation (5 Gy) revealed that the G-CSF treated mice were significantly protected from apoptosis of jejunal crypt, compared with radiation controls. G-CSF treatment attenuated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased survival crypt, the number of villi, villous shortening, crypt depth and length of basal lamina of 10 enterocytes compared with the radiation control 3.5 days after radiation (10 Gy). G-CSF attenuated the change of peripheral blood from radiation-induced myelosuppression and displayed attenuation of mortality in lethally-irradiated (10 Gy) mice. The present results support the suggestion that G-CSF administrated prior to radiation plays an important role in the survival of irradiated mice, possibly due to the protection of hematopoietic cells and intestinal stem cells against radiation. The results indicate that G-CSF protects from radiation-mediated intestinal damage and from hematopoietic injury. G-CSF treatment may be useful clinically in the prevention of injury following radiation.

  13. Loss of Sonic hedgehog leads to alterations in intestinal secretory cell maturation and autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Gagné-Sansfaçon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial cells express the Sonic and Indian hedgehog ligands. Despite the strong interest in gut hedgehog signaling in GI diseases, no studies have specifically addressed the singular role of intestinal epithelial cell Sonic hedgehog signaling. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific role of Sonic hedgehog in adult ileal epithelial homeostasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Sonic hedgehog intestinal epithelial conditional knockout mouse model was generated. Assessment of ileal histological abnormalities, crypt epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cell fate, junctional proteins, signaling pathways, as well as ultrastructural analysis of intracellular organelles were performed in control and mutant mice. Mice lacking intestinal epithelial Sonic Hedgehog displayed decreased ileal crypt/villus length, decreased crypt proliferation as well as a decrease in the number of ileal mucin-secreting goblet cells and antimicrobial peptide-secreting Paneth cells during adult life. These secretory cells also exhibited disruption of their secretory products in mutant mice. Ultrastructural microscopy analysis revealed a dilated ER lumen in secretory cells. This phenotype was also associated with a decrease in autophagy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these findings indicate that the loss of Sonic hedgehog can lead to ileal secretory cell modifications indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress, accompanied by a significant reduction in autophagy.

  14. The application of methylation specific electrophoresis (MSE) to DNA methylation analysis of the 5' CpG island of mucin in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Seiya; Yonezawa, Suguru; Kitamoto, Sho; Yamada, Norishige; Houjou, Izumi; Sugai, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Takaori, Kyoichi; Higashi, Michiyo

    2012-01-01

    Methylation of CpG sites in genomic DNA plays an important role in gene regulation and especially in gene silencing. We have reported mechanisms of epigenetic regulation for expression of mucins, which are markers of malignancy potential and early detection of human neoplasms. Epigenetic changes in promoter regions appear to be the first step in expression of mucins. Thus, detection of promoter methylation status is important for early diagnosis of cancer, monitoring of tumor behavior, and evaluating the response of tumors to targeted therapy. However, conventional analytical methods for DNA methylation require a large amount of DNA and have low sensitivity. Here, we report a modified version of the bisulfite-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using a nested PCR approach. We designated this method as methylation specific electrophoresis (MSE). The MSE method is comprised of the following steps: (a) bisulfite treatment of genomic DNA, (b) amplification of the target DNA by a nested PCR approach and (c) applying to DGGE. To examine whether the MSE method is able to analyze DNA methylation of mucin genes in various samples, we apply it to DNA obtained from state cell lines, ethanol-fixed colonic crypts and human pancreatic juices. The MSE method greatly decreases the amount of input DNA. The lower detection limit for distinguishing different methylation status is < 0.1% and the detectable minimum amount of DNA is 20 pg, which can be obtained from only a few cells. We also show that MSE can be used for analysis of challenging samples such as human isolated colonic crypts or human pancreatic juices, from which only a small amount of DNA can be extracted. The MSE method can provide a qualitative information of methylated sequence profile. The MSE method allows sensitive and specific analysis of the DNA methylation pattern of almost any block of multiple CpG sites. The MSE method can be applied to analysis of DNA methylation status in many different clinical

  15. Melun (Seine-et-Marne, ancien prieuré Saint-Sauveur : première synthèse des campagnes 2000-2005 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Henrion

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En 1995, l’étude de la crypte  du début du xie siècle, conservée sous le chevet de l’église de l’ancien prieuré Saint-Sauveur , nous persuadait de l’indéniable intérêt du site et d’un fort potentiel archéologique qu’il était nécessaire de saisir si l’on voulait comprendre son origine et son évolution. Les travaux de fouille engagés par le Service municipal de l’archéologie dans les années 1997-1999 (fouille de la crypte et des premières travées de la nef auraient pu apporter cette connaissan...

  16. First conclusions about results of GPR investigations in the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Kłodzko, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chernov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR investigation carried out in the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Kłodzko, Poland, dating from the 14th to 16th centuries. Due to the 20th century wars, the current state of knowledge about the history of the church is still poor. Under the floor of the Catholic temple, unknown structures might exist. To verify the presence of underground structures such as crypts and tombs, a GPR survey was carried out in chapels and aisles with 500 and 800 MHz GPR shielded antennas. Numerous anomalies were detected. It was concluded that those under the chapels were caused by the presence of crypts beneath the floor.

  17. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - In vivo test on the effect of functional food for stem cell protection and preparing the provisional product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Song Eun [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    We performed this study to determine (1) the effect of several oriental prescriptions as energy tonic (Chinese medical concept : Bu-Qi) or blood building (Chinese medical concept : Bu-Xie) decoction and its major ingredients, (2) the biological stability of irradiated Chinese medical prescriptions, and (3) the effect of several proposed prescriptions and its fractions on jejunal crypt survival (12 Gy), endogenous spleen colony formation(6.5 Gy), and apoptosis(2 Gy) in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of gamma-irradiation. For the study of evaluation on the radioprotective effects of effective prescriptions, we tried the test on change of survival and hematological changes and finally we prepared the provisional product. 57 refs., 5 figs., 38 tabs. (Author)

  18. Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

  19. Population structure of Vibrio fischeri within the light organs of Euprymna scolopes squid from Two Oahu (Hawaii) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, M S; Ruby, E G

    2009-01-01

    We resolved the intraspecific diversity of Vibrio fischeri, the bioluminescent symbiont of the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes, at two previously unexplored morphological and geographical scales. These scales ranged from submillimeter regions within the host light organ to the several kilometers encompassing two host populations around Oahu. To facilitate this effort, we employed both novel and standard genetic and phenotypic assays of light-organ symbiont populations. A V. fischeri-specific fingerprinting method and five phenotypic assays were used to gauge the genetic richness of V. fischeri populations; these methods confirmed that the symbiont population present in each adult host's light organ is polyclonal. Upon statistical analysis of these genetic and phenotypic population data, we concluded that the characteristics of symbiotic populations were more similar within individual host populations than between the two distinct Oahu populations of E. scolopes, providing evidence that local geographic symbiont population structure exists. Finally, to better understand the genesis of symbiont diversity within host light organs, the process of symbiosis initiation in newly hatched juvenile squid was examined both experimentally and by mathematical modeling. We concluded that, after the juvenile hatches, only one or two cells of V. fischeri enter each of six internal epithelium-lined crypts present in the developing light organ. We hypothesize that the expansion of different, crypt-segregated, clonal populations creates the polyclonal adult light-organ population structure observed in this study. The stability of the luminous-bacterium-sepiolid squid mutualism in the presence of a polyclonal symbiont population structure is discussed in the context of contemporary evolutionary theory.

  20. Population Structure of Vibrio fischeri within the Light Organs of Euprymna scolopes Squid from Two Oahu (Hawaii) Populations▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, M. S.; Ruby, E. G.

    2009-01-01

    We resolved the intraspecific diversity of Vibrio fischeri, the bioluminescent symbiont of the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes, at two previously unexplored morphological and geographical scales. These scales ranged from submillimeter regions within the host light organ to the several kilometers encompassing two host populations around Oahu. To facilitate this effort, we employed both novel and standard genetic and phenotypic assays of light-organ symbiont populations. A V. fischeri-specific fingerprinting method and five phenotypic assays were used to gauge the genetic richness of V. fischeri populations; these methods confirmed that the symbiont population present in each adult host's light organ is polyclonal. Upon statistical analysis of these genetic and phenotypic population data, we concluded that the characteristics of symbiotic populations were more similar within individual host populations than between the two distinct Oahu populations of E. scolopes, providing evidence that local geographic symbiont population structure exists. Finally, to better understand the genesis of symbiont diversity within host light organs, the process of symbiosis initiation in newly hatched juvenile squid was examined both experimentally and by mathematical modeling. We concluded that, after the juvenile hatches, only one or two cells of V. fischeri enter each of six internal epithelium-lined crypts present in the developing light organ. We hypothesize that the expansion of different, crypt-segregated, clonal populations creates the polyclonal adult light-organ population structure observed in this study. The stability of the luminous-bacterium-sepiolid squid mutualism in the presence of a polyclonal symbiont population structure is discussed in the context of contemporary evolutionary theory. PMID:18997024

  1. Paleopathology and Nutritional Analysis of a South German Monastery Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas G. Nerlich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The monastery of Attel, Upper Bavaria, which was founded in AD 1030, harbours a series of crypt burials from the time period between AD 1700 and 1750. Due to a restoration of the church, 16 crypts had to be removed and were subjected to an extensive anthropological-paleopathological and isotope analysis. The 16 crypts contained 19 burials in open wooden coffins. All bodies were covered by an extensive layer of calcium carbonate. Despite this “treatment,” bone and teeth were excellently preserved (mean degree of conservation > 75%, completeness > 85%. The anthropological investigation revealed a mean age of 38.5 years and a body height of 1.71 m. Paleopathologically, a surprisingly high rate of trauma was seen (13 injuries in 7 different individuals, i.e., 36.8% of individuals affected, 2 cases presented signs of extensive arthritis urica (gout, and several monks were affected by arthrosis of shoulder and knee joints. Extensive dental attrition, numerous foci of dental caries, and dentogenic abscesses coincided with considerable dental calculus indicating poor oral hygienic conditions. Stable isotope analysis showed adequate mixed carnivore-herbivore nutrition, comparable to that of contemporaneous upper class individuals. This extensive combined analysis provides considerable insight into the nutrition and disease pattern of a middle-class monastery of early 18th century South Germany.

  2. Colonic stem cell data are consistent with the immortal model of stem cell division under non-random strand segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, K

    2009-06-01

    Colonic stem cells are thought to reside towards the base of crypts of the colon, but their numbers and proliferation mechanisms are not well characterized. A defining property of stem cells is that they are able to divide asymmetrically, but it is not known whether they always divide asymmetrically (immortal model) or whether there are occasional symmetrical divisions (stochastic model). By measuring diversity of methylation patterns in colon crypt samples, a recent study found evidence in favour of the stochastic model, assuming random segregation of stem cell DNA strands during cell division. Here, the effect of preferential segregation of the template strand is considered to be consistent with the 'immortal strand hypothesis', and explore the effect on conclusions of previously published results. For a sample of crypts, it is shown how, under the immortal model, to calculate mean and variance of the number of unique methylation patterns allowing for non-random strand segregation and compare them with those observed. The calculated mean and variance are consistent with an immortal model that incorporates non-random strand segregation for a range of stem cell numbers and levels of preferential strand segregation. Allowing for preferential strand segregation considerably alters previously published conclusions relating to stem cell numbers and turnover mechanisms. Evidence in favour of the stochastic model may not be as strong as previously thought.

  3. Regeneration of stem-cells in intestinal epithelium after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Stem-cells can be defined as pluripotent progenitor cells, capable of both self-renewal and differentitation into all the functional end-cells typical of that cell family. Intestinal crypts contain population of cells which is capable of a) self-renewal following the severe depletion after radiation injury, b) replacing all other cypt cell types, and c) regeneration following repeated depletion (in colon). These are the properties of stem cells. Most measurements of the rate of regeneration of these cells following the severe depletion by radiation have been made by employing large test dose at increasing times. Such measurements have produced widely differing rates of increase in the survival under the test dose, from 4 hours (macrocolonies in jejunum) to 43 hours (microcolonies in stomach). In other tissues, large single test doses have been used to derive the time of doubling survival ratio e.g. for epidermal clones. Although cryptogenic cell number per crypt can be virtually restored by day 4 after a single dose and probably after many such doses, the status quo cannot be reached until the number of crypts is restored to normal. Stem cell numbers form a necessary part of the integrity of epitheliums. The quality of the stem cell function of survivors as expressed in the differentiated progeny, and the maintenance of function of the supportive environment are equally important for late radiation damage. (Yamashita, S.)

  4. Stability in Effects of gamma-Irradiated Chinese Medicinal Prescriptions on Protection of Mice from Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jung-Ah; Kim Sung-Ho

    2000-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of irradiated medicinal plants on biological system were studied to apply the irradiation technology for hygienic purpose that is usually performed by chemical preservatives. We previously reported that the three Chinese medicinal prescriptions, Si-Wu-Tang, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang and San-Ling-Bai-Shu-San, showed radioprotective effects in mice. In these experiments, to investigate the difference in radioprotective effects between irradiated (10 kGy) and non-irradiated medicinal plants, mice were administered with the irradiated or non-irradiated prescriptions and then the mice were exposed to gamma-rays with low and high dosage. Non-exposed mice were also prepared as a control. The effects of prescriptions on the jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis of jejunal crypt cells in mice were investigated after exposure. All of the prescriptions showed the protective effects of the jejunal crypt (p0.05) and the adminstration of the prescriptions increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony (p0.05) and reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis (p0.05). No significant difference in effects between irradiated and non-irradiated prescreption on the parameters was found in mice administered with each prescription before exposure to gamma-rays. In non-exposed mice, there were no different findings in the parameters between irradiated and non-irradiated prescription

  5. Chemical protection against gastrointestinal radiation injury in mice by WR 2822, WR 2823, or WR 109342 after 4 MeV x ray or fission neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, A.M.; Sigdestad, C.P.

    1982-01-01

    Three compounds were tested for their radioprotective properties against the effects of 4 MeV X rays or fission neutron irradiation. The endpoints tested were lethality, intestinal crypt survival, and DNA synthesizing cellularity. Two of the compounds tested; S-2(4-aminobutylamino) ethylphosphorothioc acid (WR 2822) and the aminopentylamino derivative (WR 109342). All drugs were administered via intraperitoneal injections at their approximately maximum tolerated dose. WR 2822 was shown to have a slight protective effect against X rays and neutrons. The dose modification factor (DMF) for gastrointestinal death (LD/sub 50(6)/) was 1.23 for X rays and 1.51 for neutrons. The assay for intestinal crypt survival produced DMF's of 1.44 (X rays) and 1.4 (neutrons). WR 2823 also showed a protective action in these assays. The DMF for LD/sub 50(6)/ was 1.32 (X rays) and 1.42 (neutrons). WR 109342 was found to be extremely toxic and had no significant protective effects. All three drugs were more toxic and demonstrated less protection in most of these assays than the benchmark radioprotective agent WR 2721, although WR 2822 protected against lethal effects of fission neutrons almost as well as WR 2721. Both WR 2822 and WR 2823 produced greater protection in the crypt survival assays for fission neutron irradiation than WR 2721

  6. Sulphomucin expression in ileal pouches: emerging differences between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis pouches.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bambury, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: We characterized the expression of sialomucin and sulphomucin in pouches fashioned for familial adenomatous polyposis and ulcerative colitis. We correlated sulphomucin expression with bacterial colonization and mucosal inflammation. METHODS: Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Mucosal biopsies from 9 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and 12 with ulcerative colitis were obtained. Sulphomucin levels were assessed by using the high iron-diamine stain. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with villous height, crypt depth, and total mucosal thickness. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. Colonization by a panel of seven bacterial species (including sulphate reducing bacteria) was established and correlated with sulphomucin levels. RESULTS: High-iron-diamine positivity (i.e., sulphomucin expression) was greater in ulcerative colitis pouch mucous gel (2.083 +\\/- 0.5 vs. 0.556 +\\/- 0.4, P = 0.003). Sulphomucin expression correlated with reduced crypt depth, villous height, and total mucosal thickness. In the ulcerative colitis group, chronic inflammatory infiltrate scores were significantly greater for high-iron-diamine-positive patients. Colonization by sulphate reducing bacteria was increased in high-iron-diamine-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sulphomucin expression is increased in the mucous gel layer of the ulcerative colitis pouch compared with that of the familial adenomatous polyposis pouch. Sulphomucin expression is associated with colonization by sulphate-reducing bacteria and increased chronic inflammation.

  7. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change in the transc......The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change...... cells by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on RNA extracted from laser dissected intestinal crypt and villi. In a screen of eight transcripts one - SART3 - was identified as a marker for human colonic crypts....

  8. Sucralfate protects intestinal epithelial cells from radiation-induced apoptosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio

    2006-01-01

    Radiotherapy for malignant pelvic disease is often followed by acute radiation colitis (ARC). It has been reported that sucralfate treatment has a protective effect against ARC, though the mechanisms of action are unknown. The effects of sucralfate on X-ray radiation-induced apoptosis was studied at 4 Gy in the colonic crypt cells of rats. Sucralfate enemas given prior to radiation resulted in the following: reduction in number of apoptotic colonic crypt cells; reduction in number of caspase-3 positive cells; decreases in p53 accumulation and p21 expression; decreases of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The protective effects of sucralfate against ARC may be partially due to the suppression of radiation-induced apoptosis by way of p53 in the colon and the protection of the colonic epithelial stem cell region. (author)

  9. Investigation on the hematopoietic effect of functional foods using radiation and preparing the provisional product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Lee, Song Eun; Jeong, Yong Woon [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    We performed this study to determine the effect of several oriental prescriptions as energy tonic (Chinese medical concept: Bu-Qi) or blood building (Chinese medical concept: Bu-Xie) decoction and its major ingredients on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of gamma-irradiation. For the study of evaluation on the biological stability of irradiated chinese medical prescriptions, we performed the experiment to determine the effect of irradiated (10kGy) or unirradiated Si-Wu-Tang, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang and San-Ling-Bai-Shu-San in irradiated mice. Further studies are needed to characterize better the protective nature of the total extract and its ingredients and for preparing the provisional product. (author). 61 refs., 3 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. Presumptive fenbendazole toxicosis in North American porcupines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Martha A; Miller, Michele A; Neiffer, Donald L; Terrell, Scott P

    2006-04-15

    4 North American porcupines were evaluated because of diarrhea or neutropenia (or both) that developed after treatment with fenbendazole for intestinal parasites. Complete blood cell count abnormalities included severe neutropenia in all affected porcupines and mild anemia in some of them. In 2 porcupines, postmortem findings included bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis. Affected porcupines received supportive care including fluid supplementation and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The 2 surviving animals recovered after 9 to 33 days of treatment. Fenbendazole is an anthelminthic that may be used in an extralabel manner for the treatment of intestinal parasitism in wildlife species. The drug inhibits mitosis and can affect rapidly dividing cell lines, such as those in the bone marrow and intestinal crypt mucosa. Fenbendazole may not be an appropriate anthelminthic choice in North American porcupines.

  11. LKB1 as the ghostwriter of crypt history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Marnix; Langeveld, Danielle; De Leng, Wendy W. J.; Milne, Anya N. A.; Giardiello, Francis M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.

    Familial cancer syndromes present rare insights into malignant tumor development. The molecular background of polyp formation and the cancer prone state in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome remain enigmatic to this day. Previously, we proposed that Peutz-Jeghers polyps are not pre-malignant lesions, but an

  12. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditlev Nytoft; Karstensen, John Gásdal; Riis, Lene Buhl

    2015-01-01

    included. Next, eligible studies were analysed with respect to several parameters, such as technique and clinical aim and definitions of outcomes. RESULTS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy has been used for a wide range of purposes in inflammatory bowel disease, covering assessment of inflammatory severity...... of confocal laser endomicroscopy for inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Available literature was searched systematically for studies applying confocal laser endomicroscopy in Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Relevant literature was reviewed and only studies reporting original clinical data were...... of histological features such as colonic crypts, epithelial gaps and epithelial leakiness to fluorescein. CONCLUSIONS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy remains an experimental but emerging tool for assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is the only method that enables in vivo functional assessment...

  13. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Aparicio-Domingo (Patricia); M. Romera Hernández (Mónica); J.J. Karrich (Julien J.); F.H.J. Cornelissen (Ferry); N. Papazian (Natalie); D.J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve (Dicky); J.A. Butler (James A.); L. Boon (Louis); M. Coles (Mark); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); T. Cupedo (Tom)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence

  14. Bioengineered Systems and Designer Matrices That Recapitulate the Intestinal Stem Cell Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between intestinal stem cells (ISCs and the surrounding niche environment is complex and dynamic. Key factors localized at the base of the crypt are necessary to promote ISC self-renewal and proliferation, to ultimately provide a constant stream of differentiated cells to maintain the epithelial barrier. These factors diminish as epithelial cells divide, migrate away from the crypt base, differentiate into the postmitotic lineages, and end their life span in approximately 7 days when they are sloughed into the intestinal lumen. To facilitate the rapid and complex physiology of ISC-driven epithelial renewal, in vivo gradients of growth factors, extracellular matrix, bacterial products, gases, and stiffness are formed along the crypt-villus axis. New bioengineered tools and platforms are available to recapitulate various gradients and support the stereotypical cellular responses associated with these gradients. Many of these technologies have been paired with primary small intestinal and colonic epithelial cells to re-create select aspects of normal physiology or disease states. These biomimetic platforms are becoming increasingly sophisticated with the rapid discovery of new niche factors and gradients. These advancements are contributing to the development of high-fidelity tissue constructs for basic science applications, drug screening, and personalized medicine applications. Here, we discuss the direct and indirect evidence for many of the important gradients found in vivo and their successful application to date in bioengineered in vitro models, including organ-on-chip and microfluidic culture devices.

  15. Thermotolerance in preirradiated intestine and its influence on time-temperature relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, S.P.; Marigold, J.C.; Manjil, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    The crypt compartment of mouse jejunum showed a transient increase in thermal susceptibility approximately 10 days after moderate X-ray doses to the abdomen (9-10 Gy). The increase in response was manifest as an increase in slope of the crypt dose-response curve but was limited to temperatures below 43 0 C. As a result, the 43 0 C inflexion in the Arrhenius plot (the relationship between treatment time and temperature) for thermal sensitivity of crypts was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, and the curve became monophasic over the range 42.0-44.5 0 C. At temperatures below 42 0 C, the curve again deviated. At supranormal temperatures of 42 0 C and below, the durations of hyperthermia needed for measurable effect were sufficient to allow thermotolerance to be expressed within the heating period. Neither the threshold heating times nor this thermotolerance were affected by prior irradiation. In the temperature range 42-43 0 C, an earlier development of thermotolerance could be demonstrated in control tissue by challenging with an acute high-temperature heat treatment. This thermotolerance was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, resulting in the apparent increase in sensitivity. The findings support the view that the complex nature of the time-temperature relationship seen in normal tissue in vivo is a manifestation of the ability of the tissue to progressively acquire a thermotolerant state during treatment at temperatures below approximately 43 0 C, so that the intrinsic sensitivity is modulated while being assessed

  16. Prebiotics: an update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    food supplements) and prebiotics (i.e., non-digestible ..... the improved microbiota metabolically active for a prolonged period of time .... hibit the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), a bio- .... Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition. G.A..

  17. The regeneration of rectal epithelium in the rat following wounding with suppositories of polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyhead, E. M.; Thomas, N. W.; Wilson, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    The regeneration of the epithelial compartments of the rectal mucosa in rats has been quantified at time intervals up to one week following wounding with suppositories of the surfactant polyoxyethylene-(23)-lauryl ether. Regeneration of glandular tissue was complete within one week of the wounding, with new glands arising from residual gland bases and from surface invagination of empty crypt skeletons and underlying granulation tissue. This method of wounding appears to be particularly useful for the study of epithelial regeneration since there was a minimal connective tissue response to the insult. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs 4 and 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6615712

  18. Intestinal Stem Cell Niche: The Extracellular Matrix and Cellular Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laween Meran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium comprises a monolayer of polarised columnar cells organised along the crypt-villus axis. Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of crypts and are constantly nourished by their surrounding niche for maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation. The cellular microenvironment including the adjacent Paneth cells, stromal cells, smooth muscle cells, and neural cells as well as the extracellular matrix together constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. A dynamic regulatory network exists among the epithelium, stromal cells, and the matrix via complex signal transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of these biological or mechanical signals could potentially lead to intestinal injury and disease. In this review, we discuss the role of different intestinal stem cell niche components and dissect the interaction between dynamic matrix factors and regulatory signalling during intestinal stem cell homeostasis.

  19. Notch lineages and activity in intestinal stem cells determined by a new set of knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fre

    Full Text Available The conserved role of Notch signaling in controlling intestinal cell fate specification and homeostasis has been extensively studied. Nevertheless, the precise identity of the cells in which Notch signaling is active and the role of different Notch receptor paralogues in the intestine remain ambiguous, due to the lack of reliable tools to investigate Notch expression and function in vivo. We generated a new series of transgenic mice that allowed us, by lineage analysis, to formally prove that Notch1 and Notch2 are specifically expressed in crypt stem cells. In addition, a novel Notch reporter mouse, Hes1-EmGFP(SAT, demonstrated exclusive Notch activity in crypt stem cells and absorptive progenitors. This roster of knock-in and reporter mice represents a valuable resource to functionally explore the Notch pathway in vivo in virtually all tissues.

  20. New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhea Syndrome in Denmark Characterization of the intestinal lesions and identification of the etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonach, Beata Renata; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette

    of various degrees with concomitant crypt hyperplasia in the jejunum and ileum (Chapter 4.1). Villus atrophy is a common pathological feature seen in numerous infectious intestinal conditions and is associated with malabsorptive diarrhea due to insufficient absorption of water and nutrients from the small...... with enlargement of the proliferative compartment in the crypts and that epithelial cell turnover was enhanced in the diarrheic piglets.Potentially pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile have been proposed to be involved in NNPDS. In order...... that adherent E. coli and Enterococcus spp. were involved in NNPDS. These bacteria were present in 37% of the diarrheic piglets and were associated with villus atrophy and epithelial lesions in the small intestine. No clear association between the presence of C. perfringens and C. difficile and diarrhea...

  1. Autoradiographic investigation of age-dependent proliferation kinetics in the mucosa of rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, D.; Laue, R.; Fuhrmann, I.

    1980-01-01

    Aging of cells depends on mitotic activity which is particularly evident in multicellular organisms. The cell kinetics of the mucosa of the small intestine in a total of 244 Wistar rats aged 6 days, 6 weeks, 6, 12, 23 and 28 months, resp., were studied histoautoradiographically. It could be demonstrated that the regeneration rate of cells per hour in the crypts of the small intestine and the migration velocity of the enterocytes differ in young and old individuals, and that the intermitotic cells have age-dependent properties as well. In addition, it could be proved that intermitotic cells have a non growth fraction, too, which, at an advanced age, decreases only slightly although significantly in terms of statistics. For the easily vulnerable crypt epithelium it is a reserve capacity and ban be included in the proliferating pool if necessary. (author)

  2. Adriamycin-radiation combinations: drug induced delayed gastrointestinal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenken, L.L.; Burholt, D.R.; Kovacs, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    The administration of Adriamycin (ADR) results in acute short-term reductions in cell production within the gastrointestinal mucosa. Interactions between ADR doses and radiation appear minimized as the inter-treatment time interval expands to five days. However, as the times between drug administration and abdominal radiation exposure are further lengthened (from 14 to 49 days), a progressively severe defect in post-irradiation mucosal cell production is noted. Although the mucosa appears abnormal histologically and crypt cell cellularity and cell production are normal, the proliferative response following radiation is reduced by as much as 50% if ADR is given 7 weeks prior to the radiation exposure. We postulate that this effect is a manifestation of latent damage to the stem cell compartment within the crypt or that secondary support systems such as mucosal vascularity have been compromised by ADR

  3. Nuclear scintigraphic assessment of intestinal dysfunction after combined treatment with 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin (9-AC) and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, Alexander V.; Mason, Kathryn; Straume, Martin; Teates, Charles D.; Rich, Tyvin A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The camptothecins (CPTs) are potent radiosensitizers of malignant tumors in vivo. The extent of normal tissue damage after combined CPT and radiation treatment is unknown. In this article, a jejunal absorption assay with 99m Tc- pertechnetate (Na[ 99m TcO 4 ]) was used to assess C3H/Kam mice given total body irradiation (TBI) of 4 Gy, 6 Gy, and 8 Gy, 2 mg/kg single intramuscular injection of 9-AC or a combination of 2 mg/kg 9-AC + 4 Gy TBI. We also correlated the absorption data with morphologic changes in the jejunal mucosa. Materials and Methods: ( 99m TcO 4 ) - absorption from the intestinal lumen into the circulation was studied with dynamic γ-scintigraphy combined with a multichannel analyzer to record the radiometry data in a time-dependent fashion. Jejunal cross sections were scored for the number of cells per villus and the percentage of apoptotic and mitotic cells in the crypt compartment. The jejunal microcolony assay was used to quantify jejunal crypt survival. Results: A dose-dependent decrease in the absorption function was observed 3.5 days following TBI. The mean absorption rate was reduced to 89 ± 16% of control in response to a sublethal 4 Gy TBI and dropped to 47.5 (9.8% in response to 8 Gy TBI. The mean rate of intestinal absorption was delayed by single sublethal 2 mg/kg 9-AC injection to 62 (11% in comparison with control values. The combination of a single 4 Gy TBI with a 9-AC treatment decreased the ( 99m TcO 4 ) - jejunal absorption in an additive fashion producing absorption lifetime values more than twofold longer than controls. The decrease in ( 99m TcO 4 ) - absorption at 3.5 days after irradiation, 9-AC treatment or the combination of the two agents correlates with the number of cells per villus and the percentage of apoptotic cells in the crypt compartment. Conclusion: Dynamic enteroscintigraphy with 99m Tc-pertechnetate is a sensitive functional assay for rapid evaluation of radiation and chemotherapy induced intestinal

  4. Effect of Paclitaxel (Taxol) alone and in combination with radiation on the gastrointestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Kathryn Ann; Milas, Luka; Peters, Lester J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Paclitaxel is a potentially useful drug for augmenting the cytotoxic action of radiotherapy because it has independent cytotoxic activity against certain cancers and blocks cells in the radiosensitive mitotic phase of the cell cycle. However, all rapidly proliferating tissues, both normal and neoplastic, may be affected by this therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to define the in vivo response of rapidly dividing cells of the small bowel mucosa to paclitaxel given alone and in combination with radiation. Methods and Materials: Mice were given single IV doses of 10 or 40 mg/kg paclitaxel or four doses of 10 mg/kg paclitaxel at 6, 12, or 24 h intervals. The kinetics of mitotic arrest and apoptosis in jejunal crypts of mice at 1-24 h after treatment were defined histologically. An in vivo stem cell microcolony assay was used to assess the radiosensitizing potential of paclitaxel when radiation was delivered at the peak of mitosis and at 24 h after drug treatment. Results: Paclitaxel blocked jejunal crypt cells in mitosis and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Fractionating the paclitaxel dose over 1-4 days did not result in any greater accumulation of mitotically blocked cells than did a single dose. Mitosis peaked 2-4 h after paclitaxel and returned to near normal by 24 h. Apoptosis lagged several hours behind mitosis and peaked about 6 h later than mitosis. Despite these kinetic perturbations, there was little or no enhancement of radiation effect when single doses were delivered 2-4 h after paclitaxel administration. The maximum sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.07 observed after a single paclitaxel dose of 40 mg/kg is consistent with independent crypt cell killing. Conversely, when radiation was given 24 h after paclitaxel, a significant protective effect of the drug (SER 0.89-0.92), most probably due to a regenerative overshoot induced by paclitaxel, was observed. Conclusion: Stem cells of the jejunal mucosa determining radiation

  5. Morphology and Function of the Lamb Ileum following Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J. Flores

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor infants born moderately/late preterm (32–37 weeks of gestation, immaturity of the intestine has the potential to impact both short- and long-term gastrointestinal function. The aim of this study conducted in sheep was to compare the morphology and smooth muscle contractility of the ileum in term and late preterm lambs.Materials and methodsLambs delivered preterm (132 days gestation; n = 7 or term (147 days gestation; n = 9 were milk-fed after birth and euthanased at 2 days of age. A segment of distal ileum was collected for analysis of the length and cellular composition of the villi and crypts, smooth muscle width and contractility, and mRNA expression of the cell markers Ki67, lysozyme, mucin 2, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, olfactomedin 4, axis inhibition protein 2, and leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5.ResultsThere was no difference in the proportion of inflammatory, proliferating, apoptotic, enterocyte, or goblet cells between groups, but preterm lambs exhibited a significant upregulation of the stem cell marker LGR5 (p = 0.01. Absolute villus height (term: 1,032 ± 147 µm, preterm: 651 ± 52 µm; p < 0.0001 and crypt depth (term: 153 ± 11 µm, preterm: 133 ± 17 µm; p = 0.01 were significantly shorter in the preterm ileums, with a trend (p = 0.06 for a reduction in muscularis externa width. There was no difference between groups in the contractile response to acetylcholine, but peak contractility in response to bradykinin (p = 0.02 and angiotensin II (p = 0.03 was significantly greater in the preterm lambs.ConclusionFindings demonstrate that the crypt-villus units are shorter in the ileum of late preterm offspring, but functionally mature with an equivalent cellular composition and normal contractile response to acetylcholine compared with term offspring. The exaggerated contractility to inflammatory mediators evident in the

  6. High Spatial Resolution Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance at 7.0 Tesla in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy – First Experiences: Lesson Learned from 7.0 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothmann, Marcel; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Töpper, Agnieszka; Dieringer, Matthias A.; Shahid, Etham; Graessl, Andreas; Rieger, Jan; Lysiak, Darius; Thalhammer, C.; Huelnhagen, Till; Kellman, Peter; Niendorf, Thoralf; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) provides valuable information in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) based on myocardial tissue differentiation and the detection of small morphological details. CMR at 7.0T improves spatial resolution versus today’s clinical protocols. This capability is as yet untapped in HCM patients. We aimed to examine the feasibility of CMR at 7.0T in HCM patients and to demonstrate its capability for the visualization of subtle morphological details. Methods We screened 131 patients with HCM. 13 patients (9 males, 56 ±31 years) and 13 healthy age- and gender-matched subjects (9 males, 55 ±31years) underwent CMR at 7.0T and 3.0T (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). For the assessment of cardiac function and morphology, 2D CINE imaging was performed (voxel size at 7.0T: (1.4x1.4x2.5) mm3 and (1.4x1.4x4.0) mm3; at 3.0T: (1.8x1.8x6.0) mm3). Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was performed at 3.0T for detection of fibrosis. Results All scans were successful and evaluable. At 3.0T, quantification of the left ventricle (LV) showed similar results in short axis view vs. the biplane approach (LVEDV, LVESV, LVMASS, LVEF) (p = 0.286; p = 0.534; p = 0.155; p = 0.131). The LV-parameters obtained at 7.0T where in accordance with the 3.0T data (pLVEDV = 0.110; pLVESV = 0.091; pLVMASS = 0.131; pLVEF = 0.182). LGE was detectable in 12/13 (92%) of the HCM patients. High spatial resolution CINE imaging at 7.0T revealed hyperintense regions, identifying myocardial crypts in 7/13 (54%) of the HCM patients. All crypts were located in the LGE-positive regions. The crypts were not detectable at 3.0T using a clinical protocol. Conclusions CMR at 7.0T is feasible in patients with HCM. High spatial resolution gradient echo 2D CINE imaging at 7.0T allowed the detection of subtle morphological details in regions of extended hypertrophy and LGE. PMID:26863618

  7. Neutrophil recruitment and barrier impairment in celiac disease : A genomic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diosdado, Begona; Van Bakel, Harm; Strengman, Eric; Franke, Lude; Van Oort, Erica; Mulder, Chris J.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wapenaar, Martin C.

    Background & Aims: Celiac disease is an enteropathy featuring villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, and lymphocytosis. Tissue remodeling is driven by an inflammatory reaction to gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The adaptive pathway is considered the major immune response but recent

  8. Dietary heme mediated PPARα activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, Noortje; Wit, de Nicole; Muller, Michael; Meer, van der Roelof

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome

  9. Dietary heme-mediated PPARa activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssenagger, N.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Muller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome

  10. Apoptosis induction by sennoside laxatives in man; escape from a protective mechanism during chronic sennoside use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, B A; Karrenbeld, A; van der Sluis, T; Zwart, N; de Vries, E G; Kleibeuker, J H

    Chronic sennoside use induces melanosis coli (MC) and possibly increases colorectal cancer risk. Sennosides alter colonic crypt length, proliferative activity, and bcl-2 expression 18 h after administration. To investigate possible mechanisms for carcinogenesis, the effects of acute sennoside use

  11. Replacement of Lost Lgr5-Positive Stem Cells through Plasticity of Their Enterocyte-Lineage Daughters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W.; Basak, Onur; Farin, Henner F.; Wiebrands, Kay; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; De Sauvage, Frederic; Van Es, Johan H.; Van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal crypts display robust regeneration upon injury. The relatively rare secretory precursors can replace lost stem cells, but it is unknown if the abundant enterocyte progenitors that express the Alkaline phosphate intestinal (Alpi) gene also have this capacity. We created an

  12. SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of intestinal goblet cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah, Taeko K.; Kazanjian, Avedis [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Whitsett, Jeffrey [Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shroyer, Noah F., E-mail: noah.shroyer@cchmc.org [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Background and Aims: SPDEF (also termed PDEF or PSE) is an ETS family transcription factor that regulates gene expression in the prostate and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lung. Spdef has been reported to be expressed in the intestine. In this paper, we identify an important role for Spdef in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and differentiation. Methods: SPDEF expression was inhibited in colon cancer cells to determine its ability to control goblet cell gene activation. The effects of transgenic expression of Spdef on intestinal differentiation and homeostasis were determined. Results: In LS174T colon cancer cells treated with Notch/{gamma}-secretase inhibitor to activate goblet cell gene expression, shRNAs that inhibited SPDEF also repressed expression of goblet cell genes AGR2, MUC2, RETLNB, and SPINK4. Transgenic expression of Spdef caused the expansion of intestinal goblet cells and corresponding reduction in Paneth, enteroendocrine, and absorptive enterocytes. Spdef inhibited proliferation of intestinal crypt cells without induction of apoptosis. Prolonged expression of the Spdef transgene caused a progressive reduction in the number of crypts that expressed Spdef, consistent with its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Conclusions: Spdef was sufficient to inhibit proliferation of intestinal progenitors and induce differentiation into goblet cells; SPDEF was required for activation of goblet cell associated genes in vitro. These data support a model in which Spdef promotes terminal differentiation into goblet cells of a common goblet/Paneth progenitor.

  13. α-fetoprotein involvement during glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Sun, Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Dan; Du, Jun; Gu, Luo; Ge, Ying-Bin

    2011-06-28

    To investigate the role of α-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, in glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon. Colons from suckling Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Corticosterone acetate at a dose of 100 μg/g body weight was given to normal pups on days 7, 9 and 11 after birth to induce hypercorticoidism. Control animals were injected with identical volumes of normal saline. Some rats receiving corticosterone 7 d after birth were also treated with mifepristone (RU38486), a glucocorticoid cytoplasm receptor antagonist to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs). The morphological changes of the crypt depth and villous height of the villous zone in colon were observed as indices of colon maturation. Expression levels of AFP in colons were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. To identify the cellular localization of AFP in developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific mesenchymal cell marker and AFP. Corticosterone increased the crypt depth and villous height in the colon of 8- and 10-d-old rats with hypercorticoidism compared with that in the control animals (120% in 8-d-old rats and 118% in 10-d-old rats in villous height, P = 0.021; 145% in 8-d-old rats and 124% in 10-d-old rats in crypt depth, P = 0.017). These increases were accompanied by an increase of AFP expression in both mRNA and protein (2.5-folds in 8-d-old and 2.5-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.035; 1.8-folds in 8-d-old and 1.3-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.023). Increased crypt depth and villous height and increased expression of AFP in the colon of rats with hypercorticoidism were blocked by mifepristone. Both had positive staining for AFP or vimentin, and overlapped in mesenchymal cells at each tested colon. GCs promote the development of rat colon. AFP appears to be involved, in

  14. Self-renewal and cancer of the gut: two sides of a coin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radtke, F.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium follows the paradigms of stem cell biology established for other self-renewing tissues. With a unique topology, it constitutes a two-dimensional structure folded into valleys and hills: the proliferative crypts and the differentiated villi. Its unprecedented self-renewal

  15. Influence of a highly purified senna extract on colonic epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, B A; Karrenbeld, A; van Der Sluis, T; Koudstaal, J; de Vries, E G; Kleibeuker, J H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic use of sennoside laxatives often causes pseudomelanosis coli. A recent study suggested that pseudomelanosis coli is associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. A single high dose of highly purified senna extract increased proliferation rate and reduced crypt length in

  16. Mechanisms of the intestinal effects of dietary fats and milk products on colon carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderMeer, R; Lapre, JA; Govers, MJAP; Kleibeuker, JH

    1997-01-01

    Dietary fat may promote colon cancer by increasing fatty acids (FA) and secondary bile acids (BA) in the colonic lumen. These cytotoxic surfactants can damage colonic epithelial cells and thus induce a compensatory hyperproliferation of crypt Cells. Our studies show that the hyperproliferative

  17. Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Foulke-Abel (Jennifer); J. In (Julie); Yin, J. (Jianyi); N.C. Zachos (Nicholas C.); O. Kovbasnjuk (Olga); M.K. Estes (Mary K.); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); M. Donowitz (Mark)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground & Aims Human intestinal crypt-derived enteroids are a model of intestinal ion transport that require validation by comparison with cell culture and animal models. We used human small intestinal enteroids to study neutral Na+ absorption and stimulated fluid and anion secretion

  18. The Effect of A Single Sub-Lethal Dose of Whole Body Irradiation on the Small Intestine of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ramli, M. A.; Kubba, M. A.; Al-Bassam, L. S.; Belhaj, K.; Al-shawish, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of whole body radiation with a single sub-lethal dose at 4 Gy on rat small intestine was studied histologically and quantitatively. Irradiated animals were euthanized at 24 hours, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post- irradiation. Crypts of Leiberkuhn and peyer's patches were especially targeted by irradiation. The crypts showed severe cellular fragmentation in the germinal cellular compartments twenty Four hours after irradiation resulting in partial denudation of villi especially at their Tips. At three days, these cells resumed their proliferative activity with the appearance of unusually large numbers of mitotic figures. Cellular regeneration in the crypts and on the villous surface showed improvement with advancing time till day 28 when the villi had complete epithelial covering and the proliferative activity of the germinal cryptic cells returned to normal. The quantitative study included the measurement of about fifty villi at each time after irradiation. A significant decrease in villous length was noticed at twenty four hours post-irradiation compared to the control values. The length of villi plateaued at about this level till day twenty one when it slightly increased to reach a sub normal mean length on day 28. We concluded that whole body irradiation with a single dose at 4 Gy was enough to induce cryptic cellular necrosis with sloughing of epithelial villous columnar covering. This cellular damage was, however, sub- total since quick regenerative cellular activity was noticed three days post-irradiation. The decrease in the villous length paralleled the cryptic cellular damage whereas full recovery was not achieved despite obvious cellular regeneration.

  19. Short bowel mucosal morphology, proliferation and inflammation at first and repeat STEP procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Annika; Barrett, Meredith; Feng, Yongjia; Lohi, Jouko; Rabah, Raja; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2018-04-17

    Although serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) improves function of dilated short bowel, a significant proportion of patients require repeat surgery. To address underlying reasons for unsuccessful STEP, we compared small intestinal mucosal characteristics between initial and repeat STEP procedures in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Fifteen SBS children, who underwent 13 first and 7 repeat STEP procedures with full thickness small bowel samples at median age 1.5 years (IQR 0.7-3.7) were included. The specimens were analyzed histologically for mucosal morphology, inflammation and muscular thickness. Mucosal proliferation and apoptosis was analyzed with MIB1 and Tunel immunohistochemistry. Median small bowel length increased 42% by initial STEP and 13% by repeat STEP (p=0.05), while enteral caloric intake increased from 6% to 36% (p=0.07) during 14 (12-42) months between the procedures. Abnormal mucosal inflammation was frequently observed both at initial (69%) and additional STEP (86%, p=0.52) surgery. Villus height, crypt depth, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis as well as muscular thickness were comparable at first and repeat STEP (p>0.05 for all). Patients, who required repeat STEP tended to be younger (p=0.057) with less apoptotic crypt cells (p=0.031) at first STEP. Absence of ileocecal valve associated with increased intraepithelial leukocyte count and reduced crypt cell proliferation index (pSTEP. Persistent inflammation and lacking mucosal growth may contribute to continuing bowel dysfunction in SBS children, who require repeat STEP procedure, especially after removal of the ileocecal valve. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase is an in vivo suppressor of colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Jae; Rerko, Ronald M; Yan, Min; Platzer, Petra; Guda, Kishore; Dotson, Angela; Lawrence, Earl; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Lovgren, Alysia Kern; Luo, Guangbin; Pretlow, Theresa P; Newman, Robert A; Willis, Joseph; Dawson, Dawn; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2006-08-08

    15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is a prostaglandin-degrading enzyme that is highly expressed in normal colon mucosa but is ubiquitously lost in human colon cancers. Herein, we demonstrate that 15-PGDH is active in vivo as a highly potent suppressor of colon neoplasia development and acts in the colon as a required physiologic antagonist of the prostaglandin-synthesizing activity of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) oncogene. We first show that 15-PGDH gene knockout induces a marked 7.6-fold increase in colon tumors arising in the Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia) mouse model. Furthermore, 15-PGDH gene knockout abrogates the normal resistance of C57BL/6J mice to colon tumor induction by the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM), conferring susceptibility to AOM-induced adenomas and carcinomas in situ. Susceptibility to AOM-induced tumorigenesis is mediated by a marked induction of dysplasia, proliferation, and cyclin D1 expression throughout microscopic aberrant crypt foci arising in 15-PGDH null colons and is concomitant with a doubling of prostaglandin E(2) in 15-PGDH null colonic mucosa. A parallel role for 15-PGDH loss in promoting the earliest steps of colon neoplasia in humans is supported by our finding of a universal loss of 15-PGDH expression in microscopic colon adenomas recovered from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, including adenomas as small as a single crypt. These models thus delineate the in vivo significance of 15-PGDH-mediated negative regulation of the COX-2 pathway and moreover reveal the particular importance of 15-PGDH in opposing the neoplastic progression of colonic aberrant crypt foci.

  1. Radioautographic visualization of differences in the pattern of [3H]uridine and [3H]orotic acid incorporation into the RNA of migrating columnar cells in the rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.; Altmann, G.G.; Leblond, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    The epithelium of rat small intestine was radioautographed to examine whether RNA is synthesized by the salvage pathway as shown after [ 3 H]uridine injection or by the de novo pathway as shown after [ 3 H]orotic acid injection. The two modes of RNA synthesis were thus investigated during the migration of columnar cells from crypt base to villus top, and the rate of synthesis was assessed by counting silver grains over the nucleolus and nucleoplasm at six levels along the duodenal epithelium - that is, in the base, mid, and top regions of the crypts and in the base, mid, and top regions of the villi. Concomitant biochemical analyses established that, after injection of either [5- 3 H]uridine or [5- 3 H]orotic acid: (a) buffered glutaraldehyde fixative was as effective as perchloric acid or trichloroacetic acid in insolubilizing the nucleic acids of rat small intestine; (b) a major fraction of the nucleic acid label was in RNA, that is, 91% after [ 3 H]uridine and 72% after [ 3 H]orotic acid, with the rest in DNA; and (c) a substantial fraction of the RNA label was in poly A + RNA (presumed to be messenger RNA). In radioautographs of duodenum prepared after [ 3 H]uridine injection, the count of silver grains was high over nucleolus and nucleoplasm in crypt base cells and gradually decreased at the upper levels up to the villus base. In the rest of the villus, the grain count over the nucleolus was negligible, while over the nucleoplasm it was low but significant

  2. Activation of AMPK inhibits cholera toxin stimulated chloride secretion in human and murine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailín C Rogers

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK. In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness.

  3. Regulators of Intestinal Epithelial Migration in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mei; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Liang, Zhe; Lyons, John D; Fay, Katherine T; Chen, Ching-Wen; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2018-02-08

    The gut is a continuously renewing organ, with cell proliferation, migration and death occurring rapidly under basal conditions. Since the impact of critical illness on cell movement from crypt base to villus tip is poorly understood, the purpose of this study was to determine how sepsis alters enterocyte migration. Wild type, transgenic and knockout mice were injected with 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label cells in S phase before and after the onset of cecal ligation and puncture and were sacrificed at pre-determined endpoints to determine distance proliferating cells migrated up the crypt-villus unit. Enterocyte migration rate was decreased from 24-96 hours following sepsis. BrdU was not detectable on villi 6 days after sham laparotomy, meaning all cells had migrated the length of the gut and been exfoliated into its lumen. However, BrdU positive cells were detectable on villi 10 days after sepsis. Multiple components of gut integrity altered enterocyte migration. Sepsis decreased crypt proliferation, which further slowed enterocyte transit as mice injected with BrdU after the onset of sepsis (decreased proliferation) had slower migration than mice injected with BrdU prior to the onset of sepsis (normal proliferation). Decreasing intestinal apoptosis via gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented sepsis-induced slowing of enterocyte migration. In contrast, worsened intestinal hyperpermeability by genetic deletion of JAM-A increased enterocyte migration. Sepsis therefore significantly slows enterocyte migration, and intestinal proliferation, apoptosis and permeability all affect migration time, which can potentially be targeted both genetically and pharmacologically.

  4. Regulatory regions in the rat lactase-phlorizin hydrolase gene that control cell-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, Menno; Krasinski, Stephen D.; Christian, Sara I.; van Schaik, Sandrijn; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Doting, Edwina M. H.; Maas, Saskia M.; Wolthers, Katja C.; Grand, Richard J.; Montgomery, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is an enterocyte-specific gene whose expression has been well-characterized, not only developmentally but also along the crypt-villus axis and along the length of the small bowel. Previous studies from the authors' laboratory have demonstrated that 2 kb

  5. Trichinella spiralis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodoropoulos, G.; Hicks, S. J.; Corfield, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    cells. Peanut and Ulex lectins were also used to assess responses within the intestinal glycocalyx. Histomorphometric analysis was undertaken to evaluate the distribution and staining patterns of goblet cells in villi and crypts. Our analysis showed that stored mucin within goblet cells increased more...

  6. Dietary heme induces acute oxidative stress, but delayed cytotoxicity and compensatory hyperproliferation in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssenagger, N.; Rijnierse, A.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Dekker, J.; Schonewille, A.; Müller, M.R.; Meer, van der M.

    2013-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by generating cytotoxic and oxidative stress. Recently, we found that this surface injury is compensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells, which

  7. Dietary heme induces instantaneous oxidative stress but delayed cytotoxicity and compensatory hyperproliferation in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, Noortje; Rijnierse, A.; Wit, de Nicole; Boekschoten, Mark; Dekker, Jan; Schonewille, Arjan; Muller, Michael; Meer, van der Roelof

    2013-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is compensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells, which was induced by a

  8. Effect of IGF-rich colostrum on bowel adaptation in neonatal piglets with short bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, V. H.; van Heurn, L. W. E.; Farla, P.; Buurman, W. A.; Piersma, F.; ter Riet, G.; Heineman, E.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a polypeptide growth factor with mitogenic effects on intestinal epithelial crypt cells occurs naturally in high concentrations in colostrum. The hypothesis for this study was that colostrum rich in IGF-1 could promote small bowel adaptation in

  9. AcEST: BP919907 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5_9BACT Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Verrucomicrobiae bacterium DG1235 Align length 67 Score (bit) 35... Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Crypt... 33 9.2 >tr|B5JJK5|B5JJK5_9BACT Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Verrucomic

  10. Cultures of human colonic epithelial cells isolated from endoscopical biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Effect of IFNgamma, TNFalpha and IL-1beta on viability, butyrate oxidation and IL-8 secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Saermark, T; Bendtzen, K

    2000-01-01

    . Colonic crypts were isolated from endoscopical biopsies by ultra-short (10 min) EDTA/EGTA treatment, and exposed to TNFalpha, IFNgamma and IL-1beta for 24 hours. The combination of TNFalpha+IFNgamma induced a significant decrease in cell viability as judged by methyltetrazoleum (MTT) metabolism which...

  11. Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; van Jaarsveld, Richard H.; Ponsioen, Bas; Zimberlin, Cheryl; van Boxtel, Ruben; Buijs, Arjan; Sachs, Norman; Overmeer, René M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Begthel, Harry; Korving, Jeroen; van de Wetering, Marc; Schwank, Gerald; Logtenberg, Meike; Cuppen, Edwin; Snippert, Hugo J.; Medema, Jan Paul; Kops, Geert J. P. L.; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Crypt stem cells represent the cells of origin for intestinal neoplasia. Both mouse and human intestinal stem cells can be cultured in medium containing the stem-cell-niche factors WNT, R-spondin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and noggin over long time periods as epithelial organoids that remain

  12. Ghostly Generation Games: Multidirectional Hauntings and Self-Spectralization in Bret Easton Ellis’s Lunar Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeren, E.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between haunting, mourning and inheritance in Bret Easton Ellis's novel Lunar Park, with a specific focus on gender. Read in conjunction with Derrida's theory of spectrality and Abraham and Torok's concepts of the crypt and the phantom, Lunar Park is seen to

  13. Intestinal Hedgehog signaling in tumors and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büller, N.V.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the role of Hedgehog signaling in tumors and inflammation. By using an inducible Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) knockout mouse we show that Ihh signals via the mesenchyme to the proliferating cells in the crypt to attenuate proliferation. Despite its anti-proliferative role in

  14. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay

  15. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  16. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  17. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  18. BMP signaling inhibits intestinal stem cell self-renewal through suppression of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xi C; Zhang, Jiwang; Tong, Wei-Gang; Tawfik, Ossama; Ross, Jason; Scoville, David H; Tian, Qiang; Zeng, Xin; He, Xi; Wiedemann, Leanne M; Mishina, Yuji; Li, Linheng

    2004-10-01

    In humans, mutations in BMPR1A, SMAD4 and PTEN are responsible for juvenile polyposis syndrome, juvenile intestinal polyposis and Cowden disease, respectively. The development of polyposis is a common feature of these diseases, suggesting that there is an association between BMP and PTEN pathways. The mechanistic link between BMP and PTEN pathways and the related etiology of juvenile polyposis is unresolved. Here we show that conditional inactivation of Bmpr1a in mice disturbs homeostasis of intestinal epithelial regeneration with an expansion of the stem and progenitor cell populations, eventually leading to intestinal polyposis resembling human juvenile polyposis syndrome. We show that BMP signaling suppresses Wnt signaling to ensure a balanced control of stem cell self-renewal. Mechanistically, PTEN, through phosphatidylinosital-3 kinase-Akt, mediates the convergence of the BMP and Wnt pathways on control of beta-catenin. Thus, BMP signaling may control the duplication of intestinal stem cells, thereby preventing crypt fission and the subsequent increase in crypt number.

  19. Newly Diagnosed Colonic Adenocarcinoma: The Presenting Sign in a Young Woman with Undiagnosed Crohn’s Disease in the Absence of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and a Normal Microsatellite Instability Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Matthew Lowenthal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis has long been linked with an increased risk for colonic adenocarcinoma, whereas Crohn’s disease (CD has recently been reported to pose a similar increased risk. We report a 33-year-old healthy female with no family history who presented with abdominal pain and a colon mass. Histopathology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma extending through the muscularis propria with metastatic lymph nodes and intact mismatch repair proteins by immunohistochemical expression and gene sequencing. The nonneoplastic grossly uninvolved background mucosa showed marked crypt distortion, crypt abscesses, CD-like lymphoid hyperplasia, transmural inflammation, and reactive epithelial atypia. Additional patient questioning revealed frequent loose stools since she was a teenager leading to diagnosis of a previously undiagnosed CD without primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC. The adenocarcinoma is suspected to be related to the underlying CD. Newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma in a young female as the presenting sign for CD in the absence of PSC is extremely rare.

  20. Endocrine cells in the denervated intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gilda C; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2000-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of myenteric denervation of the proximal jejunum on endocrine cell population of the crypt-villus unit, 5 months after treatment with benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Male Wistar albino rats weighing on average 100 g were allocated to two groups: the BAC group − the proximal jejunal serosa was treated with 2 mm BAC for 30 min, and the control group − treated with saline solution (0,9% NaCl). There was a significant reduction in neurone number in the jejunal myenteric plexus of the BAC group and the endocrine cell population (serotoninergic and argyrophilic cells) was significantly increased in this intestine segment. In conclusion, the present findings provide further evidence that the myenteric denervation induced by BAC may lead to the development of a local imbalance of the neurotransmitters, with a consequent induction of enteroendocrine cell (argyrophilic and serotoninergic cells) hyperplasia in the crypt and villus. PMID:10971748

  1. S-phase cell distribution in the small intestine irradiated at different times of the day. I. Acute irradiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Fabbrica, D [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1983-01-01

    The S-phase cell distribution has been analysed to evaluate the behaviour of proliferative cells in the intestinal epithelium after irradiation at different times of the day. A marked reduction of S cell frequency was observed at early intervals after abdominal irradiation; this reduction was particularly evident in the lower half of the crypts. At subsequent intervals a progressive extension of the proliferative compartment, with labelled cells also at the top of the crypt, was present. The irradiated groups generally showed a homogeneous behaviour even if a more marked reduction in S-phase cells was observed in group C. The invertase activity, a brush border enzyme synthetized during the differentiation process, presented a different behaviour at the early intervals in the irradiated groups. When the extension of the proliferative compartment occurred the invertase activity reached values close to zero. The modifications in brush border enzymes and in S-phase cell distribution, at early killing times, led to the hypothesis of an early differentiation.

  2. Wnt control of stem cells and differentiation in the intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Daniel; Clevers, Hans

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents a very attractive experimental model for the study of integrated key cellular processes such as proliferation and differentiation. The tissue is subjected to a rapid and perpetual self-renewal along the crypt-villus axis. Renewal requires division of multipotent stem cells, still to be morphologically identified and isolated, followed by transit amplification, and differentiation of daughter cells into specialized absorptive and secretory cells. Our understanding of the crucial role played by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in controlling the fine balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in the gut has been significantly enhanced in recent years. Mutations in some of its components irreversibly lead to carcinogenesis in humans and in mice. Here, we discuss recent advances related to the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in regulating intestinal stem cells, homeostasis, and cancer. We emphasize how Wnt signaling is able to maintain a stem cell/progenitor phenotype in normal intestinal crypts, and to impose a very similar phenotype onto colorectal adenomas

  3. Applying Cuckoo Search for analysis of LFSR based cryptosystem

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    Maiya Din

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptographic techniques are employed for minimizing security hazards to sensitive information. To make the systems more robust, cyphers or crypts being used need to be analysed for which cryptanalysts require ways to automate the process, so that cryptographic systems can be tested more efficiently. Evolutionary algorithms provide one such resort as these are capable of searching global optimal solution very quickly. Cuckoo Search (CS Algorithm has been used effectively in cryptanalysis of conventional systems like Vigenere and Transposition cyphers. Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR is a crypto primitive used extensively in design of cryptosystems. In this paper, we analyse LFSR based cryptosystem using Cuckoo Search to find correct initial states of used LFSR. Primitive polynomials of degree 11, 13, 17 and 19 are considered to analyse text crypts of length 200, 300 and 400 characters. Optimal solutions were obtained for the following CS parameters: Levy distribution parameter (β = 1.5 and Alien eggs discovering probability (pa = 0.25.

  4. Effect of retinol on the hyperthermal response of normal tissue in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.A.; Marigold, J.C.L.; Hume, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of prior administration of retinol, a membrane labilizer, on the in vivo hyperthermal response of lysosomes was investigated in the mouse spleen using a quantitative histochemical assay for the lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase. A dose of retinol which had no effect when given alone enhanced the thermal response of the lysosome, causing an increase in lysosomal membrane permeability. In contrast, the same dose of retinol had no effect on the gross hyperthermal response of mouse intestine; a tissue which is relatively susceptible to hyperthermia. Thermal damage to intestine was assayed directly by crypt loss 1 day after treatment or assessed as thermal enhancement of x-ray damage by counting crypt microcolonies 4 days after a combined heat and x-ray treatment. Thus, although the hyperthermal response of the lysosome could be enhanced by the administration of retinol, thermal damage at a gross tissue level appeared to be unaffected, suggesting that lysosomal membrane injury is unlikely to be a primary event in hyperthermal cell killing

  5. Histopathological studies show protective efficacy of Hippophae leaf extract against damage to jejunum in whole body 60Co-a-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manish; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ionizing radiation affect living tissue by causing majority of in vivo damage by free radical production. Earlier we reported that our preparation from Hippophae leaf offered survival benefit to >90% mice population which was whole body irradiated ( 60 Co-a-rays, 10 Gy). Objective: This study was planned to examine the protective effects of our drug (from Hippophae leaf) on ( 60 Co-a-ray induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in jejunum. Methods: Around 2 months old adult male Strain 'A' mice were irradiated (10 Gy). Drug was administered intraperitoneally (-30 mm.). Histological parameters were studied after staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Malondialdehyde formation (index of lipid peroxidation), alkaline phosphatase activity, and total thiol content were determined by biochemical techniques. The data was obtained at different time interval upto 30 days. Results: Biochemical studies showed that in comparison to the untreated controls, in the irradiated (10 Gy) mice, there was significant increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity and level of malondialdehyde whereas decrease in total thiol content within 2 days. Histological studies showed that whole body irradiation (10 Gy), damaged the jejunam crypt cells and decreased the villi height within 2 days. Intra-peritoneal administration of drug, 30 mm prior to irradiation, protected the crypt cells and villi height, countered the radiation induced increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and lipid peroxidation and values were comparable to the level of control in 30 days. Conclusions: These biochemical and histopathological studies suggested that our drug can offer effective radioprotection against the oxidative damage to jejunum in vivo. (author)

  6. In Vivo Radiobiological Characterization of Proton Beam at the National Cancer Center in Korea: Effect of the Chk2 Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Soo; Choo, Dong Wan; Shin, Dongho; Baek, Hye Jung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Motoyama, Noboru; De Coster, Blanche M.; Gueulette, John; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Ando, Koichi; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the presence or absence of CHK2 was estimated at the Korean National Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center (NCCPTC). Methods and Materials: The proton beam was fixed at 210 MeV with 6-cm spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) because this is expected to be the most frequently used clinical setting. X-rays were obtained using a 6-MV conventional linear accelerator. The RBE was estimated from the survival of jejunal crypt in C3H/He and Chk2 -/- mice. Results: The estimated RBEs of the NCCPTC at the middle of the SOBP were 1.10 and 1.05 in the presence and absence of CHK2, respectively. The doses that reduced the number of regenerated crypt per jejunal circumference to 20 (D 20 ) in C3H/He mice were 14.8 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7-15.9) for X-rays and 13.5 Gy (95% CI, 14.5-15.5) for protons. By contrast, the doses of D 20 in Chk2 -/- mice were 15.7 Gy (95% CI, 15.0-16.4) and 14.9 Gy (95% CI, 14.0-15.8) for X-rays and protons, respectively. Conclusions: The RBE of the NCCPTC is clearly within the range of RBEs determined at other facilities and is consistent with the generic RBE value of 1.10 for 150- to 250-MeV beams. The mutation of Chk2 gave rise to radioresistance but exhibited similar RBE.

  7. Histomorphometrical Study of the Prebiotic Effects on Intestine Morphology and Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

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    Reza Sayrafi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotic as alternative feed additive to an antibiotic growth promoter (bacitracin methylene disalicyate on the growth performance and morphometrical parameters of the small intestine of broiler chickens. One hundred and forty four day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 6 wk and each treatment contained four replicates (12 birds each. Dietary treatments were as follow: 1- Control (basal diet, 2- basal diet + antibiotic growth promoter and 3- basal diet + prebiotic. During the feeding experimental period, body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. At the end of the experiment, small intestine segments were sampled and routine histological laboratory methods containing fixation, dehydration, clearing and paraffin embedding were used. Sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin for light microscopy evaluation and the height and width of villi and depth of crypts were measured. The results showed that body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments. Prebiotic and antibiotic had significant (P < 0.05 effect on improvement of feed intake in 22 - 42 days and total period compared with the control. The addition of prebiotic or antibiotic increased the villus height in duodenum (P < 0.05 and prebiotic increased villus width of duodenum and ileum compared with other treatments. The duodenal crypt depth was increased by antibiotic compared with the prebiotic and control group. In conclusion, prebiotic can be used as a suitable alternative to antibiotic growth promoter.

  8. Mechanism for radiation-induced damage via TLR3 on the intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Naoki; Uematsu, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    When the small-intestinal epithelium is injured due to high-dose radiation exposure, radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (GIS) such as absorption inhibition and intestinal bacterial infection occurs, and lead to subacute death. The authors immunologically analyzed the disease onset mechanism of GIS. In the small-intestinal mucosal epithelium, the intestinal epithelial stem cells of crypt structure and their daughter cells are renewed through proliferation and differentiation in the cycle of 3 or 4 days. When DNA is damaged by radiation, although p53 gene stops cell cycle and repairs DNA, cell death is induced if the repair is impossible. When stem cells perish, cell supply stops resulting in epithelial breakdown and fatal GIS. The authors analyzed the involvement in GIS of toll-like receptor (TLR) with the function of natural immunity, based on lethal γ-ray irradiation on KO mice and other methods. The authors found the mechanism, in which RNA that was leaked due to cell death caused by p53 gene elicits inflammation by activating TLR3, and leads to GIS through a wide range of cell death induction and stem cell extinction. The administration of a TLR3/RNA binding inhibitor before the irradiation of mice decreased crypt cell death and greatly improved survival rate. The administration one hour after the irradiation also showed improvement. The administration of the TLR3 specific inhibitor within a fixed time after the exposure is hopeful for the prevention of GIS, without affecting the DNA repair function of p53 gene. (A.O.)

  9. Evidence against a systemic humoral factor controlling the intestinal compensatory response following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, J.G.; Osborne, J.W.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City

    1981-01-01

    The investigation was devised to determine whether changes noted in the unirradiated duodenum and colon of single rats after X-irradiation of only the exteriorized rat jejunum and ileum are mediated by a systemic humoral factor. Littermate Holtzman male rats were joined in parabiosis and one month later, the temporarily exteriorized jejunum and ileum of one member was exposed to 1.000 R of 250 kVp X-irradiation. Two days after X-irradiation, and 1, 12 and 24 h after 1 μCi/g bodyweight 3 H-thymidine was injected i.p. rats were sacrificed and appropriate tissues removed. Single rats which had the exteriorized jejunum and ileum irradiated were studied from 1-3 days after irradiation. Crypt cell migration rates were determined employing autoradiography. Tritium content and columnar cell migration rate in duodenum and colon of unirradiated rats compared to irradiated rats indicated that irradiation of one member of the pair had no effect on tritium incorporation or epithelial cell migration in the duodenum or colon of the unirradiated partner. Epithelial cell proliferation and crypt cell migration were increased in unirradiated duodenum and colon of single intestine-irradiated rats. Essentially the same changes were seen in the irradiated member of a parabiotic pair, but none of these changes were noted in the unirradiated member. The absence of stimulation in the unirradiated parabiont suggests that either a systemic humoral factor is not present after X-irradiation or is not present in sufficient concentration to be detected by these methods. (orig./MG)

  10. Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cells in the Bovine Colonic Mucosa Differ in Their Responsiveness to Escherichia coli Shiga Toxin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells in the depth of the crypts in the bovine colon express CD77 molecules that potentially act as receptors for Shiga toxins (Stx). The implication of this finding for the intestinal colonization 25 of cattle with human pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains undefined. We used f...

  11. Transformation of intestinal stem cells into gastric stem cells on loss of transcription factor Cdx2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmini, Salvatore; Bialecka, Monika; Huch, Meritxell; Kester, Lennart; van de Wetering, Marc; Sato, Toshiro; Beck, Felix; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The endodermal lining of the adult gastro-intestinal tract harbours stem cells that are responsible for the day-to-day regeneration of the epithelium. Stem cells residing in the pyloric glands of the stomach and in the small intestinal crypts differ in their differentiation programme and in the gene

  12. (1845-1880). The fortifications of Bône

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nadia

    texte, scrute les éléments constitutifs d'un plan, décrypte le fait historique le moins .... 1832, le directeur des fortifications de Constantine établit un croquis auquel il ... au centre des débats, la question sur la définition des territoires à occuper.

  13. Location of quarries of non traditional stony materials in the architecture of Madrid: the Crypt of the Cathedral of Santa María la Real de la Almudena

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    Gómez-Heras, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination between petrological data and historical documentation sources is necessary to establish an accurate methodology for the location of the original quarries of the stony materials used in a determinate historical building. The petrographical and petrophisical data correlation combined with a multivariate statistical analysis, by means of similarity indexes of both the materials in the building and the probable source geological formations, allows the location even when the documental sources would he incomplete or lost, or when the source areas would be modified. The works of location of original quarries used in architectural heritage are important since they allow improving the works of restoration on a building by means of the possibility of using identical materials for substitution or reintegration of decayed elements. The establishment of the original areas also offers the possibility of obtaining unaltered semipiés to evaluate the state and processes of decay of the building as well as to use this rough material to test the effectivity and durability of protective arid consolidant treatments in the building and monuments. The aim of this work has been to characterize and to locate the origin of the stony material in the stonework of the Crypt of the Cathedral of Santa María la Real de la Almudena (Madrid. These stone types came from quarries located in Viana de Jadraque (Guadalajara, Spain and in the central area of Portugal. These materials do not correspond with the traditional ones used in the city of Madrid and its presence is due to the opening of new ways of transport in the second half of the 19"' centuiy.

    Para establecer una metodología adecuada con el fin de localizar las canteras originales de los materiales pétreos de construcción utilizados en un determinado edificio histórico se necesita combinar datos petrológicos y fuentes de documentación histórica. La correlación de los datos petrogr

  14. Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by polyethylene glycol: suppression of epithelial proliferation via modulation of SNAIL/beta-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Hemant K; Kunte, Dhananjay P; Koetsier, Jennifer L; Hart, John; Kim, Young L; Liu, Yang; Bissonnette, Marc; Goldberg, Michael; Backman, Vadim; Wali, Ramesh K

    2006-08-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is one of the most potent chemopreventive agents against colorectal cancer; however, the mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In this study, we assessed the ability of PEG to target cyclin D1-beta-catenin-mediated hyperproliferation in the azoxymethane-treated rat model and the human colorectal cancer cell line, HT-29. Azoxymethane-treated rats were randomized to AIN-76A diet alone or supplemented with 5% PEG-8000. After 30 weeks, animals were euthanized and biopsies of aberrant crypt foci and uninvolved crypts were subjected to immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. PEG markedly suppressed both early and late markers of azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis (fractal dimension by 80%, aberrant crypt foci by 64%, and tumors by 74%). In both azoxymethane-treated rats and HT-29 cells treated with 5% PEG-3350 for 24 hours, PEG decreased proliferation (45% and 52%, respectively) and cyclin D1 (78% and 56%, respectively). Because beta-catenin is the major regulator of cyclin D1 in colorectal cancer, we used the T-cell factor (Tcf)-TOPFLASH reporter assay to show that PEG markedly inhibited beta-catenin transcriptional activity. PEG did not alter total beta-catenin expression but rather its nuclear localization, leading us to assess E-cadherin expression (a major determinant of beta-catenin subcellular localization), which was increased by 73% and 71% in the azoxymethane-rat and HT-29 cells, respectively. We therefore investigated the effect of PEG treatment on levels of the negative regulator of E-cadherin, SNAIL, and observed a 50% and 75% decrease, respectively. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, a molecular mechanism through which PEG imparts its antiproliferative and hence profound chemopreventive effect.

  15. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy.

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    Jin Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy.We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group.The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin.

  16. Evidence of environmental and vertical transmission of Burkholderia symbionts in the oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hideomi; Aita, Manabu; Nagayama, Atsushi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Kamagata, Yoichi; Navarro, Ronald; Hori, Tomoyuki; Ohgiya, Satoru; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2014-10-01

    The vertical transmission of symbiotic microorganisms is omnipresent in insects, while the evolutionary process remains totally unclear. The oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae), is a serious sugarcane pest, in which symbiotic bacteria densely populate the lumen of the numerous tubule-like midgut crypts that the chinch bug develops. Cloning and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the crypts were dominated by a specific group of bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia of the Betaproteobacteria. The Burkholderia sequences were distributed into three distinct clades: the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), the plant-associated beneficial and environmental (PBE) group, and the stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental group (SBE). Diagnostic PCR revealed that only one of the three groups of Burkholderia was present in ∼89% of the chinch bug field populations tested, while infections with multiple Burkholderia groups within one insect were observed in only ∼10%. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the Burkholderia bacteria specifically colonized the crypts and were dominated by one of three Burkholderia groups. The lack of phylogenetic congruence between the symbiont and the host population strongly suggested host-symbiont promiscuity, which is probably caused by environmental acquisition of the symbionts by some hosts. Meanwhile, inspections of eggs and hatchlings by diagnostic PCR and egg surface sterilization demonstrated that almost 30% of the hatchlings vertically acquire symbiotic Burkholderia via symbiont-contaminated egg surfaces. The mixed strategy of symbiont transmission found in the oriental chinch bug might be an intermediate stage in evolution from environmental acquisition to strict vertical transmission in insects. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Genomic priming of the antisecretory response to estrogen in rat distal colon throughout the estrous cycle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Fiona

    2009-11-01

    The secretion of Cl(-) across distal colonic crypt cells provides the driving force for the movement of fluid into the luminal space. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) produces a rapid and sustained reduction in secretion in females, which is dependent on the novel protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) isozyme and PKA isoform I targeting of KCNQ1 channels. This sexual dimorphism in the E2 response is associated with a higher expression level of PKC delta in female compared with the male tissue. The present study revealed the antisecretory response is regulated throughout the female reproductive (estrous) cycle and is primed by genomic regulation of the kinases. E2 (1-10 nm) decreased cAMP-dependent secretion in colonic epithelia during the estrus, metestrus, and diestrus stages. A weak inhibition of secretion was demonstrated in the proestrus stage. The expression levels of PKC delta and PKA fluctuated throughout the estrous cycle and correlated with the potency of the antisecretory effect of E2. The expression of PKC delta and PKA were up-regulated by estrogen at a transcriptional level via a PKC delta-MAPK-cAMP response element-binding protein-regulated pathway indicating a genomic priming of the antisecretory response. PK Cdelta was activated by the membrane-impermeant E2-BSA, and this response was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. The 66-kDa estrogen receptor-alpha isoform was present at the plasma membrane of female colonic crypt cells with a lower abundance found in male colonic crypts. The study demonstrates estrogen regulation of intestinal secretion both at a rapid and transcriptional level, demonstrating an interdependent relationship between both nongenomic and genomic hormone responses.

  18. Therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin-11 and curcumin on jejunal damage in mice after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Gongmin; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Wang Shuiming; Li Yang; Xu Xinping; Wang Lifeng; Dong Ji; Zhao Li

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin (rhIL-11) and curcumin on jejunal damage in mice after neutron irradiation. Methods: 140 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: 20 mice in healthy control group, 60 mice in mere irradiation group, 30 mice in IL-11 treatment group and 30 mice in curcumin treatment group. The mere irradiation group mice were wholly exposed to 3 Gy neutron irradiation. The treatment groups mice were imtraperitoneally injected with rhIL-11 at the dosage of 500 μg·kg -1 ·d -1 and ourcumin of 200 mg·kg -1 ·/ -1 through enterocoelia once a day for a d after irradiation. The mortality of the mice were observed. The mice in the control and mere irradiation groups were killed 6 h, 1, 3, and 6 d post-irradiation, respectively, and the mice of the 2 treatment groups were killed 3 and 6 d post-irradiation, respectively and the samples of jujunum were colleted. HE staining, argyrophilic of nucleolar organizer staining, Feulgen staining, and image analysis were used to observe the pathology and levels of argyrophilic proteins and DNA. Results: The mice in the mere irradiation group all died at 5 d post-irradiation, while 2 mice in the IL-11 treatment group and 3 in the curcumin group survived. Large area necrosis and exfoliation were found in the intestinal epithelial mucosa of the mere irradiated group mice since 6 h to 3 d after irradiation. Crypt cell regeneration was seen occasionally found 3 days later and much more 5 days later. Crypt cell regeneration was obviously found in the intestinal epithelial mucosa and lots of new villi were observed 5 d after irradiation in both treatment groups, however, the amounts of crypt cells and new villi of the curcumin treatment group were less than those of the IL-11 treatment group. The contents of AgNOR and DNA in the intestinal epithelial cells 5 days after irradiation of the 2 treatment groups were all significantly higher than those of the mere

  19. Involved mechanisms in the radioprotector effect of the insulinic-1 type growth factor (IGF-1) in the mucous of the small intestine; Mecanismos involucrados en el efecto radioprotector del factor de crecimiento tipo insulinico-1 (IGF-1) en la mucosa del intestino delgado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, N.; Medina, V.; Sambuco, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G.; Rivera, E.; Bergoc, R. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Junin 956, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Croci, M.; Crescenti, E. [Instituto de Inmunooncologia, Cordoba 3200, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: rmbergoc@ffyb.uba.ar

    2006-07-01

    The use of radiant therapies in malignant tissues presents the inconvenience of affecting also to the healthy tissues, mainly when these present a high rate of proliferation like in the case of the mucous of the small intestine. The growth factor of insulinic-1 type (IGF-1) it has been pointed out as a possible protector of normal tissues under irradiation conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the IGF-1 like radioprotector of the mucous of the small intestine in mice irradiated with 10 Gy to whole body, determining the histological characteristics of the tissue, the presence of apoptotic cells, the expression of antigen of cellular proliferation (PCNA) and of anti-oxidant enzymes. Four groups of mice were used: control, treated with IGF-1, irradiated and irradiated and treated with IGF-1. The two treated groups were injected subcutaneously with two dose by day of 2.5 {mu}g of IGF-I /0.1ml during four days (days 1 at 4). The two irradiated groups 10 Gy received to whole body the day 2. The day 5 all the animals were sacrificed and cuts of the mucous of the small intestine were obtained. The histological cuts were evaluated by tint with hematoxyline-eosin; the presence of apoptotic cells its were determined by the Tunnel method (Apoptag kit); the expression of PCNA, superoxide dependent dismutase of copper and zinc (CuZnSOD), superoxide dependent dismutase of manganese (MnSOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathion peroxidase (GPX), by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that the treatment with IGF-1 preserves the partially histology of the mucous of the intestine, the expression of PCNA and the presence of apoptotic cells in the crypts in front of the irradiation. The CuZnSOD it was expressed mainly in the hairiness and, in smaller measure, in the crypts increase in the group IR+IGF-1. The IGF-1 produced the expression of MnSOD in the crypts and in the intestinal hairiness. The expression of CAT in the hairiness increase

  20. Involved mechanisms in the radioprotector effect of the insulinic-1 type growth factor (IGF-1) in the mucous of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, N.; Medina, V.; Sambuco, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G.; Rivera, E.; Bergoc, R.; Croci, M.; Crescenti, E.

    2006-01-01

    The use of radiant therapies in malignant tissues presents the inconvenience of affecting also to the healthy tissues, mainly when these present a high rate of proliferation like in the case of the mucous of the small intestine. The growth factor of insulinic-1 type (IGF-1) it has been pointed out as a possible protector of normal tissues under irradiation conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the IGF-1 like radioprotector of the mucous of the small intestine in mice irradiated with 10 Gy to whole body, determining the histological characteristics of the tissue, the presence of apoptotic cells, the expression of antigen of cellular proliferation (PCNA) and of anti-oxidant enzymes. Four groups of mice were used: control, treated with IGF-1, irradiated and irradiated and treated with IGF-1. The two treated groups were injected subcutaneously with two dose by day of 2.5 μg of IGF-I /0.1ml during four days (days 1 at 4). The two irradiated groups 10 Gy received to whole body the day 2. The day 5 all the animals were sacrificed and cuts of the mucous of the small intestine were obtained. The histological cuts were evaluated by tint with hematoxyline-eosin; the presence of apoptotic cells its were determined by the Tunnel method (Apoptag kit); the expression of PCNA, superoxide dependent dismutase of copper and zinc (CuZnSOD), superoxide dependent dismutase of manganese (MnSOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathion peroxidase (GPX), by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that the treatment with IGF-1 preserves the partially histology of the mucous of the intestine, the expression of PCNA and the presence of apoptotic cells in the crypts in front of the irradiation. The CuZnSOD it was expressed mainly in the hairiness and, in smaller measure, in the crypts increase in the group IR+IGF-1. The IGF-1 produced the expression of MnSOD in the crypts and in the intestinal hairiness. The expression of CAT in the hairiness increase significantly

  1. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Mao

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05, and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier

  2. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in

  3. Lgr5 intestinal stem cells have high telomerase activity and randomly segregate their chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, A.G.; Vries, R.G.J.; van den Born, M.M.W.; van de Wetering, M.L.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cells have been proposed to be limited in the number of cell divisions they can undergo. This is thought to be a mechanism by which stem cells retain their integrity preventing disease. However, we have recently discovered intestinal crypt stem cells that persist for the lifetime of a mouse,

  4. Stem cells marked by the R-spondin receptor LGR5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Clevers, Hans

    Since the discovery of LGR5 as a marker of intestinal stem cells, the field has developed explosively and led to many new avenues of research. The inner workings of the intestinal crypt stem cell niche are now well understood. The study of stem cell-enriched genes has uncovered some previously

  5. Plasticity of intestinal epithelial cells in regeneration and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular plasticity refers to the ability of a cell to change its fate or identity in response to external or intrinsic factors. Regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury is driven mainly by plasticity of crypt stem cells that can rapidly divide to replace all the lost cells. Stem cell

  6. Computer Aided Diagnosis for Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Advanced Colorectal Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ştefănescu

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is becoming a popular method for optical biopsy of digestive mucosa for both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Computer aided diagnosis of CLE images, using image processing and fractal analysis can be used to quantify the histological structures in the CLE generated images. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic diagnosis algorithm of colorectal cancer (CRC, based on fractal analysis and neural network modeling of the CLE-generated colon mucosa images.We retrospectively analyzed a series of 1035 artifact-free endomicroscopy images, obtained during CLE examinations from normal mucosa (356 images and tumor regions (679 images. The images were processed using a computer aided diagnosis (CAD medical imaging system in order to obtain an automatic diagnosis. The CAD application includes image reading and processing functions, a module for fractal analysis, grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM computation module, and a feature identification module based on the Marching Squares and linear interpolation methods. A two-layer neural network was trained to automatically interpret the imaging data and diagnose the pathological samples based on the fractal dimension and the characteristic features of the biological tissues.Normal colon mucosa is characterized by regular polyhedral crypt structures whereas malignant colon mucosa is characterized by irregular and interrupted crypts, which can be diagnosed by CAD. For this purpose, seven geometric parameters were defined for each image: fractal dimension, lacunarity, contrast correlation, energy, homogeneity, and feature number. Of the seven parameters only contrast, homogeneity and feature number were significantly different between normal and cancer samples. Next, a two-layer feed forward neural network was used to train and automatically diagnose the malignant samples, based on the seven parameters tested. The neural network operations were cross

  7. Physical parameters and biological effects of the LVR-15 epithermal neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, J.; Marek, M.; Rejchrt, J.; Viererbl, L.; Gambarini, G.; Mares, V.; Vanossi, E.; Judas, L.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of the physical and biological properties of the epithermal neutron beam constructed at the multipurpose LVR-15 nuclear reactor for NCT therapy of brain tumors showed that its physical and biological properties are stable in time and independent on an ad hoc reconfiguration of the reactor core before its therapeutic use. Physical parameters were monitored by measurement of the neutron spectrum, neutron profile, fast neutron kerma rate in tissue and photon absorbed dose, the gel dosimetry was used with the group of standard measurement methods. The RBE of the beam, as evaluated by 3 different biological models, including mouse intestine crypt regeneration assay, germinative zones of the immature rat brain and C6 glioma cells in culture, ranged from 1.70 to 1.99. (author)

  8. Attenuated apoptosis response to Fas-ligand in active ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Nielsen, Ole H

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: From mainly carcinoma cell line studies, apoptosis has been thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Apoptosis has been suggested to be due to a Fas ligand / Fas receptor interaction, but has never been studied in cells from patients with active UC...... was subsequently reached were included. Cultures of isolated colonic crypts were obtained from biopsies and cultured for 4 to 16 hours with Fas ligand or Fas ligand and costimulation with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Control experiments were performed on HT29 cells. Apoptosis was assessed by independent methods....... RESULTS: Isolated colonocytes from healthy subjects or patients with remission in UC had a dose-dependent response to Fas ligand. This response was abolished in patients with active UC (P

  9. Investigation of Current State of Crytpography and Theoretical Implementation of a Cryptographic System for the Combat Service Support Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    34 Advances in Crypt g: Proceedings of CRYPTO 84,r o ... .. .. _ __...o ... .. ... ....... ed. by G.R. Blakely and D. Chaum . [Wagn84b] Wagner, Neal R...in Distributed Computer Systems," IEEE Trans. on Computers, Vol. C-35, No. 7, Jul. 86, pp. 583-590. Gifford, David K., "Cryptographic Sealing for

  10. Concise review: the yin and yang of intestinal (cancer) stem cells and their progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stange, D.E.; Clevers, H.

    2013-01-01

    The intestine has developed over the last few years into a prime model system for adult stem cell research. Intestinal cells have an average lifetime of 5 days, moving within this time from the bottom of intestinal crypts to the top of villi. This rapid self-renewal capacity combined with an easy to

  11. Dimetal Complexes of a Bibrachial 2+2 Thiolate-based Macrocycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennartson, Anders; McKee, Vickie; Nelson, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Protocols for accessing the [2+3] and [2+2] tren + thiophenolate-based cryptands and macrocycles, respectively, have been devised; however, a propensity towards incomplete crypt formation is clear: Cd(II)2, Mn(II)2, Ni(II)2 and Pd(II)2 complexes of the [2+2] bibrachial systems in which one arm of...

  12. Effect of a hyperlipidic diet rich in omegas 3, 6 and 9 on aberrant crypt formation in rat colonic mucosa Efeito de uma dieta hiperlipídica rica em ômegas 3, 6 e 9 na formação de criptas aberrantes em mucosa cólica de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idália Maria Brasil Burlamaqui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids influences the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colonic mucosa of Wistar rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM. METHODS: At eight weeks of life, the rats were assigned to four groups: Group I―standard diet (STD not treated with AOM; Group II―hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet (FED, not treated with AOM; Group III―STD, treated with AOM; Group IV―FED, treated with AOM. At 16 weeks, the animals were injected intraperitoneal with 0.9% saline solution (Group I and II or AOM at 15mg/Kg (Groups III and IV once a week for two weeks. Fifteen weeks later, the animals were euthanized. RESULTS: FED promoted weight gain in Groups II and IV compared to Groups I and III, respectively. The groups did not differ with regard to the total number of ACF. The Chi-square test revealed no predominance of the presence of foci with OBJETIVO: Determinar se uma dieta hipercalórica, hiperlipídica, rica em ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (FED tem influência na formação de focos de cripta aberrante (FCA em mucosa cólica de ratos Wistar expostos ao azoximetano (AOM. MÉTODOS: Com oito semanas de vida, os ratos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo I: Dieta padrão (SD sem AOM; Grupo II: FED, sem AOM; Grupo III: SD, com AOM; Grupo IV: FED com AOM. Com 16 semanas, os animais dos grupos I e II receberam injeções intraperitoneais de solução salina 0,9%, enquanto os dos grupos III e IV receberam AOM na dose de 15mg/Kg de peso, 1 vez por semana por duas semanas. Quinze semanas após, os animais foram mortos. RESULTADOS: FED promoveu aumento de peso nos grupos II e IV em relação aos grupos I e III. Não houve aumento significante no número total de FCA entre os grupos. Em relação à multiplicidade das criptas por FCA, o teste do qui-quadrado mostrou que não houve predominância da presença <4 criptas por foco. Contudo, focos ≥5 criptas

  13. Effect of incubation system on the development of intestinal villi, metabolism, and performance of one- to forty-day-old broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Pacheco Villanueva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of the incubation system ― multiple-stage (MS and single-stage (SS ― on the characteristics at hatching, intestinal morphology, metabolism, and performance of Cobb-500 chickens from 1 to 40 d of age. A total of 1,968 fertile eggs were incubated in two setters under commercial conditions. Birds hatched in SS were longer than those hatched in MS, and the females had higher relative intestinal weight compared with males. However, at hatching, there were no differences in BW and yolk-free body mass from incubation system or sex. In the period from 1-40 d, the birds hatched in SS were heavier, had higher weight gain and better adjusted feed conversion, without differences in feed intake and feed conversion. This result is due mainly to MS females, which always, although in some periods only numerically, exhibited worse responses than the other treatment, lowering the average MS bird performance. Sex influenced the duodenal villi height in chickens at 0 d; females showed larger villi than males. Moreover, the birds hatched in SS had deeper crypts than those hatched in MS. At 7 d, because males had higher feed intake, the differences in duodenal villi height found at hatching disappeared, leaving only a gender effect on jejunum crypt depth: females showed deeper crypts. As regards the metabolism coefficients of nutrients from 5 to 7 d, females were more efficient in metabolizing energy and showed higher apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen values than males, with no differences caused by the incubation system. The best incubation conditions are obtained with the single-stage system, based on the improved broiler performance (2.98%, especially in the females (5.04%.

  14. Deletion of glutathione peroxidase-2 inhibits azoxymethane-induced colon cancer development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike F Müller

    Full Text Available The selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx2 appears to have a dual role in carcinogenesis. While it protected mice from colon cancer in a model of inflammation-triggered carcinogenesis (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate treatment, it promoted growth of xenografted tumor cells. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of GPx2 in a mouse model mimicking sporadic colorectal cancer (azoxymethane-treatment only. GPx2-knockout (KO and wild-type (WT mice were adjusted to an either marginally deficient (-Se, adequate (+Se, or supranutritional (++Se selenium status and were treated six times with azoxymethane (AOM to induce tumor development. In the -Se and ++Se groups, the number of tumors was significantly lower in GPx2-KO than in respective WT mice. On the +Se diet, the number of dysplastic crypts was reduced in GPx2-KO mice. This may be explained by more basal and AOM-induced apoptotic cell death in GPx2-KO mice that eliminates damaged or pre-malignant epithelial cells. In WT dysplastic crypts GPx2 was up-regulated in comparison to normal crypts which might be an attempt to suppress apoptosis. In contrast, in the +Se groups tumor numbers were similar in both genotypes but tumor size was larger in GPx2-KO mice. The latter was associated with an inflammatory and tumor-promoting environment as obvious from infiltrated inflammatory cells in the intestinal mucosa of GPx2-KO mice even without any treatment and characterized as low-grade inflammation. In WT mice the number of tumors tended to be lowest in +Se compared to -Se and ++Se feeding indicating that selenium might delay tumorigenesis only in the adequate status. In conclusion, the role of GPx2 and presumably also of selenium depends on the cancer stage and obviously on the involvement of inflammation.

  15. Diet-induced obesity promotes colon tumor development in azoxymethane-treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iina Tuominen

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important risk factor for colon cancer in humans, and numerous studies have shown that a high fat diet enhances colon cancer development. As both increased adiposity and high fat diet can promote tumorigenesis, we examined the effect of diet-induced obesity, without ongoing high fat diet, on colon tumor development. C57BL/6J male mice were fed regular chow or high fat diet for 8 weeks. Diets were either maintained or switched resulting in four experimental groups: regular chow (R, high fat diet (H, regular chow switched to high fat diet (RH, and high fat diet switched to regular chow (HR. Mice were then administered azoxymethane to induce colon tumors. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were dramatically smaller in the R group relative to all groups that received high fat diet at any point. The effect of obesity on colon tumors could not be explained by differences in aberrant crypt foci number. Moreover, diet did not alter colonic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ, which were measured immediately after azoxymethane treatment. Crypt apoptosis and proliferation, which were measured at the same time, were increased in the HR relative to all other groups. Our results suggest that factors associated with obesity - independently of ongoing high fat diet and obesity - promote tumor development because HR group animals had significantly more tumors than R group, and these mice were fed the same regular chow throughout the entire carcinogenic period. Moreover, there was no difference in the number of aberrant crypt foci between these groups, and thus the effect of obesity appears to be on subsequent stages of tumor development when early preneoplastic lesions transition into adenomas.

  16. Navy and black bean supplementation primes the colonic mucosal microenvironment to improve gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Wu, Wenqing; Pauls, K Peter; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2017-11-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are enriched in non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that can modulate the colonic microenvironment (microbiota and host epithelial barrier) to improve gut health. In a comprehensive assessment of the impact of two commonly consumed bean varieties (differing in levels and types of phenolic compounds) within the colonic microenvironment, C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) flours or an isocaloric basal diet control (BD) for 3 weeks. NB and BB similarly altered the fecal microbiota community structure (16S rRNA sequencing) notably by increasing the abundance of carbohydrate fermenting bacteria such as Prevotella, S24-7 and Ruminococcus flavefaciens, which coincided with enhanced short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (microbial-derived carbohydrate fermentation products) and colonic expression of the SCFA receptors GPR-41/-43/-109a. Both NB and BB enhanced multiple aspects of mucus and epithelial barrier integrity vs. BD including: (i) goblet cell number, crypt mucus content and mucin mRNA expression, (ii) anti-microbial defenses (Reg3γ), (iii) crypt length and epithelial cell proliferation, (iv) apical junctional complex components (occludin, JAM-A, ZO-1 and E-cadherin) mRNA expression and (v) reduced serum endotoxin concentrations. Interestingly, biomarkers of colon barrier integrity (crypt height, mucus content, cell proliferation and goblet cell number) were enhanced in BB vs. NB-fed mice, suggesting added benefits attributable to unique BB components (e.g., phenolics). Overall, NB and BB improved baseline colonic microenvironment function by altering the microbial community structure and activity and promoting colon barrier integrity and function; effects which may prove beneficial in attenuating gut-associated diseases. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of dietary seaweed extracts and fish oil supplementation in sows on performance, intestinal microflora, intestinal morphology, volatile fatty acid concentrations and immune status of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; Lynch, B P; O'Doherty, J V

    2011-02-01

    A 2x2 factorial experiment (ten sows per treatment) was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation with a seaweed extract (SWE; 0 v. 10·0 g/d) and fish oil (FO; 0 v. 100 g/d) inclusion from day 109 of gestation until weaning (day 26) on pig performance post-weaning (PW) and intestinal morphology, selected microflora and immune status of pigs 9 d PW. The SWE contained laminarin (10 %), fucoidan (8 %) and ash (82 %) and the FO contained 40 % EPA and 25 % DHA. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P=0·063) between days 0 and 21 PW and pigs weaned from FO-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P<0·05) and gain to feed ratio (P<0·01) between days 7 and 14 PW. There was an interaction between maternal SWE and FO supplementation on caecal Escherichia coli numbers (P<0·05) and the villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum (P<0·01) and jejunum (P<0·05) in pigs 9 d PW. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had lower caecal E. coli and a higher villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum and jejunum compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows (P<0·05). There was no effect of SWE on E. coli numbers and villous height to crypt depth ratio with FO inclusion. Maternal FO supplementation induced an increase in colonic mRNA abundance of IL-1α and IL-6 (P<0·05), while SWE supplementation induced an increase in ileal TNF-α (P<0·01) and colonic TFF3 mRNA expression (P<0·05). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SWE and FO supplementation to the maternal diet influenced the gastrointestinal environment and performance of the weaned pig.

  18. Radiation-induced functional damages in the regeneration system for the gastrointestinal epithelium cell and analysis of its nutritional modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Narita, Mayumi; Ogawa, Yuko; Shinohara, Kiyoko; Nakazawa, Yukiko; Yamada, Keiko [National Inst. of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    It has been known that the stem cells of villus-crypt zone are highly sensitive to radiation exposure. In this study, radiation-induced damages in gastrointestinal cell regeneration system were investigated from an aspect of nutritional factors to clarify the damages in digestive functions caused by X-ray exposure and recovery from them. The activities of digestive enzymes in the small intestine after in vivo X-ray exposure at 100 Gy were determined. The sucrose activity in the upper intestine was gradually reduced to about a half 3 days after the exposure. This change pattern of activity was also observed in other regions in the intestine. This tendency was similar to that of trehalase activity, but the changes in alkaline phosphatase and leucine amino-peptidase activities were less than the above two enzymes. Therefore, time course changes of sucrose and trehalase pattern in the villus-crypt zone were monitored after radiation exposure. Either of the two enzyme activities was low in the crypt and gradually increased from the basement of villus to its top. These activities were dose-dependently reduced by X-ray exposure. Especially it was marked for trehalose activity. Moreover, the amounts of short-chain fatty acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butylic acid in the cecum were determined. Significant increases in acetic acid and propionic acid contents were fount at 1 or 2 days after the X-ray exposure. These increases in fatty acids contents were more distinctive in the animals that received forced and free administration of food than those that received free administration alone. The presence of food components in the intestine might be effective for protecting the mucous membrane regeneration from radiation exposure. (M.N.)

  19. Celiac Disease Histopathology Recapitulates Hedgehog Downregulation, Consistent with Wound Healing Processes Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Senger

    Full Text Available In celiac disease (CD, intestinal epithelium damage occurs secondary to an immune insult and is characterized by blunting of the villi and crypt hyperplasia. Similarities between Hedgehog (Hh/BMP4 downregulation, as reported in a mouse model, and CD histopathology, suggest mechanistic involvement of Hh/BMP4/WNT pathways in proliferation and differentiation of immature epithelial cells in the context of human intestinal homeostasis and regeneration after damage. Herein we examined the nature of intestinal crypt hyperplasia and involvement of Hh/BMP4 in CD histopathology.Immunohistochemistry, qPCR and in situ hybridization were used to study a cohort of 24 healthy controls (HC and 24 patients with diagnosed acute celiac disease (A-CD intestinal biopsies. In A-CD we observed an increase in cells positive for Leucin-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5, an epithelial stem cell specific marker and expansion of WNT responding compartment. Further, we observed alteration in number and distribution of mesenchymal cells, predicted to be part of the intestinal stem cells niche. At the molecular level we found downregulation of indian hedgehog (IHH and other components of the Hh pathway, but we did not observe a concurrent downregulation of BMP4. However, we observed upregulation of BMPs antagonists, gremlin 1 and gremlin 2.Our data suggest that acute CD histopathology partially recapitulates the phenotype reported in Hh knockdown models. Specifically, Hh/BMP4 paradigm appears to be decoupled in CD, as the expansion of the immature cell population does not occur consequent to downregulation of BMP4. Instead, we provide evidence that upregulation of BMP antagonists play a key role in intestinal crypt hyperplasia. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying CD histopathology and the limitations in the use of mouse models for celiac disease.

  20. Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Stenfeldt

    Full Text Available A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural, intra-oropharyngeal, inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglottic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi characterized by regional localization of viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious virus. At this time FMDV antigen was localized in cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and CD172a-expressing leukocytes of the crypt epithelium of the paraepiglottic tonsils. De novo replication of FMDV was first detected in oropharyngeal swab samples at 12 hpi and viremia occurred at 18-24 hpi, approximately 24 hours prior to the appearance of vesicular lesions. From 12 through 78 hpi, microscopic detection of FMDV was consistently localized to cytokeratin-positive cells within morphologically characteristic segments of oropharyngeal tonsil crypt epithelium. During this period, leukocyte populations expressing CD172a, SLA-DQ class II and/or CD8 were found in close proximity to infected epithelial cells, but with little or no co-localization with viral proteins. Similarly, M-cells expressing cytokeratin-18 did not co-localize with FMDV proteins. Intra-epithelial micro-vesicles composed of acantholytic epithelial cells expressing large amounts of structural and non-structural FMDV proteins were present within crypts of the tonsil of the soft palate during peak clinical infection. These findings inculpate the paraepiglottic tonsils as the primary site of FMDV infection in pigs exposed via the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the continuing replication of FMDV in the oropharyngeal tonsils during viremia and peak clinical infection with no concurrent amplification of virus occurring in the lower respiratory tract indicates that these sites are the major source of shedding of FMDV from pigs.

  1. Operative factors associated with short-term outcome in horses with large colon volvulus: 47 cases from 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L M; Fogle, C A; Baker, W T; Hughes, F E; Law, J M; Motsinger-Reif, A A; Blikslager, A T

    2015-05-01

    There is an important need for objective parameters that accurately predict the outcome of horses with large colon volvulus. To evaluate the predictive value of a series of histomorphometric parameters on short-term outcome, as well as the impact of colonic resection on horses with large colon volvulus. Retrospective cohort study. Adult horses admitted to the Equine and Farm Animal Veterinary Center at North Carolina State University, Peterson and Smith and Chino Valley Equine Hospitals between 2006 and 2013 that underwent an exploratory coeliotomy, diagnosed with large colon volvulus of ≥360 degrees, where a pelvic flexure biopsy was obtained, and that recovered from general anaesthesia, were selected for inclusion in the study. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between signalment, histomorphometric measurements of interstitium-to-crypt ratio, degree of haemorrhage, percentage loss of luminal and glandular epithelium, as well as colonic resection with short-term outcome (discharge from the hospital). Pelvic flexure biopsies from 47 horses with large colon volvulus were evaluated. Factors that were significantly associated with short-term outcome on univariate logistic regression were Thoroughbred breed (P = 0.04), interstitium-to-crypt ratio >1 (P = 0.02) and haemorrhage score ≥3 (P = 0.005). Resection (P = 0.92) was not found to be associated significantly with short-term outcome. No combined factors increased the likelihood of death in forward stepwise logistic regression modelling. A digitally quantified measurement of haemorrhage area strengthened the association of haemorrhage with nonsurvival in cases of large colon volvulus. Histomorphometric measurements of interstitium-to-crypt ratio and degree of haemorrhage predict short-term outcome in cases of large colon volvulus. Resection was not associated with short-term outcome in horses selected for this study. Accurate quantification of mucosal haemorrhage at the time of surgery may

  2. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of male broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z R; Hu, C H; Xia, M S; Zhan, X A; Wang, M Q

    2003-06-01

    Two hundred forty male Avian Farms broiler chicks, 1 d of age, were randomly allocated to four treatments, each of which had five pens of 12 chicks per pen. The chicks were used to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microflora and morphology. The chicks received the same basal diet based on corn-soybean meal, and FOS was added to the basal diet at 0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 g/kg diet at the expense of corn. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS to the basal diet significantly increased average daily gain of broilers. The feed-to-gain ratios were significantly decreased for the birds fed diets with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg FOS versus the control. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but inhibited Escherichia coli in the small intestinal and cecal digesta. Supplementation of 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg FOS to chicks significantly improved the activities of amylase compared to the control (12.80 or 14.75 vs. 8.42 Somogyi units). A significant increase in the activities of total protease was observed in 4.0 g/kg FOS-treated birds versus controls (83.91 vs. 65.97 units). Morphology data for the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum showed no significant differences for villus height, crypt depth, or microvillus height at the duodenum. By contrast, addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS significantly increased ileal villus height, jejunal and ileal microvillus height, and villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratios at the jejunum and ileum and decreased crypt depth at the jejunum and ileum. However, addition of 8.0 g/kg FOS had no significant effect on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora, or morphology.

  3. Sesame meal as the first protein source in piglet starter diets and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gerardo Mariscal

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... The protein source or phytase did not affect villus height, crypt depth, or TTA. However ... The transition from milk to a starter diet at weaning can challenge the digestive tract of piglets ... Protection, and Use of Laboratory Animals (Diario Oficial de la ..... Effect of a novel phytase on growth performance, bone.

  4. Effects of dietary oil sources and calcium : phosphorus levels on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Stewart

    2016-02-20

    Feb 20, 2016 ... Regardless of oil source, the chickens fed diets containing 1.5% Ca had a ... mineral content, muscle function and other body mineral functions (Peters & .... tip of the villi to the villi crypt junction) were measured with an image analyser. ...... Asian. Austral. J. Anim. 26, 700-704. Courtney, E., Matthews, S., ...

  5. Gq and Gs signaling acting in synergy to control GLP-1 secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria Hauge; Ekberg, Jeppe Hvidtfeldt; Engelstoft, Maja Storm

    2017-01-01

    GPR40 is generally known to signal through Gq. However, in transfected cells, certain synthetic agonists can make the receptor signal also through Gs and cAMP (Hauge et al., 2015). Here we find that, in colonic crypt cultures, the GLP-1 secretion induced by such Gq + Gs GPR40 agonists is indeed i...

  6. Writing violence: Problematizing nationhood in Wole Soyinka's A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poems in this collection exteriorize Soyinka's mind as it shuttles back and forth from life to death, fuelled by the fear of palpable death, and the knowledge that his fellow prisoners were dying slowly, unheeded by the prison authority. A Shuttle in the Crypt dwells on notions, conceptions, symbolic actions and relations lifted ...

  7. Qualitative and quantitative radiation protection analysis of mucosa of ICR strained mice using selected herbal extracts such as GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) and GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunagan, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Earlier reports showed that ginseng has significant radioprotective and stimulatory effect on the recovery of the lymphocytes and leukocytes. Using graded absorbed doses of radiation (1.5, 5, 20, 50 Gy) applied in ICR strain male white mice which was injected with GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.) and GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) was tested to prove some radioprotective efficiency. The herbal extracts were injected intraperitoneally and the experimental mice were sacrificed 2 and 48 hrs post-irradiation. Factors such as analyzing kinetics of critical tissue parameters (length of villi, the number of crypt and villi cells and cell density) and determining the Relative Protection Efficiencies (RPE) using quantitative histopathological techniques were used to quantify the radiation protection assay in the duodenum of ICR strain mice. Results showed that GC-2112 and GX-2137 protected the villi structures. After 2 hrs. post irradiation, tissue degeneration was evident. RPE values of significant radioprotection of the crypts is demonstrated at absorbed dose. It was found that some villi cells are even viable at non-physiologic dose of 50 Gy. (author)

  8. Labelling indices after 3H-thymidine incorporation during organ culture of duodenal mucosa in coeliac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

    1980-01-01

    Incorporation of 3 H-thymidine during organ culture of duodenal biopsy specimens from 34 coeliac and 10 non-coeliac patients was studied by autoradiography. High labelling indices were found in flat, coeliac mucosas. Gluten fractions, which provoked histological deterioration during culture, induced labelling of a greater proportion of crypt cells and higher migration rate than parallelly cultured specimens on gluten-free medium. No influence on clypt cell kinetics could be observed after culture with gluten fractions incapable of producing histological damage or with alpha-lactalbumin. In coeliac remission mucosas, labelling indices were at the same level as in non-coeliac biopsis, and no significant effects of gluten were observed. Autoradiography seems to be a fairly sensitive and reliable determinant of gluten toxicity by organ culture in coeliac desease and should supplement the histological appraisal of the biopsies. The increment of labelling indices provoked by gluten exposure seemed not merely to be a concequence of increased desquamation of cells from the biopsy surface but could imply a direct influence of gluten on crypt cell kinetics in coeliac disease. (Auth.)

  9. Intestinal metaplasia induced by x-irradiation in different strains of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Naito, Masashi; Kawashima, Kengo; Ito, Akihiro

    1985-01-01

    Attempts were made to examine strain differences in the susceptibility of rats to intestinal metaplasia induced by X-irradiation. The gastric regions of 4 inbred male rats (SHR, F344, WKY, and LEW strains) in 5-week-old and 2 random bred male rats (SD, and WIS strains) were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy X-ray given in two equal fractions separated by three days. Upon sacrifice at 6 months after the last irradiation, the number of intestinal metaplastic crypts with positive reaction to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) appeared highest in the SHR and lowest in the WIS rats. Morphologically, the number of crypts with intestinal metaplasia in whole glandular stomachs of SHR, WIS, F344, and SD rats were higher than those in WKY and LEW rats. In the pyloric gland, it was highest in WIS rats, while in the fundic gland it was highest in SHR rats. The results show that the appearance and location of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation are greatly influenced by the strain of the rat. (author)

  10. Age-dependent transition from cell-level to population-level control in murine intestinal homeostasis revealed by coalescence analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hu

    Full Text Available In multi-cellular organisms, tissue homeostasis is maintained by an exquisite balance between stem cell proliferation and differentiation. This equilibrium can be achieved either at the single cell level (a.k.a. cell asymmetry, where stem cells follow strict asymmetric divisions, or the population level (a.k.a. population asymmetry, where gains and losses in individual stem cell lineages are randomly distributed, but the net effect is homeostasis. In the mature mouse intestinal crypt, previous evidence has revealed a pattern of population asymmetry through predominantly symmetric divisions of stem cells. In this work, using population genetic theory together with previously published crypt single-cell data obtained at different mouse life stages, we reveal a strikingly dynamic pattern of stem cell homeostatic control. We find that single-cell asymmetric divisions are gradually replaced by stochastic population-level asymmetry as the mouse matures to adulthood. This lifelong process has important developmental and evolutionary implications in understanding how adult tissues maintain their homeostasis integrating the trade-off between intrinsic and extrinsic regulations.

  11. Wnt signaling in cancer stem cells and colon cancer metastasis [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayon Basu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Overactivation of Wnt signaling is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC. The Wnt pathway is a key regulator of both the early and the later, more invasive, stages of CRC development. In the normal intestine and colon, Wnt signaling controls the homeostasis of intestinal stem cells (ISCs that fuel, via proliferation, upward movement of progeny cells from the crypt bottom toward the villus and differentiation into all cell types that constitute the intestine. Studies in recent years suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs, similar to ISCs of the crypts, consist of a small subpopulation of the tumor and are responsible for the initiation and progression of the disease. Although various ISC signature genes were also identified as CRC markers and some of these genes were even demonstrated to have a direct functional role in CRC development, the origin of CSCs and their contribution to cancer progression is still debated. Here, we describe studies supporting a relationship between Wnt-regulated CSCs and the progression of CRC.

  12. Activated STAT5 Confers Resistance to Intestinal Injury by Increasing Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Gilbert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs control the intestinal homeostatic response to inflammation and regeneration. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Cytokine-STAT5 signaling regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis and responses to injury. We link STAT5 signaling to IESC replenishment upon injury by depletion or activation of Stat5 transcription factor. We found that depletion of Stat5 led to deregulation of IESC marker expression and decreased LGR5+ IESC proliferation. STAT5-deficient mice exhibited worse intestinal histology and impaired crypt regeneration after γ-irradiation. We generated a transgenic mouse model with inducible expression of constitutively active Stat5. In contrast to Stat5 depletion, activation of STAT5 increased IESC proliferation, accelerated crypt regeneration, and conferred resistance to intestinal injury. Furthermore, ectopic activation of STAT5 in mouse or human stem cells promoted LGR5+ IESC self-renewal. Accordingly, STAT5 promotes IESC proliferation and regeneration to mitigate intestinal inflammation. STAT5 is a functional therapeutic target to improve the IESC regenerative response to gut injury.

  13. Fermented dairy products modulate Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Chervaux, Christian; Raymond, Benoit; Derrien, Muriel; Brazeilles, Rémi; Kosta, Artemis; Chambaud, Isabelle; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of fermented dairy products (FDPs) in an infection model, using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did not affect CR colonization, organ specificity, or attaching and effacing lesion formation. Fermented dairy product A (FDP-A), but neither the supernatant from FDP-A nor β-irradiated (IR) FDP-A, caused a significant reduction in colonic crypt hyperplasia and CR-associated pathology. Profiling the gut microbiota revealed that IR-FDP-A promoted higher levels of phylotypes belonging to Alcaligenaceae and a decrease in Lachnospiraceae (Ruminococcus) during CR infection. Conversely, FDP-A prevented a decrease in Ruminococcus and increased Turicibacteraceae (Turicibacter). Importantly, loss of Ruminococcus and Turicibacter has been associated with susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that viable bacteria in FDP-A reduced CR-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and prevented the loss of key bacterial genera that may contribute to disease pathology. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. On Hamlet's Crypt: Effi Briest, Asta Nielsen, Aand Britney Spears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Kolarov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution looks at the way instinct is transmitted and represented as ghost appearance. The essay elaborates two basic theses: first, that instinct is not defined by creaturely heritage, since it is not a testable structure in itself, nor subject to mourning and developmental processes; and second, that works of fine literature and pop oeuvres alike may serve as carriers of a ghost transmission charged with instinctive heritage. The study represents a model for reading ghostly genealogies that complement the familiar and familial reproductive ones as it draws on traditions such as the adultery novel, continental philosophy, psychoanalysis, and Disney. Currently based in Berlin, Viola Kolarov has taught in the German Departments of the Johns Hopkins University and New York University. She has published on Shakespeare, contemporary art, film, and pop culture. Her forthcoming book, “Shakespeare and the Autobiography of the Machine Age,” rethinks Goethe, the German translation/transmission of Shakespeare, and the German literary tradition in the contexts of media technology. Originally from Berlin, Susanne Lanckowsky entered the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe, class of Franz Ackermann, in 2007. Since 2009 she has shown solo and in group on numerous occasions and studied abroad with prestigious scholarship support for one semester at the Faculdade de Belas Artes Universidade do Porto, Portugal, and for another semester at the Escuela Nacional de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado La Esmeralda in Mexico.

  15. Tales from the Crypt: The Reemergence of Chile's Political Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mary Lusky

    2014-01-01

    Chilean novelists born during the 1970s who experienced as children the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet are reappraising how the dictatorship may have harmed its second-generation survivors. Initially most of these writers ignored politics, focusing instead on blighted intimate relationships, and those few who did explore the aftereffects of…

  16. Isolation and gene expression profiling of intestinal epithelial cells: crypt isolation by calcium chelation from in vivo samples.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Balfe, Aine

    2018-01-01

    The epithelial layer within the colon represents a physical barrier between the luminal contents and its underlying mucosa. It plays a pivotal role in mucosal homeostasis, and both tolerance and anti-pathogenic immune responses. Identifying signals of inflammation initiation and responses to stimuli from within the epithelial layer is critical to understanding the molecular pathways underlying disease pathology. This study validated a method to isolate and analyze epithelial populations, enabling investigations of epithelial function and response in a variety of disease setting.

  17. Stimulation of cell proliferation by histamine H2 receptors in dimethylhdrazine-induced adenocarcinomata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1978-03-01

    Cell proliferation in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinomata was stimulated by histamine and by the histamine H2 receptor agonist dimaprit and inhibited by the histamine H2 receptor antagonists Metiamide and Cimetidine but not by the histamine H1 receptor antagonist Mepyramine. In contrast histamine had no effect on colonic crypt cell proliferation in normal or dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

  18. Functional state of palatine tonsils in children with diabetes type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Афанасиевич Лайко

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Actuality. Chronic disease of lymphoepithelial throat structures (CHLTS in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM-1 are widespread according to our earlier studies. The frequent exacerbations lead to the rise of glycemia profile, worsening of patient life quality and effectiveness of the complex therapy of the main disease.Aim of research: to assess the functional state of palatine tonsils in children and teenagers with DM-1 and chronic tonsillitis.Materials and methods. During the period 2014-2015 years there was carried out clinical and laboratory examination of 51 children with DM-1 6-18 years old. All children were treated in endocrinological department of National child specialized hospital “Ohmatdit”. The main group of observance included 40 children with DM-1 and CT, the control one included 11 children and teenagers with DM-1 without ENT-pathology. All children of the main and control groups underwent cytological examination of the tonsillar crypt lacunas content.Results and discussion. The highest specific weight of the chronic diseases of lymphepithelial throat structures (CDLTS in the main group of observation was revealed at the presence of chronic tonsillitis. In children with DM-1was diagnosed CT – 17 (33,3 %, CT and nasal septum curvature– 16 (31,3 %, CT and adenoid – 9 (17,7 %, CT and palatine tonsils hypertrophy – 5 (9,8 %, CT and recidivous nasal bleedings – 4 (7,8 %. According to the results of this examination in children with CDLTS and DM-1 were separated the four cytological groups that characterize the functional state of palatine tonsils.I. Good functional power of palatine tonsils.II. High activity of lymphoid tissue of palatine tonsils.III. Compensated functional power of palatine tonsils.IV. Decompensation of palatine tonsils functions.Conclusion. Cytological examination of tonsillar crypt lacunas content in children and teenagers with DM-1 may be the accessible and informative method of assessment of

  19. Effects of grinding method, particle size, and physical form of the diet on gastrointestinal morphology and jejunal glucose transport in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhe, I; Ruhnke, I; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Boroojeni, F Goodarzi; Löwe, R; Zentek, J

    2014-08-01

    Several studies illustrated that the structure of feed, i.e., the particle size, particle-size distribution, and the physical form of the diet, affects the avian gastrointestinal function and health leading to changes in productive performance. However, investigations concerning the effects of feeding differently processed diets on laying hens are limited and primarily concentrated on bird performance. The current study examines the effect of feed processing on the gastrointestinal morphology and on the jejunal glucose transport of laying hens. In 8 replicates, a total of 384 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 20 wk were randomly allocated to 8 different groups and fed over a period of 21 d in a 3-factorial design. Diets differed in 1) grinding method, either hammer or roller mill; 2) physical form, either mash or expandate; and 3) particle size, either coarsely or finely ground. During the experimental trial, the laying performance of each feeding group was recorded daily and the feed intake and BW determined weekly. After slaughtering, the weights of the pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard, and small intestine were measured. Villus lengths and crypt depths of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were determined. The jejunal electrogenic glucose transport was studied in Ussing chambers. Hens that received mash instead of expandate had higher proventriculus (P = 0.011), gizzard (P feeding of coarsely instead of finely ground diets led to higher gizzard weights (P hens showed longer duodenal (P hens had higher glucose transport rates than expandate-fed hens (P feeding of coarsely ground as well as mash diets had stimulating effects on the development of the gastrointestinal organs. Moreover, the feeding of mash influenced the intestinal microstructure of the epithelium that was accompanied by higher glucose transport capacities. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Advanced glycation end-product expression is upregulated in the gastrointestinal tract of type 2 diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peng-Min; Gregersen, Hans; Zhao, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate changes in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Eight inherited type 2 diabetic rats Goto-Kakizak (GK) and ten age-matched normal rats were used in the study. From 18 wk...... and five micron sections were cut. The layer thickness was measured in Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained slides. AGE [N epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine and N epsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine] and RAGE were detected by immunohistochemistry staining and image analysis was done using Sigmascan Pro 4.0 image analysis...... strongest in the diabetes group. Significant difference for AGE was found in the epithelial cells of villi and crypt in duodenum (immuno-positive area/total measuring area %: 13.37 ± 3.51 vs 37.48 ± 8.43, P

  1. Combined chemo/radiotherapy of cancer: present state and prospects for use with high-LET radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy added to low-LET radiotherapy has improved survival and in some cases local control. In some instances the combination has yielded increased normal tissue damage. Similar results can be expected, as confirmed by intestinal crypt cell experiments, with high-LET. Less interaction than with low-LET appears to occur with agents blocking sublethal damage repair or causing synchronization. (author)

  2. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G.; Castiglione, F.; Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation

  3. No Protection against DSS-induced Colitis by Short-term Pretreatment with Seal or Fish Oils in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülen Arslan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have modulating effects in several chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to test whether prior short-term dietary supplementation with n-3 (fish or seal oil or n-6 (soy oil PUFA rich oils would protect the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in rats.Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: no intervention, sham, DSS, seal oil + DSS, fi sh oil +DSS and soy oil + DSS. Following 7 days of acclimatisation, 1 mL oil (seal, fish or soy or distilled water (sham was administered by gavage day 8 to 14. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water from day 15 to 21. Rats were sacrificed on day 23. Histological colitis (crypt and inflammation scores, faecal granulocyte marker protein (GMP and quantitative fatty acid composition in red blood cells were measured.Results: Pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not significantly influence DSS induced inflammation. In fact, all the oils tended to exacerbate the inflammation. Soy oil increased the mean crypt score (P < 0.04, but not the inflammation score or GMP. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs was 11 to 1 and 10 to 1 in standard diet and in red blood cells of control rats, respectively. Following administration of DSS, the ratio fell in all treatment groups (P < 0.001. The lowest ratios were seen in the groups receiving DSS + fi sh or seal oils (around 6 to 1.Conclusion: Short-term pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not protect against subsequent induction of colitis by DSS in this rat model. Whether the high ratio of n-6 to n-3 FAs in the standard diet concealed effects of n-3 FA supplementation should be further investigated.

  4. Chemopreventive potential of β-Sitosterol in experimental colon cancer model - an In vitro and In vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulraj Gabriel M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asclepias curassavica Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant used by tribal people in the western ghats, India, to treat piles, gonorrhoea, roundworm infestation and abdominal tumours. We have determined the protective effect of β-sitosterol isolated from A. curassavica in colon cancer, using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods The active molecule was isolated, based upon bioassay guided fractionation, and identified as β-sitosterol on spectral evidence. The ability to induce apoptosis was determined by its in vitro antiradical activity, cytotoxic studies using human colon adenocarcinoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines, and the expression of β-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in human colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM. The chemopreventive potential of β-sitosterol in colon carcinogenesis was assessed by injecting 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg b.w. into male Wistar rats and supplementing this with β-sitosterol throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w. Results β-sitosterol induced significant dose-dependent growth inhibition of COLO 320 DM cells (IC50 266.2 μM, induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressed the expression of β-catenin and PCNA antigens in human colon cancer cells. β-sitosterol supplementation reduced the number of aberrant crypt and crypt multiplicity in DMH-initiated rats in a dose-dependent manner with no toxic effects. Conclusion We found doses of 10-20 mg/kg b.w. β-sitosterol to be effective for future in vivo studies. β-sitosterol had chemopreventive potential by virtue of its radical quenching ability in vitro, with minimal toxicity to normal cells. It also attenuated β-catenin and PCNA expression, making it a potential anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis.

  5. Chemopreventive potential of β-Sitosterol in experimental colon cancer model - an In vitro and In vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Asclepias curassavica Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant used by tribal people in the western ghats, India, to treat piles, gonorrhoea, roundworm infestation and abdominal tumours. We have determined the protective effect of β-sitosterol isolated from A. curassavica in colon cancer, using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods The active molecule was isolated, based upon bioassay guided fractionation, and identified as β-sitosterol on spectral evidence. The ability to induce apoptosis was determined by its in vitro antiradical activity, cytotoxic studies using human colon adenocarcinoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines, and the expression of β-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in human colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM). The chemopreventive potential of β-sitosterol in colon carcinogenesis was assessed by injecting 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg b.w.) into male Wistar rats and supplementing this with β-sitosterol throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w. Results β-sitosterol induced significant dose-dependent growth inhibition of COLO 320 DM cells (IC50 266.2 μM), induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressed the expression of β-catenin and PCNA antigens in human colon cancer cells. β-sitosterol supplementation reduced the number of aberrant crypt and crypt multiplicity in DMH-initiated rats in a dose-dependent manner with no toxic effects. Conclusion We found doses of 10-20 mg/kg b.w. β-sitosterol to be effective for future in vivo studies. β-sitosterol had chemopreventive potential by virtue of its radical quenching ability in vitro, with minimal toxicity to normal cells. It also attenuated β-catenin and PCNA expression, making it a potential anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis. PMID:20525330

  6. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G. [Radiotherapy Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Castiglione, F. [Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation

  7. Kaolin in the diet and its effects on performance, litter moisture and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Jorge de Lemos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of kaolin in the diet on performance, litter moisture and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Four hundred ninety-two broiler chickens distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments and four replicates of 41 birds each, divided into three periods (15-21; 22-34; 35-52 days were used. The following treatments were: Control - reference diet without added kaolin; treatment 1 - reference diet + 0.75% kaolin; Treatment 2 - reference diet + 1.5% kaolin. The variables analyzed were: feed intake, average weight, average weight gain, feed conversion, litter moisture, villus height and crypt depth. The inclusion of kaolin in the diet significantly reduced feed intake, increased weight and average weight gain and improved feed conversion of broilers. The litter moisture decreased significantly after the inclusion of kaolin in the diet. The height of the duodenal villi of broilers increased significantly after inclusion of kaolin, while crypt depth was not influenced. The inclusion 0.75% of kaolin in the diet improved the performance, decreased litter moisture and benefited the intestinal integrity of broilers.

  8. Intestinal Structure and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with a Synbiotic Containing Enterococcus faecium and Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha Awad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of the synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO [a combination of Enterococcus faecium, a prebiotic (derived from chicory and immune modulating substances (derived from sea algae], with a dose of 1 kg/ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets on the intestinal morphometry and nutrient absorption. The general performance was improved (P < 0.05 by the dietary inclusion of synbiotic compared with the controls. Furthermore, the addition of synbiotic increased (P < 0.001 the villus height/crypt depth ratio and villus height in ileum. However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of synbiotic compared with control. The addition of glucose in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001 in short-circuit current (Isc in jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in both synbiotic and control groups. However, in jejunum the percentage of Isc increase after glucose addition was higher for synbiotic group (333 % than control group (45 %. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO increased the growth performance and improved intestinal morphology and nutrient absorption.

  9. Irradiated mice lose the capacity to 'process' fed antigen for systemic tolerance of delayed-type hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, M G; Strobel, S; Hanson, D G; Ferguson, A

    1987-12-01

    'Intestinal antigen processing' is a function of the gastro-intestinal tract whereby shortly after an animal has been fed an immunogenic protein antigen, such as ovabumin (OVA), a tolerogenic form of the protein is generated and can be detected in the circulation. The effect of damage to the intestinal epithelium on the processing of OVA has been examined in lethally irradiated mice. Irradiated animals were fed 25 mg OVA and their serum collected 1 h later. When this serum was transferred intraperitoneally into naive recipient mice, this did not induce the typical suppression of systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity. Results were similar when the serum donors were at 2 days after irradiation, with crypt hypoplasia, and at 5 days after irradiation when there was reactive crypt hyperplasia. However reconstitution of donors with normal spleen cells immediately after irradiation restored their capacity to generate a tolerogenic form of the antigen. Immunoreactive OVA was detected by ELISA in both tolerizing and non-tolerizing sera, and the immunological properties of these sera were not related to serum levels of OVA after feeding. The results suggest that lymphoid cells may be involved in the phenomenon of antigen processing.

  10. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Tomita, Masanori; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5 + stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5 + stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5 + stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5 + stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  11. AFRRI Reports. Second Quarter 1993, for April Through June 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Pharmacokinetics of nat- 36. Matsushima K, Oppenheim JJ (1989) Interleukin-8 and ural and synthetic glucocorticoids. In: Anderson DC, MCAF: novel inflammatory...using ketamine hydrochloride (50 mg/kg) in 10-c - combination with xylazine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg) given intramuscularly and supplemented as needed...the suggested factors. crypts (in the ileum). Overall results and in particular Studies of irradiated dogs with surgically changed and the survival

  12. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequ...

  13. Impact of diet-induced obesity on intestinal stem cells: hyperproliferation but impaired intrinsic function that requires insulin/IGF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Amanda T; Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Gavin, Hannah E; Magness, Scott T; Lund, P Kay

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient intake regulates intestinal epithelial mass and crypt proliferation. Recent findings in model organisms and rodents indicate nutrient restriction impacts intestinal stem cells (ISC). Little is known about the impact of diet-induced obesity (DIO), a model of excess nutrient intake on ISC. We used a Sox9-EGFP reporter mouse to test the hypothesis that an adaptive response to DIO or associated hyperinsulinemia involves expansion and hyperproliferation of ISC. The Sox9-EGFP reporter mouse allows study and isolation of ISC, progenitors, and differentiated lineages based on different Sox9-EGFP expression levels. Sox9-EGFP mice were fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks to induce DIO and compared with littermates fed low-fat rodent chow. Histology, fluorescence activated cell sorting, and mRNA analyses measured impact of DIO on jejunal crypt-villus morphometry, numbers, and proliferation of different Sox9-EGFP cell populations and gene expression. An in vitro culture assay directly assessed functional capacity of isolated ISC. DIO mice exhibited significant increases in body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels and intestinal Igf1 mRNA. DIO mice had increased villus height and crypt density but decreased intestinal length and decreased numbers of Paneth and goblet cells. In vivo, DIO resulted in a selective expansion of Sox9-EGFP(Low) ISC and percentage of ISC in S-phase. ISC expansion significantly correlated with plasma insulin levels. In vitro, isolated ISC from DIO mice formed fewer enteroids in standard 3D Matrigel culture compared to controls, indicating impaired ISC function. This decreased enteroid formation in isolated ISC from DIO mice was rescued by exogenous insulin, IGF1, or both. We conclude that DIO induces specific increases in ISC and ISC hyperproliferation in vivo. However, isolated ISC from DIO mice have impaired intrinsic survival and growth in vitro that can be rescued by exogenous insulin or IGF1.

  14. Development of Functional Microfold (M Cells from Intestinal Stem Cells in Primary Human Enteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Rouch

    Full Text Available Intestinal microfold (M cells are specialized epithelial cells that act as gatekeepers of luminal antigens in the intestinal tract. They play a critical role in the intestinal mucosal immune response through transport of viruses, bacteria and other particles and antigens across the epithelium to immune cells within Peyer's patch regions and other mucosal sites. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated that M cells are generated from Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs, and that infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases M cell formation. However, it is not known whether and how these findings apply to primary human small intestinal epithelium propagated in an in vitro setting.Human intestinal crypts were grown as monolayers with growth factors and treated with recombinant RANKL, and assessed for mRNA transcripts, immunofluorescence and uptake of microparticles and S. Typhimurium.Functional M cells were generated by short-term culture of freshly isolated human intestinal crypts in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. RANKL stimulation of the monolayer cultures caused dramatic induction of the M cell-specific markers, SPIB, and Glycoprotein-2 (GP2 in a process primed by canonical WNT signaling. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a pseudopod phenotype of GP2-positive M cells that preferentially take up microparticles. Furthermore, infection of the M cell-enriched cultures with the M cell-tropic enteric pathogen, S. Typhimurium, led to preferential association of the bacteria with M cells, particularly at lower inoculum sizes. Larger inocula caused rapid induction of M cells.Human intestinal crypts containing ISCs can be cultured and differentiate into an epithelial layer with functional M cells with characteristic morphological and functional properties. This study is the first to demonstrate that M cells can be induced to form from primary human intestinal epithelium, and that S. Typhimurium preferentially infect these cells in an

  15. Mechanisms of decreased intestinal epithelial proliferation and increased apoptosis in murine acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Kareem D; Stromberg, Paul E; Woolsey, Cheryl A; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dunne, W Michael; Javadi, Pardis; Buchman, Timothy G; Karl, Irene E; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute lung injury on the gut epithelium and examine mechanisms underlying changes in crypt proliferation and apoptosis. The relationship between severity and timing of lung injury to intestinal pathology was also examined. Randomized, controlled study. University research laboratory. Genetically inbred mice. Following induction of acute lung injury, gut epithelial proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in a) C3H/HeN wild-type and C3H/HeJ mice, which lack functional Toll-like receptor 4 (n = 17); b) C57Bl/6 mice that received monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha or control antibody (n = 22); and c) C57Bl/6 wild-type and transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their gut epithelium (n = 21). Intestinal epithelial proliferation and death were also examined in animals with differing degrees of lung inflammation (n = 24) as well as in a time course analysis following a fixed injury (n = 18). Acute lung injury caused decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in crypt epithelial cells in all animals studied. C3H/HeJ mice had higher levels of proliferation than C3H/HeN animals without additional changes in apoptosis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody had no effect on gut epithelial proliferation or death. Overexpression of Bcl-2 did not change proliferation despite decreasing gut apoptosis. Proliferation and apoptosis were not correlated to severity of lung injury, as gut alterations were lost in mice with more severe acute lung injury. Changes in both gut epithelial proliferation and death were apparent within 12 hrs, but proliferation was decreased 36 hrs following acute lung injury while apoptosis returned to normal. Acute lung injury causes disparate effects on crypt proliferation and apoptosis, which occur, at least in part, through differing mechanisms involving Toll-like receptor 4 and Bcl-2. Severity of lung injury does not correlate with perturbations in proliferation or death in the

  16. The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor tributyrin in colon carcinogenesis involves the induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidor, Renato [Laboratory of Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Advanced Research Center in Food Science and Nutrition (NAPAN) and Food Research Center (FoRC), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Furtado, Kelly Silva; Ortega, Juliana Festa [Laboratory of Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, Tiago Franco de [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Tavares, Paulo Eduardo Latorre Martins; Vieira, Alessandra; Miranda, Mayara Lilian Paulino [Laboratory of Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Purgatto, Eduardo [Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Advanced Research Center in Food Science and Nutrition (NAPAN) and Food Research Center (FoRC), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Moreno, Fernando Salvador, E-mail: rmoreno@usp.br [Laboratory of Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Advanced Research Center in Food Science and Nutrition (NAPAN) and Food Research Center (FoRC), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) tributyrin (TB), a prodrug of butyric acid (BA), was evaluated in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. The animals were treated with TB (TB group: 200 mg/100 g of body weight, b.w.) or maltodextrin (MD isocaloric control group: 300 mg/100 g b.w.) daily for 9 consecutive weeks. In the 3rd and 4th weeks of treatment, the rats in the TB and MD groups were given DMH (40 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week. After 9 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the distal colon was examined. Compared with the control group (MD group), TB treatment reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF; p < 0.05) as well as the ACF with ≥ 4 crypts (p < 0.05), which are considered more aggressive, but not inhibited the formation of DMH-induced O6-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts. The TB group also showed a higher apoptotic index (p < 0.05) and reduced DNA damage (p < 0.05) compared with MD group. TB acted as a HDACi, as rats treated with the prodrug of BA had higher levels of histone H3K9 acetylation compared with the MD group (p < 0.05). TB administration resulted in increased colonic tissue concentrations of BA (p < 0.05) compared with the control animals. These results suggest that TB can be considered a promising chemopreventive agent for colon carcinogenesis because it reduced the number of ACF, including those that were more aggressive. Induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage are cellular mechanisms that appear to be involved in the chemopreventive activity of TB. - Highlights: • Tributyrin is a chemopreventive agent for rat colon aberrant crypt foci. • Tributyrin increased apoptosis in an experimental rat colon carcinogenesis model. • Tributyrin treatment in a rat colon carcinogenesis model decreased DNA damage. • Tributyrin treatment induced H3K9 acetylation in a rat colon carcinogenesis model.

  17. The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor tributyrin in colon carcinogenesis involves the induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidor, Renato; Furtado, Kelly Silva; Ortega, Juliana Festa; Oliveira, Tiago Franco de; Tavares, Paulo Eduardo Latorre Martins; Vieira, Alessandra; Miranda, Mayara Lilian Paulino; Purgatto, Eduardo; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) tributyrin (TB), a prodrug of butyric acid (BA), was evaluated in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. The animals were treated with TB (TB group: 200 mg/100 g of body weight, b.w.) or maltodextrin (MD isocaloric control group: 300 mg/100 g b.w.) daily for 9 consecutive weeks. In the 3rd and 4th weeks of treatment, the rats in the TB and MD groups were given DMH (40 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week. After 9 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the distal colon was examined. Compared with the control group (MD group), TB treatment reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF; p < 0.05) as well as the ACF with ≥ 4 crypts (p < 0.05), which are considered more aggressive, but not inhibited the formation of DMH-induced O6-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts. The TB group also showed a higher apoptotic index (p < 0.05) and reduced DNA damage (p < 0.05) compared with MD group. TB acted as a HDACi, as rats treated with the prodrug of BA had higher levels of histone H3K9 acetylation compared with the MD group (p < 0.05). TB administration resulted in increased colonic tissue concentrations of BA (p < 0.05) compared with the control animals. These results suggest that TB can be considered a promising chemopreventive agent for colon carcinogenesis because it reduced the number of ACF, including those that were more aggressive. Induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage are cellular mechanisms that appear to be involved in the chemopreventive activity of TB. - Highlights: • Tributyrin is a chemopreventive agent for rat colon aberrant crypt foci. • Tributyrin increased apoptosis in an experimental rat colon carcinogenesis model. • Tributyrin treatment in a rat colon carcinogenesis model decreased DNA damage. • Tributyrin treatment induced H3K9 acetylation in a rat colon carcinogenesis model

  18. Morphological and molecular evidence for functional organization along the rostrocaudal axis of the adult zebrafish intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Siew

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zebrafish intestine is a simple tapered tube that is folded into three sections. However, whether the intestine is functionally similar along its length remains unknown. Thus, a systematic structural and functional characterization of the zebrafish intestine is desirable for future studies of the digestive tract and the intestinal biology and development. Results To characterize the structure and function of the adult zebrafish intestine, we divided the intestine into seven roughly equal-length segments, S1-S7, and systematically examined the morphology of the mucosal lining, histology of the epithelium, and molecular signatures from transcriptome analysis. Prominent morphological features are circumferentially-oriented villar ridges in segments S1-S6 and the absence of crypts. Molecular characterization of the transcriptome from each segment shows that segments S1-S5 are very similar while S6 and S7 unique. Gene ontology analyses reveal that S1-S5 express genes whose functions involve metabolism of carbohydrates, transport of lipids and energy generation, while the last two segments display relatively limited function. Based on comparative Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, the first five segments share strong similarity with human and mouse small intestine while S6 shows similarity with human cecum and rectum, and S7 with human rectum. The intestinal tract does not display the anatomical, morphological, and molecular signatures of a stomach and thus we conclude that this organ is absent from the zebrafish digestive system. Conclusions Our genome-wide gene expression data indicate that, despite the lack of crypts, the rostral, mid, and caudal portions of the zebrafish intestine have distinct functions analogous to the mammalian small and large intestine, respectively. Organization of ridge structures represents a unique feature of zebrafish intestine, though they produce similar cross sections to mammalian intestines

  19. Determining the control networks regulating stem cell lineages in colonic crypts

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, J; Axelrod, DE; Komarova, NL

    2017-01-01

    The question of stem cell control is at the center of our understanding of tissue functioning, both in healthy and cancerous conditions. It is well accepted that cellular fate decisions (such as divisions, differentiation, apoptosis) are orchestrated by a network of regulatory signals emitted by different cell populations in the lineage and the surrounding tissue. The exact regulatory network that governs stem cell lineages in a given tissue is usually unknown. Here we propose an algorithm to...

  20. Breathing conditions for animals in radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.N.; Michael, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of experiments designed to determine the influence of redox agents on the radiosensitivity of murine normal tissues, an unexpected scatter of data points relating to jejunal crypt regeneration was found in mice irradiated under supposedly air-breathing conditions. One possible explanation for the scatter in the data related to variation in the oxygen tension within the jig at the time of irradiation, and the jig modified accordingly. (author)

  1. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons ar...

  2. Modulation of antioxidant enzymes as radioprotector mechanism of oligo elements and lachesis muta in normal tissues; Modulacion de enzimas antioxidantes como mecanismo radioprotector de oligoelementos y lachesis muta en tejidos normales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crescenti, E.; Croci, M. [Instituto de Inmunooncologia, Cordoba 3200, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mohamad, N.; Medina, V.; Sambuco, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G.; Bergoc, R.; Rivera, E. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Junin 956. Buenos Aires, (Argentina)]. e-mail: crescentilab@fibertel.com.ar

    2006-07-01

    The therapeutic use of the ionizing radiations (IR) it has acquired great relevance in the last decades although their effects are not selective and they are also manifested on the normal tissues. In previous works we demonstrate the radioprotector effect that the combination of oligo elements Zinc, Selenium and Manganese associated to the snake poison Lachesis muta (O-LM) it exercises on the small intestine and the bone marrow of irradiated mouse. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms, and particularly the paper of the anti-oxidant superoxide dismutases enzymes (MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD), Catalase (CAT), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), in the radioprotector action that exercises the combination O-LM. Four groups of mice were used: A) control; B) treated with O-LM; C) irradiated; D) irradiated and treated with O-LM. The two treated groups were injected daily via s.c. with 0,1 ml of O-LM from 30 days before the irradiation and until to 4 days later. The two irradiated groups received 10 Gy in whole body the day 30. The day 35 all the animals were sacrificed. The histological intestinal cuts of the mucous one were evaluated by tint with hematoxyline-eosin; the presence of apoptotic cells it was determined by the Tunel method (Apoptag kit); the expression of PCNA (nuclear antigen of proliferating cells), MnSOD, CuZnSOD, CAT and GPx, by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that in the lot D it was preserved totally the histology of the intestinal mucous. In the control A it was observed PCNA expression in the crypts, of MnSOD in the hairiness and CuZnSOD, CAT and Gpx in both. The change produced by O-LM (group B) it was the increase of PCNA, of CAT and the appearance of MnSOD in the crypts. On the other hand, the irradiation (C) it produced a marked descent in the GPx, the complete disappearance of PCNA and an increase of the apoptotic cells. The group D showed that O-LM it reverted totally the effect of the RI on the expression of PCNA

  3. Modulation of antioxidant enzymes as radioprotector mechanism of oligo elements and lachesis muta in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crescenti, E.; Croci, M.; Mohamad, N.; Medina, V.; Sambuco, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G.; Bergoc, R.; Rivera, E.

    2006-01-01

    The therapeutic use of the ionizing radiations (IR) it has acquired great relevance in the last decades although their effects are not selective and they are also manifested on the normal tissues. In previous works we demonstrate the radioprotector effect that the combination of oligo elements Zinc, Selenium and Manganese associated to the snake poison Lachesis muta (O-LM) it exercises on the small intestine and the bone marrow of irradiated mouse. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms, and particularly the paper of the anti-oxidant superoxide dismutases enzymes (MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD), Catalase (CAT), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), in the radioprotector action that exercises the combination O-LM. Four groups of mice were used: A) control; B) treated with O-LM; C) irradiated; D) irradiated and treated with O-LM. The two treated groups were injected daily via s.c. with 0,1 ml of O-LM from 30 days before the irradiation and until to 4 days later. The two irradiated groups received 10 Gy in whole body the day 30. The day 35 all the animals were sacrificed. The histological intestinal cuts of the mucous one were evaluated by tint with hematoxyline-eosin; the presence of apoptotic cells it was determined by the Tunel method (Apoptag kit); the expression of PCNA (nuclear antigen of proliferating cells), MnSOD, CuZnSOD, CAT and GPx, by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that in the lot D it was preserved totally the histology of the intestinal mucous. In the control A it was observed PCNA expression in the crypts, of MnSOD in the hairiness and CuZnSOD, CAT and Gpx in both. The change produced by O-LM (group B) it was the increase of PCNA, of CAT and the appearance of MnSOD in the crypts. On the other hand, the irradiation (C) it produced a marked descent in the GPx, the complete disappearance of PCNA and an increase of the apoptotic cells. The group D showed that O-LM it reverted totally the effect of the RI on the expression of PCNA

  4. Block-Centric Visualization Of Histological Whole Slide Images With Application To Revealing Growth-Patterns Of Early Colorectal Adenomas And Aberrant Crypt Foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Zerbe

    2016-06-01

    The presented methods provide an efficient means to retrieve correspondences and additional spatial information from serial sections of histological slides. They also show good applicability for specimen from different origin. Alignment methods can be applied to generate block-centric visualizations such as parallel and transparent viewing of multiple stains. Moreover, the generated stack videos and 3D models demonstrate the very good accuracy of section alignment even in large series. The visualizations enable pathologists and researchers to grasp the 3D structural relationships in the tissue at a glance, providing an excellent tool to communicate more complex histomorphological findings. Interestingly, we see two kinds of tubular adenomas, which could imply multiple ways to tubular adenoma formation in FAP-patients, possibly akin to the recent observations in mice [3].

  5. Chaste: A test-driven approach to software development for biological modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Pitt-Francis, Joe

    2009-12-01

    Chaste (\\'Cancer, heart and soft-tissue environment\\') is a software library and a set of test suites for computational simulations in the domain of biology. Current functionality has arisen from modelling in the fields of cancer, cardiac physiology and soft-tissue mechanics. It is released under the LGPL 2.1 licence. Chaste has been developed using agile programming methods. The project began in 2005 when it was reasoned that the modelling of a variety of physiological phenomena required both a generic mathematical modelling framework, and a generic computational/simulation framework. The Chaste project evolved from the Integrative Biology (IB) e-Science Project, an inter-institutional project aimed at developing a suitable IT infrastructure to support physiome-level computational modelling, with a primary focus on cardiac and cancer modelling. Program summary: Program title: Chaste. Catalogue identifier: AEFD_v1_0. Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFD_v1_0.html. Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen\\'s University, Belfast, N. Ireland. Licensing provisions: LGPL 2.1. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5 407 321. No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 42 004 554. Distribution format: tar.gz. Programming language: C++. Operating system: Unix. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes. Parallelized using MPI. RAM:< 90   Megabytes for two of the scenarios described in Section 6 of the manuscript (Monodomain re-entry on a slab or Cylindrical crypt simulation). Up to 16 Gigabytes (distributed across processors) for full resolution bidomain cardiac simulation. Classification: 3. External routines: Boost, CodeSynthesis XSD, CxxTest, HDF5, METIS, MPI, PETSc, Triangle, Xerces. Nature of problem: Chaste may be used for solving coupled ODE and PDE systems arising from modelling biological systems. Use of Chaste in two application areas are described in this paper: cardiac

  6. Intermittent fasting prompted recovery from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Toshihiko; Otsubo, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Teruki; Inazuka, Fumika; Kobayashi, Eiko; Fukuda, Shinji; Inoue, Takuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Kawamura, Yuki I; Dohi, Taeko

    2017-09-01

    Fasting-refeeding in mice induces transient hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells, which is dependent on the lactate produced as a metabolite of commensal bacteria. We attempted to manipulate colonic epithelial cell turnover with intermittent fasting to prompt recovery from acute colitis. Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in the drinking water for 5 days. From day 6, mice were fasted for 36 h and refed normal bait, glucose powder, or lactylated high-amylose starch. On day 9, colon tissues were subjected to analysis of histology and cytokine expression. The effect of lactate on the proliferation of colonocytes was assessed by enema in vivo and primary culture in vitro . Intermittent fasting resulted in restored colonic crypts and less expression of interleukin-1β and interleukin-17 in the colon than in mice fed ad libitum . Administration of lactate in the colon at refeeding time by enema or by feeding lactylated high-amylose starch increased the number of regenerating crypts. Addition of lactate but not butyrate or acetate supported colony formation of colonocytes in vitro . In conclusion, intermittent fasting in the resolution phase of acute colitis resulted in better recovery of epithelial cells and reduced inflammation.

  7. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO PAULO F. SCHOFFEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food restriction (FR on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa.

  8. Myenteric denervation differentially reduces enteroendocrine serotonin cell population in rats during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Luzmarina; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Pereira, Lucieni Cristina Marques da Silva; Freitas, Priscila de; Gama, Patrícia; Alvares, Eliana Parisi

    2006-05-01

    The enteric nervous and enteroendocrine systems regulate different processes in the small intestine. Ablation of myenteric plexus with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) stimulates epithelial cell proliferation, whereas endocrine serotonin cells may inhibit the process. To evaluate the connection between the systems and the influence of myenteric plexus on serotoninergic cells in rats during postnatal development, the ileal plexus was partially removed with BAC. Rats were treated at 13 or 21 days and sacrificed after 15 days. The cell bodies of myenteric neurons were stained by beta NADH-diaphorase to detect the extension of denervation. The number of enteroendocrine cells in the ileum was estimated in crypts and villi in paraffin sections immunostained for serotonin. The number of neurons was reduced by 27.6 and 45% in rats treated on the 13th and 21st days, respectively. We tried to establish a correlation of denervation and the serotonin population according to the age of treatment. We observed a reduction of immunolabelled cells in the crypts of rats treated at 13 days, whereas this effect was seen in the villi of rats denervated at 21 days. These results suggest that the enteric nervous system might control the enteroendocrine cell population and this complex mechanism could be correlated to changes in cell proliferation.

  9. Impacts of Antibiotic and Bacteriophage Treatments on the Gut-Symbiont-Associated Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis, possesses specialized midgut crypts that harbor dense populations of the exocellular symbiont Burkholderia. Oral administration of antibiotics suppressed the gut symbionts in B. insularis and negatively impacted insect host fitness, as reflected by retarded development, smaller body size, and higher susceptibility to an insecticide, bifenthrin. Considering that the antibiotics probably had non-lethal but toxic effects on host fitness, attempts were conducted to reduce gut symbionts using bacteriophage treatment. Soil-lytic phages active against the cultures of specific Burkholderia ribotypes were successfully isolated using a soil enrichment protocol. Characterization of the BiBurk16MC_R phage determined its specificity to the Bi16MC_R_vitro ribotype and placed it within the family Podoviridae. Oral administration of phages to fifth-instar B. insularis, inoculated with Bi16MC_R_vitro as neonates had no deleterious effects on host fitness. However, the ingested phages failed to impact the crypt-associated Burkholderia. The observed inactivity of the phage was likely due to the blockage of the connection between the anterior and posterior midgut regions. These findings suggest that the initial colonization by Burkholderia programs the ontogeny of the midgut, providing a sheltered residence protected from microbial antagonists.

  10. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected biological responses and performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo H. Rauber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of three doses of fumonisin B1 (0, 100, and 200mg/kg of feed on biological variables (relative weight of liver [RWL], total plasma protein [TPP], albumin [Alb], calcium [Ca], phosphorus [P], uric acid [UA], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma glutamyltransferase [GGT], alkaline phosphatase [AP], total cholesterol [Chol], triglycerides [Tri], sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio [SA:SO], and C-reactive protein [CRP], morphological evaluation of the small intestine (villus height [VH], crypt depth [CD], and villus-to-crypt ratio [V:C], histological evaluation, and on performance (body weight [BW], feed intake [FI], and feed conversion rate [FCR] of broiler chickens. Significant effects of FB were observed on BW and FI (reduced, on RWL, TPP, Ca, ALT, AST, GGT, Chol, and Tri (increased at both 14 and 28 days evaluations. In addition, significant increase was observed on FCR, Alb, P, SA:SO, and CRP and significant reduction in UA, VH, and V:C only at the 28 days evaluation. Significant histological lesions were observed on liver and kidney of FB inoculated broilers at 14 and 28 days. Those results show that FB has a significant effect on biological and histological variables and on performance of broiler chickens.

  11. Quantitating subcellular metabolism with multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Bailey, Andrew; Senyo, Samuel E.; Guillermier, Christelle; Perlstein, Todd S.; Gould, Alex P.; Lee, Richard T.; Lechene, Claude P.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry with stable isotope labels has been seminal in discovering the dynamic state of living matter1,2 but is limited to bulk tissues or cells. We developed multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) that allowed us to view and measure stable isotope incorporation with sub-micron resolution3,4. Here we apply MIMS to diverse organisms, including Drosophila, mice, and humans. We test the “immortal strand hypothesis,” which predicts that during asymmetric stem cell division chromosomes containing older template DNA are segregated to the daughter destined to remain a stem cell, thus insuring lifetime genetic stability. After labeling mice with 15N-thymidine from gestation through post-natal week 8, we find no 15N label retention by dividing small intestinal crypt cells after 4wk chase. In adult mice administered 15N-thymidine pulse-chase, we find that proliferating crypt cells dilute label consistent with random strand segregation. We demonstrate the broad utility of MIMS with proof-of-principle studies of lipid turnover in Drosophila and translation to the human hematopoietic system. These studies show that MIMS provides high-resolution quantitation of stable isotope labels that cannot be obtained using other techniques and that is broadly applicable to biological and medical research. PMID:22246326

  12. Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry quantifies stem cell division and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Matthew L; Bailey, Andrew P; Senyo, Samuel E; Guillermier, Christelle; Perlstein, Todd S; Gould, Alex P; Lee, Richard T; Lechene, Claude P

    2012-01-15

    Mass spectrometry with stable isotope labels has been seminal in discovering the dynamic state of living matter, but is limited to bulk tissues or cells. We developed multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) that allowed us to view and measure stable isotope incorporation with submicrometre resolution. Here we apply MIMS to diverse organisms, including Drosophila, mice and humans. We test the 'immortal strand hypothesis', which predicts that during asymmetric stem cell division chromosomes containing older template DNA are segregated to the daughter destined to remain a stem cell, thus insuring lifetime genetic stability. After labelling mice with (15)N-thymidine from gestation until post-natal week 8, we find no (15)N label retention by dividing small intestinal crypt cells after a four-week chase. In adult mice administered (15)N-thymidine pulse-chase, we find that proliferating crypt cells dilute the (15)N label, consistent with random strand segregation. We demonstrate the broad utility of MIMS with proof-of-principle studies of lipid turnover in Drosophila and translation to the human haematopoietic system. These studies show that MIMS provides high-resolution quantification of stable isotope labels that cannot be obtained using other techniques and that is broadly applicable to biological and medical research.

  13. Effects of different rearing systems on growth, small intestinal morphology and selected indices of fermentation status in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhui; Miao, Zhiqiang; Tian, Wenxia; Yang, Yu; Wang, Jundong; Yang, Ying

    2017-06-01

    A 3×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing system and stocking density on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and fermentation status of broilers. Broilers were kept on three rearing systems: floor litter rearing (FRS), plastic net rearing (NRS) and multilayer cage rearing system (CRS), each with two stocking densities (normal and high stocking densities). Results showed that on 7 to 28 days of age, body weight gain appeared as FRS > NRS > CRS. Whereas, CRS significantly enhanced the weight gain of broilers compared with the other systems subsequently. Broilers on FRS had higher counts of cecum Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli at 28 days of age but had more Escherichia coli and less Bifidobacteria than CRS at 42 days of age. The FRS also decreased volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and jejunal villus height-to-crypt depth ratio at all ages. In conclusion, FRS appeared to benefit gut microorganisms during the early growing period along with high body weight gain of broilers, whereas this system might have a harmful effect on subsequent intestinal growth, as indicated by high E. coli, low Bifidobacteria count, low VFA concentration and villus height-to-crypt depth ratio along with low weight gain of broilers. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Effects of size of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections on histopathology of the mucosa along the whole small intestine in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, H; Mallet, S

    1990-11-01

    The influence of population size of Trichostrongylus colubriformis on the structures of the small intestine, especially with regard to the development and origin of an intestinal adaptive response, was examined in experimentally infected rabbits. The effects of low (500 L3) and high (50,000 L3) infection on histological (villous length, mucosa to serosa ratio, crypt surface) and biochemical (protein content, alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase activities) aspects of the mucosa were assessed along the whole small intestine. The presence of a small number of worms induced only minor mucosal changes, indicating a regenerative response of the intestinal epithelium. The role of a local small population of T. colubriformis in the development of a previously described adaptive response appeared thus to be limited. On the other hand, the 50,000 L3 inoculum was associated with severe lesions of villi, marked crypt hyperplasia and with a major reduction of enzyme activities. The changes were found along the whole length of the small intestine. These results suggest that the generally recognized dose-dependent pathogenicity of the intestinal nematode infections could be ascribed to two different processes: firstly, a greater severity of the lesions; secondly, more extensive damage leading to the disappearance of any adaptive intestinal region.

  15. Reproductive features of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) and star-nose mole (Condylura cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, J M; Mock, O B; Nagdas, S K; Winfrey, V P; Olson, G E

    1999-11-01

    Since moles are closely related to shrews, the gametes and reproductive tracts of the star-nose mole (Condylura cristata) and the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) were examined to gain further insight into unusual reproductive traits of the Soricidae. Moles display many of these soricid traits, but with some important differences. The cumulus oophorus of Scalopus, ovulated about 16 h after hCG injection, was largely dispersed by hyaluronidase and, though quite dense, was nevertheless more similar to that of higher mammals than to the compact 'ball of the soricid cumulus. Within the female tract in these moles, approximately 85% of the length of the oviduct comprises a narrow ampulla with numerous differentiated crypts that, in shrews, house spermatozoa. However, in contrast to shrews, moles produce considerably larger numbers of spermatozoa, which challenges the proposal that, in shrews, oviductal sperm crypts specifically permit lower sperm production by the males. In the sperm head of these two moles, the acrosome displays the long rostrum that is typical of other Insectivora, and the perforatorium has the barbs by which soricid spermatozoa probably bind to the zona pellucida. Perhaps allied to this, immunoblots indicated that the immunoreactive acrosomal matrix of Scalopus spermatozoa is simpler than the polypeptide complex of the bovine and hamster acrosomal matrix.

  16. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) of the cervix with bizarre cytological appearances ('pleomorphic HSIL'): a review of 19 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Colin J R

    2017-08-01

    Cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) are typically characterised by a proliferation of immature basaloid cells with relatively uniform hyperchromatic nuclei. In this report we describe 19 cases of HSIL exhibiting focal but very marked nuclear atypia often associated with multinucleation ('pleomorphic HSIL'). The bizarre cytological changes mainly involved the basal epithelium particularly in endocervical crypts where the neoplastic cells undermined the native glandular epithelial cells. Superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SISCCA) was present in three cases (16%) and while this was more common than in a comparative series of 40 'conventional' HSIL excision specimens (5%), the difference was not statistically significant. All three invasive cases demonstrated additional histological features that have been associated with increased risk of SISCAA (expansile crypt involvement by HSIL, luminal necrosis, and/or intraepithelial squamous maturation), and the invasive foci were associated microanatomically with conventional-type rather than pleomorphic HSIL. The bizarre cells expressed p16 and p63 proteins but usually lacked mitotic activity and showed less Ki-67 labelling than adjacent conventional HSIL. These findings suggest that pleomorphic epithelial changes in HSIL do not necessarily indicate more aggressive biological behaviour and may, in some cases, represent a degenerative phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Segmental reversal of distal small intestine in short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grave, Pernille Kock; Thomsen, Sabrina Valentin; Clark, Pia Susanne

    2018-01-01

    were the influence on cell proliferation and mucosal architecture shown by histological analysis. Methods: Sixteen piglets underwent a 60% resection of the distal small intestine and were randomized into two groups. Group 1 short bowel syndrome alone (SBS) (n = 8) and group 2 with reversal of a distal...... small intestinal segment (SBS-RS) (n = 8). Body weight was measured daily and the pigs were euthanized after 1 month. Crypt depths, villus heights and muscle layers thicknesses were measured. For the evaluation of microvilli of the brush border of the epithelium and cell proliferation...... was found in the SBS group and increase in the thickness of the circular and longitudinal muscle layers in the SBS-RS group. In the distal ileal segment the longitudinal muscle layer thicknesses were increased in the SBS group. Otherwise, no significant changes were found. Conclusion: Reversal of a 20-cm...

  18. Cryptopology

    OpenAIRE

    Psarologaki, Liana

    2014-01-01

    Cryptopology is Liana Psarologaki's first London based solo show. The Crypt of St. Pancras Parish Church is transformed into an omni-sensorial immersive experience. The artwork invites the visitors into a maze of sensory engagement with an intention to evoke un-patterned feelings and create intimate experiences. Light, sound, scent, temperature and airflow create different thresholds and enclosures in space inviting the visitor to explore, engage and respond. CRYPTOPOLOGY is a project support...

  19. Colonic epithelium is diffusely abnormal in ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, P; Rosella, O; Nov, R; Young, G

    1995-01-01

    The hypothesis that the colonic epithelium is diffusely abnormal in ulcerative colitis was examined by comparing disease related responses in expression of markers of differentiation by colonic crypt cells to culture with and without butyrate. Cells were isolated from patients with normal colon (15), cancer (24), ulcerative colitis (19), or Crohn's disease (16). Alkaline phosphatase activities were measured in cell homogenates and the rate of glycoprotein synthesis assessed at the end of 24 h...

  20. Vanillin Differentially Affects Azoxymethane-Injected Rat Colon Carcinogenesis and Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rat...

  1. Lymphatic Vascular-Based Therapy for IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    significant preservation of crypts and epithelium. Adenoviral VEGF-C + DSS also significantly reduced histopathological injury produced DSS but to a... preserved than in VEGF-D. Adenoviral GFP + DSS did not provide significant protection against tissue injury (29 ± 2.3, not significant different vs. DSS...male or female C57BL/6 mice (Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, ME) or kB- lacZ mice (provided by Dr. Sylvie Memet, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France

  2. Induction and recovery of morphofunctional changes in the intestine of juvenile carnivorous fish (Epinephelus coioides) upon exposure to foodborne benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, Bonny B.H. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wong, Chris K.C. [Department of Biology, Baptist University of Hong Kong, Waterloo Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Woo, N.Y.S. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Au, Doris W.T. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhdwtau@cityu.edu.hk

    2007-05-15

    The sublethal toxicity of dietary benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P, on fish growth and intestinal morphofunctional changes [as measured by epithelial turnover, cell proliferation, hyperplasia, de novo crypt formation and protein absorption efficiency (i.e. expression of proton/peptide co-transporter, PepT-1, on the mucosal brush border)] were studied for the carnivorous orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Juvenile fish were force-fed daily with pellets containing environmentally realistic concentrations of B[a]P (dissolved in corn oil) at 0.25 {mu}g/g body weight (low-dose) and 12.5 {mu}g/g body weight (high-dose) for 4 weeks, followed by a control diet for a further 4 weeks to assess recovery. Although growth inhibition was observed in fish treated with high-dose B[a]P during the exposure period, no mortality was observed throughout the 8-week experiment. Significant hyperplasia of basal enterocytes of mucosal folds was detected shortly after 3-day exposure to the high-dose B[a]P. Moreover, a faster epithelial turnover was measured in the high-dose B[a]P exposed fish at exposure week 1, which was followed by an increase of basal cell proliferation and a reduction of PepT-1 expression at exposure week 2. The formation of de novo crypts, resemblance to the cancer predisposition syndrome 'juvenile polyposis', was significantly higher in the intestine of high-dose treated fish as compared to the control at exposure week 2 and onwards. Abnormal cytoplasmic extrusions were frequently observed in mucosal folds of high-dose fish at exposure week 4. In the low-dose treatment group, only the expression of PepT-1 was significantly reduced at exposure week 2 and an early adaptive response was observed at exposure week 4. Despite all these intestinal disturbances were reversible in fish upon the abatement to dietary B[a]P (within 1-4 weeks), environmental realistic levels of foodborne B[a]P could induce sublethal toxicity to E. coioides, and probably impose potential

  3. Induction and recovery of morphofunctional changes in the intestine of juvenile carnivorous fish (Epinephelus coioides) upon exposure to foodborne benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Bonny B.H.; Wong, Chris K.C.; Woo, N.Y.S.; Au, Doris W.T.

    2007-01-01

    The sublethal toxicity of dietary benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P, on fish growth and intestinal morphofunctional changes [as measured by epithelial turnover, cell proliferation, hyperplasia, de novo crypt formation and protein absorption efficiency (i.e. expression of proton/peptide co-transporter, PepT-1, on the mucosal brush border)] were studied for the carnivorous orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Juvenile fish were force-fed daily with pellets containing environmentally realistic concentrations of B[a]P (dissolved in corn oil) at 0.25 μg/g body weight (low-dose) and 12.5 μg/g body weight (high-dose) for 4 weeks, followed by a control diet for a further 4 weeks to assess recovery. Although growth inhibition was observed in fish treated with high-dose B[a]P during the exposure period, no mortality was observed throughout the 8-week experiment. Significant hyperplasia of basal enterocytes of mucosal folds was detected shortly after 3-day exposure to the high-dose B[a]P. Moreover, a faster epithelial turnover was measured in the high-dose B[a]P exposed fish at exposure week 1, which was followed by an increase of basal cell proliferation and a reduction of PepT-1 expression at exposure week 2. The formation of de novo crypts, resemblance to the cancer predisposition syndrome 'juvenile polyposis', was significantly higher in the intestine of high-dose treated fish as compared to the control at exposure week 2 and onwards. Abnormal cytoplasmic extrusions were frequently observed in mucosal folds of high-dose fish at exposure week 4. In the low-dose treatment group, only the expression of PepT-1 was significantly reduced at exposure week 2 and an early adaptive response was observed at exposure week 4. Despite all these intestinal disturbances were reversible in fish upon the abatement to dietary B[a]P (within 1-4 weeks), environmental realistic levels of foodborne B[a]P could induce sublethal toxicity to E. coioides, and probably impose potential risk to the

  4. Induction and recovery of morphofunctional changes in the intestine of juvenile carnivorous fish (Epinephelus coioides) upon exposure to foodborne benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, Bonny B.H. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wong, Chris K.C. [Department of Biology, Baptist University of Hong Kong, Waterloo Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Woo, N Y.S. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Au, Doris W.T. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-05-15

    The sublethal toxicity of dietary benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P, on fish growth and intestinal morphofunctional changes [as measured by epithelial turnover, cell proliferation, hyperplasia, de novo crypt formation and protein absorption efficiency (i.e. expression of proton/peptide co-transporter, PepT-1, on the mucosal brush border)] were studied for the carnivorous orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Juvenile fish were force-fed daily with pellets containing environmentally realistic concentrations of B[a]P (dissolved in corn oil) at 0.25 {mu}g/g body weight (low-dose) and 12.5 {mu}g/g body weight (high-dose) for 4 weeks, followed by a control diet for a further 4 weeks to assess recovery. Although growth inhibition was observed in fish treated with high-dose B[a]P during the exposure period, no mortality was observed throughout the 8-week experiment. Significant hyperplasia of basal enterocytes of mucosal folds was detected shortly after 3-day exposure to the high-dose B[a]P. Moreover, a faster epithelial turnover was measured in the high-dose B[a]P exposed fish at exposure week 1, which was followed by an increase of basal cell proliferation and a reduction of PepT-1 expression at exposure week 2. The formation of de novo crypts, resemblance to the cancer predisposition syndrome 'juvenile polyposis', was significantly higher in the intestine of high-dose treated fish as compared to the control at exposure week 2 and onwards. Abnormal cytoplasmic extrusions were frequently observed in mucosal folds of high-dose fish at exposure week 4. In the low-dose treatment group, only the expression of PepT-1 was significantly reduced at exposure week 2 and an early adaptive response was observed at exposure week 4. Despite all these intestinal disturbances were reversible in fish upon the abatement to dietary B[a]P (within 1-4 weeks), environmental realistic levels of foodborne B[a]P could induce sublethal toxicity to E. coioides, and probably impose potential risk to

  5. Identification of potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juxing eChen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with 6 chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON or gut barrier failure (GBF group. During the first 13 d, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn-soy starter diet. On d 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet and GBF chickens were switched to rye-wheat-barley grower diet. In addition, on d 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At d 21 and d 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At d 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P < 0.05 by a GBF model when compared with CON group at d 21 and d 28. Duodenum of GBF birds had wider villi, longer crypt depth, and higher crypt depth/villi height ratio than CON birds. Similarly, GBF birds had longer crypt depth in jejunum and ileum when compared with CON birds. An increase (P <0.05 in serum endotoxin, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, as well as interleukin (IL-8, IL-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF-β4 and fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP 6 mRNA levels were increased in GBF birds compared to CON; however, FABP2 mRNA levels were decreased (P <0.05 in GBF birds compared to CON. Occludin was numerically reduced by 24% (P = 0.107 and mucin 2 (MUC2 was reduced by 29 % (P = 0.088 in GBF birds compared to CON birds. The results from the present study suggest that serum endotoxin and AGP, as well as, gene expression of FABP2, FABP6, IL-8, IL-1β and TGF-β4 in mucosa may work as potential biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens.

  6. No Difference Between Latiglutenase and Placebo in Reducing Villous Atrophy or Improving Symptoms in Patients With Symptomatic Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph A; Kelly, Ciarán P; Green, Peter H R; Marcantonio, Annette; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Mäki, Markku; Adelman, Daniel C

    2017-03-01

    Gluten ingestion leads to symptoms and small intestinal mucosal injury in patients with celiac disease. The only option is the strict lifelong exclusion of dietary gluten, which is difficult to accomplish. Many patients following a gluten-free diet continue to have symptoms and have small intestinal mucosal injury. Nondietary therapies are needed. We performed a phase 2 study of the ability of latiglutenase, an orally administered mixture of 2 recombinant gluten-targeting proteases, to reduce mucosal morphometric measures in biopsy specimens from patients with celiac disease. We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study to assess the efficacy and safety of latiglutenase in 494 patients with celiac disease (with moderate or severe symptoms) in North America and Europe, from August 2013 until December 2014. Participants reported following a gluten-free diet for at least 1 year before the study began. Patients with documented moderate or severe symptoms and villous atrophy (villous height:crypt depth ratio of ≤2.0) were assigned randomly to groups given placebo or 100, 300, 450, 600, or 900 mg latiglutenase daily for 12 or 24 weeks. Subjects completed the Celiac Disease Symptom Diary each day for 28 days and underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsy of the distal duodenum at baseline and at weeks 12 and 24. The primary end point was a change in the villous height:crypt depth ratio. Secondary end points included numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes, serology test results (for levels of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase-2 and deamidated gliadin peptide), symptom frequencies, and safety. In a modified intent-to-treat population, there were no differences between latiglutenase and placebo groups in change from baseline in villous height:crypt depth ratio, numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes, or serologic markers of celiac disease. All groups had significant improvements in histologic and symptom scores. In a

  7. Apc Restoration Promotes Cellular Differentiation and Reestablishes Crypt Homeostasis in Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, Lukas E; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Simon, Janelle; Tschaharganeh, Darjus F; van Es, Johan H; Clevers, Hans; Lowe, Scott W

    2015-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is mutated in the vast majority of human colorectal cancers (CRC) and leads to deregulated Wnt signaling. To determine whether Apc disruption is required for tumor maintenance, we developed a mouse model of CRC whereby Apc can be conditionally

  8. Reduced type II interleukin-4 receptor signalling drives initiation, but not progression, of colorectal carcinogenesis: evidence from transgenic mouse models and human case?control epidemiological observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Nicola; Northwood, Emma L.; Perry, Sarah L.; Marston, Gemma; Snowden, Helen; Taylor, John C.; Scott, Nigel; Bishop, D. Timothy; Coletta, P. Louise; Hull, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of interleukin (IL)-4 receptor (IL-4R) signalling during mouse carcinogen-induced colorectal carcinogenesis and in a case-control genetic epidemiological