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Sample records for methionine synthase a2756g

  1. Methionine synthase A2756G polymorphism and risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer: evidence based on 27 studies.

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    Weixing Ding

    Full Text Available Methionine synthase (MTR, which plays a central role in maintaining adequate intracellular folate, methionine and normal homocysteine concentrations, was thought to be involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC and colorectal adenoma (CRA by affecting DNA methylation. However, studies on the association between MTR A2756G polymorphism and CRC/CRA remain conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis of 27 studies, including 13465 cases and 20430 controls for CRC, and 4844 cases and 11743 controls for CRA. Potential sources of heterogeneity and publication bias were also systematically explored. Overall, the summary odds ratio of G variant for CRC was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.96-1.09 and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.99-1.12 for CRA. No significant results were observed in heterozygous and homozygous when compared with wild genotype for these polymorphisms. In the stratified analyses according to ethnicity, source of controls, sample size, sex, and tumor site, no evidence of any gene-disease association was obtained. Results from the meta-analysis of four studies on MTR stratified according to smoking and alcohol drinking status showed an increased CRC risk in heavy smokers (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.32-3.20 and heavy drinkers (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.28-3.09 for G allele carriers. This meta-analysis suggests that the MTR A2756G polymorphism is not associated with CRC/CRA susceptibility and that gene-environment interaction may exist.

  2. Association of Human Methionine Synthase-A2756G Transition With Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study and in Silico Analysis

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    Arezou Ebrahimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Methionine synthase (MTR is one of the key enzymes of folate pathway, which play a key role in the construction, repair, and methylation of DNA. In this study, an association of MTR A2756G gene transition with prostate cancer in men populations of Kashan-Iran was investigated by a case-control study and an in silico analysis. The 200 samples including 100 patients with prostate cancer, as case group and 100 healthy men, as control group included in this study. MTR-A2756G genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP technique. Some in silico tools used to evaluate the effects of A2756G transition on the structure and function of MTR. Results showed that the AG genotype (OR: 2.4014, 95% CI: 1.3216-4.3636, P=0.0040, and GG genotype (OR: 3.6324, 95% CI: 1.2629-10.4475, P=0.0167 and G allele (OR: 2.0120, 95% CI: 1.3098-3.0905, P=0.0014 were associated with prostate cancer. In silico analysis showed that polymorphisms of the enzyme protein might change properties of MTR such as relative mutability and flexibility, which leads to alteration of stability and function of the enzyme. Based on the results, an MTR-A2756G polymorphism which changes activity and stability of the methionine synthase associated with prostate cancer in men. It is a preliminary study and is presenting data for future comprehensive study for making a clinical conclusion that this gene transition is a biomarker for susceptibility to prostate cancer.

  3. Genetic interactions between MTHFR (C677T), methionine synthase (A2756G, C2758G) variants with vitamin B12 and folic acid determine susceptibility to premature coronary artery disease in Indian population.

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    Kanth, V V Ravi; Golla, Jaya Prakash; Sastry, B K S; Naik, Sudhir; Kabra, Nitin; Sujatha, Madireddi

    2011-07-01

    Researchers have determined that Indians face a higher risk of heart disease, despite the fact that nearly half of them are vegetarians and lack many of the other traditional risk factors. In the below-30 age group, coronary artery disease mortality among Indians is three-fold higher than in the whites in United Kingdom and ten-fold higher than the Chinese in Singapore. High levels of homocysteine have been widely linked to the early onset of heart diseases in other populations, although a definite proof among Indians is lacking, which needs to be investigated by way of screening for factors responsible for high homocysteine levels. To screen for genetic factors responsible for hyperhomocysteinemia and the risk for premature coronary artery disease. A total of 100 individuals with proven premature coronary artery disease and 200 age-and-sex matched controls were screened for polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (C677T) Methionine synthase (MS) genes (A2756G, C2758G), and the B12 and Folate levels were estimated. Results from the mutational analysis revealed that in the study group, seven individuals had a polymorphism for the C677T allele in the MTHFR gene (one homozygous and six heterozygous) (Fischer's Exact test P > 0.046) (OR: 0.2711 95% CI 0.0774 to 0.9491). Six were heterozygous for the A2756G polymorphism in the MS gene (Fischer's Exact test P > 0.0012). None showed a polymorphism at the C2758G allele in the MS gene. Four controls showed heterozygosity for the C677T polymorphism and none for the MS gene. The B12 and Folate levels were significantly lower in the study group as compared to the controls. It is important to know which factors determine the total homocysteine concentrations. In the general population, the most important modifiable determinants of tHcy are folate intake and coffee consumption. Smoking and alcohol consumption are also associated with the total homocysteine concentrations, but more research is necessary to

  4. Methionine synthase A2756G and reduced folate carrier1 A80G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maha Moustafa

    2015-10-09

    Oct 9, 2015 ... folate carrier (RFC1) A80G gene polymorphisms on the maternal risk for DS. Patients: This study ..... To our knowledge, studies concerning the frequency of .... acid efficiency increases chromosomal instability, chromosome 21.

  5. Prevalence of MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G polymorphisms in major depressive disorder, and their impact on response to fluoxetine treatment

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    To examine the prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the A2756G polymorphism of methionine synthase (MS), and their impact on antidepressant response. We screened 224 subjects (52% female, mean age 39 +/- 11 years) with SCID-diagnosed major...

  6. Association between methionine synthase reductase A66G polymorphism and primary infertility in Chinese males.

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    Li, X Y; Ye, J Z; Ding, X P; Zhang, X H; Ma, T J; Zhong, R; Ren, H Y

    2015-04-15

    We examined the association between the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), and methionine synthase (MS A2756G) genotypes and non-obstructive male infertility in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 162 infertile Chinese patients with azoospermia (N = 100) or oligoasthenozoospermia (N = 62) and 120 fertile men as controls. The polymorphisms MTRR A66G, MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MS A2756G were identified by direct DNA sequencing and the results were statistically analyzed. We found no association between the incidence of any of these variants in azoospermia patients and control populations. The frequency of the MTRR66 polymorphic genotypes (AG, AG+GG) was significantly higher in the oligoasthenozoospermia group compared to the controls (P = 0.013, 0.012). Our findings revealed an association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism A66G in the MTRR gene and male infertility, particularly in oligoasthenozoospermia males, suggesting that this polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for male infertility in Chinese men.

  7. Analysis of methionine synthase (rs1805087) gene polymorphism in autism patients in Northern Iran.

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    Haghiri, Rosa; Mashayekhi, Farhad; Bidabadi, Elham; Salehi, Zivar

    2016-01-01

    Autism is characterized by impairment in reciprocal communication and speech, repetitive behaviors, and social communication. The genetic and environmental factors play roles in the pathogenesis of autism. It was recently shown that the genes involved in the folate/homocysteine pathway may be risk factors for autistic children. One of the genes that may be the risk factor for autism is Methionine synthase (MTR). MTR is responsible for the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of MTR A2756G gene polymorphism (rs1805087) and the risk of autism in a population in northern Iran. The prevalence of MTR A2756G polymorphism was determined in 108 children with autism and 130 controls in northern Iran. Genotypes and allele frequencies were determined in patients and controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The prevalence of genotype frequencies of AA, AG and GG in autistic children were 57.41%, 22.22% and 20.37%, respectively, while in controls were 61.54%, 32.31% and 6.15%, respectively. There was significant difference between the MTR polymorphism distribution in control and patient groups. The prevalence of allele frequencies of A and G in autistic children were 0.69 and 0.31, respectively and in controls were 0.78 and 0.22, respectively (P=0.03). The MTR G allele conferred a 1.6-fold increased risk to autism relative to the A allele (95% CI=1.06-2.41, P=0.02). The present study suggests that the G allele of MTR A2756G polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of autism.

  8. MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the homocysteine lowering efficacy of different doses of folic acid in hypertensive Chinese adults

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    Qin Xianhui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate if the homocysteine-lowering efficacy of two commonly used physiological doses (0.4 mg/d and 0.8 mg/d of folic acid (FA can be modified by individual methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and/or methionine synthase (MTR A2756G polymorphisms in hypertensive Chinese adults. Methods A total of 480 subjects with mild or moderate essential hypertension were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: 1 enalapril only (10 mg, control group; 2 enalapril-FA tablet [10:0.4 mg (10 mg enalapril combined with 0.4 mg of FA, low FA group]; and 3 enalapril-FA tablet (10:0.8 mg, high FA group, once daily for 8 weeks. Results After 4 or 8 weeks of treatment, homocysteine concentrations were reduced across all genotypes and FA dosage groups, except in subjects with MTR 2756AG /GG genotype in the low FA group at week 4. However, compared to subjects with MTHFR 677CC genotype, homocysteine concentrations remained higher in subjects with CT or TT genotype in the low FA group (P P P = 0.005, but not in the low FA group (CC 9.9% vs. TT 11.2%, P = 0.989. Conclusions This study demonstrated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism can not only affect homocysteine concentration at baseline and post-FA treatment, but also can modify therapeutic responses to various dosages of FA supplementation.

  9. Polymorphism of Methionine Synthase Gene in Nuclear Families of Congenital Heart Disease

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    WEN-LI ZHU; JUN CHENG; JING-JING DAO; RU-BING ZHAO; LI-YING YAN; SHU-QING LI; AND YONG LI

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investgate the relation of methionine synthase (MS) gene variation with congenital heart disease (CHD) phenotype. Methods One hundred and ninety three CHD patients (94 males and 99 females) and their biological parents (nuclear families) in Liaoning Province were selected as the case group, and another 104 normal persons (60 males and 44 females) and their parents without family history of birth defects as the control group. For all subjects the polymorphism of MS gene A2756G locus was examined by PCR-RFLP method. Results In offspring of the control group the frequencies of MS genotype (+/-) and allele (+) were 10.7% and 5.3%, without existence of homozygote. The MS genotype distribution and allele frequencies of CHD patients and their mothers were not significantly different from the control (P > 0.05). The frequency of allele (+)in case fathers (5.0 %) was apparently lower than that in the control (9.1%, P=0.060), and the odds ratio (OR) was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.25-1.09). There was no difference in parents' genotype combination between the two groups, and in genotype distribution among different types of CHD. Analysis of genetic transmission indicated that mutation allele (+) existed transmission disequilibrium in CHD nuclear families. The percentage of allele (+) transmitted from parents was lower than that allele (-)with OR 0.26 (95% CI: 0.11-0.60). Conclusion MS gene variation in parents is associated with occurrence of CHD in offspring, and mutation allele (+) in parents may be related with the decrease of CHD risk in offspring.

  10. Cloning and Identification of Methionine Synthase Gene from Pichia pastoris

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    Lan HUANG; Dong-Yang LI; Shao-Xiao WANG; Shi-Ming ZHANG; Jun-Hui CHEN; Xiang-Fu WU

    2005-01-01

    Methionine synthase (MS) is grouped into two classes. Class One MS (MetH) and Class Two MS (MetE) share no homology and differ in their catalytic model. Based on the conserved sequences of metE genes from different organisms, a segment of the metE gene was first cloned from Pichia pastoris genomic DNA by PCR, and its 5' and 3' regions were further cloned by 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), respectively. The assembled sequence reveals an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 768 residues, and the deduced product shares 76% identity with MetE of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. P. pastoris methionine synthase (PpMetE) consists of two domains common to MetEs. The active site is located in the C-terminal domain, in which the residues involved in the interaction of zinc with substrates are conserved. Homologous expression of PpMetE in P. pastoris was achieved, and the heterologous expression of PpMetE in the S. cerevisiae strain XJB3-1D that is MetE-defective restored the growth of the mutant on methionine-free minimal media. The gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ under accession No. AY601648.

  11. Levels of Key Enzymes of Methionine-Homocysteine Metabolism in Preeclampsia

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    Alejandra Pérez-Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the role of key enzymes in the methionine-homocysteine metabolism (MHM in the physiopathology of preeclampsia (PE. Methods. Plasma and placenta from pregnant women (32 controls and 16 PE patients were analyzed after informed consent. Protein was quantified by western blot. RNA was obtained with RNA purification kit and was quantified by reverse transcritase followed by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Identification of the C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and A2756G methionine synthase (MTR SNP was performed using PCR followed by a high-resolution melting (HRM analysis. S-adenosyl methionine (SAM and S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH were measured in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS. The SNP association analysis was carried out using Fisher’s exact test. Statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney test. Results. RNA expression of MTHFR and MTR was significantly higher in patients with PE as compared with controls. Protein, SAM, and SAH levels showed no significant difference between preeclamptic patients and controls. No statistical differences between controls and PE patients were observed with the different SNPs studied. Conclusion. The RNA expression of MTHFR and MTR is elevated in placentas of PE patients, highlighting a potential compensation mechanism of the methionine-homocysteine metabolism in the physiopathology of this disease.

  12. Study on Inhibitors of Methionine Synthase Ⅷ: Synthesis of 2,5-Diamino-4-oxo-6- (3-butenyl) pyrimidine

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    ZHANG Zhi-Li; WANG Hong-Tao; WANG Xiao-Wei; MA Xiao-Yan; LIU Jun-Yi; R.J. Griff; B.T. Golding

    2003-01-01

    @@ Cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase plays a crucial role in folate metabolism and such would appear to be an excellent target for rational antifolate drug design. However, to date, no anticancer agents directed at this enzyme are available, but the enzyme is efficiently and specifically inhibited by N2O and this has proven invaluable for evaluating the biochemical consequence of enzyme inhibition and for mechanistic studies. [1,2] 2,5-Diamino-4-oxo-6-(3-butenyl) pyrimidine, a key intermediate in synthetic inhibitors of methionine synthase, was first synthesized using γbutenyl-β-ketoester and guanidine carbonate (Scheme 1). [3

  13. Oxidative stress inactivates cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE in Escherichia coli.

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    Elise R Hondorp

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In nature, Escherichia coli are exposed to harsh and non-ideal growth environments-nutrients may be limiting, and cells are often challenged by oxidative stress. For E. coli cells confronting these realities, there appears to be a link between oxidative stress, methionine availability, and the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of methionine biosynthesis, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE. We found that E. coli cells subjected to transient oxidative stress during growth in minimal medium develop a methionine auxotrophy, which can be traced to an effect on MetE. Further experiments demonstrated that the purified enzyme is inactivated by oxidized glutathione (GSSG at a rate that correlates with protein oxidation. The unique site of oxidation was identified by selectively cleaving N-terminally to each reduced cysteine and analyzing the results by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Stoichiometric glutathionylation of MetE by GSSG occurs at cysteine 645, which is strategically located at the entrance to the active site. Direct evidence of MetE oxidation in vivo was obtained from thiol-trapping experiments in two different E. coli strains that contain highly oxidizing cytoplasmic environments. Moreover, MetE is completely oxidized in wild-type E. coli treated with the thiol-oxidizing agent diamide; reduced enzyme reappears just prior to the cells resuming normal growth. We argue that for E. coli experiencing oxidizing conditions in minimal medium, MetE is readily inactivated, resulting in cellular methionine limitation. Glutathionylation of the protein provides a strategy to modulate in vivo activity of the enzyme while protecting the active site from further damage, in an easily reversible manner. While glutathionylation of proteins is a fairly common mode of redox regulation in eukaryotes, very few proteins in E. coli are known to be modified in this manner. Our results are complementary to the independent findings of Leichert

  14. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the methionine synthase (MetE) from Streptococcus mutans

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    Fu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Lan-Fen; Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: liangyh@pku.edu.cn; Su, Xiao-Dong [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-10-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE) from S. mutans was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. The Streptococcus mutans metE gene encodes methionine synthase (MetE), which catalyzes the direct transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine in the last step of methionine synthesis. metE was cloned into pET28a and the gene product was expressed at high levels in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). MetE was purified to homogeneity using Ni{sup 2+}-chelating chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.85, b = 99.48, c = 77.88 Å, β = 94.55°.

  15. Folate-responsive homocystinuria and megaloblastic anaemia in a female patient with functional methionine synthase deficiency (cblE disease)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fowler, B; Schutgens, RBH; Rosenblatt, DS; Smit, GPA; Lindemans, J

    1997-01-01

    This first detailed report of a female patient with functional methionine synthase deficiency due to the cblE defect describes treatment with several vitamins and cofactors and clinical progress for 17 years. Before treatment, Major findings were microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, episodic

  16. 7-Carboxy-7-deazaguanine Synthase: A Radical S-Adenosyl-l-methionine Enzyme with Polar Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes are widely distributed and catalyze diverse reactions. SAM binds to the unique iron atom of a site-differentiated [4Fe-4S] cluster and is reductively cleaved to generate a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical, which initiates turnover. 7-Carboxy-7-deazaguanine (CDG) synthase (QueE) catalyzes a key step in the biosynthesis of 7-deazapurine containing natural products. 6-Carboxypterin (6-CP), an oxidized analogue of the natural substrate 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin (CPH4), is shown to be an alternate substrate for CDG synthase. Under reducing conditions that would promote the reductive cleavage of SAM, 6-CP is turned over to 6-deoxyadenosylpterin (6-dAP), presumably by radical addition of the 5′-deoxyadenosine followed by oxidative decarboxylation to the product. By contrast, in the absence of the strong reductant, dithionite, the carboxylate of 6-CP is esterified to generate 6-carboxypterin-5′-deoxyadenosyl ester (6-CP-dAdo ester). Structural studies with 6-CP and SAM also reveal electron density consistent with the ester product being formed in crystallo. The differential reactivity of 6-CP under reducing and nonreducing conditions highlights the ability of radical SAM enzymes to carry out both polar and radical transformations in the same active site. PMID:28045519

  17. Association of methionine synthase gene polymorphisms with wool production and quality traits in Chinese Merino population.

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    Rong, E G; Yang, H; Zhang, Z W; Wang, Z P; Yan, X H; Li, H; Wang, N

    2015-10-01

    Methionine synthase (MTR) plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of intracellular methionine, folate, and homocysteine, and its activity correlates with DNA methylation in many mammalian tissues. Our previous genomewide association study identified that 1 SNP located in the gene was associated with several wool production and quality traits in Chinese Merino. To confirm the potential involvement of the gene in sheep wool production and quality traits, we performed sheep tissue expression profiling, SNP detection, and association analysis with sheep wool production and quality traits. The semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that the gene was differentially expressed in skin from Merino and Kazak sheep. The sequencing analysis identified a total of 13 SNP in the gene from Chinese Merino sheep. Comparison of the allele frequencies revealed that these 13 identified SNP were significantly different among the 6 tested Chinese Merino strains ( < 0.001). Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that SNP 3 to 11 were strongly linked in a single haplotype block in the tested population. Association analysis showed that SNP 2 to 11 were significantly associated with the average wool fiber diameter and the fineness SD and that SNP 4 to 11 were significantly associated with the CV of fiber diameter trait ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2 and SNP 5 to 12 were weakly associated with wool crimp. Similarly, the haplotypes derived from these 13 identified SNP were also significantly associated with the average wool fiber diameter, fineness SD, and the CV of fiber diameter ( < 0.05). Our results suggest that is a candidate gene for sheep wool production and quality traits, and the identified SNP might be used in sheep breeding.

  18. Identification of methionine synthase (Sal k 3), as a novel allergen of Salsola kali pollen.

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    Assarehzadegan, Mohammad Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Jabbari, Farahzad; Tehrani, Mohsen; Falak, Reza; Varasteh, Abdolreza

    2011-01-01

    Salsola kali pollen is a common cause of pollinosis during summer and early fall in desert and semi-desert regions. The aim of this study was the identification and characterization of Sal k 3, a new allergen from S. kali pollen. S. kali pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting using twelve S. kali allergic patients. Protein identification was carried out by the means of mass spectrometry. Using degenerated primers, two DNA fragments encoding N- and C-terminal domain of Sal k 3 were amplified by PCR, then cloned into the PTZ57R/T vector and sequenced. The open reading frame of Sal k 3 fragments were subcloned in the pET-32b(+) vector, expressed in E. coli, and purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The IgE-binding capacity of rSal k 3 fragments was then studied by IgE-immunoblotting, inhibition assays, and skin prick tests. A 45-kDa allergen was identified as a fragment of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) by mass spectrometry and was detected in the sera of 8/12 (66.6%) of S. kali allergic patients. Moreover, inhibition assays demonstrated that the purified rSal k 3 fragments were similar to their counterparts in the crude extract. Sal k 3 represents a new allergen of S. kali pollen and seems to be an important allergenic compound in S. kali pollen.

  19. Salt stress enhances xylem development and expression of S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthase in lignifying tissues of tomato plants.

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    Sánchez-Aguayo, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Galán, José Manuel; García, Remedios; Torreblanca, José; Pardo, José Manuel

    2004-12-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine synthase (SAM; ATP: L-methionine adenosyltransferase, EC 2.5.1.6) catalyzes the biosynthesis of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet), a universal methyl-group donor. This enzyme is induced by salinity stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). To elucidate the role of SAM and AdoMet in the adaptation of plants to a saline environment, the expression pattern and histological distribution of SAM was investigated in control and salt-stressed tomato plants. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that SAM proteins were expressed in all cell types and plant organs, albeit with preferential accumulation in lignified tissues. Lignin deposition was estimated by histochemical tests and the extent of tissue lignification in response to salinity was quantified by image analysis. The average number of lignified cells in vascular bundles was significantly greater in plants under salt stress, with a maximal expansion of the lignified area found in the root vasculature. Accordingly, the greatest abundance of SAM gene transcripts and proteins occurred in roots. These results indicate that increased SAM activity correlated with a greater deposition of lignin in the vascular tissues of plants under salinity stress. A model is proposed in which an increased number of lignified tracheary elements in tomato roots under salt stress may enhance the cell-to-cell pathway for water transport, which would impart greater selectivity and reduced ion uptake, and compensate for diminished bulk flow of water and solutes along the apoplastic pathway.

  20. Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE): A Face-to-Face Double Barrel that Evolved by Gene Duplication

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    Pejcha, Robert; Ludwig, Martha L. (Michigan)

    2010-03-08

    Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy) without using an intermediate methyl carrier. Although MetE displays no detectable sequence homology with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), both enzymes require zinc for activation and binding of Hcy. Crystallographic analyses of MetE from T. maritima reveal an unusual dual-barrel structure in which the active site lies between the tops of the two ({beta}{alpha}){sub 8} barrels. The fold of the N-terminal barrel confirms that it has evolved from the C-terminal polypeptide by gene duplication; comparisons of the barrels provide an intriguing example of homologous domain evolution in which binding sites are obliterated. The C-terminal barrel incorporates the zinc ion that binds and activates Hcy. The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys){sub 3}Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. Hcy associates at the face of the metal opposite glutamate, which moves away from the zinc in the binary E {center_dot} Hcy complex. The folate substrate is not intimately associated with the N-terminal barrel; instead, elements from both barrels contribute binding determinants in a binary complex in which the folate substrate is incorrectly oriented for methyl transfer. Atypical locations of the Hcy and folate sites in the C-terminal barrel presumably permit direct interaction of the substrates in a ternary complex. Structures of the binary substrate complexes imply that rearrangement of folate, perhaps accompanied by domain rearrangement, must occur before formation of a ternary complex that is competent for methyl transfer.

  1. Proximal FAD histidine residue influences interflavin electron transfer in cytochrome P450 reductase and methionine synthase reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meints, Carla E; Parke, Sarah M; Wolthers, Kirsten R

    2014-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and methionine synthase reductase (MSR) transfer reducing equivalents from NADPH to FAD to FMN. In CPR, hydride transfer and interflavin electron transfer are kinetically coupled steps, but in MSR the two catalytic steps are represented by two distinct kinetic phases leading to transient formation of the FAD hydroquinone. In human CPR, His(322) forms a hydrogen-bond with the highly conserved Asp(677), a member of the catalytic triad. The catalytic triad is present in MSR, but Ala(312) replaces the histidine residue. To examine if this structural variation accounts for differences in their kinetic behavior, reciprocal substitutions were created. Substitution of His(322) for Ala in CPR does not affect the rate of NADPH hydride transfer or the FAD redox potentials, but does impede interflavin electron transfer. For MSR, swapping Ala(312) for a histidine residue resulted in the kinetic coupling of hydride and interflavin electron transfer, and eliminated the formation of the FAD hydroquinone intermediate. For both enzymes, placement of the His residue in the active site weakens coenzyme binding affinity. The data suggest that the proximal FAD histidine residue accelerates proton-coupled electron transfer from FADH2 to the higher potential FMN; a mechanism for this catalytic role is discussed.

  2. Importance of two consecutive methionines at the N-terminus of a cellulose synthase (PtdCesA8A) for normal wood cellulose synthesis in aspen.

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    Liu, Yunxia; Xu, Fuyu; Gou, Jiqing; Al-Haddad, Jameel; Telewski, Frank W; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P

    2012-11-01

    All known orthologs of a secondary wall-associated cellulose synthase (CesA) gene from Arabidopsis, AtCesA8, encode CesA proteins with two consecutive methionines at their N-termini (MM or 2M). Here, we report that these 2Ms in an aspen ortholog of AtCesA8, PtdCesA8A, are important for maintaining normal wood cellulose biosynthesis in aspen trees. Overexpression of an altered PtdCesA8A cDNA encoding a PtdCesA8A protein missing one methionine at the N-terminus (1M) in aspen resulted in substantial decrease in cellulose content and caused negative effects on wood strength, suggesting that both methionines are essential for proper CesA expression and function in developing xylem tissues. Transcripts from a pair of paralogous native PtdCesA8 genes, as well as introduced PtdCesA8A:1M transgenes were significantly reduced in developing xylem tissues of transgenic aspen plants, suggestive of a co-suppression event. Overexpression of a native PtdCesA8A cDNA encoding a CesA protein with 2Ms at the N-terminus did not cause any such phenotypic changes. These results suggest the importance of 2Ms present at the N-terminus of PtdCesA8A protein during cellulose synthesis in aspen.

  3. A dodecylamine derivative of cyanocobalamin potently inhibits the activities of cobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase of Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Bito, Tomohiro; Yabuta, Yukinori; Ichiyanagi, Tsuyoshi; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we showed that cyanocobalamin dodecylamine, a ribose 5'-carbamate derivative of cyanocobalamin, was absorbed and accumulated to significant levels by Caenorhabditis elegans and was not further metabolized. The levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, which serve as indicators of cobalamin deficiency, were significantly increased in C. elegans treated with the dodecylamine derivative, indicating severe cobalamin deficiency. Kinetic studies show that the affinity of the cyanocobalamin dodecylamine derivative was greater for two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, compared with their respective coenzymes, suggesting that the dodecylamine derivative inactivated these enzymes. The dodecylamine derivative did not affect the levels of mRNAs encoding these enzymes or those of other proteins involved in intercellular cobalamin metabolism, including methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mmcm-1), methylmalonic acidemia cobalamin A complementation group (mmaa-1), methylmalonic aciduria cblC type (cblc-1), and methionine synthase reductase (mtrr-1). In contrast, the level of the mRNAs encoding cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (mmab-1) was increased significantly and identical to that of cobalamin-deficient C. elegans. These results indicate that the cyanocobalamin-dodecylamine derivative acts as a potent inhibitor of cobalamin-dependent enzymes and induces severe cobalamin deficiency in C. elegans.

  4. A dodecylamine derivative of cyanocobalamin potently inhibits the activities of cobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Bito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we showed that cyanocobalamin dodecylamine, a ribose 5′-carbamate derivative of cyanocobalamin, was absorbed and accumulated to significant levels by Caenorhabditis elegans and was not further metabolized. The levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, which serve as indicators of cobalamin deficiency, were significantly increased in C. elegans treated with the dodecylamine derivative, indicating severe cobalamin deficiency. Kinetic studies show that the affinity of the cyanocobalamin dodecylamine derivative was greater for two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, compared with their respective coenzymes, suggesting that the dodecylamine derivative inactivated these enzymes. The dodecylamine derivative did not affect the levels of mRNAs encoding these enzymes or those of other proteins involved in intercellular cobalamin metabolism, including methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mmcm-1, methylmalonic acidemia cobalamin A complementation group (mmaa-1, methylmalonic aciduria cblC type (cblc-1, and methionine synthase reductase (mtrr-1. In contrast, the level of the mRNAs encoding cob(Ialamin adenosyltransferase (mmab-1 was increased significantly and identical to that of cobalamin-deficient C. elegans. These results indicate that the cyanocobalamin-dodecylamine derivative acts as a potent inhibitor of cobalamin-dependent enzymes and induces severe cobalamin deficiency in C. elegans.

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T and methionine synthase 2756A>G mutations: no impact on survival, cognitive functioning, or cognitive decline in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, Lise; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Christiansen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    homocysteine level. METHODS: We examined the effect of the MTHFR 677C>T and MTR 2756A>G genotypes on baseline cognitive functioning, cognitive decline over 5 years measured in three assessments, and survival in a population-based cohort of 1581 nonagenarians. Cognitive functioning was assessed by using......BACKGROUND: Several reports have shown an association between homocysteine, cognitive functioning, and survival among the oldest-old. Two common polymorphisms in the genes coding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) and methionine synthase (MTR 2756A>G) have an impact on plasma...... the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and five brief cognitive tests (cognitive composite). RESULTS: There are no differences in MMSE score (p =.83) or in cognitive composite (p =.56) at intake as a function of genotype tested by analysis of variance, whereas sex and social group have a impact on MMSE...

  6. 7-Carboxy-7-deazaguanine Synthase: A Radical S -Adenosyl- l -methionine Enzyme with Polar Tendencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruender, Nathan A.; Grell, Tsehai A.J.; Dowling, Daniel P.; McCarty, Reid M.; Drennan, Catherine L.; Bandarian, Vahe (MIT); (Utah); (Ariz)

    2017-01-25

    Radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes are widely distributed and catalyze diverse reactions. SAM binds to the unique iron atom of a site-differentiated [4Fe-4S] cluster and is reductively cleaved to generate a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical, which initiates turnover. 7-Carboxy-7-deazaguanine (CDG) synthase (QueE) catalyzes a key step in the biosynthesis of 7-deazapurine containing natural products. 6-Carboxypterin (6-CP), an oxidized analogue of the natural substrate 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin (CPH4), is shown to be an alternate substrate for CDG synthase. Under reducing conditions that would promote the reductive cleavage of SAM, 6-CP is turned over to 6-deoxyadenosylpterin (6-dAP), presumably by radical addition of the 5'-deoxyadenosine followed by oxidative decarboxylation to the product. By contrast, in the absence of the strong reductant, dithionite, the carboxylate of 6-CP is esterified to generate 6-carboxypterin-5'-deoxyadenosyl ester (6-CP-dAdo ester). Structural studies with 6-CP and SAM also reveal electron density consistent with the ester product being formed in crystallo. The differential reactivity of 6-CP under reducing and nonreducing conditions highlights the ability of radical SAM enzymes to carry out both polar and radical transformations in the same active site.

  7. Differential response of methionine metabolism in two grain legumes, soybean and azuki bean, expressing a mutated form of Arabidopsis cystathionine γ-synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Moemen S; Rahman, Shaikh M; Nakamoto, Yumi; Fujiwara, Toru; Naito, Satoshi; Wakasa, Kyo; Ishimoto, Masao

    2013-02-15

    Methionine (Met) is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is essential in mammals and whose low abundance limits the nutritional value of grain legumes. Cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS) catalyzes the first committed step of Met biosynthesis, and the stability of its mRNA is autoregulated by the cytosolic concentration of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM), a direct metabolite of Met. The mto1-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana harbors a mutation in the AtCGS1 gene that renders the mRNA resistant to SAM-dependent degradation and therefore results in the accumulation of free Met to high levels in young leaves. To manipulate Met biosynthesis in soybean and azuki bean, we introduced the AtCGS1 mto1-1 gene into the two grain legumes under the control of a seed-specific glycinin gene promoter. Transgenic seeds of both species accumulated soluble Met to levels at least twice those apparent in control seeds. However, the increase in free Met did not result in an increase in total Met content of the transgenic seeds. In transgenic azuki bean seeds, the amount of cystathionine, the direct product of CGS, was markedly increased whereas the total content of Met was significantly decreased compared with control seeds. Similar changes were not detected in soybean. Our data suggest that the regulation of Met biosynthesis differs between soybean and azuki bean, and that the expression of AtCGS1 mto1-1 differentially affects the metabolic stability of sulfur amino acids and their metabolites in the two grain legumes.

  8. Age-dependent decrease and alternative splicing of methionine synthase mRNA in human cerebral cortex and an accelerated decrease in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Muratore

    Full Text Available The folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS is highly sensitive to cellular oxidative status, and lower MS activity increases production of the antioxidant glutathione, while simultaneously decreasing more than 200 methylation reactions, broadly affecting metabolic activity. MS mRNA levels in postmortem human cortex from subjects across the lifespan were measured and a dramatic progressive biphasic decrease of more than 400-fold from 28 weeks of gestation to 84 years was observed. Further analysis revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA, including deletion of folate-binding domain exons and age-dependent deletion of exons from the cap domain, which protects vitamin B12 (cobalamin from oxidation. Although three species of MS were evident at the protein level, corresponding to full-length and alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts, decreasing mRNA levels across the lifespan were not associated with significant changes in MS protein or methionine levels. MS mRNA levels were significantly lower in autistic subjects, especially at younger ages, and this decrease was replicated in cultured human neuronal cells by treatment with TNF-α, whose CSF levels are elevated in autism. These novel findings suggest that rather than serving as a housekeeping enzyme, MS has a broad and dynamic role in coordinating metabolism in the brain during development and aging. Factors adversely affecting MS activity, such as oxidative stress, can be a source of risk for neurological disorders across the lifespan via their impact on methylation reactions, including epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  9. Aromatic substitution of the FAD-shielding tryptophan reveals its differential role in regulating electron flux in methionine synthase reductase and cytochrome P450 reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meints, Carla E; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Wolthers, Kirsten R

    2013-03-01

    Methionine synthase reductase (MSR) and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) transfer reducing equivalents from NADPH via an FAD and FMN cofactor to a redox partner protein. In both enzymes, hydride transfer from NADPH to FAD requires displacement of a conserved tryptophan that lies coplanar to the FAD isoalloxazine ring. Swapping the tryptophan for a smaller aromatic side chain revealed a distinct role for the residue in regulating MSR and CPR catalysis. MSR W697F and W697Y showed enhanced catalysis, noted by increases in kcat and k(cat)/K(m)(NADPH) for steady-state cytochrome c(3+) reduction and a 10-fold increase in the rate constant (k(obs1)) associated with hydride transfer. Elevated primary kinetic isotope effects on k(obs1) for W697F and W697Y suggest that preceding isotopically insensitive steps like displacement of W697 are less rate determining. MSR W697Y, but not MSR W697F, showed detectable formation of the disemiquinone intermediate, indicating that the polarity of the aromatic side chain influences the rate of interflavin electron transfer. By contrast, the CPR variants (W676F and W676Y) displayed modest decreases in cytochrome c(3+) reduction, a 30- and 3.5-fold decrease in the rate of FAD reduction, accumulation of a FADH2 -NADP(+) charge-transfer complex and dramatically suppressed rates of interflavin electron transfer. We conclude for MSR that hydride transfer is 'gated' by the free energy required to disrupt dispersion forces between the FAD isoalloxazine ring and W697. By contrast, the bulky indole ring of W676 accelerates catalysis in CPR by lowering the energy barrier for displacement of the oxidized nicotinamide ring coplanar with the FAD.

  10. Effect of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), an allosteric activator of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and bioenergetics in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Módis, Katalin; Coletta, Ciro; Asimakopoulou, Antonia; Szczesny, Bartosz; Chao, Celia; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-09-15

    Recent data show that colon cancer cells selectively overexpress cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), which produces hydrogen sulfide (H2S), to maintain cellular bioenergetics, support tumor growth and stimulate angiogenesis and vasorelaxation in the tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of the allosteric CBS activator S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) on the proliferation and bioenergetics of the CBS-expressing colon cancer cell line HCT116. The non-transformed, non-tumorigenic colon epithelial cell line NCM356 was used as control. For assessment of cell proliferation, the xCELLigence system was used. Bioenergetic function was measured by Extracellular Flux Analysis. Experiments using human recombinant CBS or HCT116 homogenates complemented the cell-based studies. SAM markedly enhanced CBS-mediated H2S production in vitro, especially when a combination of cysteine and homocysteine was used as substrates. Addition of SAM (0.1-3 mM) to HCT116 cells induced a concentration-dependent increase H2S production. SAM exerted time- and concentration-dependent modulatory effects on cell proliferation. At 0.1-1 mM SAM increased HCT116 proliferation between 0 and 12 h, while the highest SAM concentration (3 mM) inhibited proliferation. Over a longer time period (12-24 h), only the lowest concentration of SAM used (0.1 mM) stimulated cell proliferation; higher SAM concentrations produced a concentration-dependent inhibition. The short-term stimulatory effects of SAM were attenuated by the CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) or by stable silencing of CBS. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of SAM on cell proliferation was unaffected by CBS inhibition or CBS silencing. In contrast to HCT116 cells, the lower rate of proliferation of the low-CBS expressor NCM356 cells was unaffected by SAM. Short-term (1 h) exposure of HCT116 cells to SAM induced a concentration-dependent increase in oxygen consumption and bioenergetic function at 0

  11. 甲硫氨酸合成酶还原酶基因多态性与心血管疾病的研究进展%Research Progress in Methionine Synthase Reductase Gene Polymorphism and Cardiovascular Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳(综述); 王红(审校)

    2015-01-01

    High homocysteine levels(hHcy) is defined as a high concentration of plasma Hcy (Hcy≥10.0 μmol/L).Many studies have shown that it is associated with increased risk of diseases,including vas-cular and neurodegenerative diseases,pregnancy complications,male infertility,congenital diseases,diabetes, kidney disease,osteoporosis,nerve mental illness and cancer.Plasma homocysteine levels are decided jointly by environmental and genetic factors.The environmental factors including folic acid,vitamin B6,vitamin B12, etc.Genetic factors are mainly in the coding of homocysteine metabolism related enzyme gene polymorphism , such as methionine synthase and methionine synthase reductase gene polymorphism .%高同型半胱氨酸血症(hHcy)的医学定义为高水平的血浆Hcy(Hcy≥10.0μmol/L)。大量研究证明,其和疾病的风险增加相关(包括血管和神经退行性疾病、妊娠并发症、男性不育、先天性疾病、糖尿病、肾功能疾病、骨质疏松症、神经精神疾病和癌症)。血浆Hcy水平是由环境和遗传因素共同决定的。环境因素包括叶酸、维生素B6、B12等;遗传因素主要有编码Hcy代谢相关基因多态性酶,如甲硫氨酸合成酶及甲硫氨酸合成酶还原酶等相关基因多态性。

  12. 4-Demethylwyosine Synthase from Pyrococcus abyssi Is a Radical-S-adenosyl-l-methionine Enzyme with an Additional [4Fe-4S]+2 Cluster That Interacts with the Pyruvate Co-substrate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perche-Letuvée, Phanélie; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Berggren, Gustav; Clemancey, Martin; Latour, Jean-Marc; Maurel, Vincent; Douki, Thierry; Armengaud, Jean; Mulliez, Etienne; Fontecave, Marc; Garcia-Serres, Ricardo; Gambarelli, Serge; Atta, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Wybutosine and its derivatives are found in position 37 of tRNA encoding Phe in eukaryotes and archaea. They are believed to play a key role in the decoding function of the ribosome. The second step in the biosynthesis of wybutosine is catalyzed by TYW1 protein, which is a member of the well established class of metalloenzymes called “Radical-SAM.” These enzymes use a [4Fe-4S] cluster, chelated by three cysteines in a CX3CX2C motif, and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to generate a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical that initiates various chemically challenging reactions. Sequence analysis of TYW1 proteins revealed, in the N-terminal half of the enzyme beside the Radical-SAM cysteine triad, an additional highly conserved cysteine motif. In this study we show by combining analytical and spectroscopic methods including UV-visible absorption, Mössbauer, EPR, and HYSCORE spectroscopies that these additional cysteines are involved in the coordination of a second [4Fe-4S] cluster displaying a free coordination site that interacts with pyruvate, the second substrate of the reaction. The presence of two distinct iron-sulfur clusters on TYW1 is reminiscent of MiaB, another tRNA-modifying metalloenzyme whose active form was shown to bind two iron-sulfur clusters. A possible role for the second [4Fe-4S] cluster in the enzyme activity is discussed. PMID:23043105

  13. The effects of enhanced methionine synthesis on amino acid and anthocyanin content of potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánfalvi Zsófia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a staple food in the diet of the world's population and also being used as animal feed. Compared to other crops, however, potato tubers are relatively poor in the essential amino acid, methionine. Our aim was to increase the methionine content of tubers by co-expressing a gene involved in methionine synthesis with a gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein in potato plants. Results In higher plants, cystathionine γ-synthase (CgS is the first enzyme specific to methionine biosynthesis. We attempted to increase the methionine content of tubers by expressing the deleted form of the Arabidopsis CgS (CgSΔ90, which is not regulated by methionine, in potato plants. To increase the incorporation of free methionine into a storage protein the CgSΔ90 was co-transformed with the methionine-rich 15-kD β-zein. Results demonstrated a 2- to 6-fold increase in the free methionine content and in the methionine content of the zein-containing protein fraction of the transgenic tubers. In addition, in line with higher methionine content, the amounts of soluble isoleucine and serine were also increased. However, all of the lines with high level of CgSΔ90 expression were phenotypically abnormal showing severe growth retardation, changes in leaf architecture and 40- to 60% reduction in tuber yield. Furthermore, the colour of the transgenic tubers was altered due to the reduced amounts of anthocyanin pigments. The mRNA levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, the enzyme catalysing the first step of anthocyanin synthesis, were decreased. Conclusion Ectopic expression of CgSΔ90 increases the methionine content of tubers, however, results in phenotypic aberrations in potato. Co-expression of the 15-kD β-zein with CgSΔ90 results in elevation of protein-bound methionine content of tubers, but can not overcome the phenotypical changes caused by CgSΔ90 and can not significantly improve the nutritional value of tubers. The level

  14. Pseudouridine synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamma, Tomoko; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2006-11-01

    Pseudouridine synthases are the enzymes responsible for the most abundant posttranscriptional modification of cellular RNAs. These enzymes catalyze the site-specific isomerization of uridine residues that are already part of an RNA chain, and appear to employ both sequence and structural information to achieve site specificity. Crystallographic analyses have demonstrated that all pseudouridine synthases share a common core fold and active site structure and that this core is modified by peripheral domains, accessory proteins, and guide RNAs to give rise to remarkable substrate versatility.

  15. Methionine Metabolism of the Myxomycete Physarum polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, John W.; Babcock, Karlee

    1966-01-01

    Daniel, John W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and Karlee Babcock. Methionine metabolism of the myxomycete Physarum polycephalum. J. Bacteriol. 92:1028–1035. 1966.—Previous studies have shown that Physarum polycephalum requires exogenous methionine for growth, but not cysteine, folic acid, or vitamin B12. Methionine can also serve as the sole source of sulfur for all cellular requirements, without limiting the growth rate. S-methyl-l-cysteine, 2-hydroxy-4-methiol butyric acid, S-adenosyl-l-methionine, and methionine peptides were the only compounds supporting growth, when substituted for methionine. Other methionine analogues, methyl donors in combination with homocysteine, and intermediates of the cystathionine pathway were not active. Ethionine and S-ethyl cysteine were good methionine antagonists. This myxomycete is apparently unable to synthesize the methyl or S-methyl group, although it still appears able to transmethylate, at least from S-methyl cysteine, and probably from S-adenosyl methionine, which can also serve as a source of adenine. PMID:5951320

  16. Genetic variant in MTRR, but not MTR, is associated with risk of congenital heart disease: an integrated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxi Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD is one of the most common birth defects and the leading cause of deaths among individuals with congenital structural abnormalities worldwide. Both Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR and Methionine synthase (MTR are key enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway of homocysteine, which are significant in the earlier period embryogenesis, particularly in the cardiac development. Evidence is mounting for the association between MTRR A66G (rs1801394/MTR A2756G (rs1805087 and the CHD risk, but results are controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis integrating case-control and transmitted disequilibrium test (TDT studies to obtain more precise estimate of the associations of these two variants with the CHD risk. METHODS: To combine case-control and TDT studies, we used the Catmap package of R software to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: A total of 9 reports were included in the final meta-analysis. Eight of them comprised of 914 cases, 964 controls, and 441 families that were germane to MTRR A66G polymorphism; and 4 reports comprised of 250 cases, 205 controls, and 53 families that were relevant to MTR A2756G polymorphism. The pooled OR for the MTRR 66 G allele versus A allele was 1.35 (95% CI = 1.14-1.59, P<0.001, Pheterogeneity = 0.073. For MTR A2756G, the G allele conferred a pooled OR of 1.10 (95% CI = 0.78-1.57, P = 0.597, Pheterogeneity = 0.173 compared with the A allele. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to asses the effects of each individual study on the pooled OR, indicating the stability of the outcome. Moreover, positive results were also obtained in all subgroups stratified by study type and ethnicity except the subgroup of TDT studies in MTRR A66G variant. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated a suggestive result that the A66G variant in MTRR, but not the A2756G in MTR, may be associated with the increase of CHD risks.

  17. Benzalacetone Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuro eAbe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Benzalacetone synthase, from the medicinal plant Rheum palmatum (Polygonaceae (RpBAS, is a plant-specific chalcone synthase (CHS superfamily of type III polyketide synthase (PKS. RpBAS catalyzes the one-step, decarboxylative condensation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA to produce the C6-C4 benzalacetone scaffold. The X-ray crystal structures of RpBAS confirmed that the diketide-forming activity is attributable to the characteristic substitution of the conserved active-site "gatekeeper" Phe with Leu. Furthermore, the crystal structures suggested that RpBAS employs novel catalytic machinery for the thioester bond cleavage of the enzyme-bound diketide intermediate and the final decarboxylation reaction to produce benzalacetone. Finally, by exploiting the remarkable substrate tolerance and catalytic versatility of RpBAS, precursor-directed biosynthesis efficiently generated chemically and structurally divergent, unnatural novel polyketide scaffolds. These findings provided a structural basis for the functional diversity of the type III PKS enzymes.

  18. Chronic methionine load-induced hyperhomocysteinemia impairs the relaxation induced by bradykinin in the isolated rat carotid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Daniella; Tirapelli, Carlos R; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2009-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of chronic methionine intake on bradykinin (BK)-relaxation. Vascular reactivity experiments were performed on carotid rings from male Wistar rats. Treatment with methionine (0.1, 1 or 2 g kg(-1) per day) for 8 and 16 weeks, but not for 2 and 4 weeks, reduced the relaxation induced by BK. Indomethacin, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, and SQ29548, a selective thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2))/prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) receptor antagonist prevented the reduction in BK-relaxation observed in the carotid from methionine-treated rats. Conversely, AH6809, a selective prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) receptor antagonist did not alter BK-relaxation in the carotid from methionine-treated rats. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors L-NAME, L-NNA and 7-nitroindazole reduced the relaxation induced by BK in carotids from control and methionine-treated rats. In summary, we found that chronic methionine intake impairs the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by BK and this effect is due to an increased production of endothelial vasoconstrictor prostanoids (possibly TXA(2)) that counteracts the relaxant action displayed by the peptide.

  19. Betaine supplementation is less effective than methionine restriction in correcting phenotypes of CBS deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sapna; Wang, Liqun; Kruger, Warren D

    2016-01-01

    Cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficiency is a recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by elevated serum total homocysteine (tHcy). Betaine supplementation, which can lower tHcy by stimulating homocysteine remethylation to methionine, is often given to CBS deficient patients in combination with other treatments such as methionine restriction and supplemental B-vitamins. However, the effectiveness of betaine supplementation by itself in the treatment of CBS deficiency has not been well explored. Here, we have examined the effect of a betaine supplemented diet on the Tg-I278T Cbs (-/-) mouse model of CBS deficiency and compared its effectiveness to our previously published data using a methionine restricted diet. Tg-I278T Cbs (-/-) mice on betaine, from the time of weaning until for 240 days of age, had a 40 % decrease in mean tHcy level and a 137 % increase in serum methionine levels. Betaine-treated Tg-I278T Cbs (-/-) mice also exhibited increased levels of betaine-dependent homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), increased levels of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD-1), and increased lipid droplet accumulation in the liver. Betaine supplementation largely reversed the hair loss phenotype in Tg-I278T Cbs (-/-) animals, but was far less effective than methionine restriction in reversing the weight-loss, fat-loss, and osteoporosis phenotypes. Surprisingly, betaine supplementation had several negative effects in control Tg-I278T Cbs (+/-) mice including decreased weight gain, lean mass, and bone mineral density. Our findings indicate that while betaine supplementation does have some beneficial effects, it is not as effective as methionine restriction for reversing the phenotypes associated with severe CBS deficiency in mice.

  20. Polymorphisms in MTHFR, MS and CBS genes and premature acute myocardial infarction in a Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz; Iqbal, Khalida; Tareen, Asal Khan; Parveen, Siddiqa; Mehboobali, Naseema; Haider, Ghulam; Iqbal, Saleem Perwaiz

    2016-11-01

    High prevalence of premature coronary heart disease in Pakistanis compared to other populations points towards the genetic predisposition of this population to develop this disease. Since no investigations have been carried out in Pakistan to study the relationship of polymorphisms in genes involved in homocysteine cycle, the objective of the present study was to find out if there is any association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C; methionine synthase (MS) A2756G; cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) 844ins68, G919A polymorphisms with premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a population of Pakistani patients with this disease. In a cross-sectional study, DNA samples of 143 AMI patients (age CBS844ins68 polymorphisms and premature AMI in this population. This indicates that common polymorphisms in MTHFR, MS and CBS genes have no role in premature AMI in Pakistani population.

  1. PURIFICATION OF L-METHIONINE AND N-ACETYL-D-METHIONINE FROM THE MIXTURE OF ENZYMATICALLY DEACYLATED N-ACETYL-DL-METHIONINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiaomin; ZHAO Lin; SHAO Jianhui; TAN Xin; SONG Zhengxiao

    2004-01-01

    N-acetyl-D-methionine, NaAc and the remains of N-acetyl-L-methionine dramatically affect the purification of L-methionine when purified from the mixture of enzymatically deacylated N-acetyl-DL-methionine, leading to a low yield conventionally. Here, this paper reports a successful separation and purification of both L-methionine and N-acetyl-D-methionine by an H ion-exchange column. The pH, L-Met concentration and the ratio between the content of sodium cation and the ion-exchange capacity were optimized to obtain the maximum yield. Experimental results indicate that, under the optimized conditions, the yields of L-methionine and N-acetyl-D-methionine can reach as high as 85% and 75%, respectively.

  2. Complexes with Methionine Methyl Ester. Equilibria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Methionine methyl ester forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with diorganotin(IV). The corresponding ... coordination compounds R2SnX2L2 is controlled by the nature of. R, the leaving ... nitrate were obtained from Acros Organics. Carbonate-free.

  3. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  4. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A two year-old male child presented with cutis marmorata congenita universalis, brittle hair, mild mental retardation, and finger spasms. Biochemical findings include increased levels of homocysteine in the blood-106.62 µmol/L (normal levels: 5.90-16µmol/L. Biochemical tests such as the silver nitroprusside and nitroprusside tests were positive suggesting homocystinuria. The patient was treated with oral pyridoxine therapy for three months. The child responded well to this therapy and the muscle spasms as well as skin manifestations such as cutis marmorata subsided. The treatment is being continued; the case is reported here because of its rarity. Homocysteinuria arising due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of methionine metabolism that produces increased levels of urinary homocysteine and methionine It manifests itself in vascular, central nervous system, cutaneous, and connective tissue disturbances and phenotypically resembles Marfan′s syndrome. Skin manifestations include malar flush, thin hair, and cutis reticulata / marmorata.

  5. Experimental and theoretical proton affinities of methionine, methionine sulfoxide and their N- and C-terminal derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioe, Hadi; O'Hair, Richard A. J.; Gronert, Scott; Austin, Allen; Reid, Gavin E.

    2007-11-01

    The proton affinities of methionine, methionine sulfoxide and their derivatives (methionine methyl ester, methionine sulfoxide methyl ester, methionine methyl amide, methionine sulfoxide methyl amide, N-acetyl methionine, N-acetyl methionine sulfoxide, N-acetyl methionine methyl ester, N-acetyl methionine sulfoxide methyl ester, N-acetyl methionine methyl amide and N-acetyl methionine sulfoxide methyl amide) were experimentally determined using the kinetic method, in which proton bound dimers formed via electrospray ionization (ESI) were subjected to collision induced dissociation (CID) in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In addition, theoretical calculations carried out at the MP2/6-311 + G(2d,p)//B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory to determine the global minima of the neutral and protonated species of all derivatives studied, were used to predict theoretical proton affinities. The density function theory calculations not only support the experimental proton affinities, but also provide structural insights into the types of hydrogen bonding that stabilize the neutral and protonated methionine or methionine sulfoxide derivatives. Comparison of the proton affinities of the various methionine and methionine sulfoxide derivatives reveals that: (i) oxidation of methionine derivatives to methionine sulfoxide derivatives results in an increase in proton affinity due to higher intrinsic proton affinity and an increase in the ring size formed through charge complexation of the sulfoxide group, which allows more efficient hydrogen bonding compared to the sulfide group; (ii) C-terminal modification by methyl esterification or methyl amidation increases the proton affinity in the order of methyl amide > methyl ester > carboxylic acid due to improved charge stabilization; (iii) N-terminal modification by N-acetylation decreases proton affinity of the derivatives due to lower intrinsic proton affinity of the N-acetyl group as well as due to stabilization of the attached

  6. Caffeine synthase and related methyltransferases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misako, Kato; Kouichi, Mizuno

    2004-05-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a purine alkaloid present in high concentrations in tea and coffee and it is also found in a number of beverages such as coca cola. It is necessary to elucidate the caffeine biosynthetic pathway and to clone the genes related to the production of caffeine not only to determine the metabolism of the purine alkaloid but also to control the content of caffeine in tea and coffee. The available data support the operation of a xanthosine-->7-methylxanthosine-->7-methylxanthine-->theobromine-->caffeine pathway as the major route to caffeine. Since the caffeine biosynthetic pathway contains three S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation steps, N-methyltransferases play important roles. This review focuses on the enzymes and genes involved in the methylation of purine ring. Caffeine synthase, the SAM-dependent methyltransferase involved in the last two steps of caffeine biosynthesis, was originally purified from young tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). The isolated cDNA, termed TCS1, consists of 1,483 base pairs and encodes a protein of 369 amino acids. Subsequently, the homologous genes that encode caffeine biosynthetic enzymes from coffee (Coffea arabica) were isolated. The recombinant proteins are classified into the three types on the basis of their substrate specificity i.e. 7-methylxanthosine synthase, theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase. The predicted amino acid sequences of caffeine biosynthetic enzymes derived from C. arabica exhibit more than 80% homology with those of the clones and but show only 40% homology with TCS1 derived from C. sinensis. In addition, they share 40% homology with the amino acid sequences of salicylic carboxyl methyltransferase, benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase and jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase which belong to a family of motif B' methyltransferases which are novel plant methyltransferases with motif B' instead of motif B as the conserved region.

  7. Biochemistry: Acetohydroxyacid Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Ngoc Chien

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6; formerly known as acetolactate synthase, ALS is a thiamin-and FAD-dependent enzyme which catalyses the first common step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA isoleucine, leucine and valine. The enzyme is inhibited by several commercial herbicides and has been studied over the last 20 to 30 years. A short introductory note about acetohydroxyacid synthase has been provided.

  8. Sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine oxidation and the methionine and folate cycles in female cystathionine gamma-lyase null mice: a serendipitous model of the methylfolate trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its role in the endogenous synthesis of cysteine, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL is a major physiological source of the vasorelaxant hydrogen sulfide. Cgl null mice are potentially useful for studying the influence of this compound upon vascular tone and endothelial function. Here, we confirm a previous report that female Cgl null mice exhibit an approximate 45-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine compared to wild type controls. This level of homocysteine is approximately 3.5-fold higher than that observed in male Cgl null mice and is essentially equivalent to that observed in mouse models of cystathionine beta synthase deficient homocystinuria. Cgl null mice of both sexes exhibited decreased expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase compared to WT controls. Female Cgl null mice exhibited a sex-specific induction of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase and methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha and a 70% decrease in methionine synthase expression accompanied by significantly decreased plasma methionine. Decreased plasma cysteine levels in female Cgl null mice were associated with sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine dioxygenase expression. Comparative histological assessment between cystathionine beta-synthase and Cgl null mice indicated that the therapeutic potential of cystathionine against liver injury merits possible further investigation. Collectively, our data demonstrates the importance of considering sex when investigating mouse models of inborn errors of metabolism and indicate that while female Cgl null mice are of questionable utility for studying the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide, they could serve as a useful model for studying the consequences of methionine synthase deficiency and the methylfolate trap.

  9. Sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine oxidation and the methionine and folate cycles in female cystathionine gamma-lyase null mice: a serendipitous model of the methylfolate trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Hurt, K Joseph; Breen, Kelsey; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Orlicky, David J; Maclean, Kenneth N

    2015-08-14

    In addition to its role in the endogenous synthesis of cysteine, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL) is a major physiological source of the vasorelaxant hydrogen sulfide. Cgl null mice are potentially useful for studying the influence of this compound upon vascular tone and endothelial function. Here, we confirm a previous report that female Cgl null mice exhibit an approximate 45-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine compared to wild type controls. This level of homocysteine is approximately 3.5-fold higher than that observed in male Cgl null mice and is essentially equivalent to that observed in mouse models of cystathionine beta synthase deficient homocystinuria. Cgl null mice of both sexes exhibited decreased expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase compared to WT controls. Female Cgl null mice exhibited a sex-specific induction of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase and methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha and a 70% decrease in methionine synthase expression accompanied by significantly decreased plasma methionine. Decreased plasma cysteine levels in female Cgl null mice were associated with sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine dioxygenase expression. Comparative histological assessment between cystathionine beta-synthase and Cgl null mice indicated that the therapeutic potential of cystathionine against liver injury merits possible further investigation. Collectively, our data demonstrates the importance of considering sex when investigating mouse models of inborn errors of metabolism and indicate that while female Cgl null mice are of questionable utility for studying the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide, they could serve as a useful model for studying the consequences of methionine synthase deficiency and the methylfolate trap.

  10. Bacterial variations on the methionine salvage pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Dieter

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thiomethyl group of S-adenosylmethionine is often recycled as methionine from methylthioadenosine. The corresponding pathway has been unravelled in Bacillus subtilis. However methylthioadenosine is subjected to alternative degradative pathways depending on the organism. Results This work uses genome in silico analysis to propose methionine salvage pathways for Klebsiella pneumoniae, Leptospira interrogans, Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis and Xylella fastidiosa. Experiments performed with mutants of B. subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa substantiate the hypotheses proposed. The enzymes that catalyze the reactions are recruited from a variety of origins. The first, ubiquitous, enzyme of the pathway, MtnA (methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase, belongs to a family of proteins related to eukaryotic intiation factor 2B alpha. mtnB codes for a methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase. Two reactions follow, that of an enolase and that of a phosphatase. While in B. subtilis this is performed by two distinct polypeptides, in the other organisms analyzed here an enolase-phosphatase yields 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene. In the presence of dioxygen an aci-reductone dioxygenase yields the immediate precursor of methionine, ketomethylthiobutyrate. Under some conditions this enzyme produces carbon monoxide in B. subtilis, suggesting a route for a new gaseous mediator in bacteria. Ketomethylthiobutyrate is finally transaminated by an aminotransferase that exists usually as a broad specificity enzyme (often able to transaminate aromatic aminoacid keto-acid precursors or histidinol-phosphate. Conclusion A functional methionine salvage pathway was experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, in P. aeruginosa. Apparently, methionine salvage pathways are frequent in Bacteria (and in Eukarya, with recruitment of different polypeptides to perform the needed reactions (an ancestor of a translation initiation factor and Ru

  11. Molecular genetic analysis of pyridoxine-nonresponsive homocystinuric siblings with different blood methionine levels during the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Ito, M; Saijo, T; Naito, E; Kuroda, Y

    1999-08-01

    Two mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene were found in two Japanese siblings with pyridoxine non-responsive homocystinuria who had different methionine levels in their blood during the neonatal period. Both patients were compound heterozygotes of two mutant alleles: one had an A-to-G transition at nucleotide 194 (A194 G) that caused a histidine-to-arginine substitution at position 65 of the protein (H65R), while the other had a G-to-A transition at nucleotide 346 (G346A) which resulted in a glycine-to-arginine substitution at position 116 of the protein (G116R). The two mutant proteins were separately expressed in Escherichia coli, and they completely lacked catalytic activity. Despite their identical genotypes and almost equal protein intake, these siblings showed different levels of blood methionine during the neonatal period, suggesting that the level of methionine in blood is determined not only by the defect in the CBS gene and protein intake, but also by the activity of other enzymes involved in methionine and homocysteine metabolism, especially during the neonatal period. Therefore, high-risk newborns who have siblings with homocystinuria, even if the level of methionine in their blood is normal in a neonatal mass screening, should be followed up and diagnosed by an assay of enzyme activity or a gene analysis so that treatment can be begun as soon as possible to prevent the development of clinical symptoms. In addition, a new, more sensitive method for the mass screening of CBS deficiency in neonates should be developed.

  12. Regulation of thrombosis and vascular function by protein methionine oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sean X.; Stevens, Jeff W.

    2015-01-01

    Redox biology is fundamental to both normal cellular homeostasis and pathological states associated with excessive oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species function not only as signaling molecules but also as redox regulators of protein function. In the vascular system, redox reactions help regulate key physiologic responses such as cell adhesion, vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, inflammatory gene expression, and apoptosis. During pathologic states, altered redox balance can cause vascular cell dysfunction and affect the equilibrium between procoagulant and anticoagulant systems, contributing to thrombotic vascular disease. This review focuses on the emerging role of a specific reversible redox reaction, protein methionine oxidation, in vascular disease and thrombosis. A growing number of cardiovascular and hemostatic proteins are recognized to undergo reversible methionine oxidation, in which methionine residues are posttranslationally oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. Protein methionine oxidation can be reversed by the action of stereospecific enzymes known as methionine sulfoxide reductases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a prototypical methionine redox sensor that responds to changes in the intracellular redox state via reversible oxidation of tandem methionine residues in its regulatory domain. Several other proteins with oxidation-sensitive methionine residues, including apolipoprotein A-I, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor, may contribute to vascular disease and thrombosis. PMID:25900980

  13. Molecular genetic analysis of pyridoxine-nonresponsive homocystinuric siblings with different blood methionine levels during the neonatal period

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Two mutations in the cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) gene were found in two Japanese siblings with pyridoxine non-responsive homocystinuria who had different methionine levels in their blood during the neonatal period. Both patients were com-pound heterozygotes of two mutant alleles:one had an A-to-G transition at nucleotide194 (A194G) that caused a histidine-to-arginine substitution at position 65 of the protein (H65R), while the other had a G-to-A transition at nucleotide346 (G346A) which re...

  14. L-methionine degradation potentialities of cheese-ripening microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnarme, P; Lapadatescu, C; Yvon, M; Spinnler, H E

    2001-11-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds are major flavouring compounds in many traditional fermented foods including cheeses. These compounds are products of the catabolism of L-methionine by cheese-ripening microorganisms. The diversity of L-methionine degradation by such microorganisms, however, remains to be characterized. The objective of this work was to compare the capacities to produce volatile sulphur compounds by five yeasts, Geotrichum candidum, Yarrowia lipolytica, Kluyveromyces lactis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and five bacteria, Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus lutens and Staphylococcus equorum of technological interest for cheese-ripening. The ability of whole cells of these microorganisms to generate volatile sulphur compounds from L-methionine was compared. The microorganisms produced a wide spectrum of sulphur compounds including methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide, dimethyltrisulfide and also S-methylthioesters, which varied in amount and type according to strain. Most of the yeasts produced methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and dimethyltrisulfide but did not produce S-methylthioesters, apart from G. candidum that produced S-methyl thioacetate. Bacteria, especially Arth. sp. and Brevi. linens, produced the highest amounts and the greatest variety of volatile sulphur compounds includling methanethiol, sulfides and S-methylthioesters, e.g. S-methyl thioacetate, S-methyl thiobutyrate, S-methyl thiopropionate and S-methyl thioisovalerate. Cell-free extracts of all the yeasts and bacteria were examined for the activity of enzymes possibly involved in L-methionine catabolism, i.e. L-methionine demethiolase, L-methionine aminotransferase and L-methionine deaminase. They all possessed L-methionine demethiolase activity, while some (K. lactis, Deb. hansenii, Arth. sp., Staph. equorum) were deficient in L-methionine aminotransferase, and none produced L-methionine deaminase

  15. Enzymes of creatine biosynthesis, arginine and methionine metabolism in normal and malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Soumen; Wallimann, Theo; Ray, Subhankar; Ray, Manju

    2008-12-01

    The creatine/creatine kinase system decreases drastically in sarcoma. In the present study, an investigation of catalytic activities, western blot and mRNA expression unambiguously demonstrates the prominent expression of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and N-guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in sarcoma, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells, whereas both enzymes were virtually undetectable in normal muscle. Compared to that of normal animals, these enzymes remained unaffected in the kidney or liver of sarcoma-bearing mice. High activity and expression of mitochondrial arginase II in sarcoma indicated increased ornithine formation. Slightly or moderately higher levels of ornithine, guanidinoacetate and creatinine were observed in sarcoma compared to muscle. Despite the intrinsically low level of creatine in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells, these cells could significantly take up and release creatine, suggesting a functional creatine transport, as verified by measuring mRNA levels of creatine transporter. Transcript levels of arginase II, ornithine-decarboxylase, S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase and methionine-synthase were significantly upregulated in sarcoma and in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells. Overall, the enzymes related to creatine and arginine/methionine metabolism were found to be significantly upregulated in malignant cells. However, the low levels of creatine kinase in the same malignant cells do not appear to be sufficient for the building up of an effective creatine/phosphocreatine pool. Instead of supporting creatine biosynthesis, l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and N-guanidinoacetate methyltransferase appear to be geared to support cancer cell metabolism in the direction of polyamine and methionine synthesis because both these compounds are in high demand in proliferating cancer cells.

  16. Molecular flexibility and structural instabilities in crystalline L-methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Jennifer; Lima, Jose A.; Freire, Paulo T. C.; Melo, Francisco E. A.; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Mendes Filho, Josue; Broer, Ria; Eckert, Juergen; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics in polycrystalline samples of L-methionine related to the structural transition at about 307 K by incoherent inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering, X-ray powder diffraction as well as ab-initio calculations. L-Methionine is a sulfur amino acid which can be c

  17. S-adenosyl-L-methionine for alcoholic liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver disease and disrupts methionine and oxidative balances. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) acts as a methyl donor for methylation reactions and participates in the synthesis of glutathione, the main cellular antioxidant. Randomised clinical trials have addressed...... the question whether SAMe may benefit patients with alcoholic liver diseases....

  18. Role of Methionine Adenosyltransferase Genes in Hepatocarcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramani, Komal [Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Southern California Research Center for Alcoholic Liver and Pancreatic Diseases & Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Angeles, California 90033 (United States); Mato, José M. [CIC bioGUNE, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd), Technology, Park of Bizkaia, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia (Spain); Lu, Shelly C., E-mail: shellylu@usc.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Southern California Research Center for Alcoholic Liver and Pancreatic Diseases & Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Angeles, California 90033 (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Detection of HCC can be difficult, as most of the patients who develop this tumor have no symptoms other than those related to their longstanding liver disease. There is an urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of this disease so that appropriate therapies can be designed. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme required for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), an important methyl donor in the cell. Alterations in the expression of MAT genes and a decline in AdoMet biosynthesis are known to be associated with liver injury, cirrhosis and HCC. This review focuses on the role of MAT genes in HCC development and the scope for therapeutic strategies using these genes.

  19. Bioavailability of liquid methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid relative to DL-methionine in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Zelenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with broiler chickens was conducted to compare the relative bioavailability of liquid methionine hydroxy analogue free acid (MHA-FA with that of DL-methionine (DLM during fattening to 35 days of age. Ross 308 male chicks were allotted to 9 treatments, each consisting of six replicates of 140 birds/pen. Four graded levels (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.28 % of MHA-FA or DLM products (weight/weight comparison were added to a maize-wheat-soyabean meal basal diet deficient in sulphur amino acids. The criteria of response were body weight, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and breast meat yield. Significant responses to graded levels of both methionine sources were observed in all response criteria. Using a multi-exponential model describing the dose-response relationships, the bioavailability estimates of MHA-FA relative to DLM on a weight-to-weight basis were 68, 70, 54 and 59 % for body weight, feed conversion, carcass yield and breast meat yield, respectively. If MHA-FA was compared with DLM on equimolar basis its bioavailability was 77.7, 79.0, 59.3 and 64.6 for body weight, feed conversion, carcass yield and breast meat yield, respectively. The bioavailability of MHA-FA for carcass yield and breast meat yield was significantly (P < 0.05 lower than that of DLM on a weight-to-weight and on equimolar basis.

  20. Excess dietary methionine does not affect fracture healing in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Joerg H.; Schmalenbach, Julia; Herrmann, Markus; Ölkü, Ilona; Garcia, Patric; Histing, Tina; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Menger, Michael D.; Pohlemann, Tim; Claes, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background An elevated serum concentration of homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) has been shown to disturb fracture healing. As the essential amino acid, methionine, is a precursor of homocysteine, we aimed to investigate whether excess methionine intake affects bone repair. Material/Methods We analyzed bone repair in 2 groups of mice. One group was fed a methionine-rich diet (n=13), and the second group received an equicaloric control diet without methionine supplementation (n=12). Using a closed femoral fracture model, bone repair was analyzed by histomorphometry and biomechanical testing at 4 weeks after fracture. Blood was sampled to measure serum concentrations of homocysteine, the bone formation marker osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker collagen I C-terminal crosslaps Results Serum concentrations of homocysteine were significantly higher in the methionine group than in the control group, while serum markers of bone turnover did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Histomorphometry revealed no significant differences in size and tissue composition of the callus between animals fed the methionine-enriched diet and those receiving the control diet. Accordingly, animals of the 2 groups showed a comparable bending stiffness of the healing bones. Conclusions We conclude that excess methionine intake causes hyperhomocysteinemia, but does not affect fracture healing in mice. PMID:23197225

  1. l-Methionine inhibits growth of human pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    BENAVIDES, MAXIMO A.; BOSLAND, MAARTEN C.; da Silva, Cássio P.; Sares, Claudia T. Gomes; de Oliveira, Alana M. Cerqueira; Kemp,Rafael; dos Reis, Rodolfo B.; Martins,Vilma R.; Sampaio,Suely V.; Bland, Kirby I.; Grizzle, William E.; José S. dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that l-methionine inhibits proliferation of breast, prostate, and colon cancer cells. This study extends these findings to BXPC-3 (mutated p53) and HPAC (wild-type p53) pancreatic cancer cells and explores the reversibility of these effects. Cells were exposed to l-methionine (5 mg/ml) for 7 days or for 3 days, followed by 4 days of culture without l-methionine (recovery). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle effects were assessed by flow cytometry after stai...

  2. Maintenance requirements of methionine+cystine and threonine for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melina

    Maintenance requirements for methionine and cysteine, and threonine for .... body and feather protein have been reached, with no further changes in their relative ..... there is no demand for amino acids for the maintenance of lipid reserves.

  3. Propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations in newborns with hypospadias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kowal, Andrzej; Mydlak, Dariusz; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Bauer, Anna; Sawicka, Ewa; Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2013-01-01

    .... Increased propionylcarnitine (C3) is regarded as a biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency. The retrospective study was undertaken to determine whether increased propionylcarnitine and low methionine in newborns are associated with hypospadias...

  4. Crystallization and rhenium MAD phasing of the acyl-homoserinelactone synthase EsaI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, W.T.; Murphy IV, Frank V.; Gould, Ty A.; Jambeck, Per; Val, Dale L.; Cronan, Jr., John E.; Beck von Bodman, Susan; Churchill, Mair E.A. (UIUC); (Colorado); (Connecticut)

    2009-04-22

    Acyl-homoserine-L-lactones (AHLs) are diffusible chemical signals that are required for virulence of many Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs are produced by AHL synthases from two substrates, S-adenosyl-L-methionine and acyl-acyl carrier protein. The AHL synthase EsaI, which is homologous to the AHL synthases from other pathogenic bacterial species, has been crystallized in the primitive tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.40, c = 47.33 {angstrom}. The structure was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction with a novel use of the rhenium anomalous signal. The rhenium-containing structure has been refined to a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom} and the perrhenate ion binding sites and liganding residues have been identified.

  5. [NMR screening of potential inhibitors of Citrobacter freundii methionine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batuev, E A; Lizunov, A Iu; Morozova, E A; Klochkov, V V; Anufrieva, N V; Demidkina, T V; Pol'shakov, V I

    2014-01-01

    Methionine γ-lyase [EC 4.4.1.11] participates in a methionine catabolism at a number of bacteria and protozoa eukaryotes, including pathogenic microorganisms. Lack of this enzyme at mammals allows consider it as a perspective target for rational antibacterial drug design. Currently in medical practice there are no the preparations based on an inhibition of methionine γ-lyase activity. We present results of the search of potential inhibitors of the enzyme using the NMR screening techniques based on identification of compounds, which able to bind specifically to their biological target. Study included a stage of in silico virtual screening of the library of commercially available compounds and subsequent experimental selection of the leading compounds, capable to interact with enzyme. Identification of binding was carried out by means of saturation transfer difference (STD) spectroscopy and WaterLOGSY technique. At the final stage the experimental assessment of inhibiting ability of the selected compounds in the reaction of γ-elimination of L-methionine catalyzed by methionine γ-lyase was carried out. Binding constants of two leading compounds were determined using the WaterLOGSY method. The research expands structural group of potential inhibitors of methionine γ-lyase and allows approach to the design of the inhibitors with higher efficacy.

  6. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

    1999-03-02

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

  7. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wildung, Mark Raymond (Colfax, WA); Burke, Charles Cullen (Moscow, ID); Gershenzon, Jonathan (Jena, DE)

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

  8. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole

    2002-01-01

    unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially......Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been...... in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while...

  9. Methionine Residues in Exoproteins and Their Recycling by Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase AB Serve as an Antioxidant Strategy in Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Madeira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During aerobic respiratory growth, Bacillus cereus is exposed to continuously reactive oxidant, produced by partially reduced forms of molecular oxygen, known as reactive oxygen species (ROS. The sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine (Met, is particularly susceptible to ROS. The major oxidation products, methionine sulfoxides, can be readily repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductases, which reduce methionine sulfoxides [Met(O] back to methionine. Here, we show that methionine sulfoxide reductase AB (MsrAB regulates the Met(O content of both the cellular proteome and exoproteome of B. cereus in a growth phase-dependent manner. Disruption of msrAB leads to metabolism changes resulting in enhanced export of Met(O proteins at the late exponential growth phase and enhanced degradation of exoproteins. This suggests that B. cereus can modulate its capacity and specificity for protein export/secretion through the growth phase-dependent expression of msrAB. Our results also show that cytoplasmic MsrAB recycles Met residues in enterotoxins, which are major virulence factors in B. cereus.

  10. The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid. Plant proteins - especially those derived from legumes or nuts - tend to be lower in methionine than animal proteins. Furthermore, the total protein content of vegan diets, as a function of calorie content, tends to be lower than that of omnivore diets, and plant protein has somewhat lower bioavailability than animal protein. Whole-food vegan diets that moderate bean and soy intake, while including ample amounts of fruit and wine or beer, can be quite low in methionine, while supplying abundant nutrition for health (assuming concurrent B12 supplementation). Furthermore, low-fat vegan diets, coupled with exercise training, can be expected to promote longevity by decreasing systemic levels of insulin and free IGF-I; the latter effect would be amplified by methionine restriction - though it is not clear whether IGF-I down-regulation is the sole basis for the impact of low-methionine diets on longevity in rodents.

  11. Aspirin inhibits interleukin 1-induced prostaglandin H synthase expression in cultured endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.K.; Sanduja, R.; Tsai, A.L.; Ferhanoglu, B.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S. (Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, interleukin 1 (IL-1) is known to induce the synthesis of this enzyme, thereby raising the level of PGH synthase protein severalfold over the basal level. Pretreatment with aspirin at low concentrations inhibited more than 60% of the enzyme mass and also the cyclooxygenase activity in IL-1-induced cells with only minimal effects on the basal level of the synthase enzyme in cells without IL-1. Sodium salicylate exhibited a similar inhibitory action whereas indomethacin had no apparent effect. Similarly low levels of aspirin inhibited the increased L-({sup 35}S)methionine incorporation into PGH synthase that was induced by IL0-1 and also suppressed expression of the 2.7-kilobase PGH synthase mRNA. These results suggest that in cultured endothelial cells a potent inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthetic capacity can be effected by aspirin or salicylate at the level of PGH synthase gene expression. The aspirin effect may well be due to degradation of salicylate.

  12. The effect of dietary modulation of sulfur amino acids on cystathionine β synthase-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Warren D; Gupta, Sapna

    2016-01-01

    Cystathionine β synthase (CBS) is a key enzyme in the methionine and cysteine metabolic pathway, acting as a metabolic gatekeeper to regulate the flow of fixed sulfur from methionine to cysteine. Mutations in the CBS gene cause clinical CBS deficiency, a disease characterized by elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and methionine and decreased plasma cysteine. The treatment goal for CBS-deficient patients is to normalize the metabolic values of these three metabolites using a combination of vitamin therapy and dietary manipulation. To better understand the effectiveness of nutritional treatment strategies, we have performed a series of long-term dietary manipulation studies using our previously developed Tg-I278T Cbs(-/-) mouse model of CBS deficiency and sibling Tg-I278T Cbs(+/-) controls. Tg-I278T Cbs(-/-) mice have undetectable levels of CBS activity, extremely elevated plasma tHcy, modestly elevated plasma methionine, and low plasma cysteine. They exhibit several easily assayable phenotypes, including osteoporosis, loss of fat mass, reduced life span, and facial alopecia. The diets used in these studies differed in the amounts of sulfur amino acids or sulfur amino acid precursors. In this review, we will discuss our findings and their relevance to CBS deficiency and the concept of gene-diet interaction. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. S-Adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocystein metabolism in isolated rat liver. Effects of L-methionine, L-homocystein, and adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D R; Marion, D W; Cornatzer, W E; Duerre, J A

    1980-11-25

    The effects of varying concentrations of L-methionine, L-homocysteine, and adenosine on the tissue levels of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-adenosyl-homocystein (AdoHcy) were investigated in perfused liver. In the normal liver, the intracellular concentration of AdoMet was dependent upon the availability of methionine. In the presence of high concentrations of methionine the maximum level of AdoMet attainable was 300 nmol/g of liver. The exogenous concentration of methionine did not alter the hepatic concentration of AdoHcy (8 to 20 nmol/g) while adenosine or homocysteine blocked hydrolysis of AdoHcy resulting in elevated levels of AdoHcy (400 to 600 nmol/g) and AdoMet (300 to 600 nmol/g). The addition of both adenosine (4mM) and homocysteine (3.4 mM) to the perfusate further increased the levels of AdoHcy (4 mumol/g) and AdoMet (1.2 mumol/g). As the concentration of AdoHcy increased, significant amounts of this compound were released into the perfusate, while AdoMet was not detected. Under all conditions where AdoHcy accumulated in the cell, a concomitant increase in the AdoMet level occurred. Apparently AdoHcy acts as a positive effector of the S-adenosylmethionine synthase. The hepatocytes did not take up significant amounts of [methyl-14C]AdoMet from the perfusate nor were any [14C]methyl groups from this compound incorporated into histones, DNA, or phospholipids. In contrast, [14C]methyl groups were readily incorporated into these macromolecules from exogenous [methyl-14C]methionine. The addition of adenosine (4 mM) and homocystein (3.4 mM) shifted the AdoMet:AdoHcy ratio from 8.2 to 0.3. Under these conditions, transmethylation was inhibited markedly.

  14. Risk of colorectal cancer associated with the C677T polymorphism in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in Portuguese patients depends on the intake of methyl-donor nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Catarina Sousa; Carmona, Bruno; Gonçalves, Susana; Carolino, Elisabete; Fidalgo, Paulo; Brito, Miguel; Leitão, Carlos Nobre; Cravo, Marília

    2008-11-01

    Polymorphisms located in genes involved in the metabolism of folate and some methyl-related nutrients are implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated the association of 3 genetic polymorphisms [C677T MTHFR (methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase), A2756G MTR (methionine synthase), and C1420T SHMT (serine hydroxymethyltransferase)] with the intake of methyl-donor nutrients in CRC risk. Patients with CRC (n = 196) and healthy controls (n = 200) matched for age and sex were evaluated for intake of methyl-donor nutrients and the 3 polymorphisms. Except for folate intake, which was significantly lower in patients (P = 0.02), no differences were observed in the dietary intake of other methyl-donor nutrients between groups. High intake of folate (>406.7 microg/d) was associated with a significantly lower risk of CRC (odds ratio: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.99). The A2756G MTR polymorphism was not associated with the risk of developing CRC. In contrast, homozygosity for the C677T MTHFR variant (TT) presented a 3.0-fold increased risk of CRC (95% CI: 1.3, 6.7). Similarly, homozygosity for the C1420T SHMT polymorphism also had a 2.6-fold increased risk (95% CI: 1.1, 5.9) of developing CRC. When interactions between variables were studied, low intake of all methyl-donor nutrients was associated with an increased risk of CRC in homozygous participants for the C677T MTHFR polymorphism, but a statistically significant interaction was only observed for folate (odds ratio: 14.0; 95% CI: 1.8, 108.5). No significant associations were seen for MTR or SHMT polymorphisms. These results show an association between the C677T MTHFR variant and different folate intakes on risk of CRC.

  15. Improving the production of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in Escherichia coli by overexpressing metk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Zhu, Pengzhi

    2017-07-14

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) has important applications in many fields including chemical therapy and pharmaceutical industry. In this study, the recombinant Escherichia coli strain was constructed for effective production of SAM by introducing the SAM synthase gene (metK). This strain produced 34.5 mg/L of SAM in basic medium in shake flask. Yeast extract, pH, and loaded volume had a significant positive effect on the yield of SAM. Their optimal values were 35 g/L, 7.5, and 30 mL, respectively. The final conditions optimized were as follows: glucose 20, g/L; peptone, 40 g/L; yeast extract, 35 g/L; NaCl, 10 g/L; MgSO4, 1.2 g/L; L-methionine, 1 g/L; rotate speed, 220 rpm; loaded volume, 30 mL; inoculation, 1%; temperature, 37°C; and initial medium, pH 7.5. The recombinant strain produced 128.2 mg/L of SAM under the above conditions in shake flask. The production of SAM in a 5 L fermentor was also investigated. The maximal biomass of the recombinant strain was 60.4 g/L after the cells were cultured for 20 hr, and the highest yield of SAM was 300.9 mg/L after induction for 8 hr in a 5 L fermentor. This study provides a good foundation for the future production and use of SAM.

  16. Engineering of methionine chain elongation part of glucoraphanin pathway in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Nadia Muhammad Akram; Crocoll, Christoph; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2016-01-01

    in Escherichia coli cytosol. Introduction of two plasmids encoding the methionine chain elongation pathway into E. coli resulted in production of 25mgL(-1) of dihomo-methionine. In addition to chain-elongated methionine products, side-products from chain elongation of leucine were produced. Methionine...... supplementation enhanced dihomo-methionine production to 57mgL(-1), while keeping a steady level of the chain-elongated leucine products. Engineering of the de-compartmentalized pathway of dihomo-methionine in E. coli cytosol provides an important first step for microbial production of the health...

  17. Effect of excess methionine and methionine hydroxy analogue on growth performance and plasma homocysteine of growing Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M; Hou, S S; Huang, W; Fan, H P

    2007-09-01

    One experiment was conducted to study the effect of excess dl-methionine (DLM) and dl-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid free acid (dl-HMB-FA) on duck growth. One-day-old male white Pekin ducklings were fed common starter diets from hatch to 21 d of age and then fed the experimental diets from 21 to 42 d of age. Three hundred twenty 21-d-old birds were allotted to 40 raised wire-floor pens with 8 birds per pen according to similar pen weight. There were 5 dietary treatments that included a methionine-adequate control diet and control diets supplemented with 2 levels of dry DLM (1 or 2%) or 2 equimolar levels of liquid dl-HMB-FA (1.13 or 2.26%). Each dietary treatment was replicated 8 times. At 42 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed were measured and plasma was collected to analyze homocysteine. Compared with ducks fed control diets, excess DLM or dl-HMB-FA supplementation reduced weight gain and feed intake of birds significantly. However, on the equimolar basis, at 1 or 2% supplemental methionine activity, dl-HMB-FA was less growth-depressing than DLM. According to the growth response to excess methionine, the tolerable upper limit of dietary methionine for growing ducks may be less than 1.38% when the methionine level of the control diet (0.38%) was considered. On the other hand, plasma homocysteine was elevated markedly when 2% DLM or 2.26% dl-HMB-FA was added to control diets, but plasma homocysteine of ducks fed 2.26% dl-HMB-FA supplemented diets was lower significantly than birds fed equimolar DLM-supplemented diets, which indicated the toxicity of excess methionine sources and less toxicity of dl-HMB-FA relative to DLM.

  18. A common transport system for methionine, L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine (MSX), and phosphinothricin (PPT) in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind Kumar; Syiem, Mayashree B; Singh, Rajkumar S; Adhikari, Samrat; Rai, Amar Nath

    2008-05-01

    We present evidence, for the first time, of the occurrence of a transport system common for amino acid methionine, and methionine/glutamate analogues L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine (MSX) and phosphinothricin (PPT) in cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. Methionine, which is toxic to cyanobacterium, enhanced its nitrogenase activity at lower concentrations. The cyanobacterium showed a biphasic pattern of methionine uptake activity that was competitively inhibited by the amino acids alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, valine, glutamine, and asparagine. The methionine/glutamate analogue-resistant N. muscorum strains (MSX-R and PPT-R strains) also showed methionine-resistant phenotype accompanied by a drastic decrease in 35S methionine uptake activity. Treatment of protein extracts from these mutant strains with MSX and PPT reduced biosynthetic glutamine synthetase (GS) activity only in vitro and not in vivo. This finding implicated that MSX- and PPT-R phenotypes may have arisen due to a defect in their MSX and PPT transport activity. The simultaneous decrease in methionine uptake activity and in vitro sensitivity toward MSX and PPT of GS protein in MSX- and PPT-R strains indicated that methionine, MSX, and PPT have a common transport system that is shared by other amino acids as well in N. muscorum. Such information can become useful for isolation of methionine-producing cyanobacterial strains.

  19. Hybrid polyketide synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Hagen, Andrew; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D.; Poust, Sean; Zhang, Jingwei; Zotchev, Sergey

    2016-05-10

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an even-chain or odd-chain diacid or lactam or diamine. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the even-chain diacid, odd-chain diacid, or KAPA. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS capable of synthesizing a pimelic acid or KAPA, and when cultured produces biotin.

  20. Gelatinization temperature of rice explained by polymorphisms in starch synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J; Reinke, Russell F; Fitzgerald, Melissa A

    2006-01-01

    The cooking quality of rice is associated with the starch gelatinization temperature (GT). Rice genotypes with low GT have probably been selected for their cooking quality by humans during domestication. We now report polymorphisms in starch synthase IIa (SSIIa) that explain the variation in rice starch GT. Sequence analysis of the eight exons of SSIIa identified significant polymorphism in only exon 8. These single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined in 70 diverse genotypes of rice. Two SNPs could classify all 70 genotypes into either high GT or low GT types which differed in GT by 8 degrees C. 'A' rather than 'G' at base 2412 determined whether a methionine or valine was present at the corresponding amino acid residue in SSIIa, whilst two adjacent SNPs at bases 2543 and 2544 coded for either leucine (GC) or phenylalanine (TT). Rice varieties with high GT starch had a combination of valine and leucine at these residues. In contrast, rice varieties with low GT starch had a combination of either methionine and leucine or valine and phenylalanine at these same residues. At least two distinct polymorphisms have apparently been selected for their desirable cooking qualities in the domestication of rice.

  1. Propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations in newborns with hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Andrzej; Mydlak, Dariusz; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Bauer, Anna; Sawicka, Ewa; Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2013-01-01

    Of interest is if factors like maternal diet can influence the risk of hypospadias-affected pregnancy. Increased propionylcarnitine (C3) is regarded as a biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency. The retrospective study was undertaken to determine whether increased propionylcarnitine and low methionine in newborns are associated with hypospadias. 41 newborns with hypospadias and 90 control newborns without congenital anomalies were investigated. Whole blood propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. The mean concentration of propionylcarnitine was higher in newborns with hypospadias compared with newborns without congenital anomalies (p = 0.026). The mean methionine level in cases was insignificantly lower than in controls. There appears to be an association between decreased vitamin B12, as indexed by an increase of propionylcarnitine, and hypospadias in the investigated group of patients.

  2. Methionine, homocysteine, one carbon metabolism and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Satish C; Marczewski, Susan E

    2012-06-01

    Methionine and folate are the key components of one carbon metabolism, providing the methyl groups for numerous methyl transferase reactions via the ubiquitous methyl donor, s-adenosyl methionine. Methionine metabolism is responsive to nutrient intake, is regulated by several hormones and requires a number of vitamins (B12, pyridoxine, riboflavin) as co-factors. The critical relationship between perturbations in the mother's methionine metabolism and its impact on fetal growth and development is now becoming evident. The relation of folate intake to fetal teratogenesis has been known for some time. Studies in human pregnancy show a continuous decrease in plasma homocysteine, and an increase in plasma choline concentrations with advancing gestation. A higher rate of transsulfuration of methionine in early gestation and of transmethylation in the 3rd trimester was seen in healthy pregnant women. How these processes are impacted by nutritional, hormonal and other influences in human pregnancy and their effect on fetal growth has not been examined. Isocaloric protein restriction in pregnant rats, resulted in fetal growth restriction and metabolic reprogramming. Isocaloric protein restriction in the non-pregnant rat, resulted in differential expression of a number of genes in the liver, a 50% increase in whole body serine biosynthesis and high rate of transmethylation, suggesting high methylation demands. These responses were associated with a significant decrease in intracellular taurine levels in the liver suggesting a role of cellular osmolarity in the observed metabolic responses. These unique changes in methionine and one carbon metabolism in response to physiological, nutritional and hormonal influences make these processes critical for cellular and organ function and growth.

  3. Characterisation of methionine adenosyltransferase from Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knodel Marvin H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains a serious world-wide health threat which requires the characterisation of novel drug targets for the development of future antimycobacterials. One of the key obstacles in the definition of new targets is the large variety of metabolic alterations that occur between cells in the active growth and chronic/dormant phases of tuberculosis. The ideal biochemical target should be active in both growth phases. Methionine adenosyltransferase, which catalyses the formation of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP, is involved in polyamine biosynthesis during active growth and is also required for the methylation and cyclopropylation of mycolipids necessary for survival in the chronic phase. Results The gene encoding methionine adenosyltransferase has been cloned from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the model organism M. smegmatis. Both enzymes retained all amino acids known to be involved in catalysing the reaction. While the M. smegmatis enzyme could be functionally expressed, the M. tuberculosis homologue was insoluble and inactive under a large variety of expression conditions. For the M. smegmatis enzyme, the Vmax for S-adenosylmethionine formation was 1.30 μmol/min/mg protein and the Km for methionine and ATP was 288 μM and 76 μM respectively. In addition, the enzyme was competitively inhibited by 8-azaguanine and azathioprine with a Ki of 4.7 mM and 3.7 mM respectively. Azathioprine inhibited the in vitro growth of M. smegmatis with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 500 μM, while the MIC for 8-azaguanine was >1.0 mM. Conclusion The methionine adenosyltransferase from both organisms had a primary structure very similar those previously characterised in other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The kinetic properties of the M. smegmatis enzyme were also similar to known prokaryotic methionine adenosyltransferases. Inhibition of the enzyme by 8-azaguanine and azathioprine provides a starting

  4. Traumatic brain injury alters methionine metabolism: implications for pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod K Dash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methionine is an essential proteinogenic amino acid that is obtained from the diet. In addition to its requirement for protein biosynthesis, methionine is metabolized to generate metabolites that play key roles in a number of cellular functions. Metabolism of methionine via the transmethylation pathway generates S-adenosylmethionine (SAM that serves as the principal methyl (-CH3 donor for DNA and histone methyltransferases to regulate epigenetic changes in gene expression. SAM is also required for methylation of other cellular proteins that serve various functions and phosphatidylcholine synthesis that participate in cellular signaling.. Under conditions of oxidative stress, homocysteine (which is derived from SAM enters the transsulfuration pathway to generate glutathione, an important cytoprotective molecule against oxidative damage. As both experimental and clinical studies have shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI alters DNA and histone methylation and causes oxidative stress, we examined if TBI alters the plasma levels of methionine and its metabolites in human patients. Blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n = 20 and patients with mild TBI (GCS > 12; n = 20 or severe TBI (GCS < 8; n = 20 within the first 24 hours of injury. The levels of methionine and its metabolites in the plasma samples were analyzed by either liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS or GC-MS. Severe TBI decreased the levels of methionine, SAM, betaine and 2-methylglycine as compared to healthy volunteers, indicating a decrease in metabolism through the transmethylation cycle. In addition, precursors for the generation of glutathione, cysteine and glycine were also found to be decreased as were intermediate metabolites of the gamma-glutamyl cycle (gamma-glutamyl amino acids and 5-oxoproline. Mild TBI also decreased the levels of methionine, α-ketobutyrate, 2 hydroxybutyrate and glycine, albeit to lesser

  5. Separation Of Methionine Enantiomers By Using Teicoplanin And Cyclofructan Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hroboňová Katarína

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Methionine is a naturally occurring amino acid. Its enantiomeric separation by using high performance liquid chromatography on various types of chiral stationary phases was studied. The effect of mobile phase composition on enantioselectivity and retention was considered. The separation of the enantiomers was attained in different separation modes – reversed phase mode for the macrocyclic antibiotic chiral stationary phases (teicoplanin, teicoplanin aglycone, normal phase and polar organic phase modes for the isopropyl carbamate cyclofructan 6 chiral stationary phase. It was shown that the hydrogen bonding, dipole interactions, steric effects between methionine molecules and stationary phases play an important role in the separation of enantiomers.

  6. Altering small and medium alcohol selectivity in the wax ester synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Brett M; Ohlert, Janet M; Timler, Jacobe G; Lijewski, Amelia M

    2015-11-01

    The bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT or wax ester synthase) catalyzes the terminal reaction in the bacterial wax ester biosynthetic pathway, utilizing a range of alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. The wild-type wax ester synthase Maqu_0168 from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 exhibits a preference for longer fatty alcohols, while applications with smaller alcohols would yield products with desired biotechnological properties. Small and medium chain length alcohol substrates are much poorer substrates for the native enzyme, which may hinder broad application of the wax ester synthase in many proposed biosynthetic schemes. Developing approaches to improve enzyme activity toward specific smaller alcohol substrates first requires a clear understanding of which amino acids of the primary sequences of these enzymes contribute to substrate specificity in the native enzyme. In this report, we surveyed a range of potential residues and identified the leucine at position 356 and methionine at position 405 in Maqu_0168 as residues that affected selectivity toward small, branched, and aromatic alcohols when substituted with different amino acids. This analysis provides evidence of residues that line the binding site for wax ester synthase, which will aid rational approaches to improve this enzyme with specific substrates.

  7. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  8. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that are intended for use solely under medical supervision to meet nutritional requirements in specific medical conditions and these foods comply with the requirements of part 105 of this chapter, the food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.372 N-Acetyl-L-methionine. The food additive N-acetyl-L...

  9. De behoefte van vleesvarkens aan methionine + cystine, threonine en tryptofaan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenis, N.; Diepen, van H.

    1990-01-01

    Door het Instituut voor Veevoedingsonderzoek is op het Varkensproefbedrijf te Raalte de behoefte van vleesvarkens aan de aminozuren methionine + cystine, threonine en tryptof-aan nader onderzocht. De uitslag was, dat de behoefte aan threonine op het niveau van de Nederlandse praktijksituatie lag.

  10. S-adenosyl-L-methionine for alcoholic liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver disease in the Western world today. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) acts as a methyl donor for all known biological methylation reactions and participates in the synthesis of glutathione, the main cellular anti-oxidant. Randomised clinical trials have addressed...... the question whether SAMe has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver diseases....

  11. Functional characterization of methionine sulfoxide reductase A from Trypanosoma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Diego G; Cabeza, Matías S; Erben, Esteban D; Carranza, Pedro G; Lujan, Hugo D; Téllez Iñón, María T; Iglesias, Alberto A; Guerrero, Sergio A

    2011-01-01

    Methionine is an amino acid susceptible to being oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetSO). The reduction of MetSO to methionine is catalyzed by methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR), an enzyme present in almost all organisms. In trypanosomatids, the study of antioxidant systems has been mainly focused on the involvement of trypanothione, a specific redox component in these organisms. However, no information is available concerning their mechanisms for repairing oxidized proteins, which would be relevant for the survival of these pathogens in the various stages of their life cycle. We report the molecular cloning of three genes encoding a putative A-type MSR in trypanosomatids. The genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and functionally characterized. The enzymes were specific for L-Met(S)SO reduction, using Trypanosoma cruzi tryparedoxin I as the reducing substrate. Each enzyme migrated in electrophoresis with a particular profile reflecting the differences they exhibit in superficial charge. The in vivo presence of the enzymes was evidenced by immunological detection in replicative stages of T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. The results support the occurrence of a metabolic pathway in Trypanosoma spp. involved in the critical function of repairing oxidized macromolecules.

  12. Amino acid nutrition beyond methionine and lysine for milk protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids are involved in many important physiological processes affecting the production, health, and reproduction of high-producing dairy cows. Most research and recommendations for lactating dairy cows has focused on methionine and lysine for increasing milk protein yield. This is because these...

  13. Prenyldiphosphate synthases and gibberellin biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, C.C.N.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.; Bach, T.J.; Rohmer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellins are derived from the diterpene precursor geranylgeranyl diphophosphate (GGPP). GGPP is converted to ent-kaurene, which contains the basic structure of gibberellins, in the plastids by the combined actions of copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS). Generally, ge

  14. Newborn screening and early biochemical follow-up in combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and utility of methionine as a secondary screening analyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisfeld-Adams, James D; Morrissey, Mark A; Kirmse, Brian M; Yu, Chunli; Wasserstein, Melissa P; Salveson, Bobbie R; McGuire, Peter J; Cohen-Pfeffer, Jessica L; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Caggana, Michele; Diaz, George A

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cobalamin C (cblC) type, is an inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism caused by mutations in MMACHC. CblC typically presents in the neonatal period with neurological deterioration, failure to thrive, cytopenias, and multisystem pathology including renal and hepatic dysfunction. Rarely, affected individuals present in adulthood with gait ataxia and cognitive decline. Treatment with hydroxycobalamin may ameliorate the clinical features of early-onset disease and prevent clinical late-onset disease. Propionic acidemia (PA), methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), and various disorders of cobalamin metabolism are characterized by elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) on Newborn Screening (NBS). Distinctions can be made between these disorders with secondary analyte testing. Elevated methionine is already routinely used as a NBS marker for cystathionine ß-synthase deficiency. We propose that low methionine may be useful as a secondary analyte for specific detection of cbl disorders among a larger pool of infants with elevated C3 on NBS. Methods Retrospective analysis of dried blood spot (DBS) data in patients with molecularly confirmed cblC disease. Results 9 out of 10 patients with confirmed cblC born in New York between 2005 and 2008 had methionine below 13.4 μmol/L on NBS. Elevated C3, elevated C3:C2 ratio, and low methionine were incorporated into a simple screening algorithm that can be used to improve the specificity of newborn screening programs and provide a specific and novel method of distinguishing cblC from other disorders of propionate metabolism prior to recall for confirmatory testing. Conclusions It is anticipated that this algorithm will aid in early and specific detection of cobalamin C, D, and F diseases, with no additional expense to NBS laboratories screening for organic acidemias and classical homocystinuria. PMID:19836982

  15. Effects of supplements of folic acid, vitamin B12, and rumen-protected methionine on whole body metabolism of methionine and glucose in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2009-02-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of rumen-protected methionine and intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), given 3 wk before to 16 wk after calving, on glucose and methionine metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 2 cows were fed a diet estimated to supply methionine as 1.83% metabolizable protein, equivalent to 76% of methionine requirement, whereas the 2 other cows were fed the same diet supplemented daily with 18 g of rumen-protected methionine. Within each diet, the cows were administrated either no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160 mg of folic acid plus 10 mg of vitamin B(12.) To investigate metabolic changes at 12 wk of lactation, glucose and methionine kinetics were measured by isotope dilution using infusions of 3[U-(13)C]glucose, [(13)C]NaHCO(3) and 3[1-(13)C,(2)H(3)] methionine. Milk and plasma concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B(12) increased with vitamin injections. Supplementary B-vitamins increased milk production from 34.7 to 38.9 +/- 1.0 kg/d and increased milk lactose, protein, and total solids yields. Whole-body glucose flux tended to increase with vitamin supplementation with a similar quantitative magnitude as the milk lactose yield increase. Vitamin supplementation increased methionine utilization for protein synthesis through increased protein turnover when methionine was deficient and through decreased methionine oxidation when rumen-protected methionine was fed. Vitamin supplementation decreased plasma concentrations of homocysteine independently of rumen-protected methionine feeding, although no effect of vitamin supplementation was measured on methionine remethylation, but this could be due to the limitation of the technique used. Therefore, the effects of these B-vitamins on lactation performance

  16. Efficacy of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid in comparison to DL-methionine in growing male white Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, H; Gessner, D K; Herzog, E; Eder, K

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to assess the bioefficacy of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA) in comparison to DL-methionine (DLM) as sources of methionine for growing male white Pekin ducks in the first 3 wk of life. For this aim, 580 1-day-old male ducks were allocated into 12 treatment groups and received a basal diet that contained 0.29% of methionine, 0.34% of cysteine and 0.63% of total sulphur containing amino acids or the same diet supplemented with either DLM or MHA in amounts to supply 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25% of methionine equivalents. Ducks fed the control diet without methionine supplement had the lowest final body weights, daily body weight gains and feed intake among all groups. Supplementation of methionine improved final body weights and daily body weight gains in a dose dependent-manner. There was, however, no significant effect of the source of methionine on all of the performance responses. Evaluation of the data of daily body weight gains with an exponential model of regression revealed a nearly identical efficacy (slope of the curves) of both compounds for growth (DLM = 100%, MHA = 101%). According to the exponential model of regression, 95% of the maximum values of daily body weight gain were reached at methionine supplementary levels of 0.080% and 0.079% for DLM and MHA, respectively. Overall, the present study indicates that MHA and DLM have a similar efficacy as sources of methionine for growing ducks. It is moreover shown that dietary methionine concentrations of 0.37% are required to reach 95% of the maximum of daily body weight gains in ducks during the first 3 wk of life.

  17. Propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations in newborns with hypospadias

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil K. Hozyasz; Ewa Sawicka; Anna Bauer; Mariusz Ołtarzewski; Dariusz Mydlak; Andrzej Kowal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Of interest is if factors like maternal diet can influence the risk of hypospadias–affected pregnancy. Increased propionylcarnitine (C3) is regarded as a biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency. The retrospective study was undertaken to determine whether increased propionylcarnitine and low methionine in newborns are associated with hypospadias.Material and methods. 41 newborns with hypospadias and 90 control newborns without congenital anomalies were investigated. Whole blood propi...

  18. Chemical modification of methionines in a cobra venom cytotoxin differentiates between lytic and binding domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Truss, R; Hinman, C L

    1996-08-01

    Cytotoxin-III from Naja naja atra (CTX) was chemically modified at either or both of its two methionine residues: Over 50% oxidation of methionine-26 occurred with a 1:1 molar ratio of chloramine-T:methionine; at a 5:1 molar ratio, methionine-26 was almost completely oxidized, while methionine-24 was modified only 26%; at a 10:1 molar ratio, both methionines were completely oxidized. Each oxidized derivative demonstrated a lower toxicity toward T-cells than toward heart cells. Conversely, binding to heart cells was affected more than binding to T-cells. Cyanogen bromide cleaved native CTX at both methionines, excising phenyl-alanine-25 and methionine-26 and converting methionine-24 to homoserine lactone. This treatment of CTX eliminated cytotoxicity toward both heart and T-cells, but had only a modest effect upon T-cell binding, as had 50% oxidation of methionine-26, suggesting that CTX lytic and binding regions may be distinct. A selective loss in heart cell binding following oxidation of methionine-24 further suggests that different parts of CTX may interact with the two types of target cells. Perturbation of the relatively flat hydrophobic surface of the CTX' triple-stranded beta-sheet could result from the introduction of negative charge due to methionine-24 oxidation. Alternatively, amino acid side chain participation in a CTX binding domain may be altered by the potential formation of a new hydrogen bond between tyrosine-51 and methionine-24 sulfoxide, as revealed by computer modeling of the completely oxidized CTX derivative.

  19. Comparative genomics of transcriptional regulation of methionine metabolism in Proteobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen A Leyn

    Full Text Available Methionine metabolism and uptake genes in Proteobacteria are controlled by a variety of RNA and DNA regulatory systems. We have applied comparative genomics to reconstruct regulons for three known transcription factors, MetJ, MetR, and SahR, and three known riboswitch motifs, SAH, SAM-SAH, and SAM_alpha, in ∼ 200 genomes from 22 taxonomic groups of Proteobacteria. We also identified two novel regulons: a SahR-like transcription factor SamR controlling various methionine biosynthesis genes in the Xanthomonadales group, and a potential RNA regulatory element with terminator-antiterminator mechanism controlling the metX or metZ genes in beta-proteobacteria. For each analyzed regulator we identified the core, taxon-specific and genome-specific regulon members. By analyzing the distribution of these regulators in bacterial genomes and by comparing their regulon contents we elucidated possible evolutionary scenarios for the regulation of the methionine metabolism genes in Proteobacteria.

  20. Synthesis of specific SPECT-radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging based on methionine: 99mTc-DTPA-bis(methionine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Puja Panwar; Shukla, Gauri; Goel, Vijay; Chuttani, Krishna; Kumar, Nitin; Sharma, Rajnish; Mishra, Anil Kumar

    2010-02-17

    Methionine-diethylenetriaminepentaaceticacid-methionine [DTPA-bis(Met)] was synthesized by covalently conjugating two molecules of methionine (Met) to DTPA and was labeled with (99m)Tc in high radiochemical purity and specific activity (166-296 MBq/micromol). Kinetic analysis showed K(m) of 12.95 +/- 3.8 nM and a maximal transport rate velocity (V(max)) of 80.35 +/- 0.42 pmol microg protein(-1) min(-1) of (99m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Met) in U-87MG cells. DTPA-bis(Met) had dissociation constants (K(d)) of 0.067 and 0.077 nM in U-87MG and BMG, respectively. (35)S-methionine efflux was trans-stimulated by (99m)Tc-labeled DTPA conjugate demonstrating concentrative transport. The blood kinetic studies showed fast clearance with t(1/2) (F) = 36 +/- 0.5 min and t(1/2) (S) = 5 h 55 min +/- 0.85 min. U-87MG and BMG tumors saturated at approximately 2000 +/- 280 nmol/kg of (99m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Met). Initial rate of transport of (99m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Met) in U-87MG tumor was found to be 4.68 x 10(-4) micromol/kg/min. The tumor (BMG cell line, malignant glioma) grafted in athymic mice were readily identifiable in the gamma images. Semiquantitative analysis from region of interest (ROI) placed over areas counting average counts per pixel with maximum radiotracer uptake on the tumor was found to be 11.05 +/- 3.99 and compared ROI with muscle (0.55 +/- 0.13). The tumor-to-contralateral muscle tissue ratio of (99m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Met) was found to be 23 +/- 3.3. Biodistribution revealed significant tumor uptake and good contrast in the U-87MG, BMG, and EAT tumor-bearing mice. In clinical trials, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were found to be 87.8%, 92.8%, and 96.6%, respectively. (99m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Met) showed excellent tumor targeting and has promising utility as a SPECT-radiopharmaceutical for imaging methionine-dependent human tumors and to quantify the ratio of MET(+)/HCY(-).

  1. Methionine Metabolism Alters Oxidative Stress Resistance via the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate; Vowinckel, Jakob; Keller, Markus A; Ralser, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient uptake and metabolism have a significant impact on the way cells respond to stress. The amino acid methionine is, in particular, a key player in the oxidative stress response, and acting as a reactive oxygen species scavenger, methionine is implicated in caloric restriction phenotypes and aging. We here provide evidence that some effects of methionine in stress situations are indirect and caused by altered activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) producing oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both methionine prototrophic (MET15) and auxotrophic (met15Δ) cells supplemented with methionine showed an increase in PPP metabolite concentrations downstream of the NADPH producing enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Proteomics revealed this enzyme to also increase in expression compared to methionine self-synthesizing cells. Oxidant tolerance was increased in cells preincubated with methionine; however, this effect was abolished when flux through the oxidative PPP was prevented by deletion of its rate limiting enzyme, ZWF1. Stress resistance phenotypes that follow methionine supplementation hence involve the oxidative PPP. Effects of methionine on oxidative metabolism, stress signaling, and aging have thus to be seen in the context of an altered activity of this NADP reducing pathway.

  2. Response of growing goslings to dietary supplementation with methionine and betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Zhao, F Z; Kong, L L

    2016-12-01

    An experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design with two concentrations of dietary betaine (0 and 600 mg/kg) and three dietary concentrations of methionine (0, 600 and 1200 mg/kg) was conducted using goslings to estimate growth, nutrient utilisation and digestibility of amino acids from 21 to 70 d of age. Three hundred geese were randomised at 18 d of age into 6 groups with 5 replicates per treatment and 10 geese per replicate. Increasing dietary concentrations of methionine gave a linear increase in body weight and average daily gain. The coefficient of crude fat retention increased as dietary methionine increased and there was a significant non-linear response to increasing dietary methionine. Similarly, increasing supplemental methionine gave linear increases in the digestibility of methionine and cysteine. The results of this study indicated that optimal dietary supplementation of methionine could increase growth performance and methionine and cysteine utilisation in growing goslings. Betaine supplementation had no apparent sparing effect on methionine needs for growth performance, but did improve the apparent cysteine digestibility.

  3. Methionine oxidation contributes to bacterial killing by the myeloperoxidase system of neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Henry; Klebanoff, Seymour J; Wang, Yi; Brot, Nathan; Heinecke, Jay W; Fu, Xiaoyun

    2009-11-03

    Reactive oxygen intermediates generated by neutrophils kill bacteria and are implicated in inflammatory tissue injury, but precise molecular targets are undefined. We demonstrate that neutrophils use myeloperoxidase (MPO) to convert methionine residues of ingested Escherichia coli to methionine sulfoxide in high yield. Neutrophils deficient in individual components of the MPO system (MPO, H(2)O(2), chloride) exhibited impaired bactericidal activity and impaired capacity to oxidize methionine. HOCl, the principal physiologic product of the MPO system, is a highly efficient oxidant for methionine, and its microbicidal effects were found to correspond linearly with oxidation of methionine residues in bacterial cytosolic and inner membrane proteins. In contrast, outer envelope proteins were initially oxidized without associated microbicidal effect. Disruption of bacterial methionine sulfoxide repair systems rendered E. coli more susceptible to killing by HOCl, whereas over-expression of a repair enzyme, methionine sulfoxide reductase A, rendered them resistant, suggesting a direct role for methionine oxidation in bactericidal activity. Prominent among oxidized bacterial proteins were those engaged in synthesis and translocation of peptides to the cell envelope, an essential physiological function. Moreover, HOCl impaired protein translocation early in the course of bacterial killing. Together, our findings indicate that MPO-mediated methionine oxidation contributes to bacterial killing by neutrophils. The findings further suggest that protein translocation to the cell envelope is one important pathway targeted for damage.

  4. Oxidation of methionine residues in polypeptide ions via gas-phase ion/ion chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, Alice L; McLuckey, Scott A

    2014-06-01

    The gas-phase oxidation of methionine residues is demonstrated here using ion/ion reactions with periodate anions. Periodate anions are observed to attach in varying degrees to all polypeptide ions irrespective of amino acid composition. Direct proton transfer yielding a charge-reduced peptide ion is also observed. In the case of methionine and, to a much lesser degree, tryptophan-containing peptide ions, collisional activation of the complex ion generated by periodate attachment yields an oxidized peptide product (i.e., [M + H + O](+)), in addition to periodic acid detachment. Detachment of periodic acid takes place exclusively for peptides that do not contain either a methionine or tryptophan side chain. In the case of methionine-containing peptides, the [M + H + O](+) product is observed at a much greater abundance than the proton transfer product (viz., [M + H](+)). Collisional activation of oxidized Met-containing peptides yields a signature loss of 64 Da from the precursor and/or product ions. This unique loss corresponds to the ejection of methanesulfenic acid from the oxidized methionine side chain and is commonly used in solution-phase proteomics studies to determine the presence of oxidized methionine residues. The present work shows that periodate anions can be used to 'label' methionine residues in polypeptides in the gas phase. The selectivity of the periodate anion for the methionine side chain suggests several applications including identification and location of methionine residues in sequencing applications.

  5. Influence of protein level and supplemental methionine in practical rations for young endangered masked bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the protein requirement of young endangered masked Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Five practical starting rations containing 24 to 32% protein were fed alone and supplemented with methionine for 5 weeks. Supplemental methionine significantly improved growth of quail fed diets containing 24 and 26% protein. Increasing the protein level improved growth of quail fed unsupplemented diets but did not do so when diets contained supplemental methionine. A methionine-supplemented ration containing 24% protein appeared adequate for supporting rapid growth of masked Bobwhite quail.

  6. Ectopic expression of GsPPCK3 and SCMRP in Medicago sativa enhances plant alkaline stress tolerance and methionine content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhe Sun

    Full Text Available So far, it has been suggested that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs and PEPC kinases (PPCKs fulfill several important non-photosynthetic functions. However, the biological functions of soybean PPCKs, especially in alkali stress response, are not yet well known. In previous studies, we constructed a Glycine soja transcriptional profile, and identified three PPCK genes (GsPPCK1, GsPPCK2 and GsPPCK3 as potential alkali stress responsive genes. In this study, we confirmed the induced expression of GsPPCK3 under alkali stress and investigated its tissue expression specificity by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then we ectopically expressed GsPPCK3 in Medicago sativa and found that GsPPCK3 overexpression improved plant alkali tolerance, as evidenced by lower levels of relative ion leakage and MDA content and higher levels of chlorophyll content and root activity. In this respect, we further co-transformed the GsPPCK3 and SCMRP genes into alfalfa, and demonstrated the increased alkali tolerance of GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines. Further investigation revealed that GsPPCK3-SCMRP co-overexpression promoted the PEPC activity, net photosynthetic rate and citric acid content of transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. Moreover, we also observed the up-regulated expression of PEPC, CS (citrate synthase, H(+-ATPase and NADP-ME genes in GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. As expected, we demonstrated that GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines displayed higher methionine content than wild type alfalfa. Taken together, results presented in this study supported the positive role of GsPPCK3 in plant response to alkali stress, and provided an effective way to simultaneously improve plant alkaline tolerance and methionine content, at least in legume crops.

  7. Ectopic expression of GsPPCK3 and SCMRP in Medicago sativa enhances plant alkaline stress tolerance and methionine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhe; Sun, Xiaoli; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Chaoyue; Duanmu, Huizi; Yu, Yang; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    So far, it has been suggested that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) and PEPC kinases (PPCKs) fulfill several important non-photosynthetic functions. However, the biological functions of soybean PPCKs, especially in alkali stress response, are not yet well known. In previous studies, we constructed a Glycine soja transcriptional profile, and identified three PPCK genes (GsPPCK1, GsPPCK2 and GsPPCK3) as potential alkali stress responsive genes. In this study, we confirmed the induced expression of GsPPCK3 under alkali stress and investigated its tissue expression specificity by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then we ectopically expressed GsPPCK3 in Medicago sativa and found that GsPPCK3 overexpression improved plant alkali tolerance, as evidenced by lower levels of relative ion leakage and MDA content and higher levels of chlorophyll content and root activity. In this respect, we further co-transformed the GsPPCK3 and SCMRP genes into alfalfa, and demonstrated the increased alkali tolerance of GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines. Further investigation revealed that GsPPCK3-SCMRP co-overexpression promoted the PEPC activity, net photosynthetic rate and citric acid content of transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. Moreover, we also observed the up-regulated expression of PEPC, CS (citrate synthase), H(+)-ATPase and NADP-ME genes in GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. As expected, we demonstrated that GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines displayed higher methionine content than wild type alfalfa. Taken together, results presented in this study supported the positive role of GsPPCK3 in plant response to alkali stress, and provided an effective way to simultaneously improve plant alkaline tolerance and methionine content, at least in legume crops.

  8. Properties of phosphorylated thymidylate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frączyk, Tomasz; Ruman, Tomasz; Wilk, Piotr;

    2015-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat, Trichin......Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat...

  9. Biphenyl synthase, a novel type III polyketide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Raeth, T; Beuerle, T; Beerhues, L

    2007-05-01

    Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Maloideae, a subfamily of the economically important Rosaceae. The carbon skeleton of the two classes of antimicrobial secondary metabolites is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS). A cDNA encoding this key enzyme was cloned from yeast-extract-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia. BIS is a novel type III polyketide synthase (PKS) that shares about 60% amino acid sequence identity with other members of the enzyme superfamily. Its preferred starter substrate is benzoyl-CoA that undergoes iterative condensation with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to give 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl via intramolecular aldol condensation. BIS did not accept CoA-linked cinnamic acids such as 4-coumaroyl-CoA. This substrate, however, was the preferential starter molecule for chalcone synthase (CHS) that was also cloned from S. aucuparia cell cultures. While BIS expression was rapidly, strongly and transiently induced by yeast extract treatment, CHS expression was not. In a phylogenetic tree, BIS grouped together closely with benzophenone synthase (BPS) that also uses benzoyl-CoA as starter molecule but cyclizes the common intermediate via intramolecular Claisen condensation. The molecular characterization of BIS thus contributes to the understanding of the functional diversity and evolution of type III PKSs.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: GM3 synthase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions GM3 synthase deficiency GM3 synthase ...

  11. Small-molecule inhibitor binding to an N-acyl-homoserine lactone synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jiwoung; Goo, Eunhye; Yu, Sangheon; Choi, Okhee; Lee, Jeehyun; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Hongsup; Igarashi, Jun; Suga, Hiroaki; Moon, Jae Sun; Hwang, Ingyu; Rhee, Sangkee

    2011-07-19

    Quorum sensing (QS) controls certain behaviors of bacteria in response to population density. In gram-negative bacteria, QS is often mediated by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs). Because QS influences the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria, synthetic inhibitors of acyl-HSL synthases might be useful therapeutically for controlling pathogens. However, rational design of a potent QS antagonist has been thwarted by the lack of information concerning the binding interactions between acyl-HSL synthases and their ligands. In the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia glumae, QS controls virulence, motility, and protein secretion and is mediated by the binding of N-octanoyl-L-HSL (C8-HSL) to its cognate receptor, TofR. C8-HSL is synthesized by the acyl-HSL synthase TofI. In this study, we characterized two previously unknown QS inhibitors identified in a focused library of acyl-HSL analogs. Our functional and X-ray crystal structure analyses show that the first inhibitor, J8-C8, binds to TofI, occupying the binding site for the acyl chain of the TofI cognate substrate, acylated acyl-carrier protein. Moreover, the reaction byproduct, 5'-methylthioadenosine, independently binds to the binding site for a second substrate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Closer inspection of the mode of J8-C8 binding to TofI provides a likely molecular basis for the various substrate specificities of acyl-HSL synthases. The second inhibitor, E9C-3oxoC6, competitively inhibits C8-HSL binding to TofR. Our analysis of the binding of an inhibitor and a reaction byproduct to an acyl-HSL synthase may facilitate the design of a new class of QS-inhibiting therapeutic agents.

  12. Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Dominik A; Jakob, Roman P; Zähringer, Franziska; Maier, Timm

    2016-03-24

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetic factories that produce natural products with important biological and pharmacological activities. Their exceptional product diversity is encoded in a modular architecture. Modular PKSs (modPKSs) catalyse reactions colinear to the order of modules in an assembly line, whereas iterative PKSs (iPKSs) use a single module iteratively as exemplified by fungal iPKSs (fiPKSs). However, in some cases non-colinear iterative action is also observed for modPKSs modules and is controlled by the assembly line environment. PKSs feature a structural and functional separation into a condensing and a modifying region as observed for fatty acid synthases. Despite the outstanding relevance of PKSs, the detailed organization of PKSs with complete fully reducing modifying regions remains elusive. Here we report a hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase based on structures of its condensing and modifying regions. Mycocerosic acid synthase is a fully reducing iPKS, closely related to modPKSs, and the prototype of mycobacterial mycocerosic acid synthase-like PKSs. It is involved in the biosynthesis of C20-C28 branched-chain fatty acids, which are important virulence factors of mycobacteria. Our structural data reveal a dimeric linker-based organization of the modifying region and visualize dynamics and conformational coupling in PKSs. On the basis of comparative small-angle X-ray scattering, the observed modifying region architecture may be common also in modPKSs. The linker-based organization provides a rationale for the characteristic variability of PKS modules as a main contributor to product diversity. The comprehensive architectural model enables functional dissection and re-engineering of PKSs.

  13. Refolding and characterization of methionine adenosyltransferase from Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Francisco; Estrela, Sylvie; Alves, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Gabino F; Sillero, Antonio; Pajares, María A

    2011-09-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase from Euglena gracilis (MATX) is a recently discovered member of the MAT family of proteins that synthesize S-adenosylmethionine. Heterologous overexpression of MATX in Escherichia coli rendered the protein mostly in inclusion bodies under all conditions tested. Therefore, a refolding and purification procedure from these aggregates was developed to characterize the enzyme. Maximal recovery was obtained using inclusion bodies devoid of extraneous proteins by washing under mild urea (2M) and detergent (5%) concentrations. Refolding was achieved in two steps following solubilization in the presence of Mg(2+); chaotrope dilution to <1M and dialysis under reducing conditions. Purified MATX is a homodimer that exhibits Michaelis kinetics with a V(max) of 1.46 μmol/min/mg and K(m) values of approximately 85 and 260 μM for methionine and ATP, respectively. The activity is dependent on Mg(2+) and K(+) ions, but is not stimulated by dimethylsulfoxide. MATX exhibits tripolyphosphatase activity that is stimulated in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine. Far-UV circular dichroism revealed β-sheet and random coil as the main secondary structure elements of the protein. The high level of sequence conservation allowed construction of a structural model that preserved the main features of the MAT family, the major changes involving the N-terminal domain.

  14. Interactive effects of selenium, methionine, and dietary protein on survival, growth, and physiology in mallard ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Cromartie, E.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of over 100 ppm (100 mg/kg) selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater. Both quantity and composition of dietary protein for wild ducklings may vary in selenium-contaminated environments. Day-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings received one of the following diets containing 22% protein: unsupplemented (controls), 15 ppm Se (as selenomethionine), 60 ppm Se, methionine supplemented, 15 ppm Se with methionine supplement, or 60 ppm Se with methionine supplement. In a second concurrent experiment the above sequence was repeated with a protein-restricted (11%) but isocaloric diet. In a third concurrent experiment all ducklings received 44% protein with 0, 15, or 60 ppm Se added. After 4 weeks, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological examination. With 22% protein and 60 ppm Se in the diet, duckling survival and growth was reduced and histopathological lesions of the liver occurred. Antagonistic interactive effects occurred between supplementary methionine and Se, including complete to partial alleviation of the following Se effects by methionine: mortality, hepatic lesions, and altered glutathione and thiol status. With 11% protein, growth of controls was less than that with 22% protein, Se (60 ppm) caused 100% mortality, and methionine supplementation, although protective afforded less protection than it did with 22% protein. With 44% protein, ducklings experienced physiological stress, and Se was more toxic than with methionine-supplemented 22% protein. These findings suggest the potential for antagonistic effects of Se, methionine, and protein on duckling survival and physiology.

  15. Methionine residues around phosphorylation sites are preferentially oxidized in vivo under stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veredas, Francisco J.; Cantón, Francisco R.; Aledo, J. Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most prevalent and well-understood protein modifications. Oxidation of protein-bound methionine, which has been traditionally perceived as an inevitable damage derived from oxidative stress, is now emerging as another modification capable of regulating protein activity during stress conditions. However, the mechanism coupling oxidative signals to changes in protein function remains unknown. An appealing hypothesis is that methionine oxidation might serve as a rheostat to control phosphorylation. To investigate this potential crosstalk between phosphorylation and methionine oxidation, we have addressed the co-occurrence of these two types of modifications within the human proteome. Here, we show that nearly all (98%) proteins containing oxidized methionine were also phosphoproteins. Furthermore, phosphorylation sites were much closer to oxidized methionines when compared to non-oxidized methionines. This proximity between modification sites cannot be accounted for by their co-localization within unstructured clusters because it was faithfully reproduced in a smaller sample of structured proteins. We also provide evidence that the oxidation of methionine located within phosphorylation motifs is a highly selective process among stress-related proteins, which supports the hypothesis of crosstalk between methionine oxidation and phosphorylation as part of the cellular defence against oxidative stress. PMID:28079140

  16. Comparison of the sustainability metrics of the petrochemical and biomass-based routes to methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Sheldon, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability metrics, based on material efficiency, energy input, land use and costs, of three processesfor the manufacture of methionine are compared. The petrochemical process affords dl-methionine whilethe two biomass-based routes afford the l-enantiomer. From the point of view of the major

  17. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Larsen, Bodil Katrine;

    2016-01-01

    . The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine...... significantly affected by the increase in dietary methionine. Changes in gene expression reflected to some extent the decrease in ammonia excretion (P=0.022) and in the hepatosomatic index (HSI; P...

  18. Metabolic changes associated with methionine stress sensitivity in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Stacey L; Fahrmann, Johannes; Datta, Rupsa; Stringari, Chiara; Grapov, Dmitry; Zeller, Michael; Chen, Yumay; Wang, Ping; Baldi, Pierre; Gratton, Enrico; Fiehn, Oliver; Kaiser, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The majority of cancer cells have a unique metabolic requirement for methionine that is not observed in normal, non-tumorigenic cells. This phenotype is described as "methionine dependence" or "methionine stress sensitivity" in which cancer cells are unable to proliferate when methionine has been replaced with its metabolic precursor, homocysteine, in cell culture growth media. We focus on the metabolic response to methionine stress in the triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 and its methionine insensitive derivative cell line MDA-MB-468res-R8. Using a variety of techniques including fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and extracellular flux assays, we identified a metabolic down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in both MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-468res-R8 cell types when cultured in homocysteine media. Untargeted metabolomics was performed by way of gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry on both cell types cultured in homocysteine media over a period of 2 to 24 h. We determined unique metabolic responses between the two cell lines in specific pathways including methionine salvage, purine/pyrimidine synthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Stable isotope tracer studies using deuterium-labeled homocysteine indicated a redirection of homocysteine metabolism toward the transsulfuration pathway and glutathione synthesis. This data corroborates with increased glutathione levels concomitant with increased levels of oxidized glutathione. Redirection of homocysteine flux resulted in reduced generation of methionine from homocysteine particularly in MDA-MB-468 cells. Consequently, synthesis of the important one-carbon donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was decreased, perturbing the SAM to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio in MDA-MB-468 cells, which is an indicator of the cellular methylation potential. This study indicates a differential metabolic response between the methionine sensitive MDA-MB-468 cells and the methionine insensitive

  19. Thioredoxin-dependent Redox Regulation of Cellular Signaling and Stress Response through Reversible Oxidation of Methionines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2011-06-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common feature of many forms of stress to which plants are exposed. Successful adaptation to changing environmental conditions requires sensitive sensors of ROS such as protein-bound methionines that are converted to their corresponding methionine sulfoxides, which in turn can influence cellular signaling pathways. Such a signaling protein is calmodulin, which represents an early and central point in calcium signaling pathways important to stress response in plants. We describe recent work elucidating fundamental mechanisms of reversible methionine oxidation within calmodulin, including the sensitivity of individual methionines within plant and animal calmodulin to ROS, the structural and functional consequences of their oxidation, and the interactions of oxidized calmodulin with methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymes.

  20. Synthesis of Dl-methionine carboxyl {sup 14}C and its enzymatic optical resolution into L-methionine carboxyl {sup 14}C; Synthese de la DL-methionine carboxyle {sup 14}C et sa resolution enzymatique en L-methionine carboxyle {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermont, J.P.; Sharefkin, D.; Pichat, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    DL-methionine carboxyl {sup 14}C has been prepared by Strecker reaction from {sup 14}C N K and {beta}-methylmercapto-propionaldehyde with 61 per cent yield. The enzymatic resolution of N-acetyl DL-methionine gives rise to L-methionine carboxyl {sup 14}C with 78 per cent yield. (authors) [French] La DL-methionine carboxyle {sup 14}C a ete preparee par reaction de Strecker a partir de {sup 14}C N K et du {beta}-methylmercapto propionaldehyde avec un rendement de 61 pour cent. Par resolution enzymatique de l'acetyl-DL-methionine, la L-methonine carboxyde {sup 14}C a ete obtenue avec un rendement de 78 pour cent.

  1. Methionine deficiency reduces autophagy and accelerates death in intestinal epithelial cells infected with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yulong; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Li, Fengna; Ren, Wenkai; Kong, Xiangfeng; Qiu, Wei; Hardwidge, Philip R; Yin, Yulong

    2015-10-01

    Infections by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) result in large economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Dietary supplementation with amino acids has been considered as a potential mechanism to improve host defenses against infection. The goal of this study was to determine whether methionine deprivation alters ETEC interactions with porcine intestinal epithelial cells. IPEC-1 cells were cultured in media with or without L-methionine. Methionine deprivation resulted in enhanced ETEC adhesion and increased both the cytotoxicity and apoptotic responses of IPEC-1 cells infected with ETEC. Methionine deprivation inhibited IPEC-1 cell autophagic responses, suggesting that the increased cytotoxicity of ETEC to methionine-deprived IPEC-1 cells might be due to defects in autophagy.

  2. Methionine uptake in Corynebacterium glutamicum by MetQNI and by MetPS, a novel methionine and alanine importer of the NSS neurotransmitter transporter family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trötschel, Christian; Follmann, Martin; Nettekoven, Jeannine A; Mohrbach, Tobias; Forrest, Lucy R; Burkovski, Andreas; Marin, Kay; Krämer, Reinhard

    2008-12-02

    The soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is a model organism in amino acid biotechnology. Here we present the identification of two different L-methionine uptake systems including the first characterization of a bacterial secondary methionine carrier. The primary carrier MetQNI is a high affinity ABC-type transporter specific for l-methionine. Its expression is under the control of the transcription factor McbR, the global regulator of sulfur metabolism in C. glutamicum. Besides MetQNI, a novel secondary methionine uptake system of the NSS (neurotransmitter:sodium symporter) family was identified and named MetP. The MetP system is characterized by a lower affinity for methionine and uses Na(+) ions for energetic coupling. It is also the main alanine transporter in C. glutamicum and is expressed constitutively. These observations are consistent with models of methionine, alanine, and leucine bound to MetP, derived from the X-ray crystal structure of the LeuT transporter from Aquifex aeolicus. Complementation studies show that MetP consists of two components, a large subunit with 12 predicted transmembrane segments and, surprisingly, an additional subunit with one predicted transmembrane segment only. Thus, this new member of the NSS transporter family adds a novel feature to this class of carriers, namely, the functional dependence on an additional small subunit.

  3. The role of hypusine depletion in cytostasis induced by S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase inhibition: new evidence provided by 1-methylspermidine and 1,12-dimethylspermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, T L; Lakanen, J R; Coward, J K; Pegg, A E

    1994-10-15

    The abilities of the natural polyamines, spermidine and spermine, and of the synthetic analogues, 1-methylspermidine and 1,12-dimethylspermine, to reverse the effects of the S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase inhibitor 5'-([(Z)-4-aminobut-2-enyl]methylamino)-5'-deoxyadenosine (AbeAdo) on L1210-cell growth were studied. L1210 cells were exposed to AbeAdo for 12 days to induce cytostasis and then exposed to spermidine, spermine, 1-methylspermidine or 1,12-dimethylspermine in the continued presence of AbeAdo. AbeAdo-induced cytostasis was overcome by the natural polyamines, spermidine and spermine. The cytostasis was also reversed by 1-methylspermidine. 1,12-Dimethylspermine had no effect on the AbeAdo-induced cytostasis of chronically treated cells, although it was active in permitting growth of cells treated with the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, alpha-difluoromethylornithine. The initial 12-day exposure to AbeAdo elevated intracellular putrescine levels, depleted intracellular spermidine and spermine, and resulted in the accumulation of unmodified eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A). Exposure of these cells to exogenous spermidine, which is the natural substrate for deoxyhypusine synthase, resulted in a decrease in the unmodified eIF-5A content. 1-Methylspermidine, which was found to be a substrate of deoxyhypusine synthase in vitro, also decreased the levels of unmodified eIF-5A in the AbeAdo-treated cells. Although spermine is not a substrate of deoxyhypusine synthase, spermine was converted into spermidine in the L1210 cells, and spermine addition to AbeAdo-treated cells resulted in the appearance of both intracellular spermine and spermidine and in the decrease in unmodified eIF-5A. Exogenous 1,12-dimethylspermine, which was not metabolized to spermine or to 1-methylspermidine and was not a substrate of deoxyhypusine synthase in vitro, did not decrease levels of unmodified eIF-5A. The finding that AbeAdo-induced cytostasis was only

  4. The role of methionine in the intracellular accumulation and function of folates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.M.; McKenna, B.; McGing, P.; Molloy, A.; Dinn, J.; Weir, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that mammalian cells have evolved to respond to methionine deficiency since in such circumstances vital methylation reactions are put at risk, due to decreased levels of S-adenosyl-methionine. Decreased cellular homocysteine, as a result of decreased methionine, would also restrict cell division by decreased conversion of plasma 5-CH3-H/sub 4/PteGlu into intracellular polyglutamates. Cobalamin deficiency, either nutritional or due to exposure to the Co(I)cobalamin inactivating agent nitrous oxide, prevents the demethylation of 5-CH3-H/sub 4/PteGlu, which even in the presence of adequate amounts of homocysteine and methionine prevents rapidly proliferating cells from converting enough of the plasma 5-CH3-H/sub 4/ PteGlu into folylpolyglutamate forms to permit normal DNA biosynthesis and cell replication. This, together with the trapping of the cellular folate cofactors in the 5-CH3-H/sub 4/PteGlu form, results in megaloblastic changes occurring in tissues such as the marrow. The vital role of the methylation reactions was demonstrated by exposing monkeys to nitrous oxide which inactivated their methionine synthetase. The resultant ataxia and severe demyelination was prevented and diminished by methionine supplementation. When methionine synthetase was similarly inactivated in mice it was shown that while 5-CH3-H/sub 4/PteGlu enters mammalian cells, it is not converted into a polyglutamyl form and subsequently leaves the cell unmetabolised. In similar experiments in rats methionine was found to have only a small effect in restoring folylpolyglutamate biosynthesis. It was found that a decrease in the deoxythymidine salvage pathway by methionine has led others to the mistaken conclusion that methionine has an 'anti-folate' effect in bone marrow, i.e. that it decreases folate availability for thymidylate synthetase.

  5. Selenium-methionine and chromium-methionine supplementation of sheep around parturition: impacts on dam and offspring performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousaie, Amir; Valizadeh, Reza; Chamsaz, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effects of maternal energy restriction along with selenium-methionine (Se-Met) and chromium-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation on performance of pregnant sheep and their offspring, the following treatments were allotted randomly to 40 multiparous Baluchi ewes (53.9 ± 1.15 kg of body weight [BW]) from 5 weeks prior to 5 weeks after parturition: (1) Control diet (60% and 100% of NRC energy requirements in pre- and post-partum, respectively); (2) Control diet plus 5 mg Se-Met/kg dry matter (DM); (3) Control diet plus 3 mg Cr-Met/kg DM and (4) Control diet plus 5 mg Se-Met and 3 mg Cr-Met/kg DM (Se-Cr-Met) of concentrate diet. The results indicated that Cr-Met alone or in combination with Se-Met increased average DM intake of ewes. In addition, Group Cr-Met had higher average BW than the Control (p milk was significantly increased from 30 to 138 µg/l and 197 µg/l in Groups Se-Met and Se-Cr-Met, respectively (p milk. Furthermore, feeding Cr-Met may attenuate BW loss post-partum and Se-Met and/or Cr-Met supplements may ameliorate oxidative stress condition in ewes around parturition.

  6. Sphingomyelin synthase SMS2 displays dual activity as ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, Philipp; Brouwers, Jos F. H. M.; van den Dikkenberg, Joep; Holthuis, Joost C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Sphingolipids are vital components of eukaryotic membranes involved in the regulation of cell growth, death, intracellular trafficking, and the barrier function of the plasma membrane (PM). While sphingomyelin (SM) is the major sphingolipid in mammals, previous studies indicate that mammalian cells also produce the SM analog ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE). Little is known about the biological role of CPE or the enzyme(s) responsible for CPE biosynthesis. SM production is mediated by the SM synthases SMS1 in the Golgi and SMS2 at the PM, while a closely related enzyme, SMSr, has an unknown biochemical function. We now demonstrate that SMS family members display striking differences in substrate specificity, with SMS1 and SMSr being monofunctional enzymes with SM and CPE synthase activity, respectively, and SMS2 acting as a bifunctional enzyme with both SM and CPE synthase activity. In agreement with the PM residency of SMS2, we show that both SM and CPE synthase activities are enhanced at the surface of SMS2-overexpressing HeLa cells. Our findings reveal an unexpected diversity in substrate specificity among SMS family members that should enable the design of specific inhibitors to target the biological role of each enzyme individually. PMID:19454763

  7. Polymorphisms in MTHFR, MS and CBS genes and homocysteine levels in a Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakub, Mohsin; Moti, Naushad; Parveen, Siddiqa; Chaudhry, Bushra; Azam, Iqbal; Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 µmol/L) is highly prevalent in South Asian populations including Pakistan. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of this condition, we studied 6 polymorphisms in genes of 3 enzymes--methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; C677T; A1298C), methionine synthase (MS; A2756G), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS; T833C/844ins68, G919A) involved in homocysteine metabolism and investigated their interactions with nutritional and environmental factors in a Pakistani population. In a cross-sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males and 517 females; age 18-60 years) were recruited from a low-income urban population in Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for plasma/serum homocysteine; folate, vitamin B12, pyridoxal phosphate and blood lead. DNA was isolated and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP (restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism) based assays. The average changes in homocysteine levels for MTHFR 677CT and TT genotypes were positive [β(SE β), 2.01(0.63) and 16.19(1.8) µmol/L, respectively]. Contrary to MTHFR C677T polymorphism, the average changes in plasma homocysteine levels for MS 2756AG and GG variants were negative [β(SE β), -0.56(0.58) and -0.83(0.99) µmol/L, respectively]. The average change occurring for CBS 844ins68 heterozygous genotype (ancestral/insertion) was -1.88(0.81) µmol/L. The combined effect of MTHFR C677T, MS A2756G and CBS 844ins68 genotypes for plasma homocysteine levels was additive (p value CBS 844ins68 compared to homozygous ancestral type [OR (95% CI); 0.58 (0.34-0.99)]. Individuals with MTHFR 677CT or TT genotypes were at a greater risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and high blood lead (p value <0.05) level. Gene polymorphism (especially MTHFR C677T transition), folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies, male gender and high blood lead level appear to be contributing towards the development of hyperhomocysteinemia in a Pakistani population.

  8. Polymorphisms in MTHFR, MS and CBS genes and homocysteine levels in a Pakistani population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Yakub

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 µmol/L is highly prevalent in South Asian populations including Pakistan. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of this condition, we studied 6 polymorphisms in genes of 3 enzymes--methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; C677T; A1298C, methionine synthase (MS; A2756G, cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS; T833C/844ins68, G919A involved in homocysteine metabolism and investigated their interactions with nutritional and environmental factors in a Pakistani population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males and 517 females; age 18-60 years were recruited from a low-income urban population in Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for plasma/serum homocysteine; folate, vitamin B12, pyridoxal phosphate and blood lead. DNA was isolated and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP (restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism based assays. The average changes in homocysteine levels for MTHFR 677CT and TT genotypes were positive [β(SE β, 2.01(0.63 and 16.19(1.8 µmol/L, respectively]. Contrary to MTHFR C677T polymorphism, the average changes in plasma homocysteine levels for MS 2756AG and GG variants were negative [β(SE β, -0.56(0.58 and -0.83(0.99 µmol/L, respectively]. The average change occurring for CBS 844ins68 heterozygous genotype (ancestral/insertion was -1.88(0.81 µmol/L. The combined effect of MTHFR C677T, MS A2756G and CBS 844ins68 genotypes for plasma homocysteine levels was additive (p value <0.001. Odds of having hyperhomocysteinemia with MTHFR 677TT genotype was 10-fold compared to MTHFR 677CC genotype [OR (95%CI; 10.17(3.6-28.67]. Protective effect towards hyperhomocysteinemia was observed with heterozygous (ancestral/insertion genotype of CBS 844ins68 compared to homozygous ancestral type [OR (95% CI; 0.58 (0.34-0.99]. Individuals with MTHFR 677CT or TT genotypes were at a greater risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in folate and

  9. Quantitative proteomics reveals the mechanism and consequence of gliotoxin-mediated dysregulation of the methionine cycle in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares-Miralles, Lara; Sarikaya-Bayram, Özlem; Smith, Elizabeth B; Dolan, Stephen K; Bayram, Özgür; Jones, Gary W; Doyle, Sean

    2016-01-10

    Gliotoxin (GT) is a redox-active metabolite, produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, which inhibits the growth of other fungi. Here we demonstrate how Aspergillus niger responds to GT exposure. Quantitative proteomics revealed that GT dysregulated the abundance of 378 proteins including those involved in methionine metabolism and induced de novo abundance of two S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases. Increased abundance of enzymes S-adenosylhomocysteinase (p=0.0018) required for homocysteine generation from S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and spermidine synthase (p=0.0068), involved in the recycling of Met, was observed. Analysis of Met-related metabolites revealed significant increases in the levels of Met and adenosine, in correlation with proteomic data. Methyltransferase MT-II is responsible for bisthiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (BmGT) formation, deletion of MT-II abolished BmGT formation and led to increased GT sensitivity in A. niger. Proteomic analysis also revealed that GT exposure also significantly (pniger. Thus, it provides new opportunities to exploit the response of GT-naïve fungi to GT.

  10. Bioavailability of different methionine sources for growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Pagliari Sangali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the bioavailability of DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methyl butanoic acid (DL-HMBA and a polyherbal ingredient (PHI in relation to DL-methionine (DLM on broilers. Nine hundred male broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 strain were fed from 22 to 42 days of age either a basal diet without industrial methionine supplementation or the basal diet supplemented with DL-HMBA at one of three levels (0.143, 0.286 and 0.429% or DLM at one of three levels (0.093, 0.186 and 0.279%, each of which is 65% of the respective DL-HMBA level by weight or PHI at one of the same three levels used for DLM (0.093, 0.186 and 0.279%. The weight gain, feed conversion ratio and relative weights of breast and abdominal fat were improved over that of basal diet-fed broilers by the addition of DL-HMBA and DLM to the diet. A simultaneous exponential regression analysis revealed that the relative bioavailability values for DL-HMBA and PHI were 52% and 5% of that of DLM, respectively, for weight gain, and 57% and 4%, respectively, for feed conversion ratio. Concerning breast meat yield, a simultaneous linear regression analysis (slope ratio showed that the relative bioavailability for DL-HMBA was 65% of that of DLM. Considering all studied parameters together, the relative bioavailability values for DL-HMBA and PHI are 58% and 4.5% of that of DLM on a product basis.

  11. A high-throughput screen for quorum-sensing inhibitors that target acyl-homoserine lactone synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Quin H; Grove, Tyler L; Booker, Squire J; Greenberg, E Peter

    2013-08-20

    Many Proteobacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum sensing to control specific genes. Acyl-HSL synthesis requires unique enzymes that use S-adenosyl methionine as an acyl acceptor and amino acid donor. We developed and executed an enzyme-coupled high-throughput cell-free screen to discover acyl-HSL synthase inhibitors. The three strongest inhibitors were equally active against two different acyl-HSL synthases: Burkholderia mallei BmaI1 and Yersinia pestis YspI. Two of these inhibitors showed activity in whole cells. The most potent compound behaves as a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki of 0.7 µM and showed activity in a cell-based assay. Quorum-sensing signal synthesis inhibitors will be useful in attempts to understand acyl-HSL synthase catalysis and as a tool in studies of quorum-sensing control of gene expression. Because acyl-HSL quorum-sensing controls virulence of some bacterial pathogens, anti-quorum-sensing chemicals have been sought as potential therapeutic agents. Our screen and identification of acyl-HSL synthase inhibitors serve as a basis for efforts to target quorum-sensing signal synthesis as an antivirulence approach.

  12. Stereospecific micellar electrokinetic chromatography assay of methionine sulfoxide reductase activity employing a multiple layer coated capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingfu; El-Mergawy, Rabab G; Heinemann, Stefan H; Schönherr, Roland; Jáč, Pavel; Scriba, Gerhard K E

    2013-09-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the analysis of the l-methionine sulfoxide diastereomers employing a successive multiple ionic-polymer layer coated fused-silica capillary was developed and validated in order to investigate the stereospecificity of methionine sulfoxide reductases. The capillary coating consisted of a first layer of hexadimethrine and a second layer of dextran sulfate providing a stable strong cathodic EOF and consequently highly repeatable analyte migration times. The methionine sulfoxide diastereomers, methionine as product as well as β-alanine as internal standard were derivatized by dabsyl chloride and separated using a 35 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, containing 25 mM SDS as BGE and a separation voltage of 25 kV. The method was validated in the range of 0.15-2.0 mM with respect to linearity and precision. The LODs of the analytes ranged between 0.04 and 0.10 mM. The assay was subsequently applied to determine the stereospecificity of methionine sulfoxide reductases as well as the enzyme kinetics of human methionine sulfoxide reductase A. Monitoring the decrease of the l-methionine-(S)-sulfoxide Km = 411.8 ± 33.8 μM and Vmax = 307.5 ± 10.8 μM/min were determined.

  13. Sulphur Atoms from Methionines Interacting with Aromatic Residues Are Less Prone to Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledo, Juan C.; Cantón, Francisco R.; Veredas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Methionine residues exhibit different degrees of susceptibility to oxidation. Although solvent accessibility is a relevant factor, oxidation at particular sites cannot be unequivocally explained by accessibility alone. To explore other possible structural determinants, we assembled different sets of oxidation-sensitive and oxidation-resistant methionines contained in human proteins. Comparisons of the proteins containing oxidized methionines with all proteins in the human proteome led to the conclusion that the former exhibit a significantly higher mean value of methionine content than the latter. Within a given protein, an examination of the sequence surrounding the non-oxidized methionine revealed a preference for neighbouring tyrosine and tryptophan residues, but not for phenylalanine residues. However, because the interaction between sulphur atoms and aromatic residues has been reported to be important for the stabilization of protein structure, we carried out an analysis of the spatial interatomic distances between methionines and aromatic residues, including phenylalanine. The results of these analyses uncovered a new determinant for methionine oxidation: the S-aromatic motif, which decreases the reactivity of the involved sulphur towards oxidants. PMID:26597773

  14. Growth hormone signaling is necessary for lifespan extension by dietary methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Rakoczy, Sharlene G; Wonderlich, Joseph A; Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Kopchick, John J; Armstrong, Vanessa; Raasakka, Debbie

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone significantly impacts lifespan in mammals. Mouse longevity is extended when growth hormone (GH) signaling is interrupted but markedly shortened with high-plasma hormone levels. Methionine metabolism is enhanced in growth hormone deficiency, for example, in the Ames dwarf, but suppressed in GH transgenic mice. Methionine intake affects also lifespan, and thus, GH mutant mice and respective wild-type littermates were fed 0.16%, 0.43%, or 1.3% methionine to evaluate the interaction between hormone status and methionine. All wild-type and GH transgenic mice lived longer when fed 0.16% methionine but not when fed higher levels. In contrast, animals without growth hormone signaling due to hormone deficiency or resistance did not respond to altered levels of methionine in terms of lifespan, body weight, or food consumption. Taken together, our results suggest that the presence of growth hormone is necessary to sense dietary methionine changes, thus strongly linking growth and lifespan to amino acid availability.

  15. Digestible methionine + cystine requirement for Nile tilapia from 550 to 700 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Michelato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted to determine the dietary digestible methionine + cystine requirement of Nile tilapia (550 to 700 g based on the ideal protein concept. Six hundred fish were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates, with 30 fish per experimental unit. The fish were fed diets containing approximately 262 g of digestible protein/kg, 3,040 kcal of digestible energy/kg and 7.90, 9.40, 10.90, 12.40 or 13.90 g of methionine + cystine/kg. The fish were hand-fed three times a day until apparent satiation for 30 days. No effects of dietary methionine + cystine on feed conversion ratio, daily protein deposition, whole body moisture, fillet moisture, crude protein, ether extract and ash, plasmatic HDL and LDL cholesterol were observed. Dietary methionine resulted in a linear increase in whole body protein and linear reduction in lipid deposition rate, hepatosomatic index, whole body ether extract and ash, plasmatic total cholesterol, plasmatic total lipids and plasmatic triglycerides. According to the Linear Response Plateau, the daily weight gain and fillet yield increased up to a level of 9.00 and 9.90 g methionine + cystine/kg of diet, respectively. The digestible methionine + cystine requirement of Nile tilapia is 9.00 g/kg for weight gain and 9.90 g/kg for fillet yield, corresponding to methionine + cystine:lysine ratios of 0.60 and 0.66, respectively.

  16. Sulfur amino acids and atherosclerosis: a role for excess dietary methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhub, Jacob; Troen, Aron M

    2016-01-01

    The homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis received credence when it was shown that after a methionine load, circulating homocysteine-cysteine concentrations were higher in cardiovascular disease patients than in healthy controls. Subsequent studies showing associations between homocysteine and coronary artery disease, stroke and cognitive impairment, relied on small increases in homocysteine concentration unlike the very high homocysteine seen in the rare genetic disorders that lead to homocystinuria and much higher homocysteine levels. Subsequent studies in cell culture, animals, and humans showed that a variety of cardiovascular adverse effects of "high homocysteine" introduced either as a nonphysiological bolus or as a methionine load led to high homocysteine. We fed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice diets designed to achieve three conditions: (1) high methionine intake with normal blood homocysteine, (2) high methionine intake with B vitamin deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia, and (3) normal methionine intake with both B vitamin deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia. We found that the mice fed methionine-rich diets had significant atheromatous pathology in the aortic arch even with normal plasma homocysteine levels. Mice fed B vitamin-deficient diets developed severe hyperhomocysteinemia but without any increase in vascular pathology. Our findings suggest that even moderate increases in methionine intake are atherogenic in susceptible mice while high plasma homocysteine is not. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Sulphur Atoms from Methionines Interacting with Aromatic Residues Are Less Prone to Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledo, Juan C.; Cantón, Francisco R.; Veredas, Francisco J.

    2015-11-01

    Methionine residues exhibit different degrees of susceptibility to oxidation. Although solvent accessibility is a relevant factor, oxidation at particular sites cannot be unequivocally explained by accessibility alone. To explore other possible structural determinants, we assembled different sets of oxidation-sensitive and oxidation-resistant methionines contained in human proteins. Comparisons of the proteins containing oxidized methionines with all proteins in the human proteome led to the conclusion that the former exhibit a significantly higher mean value of methionine content than the latter. Within a given protein, an examination of the sequence surrounding the non-oxidized methionine revealed a preference for neighbouring tyrosine and tryptophan residues, but not for phenylalanine residues. However, because the interaction between sulphur atoms and aromatic residues has been reported to be important for the stabilization of protein structure, we carried out an analysis of the spatial interatomic distances between methionines and aromatic residues, including phenylalanine. The results of these analyses uncovered a new determinant for methionine oxidation: the S-aromatic motif, which decreases the reactivity of the involved sulphur towards oxidants.

  18. Possible effects of delivering methionine to laying hens in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Cadirci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of water-soluble DL-methionine supplied through water on the performance of laying hens. Two diet formulations were used in both experiments. For diet 1, nutrient specifications were set to meet or exceed requirements, whereas diet 2 was essentially diet 1 without supplemental methionine. Birds were divided into four groups of equal number. In experiment I, group 1 received diet 1 and normal water. Group 2, 3 and 4 received diet 2 and methionine treated water (0.050% for group 2; 0.075% for group 3; 0.100% for group 4. In experiment II, group 1 received diet 1 and normal water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received diet 2 and methionine treated water (0.025% for group 2; 0.050% for group 3; 0.075% for group 4. In both experiments there were significant differences in egg weight and methionine intake between the groups, whereas no significant differences were observed in feed intake, water intake, egg production and feed conversation ratio. In the case of egg mass, significant differences between the treatment groups were found in experiment II but not in experiment I. The results suggest that the source of methionine does not influence its metabolic effect. Thus, it seems that methionine from the water is as good as when supplied wholly from the feed.

  19. Formation of methionine sulfoxide during glycoxidation and lipoxidation of ribonuclease A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Jonathan W C; Ames, Jennifer M; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W

    2007-01-15

    Chemical modification of proteins by reactive oxygen species affects protein structure, function and turnover during aging and chronic disease. Some of this damage is direct, for example by oxidation of amino acids in protein by peroxide or other reactive oxygen species, but autoxidation of ambient carbohydrates and lipids amplifies both the oxidative and chemical damage to protein and leads to formation of advanced glycoxidation and lipoxidation end-products (AGE/ALEs). In previous work, we have observed the oxidation of methionine during glycoxidation and lipoxidation reactions, and in the present work we set out to determine if methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) in protein was a more sensitive indicator of glycoxidative and lipoxidative damage than AGE/ALEs. We also investigated the sites of methionine oxidation in a model protein, ribonuclease A (RNase), in order to determine whether analysis of the site specificity of methionine oxidation in proteins could be used to indicate the source of the oxidative damage, i.e. carbohydrate or lipid. We describe here the development of an LC/MS/MS for quantification of methionine oxidation at specific sites in RNase during glycoxidation or lipoxidation by glucose or arachidonate, respectively. Glycoxidized and lipoxidized RNase were analyzed by tryptic digestion, followed by reversed phase HPLC and mass spectrometric analysis to quantify methionine and methionine sulfoxide containing peptides. We observed that: (1) compared to AGE/ALEs, methionine sulfoxide was a more sensitive biomarker of glycoxidative or lipoxidative damage to proteins; (2) regardless of oxidizable substrate, the relative rate of oxidation of methionine residues in RNase was Met29>Met30>Met13, with Met79 being resistant to oxidation; and (3) arachidonate produced a significantly greater yield of MetSO, compared to glucose. The methods developed here should be useful for assessing a protein's overall exposure to oxidative stress from a variety of sources in

  20. Dietary Supplementation of Alternative Methionine and Choline Sources in the Organic Broiler Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Demattê Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of natural and alternative sources of methionine and choline which can be allowed to use in organic livestock systems to feed broilers produced in Brazil. Seven hundred and twenty one-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allocated to four treatments with six replicates of 24 birds each. The treatments consisted in substituting the commonly used DL-methionine 99% by a vegetable source of methionine and cholinechloride 60% by alternative source of choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine. The following treatments were evaluated: I feed with DL-methionine 99% and choline chloride 60%, II feed with an vegetable methionine source and choline chloride 60%, III feed with DL-methionine 99% and choline as phosphatidylcholine, and IV feed with vegetable methionine source and choline as phosphatidylcholine. Daily weight gain, body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were evaluated for the periods of 1 to 21 and 1 to 42 days of age. During both periods, broilers fed the vegetable methionine source presented lower daily gain and lower body weight. When only choline chloride was substituted by the alternative choline source, broiler performance was not different compared with that of the control group. The group fed the diet with substitution of both DL-methionine 99% and choline chloride 60% by natural sources presented lower daily weight gain, final body weight, and feed intake. Further research on alternative nutrient sources are required for the development of the organic production chain.

  1. Effects of Glycine, Water, Ammonia, and Ammonium Bicarbonate on the Oligomerization of Methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    The abiotic oligomerization of amino acids may have created primordial, protein-like biological catalysts on the early Earth. Previous studies have proposed and evaluated the potential of diagenesis for the amino acid oligomerization, simulating the formation of peptides that include glycine, alanine, and valine, separately. However, whether such conditions can promote the formation of peptides composed of multiple amino acids remains unclear. Furthermore, the chemistry of pore water in sediments should affect the oligomerization and degradation of amino acids and oligomers, but these effects have not been studied extensively. In this study, we investigated the effects of water, ammonia, ammonium bicarbonate, pH, and glycine on the oligomerization and degradation of methionine under high pressure (150 MPa) and high temperature conditions (175 °C) for 96 h. Methionine is more difficult to oligomerize than glycine and methionine dimer was formed in the incubation of dry powder of methionine. Methionine oligomers as long as trimers, as well as methionylglycine and glycylmethionine, were formed under every condition with these additional compounds. Among the compounds tested, the oligomerization reaction rate was accelerated by the presence of water and by an increase in pH. Ammonia also increased the oligomerization rate but consumed methionine by side reactions and resulted in the rapid degradation of methionine and its peptides. Similarly, glycine accelerated the oligomerization rate of methionine and the degradation of methionine, producing water, ammonia, and bicarbonate through its decomposition. With Gly, heterogeneous dimers (methionylglycine and glycylmethionine) were formed in greater amounts than with other additional compounds although smaller amount of these heterogeneous dimers were formed with other additional compounds. These results suggest that accelerated reaction rates induced by water and co-existing reactive compounds promote the oligomerization

  2. Effects of Glycine, Water, Ammonia, and Ammonium Bicarbonate on the Oligomerization of Methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    The abiotic oligomerization of amino acids may have created primordial, protein-like biological catalysts on the early Earth. Previous studies have proposed and evaluated the potential of diagenesis for the amino acid oligomerization, simulating the formation of peptides that include glycine, alanine, and valine, separately. However, whether such conditions can promote the formation of peptides composed of multiple amino acids remains unclear. Furthermore, the chemistry of pore water in sediments should affect the oligomerization and degradation of amino acids and oligomers, but these effects have not been studied extensively. In this study, we investigated the effects of water, ammonia, ammonium bicarbonate, pH, and glycine on the oligomerization and degradation of methionine under high pressure (150 MPa) and high temperature conditions (175 °C) for 96 h. Methionine is more difficult to oligomerize than glycine and methionine dimer was formed in the incubation of dry powder of methionine. Methionine oligomers as long as trimers, as well as methionylglycine and glycylmethionine, were formed under every condition with these additional compounds. Among the compounds tested, the oligomerization reaction rate was accelerated by the presence of water and by an increase in pH. Ammonia also increased the oligomerization rate but consumed methionine by side reactions and resulted in the rapid degradation of methionine and its peptides. Similarly, glycine accelerated the oligomerization rate of methionine and the degradation of methionine, producing water, ammonia, and bicarbonate through its decomposition. With Gly, heterogeneous dimers (methionylglycine and glycylmethionine) were formed in greater amounts than with other additional compounds although smaller amount of these heterogeneous dimers were formed with other additional compounds. These results suggest that accelerated reaction rates induced by water and co-existing reactive compounds promote the oligomerization

  3. Effects of methyl-deficient diets on methionine and homocysteine metabolism in the pregnant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fiona A; Holtrop, Grietje; Calder, A Graham; Anderson, Susan E; Lobley, Gerald E; Rees, William D

    2012-06-15

    Although the importance of methyl metabolism in fetal development is well recognized, there is limited information on the dynamics of methionine flow through maternal and fetal tissues and on how this is related to circulating total homocysteine concentrations. Rates of homocysteine remethylation in maternal and fetal tissues on days 11, 19, and 21 of gestation were measured in pregnant rats fed diets with limiting or surplus amounts of folic acid and choline at two levels of methionine and then infused with L-[1-(13)C,(2)H(3)-methyl]methionine. The rate of homocysteine remethylation was highest in maternal liver and declined as gestation progressed. Diets deficient in folic acid and choline reduced the production of methionine from homocysteine in maternal liver only in the animals fed a methionine-limited diet. Throughout gestation, the pancreas exported homocysteine for methylation within other tissues. Little or no methionine cycle activity was detected in the placenta at days 19 and 21 of gestation, but, during this period, fetal tissues, especially the liver, synthesized methionine from homocysteine. Greater enrichment of homocysteine in maternal plasma than placenta, even in animals fed the most-deficient diets, shows that the placenta did not contribute homocysteine to maternal plasma. Methionine synthesis from homocysteine in fetal tissues was maintained or increased when the dams were fed folate- and choline-deficient methionine-restricted diets. This study shows that methyl-deficient diets decrease the remethylation of homocysteine within maternal tissues but that these rates are protected to some extent within fetal tissues.

  4. Isolation and characterisation of 5'-fluorodeoxyadenosine synthase, a fluorination enzyme from Streptomyces cattleya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffrath, Christoph; Deng, Hai; O'Hagan, David

    2003-07-17

    5'-fluorodeoxyadenosine synthase, a C-F bond-forming enzyme, has been purified from Streptomyces cattleya. The enzyme mediates a reaction between inorganic fluoride and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to generate 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine. The molecular weight of the monomeric protein is shown to be 32.2 kDa by electrospray mass spectrometry. The kinetic parameters for SAM (K(m) 0.42 mM, V(max) 1.28 U/mg) and fluoride ion (K(m) 8.56 mM, V(max) 1.59 U/mg) have been evaluated. Both S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) and sinefungin were explored as inhibitors of the enzyme. SAH emerged as a potent competitive inhibitor (K(i) 29 microM) whereas sinefungin was only weakly inhibitory.

  5. Evolution of the key alkaloid enzyme putrescine N-methyltransferase from spermidine synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eJunker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Putrescine N-methyltransferases (PMTs are the first specific enzymes of the biosynthesis of nicotine and tropane alkaloids. PMTs transfer a methyl group onto the diamine putrescine from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM as coenzyme. PMT proteins have presumably evolved from spermidine synthases (SPDSs, which are ubiquitous enzymes of polyamine metabolism. SPDS use decarboxylated SAM as coenzyme to transfer an aminopropyl group onto putrescine. In an attempt to identify possible and necessary steps in the evolution of PMT from SPDS, homology based modeling of Datura stramonium SPDS1 and PMT was employed to gain deeper insight in the preferred binding positions and conformations of the substrate and the alternative coenzymes. Based on predictions of amino acids responsible for the change of enzyme specificities, sites of mutagenesis were derived. PMT activity was generated in Datura stramonium SPDS1 after few amino acid exchanges. Concordantly, Arabidopsis thaliana SPDS1 was mutated and yielded enzymes with both, PMT and SPDS activities. Kinetic parameters were measured for enzymatic characterization. The switch from aminopropyl to methyl transfer depends on conformational changes of the methionine part of the coenzyme in the binding cavity of the enzyme. The rapid generation of PMT activity in SPDS proteins and the wide-spread occurrence of putative products of N-methylputrescine suggest that PMT activity is present frequently in the plant kingdom.

  6. Biological efficacy and absorption of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue free acid compared to DL-methionine in chickens as affected by heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostagno, H S; Barbosa, W A

    1995-05-01

    1. The net absorption and the biological efficacy of DL-methionine and of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue free acid (MHA-FA) were evaluated in chickens under heat stress. 2. In a growth assay, finishing broilers 21 to 42 d of age were fed on diets containing graded amounts of the two supplements; the basal diet was composed of practical ingredients. 3. From slope-ratio analysis, equimolar efficacy of MHA-FA relative to DL-methionine was determined to be 83% (confidence limits 61 to 115%) from weight gain responses, and 67% (47 to 91%) from food conversion responses. This indicates that the relative efficacy of MHA-FA is close to previous estimates of about 75% obtained under thermoneutral conditions. 4. In a balance study with caecectomised cockerels, net absorption (intake - excretion in faeces and urine) of DL-methionine and of MHA-FA, respectively, were determined to be 97.2 and 90.8%. The net absorption of MHA-FA was significantly lower than that of DL-methionine.

  7. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayu Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6 is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR, and methionine synthase (MS, in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV. To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state. SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer.

  8. Dietary folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Dindore, V.; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate intake of folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 may prevent aberrant DNA methylation and thereby protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, previous epidemiological studies investigating associations between dietary intakes of these nutrients and CRC have been inconsistent.

  9. Ferulic acid depletion by cultured soybean seedlings under action of glucose and methionine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrig Vanessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultured soybean seedlings were used to investigate how glucose or methionine influenced depletion of ferulic acid. Three-day-old seedlings were grown in hydroponic solution containing ferulic acid plus glucose or methionine, and the level of the phenolic acid were monitored in the nutrient culture. The results showed that ferulic acid depletion was more rapid in the presence of those compounds. After 6 h, the increase caused by glucose (0.01 and 0.05 mM was more pronounced than methionine in the same concentrations. On the other hand, methionine (0.1 and 0.2 mM increased depletion more significantly than glucose. Results suggested that both compounds might to increase the allelopathic effects of ferulic acid in the seedlings.

  10. Productive response of dairy cows to a supplementation with methionine hydroxy analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Methionine and lysine have been identified most frequently as first-limiting essential amino acids in the protein nutrition of dairy cattle (NRC, 2001. According to Patton (1996, 50- 75% of the methionine requirement of a high producing dairy cow is covered by the microbial protein synthesized in the rumen, while the remaining amount should arise from the contribution of the ruminally undegraded feed protein. Soybean proteins are not a good source of by-pass methionine in comparison to animal-derived proteins such as meat or fish meal (Cozzi et al., 1995. Therefore, the ban of the use of animal protein sources for ruminant feeding due to the BSE crisis has made more difficult the fulfillment of the methionine requirement in the lactating cow,........

  11. Dietary folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Dindore, V.; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate intake of folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 may prevent aberrant DNA methylation and thereby protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, previous epidemiological studies investigating associations between dietary intakes of these nutrients and CRC have been inconsistent.

  12. Induction of Alzheimer's-like changes in brain of mice expressing mutant APP fed excess methionine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCampbell, A.; Wessner, K.; Marlatt, M.W.; Wolffe, C.; Toolan, D.; Podtelezhnikov, A.; Yeh, S.; Zhang, R.; Szcerba, P.; Tanis, K.Q.; Majercak, J.; Ray, W.J.; Savage, M.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, could result from increased production from methionine or by inefficient clearance by folate- and B-vitamin-dependent pathways. Understanding the relative contributions of these processes to pathogenesis is important for

  13. Impact of methionine oxidation on calmodulin structural dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Megan R.; Thompson, Andrew R.; Nitu, Florentin [Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Moen, Rebecca J. [Chemistry and Geology Department, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN 56001 (United States); Olenek, Michael J. [Biology Department, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States); Klein, Jennifer C., E-mail: jklein@uwlax.edu [Biology Department, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States); Thomas, David D., E-mail: ddt@umn.edu [Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • We measured the distance distribution between two spin labels on calmodulin by DEER. • Two structural states, open and closed, were resolved at both low and high Ca. • Ca shifted the equilibrium toward the open state by a factor of 13. • Methionine oxidation, simulated by glutamine substitution, decreased the Ca effect. • These results have important implications for aging in muscle and other tissues. - Abstract: We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to examine the structural impact of oxidizing specific methionine (M) side chains in calmodulin (CaM). It has been shown that oxidation of either M109 or M124 in CaM diminishes CaM regulation of the muscle calcium release channel, the ryanodine receptor (RyR), and that mutation of M to Q (glutamine) in either case produces functional effects identical to those of oxidation. Here we have used site-directed spin labeling and double electron–electron resonance (DEER), a pulsed EPR technique that measures distances between spin labels, to characterize the structural changes resulting from these mutations. Spin labels were attached to a pair of introduced cysteine residues, one in the C-lobe (T117C) and one in the N-lobe (T34C) of CaM, and DEER was used to determine the distribution of interspin distances. Ca binding induced a large increase in the mean distance, in concert with previous X-ray crystallography and NMR data, showing a closed structure in the absence of Ca and an open structure in the presence of Ca. DEER revealed additional information about CaM’s structural heterogeneity in solution: in both the presence and absence of Ca, CaM populates both structural states, one with probes separated by ∼4 nm (closed) and another at ∼6 nm (open). Ca shifts the structural equilibrium constant toward the open state by a factor of 13. DEER reveals the distribution of interprobe distances, showing that each of these states is itself partially disordered, with the width of each

  14. Effect of methionine hydroxy analog supplementation on dairy cattle hoof growth and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A K; Rakes, A H

    1982-08-01

    Fifty lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly to one of two treatments, control and control plus approximately 30 g methionine hydroxy analog, and confined on concrete for 11 mo. The control diet consisted of sorghum silage and concentrate fed as a blended ration. Sulfur contents of dry matter were .12% and .16% for control and methionine hydroxy analog rations. Hoof growth and hardness were measured on front and rear right abaxial claws in the dorsal and lateral regions. Hoof growth rates were measured for four periods; summer-fall, fall-winter, winter-spring, and spring-summer, each 70 to 90 days. Hooves of cows fed methionine hydroxy analog grew faster than those of control cows during spring-summer in all regions. Variations of growth rates of hooves were seasonal and tended to follow variations in daily photoperiod. Wear rates were not affected significantly by treatment. Hooves of cows fed methionine hydroxy analog were softer in the top dorsal region at the end of winter-spring and in the dorsal toe region at the end of spring-summer. All other locations were not affected significantly by treatment. The toe region was harder than the top of the hoof. Cows fed methionine hydroxy analog had less cysteine and proline in hoof than control cows and greater percentages of methionine lysine, tyrosine, and glutamic acid. These results suggest that a decrease of disulfide bonding occurred in the hoof tissue of cows fed methionine hydroxy analog. Cows fed methionine hydroxy analog produced more actual milk, milk fat, and 4% fat-corrected milk during 180 days than did control cows.

  15. Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and methionine formation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Radford Cynthia L; Knodel Marvin H; Venos Erik S; Berger Bradley J

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains a major world-wide health threat which demands the discovery and characterisation of new drug targets in order to develop future antimycobacterials. The regeneration of methionine consumed during polyamine biosynthesis is an important pathway present in many microorganisms. The final step of this pathway, the conversion of ketomethiobutyrate to methionine, can be performed by aspartate, tyrosine, or branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases depending...

  16. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  17. d-Methionine reduces tobramycin-induced ototoxicity without antimicrobial interference in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Daniel J; Cooper, Morris D; Speil, Cristian A; Roberts, Melissa H; Yanik, Susan C; Meech, Robert P; Hargrove, Tim L; Verhulst, Steven J; Rybak, Leonard P; Campbell, Kathleen C M

    2016-07-01

    Tobramycin is a critical cystic fibrosis treatment however it causes ototoxicity. This study tested d-methionine protection from tobramycin-induced ototoxicity and potential antimicrobial interference. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and outer hair cell (OHC) quantifications measured protection in guinea pigs treated with tobramycin and a range of d-methionine doses. In vitro antimicrobial interference studies tested inhibition and post antibiotic effect assays. In vivo antimicrobial interference studies tested normal and neutropenic Escherichia coli murine survival and intraperitoneal lavage bacterial counts. d-Methionine conferred significant ABR threshold shift reductions. OHC protection was less robust but significant at 20kHz in the 420mg/kg/day group. In vitro studies did not detect d-methionine-induced antimicrobial interference. In vivo studies did not detect d-methionine-induced interference in normal or neutropenic mice. d-Methionine protects from tobramycin-induced ototoxicity without antimicrobial interference. The study results suggest d-met as a potential otoprotectant from clinical tobramycin use in cystic fibrosis patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Metabolism of methionine in the newborn infant: response to the parenteral and enteral administration of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Biju; Gruca, Lourdes L; Bennett, Carole; Parimi, Prabhu S; Hanson, Richard W; Kalhan, Satish C

    2008-10-01

    The rates of transmethylation and transsulfuration of methionine were quantified using [1-(13)C]methionine and [C2H3]methionine tracers in newborn infants born at term gestation and in prematurely born low birth weight infants. Whole body rate of protein breakdown was also measured using [2H5]phenylalanine. The response to enteral formula feeding and parenteral nutrition was examined in full term and prematurely born babies, respectively. The relative rates of appearance of methionine and phenylalanine were comparable to the amino acid composition of mixed body proteins. Rates of transmethylation were high, both in full term infants (fast 32 +/- 14 micromol kg(-1) x h(-1); fed 21.7 +/- 3.2) and in preterm infants (57.2 +/- 14.8). Significant flux through the transsulfuration pathway was evident (full term: fast 6.0 +/- 4.4, fed 4.1 +/- 2.1; preterm: 24.9 +/- 9.9 micromol kg(-1) x h(-1)). Transsulfuration of methionine is evident in the human newborn in the immediate neonatal period, suggesting that cysteine may not be considered a "conditionally" essential amino acid for the neonate. The high rate of transmethylation may reflect the high methylation demand, whereas high rates of transsulfuration in premature babies may be related to high demands for glutathione and to the amounts of methionine in parenteral amino acid mixtures.

  19. Study of Methionine, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid Status in Coronary Atherosclerotic Male Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Djalali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased level of serum homocysteine is one of the risk factor of atherosclerosis. Its production related in some sulfur amino acids such as methionine. Some important cofactors that are involved in metabolic pathways of this amino acid are folate and vitamin B12. We have assessed the status of methionine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in some coronary atherosclerotic male patients.Methods: In this case-control study, 46 cases of coronary atherosclerosis were selected from male patients aged 37 to 66 years undergoing coronary angiography. Of these, 21 had history of acute myocardial infarction (MI in previous 3 to 36 months and 25 had angina pectoris. The controls were selected from male healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria for all study participants required that they had no history of diabetes, hypertension, renal, hepatic, or gastrointestinal dis­ease, endocrinal disorders, or psychiatric illness. Nutritional status was assessed using biochemistry methods and estima­tion of nutrient intake. Serum methionine was determined by HPLC methods.Results: Mean serum levels of vitamin B12, and folate, also erythrocyte folate concentration are significantly lower in these patients than in control subjects, but not for methionine. The ratios of serum methionine to vitamin B12 and folate were higher in patients than controls. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies, both, were higher in patients than controls.Conclusion: In summary, it is concluded that, despite normal level of serum methionine, coenzymes deficiencies may be one of the factors accounting for atherosclerosis.

  20. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  1. Methionine ligand lability of homologous monoheme cytochromes c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Benjamin D; Walsh, Kelly A; Sullivan, Kristal K; Bren, Kara L; Elliott, Sean J

    2015-01-05

    Direct electrochemical analysis of adsorbed bacterial monoheme cytochromes c has revealed a phenomenological loss of the axial methionine when examined using pyrolytic "edge-plane" graphite (EPG) electrodes. While prior findings have reported that the Met-loss state may be quantitatively understood using the cytochrome c from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus as a model system, here we demonstrate that the formation of the Met-loss state upon EPG electrodes can be observed for a range of cytochrome orthologs. Through an electrochemical comparison of the wild-type proteins from organisms of varying growth temperature optima, we establish that Met-ligand losses at graphite surfaces have similar energetics to the "foldons" for known protein folding pathways. Furthermore, a downward shift in reduction potential to approximately -100 mV vs standard hydrogen electrode was observed, similar to that of the alkaline transition found in mitochondrial cytochromes c. Pourbaix diagrams for the Met-loss forms of each cytochrome, considered here in comparison to mutants where the Met-ligand has been substituted to His or Ala, suggest that the nature of the Met-loss state is distinct from either a His-/aquo- or a bis-His-ligated heme center, yet more closely matches the pKa values found for bis-His-ligated hemes., We find the propensity for adoption of the Met-loss state in bacterial monoheme cytochromes c scales with their overall thermal stability, though not with the specific stability of the Fe-Met bond.

  2. Methionine Uptake and Required Radiation Dose to Control Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iuchi, Toshihiko, E-mail: tiuchi@chiba-cc.jp [Division of Neurological Surgery, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hatano, Kazuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Bay Advanced Imaging and Radiation Oncology Clinic, Makuhari, Chiba (Japan); Uchino, Yoshio [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Chiba Ryogo Center, Chiba (Japan); Itami, Makiko [Division of Surgical Pathology, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hasegawa, Yuzo; Kawasaki, Koichiro; Sakaida, Tsukasa [Division of Neurological Surgery, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hara, Ryusuke [Division of Radiation Oncology, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the feasibility of radiation therapy planning for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) based on the use of methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET), and the correlation among MET uptake, radiation dose, and tumor control. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GBM who underwent MET-PET prior to radiation therapy were enrolled. MET uptake in 30 regions of interest (ROIs) from 22 GBMs, biologically effective doses (BEDs) for the ROIs and their ratios (MET uptake:BED) were compared in terms of whether the ROIs were controlled for >12 months. Results: MET uptake was significantly correlated with tumor control (odds ratio [OR], 10.0; P=.005); however, there was a higher level of correlation between MET uptake:BED ratio and tumor control (OR, 40.0; P<.0001). These data indicated that the required BEDs for controlling the ROIs could be predicted in terms of MET uptake; BED could be calculated as [34.0 × MET uptake] Gy from the optimal threshold of the MET uptake:BED ratio for tumor control. Conclusions: Target delineation based on MET-PET was demonstrated to be feasible for radiation therapy treatment planning. MET-PET could not only provide precise visualization of infiltrating tumor cells but also predict the required radiation doses to control target regions.

  3. Expression of Four Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus possesses three MsrA enzymes (MsrA1, MsrA2, MsrA3 that reduce the S-epimer of methionine sulfoxide (MetO and an MsrB enzyme that reduces R-MetO. The four msr genes are expressed from three different promoters. The msrA1/msrB genes are coexpressed. To determine the expression pattern of msr genes, three independent reporter strains were constructed where msr promoter was cloned in front of a promoterless lacZ and the resulting construct was integrated in the chromosome. Using these strains, it was determined that the msrA1/B expression is significantly higher in S. aureus compared to msrA2 or msrA3. Expression of msrA1/B was highest during stationary phase growth, but the expression of msrA2 and msrA3 was highest during the early to midexponential growth phase. Expression of msrA1/B was induced by oxacillin and the expression of msrA3 was upregulated by salt. Expression of msrA2 remained unchanged under all tested conditions.

  4. Divergent modulation of swine ileal microbiota by formic acid and methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apajalahti, J; Rademacher, M; Htoo, J K; Redshaw, M; Kettunen, A

    2009-06-01

    Management of intestinal microbiota of monogastric animals has increased in importance since the ban of growth promoting antibiotics in many countries. Organic acids have been used as alternatives to antibiotics by many feed manufacturers. Regardless of the wide usage, the effect, dose response and mode of action of acids on intestinal microbes is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of three commonly used products, namely formic acid (FA) (90%), dl-methionine (DLM) (99%) and liquid methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (88%), on ileal microbiota of pigs. Laboratory simulation system, mimicking swine ileum, was used to study the products at various concentrations and combinations. Furthermore, selected combinations were tested in a piglet trial to confirm the findings made in in vitro studies. FA turned out to have a dual effect on ileal microbiota. At concentrations below 0.5%, it significantly stimulated bacteria, but at higher inclusion rates it was highly inhibitory. This finding, which was consistent in in vitro and in vivo studies, implies that reducing the dose of FA does not lead to a diluted inhibitory effect, but in fact, an opposite, stimulatory effect on intestinal microbiota. It is highly important that feed compounders acknowledge this finding. Unlike FA, the inhibitory effect of methionine hydroxy analogue on ileal bacteria was linearly dose dependent and significant at inclusion levels above 0.2%, in vitro. Partial replacement of methionine hydroxy analogue by FA, or FA by methionine hydroxy analogue, led to an unpredictable outcome due to the dual effects of FA; e.g., a minor inclusion of added FA changed the inhibitory effect of methionine hydroxy analogue into microbial stimulation by FA. Inhibition of ileal microbiota by methionine hydroxy analogue was detected only in in vitro studies, suggesting that intact methionine hydroxy analogue may not have reached the ileum, in live animals. Therefore

  5. Heterooligomeric phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains five phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase-homologous genes (PRS1-5), which specify PRPP synthase subunits 1-5. Expression of the five S. cerevisiae PRS genes individually in an Escherichia coli PRPP-less strain (Deltaprs) showed that a single PRS...

  6. Molecular evolution and sequence divergence of plant chalcone synthase and chalcone synthase-Like genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhao, Wenwen; Wang, Zhicui; Zhu, Jingying; Liu, Qisong

    2014-06-01

    Plant chalcone synthase (CHS) and CHS-Like (CHSL) proteins are polyketide synthases. In this study, we evaluated the molecular evolution of this gene family using representative types of CHSL genes, including stilbene synthase (STS), 2-pyrone synthase (2-PS), bibenzyl synthase (BBS), acridone synthase (ACS), biphenyl synthase (BIS), benzalacetone synthase, coumaroyl triacetic acid synthase (CTAS), and benzophenone synthase (BPS), along with their CHS homologs from the same species of both angiosperms and gymnosperms. A cDNA-based phylogeny indicated that CHSLs had diverse evolutionary patterns. STS, ACS, and 2-PS clustered with CHSs from the same species (late diverged pattern), while CTAS, BBS, BPS, and BIS were distant from their CHS homologs (early diverged pattern). The amino-acid phylogeny suggested that CHS and CHSL proteins formed clades according to enzyme function. The CHSs and CHSLs from Polygonaceae and Arachis had unique evolutionary histories. Synonymous mutation rates were lower in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones, indicating that gene duplications occurred more recently in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones. Relative rate tests proved that late diverged CHSLs had unequal rates to CHSs from the same species when using fatty acid synthase, which evolved from the common ancestor with the CHS superfamily, as the outgroup, while the early diverged lineages had equal rates. This indicated that late diverged CHSLs experienced more frequent mutation than early diverged CHSLs after gene duplication, allowing obtaining new functions in relatively short period of time.

  7. Recycling of 5'-methylthioadenosine-ribose carbon atoms into methionine in tomato tissue in relation to ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S Y; Adams, D O; Lieberman, M

    1982-07-01

    The ribose moiety of 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) is metabolized to form the four-carbon unit (2-aminobutyrate) of methionine in tomato tissue (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. Pik Red). When [U-(14)C-adenosine] MTA was administered to tomato tissue slices, label was recovered in 5-methylthioribose (MTR), methionine, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), C(2)H(4) and other unidentified compounds. However, when [U-(14)C-ribose]MTR was administered, radioactivities were recovered in methionine, ACC and C(2)H(4), but not MTA. This suggests that C(2)H(4) formed in tomato pericarp tissue may be derived from the ribose portion of MTA via MTR, methionine and ACC. The conversion of MTR to methionine is not inhibited by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), but is O(2) dependent. These data present a new salvage pathway for methionine biosynthesis which may be important in relation to polyamine and ethylene biosynthesis in tomato tissue.

  8. Cysteine dietary supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I induced by methionine restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A; Gomez, J; Lopez Torres, M; Naudi, A; Mota-Martorell, N; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2015-06-01

    It has been described that dietary cysteine reverses many of the beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction in aging rodents. In this investigation male Wistar rats were subjected to diets low in methionine, supplemented with cysteine, or simultaneously low in methionine and supplemented with cysteine. The results obtained in liver showed that cysteine supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS generation induced by methionine restriction at complex I. Methionine restriction also decreased various markers of oxidative and non-oxidative stress on mitochondrial proteins which were not reversed by cysteine. Instead, cysteine supplementation also lowered protein damage in association with decreases in mTOR activation. The results of the present study add the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production to the various beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction that are reversed by cysteine dietary supplementation.

  9. Modulation of cell cycle and gene expression in pancreatic tumor cell lines by methionine deprivation (methionine stress): implications to the therapy of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinakis, Demetrius M; Liu, Xiaoyan; Neuner, Russell D

    2005-09-01

    The effect of methionine deprivation (methionine stress) on the proliferation, survival, resistance to chemotherapy, and regulation of gene and protein expression in pancreatic tumor lines is examined. Methionine stress prevents successful mitosis and promotes cell cycle arrest and accumulation of cells with multiple micronuclei with decondensed chromatin. Inhibition of mitosis correlates with CDK1 down-regulation and/or inhibition of its function by Tyr(15) phosphorylation or Thr(161) dephosphorylation. Inhibition of cell cycle progression correlates with loss of hyperphosphorylated Rb and up-regulation of p21 via p53 and/or transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activation depending on p53 status. Although methionine stress-induced toxicity is not solely dependent on p53, the gain in p21 and loss in CDK1 transcription are more enhanced in wild-type p53 tumors. Up-regulation of SMAD7, a TGF-beta signaling inhibitor, suggests that SMAD7 does not restrict the TGF-beta-mediated induction of p21, although it may prevent up-regulation of p27. cDNA oligoarray analysis indicated a pleiotropic response to methionine stress. Cell cycle and mitotic arrest is in agreement with up-regulation of NF2, ETS2, CLU, GADD45alpha, GADD45beta, and GADD45gamma and down-regulation of AURKB, TOP2A, CCNA, CCNB, PRC1, BUB1, NuSAP, IFI16, and BRCA1. Down-regulation of AREG, AGTR1, M-CSF, and EGF, IGF, and VEGF receptors and up-regulation of GNA11 and IGFBP4 signify loss of growth factor support. PIN1, FEN1, and cABL up-regulation and LMNB1, AREG, RhoB, CCNG, TYMS, F3, and MGMT down-regulation suggest that methionine stress sensitizes the tumor cells to DNA-alkylating drugs, 5-fluorouracil, and radiation. Increased sensitivity of pancreatic tumor cell lines to temozolomide is shown under methionine stress conditions and is attributed in part to diminished O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and possibly to inhibition of the cell cycle progression.

  10. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A: Structure, function and role in ocular pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parameswaran; G; Sreekumar; David; R; Hinton; Ram; Kannan

    2011-01-01

    Methionine is a highly susceptible amino acid that can be oxidized to S and R diastereomeric forms of methionine sulfoxide by many of the reactive oxygen species generated in biological systems. Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are thioredoxin-linked enzymes involved in the enzymatic conversion of methionine sulfoxide to methionine. Although MsrA and MsrB have the same function of methionine reduction, they differ in substrate specifi city, active site composition, subcellular localization, and evolution. MsrA has been localized in different ocular regions and is abundantly expressed in the retina and in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. MsrA protects cells from oxidative stress. Overexpression of MsrA increases resistance to cell death, while silencing or knocking down MsrA decreases cell survival; events that are mediated by mitochondria. MsrA participates in protein-protein interaction with several other cellular proteins. The interaction of MsrAwith α-crystallins is of utmost importance given the known functions of the latter in protein folding, neuroprotection, and cell survival. Oxidation of methionine residues in α-crystallins results in loss of chaperone function and possibly its antiapoptotic properties. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that MsrA is co-localized with αA and αB crystallins in the retinal samples of patients with age-related macular degen- eration. We have also found that chemically induced hypoxia regulates the expression of MsrA and MsrB2 in human RPE cells. Thus, MsrA is a critical enzyme that participates in cell and tissue protection, and its interaction with other proteins/growth factors may provide a target for therapeutic strategies to prevent degenerative diseases.

  11. Structural and functional characteristics of cGMP-dependent methionine oxidation in Arabidopsis thaliana proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2013-01-05

    Background: Increasing structural and biochemical evidence suggests that post-translational methionine oxidation of proteins is not just a result of cellular damage but may provide the cell with information on the cellular oxidative status. In addition, oxidation of methionine residues in key regulatory proteins, such as calmodulin, does influence cellular homeostasis. Previous findings also indicate that oxidation of methionine residues in signaling molecules may have a role in stress responses since these specific structural modifications can in turn change biological activities of proteins. Findings. Here we use tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics to show that treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana cells with a non-oxidative signaling molecule, the cell-permeant second messenger analogue, 8-bromo-3,5-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP), results in a time-dependent increase in the content of oxidised methionine residues. Interestingly, the group of proteins affected by cGMP-dependent methionine oxidation is functionally enriched for stress response proteins. Furthermore, we also noted distinct signatures in the frequency of amino acids flanking oxidised and un-oxidised methionine residues on both the C- and N-terminus. Conclusions: Given both a structural and functional bias in methionine oxidation events in response to a signaling molecule, we propose that these are indicative of a specific role of such post-translational modifications in the direct or indirect regulation of cellular responses. The mechanisms that determine the specificity of the modifications remain to be elucidated. 2013 Marondedze et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for microbial production of L-methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jin, Li-Qun; Tang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Zhen-Yang; Yin, Huan-Huan; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-04-01

    L-methionine has attracted a great deal of attention for its nutritional, pharmaceutical, and clinical applications. In this study, Escherichia coli W3110 was engineered via deletion of a negative transcriptional regulator MetJ and over-expression of homoserine O-succinyltransferase MetA together with efflux transporter YjeH, resulting in L-methionine overproduction which is up to 413.16 mg/L. The partial inactivation of the L-methionine import system MetD via disruption of metI made the engineered E. coli ΔmetJ ΔmetI/pTrcA*H more tolerant to high L-ethionine concentration and accumulated L-methionine to a level 43.65% higher than that of E. coli W3110 ΔmetJ/pTrcA*H. Furthermore, deletion of lysA, which blocks the lysine biosynthesis pathway, led to a further 8.5-fold increase in L-methionine titer of E. coli ΔmetJ ΔmetI ΔlysA/pTrcA*H. Finally, addition of Na2 S2 O3 to the media led to an increase of fermentation titer of 11.45%. After optimization, constructed E. coli ΔmetJ ΔmetI ΔlysA/pTrcA*H was able to produce 9.75 g/L L-methionine with productivity of 0.20 g/L/h in a 5 L bioreactor. This novel metabolically tailored strain of E. coli provides an efficient platform for microbial production of L-methionine. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 843-851. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Plasma methionine depletion and pharmacokinetic properties in mice of methionine γ-lyase from Citrobacter freundii, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium sporogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, E A; Anufrieva, N V; Davydov, D Zh; Komarova, M V; Dyakov, I N; Rodionov, A N; Demidkina, T V; Pokrovsky, V S

    2017-04-01

    PK studies were carried out after a single i.v. administration of 500 and 1000 U/kg by measuring of MGL activity in plasma samples. L-methionine concentration was measured by mass spectrometry. After single i.v. injection of 500U/kg the circulating T1/2 of enzymes in mice varies from 73 to 123min. The AUC0-tinf values determined for MGL 500U/kg from C. freundii, C. tetani and C. sporogenes are 8.21±0.28, 9.04±0.33 and 13.88±0.39U/(ml×h), respectively. Comparison of PK parameters of three MGL sources in the dose of 500U/kg indicated the MGL C. sporogenes to have better PK parameters: clearance 0.83(95%CI: 0.779-0.871) - was lower than C. tetanii 1.27(95%CI: 1.18-1.36) and C. freundii 1.39(95%CI: 1.30-1.49). Mice plasma methionine decreased to undetectable level 10min after MGL 1000 U/kg injection. After MGL C. sporogenes 500U/kg injection plasma methionine level completely omitted after 10min till 6h, assuming the sustainability of negligible levels of methionine (tetani. There are no significant differences between methionine cleavage after MGL C. tetani and MGL C. sporogenes i.v. injection at all doses. MGL from C. sporogenes may be considered as promising enzyme for further investigation as potential anticancer agent.

  14. Impact of food supplementation and methionine on high densities of cotton rats: Support of the amino-acid-quality hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research supports the tenet that quantity and quality of food limit vertebrate populations. We evaluated predictions that increased availabilities of food and the essential amino acid methionine were related to population limitation of the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Effects of supplemental food and methionine on density, survival, and reproductive parameters of wild cotton rats were assessed in north-central Oklahoma in 1998-1999. Twelve enclosed groups of 16 adult cotton rats each (8 male, 8 female) were randomly assigned to either no supplementation (control), supplementation with a mixed ration that had methionine at slightly below maintenance levels (0.20%), or a methionine-enhanced mixed ration (1.20%). In general, densities of cotton rats were twice as high and were sustained longer with dietary supplementation, and methionine-supplemented populations maintained the highest densities. Treatment effects on survival depended on time of year, with higher survival in supplemented enclosures in October and November. Per capita recruitment was highest with methionine-enhanced food. Treatment effects on proportions of overall and female cotton rats in reproductive condition depended on sampling date, but males were most reproductively active with methionine supplementation. Methionine supplementation resulted in an earlier and longer reproductive season. Density-dependent and density-independent factors no doubt interplay to determine population dynamics of cotton rats, but our results suggest that methionine plays a role in the population dynamics of wild cotton rats, apparently by enhancing overall density, recruitment, and reproductive activity of males.

  15. Effects of methionine and betaine supplementation on growth performance, carcase composition and metabolism of lipids in male broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, X A; Li, J X; Xu, Z R; Zhao, R Q

    2006-10-01

    1. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of methionine and betaine supplementation on growth performance, carcase composition and lipid metabolism in growing broilers. 2. A total of 450 commercial broilers, 22 d of age, were randomly allocated to three groups, each of which included three replicates (50 birds per replicate). The groups received the same methionine-deficient diet supplemented with 0 or 1 g/kg methionine, or 0.5 g/kg betaine, respectively. 3. Methionine and betaine supplementation significantly improved weight gain and feed conversion. Supplemental methionine and betaine also significantly increased breast muscle yield and decreased abdominal fat content. Meanwhile, addition of methionine and betaine significantly increased the contents of creatine and free carnitine in liver, the activity of hormone-sensitive lipase in abdominal fat and the concentration of free fatty acid in serum, whereas uric acid concentration in serum was significantly decreased. 4. The results of this study suggest that betaine can spare methionine in its function as an essential amino acid and is as effective as methionine in improving performance and carcase quality of growing broilers if the diet is moderately deficient in methionine. The decrease in abdominal fat may be due to the increased carnitine synthesis in liver and hormone-sensitive lipase activity in abdominal fat.

  16. Methionine sources do not affect performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetable diets and aubmitted to cyclic heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AML Ribeiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of vegetal diets with L-methionine (100% molar, methionine hydroxyl analogue (HMB (88% molar or DL-methionine (99% molar was compared as to the performance of broilers allocated in cages and submitted to cyclic heat stress (CHS. The trial was carried out from 21 to 42 days of age. Two levels of synthetic methionine were supplemented for each methionine source (0.1 or 0.3 %, and the control treatment was not supplemented with synthetic methionine (negative control. Statistical analyses included the negative control treatment or were performed in a 3 x 2 factorial design (sources x levels. Addition of synthetic methionine to the basal level containing 0.63 % of total sulphur amino acids significantly improved feed conversion (FC independent of the source. On the other hand, improvements in weight gain (WG and body weight (BW were more consistent comparing the negative control to HMB-supplemented treatments. Factorial analysis showed better FC for L-Met compared to DL-Met, whereas HMB showed intermediate results. The supplementation level of 0.3% methionine showed better FC than 0.1%. Methionine levels or sources had no effects on carcass, yields of cuts or feathering results. Therefore, results of DL-Met and HMB added to vegetal-based diets in comparable molar terms promoted similar performance in broilers under CHS conditions.

  17. Definitive Endoderm Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Combined with Selective Elimination of Undifferentiated Cells by Methionine Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyama, Tomonori; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kume, Shoen

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) show a characteristic feature in that they are highly dependent on methionine metabolism. Undifferentiated human ESCs cannot survive under condition that methionine is deprived from culture medium. We describe here a procedure for definitive endoderm differentiation from human ESCs, in which human ESCs are subject to 10 days' (d) differentiation combined with methionine deprivation between differentiation days (d) 8 to (d) 10. Methionine deprivation results in elimination of undifferentiated cells from the culture with no significant loss of definitive endoderm cells, as compared to those cultured under complete condition throughout the whole culture period.

  18. Hepatic methionine homeostasis is conserved in C57BL/6N mice on high-fat diet despite major changes in hepatic one-carbon metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dahlhoff

    Full Text Available Obesity is an underlying risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Increased hepatic lipid accumulation is a hallmark in the progression of NAFLD and impairments in liver phosphatidylcholine (PC metabolism may be central to the pathogenesis. Hepatic PC biosynthesis, which is linked to the one-carbon (C1 metabolism by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, is known to be important for hepatic lipid export by VLDL particles. Here, we assessed the influence of a high-fat (HF diet and NAFLD status in mice on hepatic methyl-group expenditure and C1-metabolism by analyzing changes in gene expression, protein levels, metabolite concentrations, and nuclear epigenetic processes. In livers from HF diet induced obese mice a significant downregulation of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS and an increased betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT expression were observed. Experiments in vitro, using hepatoma cells stimulated with peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα agonist WY14,643, revealed a significantly reduced Cbs mRNA expression. Moreover, metabolite measurements identified decreased hepatic cystathionine and L-α-amino-n-butyrate concentrations as part of the transsulfuration pathway and reduced hepatic betaine concentrations, but no metabolite changes in the methionine cycle in HF diet fed mice compared to controls. Furthermore, we detected diminished hepatic gene expression of de novo DNA methyltransferase 3b but no effects on hepatic global genomic DNA methylation or hepatic DNA methylation in the Cbs promoter region upon HF diet. Our data suggest that HF diet induces a PPARα-mediated downregulation of key enzymes in the hepatic transsulfuration pathway and upregulates BHMT expression in mice to accommodate to enhanced dietary fat processing while preserving the essential amino acid methionine.

  19. Intermediates in the recycling of 5-methylthioribose to methionine in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushad, M M; Richardson, D G; Ferro, A J

    1983-10-01

    The recycling of 5-methylthioribose (MTR) to methionine in avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv Hass) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill, cv unknown) was examined. [(14)CH(3)]MTR was not metabolized in cell free extract from avocado fruit. Either [(14)CH(3)]MTR plus ATP or [(14)CH(3)]5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate (MTR-1-P) alone, however, were metabolized to two new products by these extracts. MTR kinase activity has previously been detected in these fruit extracts. These data indicate that MTR must be converted to MTR-1-P by MTR kinase before further metabolism can occur. The products of MTR-1-P metabolism were tentatively identified as alpha-keto-gamma-methylthiobutyric acid (alpha-KMB) and alpha-hydroxy-gamma-methylthiobutyric acid (alpha-HMB) by chromatography in several solvent systems. [(35)S]alpha-KMB was found to be further metabolized to methionine and alpha-HMB by these extracts, whereas alpha-HMB was not. However, alpha-HMB inhibited the conversion of alpha-KMB to methionine. Both [U-(14)C]alpha-KMB and [U-(14)C]methionine, but not [U-(14)C]alpha-HMB, were converted to ethylene in tomato pericarp tissue. In addition, aminoethoxyvinylglycine inhibited the conversion of alpha-KMB to ethylene. These data suggest that the recycling pathway leading to ethylene is MTR --> MTR-1-P --> alpha-KMB --> methionine --> S-adenosylmethionine --> 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid --> ethylene.

  20. Effect of methionine and glucosamine conjugation on the anticancer activity of aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karmakar Subhendu; Sudipta Bhattacharyya; Arindam Mukherjee

    2016-03-01

    Certain nutrients viz.,glucose and methionine are consumed more by cancer cells. Hence, an anticancer agent conjugated to them may render more toxicity in cancer cells due to higher uptake. To probe this effect, methionine and glucosamine were conjugated to a series of well-known aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustards. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies performed to probe the effect of such conjugation showed that the conjugation of methionine and glucosamine to one of the dinitrobenzamide mustard led to more toxicity selectively in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines. However, effect of functionalization cannot be generalized. Hypoxia based studies showed that IC50 value did not show much change from normoxic condition which is encouraging as many drugs deactivate in hypoxia. Among the glucosamine and methionine conjugated dinitrobenzamide mustards, the methionine conjugated aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustard of 2-chlorobenzoic acid is the most effective one. It acts by inducing apoptosis through G2/M phase arrest and encouragingly, is much less toxic to nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines in vitro.

  1. Suppression of Methionine Oxidation of a Pharmaceutical Antibody Stored in a Polymer-Based Syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masato, Amano; Kiichi, Fukui; Uchiyama, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Oxidation of methionine residues is one of the well-known deteriorations in monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics. Because methionine oxidation may affect their efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile, oxidation levels should be strictly controlled during their storage period. In this study, we revealed that when a therapeutic antibody was filled into a cyclo olefin polymer-based syringe and stored in a blister pack with an oxygen absorber, the methionine oxidation production under thermal or light stress was suppressed because of the reduction in the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Also unexpectedly, fewer amounts of the high-molecular-weight species and the acidic variants of the antibody were generated under thermal or light stress. Although the high-molecular-weight species contains methionine oxidants at similar levels to those in a monomer species, they were likely to be constituted from a higher amount of the oxidative species of internal disulfide linkage, tyrosine, or histidine. Because the dissolved oxygen could be readily removed from the mAb solution in the polymer-based syringe owing to its high gas permeability, this study shows the advantages of the polymer-based syringe with an oxygen absorber over glass syringes in terms of the suppression of the methionine oxidation and oxidative high molecular species.

  2. Parasites suppress immune-enhancing effect of methionine in nestling great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Michèle; Voegeli, Beatrice; Richner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    After birth, an organism needs to invest both in somatic growth and in the development of efficient immune functions to counter the effects of pathogens, and hence an investment trade-off is predicted. To explore this trade-off, we simultaneously exposed nestling great tits (Parus major) to a common ectoparasite, while stimulating immune function. Using a 2 × 2 experimental design, we first infested half of the nests with hen fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) on day 3 post-hatch and later, on day 9-13 post-hatch, and then supplemented half of the nestlings within each nest with an immuno-enhancing amino acid (methionine). We then assessed the non-specific immune response by measuring both the inflammatory response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and assessing the levels of acute phase proteins (APP). In parasite-infested nestlings, methionine had a negative effect on body mass close to fledging. Methionine had an immune-enhancing effect in the absence of ectoparasites only. The inflammatory response to LPS was significantly lower in nestlings infested with fleas and was also lower in nestlings supplemented with methionine. These patterns of immune responses suggest an immunosuppressive effect of ectoparasites that could neutralise the immune-enhancing effect of methionine. Our study thus suggests that the trade-off between investment in life history traits and immune function is only partly dependent on available resources, but shows that parasites may influence this trade-off in a more complex way, by also inhibiting important physiological functions.

  3. Regional distribution of methionine adenosyltransferase in rat brain as measured by a rapid radiochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiemke, C.; Ghraf, R.

    1981-09-01

    The distribution of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) in the CNS of the rat was studied by use of a rapid, sensitive and specific radiochemical method. The S-adenosyl-(methyl-/sup 14/C)L-methionine ((/sup 14/C)SAM) generated by adenosyl transfer from ATP to (methyl-/sup 14/C)L-methionine is quantitated by use of a SAM-consuming transmethylation reaction. Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), prepared from rat liver, transfers the methyl-/sup 14/C group of SAM to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The /sup 14/C-labelled methylation products, vanillic acid and isovanillic acid, are separated from unreacted methionine by solvent extraction and quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. Compared to other methods of MAT determination, which include separation of generated SAM from methionine by ion-exchange chromatography, the assay described exhibited the same high degree of specificity and sensitivity but proved to be less time consuming. MAT activity was found to be uniformly distributed between various brain regions and the pituitary gland of adult male rats. In the pineal gland the enzyme activity is about tenfold higher.

  4. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, aging and caloric restriction: the protein and methionine connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Reinald; Barja, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) decreases aging rate and mitochondrial ROS (MitROS) production and oxidative stress in rat postmitotic tissues. Low levels of these parameters are also typical traits of long-lived mammals and birds. However, it is not known what dietary components are responsible for these changes during CR. It was recently observed that 40% protein restriction without strong CR also decreases MitROS generation and oxidative stress. This is interesting because protein restriction also increases maximum longevity (although to a lower extent than CR) and is a much more practicable intervention for humans than CR. Moreover, it was recently found that 80% methionine restriction substituting it for l-glutamate in the diet also decreases MitROS generation in rat liver. Thus, methionine restriction seems to be responsible for the decrease in ROS production observed in caloric restriction. This is interesting because it is known that exactly that procedure of methionine restriction also increases maximum longevity. Moreover, recent data show that methionine levels in tissue proteins negatively correlate with maximum longevity in mammals and birds. All these suggest that lowering of methionine levels is involved in the control of mitochondrial oxidative stress and vertebrate longevity by at least two different mechanisms: decreasing the sensitivity of proteins to oxidative damage, and lowering of the rate of ROS generation at mitochondria.

  5. Effect of Excess Dietary Methionine on the Performance of Laying Hens of Various Live Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şahin Çadırcı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the effects of feeding excesses of methionine in a practical layer diet. One hundred and thirty two laying hens at 61 weeks of age were used for the experiment. Two body weight groups (light and heavy and three levels of mehionine were assigned to six groups of laying hen in a 2x3 factorial design. The diets were a 16.5% crude protein corn and soybean meal positive control diet (0.33% methionine, and this diet fortified with 1.00% additional DL-Methionine or 1.50% additional DL-Methionine. The diets were fed ad libitum to the hens for 10 consecutive weeks of production. For the total production period, body weight gain, hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different among any of the treatments in the two body weight groups (P>0.05. The study indicated that considerable tolerance exists in laying hens for individual excesses of the DL-Methionine commonly used as supplement in poultry diets.

  6. Impact of Methionine Oxidation on Calmodulin Structural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Megan R.; Thompson, Andrew R.; Nitu, Florentin; Moen, Rebecca J.; Olenek, Michael J.; Klein, Jennifer C.; Thomas, David D.

    2014-01-01

    We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to examine the structural impact of oxidizing specific methionine (M) side chains in calmodulin (CaM). It has been shown that oxidation of either M109 or M124 in CaM diminishes CaM regulation of the muscle calcium release channel, the ryanodine receptor (RyR), and that mutation of M to Q (glutamine) in either case produces functional effects identical to those of oxidation. Here we have used site-directed spin labeling and double electron-electron resonance (DEER), a pulsed EPR technique that measures distances between spin labels, to characterize the structural changes resulting from these mutations. Spin labels were attached to a pair of introduced cysteine residues, one in the C-lobe (T117C) and one in the N-lobe (T34C) of CaM, and DEER was used to determine the distribution of interspin distances. Ca binding induced a large increase in the mean distance, in concert with previous x-ray crystallography and NMR data, showing a closed structure in the absence of Ca and an open structure in the presence of Ca. DEER revealed additional information about CaM’s structural heterogeneity in solution: In both the presence and absence of Ca, CaM populates both structural states, one with probes separated by ~4 nm (closed) and another at ~6 nm (open). Ca shifts the structural equilibrium constant toward the open state by a factor of 13. DEER reveals the distribution of interprobe distances, showing that each of these states is itself partially disordered, with the width of each population ranging from 1.5 to 3 nm. Both mutations (M109Q and M124Q) decrease the effect of Ca on the structure of CaM, primarily by decreasing the closed-to-open equilibrium constant in the presence of Ca. We propose that Met oxidation alters CaM’s functional interaction with its target proteins by perturbing this Ca-dependent structural shift. PMID:25478640

  7. Plasma Homocysteine and Gene Polymorphisms Associated with the Risk of Hyperlipidemia in Northern Chinese Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI HUANG; XIAO-MING SONG; WEN-LI ZHU; YONG LI

    2008-01-01

    To examine the relationship between occurrence of hypedipidemia,plasma homocysteine and polymorphisms of methylenetetra hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and methionine synthase (MS) gene.Methods A total of 192 hyperlipidemia patients were selected and divided into hypercholesterolemia group,hypertriglyceridemia group,and combined hyperlipidemia group.Another 208 normal individuals were selected as control.Total plasma homocysteine (tHcy)concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Lipid profiles were measured for all subjects.The polymorphisms of MTHFR gene C677T and MS gene A2756G were analyzed by PCR-RFLP.Results The tHcy concentration in the combined hyperlipidemia patients was significantly higher than that in the control (15.95 μmol/L vs 13.43 μmol/L,P<0.05).The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) in the combined hyperlipidemia group was significantly higher than that in the control (42.2% vs 23.0%,P=0.015),with the odds ratio (OR) of 3.339 (95%CI:1.260-8.849).The hyperlipidemia patients with Hhcy had a higher concentration of total cholesterol (TC) than that in the normal they patients (5.67±0.95 mmol/L vs 5.47±0.92 mmol/L,P=0.034).There was no significant difference in genotype or allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T between the hyperlipidemic and control groups.The hyperlipidemia patients with MTHFR CT/TT genotype had a higher concentration of triglyceride (TG) than those with CC genotype (2.24±1.75 mmol/L vs 1.87±0.95 mmol/L,P<0.05).Individuals with CT/TT genotype had a higher concentration of tHey than those with 677CC genotype both in the hyperlipidemia group (12.61±1.24 μmol/L vs 11.20±1.37 μmol/L,P<0.05) and in the control group (14.04±1.48 μmol/L vs 12.61±1.24 μmol/L,P<0.05).The percentage of MS 2756 GG/AG genotype in the combined hyperlipidemia group was significantly higher than that in the control (26.7% vs 13.0%,P=0.012),with the OR of 3.121 (95%CI:1.288-7.651).The hyperlipidemia patients

  8. Fluoresence quenching of riboflavin in aqueous solution by methionin and cystein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droessler, P.; Holzer, W.; Penzkofer, A.; Hegemann, P

    2003-01-15

    The fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes of riboflavin in methanol, DMSO, water, and aqueous solutions of the sulphur atom containing amino acids methionin and cystein have been determined. In methanol, DMSO, and water (pH=4-8) only dynamic fluorescence reduction due to intersystem crossing and internal conversion is observed. In aqueous methionin solutions of pH=5.25-9 a pH independent static and dynamic fluorescence quenching occurs probably due to riboflavin anion-methionin cation pair formation. In aqueous cystein solutions (pH range from 4.15 to 9) the fluorescence quenching increases with rising pH due to cystein thiolate formation. The cystein thiol form present at low pH does not react with neutral riboflavin. Cystein thiolate present at high pH seems to react with neutral riboflavin causing riboflavin deprotonation (anion formation) by cystein thiolate reduction to the cystein thiol form.

  9. Fluoresence quenching of riboflavin in aqueous solution by methionin and cystein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drössler, P.; Holzer, W.; Penzkofer, A.; Hegemann, P.

    2003-01-01

    The fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes of riboflavin in methanol, DMSO, water, and aqueous solutions of the sulphur atom containing amino acids methionin and cystein have been determined. In methanol, DMSO, and water (pH=4-8) only dynamic fluorescence reduction due to intersystem crossing and internal conversion is observed. In aqueous methionin solutions of pH=5.25-9 a pH independent static and dynamic fluorescence quenching occurs probably due to riboflavin anion-methionin cation pair formation. In aqueous cystein solutions (pH range from 4.15 to 9) the fluorescence quenching increases with rising pH due to cystein thiolate formation. The cystein thiol form present at low pH does not react with neutral riboflavin. Cystein thiolate present at high pH seems to react with neutral riboflavin causing riboflavin deprotonation (anion formation) by cystein thiolate reduction to the cystein thiol form.

  10. Effects of Rumen Protected Methionine on Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Earlier Lactating Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Manji; SHAN Anshan

    2008-01-01

    A total of 12 mature healthy Holstein dairy cows of the nearly body weight (580±30) kg, milk yield (22.5±2.8) kg in the early stages of lactation were selected in this experiment. The cows were randomly divided into 2 groups, every group had 6 cows, every group had 6 repeats, and every repeat had I cow. Added 20 g protected methionine in earlier lactating cow food every day. The results showed that protected methionine increased milk yield by 10.83%, testing group milk yield was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);protected methionine increased milk fat by 5.98%, testing group milk fat was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);Milk protein increased by 2.15%, but had insignificantly different (P>0.05);dry matter of milk had the tendency of decrease, but had insignificant difference (P>0.05).

  11. A Single Amino Acid Substitution Converts Benzophenone Synthase into Phenylpyrone Synthase*

    OpenAIRE

    Klundt, Tim; Bocola, Marco; Lütge, Maren; Beuerle, Till; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2009-01-01

    Benzophenone metabolism provides a number of plant natural products with fascinating chemical structures and intriguing pharmacological activities. Formation of the carbon skeleton of benzophenone derivatives from benzoyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA is catalyzed by benzophenone synthase (BPS), a member of the superfamily of type III polyketide synthases. A point mutation in the active site cavity (T135L) transformed BPS into a functional phenylpyrone synthase (PPS). The dramatic ch...

  12. The lumazine synthase/riboflavin synthase complex: shapes and functions of a highly variable enzyme system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladenstein, Rudolf; Fischer, Markus; Bacher, Adelbert

    2013-06-01

    The xylene ring of riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) is assembled from two molecules of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate by a mechanistically complex process that is jointly catalyzed by lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase. In Bacillaceae, these enzymes form a structurally unique complex comprising an icosahedral shell of 60 lumazine synthase subunits and a core of three riboflavin synthase subunits, whereas many other bacteria have empty lumazine synthase capsids, fungi, Archaea and some eubacteria have pentameric lumazine synthases, and the riboflavin synthases of Archaea are paralogs of lumazine synthase. The structures of the molecular ensembles have been studied in considerable detail by X-ray crystallography, X-ray small-angle scattering and electron microscopy. However, certain mechanistic aspects remain unknown. Surprisingly, the quaternary structure of the icosahedral β subunit capsids undergoes drastic changes, resulting in formation of large, quasi-spherical capsids; this process is modulated by sequence mutations. The occurrence of large shells consisting of 180 or more lumazine synthase subunits has recently generated interest for protein engineering topics, particularly the construction of encapsulation systems.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of l-methionine γ-lyase from Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudou, Daizou; Yasuda, Eri; Hirai, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Takashi; Inagaki, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    A pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent methionine γ-lyase (MGL) was cloned from Streptomyces avermitilis catalyzed the degradation of methionine to α-ketobutyrate, methanethiol, and ammonia. The sav7062 gene (1,242 bp) was corresponded to 413 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 42,994 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high degree of similarity to those of other MGL enzymes. The sav7062 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity and exhibited the MGL catalytic activities. We cloned the enzyme that has the MGL activity in Streptomyces for the first time.

  14. Increased synthesis of eicosanoids by human monocytes following leucine and methionine enkephalin administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiederhold, M.D.; Ou, D.W.

    1986-03-05

    Regulation of eicosanoid biosynthesis by neuropeptides was investigated in human peripheral blood monocytes from normal donors. Metabolites of /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid (/sup 3/H-AA) were analyzed by thin layer and high pressure liquid chromatography following exposure to 0.2 ..mu..gm/ml and 2.0 ..mu..gm/ml of leucine (L-ENK) and methionine (M-ENK) enkephalin. Supernatants of cultured cells were analyzed. The data indicate that both leucine and methionine enkephalin can stimulate eicosanoid biosynthesis in human monocytes, and may indicate a possible regulatory mechanism between the central nervous system and the reticuloendothelial system.

  15. Supplementation of a maternal low-protein diet in rat pregnancy with folic acid ameliorates programming effects upon feeding behaviour in the absence of disturbances to the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeham, Sarah F; Haase, Andrea; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2010-04-01

    Maternal protein restriction in rat pregnancy is associated with altered feeding behaviour in later life. When allowed to self-select their diet, rats subject to prenatal undernutrition show an increased preference for fatty foods. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of folic acid in the maternal diet to programming of appetite, since disturbances of the folate and methionine-homocysteine cycles have been suggested to impact upon epigenetic regulation of gene expression and hence programme long-term physiology and metabolism. Pregnant rats were fed diets containing either 9 or 18 % casein by weight, with folate provided at either 1 or 5 mg/kg diet. Adult male animals exposed to low protein (LP) in fetal life exhibited increased preference for high-fat food. Providing the higher level of folate in the maternal diet prevented this effect of LP, but offspring of rats fed 18 % casein diet with additional folate behaved in a similar manner to LP-exposed animals. Among day 20 gestation fetuses, it was apparent that both protein restriction and maternal folate supplementation could have adverse effects upon placental growth. Examination of methionine-homocysteine and folate cycle intermediates, tissue glutathione concentrations and expression of mRNA for methionine synthase, DNA methyltransferase 1 and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase revealed no gross disturbances of folate and one-carbon metabolism in either maternal or fetal tissue. The present findings indicated that any role for DNA methylation in programming of physiology is not related to major perturbations of folate metabolism, and is likely to be gene-specific rather than genome-wide.

  16. The oxidation of methionine-54 of epoetinum alfa does not affect molecular structure or stability, but does decrease biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrenz, Steven R; Calmann, Melissa A; Heavner, George A; Tolman, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin therapy is used to treat severe anemia in renal failure and chemotherapy patients. One of these therapies based on recombinant human erythropoietin is marketed under the trade name of EPREX and utilizes epoetinum alfa as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The effect of oxidation of methionine-54 on the structure and stability of the erythropoietin molecule has not been directly tested. We have observed partial and full chemical oxidation of methionine-54 to methionine-54 sulfoxide, accomplished using tert-Butylhydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. A blue shift in the fluorescence center of spectral mass wavelength was observed as a linear response to the level of methionine sulfoxide in the epoetinum alfa molecule, presumably arising from a local change in the environment near tryptophan-51, as supported by potassium iodide quenching studies. Circular dichroism studies demonstrated no change in the folded structure of the molecule with methionine oxidation. The thermal unfolding profiles of partial and completely oxidized epoetinum alfa overlap, with a T(m) of 49.5 degrees C across all levels of methionine sulfoxide content. When the protein was tested for activity, a decrease in biological activity was observed, correlating with methionine sulfoxide levels. An allosteric effect between Met54, Trp51, and residues involved in receptor binding is proposed. These results indicate that methionine oxidation has no effect on the folded structure and global thermodynamic stability of the recombinant human erythropoietin molecule. Oxidation can affect potency, but only at levels significantly in excess of those seen in EPREX.

  17. [Phenotypic and technological influences of the Lupinus mutabilis (Tarwi) seed on its methionine availability and sulfur content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, M; Schoeneberger, H; Gross, R; Reynoso, Z

    1983-09-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the content of available methionine and sulphur in seed cultivars of Lupinus mutabilis from different Andean regions, and to study the influence of processing on methionine and sulphur contents. An additional objective was to evaluate interrelationships among these chemical characteristics and protein quality, as measured by the protein efficiency ratio (PER) method. Results revealed a high variability in the content of available methionine and sulphur between the different ecotypes and varieties of Lupinus mutabilis. Fertilization with CaSO4 (200 kg/ha) did alter the content of available methionine and sulphur in Lupinus albus seeds. Traditional water-debittering of lupines did not affect the methionine content of the seeds, whereas oil-extraction and alcohol-debittering led to a decrease in available methionine (14 and 23% reduction, respectively). Production of a protein isolate further reduced the methionine content (54%). Regression analysis revealed a high correlation between available methionine and sulphur (r = 0.83), between sulphur and PER (r = 0.98) in the processed lupine samples, and lupine mixtures with other protein sources.

  18. Influence of methionine administration during chelation of cadmium by CaNa(3)DTPA and DMPS in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S K; Singh, S; Prasad, S

    1997-07-01

    Influence of methionine administration was investigated in rats on the efficacy of calcium trisodium diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (CaNa(3)DTPA) and 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1 sulfonate (DMPS) in the treatment of cadmium intoxication. CaNa(3)DTPA, DMPS or methionine were quite effective in mobilizing cadmium from blood and all the tissues examined in cadmium pre-exposed animals. The combination of CaNa(3)DTPA and methionine was more efficient in reducing hepatic, renal and heart cadmium levels while that of DMPS and methionine was more efficient in lowering liver, kidney and brain cadmium levels than either of them alone. The combinations were also highly effective in enhancing the urinary and the fecal excretion of cadmium. The treatment with CaNa(3)DTPA, DMPS or methionine was quite effective in reversing cadmium inhibited tissue enzymes and alterations in blood and serum biochemical levels. The combined treatment with a chelator and methionine was more effective than the chelators alone in restoring cadmium induced changes in hepatic and renal transaminases. The treatment with CaNa(3)DTPA, DMPS or methionine appreciably decreased the depletion of endogenous zinc, copper and iron due to cadmium but the combined treatments were more efficient than the individuals in restoring the kidney and the brain copper levels only. The results show that the administration of methionine during chelation therapy may be beneficial in the treatment of cadmium intoxication.

  19. Nutritional levels of digestible methionine + cystine to brown-egg laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauber Polese

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the requirement of digestible methionine + cystine of brown-eggs laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks age at the end of the first production cycle. The design was completely randomized, with 150 Brown Shaver hens, which were distributed in five treatments with six replications of five birds each. Birds received a basal diet with 2857 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 15.97% crude protein, supplemented with 0.132; 0.174, 0.215, 0.256 and 0.298% DL-methionine (98%, in order to provide 0.572, 0.613, 0.653, 0.693 and 0.734% digestible methionine + cystine. The levels of digestible methionine + digestible cystine followed, respectively, the relations of 67, 72, 77, 81 and 86% with lysine fixed at 0.851%. Feed intake, methionine + cystine intake, feed conversion per dozen eggs, egg weigth and mass, percentage of egg components, internal egg quality and weight gain were evaluated. Methionine + cystine levels showed a quadratic effect on feed conversion per dozen eggs and egg weight, a linear effect on feed conversion per kilogram of eggs and percentage of albumen. There was also a positive linear effect on yolk percentage. The methionine + cystine requirement was estimated at 0.572%, corresponding to 682 mg of digestible methionine + cystine/bird/day.

  20. Acute effect of folic acid, betaine, and serine supplements on flow-mediated dilation after methionine loading: A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Bots, M.L.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated whether reducing post-methionine homocysteine concentrations via various treatments other than folic acid affects vascular function, as measured through flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. High fasting and post-methionine homocysteine concentrations are a

  1. Biotin synthase exhibits burst kinetics and multiple turnovers in the absence of inhibition by products and product-related biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christine E; Siu, Karen K W; Howell, P Lynne; Jarrett, Joseph T

    2010-11-23

    Biotin synthase (BS) is a member of the "SAM radical" superfamily of enzymes, which catalyze reactions in which the reversible or irreversible oxidation of various substrates is coupled to the reduction of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) sulfonium to generate methionine and 5'-deoxyadenosine (dAH). Prior studies have demonstrated that these products are modest inhibitors of BS and other members of this enzyme family. In addition, the in vivo catalytic activity of Escherichia coli BS requires expression of 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine nucleosidase, which hydrolyzes 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy), and dAH. In the present work, we confirm that dAH is a modest inhibitor of BS (K(i) = 20 μM) and show that cooperative binding of dAH with excess methionine results in a 3-fold enhancement of this inhibition. However, with regard to the other substrates of MTA/AdoHcy nucleosidase, we demonstrate that AdoHcy is a potent inhibitor of BS (K(i) ≤ 650 nM) while MTA is not an inhibitor. Inhibition by both dAH and AdoHcy likely accounts for the in vivo requirement for MTA/AdoHcy nucleosidase and may help to explain some of the experimental disparities between various laboratories studying BS. In addition, we examine possible inhibition by other AdoMet-related biomolecules present as common contaminants in commercial AdoMet preparations and/or generated during an assay, as well as by sinefungin, a natural product that is a known inhibitor of several AdoMet-dependent enzymes. Finally, we examine the catalytic activity of BS with highly purified AdoMet in the presence of MTAN to relieve product inhibition and present evidence suggesting that the enzyme is half-site active and capable of undergoing multiple turnovers in vitro.

  2. Mammalian N-acetylglutamate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizono, Hiroki; Caldovic, Ljubica; Shi, Dashuang; Tuchman, Mendel

    2004-04-01

    N-Acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, E.C. 2.3.1.1) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the formation of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), an essential allosteric activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase I (CPSI). The mouse and human NAGS genes have been identified based on similarity to regions of NAGS from Neurospora crassa and cloned from liver cDNA libraries. These genes were shown to complement an argA- (NAGS) deficient Escherichia coli strain, and enzymatic activity of the proteins was confirmed by a new stable isotope dilution assay. The deduced amino acid sequence of mammalian NAGS contains a putative mitochondrial-targeting signal at the N-terminus. The mouse NAGS preprotein was overexpressed in insect cells to determine post-translational modifications and two processed proteins with different N-terminal truncations have been identified. Sequence analysis using a hidden Markov model suggests that the vertebrate NAGS protein contains domains with a carbamate kinase fold and an acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase fold, and protein crystallization experiments are currently underway. Inherited NAGS deficiency results in hyperammonemia, presumably due to the loss of CPSI activity. We, and others, have recently identified mutations in families with neonatal and late-onset NAGS deficiency and the identification of the gene has now made carrier testing and prenatal diagnosis feasible. A structural analog of NAG, carbamylglutamate, has been shown to bind and activate CPSI, and several patients have been reported to respond favorably to this drug (Carbaglu).

  3. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  4. Bioavailability of D-methionine relative to L-methionine for nursery pigs using the slope-ratio assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsu Kong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the bioavailability of D-methionine (Met relative to L-Met for nursery pigs using the slope-ratio assay. A total of 50 crossbred barrows with an initial BW of 13.5 kg (SD = 1.0 were used in an N balance study. A Met-deficient basal diet (BD was formulated to contain an adequate amount of all amino acids (AA for 10–20 kg pigs except for Met. The two reference diets were prepared by supplementing the BD with 0.4 or 0.8 g L-Met/kg at the expense of corn starch, and an equivalent concentration of D-Met was added to the BD for the two test diets. The pigs were adapted to the experimental diets for 5 d and then total but separated collection of feces and urine was conducted for 4 d according to the marker-to-marker procedure. Nitrogen intakes were similar across the treatments. Fecal N output was not affected by Met supplementation regardless of source and consequently apparent N digestibility did not change. Conversely, there was a negative linear response (P < 0.01 to Met supplementation with both Met isomers in urinary N output, which resulted in increased retained N (g/4 d and N retention (% of intake. No quadratic response was observed in any of the N balance criteria. The estimated bioavailability of D-Met relative to L-Met from urinary N output (g/4 d and N retention (% of intake as dependent variables using supplemental Met intake (g/4 d as an independent variable were 87.6% and 89.6%, respectively; however, approximately 95% of the fiducial limits for the relative bioavailability estimates included 100%. In conclusion, with an absence of statistical significance, the present study indicated that the mean relative bioequivalence of D- to L-Met was 87.6% based on urinary N output or 89.6% based on N retention.

  5. Catabolism of L-methionine in the formation of sulfur and other volatiles in melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Itay; Lev, Shery; Bar, Einat; Sikron, Noga; Portnoy, Vitaly; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Giovannonni, James J; Huang, Mingyun; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Fait, Aaron; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2013-05-01

    Sulfur-containing aroma volatiles are important contributors to the distinctive aroma of melon and other fruits. Melon cultivars and accessions differ in the content of sulfur-containing and other volatiles. L-methionine has been postulated to serve as a precursor of these volatiles. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with ¹³C- and ²H-labeled L-methionine revealed two distinct catabolic routes into volatiles. One route apparently involves the action of an L-methionine aminotransferase and preserves the main carbon skeleton of L-methionine. The second route apparently involves the action of an L-methionine-γ-lyase activity, releasing methanethiol, a backbone for formation of thiol-derived aroma volatiles. Exogenous L-methionine also generated non-sulfur volatiles by further metabolism of α-ketobutyrate, a product of L-methionine-γ-lyase activity. α-Ketobutyrate was further metabolized into L-isoleucine and other important melon volatiles, including non-sulfur branched and straight-chain esters. Cell-free extracts derived from ripe melon fruit exhibited L-methionine-γ-lyase enzymatic activity. A melon gene (CmMGL) ectopically expressed in Escherichia coli, was shown to encode a protein possessing L-methionine-γ-lyase enzymatic activity. Expression of CmMGL was relatively low in early stages of melon fruit development, but increased in the flesh of ripe fruits, depending on the cultivar tested. Moreover, the levels of expression of CmMGL in recombinant inbred lines co-segregated with the levels of sulfur-containing aroma volatiles enriched with +1 m/z unit and postulated to be produced via this route. Our results indicate that L-methionine is a precursor of both sulfur and non-sulfur aroma volatiles in melon fruit.

  6. Chemoprotection by D-methionine against cisplatin-induced side-effects: insight from in vitro studies using human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooriyaarachchi, Melani; White, Wade M; Narendran, Aru; Gailer, Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    Animal studies have shown that the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of the anti-cancer drug cisplatin (CP) can be ameliorated by the co-administration with D-methionine. The molecular mechanisms of this activity, however, are not well understood. Since CP is intravenously administered, the underlying chemistry may involve the interaction of CP-derived Pt-species with D-methionine in the bloodstream. Our previous studies have shown that the chemoprotective agents N-acetyl-l-cysteine and sodium thiosulfate modulate the metabolism of CP in human plasma in vitro, albeit in a different manner. Using a metallomics approach, we show that the incubation of human plasma with D-methionine and CP (molar ratio of 20 : 1) leads to the formation of a Pt-D-methionine complex independent of the order of addition. These results were corroborated by analogous experiments that were carried out using PBS-buffer instead of plasma. In addition, CP and D-methionine were added simultaneously to PBS-buffer and samples were analyzed at certain time intervals by the same metallomics method and LC-ESI-MS over a ∼21 h time period. Whereas the intermediate [Pt(NH3)Cl(D-methionine)](+) species was detected between 1-4 h, only the terminal [Pt(D-methionine)2](+) complex was present 21 h later. Combined, these studies demonstrate that in plasma and at the 20 : 1 D-methionine : CP molar ratio, an early CP hydrolysis product reacts with D-methionine to form a 1 : 1 complex that is followed by the formation of a 2 : 1 compound at a later time point. The formation of these Pt-D-methionine species may therefore play an important role in the processes by which D-methionine protects mammalian organisms against CP-induced toxicities.

  7. S-adenosyl-L-methionine protection of acetaminophen mediated oxidative stress and identification of hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, James Mike [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Kuhlman, Christopher [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Terneus, Marcus V. [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Labenski, Matthew T. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lamyaithong, Andre Benja; Ball, John G. [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Lau, Serrine S. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Valentovic, Monica A., E-mail: Valentov@marshall.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is protected by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) treatment 1 hour (h) after APAP in C57/Bl6 mice. This study examined protein carbonylation as well as mitochondrial and cytosolic protein adduction by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) using mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Additional studies investigated the leakage of mitochondrial proteins and 4-HNE adduction of these proteins. Male C57/Bl6 mice (n = 5/group) were divided into the following groups and treated as indicated: Veh (15 ml/kg water, ip), SAMe (1.25 mmol/kg, ip), APAP (250 mg/kg), and SAMe given 1 h after APAP (S + A). APAP toxicity was confirmed by an increase (p < 0.05) in plasma ALT (U/l) and liver weight/10 g body weight relative to the Veh, SAMe and S + A groups 4 h following APAP treatment. SAMe administered 1 h post-APAP partially corrected APAP hepatotoxicity as ALT and liver weight/10 g body weights were lower in the S + A group compared the APAP group. APAP induced leakage of the mitochondrial protein, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) into the cytosol and which was reduced in the S + A group. SAMe further reduced the extent of APAP mediated 4-HNE adduction of CPS-1. MS analysis of hepatic and mitochondrial subcellular fractions identified proteins from APAP treated mice. Site specific 4-HNE adducts were identified on mitochondrial proteins sarcosine dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1). In summary, APAP is associated with 4-HNE adduction of proteins as identified by MS analysis and that CPS-1 leakage was greater in APAP treated mice. SAMe reduced the extent of 4-HNE adduction of proteins as well as leakage of CPS-1. - Highlights: • Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity protected by S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to sarcosine dehydrogenase • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 • SAMe reduced APAP mediated CPS-1 mitochondrial leakage.

  8. Rapid induction of the synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and of chalcone synthase in elicitor-treated plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, M A; Dixon, R A; Hahlbrock, K; Lamb, C

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the rate of synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase, two characteristic enzymes of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, have been investigated by direct immunoprecipitation of in vivo [35S]methionine-labelled enzyme subunits in elicitor-treated cells of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Elicitor, heat-released from cell walls of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose disease of bean, causes marked but transient increases in the rates of synthesis of both enzymes concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity at the onset of phaseollin accumulation during the phytoalexin defence response. Increased rates of synthesis of both enzymes can be observed 20 min after elicitor treatment and the pattern of induction of synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase are broadly similar with respect to elicitor concentration and time, maximum rates of synthesis being attained between 2.5 h and 3.0 h after elicitor treatment. Within this overall co-ordination small but distinct differences between the enzymes were observed in: (a) the elicitor concentrations giving maximum enzyme synthesis, and (b) the precise timing of maximum enzyme synthesis, with that for chalcone synthase occurring 20-30 min earlier than that for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. However, for a given rate of enzyme synthesis, induction of the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase is more efficient at high elicitor concentrations. This may reflect the operation under certain circumstances of post-translational control of the activity levels of these enzymes as implicated for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase by previous density-labelling experiments [Lawton et al. (1980) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 633, 162-175]. The same pattern of induction of enzyme synthesis is observed with elicitor preparations from a variety of sources.

  9. Critical aspartic acid residues in pseudouridine synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, V; Swann, S L; Paulson, J L; Spedaliere, C J; Mueller, E G

    1999-08-01

    The pseudouridine synthases catalyze the isomerization of uridine to pseudouridine at particular positions in certain RNA molecules. Genomic data base searches and sequence alignments using the first four identified pseudouridine synthases led Koonin (Koonin, E. V. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2411-2415) and, independently, Santi and co-workers (Gustafsson, C., Reid, R., Greene, P. J., and Santi, D. V. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 3756-3762) to group this class of enzyme into four families, which display no statistically significant global sequence similarity to each other. Upon further scrutiny (Huang, H. L., Pookanjanatavip, M., Gu, X. G., and Santi, D. V. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 344-351), the Santi group discovered that a single aspartic acid residue is the only amino acid present in all of the aligned sequences; they then demonstrated that this aspartic acid residue is catalytically essential in one pseudouridine synthase. To test the functional significance of the sequence alignments in light of the global dissimilarity between the pseudouridine synthase families, we changed the aspartic acid residue in representatives of two additional families to both alanine and cysteine: the mutant enzymes are catalytically inactive but retain the ability to bind tRNA substrate. We have also verified that the mutant enzymes do not release uracil from the substrate at a rate significant relative to turnover by the wild-type pseudouridine synthases. Our results clearly show that the aligned aspartic acid residue is critical for the catalytic activity of pseudouridine synthases from two additional families of these enzymes, supporting the predictive power of the sequence alignments and suggesting that the sequence motif containing the aligned aspartic acid residue might be a prerequisite for pseudouridine synthase function.

  10. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A expression is regulated by the DAF-16/FOXO pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniti, Alicia N; Cataldo, Romina; Trigo, Carla; Vasquez, Luis; Mujica, Patricio; Leighton, Federico; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Aldunate, Rebeca

    2009-12-01

    The methionine sulfoxide reductase system has been implicated in aging and protection against oxidative stress. This conserved system reverses the oxidation of methionine residues within proteins. We analyzed one of the components of this system, the methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene, in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that the msra-1 gene is expressed in most tissues, particularly in the intestine and the nervous system. Worms carrying a deletion of the msra-1 gene are more sensitive to oxidative stress, show chemotaxis and locomotory defects, and a 30% decrease in median survival. We established that msra-1 expression decreases during aging and is regulated by the DAF-16/FOXO3a transcription factor. The absence of this enzyme decreases median survival and affects oxidative stress resistance of long lived daf-2 worms. A similar effect of MSRA-1 absence in wild-type and daf-2 (where most antioxidant enzymes are activated) backgrounds, suggests that the lack of this member of the methionine repair system cannot be compensated by the general antioxidant response. Moreover, FOXO3a directly activates the human MsrA promoter in a cell culture system, implying that this could be a conserved mechanism of MsrA regulation. Our results suggest that repair of oxidative damage in proteins influences the rate at which tissues age. This repair mechanism, rather than the general decreased of radical oxygen species levels, could be one of the main determinants of organisms' lifespan.

  11. Effects of sucrose on rFVIIa aggregation and methionine oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soenderkaer, Susanne; Carpenter, John F; van de Weert, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of sucrose on the stability of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), with special emphasis on aggregation and methionine oxidation, as well as to investigate the impact of various environmental conditions on the rFVIIa conformation. The stability ...

  12. Value of C-11-methionine PET in imaging brain tumours and metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Enting, Roeline; Heesters, Martinus; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; van Rheenen, Ronald W J; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2013-01-01

    C-11-methionine (MET) is the most popular amino acid tracer used in PET imaging of brain tumours. Because of its characteristics, MET PET provides a high detection rate of brain tumours and good lesion delineation. This review focuses on the role of MET PET in imaging cerebral gliomas. The Introduct

  13. Independent and additive effects of glutamic acid and methionine on yeast longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    It is established that glucose restriction extends yeast chronological and replicative lifespan, but little is known about the influence of amino acids on yeast lifespan, although some amino acids were reported to delay aging in rodents. Here we show that amino acid composition greatly alters yeast chronological lifespan. We found that non-essential amino acids (to yeast) methionine and glutamic acid had the most significant impact on yeast chronological lifespan extension, restriction of methionine and/or increase of glutamic acid led to longevity that was not the result of low acetic acid production and acidification in aging media. Remarkably, low methionine, high glutamic acid and glucose restriction additively and independently extended yeast lifespan, which could not be further extended by buffering the medium (pH 6.0). Our preliminary findings using yeasts with gene deletion demonstrate that glutamic acid addition, methionine and glucose restriction prompt yeast longevity through distinct mechanisms. This study may help to fill a gap in yeast model for the fast developing view that nutrient balance is a critical factor to extend lifespan.

  14. On the Correlation between EPR and Positron Annihilation Measurements on gamma-Irradiated Acetyl Methionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Lund-Thomsen, E.; Mogensen, O. E.

    1972-01-01

    The dose dependence of the relative EPR signal intensity and positron lifetime spectrum was measured for γ‐irradiated acetyl methionine in the dose range from 0 to 30 Mrad. Angular correlation measurements were performed for the doses 0 and 30 Mrad. The result of the irradiation was the creation...

  15. Evaluating a quantitative methionine requirement for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted as a third study (all conducted in our laboratory) to determine a quantitative requirement of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei for sulfur amino acid methionine. Juvenile shrimp (mean weight 0.61 +/- 0.13 g) were reared in 110-L aquaria in a seawater recirculating sy...

  16. Computational analysis of cysteine and methionine metabolism and its regulation in dairy starter and related bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.; Prakash, C.; Nauta, A.; Siezen, R.J.; Francke, C.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfuric volatile compounds derived from cysteine and methionine provide many dairy products with a characteristic odor and taste. To better understand and control the environmental dependencies of sulfuric volatile compound formation by the dairy starter bacteria, we have used the available genome

  17. Characterisation of Potential Antimicrobial Targets in Bacillus spp. I. Aminotransferases and Methionine Regeneration in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    m6thionine A partir de kdtomdthiobutyrate, en utilisant les aminoacides aromatiques et de chaine ramifi6e. Le produit g6nmtique ybgE 6tait le plus actif de...methionine in tomato tissue in relation to ethylene production. Plant Physiology, 70, p. 117-121. 6. Marchitto, K. S. and Ferro, A. J. (1985). The metabolism

  18. Corynebacterium diphtheriae methionine sulfoxide reductase a exploits a unique mycothiol redox relay mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Pedre, Brandán; Wahni, Khadija; Erdogan, Huriye; Vertommen, Didier; Van Molle, Inge; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are conserved enzymes that reduce oxidized methionines in proteins and play a pivotal role in cellular redox signaling. We have unraveled the redox relay mechanisms of methionine sulfoxide reductase A of the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd-MsrA) and shown that this enzyme is coupled to two independent redox relay pathways. Steady-state kinetics combined with mass spectrometry of Cd-MsrA mutants give a view of the essential cysteine residues for catalysis. Cd-MsrA combines a nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction with an intramolecular disulfide bond cascade linked to the thioredoxin pathway. Within this cascade, the oxidative equivalents are transferred to the surface of the protein while releasing the reduced substrate. Alternatively, MsrA catalyzes methionine sulfoxide reduction linked to the mycothiol/mycoredoxin-1 pathway. After the nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction, MsrA forms a mixed disulfide with mycothiol, which is transferred via a thiol disulfide relay mechanism to a second cysteine for reduction by mycoredoxin-1. With x-ray crystallography, we visualize two essential intermediates of the thioredoxin relay mechanism and a cacodylate molecule mimicking the substrate interactions in the active site. The interplay of both redox pathways in redox signaling regulation forms the basis for further research into the oxidative stress response of this pathogen.

  19. Modulatory effect of curcumin on methionine-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Puneet; Ansari, M Nazam; Bhandari, Uma

    2008-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant effect of curcumin on methionine-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in Wistar rats (200-250 g) of either sex. The vehicle control rats were treated with 1% Tween 80 in normal saline (2 ml/kg, po) for 30 days. Hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia was induced by methionine administration (1 g/kg, po) for 30 days. A significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and homocysteine levels in serum and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in heart homogenates were observed with a concomitant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) levels in pathogenic control (i.e. group II) rats, as compared to vehicle control (i.e. group I) rats. Further, curcumin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment in methionine treated rats for 30 days significantly decreased the total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and homocysteine levels in serum and TBARS levels in heart homogenates and increased serum HDL-C levels, as compared to pathogenic control (i.e. group II) rats. The results of biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of rat's aortic section. The results of test drug were comparable to that obtained with folic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The results suggest that curcumin has significant antihyperlipidemic and antihyperhomocysteinemic effect against methionine-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in rats.

  20. Comparison of C-11-methionine PET and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Ha T. T.; Jager, Pieter L.; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Links, Thera P.

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate the possibility of C-11-methionine (Met) PET compared with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and methods Twenty patient

  1. The First International Mini-Symposium on Methionine Restriction and Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene eAbles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been 20 years since the Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science, under the leadership Dr. Norman Orentreich, first reported that low methionine (Met ingestion by rats extends lifespan [1]. Since then, several studies have replicated the effects of dietary methionine restriction (MR in delaying age-related diseases [2–5]. We report the abstracts from the First International Mini-Symposium on Methionine Restriction and Lifespan held in Tarrytown, NY last September 2013. The goals were 1 to gather researchers with an interest in methionine restriction and lifespan, 2 to exchange knowledge, 3 to generate ideas for future investigations, and 4 to strengthen relationships within this community. The presentations highlighted the importance of research on cysteine, growth hormone (GH, and ATF4 in the paradigm of aging. In addition, the effects of dietary restriction or MR in the kidneys, liver, bones and the adipose tissue were discussed. The symposium also emphasized the value of other species, e.g. the naked mole rat, Brandt’s bat and drosophila in aging research. Overall, the symposium consolidated scientists with similar research interests and provided opportunities to conduct future collaborative studies.

  2. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  3. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-1-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASEStephen B. Waters, Ph.D., Miroslav Styblo, Ph.D., Melinda A. Beck, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., U.S. Environmental...

  4. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (CYT19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (cyt19)Stephen B. Waters1 , Felicia Walton1 , Miroslav Styblo1 , Karen Herbin-Davis2, and David J. Thomas2 1 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chape...

  5. Methionine- and choline-deficient diet induces hepatic changes characteristic of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Marcolin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a disease with a high incidence, difficult diagnosis, and as yet no effective treatment. So, the use of experimental models for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induction and the study of its routes of development have been studied. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to develop an experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a methionine- and choline-deficient diet that is manufactured in Brazil so as to evaluate the liver alterations resulting from the disorder. METHODS: Thirty male C57BL6 mice divided in two groups (n = 15 were used: the experimental group fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet manufactured by Brazilian company PragSoluções®, and the control group fed a normal diet, for a period of 2 weeks. The animals were then killed by exsanguination to sample blood for systemic biochemical analyses, and subsequently submitted to laparotomy with total hepatectomy and preparation of the material for histological analysis. The statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for independent samples, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The mice that received the methionine- and choline-deficient diet showed weight loss and significant increase in hepatic damage enzymes, as well as decreased systemic levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and VLDL. The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was performed in 100% of the mice that were fed the methionine- and choline-deficient diet. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed some degree of macrovesicular steatosis, ballooning, and inflammatory process. None of the animals which were fed the control diet presented histological alterations. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed significantly increased lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH activity. CONCLUSION: The low cost and easily accessible methionine- and choline-deficient diet explored in this study is highly effective in

  6. The effect on endothelial function of vitamin C during methionine induced hyperhomocysteinaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ian S

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manipulation of total homocysteine concentration with oral methionine is associated with impairment of endothelial-dependent vasodilation. This may be caused by increased oxidative stress. Vitamin C is an aqueous phase antioxidant vitamin and free radical scavenger. We hypothesised that if the impairment of endothelial function related to experimental hyperhomocysteinaemia was free radically mediated then co-administration of vitamin C should prevent this. Methods Ten healthy adults took part in this crossover study. Endothelial function was determined by measuring forearm blood flow (FBF in response to intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (endothelial-dependent and sodium nitroprusside (endothelial-independent. Subjects received methionine (100 mg/Kg plus placebo tablets, methionine plus vitamin C (2 g orally or placebo drink plus placebo tablets. Study drugs were administered at 9 am on each study date, a minimum of two weeks passed between each study. Homocysteine (tHcy concentration was determined at baseline and after 4 hours. Endothelial function was determined at 4 hours. Responses to the vasoactive substances are expressed as the area under the curve of change in FBF from baseline. Data are mean plus 95% Confidence Intervals. Results Following oral methionine tHcy concentration increased significantly versus placebo. At this time endothelial-dependent responses were significantly reduced compared to placebo (31.2 units [22.1-40.3] vs. 46.4 units [42.0-50.8], p Conclusions This study demonstrates that methionine increased tHcy with impairment of the endothelial-dependent vasomotor responses. Administration of vitamin C did not prevent this impairment and our results do not support the hypothesis that the endothelial impairment is mediated by adverse oxidative stress.

  7. An investigation into eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ross D; Lu, Chuan

    2014-08-01

    A common post-transcriptional modification of RNA is the conversion of uridine to its isomer pseudouridine. We investigated the biological significance of eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We conducted a comprehensive statistical analysis on growth data from automated perturbation (gene deletion) experiments, and used bi-logistic curve analysis to characterise the yeast phenotypes. The deletant strains displayed different alteration in growth properties, including in some cases enhanced growth and/or biphasic growth curves not seen in wild-type strains under matched conditions. These results demonstrate that disrupting pseudouridine synthases can have a significant qualitative effect on growth. We further investigated the significance of post-transcriptional pseudouridine modification through investigation of the scientific literature. We found that (1) In Toxoplasma gondii, a pseudouridine synthase gene is critical in cellular differentiation between the two asexual forms: Tachyzoites and bradyzoites; (2) Mutation of pseudouridine synthase genes has also been implicated in human diseases (mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA); dyskeratosis congenita). Taken together, these results are consistent with pseudouridine synthases having a Gene Ontology function of "biological regulation".

  8. Engineering of the aspartate family biosynthetic pathway in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by transformation with heterologous genes encoding feed-back-insensitive aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Galili, G; Knudsen, S

    1996-01-01

    In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). In order to modify the flux through the aspartate family pathway in barley and enhance the...... as observed in T0 seeds. It is concluded that the aspartate family pathway may be genetically engineered by the introduction of genes coding for feed-back-insensitive enzymes, preferentially giving elevated levels of lysine and methionine....

  9. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk.

  10. Bacillus caldolyticus prs gene encoding phosphoribosyldiphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase, as well as the flanking DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced from the Gram-positive thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. Comparison with the homologous sequences from the mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, revealed a gene (gca......D) encoding N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphate uridyltransferase upstream of prs, and a gene homologous to ctc downstream of prs. cDNA synthesis with a B. caldolyticus gcaD-prs-ctc-specified mRNA as template, followed by amplification utilising the polymerase chain reaction indicated that the three genes are co......-transcribed. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity among PRPP synthases across a wide phylogenetic range. An E. coli strain harbouring the B. caldolyticus prs gene in a multicopy plasmid produced PRPP synthase activity 33-fold over the activity of a haploid B. caldolyticus strain. B. caldolyticus...

  11. The Methionine Transamination Pathway Controls Hepatic Glucose Metabolism through Regulation of the GCN5 Acetyltransferase and the PGC-1α Transcriptional Coactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Clint D J; Sharabi, Kfir; Dominy, John E; Lee, Yoonjin; Isasa, Marta; Orozco, Jose M; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Griffin, Patrick R; Gygi, Steven P; Puigserver, Pere

    2016-05-13

    Methionine is an essential sulfur amino acid that is engaged in key cellular functions such as protein synthesis and is a precursor for critical metabolites involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In mammals, in response to nutrient conditions, the liver plays a significant role in regulating methionine concentrations by altering its flux through the transmethylation, transsulfuration, and transamination metabolic pathways. A comprehensive understanding of how hepatic methionine metabolism intersects with other regulatory nutrient signaling and transcriptional events is, however, lacking. Here, we show that methionine and derived-sulfur metabolites in the transamination pathway activate the GCN5 acetyltransferase promoting acetylation of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α to control hepatic gluconeogenesis. Methionine was the only essential amino acid that rapidly induced PGC-1α acetylation through activating the GCN5 acetyltransferase. Experiments employing metabolic pathway intermediates revealed that methionine transamination, and not the transmethylation or transsulfuration pathways, contributed to methionine-induced PGC-1α acetylation. Moreover, aminooxyacetic acid, a transaminase inhibitor, was able to potently suppress PGC-1α acetylation stimulated by methionine, which was accompanied by predicted alterations in PGC-1α-mediated gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production in primary murine hepatocytes. Methionine administration in mice likewise induced hepatic PGC-1α acetylation, suppressed the gluconeogenic gene program, and lowered glycemia, indicating that a similar phenomenon occurs in vivo These results highlight a communication between methionine metabolism and PGC-1α-mediated hepatic gluconeogenesis, suggesting that influencing methionine metabolic flux has the potential to be therapeutically exploited for diabetes treatment.

  12. Possible effects of delivering methionine to broilers in drinking water at constant low and high environmental temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin Cadirci; Seyrani Koncagul

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of water-soluble DL-methionine supplied through water and feed on the performance and carcass yield of broilers housed at two constant temperatures from 21 to 42 days of age. Birds were housed in two rooms (240 birds per room) with temperatures set at 21±2 and 30±2oC, respectively. Birds were divided into five groups of equal number within each room and fed five different diets (G1-G5). A low-methionine basal diet without supplemental methionin...

  13. Bio-efficacy comparison of herbal-methionine and DL-methionine based on performance and blood parameters of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Hadinia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the bio-efficacy of herbal methionine (H-Met relative to DL-methionine (DL-Met on 160 “Ross 308” broiler chickens. DL-Met and H-Met were added to the basal diet in eight experimental treatments with three and four concentrations respectively in starter, grower and finisher period. Blood parameters which were measured at 24 and 42 days of age consisted of: serum proteins (total protein, albumin and globulin, serum uric acid, serum fats (low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, triglyceride and cholesterol and serum enzymes (alanine amino transaminase and aspartate amino transaminase. Completely randomized design, multi-exponential and multilinear regressions were used to determine bio-efficacy of H-Met in terms of performance and blood parameters of broilers. The results showed that supplemented methionine (Met sources had no significant effect on blood parameters at 24 day of age. At 42 day of age the amounts of globulin and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL increased with supplemented Met, (p < 0.05. Regression analysis revealed that H-Met was 55.00, 71.00, 78.00, 47.00, 58.00 and 73.00% as efficacious as DL-Met for body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, albumin, globulin and high density lipoprotein criteria, respectively. The average of bio-efficacy of H-Met compared to DL-Met was 67.00% and 59.00% on average across performance criteria and blood criteria respectively and was 63.00% across these two criteria tested. The results of the present study indicated that H-Met can be administered as a new and a natural source of Met in poultry industry.

  14. The tomato terpene synthase gene family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falara, V.; Akhtar, T.A.; Nguyen, T.T.H.; Spyropoulou, E.A.; Bleeker, P.M.; Schauvinhold, I.; Matsuba, Y.; Bonini, M.E.; Schilmiller, A.L.; Last, R.L.; Schuurink, R.C.; Pichersky, E.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play many roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of Solanum lycopersicum (cultivated tomato) contains 40 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 28

  15. Cloning of parsley flavone synthase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, S; Forkmann, G; Matern, U; Lukacin, R

    2001-09-01

    A cDNA encoding flavone synthase I was amplified by RT-PCR from leaflets of Petroselinum crispum cv. Italian Giant seedlings and functionally expressed in yeast cells. The identity of the recombinant, 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzyme was verified in assays converting (2S)-naringenin to apigenin.

  16. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joles, JA; Vos, IH; Grone, HJ; Rabelink, TJ

    2002-01-01

    The importance of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been well established. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide has been shown to be essential for vascular homeostasis and modulation of eNOS has thus become a target in prevention of cardiovascular disease. The role of the induc

  17. Activities of methionine-γ-lyase in the acidophilic archaeon “Ferroplasma acidarmanus” strain fer1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available M A Khan,1 Madeline M López-Muñoz,2 Charles W Kaspar,3 Kai F Hung1 1Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL, USA; 2Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; 3Bacteriology Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Biogeochemical processes on exposed pyrite ores result in extremely high levels of sulfuric acid at these locations. Acidophiles that thrive in these conditions must overcome significant challenges, including an environment with proton concentrations at pH 3 or below. The role of sulfur metabolism in the archaeon “Ferroplasma acidarmanus” strain fer1's ability to thrive in this environment was investigated due to its growth-dependent production of methanethiol, a volatile organic sulfur compound. Two putative sequences for methionine-γ-lyase (EC 4.4.1.11, an enzyme known to carry out α, γ-elimination on L-methionine to produce methanethiol, were identified in fer1. Bioinformatic analyses identified a conserved pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP binding domain and a partially conserved catalytic domain in both putative sequences. Detection of PLP-dependent and L-methionine-dependent production of α-keto compounds and thiol groups in fer1 confirmed the presence of methionine-γ-lyase activity. Further, fer1 lysate was capable of processing related substrates, including D-methionine, L-cysteine, L-cystathionine, and L/D-homocysteine. When the two putative fer1 methionine-γ-lyase gene-coded proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, one sequence demonstrated an ability to carry out α, γ-elimination activity, while the other exhibited γ-replacement activity. These fer1 methionine-γ-lyases also exhibited optimum pH, substrate specificity, and catalytic preferences that are different from methionine-γ-lyases from other organisms. These differences are discussed in the context of molecular phylogeny constructed using a maximum

  18. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana- ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  19. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarup Roy Choudhury; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Sujit Roy; Dibyendu N Sengupta

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana-ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  20. Protection of methionine in peptides during iodination by sulfonium salt formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, M.; Klauschenz, E.; Niedrich, H. (Institute of Drug Research, GDR Academy of Sciences, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)); Nikolics, K. (Institute of Biochemistry, Semmelweis University Medical School, Budapest, Hungary)

    1982-01-01

    A method for the prevention of methionine oxidation during iodination of tyrosine containing peptides is reported. The methionine containing peptide is converted into the corresponding S-tert.-butylsulfonium derivative, which is iodinated using iodine monochloride. After removal of the S-tert.-butyl group and purification, sulfoxide-free 3,5 diiodotyrosine (Dit) peptides were obtained. Dit/sup 8/-substance P, Dit/sup 8/-physalaemin/sup 6 -11/ and Dit/sup 1/, Met/sup 5/-enkephalin were synthesized by this route. Tritium labeling of Dit/sup 1/, Met/sup 5/-enkephalin yielded /sup 3/H-enkephalin with a specific radioactivity of 38 Ci/mmol.

  1. Study on Lysine and Methionine Content Promotion of Soybean Meal by Probiotic Fermentation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhi-yong; Gao Xue-jun; Huang Jian-guo; Liu Rong; Liu Ying; Qiao Bin; Qiu You-wen

    2012-01-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is commonly used for livestock feeds, but its application in diets for livestock is limited due to some antinutritional factors. The contents of methionine and lysine of soybean meal were promoted by Bacillus natto and Leuconostoc mesenteroides fermentation, benefial for the livestock feeds. It was crude protein (CP) 56.8%, methionine 43.56 mg · g^-1, and lysine 74.87 mg · g^-1, cows fed a diet with FSBM milk yield raised 14.2%, the change in the milk protein, the lactose and the dry matter content had also obvious increase. This convenient technique offers helpful exploration for industrialization of soybean meal fermentation.

  2. Structural Transitions Induced by a Recombinant Methionine-Trigger in Silk Spidroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna; Winkler, Stefan; Valluzzi, Regina; Kaplan, David

    2000-03-01

    Control of beta sheet formation is an important factor in the understanding and prediction of structural transitions and protein folding. In genetically engineered silk proteins this control has been achieved using oxidative triggers. A genetically engineered variant of a spider silk protein, and a peptide analog, based on the consensus sequence of Nephila clavipes dragline silk, were modified to include methionines flanking the beta sheet forming polyalanine regions. These methionines could be selectively reduced and oxidized, altering the bulkiness and charge of the sulfhydryl group to control beta sheet formation by steric hindrance. Biophysical characterization and monitoring of structural transitions and intermediates were accomplished through attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) for solution state structures in both oxidized and reduced forms. For solid state structural characterization, IR microscopy and reflectance IR experiments were performed. Electron diffraction data as well as circular dichroism studies provide structural corroboration for all experiments in which reproducible sample preparation was achieved.

  3. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Castellano

    Full Text Available Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL or a deficient methionine supply (MD during 10 days (n=6 per group. At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently

  4. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  5. Peroxynitrite inhibits inducible (type 2) nitric oxide synthase in murine lung epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, V K; Sato, E; Nelson, D K; Camhi, S L; Robbins, R A; Hoyt, J C

    2001-05-01

    Peroxynitrite, formed by nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide, can alter protein function by nitrating amino acids such as tyrosine, cysteine, trytophan, or methionine. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (Type 2 NOS or iNOS) converts arginine to citrulline, releasing NO. We hypothesized that peroxynitrite could function as a negative feedback modulator of NO production by nitration of iNOS. Confluent cultures of the murine lung epithelial cell line, LA-4 were stimulated with cytokines to express iNOS, peroxynitrite was added, and the flasks sealed. After 3 h, NO in the headspace above the culture was sampled. Peroxynitrite caused a concentration-dependent decrease in NO. Similar results were obtained when 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite generator, was added to the flasks. PAPA-NONOate, the NO generator, did not affect the headspace NO. Nitration of the iNOS was confirmed by detection of 3-nitrotyrosine by Western blotting. These data suggest a mechanism for inhibition of NO synthesis at inflammatory sites where iNOS, NO, and superoxide would be expected.

  6. Bioenergetic relevance of hydrogen sulfide and the interplay between gasotransmitters at human cystathionine β-synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, João B; Malagrinò, Francesca; Arese, Marzia; Forte, Elena; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Merely considered as a toxic gas in the past, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is currently viewed as the third 'gasotransmitter' in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), playing a key signalling role in human (patho)physiology. H2S can either act as a substrate or, similarly to CO and NO, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration, in the latter case by targeting cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX). The impact of H(2)S on mitochondrial energy metabolism crucially depends on the bioavailability of this gaseous molecule and its interplay with the other two gasotransmitters. The H(2)S-producing human enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), sustaining cellular bioenergetics in colorectal cancer cells, plays a role in the interplay between gasotransmitters. The enzyme was indeed recently shown to be negatively modulated by physiological concentrations of CO and NO, particularly in the presence of its allosteric activator S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet). These newly discovered regulatory mechanisms are herein reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  7. Homology modeling of Homo sapiens lipoic acid synthase: Substrate docking and insights on its binding mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Ezhilarasi; Hassan, Sameer; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Padmalayam, Indira; Rajaram, Rama; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2017-05-07

    Lipoic acid synthase (LIAS) is an iron-sulfur cluster mitochondrial enzyme which catalyzes the final step in the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant. Recently there has been significant interest in its role in metabolic diseases and its deficiency in LIAS expression has been linked to conditions such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and neonatal-onset epilepsy, suggesting a strong inverse correlation between LIAS reduction and disease status. In this study we use a bioinformatics approach to predict its structure, which would be helpful to understanding its role. A homology model for LIAS protein was generated using X-ray crystallographic structure of Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (PDB ID: 4U0P). The predicted structure has 93% of the residues in the most favour region of Ramachandran plot. The active site of LIAS protein was mapped and docked with S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAM) using GOLD software. The LIAS-SAM complex was further refined using molecular dynamics simulation within the subsite 1 and subsite 3 of the active site. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report a reliable homology model of LIAS protein. This study will facilitate a better understanding mode of action of the enzyme-substrate complex for future studies in designing drugs that can target LIAS protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The feed value in growing pigs of a new cultivar of field beans (Vicia faba L.) supplemented with DL-methionine or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, H j; Burghard, G

    2002-02-01

    A basal control mixture of barley, soy bean meal and soy bean oil was replaced by 25% of the new field bean-cultivar 'Divine' and the resulting two mixtures were supplemented with minerals, trace elements, vitamins and amino acids according to the ideal protein concept. The control diet was adjusted with DL-methionine (DL-Met), the field bean mixture either with DL-Met or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalogue (DL-MHA) assuming biological equivalence on a molar basis for both supplements. The three experimental diets were fed to growing pigs (35-40 kg bwt.). Spontaneous urine samples were analysed separately for determining parameters that characterize the acid-base status of the pigs. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in nutrient digestibilities. The level of bacterially fermentable substances was increased in the diets containing field beans. The field beans contained 14 mg ME/kg DM. There were no significant (p < 0,05) differences in N- and mineral-retentions (Ca, P, Na, K) between the treatments. The stronger alkalinity found in urine after feeding the field bean mixtures resulted from a higher electrolyte balance of the diet.

  9. Trichinella pseudospiralis vs. T. spiralis thymidylate synthase gene structure and T. pseudospiralis thymidylate synthase retrogene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielska, Elżbieta; Płucienniczak, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Magdalena; Dowierciał, Anna; Rode, Wojciech

    2014-04-09

    Thymidylate synthase is a housekeeping gene, designated ancient due to its role in DNA synthesis and ubiquitous phyletic distribution. The genomic sequences were characterized coding for thymidylate synthase in two species of the genus Trichinella, an encapsulating T. spiralis and a non-encapsulating T. pseudospiralis. Based on the sequence of parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis thymidylate synthase cDNA, PCR techniques were employed. Each of the respective gene structures encompassed 6 exons and 5 introns located in conserved sites. Comparison with the corresponding gene structures of other eukaryotic species revealed lack of common introns that would be shared among selected fungi, nematodes, mammals and plants. The two deduced amino acid sequences were 96% identical. In addition to the thymidylate synthase gene, the intron-less retrocopy, i.e. a processed pseudogene, with sequence identical to the T. spiralis gene coding region, was found to be present within the T. pseudospiralis genome. This pseudogene, instead of the gene, was confirmed by RT-PCR to be expressed in the parasite muscle larvae. Intron load, as well as distribution of exon and intron phases in thymidylate synthase genes from various sources, point against the theory of gene assembly by the primordial exon shuffling and support the theory of evolutionary late intron insertion into spliceosomal genes. Thymidylate synthase pseudogene expressed in T. pseudospiralis muscle larvae is designated a retrogene.

  10. Conformational dependence of {sup 13}C shielding and coupling constants for methionine methyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterfoss, Glenn L. [New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences and the Center for Genomics and Systems Biology (United States); DeRose, Eugene F.; Gabel, Scott A.; Perera, Lalith; Krahn, Joseph M.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.; Zheng Xunhai; London, Robert E., E-mail: London@niehs.nih.go [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH, Laboratory of Structural Biology (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Methionine residues fulfill a broad range of roles in protein function related to conformational plasticity, ligand binding, and sensing/mediating the effects of oxidative stress. A high degree of internal mobility, intrinsic detection sensitivity of the methyl group, and low copy number have made methionine labeling a popular approach for NMR investigation of selectively labeled protein macromolecules. However, selective labeling approaches are subject to more limited information content. In order to optimize the information available from such studies, we have performed DFT calculations on model systems to evaluate the conformational dependence of {sup 3}J{sub CSCC}, {sup 3}J{sub CSCH}, and the isotropic shielding, {sigma}{sub iso}. Results have been compared with experimental data reported in the literature, as well as data obtained on [methyl-{sup 13}C]methionine and on model compounds. These studies indicate that relative to oxygen, the presence of the sulfur atom in the coupling pathway results in a significantly smaller coupling constant, {sup 3}J{sub CSCC}/{sup 3}J{sub COCC} {approx} 0.7. It is further demonstrated that the {sup 3}J{sub CSCH} coupling constant depends primarily on the subtended CSCH dihedral angle, and secondarily on the CSCC dihedral angle. Comparison of theoretical shielding calculations with the experimental shift range of the methyl group for methionine residues in proteins supports the conclusion that the intra-residue conformationally-dependent shift perturbation is the dominant determinant of {delta}{sup 13}C{epsilon}. Analysis of calmodulin data based on these calculations indicates that several residues adopt non-standard rotamers characterized by very large {approx}100{sup o} {chi}{sup 3} values. The utility of the {delta}{sup 13}C{epsilon} as a basis for estimating the gauche/trans ratio for {chi}{sup 3} is evaluated, and physical and technical factors that limit the accuracy of both the NMR and crystallographic analyses are

  11. Methionine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin in human sympathoadrenal system and pheochromocytoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimasa, T; Nakao, K; Ohtsuki, H; Li, S; Imura, H.

    1982-01-01

    To elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological significance of methionine- and leucine-enkephalin (Met-and Leu-enkephalin, respectively) in human sympathoadrenal system, the contents of these peptides in normal human sympathetic nervous system, adrenal medulla, and pheochromocytomas were determined by specific radioimmunoassays combined with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Met-enkephalin-LI and Leu-enkephalin-LI, respectively) were detected by radioimmunoassay in ...

  12. The two authentic methionine aminopeptidase genes are differentially expressed in Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YiPing

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two putative methionine aminopeptidase genes, map (essential and yflG (non-essential, were identified in the genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis. We investigated whether they can function as methionine aminopeptidases and further explored possible reasons for their essentiality or dispensability in B. subtilis. Results In silico analysis of MAP evolution uncovered a coordinated pattern of MAP and deformylase that did not correlate with the pattern of 16S RNA evolution. Biochemical assays showed that both MAP (MAP_Bs and YflG (YflG_Bs from B. subtilis overproduced in Escherichia coli and obtained as pure proteins exhibited a methionine aminopeptidase activity in vitro. Compared with MAP_Bs, YflG_Bs was approximately two orders of magnitude more efficient when assayed on synthetic peptide substrates. Both map and yflG genes expressed in multi-copy plasmids could complement the function of a defective map gene in the chromosomes of both E. coli and B. subtilis. In contrast, lacZ gene transcriptional fusions showed that the promoter activity of map was 50 to 100-fold higher than that of yflG. Primer extension analysis detected the transcription start site of the yflG promoter. Further work identified that YvoA acted as a possible weak repressor of yflG expression in B. subtilis in vivo. Conclusion Both MAP_Bs and YflG_Bs are functional methionine aminopeptidases in vitro and in vivo. The high expression level of map and low expression level of yflG may account for their essentiality and dispensality in B. subtilis, respectively, when cells are grown under laboratory conditions. Their difference in activity on synthetic substrates suggests that they have different protein targets in vivo.

  13. Effect of methionine and lactic acid bacteria as aflatoxin binder on broiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, Lusty; Damayanti, Ema; Julendra, Hardi; Suryani, Ade Erma; Sakti, Awistaros Angger; Anggraeni, Ayu Septi

    2017-06-01

    The use of aflatoxin binder product based amino acids, lacic acid bacteria, and natural product gived the opportunity to be an alternative biological decontamination of aflatoxins. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of aflatoxin binder administration (amino acid methionine and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum G7)) as feed additive on broiler performance. In this study, 75 Lohmann unsexed day old chicks were distributed randomly into 5 units of cages, each filled with 15 broilers. Five cages were assigned into 5 treatments groups and fed with feed contained aflatoxin. The treatments as follow: P1 (aflatoxin feed without aflatoxin binder), P3 (aflatoxin feed + 0.8% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P4 (aflatoxin feed + 1.2% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P5 (aflatoxin feed + 1% of LAB), and K0 (commercial feed). The measurement of aflatoxin content in feed was performed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method using AgraQuant® Total Aflatoxin Assay Romer Labs procedure. The experimental period was 35 days with feeding and drinking ad libitum. LAB was administered into drinking water, while methionine into feed. Vaccination program of Newcastle Disease (ND) was using active vaccine at 4 and 18 day old, while Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) was given at 8 day old. Parameter of body weight was observed weekly, while feed consumption noted daily. The result showed that aflatoxin in feed for 35 days period did not significantly affect the body weight gain and feed conversion. The lowest percentage of organ damage at 21 day old was found in P5 treatment (55%), while at 35day old was found in P4 treatment (64%). It could be concluded that technological process of detoxifying aflatoxin could be applied in an attempt to reduce the effect on the toxicity of aflatoxin in poultry feed.

  14. The methionine chain elongation pathway in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates in Eruca sativa (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graser, G; Schneider, B; Oldham, N J; Gershenzon, J

    2000-06-15

    Glucosinolates are nitrogen- and sulfur-containing plant natural products that have become increasingly important in human affairs as flavor precursors, cancer-prevention agents, and crop protectants. While many glucosinolates are biosynthesized from common amino acids, the major glucosinolates in economically important species of the Brassicaceae, such as Brassica napus (oilseed rape), are thought to be formed from chain-elongated derivatives of methionine or phenylalanine. We investigated the chain elongation pathway for methionine that is involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis in Eruca sativa. Isotopically labeled methionine and acetate were administered to cut leaves and the major product, 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate (isolated as its desulfated derivative), was analyzed by MS and NMR. Administration of ¿U-(13)Cmethionine showed that the entire carbon skeleton of this amino acid, with the exception of the COOH carbon, is incorporated as a unit into 4MTB. Administration of ¿(13)C- and ¿(14)Căcetate gave a labeling pattern consistent with the operation of a three-step chain elongation cycle which begins with the condensation of acetyl-CoA with a 2-oxo acid derived from methionine and ends with an oxidative decarboxylation forming a new 2-oxo acid with one additional methylene group. Administration of ¿(15)Nmethionine provided evidence for the transfer of an amino group to the chain-elongated 2-oxo acid, forming an extended amino acid which serves as a substrate for the remaining steps of glucosinolate biosynthesis. The retention of a high level of (15)N in the products suggests that the amino transfer reactions and the chain elongation cycle are localized in the same subcellular compartment.

  15. Crystal structures of the CusA efflux pump suggest methionine-mediated metal transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Feng; Su, Chih-Chia; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Boyken, Scott E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Jernigan, Robert L.; Yu, Edward W. (Cornell); (Iowa State)

    2010-09-23

    Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, frequently use tripartite efflux complexes in the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family to expel various toxic compounds from the cell. The efflux system CusCBA is responsible for extruding biocidal Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions. No previous structural information was available for the heavy-metal efflux (HME) subfamily of the RND efflux pumps. Here we describe the crystal structures of the inner-membrane transporter CusA in the absence and presence of bound Cu(I) or Ag(I). These CusA structures provide new structural information about the HME subfamily of RND efflux pumps. The structures suggest that the metal-binding sites, formed by a three-methionine cluster, are located within the cleft region of the periplasmic domain. This cleft is closed in the apo-CusA form but open in the CusA-Cu(I) and CusA-Ag(I) structures, which directly suggests a plausible pathway for ion export. Binding of Cu(I) and Ag(I) triggers significant conformational changes in both the periplasmic and transmembrane domains. The crystal structure indicates that CusA has, in addition to the three-methionine metal-binding site, four methionine pairs - three located in the transmembrane region and one in the periplasmic domain. Genetic analysis and transport assays suggest that CusA is capable of actively picking up metal ions from the cytosol, using these methionine pairs or clusters to bind and export metal ions. These structures suggest a stepwise shuttle mechanism for transport between these sites.

  16. Enhancing stress tolerance by overexpression of a methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) gene in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chaomin; Zheng, Liesheng; Zhu, Jihong; Chen, Liguo; Ma, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Proteins are subjected to modification by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and oxidation of specific amino acid residues can impair their biological functions. Methionine as a sulfur-containing amino acid is easily oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetSO). The modified methionine can be repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr), an enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins. In this study, a methionine sulfoxide reductase A (PoMsrA) gene from Pleurotus ostreatus was cloned and characterized. Furthermore, the function of PoMsrA gene was analyzed by overexpression in P. ostreatus via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Stable integration of the target gene into the genome of P. ostreatus was confirmed by PCR, fluorescence observation, and Southern blot hybridization. qRT-PCR analysis showed that PoMsrA was highly expressed in the stage of mature and young fruiting bodies as well as the osmotic stress condition of 0.3 M NaCl. Additionally, the transgenic strains with PoMsrA overexpression exhibited an enhanced tolerance to high temperature, high osmotic stress, and oxidative stress. This suggests that PoMsrA is an active player in the protection of the cellular proteins from oxidative stress damage.

  17. Role of white adipose lipolysis in the development of NASH induced by methionine- and choline-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Naoki; Takahashi, Shogo; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Krausz, Kristopher W; Qu, Aijuan; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-11-01

    Methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) is a model for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rodents. However, the mechanism of NASH development by dietary methionine/choline deficiency remains undetermined. To elucidate the early metabolic changes associated with MCD-NASH, serum metabolomic analysis was performed using mice treated with MCD and control diet for 3 days and 1 week, revealing significant increases in oleic and linoleic acids after MCD treatment. These increases were correlated with reduced body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, increased phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase, and up-regulation of genes encoding carboxylesterase 3 and β2-adrenergic receptor in WAT, indicating accelerated lipolysis in adipocytes. The changes in serum fatty acids and WAT by MCD treatment were reversed by methionine supplementation, and similar alterations were detected in mice fed a methionine-deficient diet (MD), thus demonstrating that dietary methionine deficiency enhances lipolysis in WAT. MD treatment decreased glucose and increased fibroblast growth factor 21 in serum, thus exhibiting a similar metabolic phenotype as the fasting response. Comparison between MCD and choline-deficient diet (CD) treatments suggested that the addition of MD-induced metabolic alterations, such as WAT lipolysis, to CD-induced hepatic steatosis promotes liver injury. Collectively, these results demonstrate an important role for dietary methionine deficiency and WAT lipolysis in the development of MCD-NASH. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Reconstruction of Cysteine Biosynthesis Using Engineered Cysteine-Free and Methionine-Free Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kendrick; Fujishima, Kosuke; Abe, Nozomi; Nakahigashi, Kenji; Endy, Drew; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Ten of the proteinogenic amino acids can be generated abiotically while the remaining thirteen require biology for their synthesis. Paradoxically, the biosynthesis pathways observed in nature require enzymes that are made with the amino acids they produce. For example, Escherichia coli produces cysteine from serine via two enzymes that contain cysteine. Here, we substituted alternate amino acids for cysteine and also methionine, which is biosynthesized from cysteine, in serine acetyl transferase (CysE) and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (CysM). CysE function was rescued by cysteine-and-methionine-free enzymes and CysM function was rescued by cysteine-free enzymes. Structural modeling suggests that methionine stabilizes CysM and is present in the active site of CysM. Cysteine is not conserved among CysE and CysM protein orthologs, suggesting that cysteine is not functionally important for its own synthesis. Engineering biosynthetic enzymes that lack the amino acids being synthesized provides insights into the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis and pathways for bioengineering.

  19. Vibrio cholerae ensures function of host proteins required for virulence through consumption of luminal methionine sulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Audrey S.; Hang, Saiyu; Wong, Adam CN; Asara, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a diarrheal pathogen that induces accumulation of lipid droplets in enterocytes, leading to lethal infection of the model host Drosophila melanogaster. Through untargeted lipidomics, we provide evidence that this process is the product of a host phospholipid degradation cascade that induces lipid droplet coalescence in enterocytes. This infection-induced cascade is inhibited by mutation of the V. cholerae glycine cleavage system due to intestinal accumulation of methionine sulfoxide (MetO), and both dietary supplementation with MetO and enterocyte knock-down of host methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) yield increased resistance to infection. MsrA converts both free and protein-associated MetO to methionine. These findings support a model in which dietary MetO competitively inhibits repair of host proteins by MsrA. Bacterial virulence strategies depend on functional host proteins. We propose a novel virulence paradigm in which an intestinal pathogen ensures the repair of host proteins essential for pathogenesis through consumption of dietary MetO. PMID:28586382

  20. Inhibitory effect of gold nanoparticles conjugated with interferon gamma and methionine on breast cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nastaran Mohseni; Fatemeh Salehi Sarvestani; Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani; Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht; Masoud Ghorbani

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop a gold nanoparticles complex conjugated with interferon-gamma(IFN-g) and methionine along with application of hyperthermia using near-infrared laser beams for the treatment of cancer cells.Methods: Gold nanorods(10 nm) were conjugated with IFN-g and methionine using carbodiimide family and characterized after purification by dialysis bags. Breast cancer cells were cultured and incubated with gold nanorods at different concentrations followed by irradiation with near-infrared laser beam. Samples were then evaluated for their viability in order to determine the effect of treatment and variables by MTT assy.Results: Zetasizer results confirmed the conjugation of gold nanorods with methionine and IFN-g. The median percentage of cell viability in 0.30 mg/m L concentration of gold nanorods was 82%. The cell viability reached to 85% at the same concentration of gold nanorods, which existed in the assayed complex. The results of MTT assay showed that the 0.60 mg/m L concentration of gold nanoparticles complex was toxic on tumor cells(P < 0.05). After exposure to hyperthermia, the viability of cells at 6 min decreased to77% in 0.30 mg/m L concentration of gold nanorods complex.Conclusions: The size and concentration of gold nanorods was not cytotoxic. However,their presence during irradiation near-infrared laser increased the number of dead cells during the treatment of cells.

  1. Understanding Molecular Recognition of Promiscuity of Thermophilic Methionine Adenosyltransferase, sMAT from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengbin; Singh, Shanteri; Zhang, Jianjun; Huber, Tyler D.; Helmich, Kate E.; Sunkara, Manjula; Hurley, Katherine A.; Goff, Randal D.; Bingman, Craig A.; Morris, Andrew J.; Thorson, Jon S.; Phillips, George N.

    2014-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is a family of enzymes that utilizes ATP and methionine to produce S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), the most crucial methyl donor in the biological methylation of biomolecules and bioactive natural products. Here, we report that the MAT from Sulfolobus solfataricus (sMAT), an enzyme from a poorly explored class of the MAT family, has the ability to produce a range of differentially alkylated AdoMet analogs in the presence of non-native methionine analogs and ATP. To investigate the molecular basis for AdoMet analog production, we have crystallized the sMAT in the AdoMet bound, S-adenosylethionine (AdoMet) bound, and unbound forms. Notably, among these structures, the AdoEth-bound form offers the first MAT structure containing a non-native product and cumulatively, these structures add new structural insight into the MAT family and allow for detailed active site comparison with its homologs in E. coli and human. As a thermostable MAT structure from archaea, the structures herein also provide as a basis for future engineering to potentially broaden AdoMet analog production as reagents for methyltransferase-catalyzed ‘alkylrandomization’ and/or the study of methylation in the context of biological processes. PMID:24649856

  2. Regulation of Hematopoiesis and Methionine Homeostasis by mTORC1 Inhibitor NPRL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dutchak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen permease regulator-like 2 (NPRL2 is a component of a conserved complex that inhibits mTORC1 (mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 in response to amino acid insufficiency. Here, we show that NPRL2 is required for mouse viability and that its absence significantly compromises fetal liver hematopoiesis in developing embryos. Moreover, NPRL2 KO embryos have significantly reduced methionine levels and exhibit phenotypes reminiscent of cobalamin (vitamin B12 deficiency. Consistent with this idea, NPRL2 KO liver and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs show defective processing of the cobalamin-transport protein transcobalamin 2, along with impaired lysosomal acidification and lysosomal gene expression. NPRL2 KO MEFs exhibit a significant defect in the cobalamin-dependent synthesis of methionine from homocysteine, which can be rescued by supplementation with cyanocobalamin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a role for NPRL2 and mTORC1 in the regulation of lysosomal-dependent cobalamin processing, methionine synthesis, and maintenance of cellular re-methylation potential, which are important during hematopoiesis.

  3. Predicting side-chain conformations of methionine using a hard-sphere model with stereochemical constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virrueta, A.; Gaines, J.; O'Hern, C. S.; Regan, L.

    2015-03-01

    Current research in the O'Hern and Regan laboratories focuses on the development of hard-sphere models with stereochemical constraints for protein structure prediction as an alternative to molecular dynamics methods that utilize knowledge-based corrections in their force-fields. Beginning with simple hydrophobic dipeptides like valine, leucine, and isoleucine, we have shown that our model is able to reproduce the side-chain dihedral angle distributions derived from sets of high-resolution protein crystal structures. However, methionine remains an exception - our model yields a chi-3 side-chain dihedral angle distribution that is relatively uniform from 60 to 300 degrees, while the observed distribution displays peaks at 60, 180, and 300 degrees. Our goal is to resolve this discrepancy by considering clashes with neighboring residues, and averaging the reduced distribution of allowable methionine structures taken from a set of crystallized proteins. We will also re-evaluate the electron density maps from which these protein structures are derived to ensure that the methionines and their local environments are correctly modeled. This work will ultimately serve as a tool for computing side-chain entropy and protein stability. A. V. is supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and a Ford Foundation Fellowship. J. G. is supported by NIH training Grant NIH-5T15LM007056-28.

  4. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Lopez-Figueroa, M.; Hellsten, Ylva

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated the cellular localization of the neuronal type I and endothelial type III nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle. Type I NO synthase immunoreactivity was found in the sarcolemma and the cytoplasm of all muscle fibres. Stronger immunoreactivity was expressed...... I NO synthase immunoreactivity and NADPH diaphorase activity. Type III NO synthase immunoreactivity was observed both in the endothelium of larger vessels and of microvessels. The results establish that human skeletal muscle expresses two different constitutive isoforms of NO synthase in different...... endothelium is consistent with a role for NO in the control of blood flow in human skeletal muscle....

  5. Cellulose Synthases and Synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Endler; Staffan Persson

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are complex structures composed of high-molecular-weight polysaccharides,proteins,and lignins. Among the wall polysaccharides,cellulose,a hydrogen-bonded β-1,4-linked glucan microfibril,is the main load-bearing wall component and a key precursor for industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized by large multi-meric cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes,tracking along cortical microtubules at the plasma membrane. The only known components of these complexes are the cellulose synthase proteins. Recent studies have identified tentative interaction partners for the CesAs and shown that the migratory patterns of the CesA complexes depend on phosphorylation status. These advances may become good platforms for expanding our knowledge about cellulose synthesis in the near future. In addition,our current understanding of cellulose chain polymerization in the context of the CesA complex is discussed.

  6. A dodecylamine derivative of cyanocobalamin potently inhibits the activities of cobalamin‐dependent methylmalonyl‐CoA mutase and methionine synthase of Caenorhabditis elegans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bito, Tomohiro; Yabuta, Yukinori; Ichiyanagi, Tsuyoshi; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we showed that cyanocobalamin dodecylamine, a ribose 5′‐carbamate derivative of cyanocobalamin, was absorbed and accumulated to significant levels by Caenorhabditis elegans and was not further metabolized...

  7. Building-block selectivity of polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Grace F; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-04-01

    For the past decade, polyketide synthases have presented an exciting paradigm for the controlled manipulation of complex natural product structure. These multifunctional enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products by stepwise condensation and modification of metabolically derived building blocks. In particular, regioselective modification of polyketide structure is possible by alterations in either intracellular acyl-CoA pools or, more commonly, by manipulation of acyl transferases that act as the primary gatekeepers for building blocks.

  8. Evaluation of Methionine Content in a High-Fat and Choline-Deficient Diet on Body Weight Gain and the Development of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Sachina; Sato, Yoko; Itoh, Tatsuki; Umegaki, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a globally recognized liver disease. A methionine- and choline-deficient diet is used to induce NASH in mice; however, this diet also causes severe body weight loss. To resolve this issue, we examined the effects of methionine content in a high-fat and choline-deficient (HFCD) diet on body weight and the development of NASH in mice. C57BL/6J mice (male, 10 weeks of age) were fed an L-amino acid rodent (control) diet, high-fat (HF) diet, or HFCD diet containing various amounts of methionine (0.1-0.6% (w/w)) for 12 weeks. Plasma lipid levels, hepatic lipid content and inflammatory marker gene expression were measured, and a pathological analysis was conducted to evaluate NASH. The 0.1% methionine in HFCD diet suppressed body weight gain, which was lower than that with control diet. On the other hand, the 0.2% methionine in HFCD diet yielded similar body weight gains as the control diet, while more than 0.4% methionine showed the same body weight gains as the HF diet. Liver weights and hepatic lipid contents were the greatest with 0.1% methionine and decreased in a methionine dose-dependent manner. Pathological analysis, NAFLD activity scores and gene expression levels in the liver revealed that 0.1% and 0.2% methionine for 12 weeks induced NASH, whereas 0.4% and 0.6% methionine attenuated the induction of NASH by HFCD diet. However, the 0.2% methionine in HFCD diet did not induce insulin resistance, despite the body weight gain. The 0.2% methionine in HFCD diet for 12 weeks was able to induce NASH without weight loss.

  9. Pig performance increases with the addition of DL-methionine and L-lysine to ensiled cassava leaf protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Nguyen Thi Hoa; Ngoan, Le Duc; Verstegen, Martin Wilhelmus Antonius; Hendriks, Wouter Hendrikus

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the impact of supplementation of diets containing ensiled cassava leaves as the main protein source with synthetic amino acids, DL-methionine alone or with L-lysine. In study 1, a total of 40 pigs in five units, all cross-breds between Large White and Mong Cai, with an average initial body weight of 20.5 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments consisting of a basal diet containing 45% of dry matter (DM) from ensiled cassava leaves (ECL) and ensiled cassava root supplemented with 0%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% DL-methionine (as DM). Results showed a significantly improved performance and protein gain by extra methionine. This reduced the feed cost by 2.6%, 7.2% and 7.5%, respectively. In study 2, there were three units and in each unit eight cross-bred (Large White × Mong Cai) pigs with an initial body weight of 20.1 kg were randomly assigned to the four treatments. The four diets were as follows: a basal diet containing 15% ECL (as DM) supplemented with different amounts of amino acids L-lysine and DL-methionine to the control diet. The results showed that diets with 15% of DM as ECL with supplementation of 0.2% lysine +0.1% DL-methionine and 0.1% lysine +0.05% DL-methionine at the 20-50 kg and above 50 kg, respectively, resulted in the best performance, protein gain and lowest costs for cross-bred (Large White × Mong Cai) pigs. Ensiled cassava leaves can be used as a protein supplement for feeding pigs provided the diets contain additional amounts of synthetic lysine and methionine.

  10. Identification of oxidized methionine sites in erythrocyte membrane protein by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry peptide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Takazaki, Shinya; Jin, Xiuri; Kang, Dongchon; Abe, Yoshito; Hamasaki, Naotaka

    2006-10-03

    In this study, we used peptide mapping combined with liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI MS) to examine the methionine oxidation of band 3 of erythrocyte membrane protein. Initially, we identified the methionine sites oxidized by chloramine T (N-chloro-p-toluenesulfoamide), a hydrophilic reagent. There were three oxidized methionines (Met 559, Met 741, and Met 909) in band 3, and these methionines were located in a hydrophilic region determined by previous topological studies of band 3. In addition, we found that C12E8, a polyoxyethylene detergent, leads to the oxidation of methionines in a transmembrane segment in band 3, and this oxidation occurs in a C12E8 preincubation time-dependent manner. In a previous study, it was found that peroxides accumulate in a polyoxyethylene detergent. Thus, our method enabled the direct and quantitative detection of protein damage due to detergent peroxides. Furthermore, we examined methionine oxidation in the presence of 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNDS) or diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), which induced either an outward or an inward conformation in band 3, respectively. Our results indicated that the location of Met 741 was associated with the band 3 conformation induced by band 3-mediated anion transport. In conclusion, we found that methionine oxidation can be applied to examine membrane protein structures as follows: (1) for topological studies of membrane proteins, (2) for assessing the quality of proteins in detergent solubilization studies, and (3) for the detection of conformational changes in membrane proteins.

  11. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase operates in planta as a bifunctional enzyme with chrysanthemol synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Liping; Hu, Hao; Stoopen, Geert; Wang, Caiyun; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2014-12-26

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is the first pathway-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins, the most widely used plant-derived pesticide. CDS catalyzes c1'-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to yield chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP). Three proteins are known to catalyze this cyclopropanation reaction of terpene precursors. Two of them, phytoene and squalene synthase, are bifunctional enzymes with both prenyltransferase and terpene synthase activity. CDS, the other member, has been reported to perform only the prenyltransferase step. Here we show that the NDXXD catalytic motif of CDS, under the lower substrate conditions prevalent in plants, also catalyzes the next step, converting CPP into chrysanthemol by hydrolyzing the diphosphate moiety. The enzymatic hydrolysis reaction followed conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value for CPP of 196 μm. For the chrysanthemol synthase activity, DMAPP competed with CPP as substrate. The DMAPP concentration required for half-maximal activity to produce chrysanthemol was ∼100 μm, and significant substrate inhibition was observed at elevated DMAPP concentrations. The N-terminal peptide of CDS was identified as a plastid-targeting peptide. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing CDS emitted chrysanthemol at a rate of 0.12-0.16 μg h(-1) g(-1) fresh weight. We propose that CDS should be renamed a chrysanthemol synthase utilizing DMAPP as substrate.

  12. Genetic Mediators of Neurocognitive Outcomes in Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Kevin R.; Bhojwani, Deepa; Conklin, Heather M.; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Sandlund, John T.; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk for neurocognitive problems, with significant interindividual variability in outcome. This study examined genetic polymorphisms associated with variability in neurocognitive outcome. Patients and Methods Neurocognitive outcomes were evaluated at the end of therapy in 243 survivors treated on an institutional protocol featuring risk-adapted chemotherapy without prophylactic cranial irradiation. Polymorphisms in genes related to pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of antileukemic agents, drug metabolism, oxidative stress, and attention problems in noncancer populations were examined as predictors of outcome, using multiple general linear models and controlling for age at diagnosis, sex, race, and treatment intensity. Results Compared with national norms, the cohort demonstrated significantly higher rates of problems on direct assessment of sustained attention (P = .01) and on parent ratings of attention problems (P = .02). Children with the A2756G polymorphism in methionine synthase (MS) were more likely to demonstrate deficits in attentiveness (P = .03) and response speed (P = .02), whereas those with various polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase demonstrated increased performance variability (P = .01) and reduced attentiveness (P = .003). Polymorphisms in monoamine oxidase (T1460CA) were associated with increased attention variability (P = .03). Parent-reported attention problems were more common in children with the Cys112Arg polymorphism in apoliopoprotein E4 (P = .01). Conclusion These results are consistent with our previous report of association between attention problems and MS in an independent cohort of long-term survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapy only. The results also raise the possibility of an impact from genetic predispositions related to oxidative stress and CNS integrity. PMID:23650422

  13. Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, J; Steele, C L; Croteau, R

    1997-08-29

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) has been developed as a model system for studying defensive oleoresin formation in conifers in response to insect attack or other injury. The turpentine fraction of the oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene (C10) olefins in which (-)-limonene and (-)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene are prominent components; (-)-limonene and (-)-pinene synthase activities are also induced upon stem wounding. A similarity based cloning strategy yielded three new cDNA species from a wounded stem cDNA library that appeared to encode three distinct monoterpene synthases. After expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with geranyl diphosphate as substrate, subsequent analysis of the terpene products by chiral phase gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that these sequences encoded a (-)-limonene synthase, a myrcene synthase, and a (-)-pinene synthase that produces both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. In properties and reaction stereochemistry, the recombinant enzymes resemble the corresponding native monoterpene synthases of wound-induced grand fir stem. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated the limonene synthase to be 637 residues in length (73.5 kDa), the myrcene synthase to be 627 residues in length (72.5 kDa), and the pinene synthase to be 628 residues in length (71.5 kDa); all of these monoterpene synthases appear to be translated as preproteins bearing an amino-terminal plastid targeting sequence. Sequence comparison revealed that these monoterpene synthases from grand fir resemble sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and diterpene (C20) synthases from conifers more closely than other monoterpene synthases from angiosperm species. This similarity between extant monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and diterpene synthases of gymnosperms is surprising since functional diversification of this enzyme class is assumed to have occurred over 300 million years ago. Wound-induced accumulation of transcripts for monoterpene synthases was demonstrated by RNA

  14. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  15. The effect of choline and cystine on the utilisation of methionine for protein accretion, remethylation and trans-sulfuration in juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Lenaïg; Vachot, Christiane; Surget, Anne; Rigolet, Vincent; Kaushik, Sadasivam J; Geurden, Inge

    2011-09-01

    This 35-d feeding experiment examined in juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon (3·3 g initial body weight) the effects of methionine (Met), choline and cystine on protein accretion and the activity of two key enzymes of remethylation (betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase; BHMT) and trans-sulfuration (cystathionine β-synthase; CBS). The interaction between Met and choline was tested using semi-purified diets either adequate or limiting (30 or 50 %) in total sulphur amino acid (SAA) content with a constant cystine:Met ratio. The diets contained either basal or excess choline (3 v. 7 g/kg feed). Cystine was added to two other 30 and 50 % Met-limiting diets to adjust the SAA supply to that of the control diet in order to evaluate the interaction between Met and cystine. As expected, N accretion was significantly lower with the SAA-limiting diets but increased back to control levels by the extra choline or cystine, demonstrating their sparing effect on Met utilisation for protein accretion. We show, for the first time, the activities of BHMT and CBS in shrimp hepatopancreas. Only BHMT responded to the SAA deficiencies, whereas the extra choline and cystine did not stimulate remethylation or down-regulate trans-sulfuration. Our data also suggest the capacity of P. monodon to synthesise taurine, being significantly affected by the cystine level in the 30 % SAA-limiting diets. Further research is warranted to better understand the metabolic regulation of taurine synthesis in shrimp and of the observed Met-sparing effects.

  16. Effect of methionine supplementation in chicken feed on the quality and shelf life of fresh poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Antonia; Herbert, Ulrike; Miskel, Dennis; Heinemann, Celine; Braun, Carina; Dohlen, Sophia; Zeitz, Johanna O; Eder, Klaus; Saremi, Behnam; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2017-04-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different methionine sources and concentrations on the quality and spoilage process of broiler meat. The trial was comprised of 7 treatment groups: one basal group (suboptimal in Methionine+Cysteine; i.e., 0.89, 0.74, 0.69% in DM SID Met+Cys in starter, grower, and finisher diets, respectively) and 3 doses (0.10, 0.25, and 0.40%) of either DL-Methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) on an equimolar basis of the DLM-supplemented groups. The broilers were fed the diets for 35 d, then slaughtered and processed. The filets were aerobically packed and stored under temperature controlled conditions at 4°C. Meat quality investigations were comprised of microbial investigations (total viable count and Pseudomonas spp.), pH and drip loss measurements of the filets. The shelf life of the meat samples was determined based on sensory parameters. After slaughtering, all supplemented meat samples showed a high quality, whereby no differences between the 2 methionine sources could be detected for the microbial load, pH, and drip loss. In comparison to the control group, the supplemented samples showed a higher sensory quality, characterized by a fresh smell and fresh red color. Methionine supplementation had a significant influence on meat quality parameters during storage. The microbial load, pH and drip loss of the chicken filets were positively correlated to the methionine concentration. Additionally, the microbial load at the end of storage was positively correlated to pH and drip loss values. Nevertheless, the microbial parameters were in a normal range and the positive correlation to methionine concentration did not affect the sensory shelf life. The mean sensory shelf life of the broiler filets varied between 7 to 9 d. During storage, no difference in the development of sensory parameters was observed between the supplemented groups, while the spoilage process of the basal group

  17. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  18. Biochemical characterization and homology modeling of methylbutenol synthase and implications for understanding hemiterpene synthase evolution in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis W; Breneman, Steven R; Topper, Lauren A; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2011-06-10

    2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is a five-carbon alcohol produced and emitted in large quantities by many species of pine native to western North America. MBO is structurally and biosynthetically related to isoprene and can have an important impact on regional atmospheric chemistry. The gene for MBO synthase was identified from Pinus sabiniana, and the protein encoded was functionally characterized. MBO synthase is a bifunctional enzyme that produces both MBO and isoprene in a ratio of ~90:1. Divalent cations are required for activity, whereas monovalent cations are not. MBO production is enhanced by K(+), whereas isoprene production is inhibited by K(+) such that, at physiologically relevant [K(+)], little or no isoprene emission should be detected from MBO-emitting trees. The K(m) of MBO synthase for dimethylallyl diphosphate (20 mm) is comparable with that observed for angiosperm isoprene synthases and 3 orders of magnitude higher than that observed for monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MBO synthase falls into the TPS-d1 group (gymnosperm monoterpene synthases) and is most closely related to linalool synthase from Picea abies. Structural modeling showed that up to three phenylalanine residues restrict the size of the active site and may be responsible for making this a hemiterpene synthase rather than a monoterpene synthase. One of these residues is homologous to a Phe residue found in the active site of isoprene synthases. The remaining two Phe residues do not have homologs in isoprene synthases but occupy the same space as a second Phe residue that closes off the isoprene synthase active site.

  19. Effects of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena; Rubio, Vera Cruz; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2013-06-01

    A growth trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata) to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on fish performance and lipid metabolism. For that purpose, four diets were formulated: a fish meal-based diet (Control) and diets identical to the control diet but supplemented with 2.9 % white tea (Tea), 0.3 % methionine (Met) or 2.9 % white tea plus 0.3 % methionine (Tea + Met). Growth performance and feed efficiency parameters, whole-body and liver composition, plasma metabolites concentration and liver glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activities were determined. Feed intake was higher in fish fed methionine-supplemented diets, whereas this parameter and growth was decreased in fish fed white tea supplementation. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by diet composition. Plasma HDL cholesterol and total lipids concentration were higher in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Whole-body lipid, plasma glucose, liver glycogen concentration and liver G6PDH, ME and FAS activities were lower in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Results of the present study indicate that methionine seems to act as a feed attractant in diets for sea bream juveniles. Additionally, white tea is an important modulator of lipid metabolism in sea bream juveniles.

  20. Nutrient enrichment of Artemia with free methionine%蛋氨酸对卤虫营养强化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Methionine is indispensable of an essential amino acid for fish growing development , Artemia nauplii is commonly used as the start feed on fish larvae stage. But Artemia in vivo amino acid imbalance, especially methionine deficiency can not meet the nutritional needs of nutrition. Methionine is of great importance to nutrient enrichment of Artemia. Methionine is a common nutritional fortifier . This paper mainly introduces the purpose, methods and results of nutrient enrichment, and discuss the impact of enrichment of Artemia with free methionine.%  蛋氨酸是鱼类生长发育不可缺少的必需氨基酸,仔稚鱼时期常常用卤虫作为仔稚鱼的开口饵料,但卤虫的体内的氨基酸不平衡,尤其是蛋氨酸缺乏难以满足仔稚鱼的营养需求,因此蛋氨酸对卤虫的营养强化有很重要的意义。蛋氨酸是常用的营养强化剂,文章综述了蛋氨酸强化的目的、方法和结果,并讨论了影响蛋氨酸营养强化的因素。

  1. Dopamine D(2) receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B; Ortiz, Andrea N; Rittel, Alexander G; Dobrowsky, Rick T; Johnson, Michael A; Levant, Beth; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2010-07-01

    Previous research suggests that brain oxidative stress and altered rodent locomotor behavior are linked. We observed bio-behavioral changes in methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice associated with abnormal dopamine signaling. Compromised ability of these knockout mice to reduce methionine sulfoxide enhances accumulation of sulfoxides in proteins. We examined the dopamine D(2)-receptor function and expression, which has an atypical arrangement and quantity of methionine residues. Indeed, protein expression levels of dopamine D(2)-receptor were higher in knockout mice compared with wild-type. However, the binding of dopamine D(2)-receptor agonist was compromised in the same fractions of knockout mice. Coupling efficiency of dopamine D(2)-receptors to G-proteins was also significantly reduced in knockout mice, supporting the compromised agonist binding. Furthermore, pre-synaptic dopamine release in knockout striatal sections was less responsive than control sections to dopamine D(2)-receptor ligands. Behaviorally, the locomotor activity of knockout mice was less responsive to the inhibitory effect of quinpirole than wild-type mice. Involvement of specific methionine residue oxidation in the dopamine D(2)-receptor third intracellular loop is suggested by in vitro studies. We conclude that ablation of methionine sulfoxide reductase can affect dopamine signaling through altering dopamine D(2)-receptor physiology and may be related to symptoms associated with neurological disorders and diseases.

  2. Dopamine D2 receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B.; Ortiz, Andrea N.; Rittel, Alexander G.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Johnson, Michael A.; Levant, Beth; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that brain oxidative stress and altered rodent locomotor behavior are linked. We observed bio-behavioral changes in methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice associated with abnormal dopamine signaling. Compromised ability of these knockout mice to reduce methionine sulfoxide enhances accumulation of sulfoxides in proteins. We examined the dopamine D2-receptor function and expression, which has an atypical arrangement and quantity of methionine residues. Indeed, protein expression levels of dopamine D2-receptor were higher in knockout mice compared with wild-type. However, the binding of dopamine D2-receptor agonist was compromised in the same fractions of knockout mice. Coupling efficiency of dopamine D2-receptors to G-proteins was also significantly reduced in knockout mice, supporting the compromised agonist binding. Furthermore, pre-synaptic dopamine release in knockout striatal sections was less responsive than control sections to dopamine D2-receptor ligands. Behaviorally, the locomotor activity of knockout mice was less responsive to the inhibitory effect of quinpirole than wild-type mice. Involvement of specific methionine residue oxidation in the dopamine D2-receptor third intracellular loop is suggested by in vitro studies. We conclude that ablation of methionine sulfoxide reductase can affect dopamine signaling through altering dopamine D2-receptor physiology and may be related to symptoms associated with neurological disorders and diseases. PMID:20374422

  3. Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Possible effects of delivering methionine to broilers in drinking water at constant low and high environmental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Cadirci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of water-soluble DL-methionine supplied through water and feed on the performance and carcass yield of broilers housed at two constant temperatures from 21 to 42 days of age. Birds were housed in two rooms (240 birds per room with temperatures set at 21±2 and 30±2oC, respectively. Birds were divided into five groups of equal number within each room and fed five different diets (G1-G5. A low-methionine basal diet without supplemental methionine was fed to group 1 (G1. The basal diet was fortified with 0.025% or 0.050% methionine, either in feed (G2 and G3, respectively, or in a water solution (G4 and G5, respectively. Mortality was not significantly altered by any dietary treatment. Neither feed nor water intake was affected adversely by DLmethionine inclusion in drinking water. Housing at high temperature showed deleterious effect on birds’ weight gain. Additional methionine intake both in feed and water was associated with significantly heavier body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio, than the basal diet at low and high environmental temperature. Carcass yields, as a percentage of live body weight, were not affected by dietary treatment. The results indicate that, under the experimental conditions, DLmethionine provided in drinking water can be effectively assimilated by broilers, at least from 21 to 42 days of age.

  5. Nutritional and technological evaluation of an enzymatically methionine-enriched soy protein for infant enteral formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Regil, Luz María; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón

    2004-03-01

    Enzymatically modified soy proteins have the amino acid profile and functional properties required for dietary support. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and technological properties of an enzymatically modified soy protein ultrafiltered fraction with bound methionine (F(1-10)E) to be used as a protein ingredient for infant enteral formulas. F(1-10)E was chemically characterized and biologically evaluated. Thirty-six weaning Wistar rats were fed during 3 weeks with a 4% casein-containing diet. Rats were divided into three groups and recovered for 3 weeks with 18% protein-containing diets based on: (1) F(1-10)E, (2) casein or (3) soy isolate+methionine. Nutritional indicators were weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, plasma proteins, apparent digestibility and protein in the carcass. Additionally, F(1-10)E was added as a protein ingredient of an enteral formula, and its sensory and rheological properties were compared with a hydrolyzed-whey protein commercial formula. F(1-10)E contained 68% protein and 5% sulphur amino acids, with 60% of peptides 0.05) in weight gain (108 g and 118 g, respectively), protein efficiency ratio (2.7), apparent digestibility (93% and 95%), plasma proteins (5.7 mg/100 ml) and carcass protein (61%), and better than soy isolate-based+methionine diet (Pformula and our formula was similar during a 24-h period. Sensory acceptability was 8 for our formula and 3.5 for the commercial one, on a scale of 1-10 (Pprotein source in infant enteral formulas.

  6. Effect of increased methionine level on performance and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Lemme, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Wertelecki, T

    2009-10-01

    The experiment was conducted with 960 one-day-old ducklings fed mixtures (I control - 0.28% methionine) additionally supplemented with DL-methionine (DL-Met) at amounts: 0.03% (group II), 0.07% (III), 0.12% (IV) and 0.18% (V). The performance, carcass quality and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids as the criterions of methionine (Met) effectivity were considered. The analysis of growth and development of ducks as an effect of diversified DL-Met supplements indicate that increased content of this amino acid in the diets has not affected clearly the performance parameters. The body weight of 21-day-old ducklings was significantly affected only by the level of 0.12% of added Met in comparison to control group. On day 42, the differences among groups were negligible; only the addition of 0.12% DL-Met has increased the body weight by 2.4% when compared with control (p > 0.05). Feed conversion estimated for a period of 1-42 days has not been influenced by Met supplementation. The indistinct, however, visible tendency of better ileal amino acids' apparent digestibility (for Asp.a.,Thr, Ser, Glu, Lys) was noted in the groups fed supplemented diets. Application of 0.07% and 0.18% of DL-met, has significantly (p < 0.05) improved the coefficient of cysteine (Cys) apparent ileal digestibility; however, the improvement of Met apparent ileal digestibility has been achieved by the addition of 0.18% Met. The mortality of ducklings in the experiment was very low and varied between 3.15% (II) and 0.0% (groups I and III). In general, application of 0.12% of DL-Met to mixture containing 0.28% Met had positive effect on the productive output of birds and also improved the apparent ileal digestibility of Cys and Met.

  7. A study of preoperative methionine-depleting parenteral nutrition plus chemotherapy in gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xin Cao; Qin Min Cheng; Xu Feng Fei; Shu Fa Li; Hao Ran Yin; Yan Zhen Lin

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the interference of methionine-free parenteral nutrition plus 5-Fu (-MetTPN + 5-Fu) in gastric cancer cell kinetics and the side effects of the regimen. METHODS Fifteen patients with advanced gastric cancer were randomly divided into two groups, 7 patients were given preoperatively a seven-day course of standard parenteral nutrition in combination with a five-day course of chemotherapy (sTPN + 5-Fu), while the other 8 patients were given methionine-deprived parenteral nutrition and 5-Fu (-MetTPN + 5-Fu).Cell cycles of gastric cancer and normal mucosa were studied by flow cytometry (FCM). Blood samples were taken to measure the serum protein, methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys)levels, and liver and kidney functions. RESULTS As compared with the results obtained before the treatment, the percentage of Gn/G1 tumor cells increased and that of S phase decreased in the -MetTPN + 5-Fu group, while the contrary was observed in the sTPN + 5-Fu group.Except that the ALT, AST and AKP levels were slightly increased in a few cases receiving -MetTPN + 5-Fu, all the other biochemical parameters were within normal limits. Serum Cys level decreased slightly after the treatment in both groups. Serum Met level of patients receiving sTPN + 5-Fu was somewhat higher after treatment than that before treatment; however,no significant change occurred in the -MetTPN +5-Fu group, nor operative complications in both groups. CONCLUSION -MetTPN + 5-Fu exerted a suppressive effect on cancer cell proliferation,probably through a double mechanism of creating a state of "Met starvation" adverse to the tumor cell cycle, and by allowing 5-Fu to kill specifically cells in S phase. Preoperative shortterm administration of-MetTPN + 5-Fu had little undesirable effect on host metabolism.

  8. The methionine-homocysteine cycle and its effects on cognitive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan L

    2003-02-01

    Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is a metabolite of the essential amino acid methionine, and exists at a critical biochemical intersection in the methionine cycle - between S-adenosylmethionine, the indispensable ubiquitous methyl donor, and vitamins B12 and folic acid. High blood levels of homocysteine signal a breakdown in this vital process, resulting in far-reaching biochemical and life consequences. The link between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease is well established, and decreasing plasma total homocysteine by providing nutritional cofactors for its metabolism has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Information has been emerging regarding a connection between homocysteine metabolism and cognitive function, from mild cognitive decline (age-related memory loss) to vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Significant deficiencies in the homocysteine re-methylation cofactors cobalamin (B12) and folate, as well as the trans-sulfuration cofactor vitamin B6, are commonly seen in the elderly population, with a resultant increase in homocysteine with advancing age. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cognitive dysfunction. Indirect and direct vascular damage can be caused by homocysteine, which has been implicated in vascular dementia, with an increased risk of multiple brain infarcts and dementia as homocysteine levels rise. A significant correlation has been found between risk of Alzheimer's disease and high plasma levels of homocysteine, as well as low levels of folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12. All of these disease associations are thought to be interrelated via increased homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine and subsequent hypomethylation of numerous substances, including DNA and proteins, that render vascular structures and neurons more susceptible to damage and apoptosis. Providing the nutritional cofactors for proper functioning of the methionine cycle may improve methylation

  9. Serum methionine metabolites are risk factors for metastatic prostate cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Stabler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical decision for primary treatment for prostate cancer is dictated by variables with insufficient specificity. Early detection of prostate cancer likely to develop rapid recurrence could support neo-adjuvant therapeutics and adjuvant options prior to frank biochemical recurrence. This study compared markers in serum and urine of patients with rapidly recurrent prostate cancer to recurrence-free patients after radical prostatectomy. Based on previous identification of urinary sarcosine as a metastatic marker, we tested whether methionine metabolites in urine and serum could serve as pre-surgical markers for aggressive disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Urine and serum samples (n = 54 and 58, respectively, collected at the time of prostatectomy were divided into subjects who developed biochemical recurrence within 2 years and those who remained recurrence-free after 5 years. Multiple methionine metabolites were measured in urine and serum by GC-MS. The role of serum metabolites and clinical variables (biopsy Gleason grade, clinical stage, serum prostate specific antigen [PSA] on biochemical recurrence prediction were evaluated. Urinary sarcosine and cysteine levels were significantly higher (p = 0.03 and p = 0.007 respectively in the recurrent group. However, in serum, concentrations of homocysteine (p = 0.003, cystathionine (p = 0.007 and cysteine (p<0.001 were more abundant in the recurrent population. The inclusion of serum cysteine to a model with PSA and biopsy Gleason grade improved prediction over the clinical variables alone (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum homocysteine, cystathionine, and cysteine concentrations independently predicted risk of early biochemical recurrence and aggressiveness of disease in a nested case control study. The methionine metabolites further supplemented known clinical variables to provide superior sensitivity and specificity in multivariable prediction models for

  10. Effect of the opioid methionine enkephalinamide on signal transduction in human T-lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A N; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR/CD3) induced fluctuations in intracellular free ionizied calcium, [Ca2+]i, was analysed in the human T leukemia cell clone, Jurkat, cultured in the presence of the opioid methionine enkephalinamide (Met-Enk) in titrated concentrations (10[-7] to 10[-15] M) or saline (PBS....... Moreover, the levels of [Ca2+]i in this particular fraction were lower than control levels prior to ligation of the TCR/CD3 complex. The data support the idea that signal transduction in T cells can be influenced by endogenous opioid. The data therefore give credit to the evolving hypothesis...

  11. Choline and methionine differentially alter methyl carbon metabolism in bovine neonatal hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Tawny L.

    2017-01-01

    Intersections in hepatic methyl group metabolism pathways highlights potential competition or compensation of methyl donors. The objective of this experiment was to examine the expression of genes related to methyl group transfer and lipid metabolism in response to increasing concentrations of choline chloride (CC) and DL-methionine (DLM) in primary neonatal hepatocytes that were or were not exposed to fatty acids (FA). Primary hepatocytes isolated from 4 neonatal Holstein calves were maintained as monolayer cultures for 24 h before treatment with CC (61, 128, 2028, and 4528 μmol/L) and DLM (16, 30, 100, 300 μmol/L), with or without a 1 mmol/L FA cocktail in a factorial arrangement. After 24 h of treatment, media was collected for quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and cell lysates were collected for quantification of gene expression. No interactions were detected between CC, DLM, or FA. Both CC and DLM decreased the expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A). Increasing CC did not alter betaine-homocysteine S-methyltranferase (BHMT) but did increase 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) expression. Increasing DLM decreased expression of BHMT and MTR, but did not affect MTHFR. Expression of both phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) were decreased by increasing CC and DLM, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) was unaffected by either. Treatment with FA decreased the expression of MAT1A, MTR, MTHFR and tended to decrease PEMT but did not affect BHMT and MTTP. Treatment with FA increased CPT1A expression. Increasing CC increased secretion of VLDL and decreased the accumulation of ROS in media. Within neonatal bovine hepatocytes, choline and methionine differentially regulate methyl carbon pathways and suggest that choline may play a critical role in

  12. Parental and early-feeding effects of dietary methionine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Fontagne-Dicharry, Stephanie; Alami-Durante, Helene; Aragão, Cláudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Geurden, Inge

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of changes in dietary methionine (Met) supply in broodstock and first-feeding rainbow trout fry (offspring). Three plant-based diets differing in Met level (deficient, adequate or in excess of the established requirement) were fed to the broodstock (male and female) for 6 months prior to spawning (diets BD, BA and BE, respectively). The offspring from the parental Met-groups was then challenged in turn with the different Met fry-diets (FD, FA and FE, respectively) for 3 ...

  13. Investigation of the metal binding site in methionine aminopeptidase by density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne Techau; Norrby, Per-Ola; Liljefors, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    All methionine aminopeptidases exhibit the same conserved metal binding site. The structure of this site with either Co2+ ions or Zn2+ ions was investigated using density functional theory. The calculations showed that the structure of the site was not influenced by the identity of the metal ions...... oxygen, which is part of either a water molecule or a hydroxide ion. Within the site of hMetAP-2 the results strongly indicate that a hydroxide ion bridges the metal ions. By contrast, the nature of the oxygen bridging the metal ions within the metal binding site of eMetAP-1 cannot be determined based...

  14. Construction of a standard reference for PET studies of methionine accumulation using a computerised brain atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanowski, C.A.J. [Department of Neuroradiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2JF (United Kingdom); Leslie, D.F. [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Neuroradiology, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Thurfjell, L. [Centre for Image Analysis, University of Uppsala (Sweden); Ericson, K. [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Neuroradiology, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, S. [Karolinska Pharmacy, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is valuable for assessing the biochemistry and physiology of the human brain. A computerised brain atlas has been developed which allows demonstration of anatomical regions on PET images and manipulation of these images into a standardised anatomical space. Once the images are in this standardised three-dimensional space it is possible to make comparisons between individuals and groups of individuals. We describe the use of this atlas in the generation of a set of mean reference images using methionine PET images of normal volunteers. (orig.). With 5 figs.

  15. Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and methionine formation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radford Cynthia L

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains a major world-wide health threat which demands the discovery and characterisation of new drug targets in order to develop future antimycobacterials. The regeneration of methionine consumed during polyamine biosynthesis is an important pathway present in many microorganisms. The final step of this pathway, the conversion of ketomethiobutyrate to methionine, can be performed by aspartate, tyrosine, or branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases depending on the particular species examined. Results The gene encoding for branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv has been cloned, expressed, and characterised. The enzyme was found to be a member of the aminotransferase IIIa subfamily, and closely related to the corresponding aminotransferase in Bacillus subtilis, but not to that found in B. anthracis or B. cereus. The amino donor preference for the formation of methionine from ketomethiobutyrate was for isoleucine, leucine, valine, glutamate, and phenylalanine. The enzyme catalysed branched-chain amino acid and ketomethiobutyrate transamination with a Km of 1.77 – 7.44 mM and a Vmax of 2.17 – 5.70 μmol/min/mg protein, and transamination of ketoglutarate with a Km of 5.79 – 6.95 mM and a Vmax of 11.82 – 14.35 μmol/min/mg protein. Aminooxy compounds were examined as potential enzyme inhibitors, with O-benzylhydroxylamine, O-t-butylhydroxylamine, carboxymethoxylamine, and O-allylhydroxylamine yielding mixed-type inhibition with Ki values of 8.20 – 21.61 μM. These same compounds were examined as antimycobacterial agents against M. tuberculosis and a lower biohazard M. marinum model system, and were found to completely prevent cell growth. O-Allylhydroxylamine was the most effective growth inhibitor with an MIC of 78 μM against M. marinum and one of 156 ��M against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion Methionine formation from ketomethiobutyrate is catalysed by a

  16. New metabolic labelling medium for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus using 35S methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torian, B.E.; Kenny, G.E.

    1986-04-01

    A metabolic labelling medium was devised for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus utilizing 35S methionine. T. vaginalis cultured for 24h in the medium took up approximately 27% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in number. Counts per microgram of protein were 32,555 +/- 10% between different strains or identical strains in different labelling runs. T. foetus took up approximately 5% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in 24h. This resulted in specific labelling of 12,704 cpm/ug protein +/- 10% between different runs with the same strain.

  17. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  18. Functional and evolutionary relationships between terpene synthases from Australian Myrtaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszei, Andras; Brubaker, Curt L; Carter, Richard; Köllner, Tobias; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J

    2010-06-01

    Myrtaceae is one of the chemically most variable and most significant essential oil yielding plant families. Despite an abundance of chemical information, very little work has focussed on the biochemistry of terpene production in these plants. We describe 70 unique partial terpene synthase transcripts and eight full-length cDNA clones from 21 myrtaceous species, and compare phylogenetic relationships and leaf oil composition to reveal clades defined by common function. We provide further support for the correlation between function and phylogenetic relationships by the first functional characterisation of terpene synthases from Myrtaceae: a 1,8-cineole synthase from Eucalyptus sideroxylon and a caryophyllene synthase from Eucalyptusdives.

  19. Cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide produces severe neurological impairment in fruit bats: protection by methionine and aggravation by folates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Westhuyzen, J.; Fernandes-Costa, F.; Metz, J.

    1982-11-01

    Nitrous oxide, which inactivates cobalamin when administered to fruit bats, results in severe neurological impairment leading to ataxia, paralysis and death. This occurs after about 6 weeks in animals depleted of cobalamin by dietary restriction, and after about 10 weeks in cobalamin replete bats. Supplementation of the diet with pteroylglutamic acid caused acceleration of the neurological impairment--the first unequivocal demonstration of aggravation of the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency by pteroylglutamic acid. The administration of formyltetrahydropteroylglutamic acid produced similar aggravation of the neurological lesion. Supplementation of the diet with methionine protected the bats from neurological impairment, but failed to prevent death. Methionine supplementation protected against the exacerbating effect of folate, preventing the development of neurological changes. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency may be related to a deficiency in the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine which follows diminished synthesis of methionine.

  20. Does the clinical phenotype of fatal familial insomnia depend on PRNP codon 129 methionine-valine polymorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Sven; Grimm, Alexander; Schultze, Torsten; Zinke, Jan; Karvouniari, Panagiota; Axer, Hubertus; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias

    2013-12-15

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare, hereditary prion-protein disease. Methionine-valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion-protein gene (PRNP) determines the phenotype in other hereditary prion-protein diseases, but association with the clinical phenotype in FFI remains uncertain. Early clinical findings in FFI comprise disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle and mild neuropsychiatric changes which typically emerge during middle to late adulthood. Here we describe an unusually early onset and rapid progression of FFI associated with dorsal midbrain involvement in a female patient with PRNP mutation at codon 178 and homozygote methionine polymorphism at codon 129. Early dorsal midbrain involvement became apparent by total loss of REM sleep and isolated bilateral trochlear nerve palsy. Early onset and rapid progression disease type associated with dorsal midbrain involvement may indicate a different spatiotemporal distribution of the neurodegenerative process in FFI patients with PRNP mutation and codon 129 methionine homozygosity compared to methioninevaline heterozygosity.

  1. Identification of the molecular basis of inhibitor selectivity between the human and streptococcal type I methionine aminopeptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Tarun; Reddi, Ravikumar; Kishor, Chandan; Ganji, Roopa Jones; Bhukya, Supriya; Gumpena, Rajesh; McGowan, Sheena; Drag, Marcin; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2015-03-12

    The methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) family is responsible for the cleavage of the initiator methionine from newly synthesized proteins. Currently, there are no small molecule inhibitors that show selectivity toward the bacterial MetAPs compared to the human enzyme. In our current study, we have screened 20 α-aminophosphonate derivatives and identified a molecule (compound 15) that selectively inhibits the S. pneumonia MetAP in low micromolar range but not the human enzyme. Further bioinformatics, biochemical, and structural analyses suggested that phenylalanine (F309) in the human enzyme and methionine (M205) in the S. pneumonia MetAP at the analogous position render them with different susceptibilities against the identified inhibitor. X-ray crystal structures of various inhibitors in complex with wild type and F309M enzyme further established the molecular basis for the inhibitor selectivity.

  2. Effect of methionine and cysteine deprivation on growth of different natural isolates of Lactobacillus spp. in chemically defined media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozo Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of natural isolates of lactobacilli from different ecological niches to grow in a chemically defined medium in the presence or absence of sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and/or cysteine. The obtained results indicate that cysteine is essential for growth of L. paracasei subsp. paracasei BGHN14 and BGSJ2-8, while methionine is essential for isolates BGHN40, BGCG31, and BGHV54T of the species L. plantarum. Methionine is also essential for growth of L. rhamnosus BGHV58T. Other analyzed strains, such as L. plantarum BGSJ3-18, BGZB19, BGHV52Ta, and BGHV43T, require the presence of both amino acids for their growth.

  3. Benzophenone Synthase and Chalcone Synthase Accumulate in the Mesophyll of Hypericum perforatum Leaves at Different Developmental Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Belkheir, Asma K.; Gaid, Mariam; Liu, Benye; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    The active medicinal constituents in Hypericum perforatum, used to treat depression and skin irritation, include flavonoids and xanthones. The carbon skeletons of these compounds are formed by chalcone synthase (CHS) and benzophenone synthase (BPS), respectively. Polyclonal antisera were raised against the polyketide synthases from Hypericum androsaemum and their IgG fractions were isolated. Immunoblotting and immunotitration were used to test the IgGs for crossreactivity and monospecificity ...

  4. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquézar, Berta; Rodríguez, Ana; de la Peña, Marcos; Peña, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS) family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z)-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays. PMID:28883829

  5. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Alquézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays.

  6. YjeH Is a Novel Exporter of l-Methionine and Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Shang, Xiuling; Liu, Shuwen; Wen, Jifu; Wen, Tingyi

    2015-11-01

    Amino acid efflux transport systems have important physiological functions and play vital roles in the fermentative production of amino acids. However, no methionine exporter has yet been identified in Escherichia coli. In this study, we identified a novel amino acid exporter, YjeH, in E. coli. The yjeH overexpression strain exhibited high tolerance to the structural analogues of l-methionine and branched-chain amino acids, decreased intracellular amino acid levels, and enhanced export rates in the presence of a Met-Met, Leu-Leu, Ile-Ile, or Val-Val dipeptide, suggesting that YjeH functions as an exporter of l-methionine and the three branched-chain amino acids. The export of the four amino acids in the yjeH overexpression strain was competitively inhibited in relation to each other. The expression of yjeH was strongly induced by increasing cytoplasmic concentrations of substrate amino acids. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged YjeH was visualized by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to confirm the plasma membrane localization of YjeH. Phylogenetic analysis of transporters indicated that YjeH belongs to the amino acid efflux family of the amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily. Structural modeling revealed that YjeH has the typical "5 + 5" transmembrane α-helical segment (TMS) inverted-repeat fold of APC superfamily transporters, and its binding sites are strictly conserved. The enhanced capacity of l-methionine export by the overexpression of yjeH in an l-methionine-producing strain resulted in a 70% improvement in titer. This study supplements the transporter classification and provides a substantial basis for the application of the methionine exporter in metabolic engineering.

  7. Expression, purification and crystallization of l-methionine γ-lyase 2 from Entamoeba histolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Dan [Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Yamagata, Wataru; Kamei, Kaeko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Nozaki, Tomoyoshi [Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Harada, Shigeharu, E-mail: harada@kit.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan)

    2006-10-01

    l-Methionine γ-lyase 2 from E. histolytica, a key enzyme in sulfur-containing amino-acid degradation in this protozoan parasite, has been crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray structure analysis. l-Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) is considered to be an attractive target for rational drug development because the enzyme is absent in mammalian hosts. To enable structure-based design of drugs targeting MGL, one of the two MGL isoenzymes (EhMGL2) was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.89, b = 102.68, c = 169.87 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The presence of a tetramer in the asymmetric unit (4 × 43.1 kDa) gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and structure refinement is now in progress.

  8. Optimization of engineered production of the glucoraphanin precursor dihomo-methionine in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eCrocoll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are natural products characteristic of the Brassicales order which include vegetables such as cabbages and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Glucoraphanin is the major glucosinolate in broccoli and associated with the health-promoting effects of broccoli consumption. Towards our goal of creating a rich source of glucoraphanin for dietary supplements, we have previously reported the feasibility of engineering glucoraphanin in Nicotiana benthaminana through transient expression of glucoraphanin biosynthetic genes from Arabidopsis thaliana (Mikkelsen et al., 2010. As side-products, we obtained 5-8 fold higher levels of chain-elongated leucine-derived glucosinolates, not found in the native plant. Here, we investigated two different strategies to improve engineering of the methionine chain elongation part of the glucoraphanin pathway in N. benthamiana: 1 co-expression of the large subunit (LSU1 of the heterodimeric isopropylmalate isomerase, and 2 co-expression of BAT5 transporter for efficient transfer of intermediates across the chloroplast membrane. We succeeded in raising dihomo-methionine (DHM levels to a maximum of 432 nmol*g-1 fresh weight which is equivalent to a 9-fold increase compared to the highest production of this intermediate previously reported (Mikkelsen et al., 2010. The increased DHM production without increasing leucine-derived side-product levels provides new metabolic engineering strategies for improved glucoraphanin production in a heterologous host.

  9. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A regulates cell growth through the p53-p21 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Hee [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: hykim@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of MsrA inhibits normal cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MsrA deficiency leads to an increase in p21 by enhanced p53 acetylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of MsrA causes cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 2}/M stage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MsrA is a regulator of cell growth that mediates the p53-p21 pathway. -- Abstract: MsrA is an oxidoreductase that catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide to methionine. Although MsrA is well-characterized as an antioxidant and has been implicated in the aging process and cellular senescence, its roles in cell proliferation are poorly understood. Here, we report a critical role of MsrA in normal cell proliferation and describe the regulation mechanism of cell growth by this protein. Down-regulation of MsrA inhibited cell proliferation, but MsrA overexpression did not promote it. MsrA deficiency led to an increase in p21, a major cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, thereby causing cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 2}/M stage. While protein levels of p53 were not altered upon MsrA deficiency, its acetylation level was significantly elevated, which subsequently activated p21 transcription. The data suggest that MsrA is a regulator of cell growth that mediates the p53-p21 pathway.

  10. Preventive effect of selenium, methionine and antioxidants against encephalomalacia of chicks induced by dilauryl succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Hoshi, H

    1977-01-01

    The protective effect of supplemental selenium, methionine, ascorbic acid, menaquinone and five antioxidants against encephalomalacia of chicks fed a diet containing dilauryl succinate was examined. Diauryl succinate induces vitamin E deficiency signs such as fragility of the erythrocytes and encephalomalacia. Supplementation of selenium and methionine with or without simultaneous supplementation of a low level of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate had little effect on preventing encephalomalacia. The preventive effect of ascorbic acid, methylene blue, ethoyquine, 2,6-ditertiary-butyl-p-cresol and butylated hydroxyanisole was roughly in proportion to their dietary level, and a high level of any of them could almost completely protect the chicks from encephalomalacia, while diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine was not as effective and the effect was not proportional to the dose. Menaquinone had little effect. No difference was observed in the plasma tocopherol levels and peroxide levels in the adipose tissueof the chick fed eith er dilauryl succinate or cornstarch. The effect of dilauryl succinate appears to be independent of peroxides generated in the chick.

  11. Amino acid metabolism in the human fetus at term: leucine, valine, and methionine kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Chris H P; Schierbeek, Henk; Minderman, Gardi; Vermes, Andras; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M; Duvekot, Johannes J; Steegers, Eric A P; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2011-12-01

    Human fetal metabolism is largely unexplored. Understanding how a healthy fetus achieves its fast growth rates could eventually play a pivotal role in improving future nutritional strategies for premature infants. To quantify specific fetal amino acid kinetics, eight healthy pregnant women received before elective cesarean section at term, continuous stable isotope infusions of the essential amino acids [1-13C,15N]leucine, [U-13C5]valine, and [1-13C]methionine. Umbilical blood was collected after birth and analyzed for enrichments and concentrations using mass spectrometry techniques. Fetuses showed considerable leucine, valine, and methionine uptake and high turnover rates. α-Ketoisocaproate, but not α-ketoisovalerate (the leucine and valine ketoacids, respectively), was transported at net rate from the fetus to the placenta. Especially, leucine and valine data suggested high oxidation rates, up to half of net uptake. This was supported by relatively low α-ketoisocaproate reamination rates to leucine. Our data suggest high protein breakdown and synthesis rates, comparable with, or even slightly higher than in premature infants. The relatively large uptakes of total leucine and valine carbon also suggest high fetal oxidation rates of these essential branched chain amino acids.

  12. Evidence for the dimerization-mediated catalysis of methionine sulfoxide reductase A from Clostridium oremlandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Kitaik; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Park, Yeon Seung; Lee, Kong-Joo; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium oremlandii MsrA (CoMsrA) is a natively selenocysteine-containing methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase and classified into a 1-Cys type MsrA. CoMsrA exists as a monomer in solution. Herein, we report evidence that CoMsrA can undergo homodimerization during catalysis. The monomeric CoMsrA dimerizes in the presence of its substrate methionine sulfoxide via an intermolecular disulfide bond between catalytic Cys16 residues. The dimeric CoMsrA is resolved by the reductant glutaredoxin, suggesting the relevance of dimerization in catalysis. The dimerization reaction occurs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of homodimer formation in the native selenoprotein CoMsrA is confirmed. We also determine the crystal structure of the dimeric CoMsrA, having the dimer interface around the two catalytic Cys16 residues. A central cone-shaped hole is present in the surface model of dimeric structure, and the two Cys16 residues constitute the base of the hole. Collectively, our biochemical and structural analyses suggest a novel dimerization-mediated mechanism for CoMsrA catalysis that is additionally involved in CoMsrA regeneration by glutaredoxin.

  13. Lysine, Methionine and Tryptophan Requirements of Beijing Ducklings of O-2 Weeks of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A feed trial was conducted with a total of 1 134 Beijing ducklings to study the optimum level of dietary lysine (Lys) (0.95,1.10, 1.25%), methionine (Met) (0.26, 0.46, 0.66%) and tryptophan (Trp) (0.20, 0.30, 0.40%) for those ducklings during aphase of 0-2 weeks. Ducklings were randomly allotted to 27 groups according to a 3 × 3 × 3 factorial arrangement and fed a basal corn-soybean-peanut meal diet containing 20.26% CP, 12.45 MJ kg-1 ME. The results from this study indicate that Lys affected body weight (P<0.01), feed intake (0-14 d) (P<0.01), but had no effect on feed/gain (0-14 d) (P>0.05), uric acid concentration (P > 0.05). Methionine influenced body weight (P < 0.01), feed/gain (P < 0.05), and feed intake (P < 0.01). Tryphtophan had no effect on indices measured. The requirement of the Lys and Met for Beijing ducklings of 0-2 weeks of age were 1.10 and 0.46%. The requirement of Trp for Beijing ducklings of 0-2 weeks of age was not more than 0.20%.

  14. Whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake but not homocysteine plasma concentration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; Comparotto, Hugo; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and liver oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 8) to receive one of the following diets for 4 weeks: control diet (C), whey protein-composed diet (WP), and whey protein-supplemented diet (WPS). The C and WP diets consisted of AIN-93 with 20% casein and 20% whey protein as protein source, respectively. WPS was AIN-93 (20% casein) supplemented by the addition of 20% (w/w) whey protein. Four weeks of ingesting a WPS diet resulted in a significantly higher (P protein and methionine intakes. Although a significant increase (P protein products, known liver oxidative stress markers, were increased in the WPS group compared with the C group. In addition, no change in glutathione liver concentration was observed in any of the groups studied. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake substantially; however, it does not change plasma Hcy concentrations. On the other hand, increased hepatic oxidative stress markers were observed in whey protein supplemented rats were probably due to high protein intake.

  15. [Methionine metabolism regulates maintenance and differentiation of human ES/iPS cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kume, Shoen

    2015-05-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are pluripotent and can give rise to all cell types. ES/iPS cells have a unique transcriptional circuit that sustains the pluripotent state. These cells also possess a characteristically high rate of proliferation as well as an abbreviated G1 phase. These unique molecular properties distinguish ES and iPS cells from somatic cells. Mouse ES/iPS cells are in a high-flux metabolic state, with a high dependence on threonine catabolism. However, little is known about amino acid metabolism in human ES/iPS cells. Recently, we reported that human ES/iPS cells require high amounts of methionine (Met) and express high levels of Met metabolism enzymes (Shriaki N, et al: Cell Metabolism, 2014). Met deprivation results in a rapid decrease in intracellular S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), triggering the activation of p53 signaling, reducing pluripotent marker gene NANOG expression, and poising human ES/iPS cells for differentiation, follow by potentiated differentiation into all three germ layers. However, when exposed to prolonged Met deprivation, the cells went to apoptosis. In this review, we explain the importance of SAM in Met metabolism and its relationship with pluripotency, cell survival, and differentiation of human ES/iPS cells.

  16. Methionine Oxidation Perturbs the Structural Core of the Prion Protein and Suggests a Generic Misfolding Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, Nadine D.; Nadal, Rebecca C.; Davies, Paul; Brown, David R.; Viles, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and misfolding of the prion protein (PrPC) are fundamental to prion diseases. We have therefore probed the effect of oxidation on the structure and stability of PrPC. Urea unfolding studies indicate that H2O2 oxidation reduces the thermodynamic stability of PrPC by as much as 9 kJ/mol. 1H-15N NMR studies indicate methionine oxidation perturbs key hydrophobic residues on one face of helix-C as follows: Met-205, Val-209, and Met-212 together with residues Val-160 and Tyr-156. These hydrophobic residues pack together and form the structured core of the protein, stabilizing its ternary structure. Copper-catalyzed oxidation of PrPC causes a more significant alteration of the structure, generating a monomeric molten globule species that retains its native helical content. Further copper-catalyzed oxidation promotes extended β-strand structures that lack a cooperative fold. This transition from the helical molten globule to β-conformation has striking similarities to a misfolding intermediate generated at low pH. PrP may therefore share a generic misfolding pathway to amyloid fibers, irrespective of the conditions promoting misfolding. Our observations support the hypothesis that oxidation of PrP destabilizes the native fold of PrPC, facilitating the transition to PrPSc. This study gives a structural and thermodynamic explanation for the high levels of oxidized methionine in scrapie isolates. PMID:22654104

  17. Selective targeting of the conserved active site cysteine of Mycobacterium tuberculosis methionine aminopeptidase with electrophilic reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Ravikumar; Arya, Tarun; Kishor, Chandan; Gumpena, Rajesh; Ganji, Roopa J; Bhukya, Supriya; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) cleave initiator methionine from ~ 70% of the newly synthesized proteins in every living cell, and specific inhibition or knockdown of this function is detrimental. MetAPs are metalloenzymes, and are broadly classified into two subtypes, type I and type II. Bacteria contain only type I MetAPs, and the active site of these enzymes contains a conserved cysteine. By contrast, in type II enzymes the analogous position is occupied by a conserved glycine. Here, we report the reactivity of the active site cysteine in a type I MetAP, MetAP1c, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtMetAP1c) towards highly selective cysteine-specific reagents. The authenticity of selective modification of Cys105 of MtMetAP1c was established by using site-directed mutagenesis and crystal structure determination of covalent and noncovalent complexes. On the basis of these observations, we propose that metal ions in the active site assist in the covalent modification of Cys105 by orienting the reagents appropriately for a successful reaction. These studies establish, for the first time, that the conserved cysteine of type I MetAPs can be targeted for selective inhibition, and we believe that this chemistry can be exploited for further drug discovery efforts regarding microbial MetAPs.

  18. Engineered Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase effectively produces antimicrobial thiosulfinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Elena A; Kulikova, Vitalia V; Rodionov, Alexei N; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of thiosulfinates in situ produced by mixtures of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase (MGL) with new substrates, l-methionine and S-(alkyl/allyl)-l-cysteine sulfoxides has been recently demonstrated (Anufrieva et al., 2015). This opens a way to the rational design of a new biotechnologically relevant antimicrobial drug producer. To increase the efficiency of the enzyme toward sulfoxides, the mutant forms of MGL, with the replacements of active site cysteine 115 with alanine (C115A MGL) and histidine (C115H MGL) were obtained. The replacement of cysteine 115 by histidine results in the loss of activity of the mutant enzyme in the γ-elimination reaction of physiological substrate, whereas the activity in the β-elimination reaction of characteristic substrates persists. However, the catalytic efficiency of C115H MGL in the β-elimination reaction of S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides is increased by about an order of magnitude compared to the wild type MGL. The antibacterial activity of C115H MGL mixtures with a number of sulfoxides was assessed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The bacteriostatic effect was more pronounced against Gram-positive than against Gram-negative bacteria, while antibacterial potential proved to be quite similar. Thus, the mutant enzyme C115H MGL is an effective catalyst, in particular, for decomposition of sulfoxides and the pharmacological couples of the mutant form with sulfoxides might be new antimicrobial agents.

  19. Effect of different amino acids density diets on lysine, methionine and protein efficiency in Arian broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages provided by amino acid (AA densities to broiler performance have been well documented, but little research has been reported on comparing the effect of different densities, i.e. high, medium, standard and low amino acid levels (HAA, MAA, SAA, and LAA, on protein and energy efficiency in broiler. This study evaluated the effects of the four different amino acid densities in a completely randomized experimental design on 800 male (10 replicates per treatment broilers. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In broilers receiving HAA, there had been a significant increase in body weight at Day 42. Feeding broilers with HAA diets significantly increased protein and energy intake in the grower period and during the overall study period (0-42 days of age (P<0.05. There was a significant difference in efficiency of lysine and methionine during all time periods (P<0.05 and HAA levels were significantly higher than SAA. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and energy efficiency ratio (EER were not affected by an increase in AA density. AA levels had a significant effect on production efficiency factor (PEF. The results of this study suggest that additional lysine and methionine at 120% and other AA at 110% of National Research Council recommendations in starter and grower diets significantly improved body weight and PEF.

  20. Effects of dietary incorporation of potato protein concentrate and supplementation of methionine on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, S.; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    and supplementation of methionine in the diet of rainbow trout. When the proportion of PPC exceeded 56 g kg-1 the growth of fish decreased while both growth and feed utilization decreased when the dietary PPC was 111 g kg-1. Protein productive value and condition factor of the fish decreased and mortality increased......Four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) were formulated to contain different potato protein concentrate (PPC) levels (0, 22, 56, and 111 g kg-1). Diet 5 contained 56 g kg-1 PPC and 17 g kg-1 methionine. A growth trial was conducted to investigate the effect on growth and feed utilization of incorporation of PPC...

  1. Using Raman spectroscopy to understand the origin of the phase transition observed in the crystalline sulfur based amino acid l-methionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, José A.; Freire, P.T.C.; Melo, F.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the Raman spectra of l-methionine (C5 H11 NO2 S) monocrystals obtained in the spectral region ranging from 3200 to 50 cm-1 at temperatures from 20 to 375 K. We investigated the dynamics of the different functional groups in l-methionine and related their behaviour to the structural tra...

  2. Using Raman spectroscopy to understand the origin of the phase transition observed in the crystalline sulfur based amino acid L-methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, Jose A.; Freire, Paulo T. C.; Melo, Francisco E. A.; Mendes Filho, J.; Fischer, Jennifer; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Broer, Ria; Bordallo, Heloisa N.; Lima Jr., José A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the Raman spectra of L-methionine (C5H11NO2S) monocrystals obtained in the spectral region ranging from 3200 to 50 cm(-1) at temperatures from 20 to 375 K. We investigated the dynamics of the different functional groups in L-methionine and related their behaviour to the structural transit

  3. Using Raman spectroscopy to understand the origin of the phase transition observed in the crystalline sulfur based amino acid l-methionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, José A.; Freire, P.T.C.; Melo, F.E.A.;

    2013-01-01

    We present the Raman spectra of l-methionine (C5 H11 NO2 S) monocrystals obtained in the spectral region ranging from 3200 to 50 cm-1 at temperatures from 20 to 375 K. We investigated the dynamics of the different functional groups in l-methionine and related their behaviour to the structural...

  4. Using Raman spectroscopy to understand the origin of the phase transition observed in the crystalline sulfur based amino acid L-methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, Jose A.; Freire, Paulo T. C.; Melo, Francisco E. A.; Mendes Filho, J.; Fischer, Jennifer; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Broer, Ria; Bordallo, Heloisa N.; Lima Jr., José A.

    We present the Raman spectra of L-methionine (C5H11NO2S) monocrystals obtained in the spectral region ranging from 3200 to 50 cm(-1) at temperatures from 20 to 375 K. We investigated the dynamics of the different functional groups in L-methionine and related their behaviour to the structural

  5. S-adenosyl-L-methionine modifies antioxidant-enzymes, glutathione-biosynthesis and methionine adenosyltransferases-1/2 in hepatitis C virus-expressing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Sepulveda, Sonia Amelia; Bautista-Osorio, Eduardo; Merino-Mascorro, Jose Angel; Varela-Rey, Marta; Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda Elsa; Cordero-Perez, Paula; Martinez-Chantar, María Luz; Rivas-Estilla, Ana Maria

    2016-04-14

    To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) decreases hepatitis C virus (HCV) expression. We examined the effects of SAM on viral expression using an HCV subgenomic replicon cell culture system. Huh7 HCV-replicon cells were treated with 1 mmol/L SAM for different times (24-72 h), then total RNA and proteins were isolated. cDNA was synthesized and real time-PCR was achieved to quantify HCV-RNA, superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD-1, SOD-2) catalase, thioredoxin 1, methionine adenosyltransferase 1A and 2A (MAT1A, MAT2A) expression, and GAPDH and RPS18 as endogenous genes. Expression of cellular and viral protein was evaluated by western-blot analysis using antibodies vs HCV-NS5A, SOD-1, SOD-2, catalase, thioredoxin-1, MAT1A, MAT2A, GAPDH and actin. Total glutathione levels were measured at different times by Ellman's recycling method (0-24 h). Reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels were quantified by the dichlorofluorescein assay (0-48 h); Pyrrolidin dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was tested as an antioxidant control and H2O2 as a positive oxidant agent. SAM exposition decreased HCV-RNA levels 50%-70% compared to non-treated controls (24-72 h). SAM induced a synergic antiviral effect with standard IFN treatment but it was independent of IFN signaling. In addition, 1 mmol/L SAM exposition did not modify viral RNA stability, but it needs cellular translation machinery in order to decrease HCV expression. Total glutathione levels increased upon SAM treatment in HCV-replicon cells. Transcriptional antioxidant enzyme expression (SOD-1, SOD-2 and thioredoxin-1) was increased at different times but interestingly, there was no significant change in ROS levels upon SAM treatment, contrary to what was detected with PDTC treatment, where an average 40% reduction was observed in exposed cells. There was a turnover from MAT1A/MAT2A, since MAT1A expression was increased (2.5 fold-times at 48 h) and MAT2A was diminished (from 24 h) upon SAM treatment at both the

  6. Effect of methionine load on homocysteine levels, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in rats receiving ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Afonso Jordao Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the metabolism of methionine can cause hyperhomocysteinemia, inducing a triad of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and increased oxidative stress. The generation of free radicals and oxidative damage to DNA is important in the liver damage caused by ethanol. In this study, the effect of methionine overload associated or otherwise with acute administration of ethanol on homocysteine values, damage to DNA, lipoperoxidation and vitamin E was evaluated. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups: Group Ethanol 24 hours (EG24, Group Methionine 24 hours (MG24, and Group Methionine and Ethanol 24 hours (MEG24. TBARS, vitamin E, GS and, homocysteine values were determined and the Comet assay was carried out. Increased GSH, vitamin E and homocysteine levels were observed for MEG24, and increased TBARS were observed in EG24. The Comet assay showed an increase in DNA damage in EG24 and DNA protection in MEG24. The administration of ethanol decreased antioxidant levels and increased TBARS, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress with possible DNA damage. The combination of methionine and ethanol had a protective effect against the ethanol-induced damage, but increased the levels of homocysteine.Alterações no metabolismo da metionina podem ocasionar hiper-homocisteinemia, quadro indutivo de aterosclerose, hipertensão e aumento do estresse oxidativo. A geração de radicais livres e dano oxidativo ao DNA são importantes na injúria hepática provocada pelo etanol. Neste estudo avaliaram-se os efeitos da sobrecarga de metionina associada ou não à administração aguda de etanol sobre valores de homocisteína, dano ao DNA, lipoperoxidação e vitamina E. Foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar distribuídos em 3 Grupos: Grupo Etanol 24 horas (GE24, Grupo Metionina 24 horas (GM24 e Grupo Metionina e Etanol 24 horas (GME24. Realizaram-se determinações hepáticas de SRATB, vitamina E, GSH, homocisteína e Teste do Cometa e determinações plasm

  7. Evolution and function of phytochelatin synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Stephan

    2006-02-01

    Both essential and non-essential transition metal ions can easily be toxic to cells. The physiological range for essential metals between deficiency and toxicity is therefore extremely narrow and a tightly controlled metal homeostasis network to adjust to fluctuations in micronutrient availability is a necessity for all organisms. One protective strategy against metal excess is the expression of high-affinity binding sites to suppress uncontrolled binding of metal ions to physiologically important functional groups. The synthesis of phytochelatins, glutathione-derived metal binding peptides, represents the major detoxification mechanism for cadmium and arsenic in plants and an unknown range of other organisms. A few years ago genes encoding phytochelatin synthases (PCS) were cloned from plants, fungi and nematodes. Since then it has become apparent that PCS genes are far more widespread than ever anticipated. Searches in sequence databases indicate PCS expression in representatives of all eukaryotic kingdoms and the presence of PCS-like proteins in several prokaryotes. The almost ubiquitous presence in the plant kingdom and beyond as well as the constitutive expression of PCS genes and PCS activity in all major plant tissues are still mysterious. It is unclear, how the extremely rare need to cope with an excess of cadmium or arsenic ions could explain the evolution and distribution of PCS genes. Possible answers to this question are discussed. Also, the molecular characterization of phytochelatin synthases and our current knowledge about the enzymology of phytochelatin synthesis are reviewed.

  8. Torque generation mechanism of ATP synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John; Maric, Sladjana; Scoppa, M.; Cheung, M.

    2010-03-01

    ATP synthase is a rotary motor that produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical currency of life. Our proposed electric field driven torque (EFT) model of FoF1-ATP synthase describes how torque, which scales with the number of c-ring proton binding sites, is generated by the proton motive force (pmf) across the mitochondrial inner membrane. When Fo is coupled to F1, the model predicts a critical pmf to drive ATP production. In order to fully understand how the electric field resulting from the pmf drives the c-ring to rotate, it is important to examine the charge distributions in the protonated c-ring and a-subunit containing the proton channels. Our calculations use a self-consistent field approach based on a refinement of reported structural data. The results reveal changes in pKa for key residues on the a-subunit and c-ring, as well as titration curves and protonation state energy diagrams. Health implications will be briefly discussed.

  9. PROTHROMBOTIC POLYMORPHISMS AND LONG-TERM PROGNOSIS OF PATIENTS WITH STABLE ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Komarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate influence of thrombosis associated genetic factors on cardiovascular complications (CVC occurrence in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (IHD on the base of 5-year prospective survey. Material and methods. A total of 503 patients with the mean age of 59.4 years were enrolled into the study. The follow-up period was 5.4 years. Composite endpoint included the following cases of fatal and nonfatal CVC: death, acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack, peripheral arterial thrombosis and revascularization of affected vascular system. We determined prevalence and prognostic value of mutations and polymorphisms in genes that encode blood clotting factors (factor V Leiden G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, ß-fibrinogen 455G> A, platelet GPIIIa receptor (C1565T and enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism (methylentetrahydrofolate reductase  (C667 T MTHFR and A1298C, methionine synthase (MTR A2756G, methionine synthase-reductase (MTRR A66G and transcobalamin (TCN C776G. Results. Overall incidence rate of vascular events made up 31.0%. MTHFR and TCN polymorphisms proved to be significant in regard to cardiovascular risk among all studied genetic indices. Carriage of at least C667 T one MTHFR polymorphic allele increased risk of CVC 1.64 times (95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-2.3, p=0.003. Homozygous carriage of MTHFR 1298 AА and TCN 776 СС “wild” genotypes increased risk of CVC 1.63 times (95% CI 1.2-2.3, р=0.006 and 1.37 times (95% CI 1.001-1.89, р=0.04, respectively. Such genetic variants as MTHFR C667 T/СТ and 1298 AА impacted prognosis only given concomitant decrease in plasma folate level, which was observed in 56.1% of the patients. Conclusion. It can be recommended to test the presence of MTHFR C667 T, MTHFR 1298 AА and TCN 776 СС, and to simultaneously assess folate level in IHD patients in order to clarify risk of unfavorable cardiovascular events.

  10. Protective vascular and cardiac effects of inducible nitric oxide synthase in mice with hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Dayal

    Full Text Available Diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia produces endothelial and cardiac dysfunction and promotes thrombosis through a mechanism proposed to involve oxidative stress. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS is upregulated in hyperhomocysteinemia and can generate superoxide. We therefore tested the hypothesis that iNOS mediates the adverse oxidative, vascular, thrombotic, and cardiac effects of hyperhomocysteinemia. Mice deficient in iNOS (Nos2-/- and their wild-type (Nos2+/+ littermates were fed a high methionine/low folate (HM/LF diet to induce mild hyperhomocysteinemia, with a 2-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine (P<0.001 vs. control diet. Hyperhomocysteinemic Nos2+/+ mice exhibited endothelial dysfunction in cerebral arterioles, with impaired dilatation to acetylcholine but not nitroprusside, and enhanced susceptibility to carotid artery thrombosis, with shortened times to occlusion following photochemical injury (P<0.05 vs. control diet. Nos2-/- mice had decreased rather than increased dilatation responses to acetylcholine (P<0.05 vs. Nos2+/+ mice. Nos2-/- mice fed control diet also exhibited shortened times to thrombotic occlusion (P<0.05 vs. Nos2+/+ mice, and iNOS deficiency failed to protect from endothelial dysfunction or accelerated thrombosis in mice with hyperhomocysteinemia. Deficiency of iNOS did not alter myocardial infarct size in mice fed the control diet but significantly increased infarct size and cardiac superoxide production in mice fed the HM/LF diet (P<0.05 vs. Nos2+/+ mice. These findings suggest that endogenous iNOS protects from, rather than exacerbates, endothelial dysfunction, thrombosis, and hyperhomocysteinemia-associated myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the setting of mild hyperhomocysteinemia, iNOS functions to blunt cardiac oxidative stress rather than functioning as a source of superoxide.

  11. [Four cases of aldosterone synthase deficiency in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, E; Pelissier, P; Richard, O; Gay, C; Pugeat, M; Morel, Y; Stephan, J-L

    2012-11-01

    Neonatal salt-wasting syndromes are rare but potentially serious conditions. Isolated hypoaldosteronism is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of terminal aldosterone synthesis, leading to selective aldosterone deficiency. Two different biochemical forms of this disease have been described, called aldosterone synthase deficiency or corticosterone methyl oxydase, types I and II. In type I, there is no aldosterone synthase activity and the 18 hydroxycorticosterone (18 OHB) level is low, whereas in type II, a residual activity of aldosterone synthase persists and 18 OHB is overproduced. We report on four patients with isolated hypoaldosteronism. In 2 of them, who were recently diagnosed with aldosterone synthase deficit, we discuss the symptoms and treatment. The 2 other patients are now adults. We discuss the long-term outcome, the quality of adult life, aldosterone synthase deficits, as well as the pathophysiology and molecular analysis.

  12. Pseudouridines and pseudouridine synthases of the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofengand, J; Malhotra, A; Remme, J; Gutgsell, N S; Del Campo, M; Jean-Charles, S; Peil, L; Kaya, Y

    2001-01-01

    psi are ubiquitous in ribosomal RNA. Eubacteria, Archaea, and eukaryotes all contain psi, although their number varies widely, with eukaryotes having the most. The small ribosomal subunit can apparently do without psi in some organisms, even though others have as many as 40 or more. Large subunits appear to need at least one psi but can have up to 50-60. psi is made by a set of site-specific enzymes in eubacteria, and in eukaryotes by a single enzyme complexed with auxiliary proteins and specificity-conferring guide RNAs. The mechanism is not known in Archaea, but based on an analysis of the kinds of psi synthases found in sequenced archaeal genomes, it is likely to involve use of guide RNAs. All psi synthases can be classified into one of four related groups, virtually all of which have a conserved aspartate residue in a conserved sequence motif. The aspartate is essential for psi formation in all twelve synthases examined so far. When the need for psi in E. coli was examined, the only synthase whose absence caused a major decrease in growth rate under normal conditions was RluD, the synthase that makes psi 1911, psi 1915, and psi 1917 in the helix 69 end-loop. This growth defect was the result of a major failure in assembly of the large ribosomal subunit. The defect could be prevented by supplying the rluD structural gene in trans, and also by providing a point mutant gene that made a synthase unable to make psi. Therefore, the RluD synthase protein appears to be directly involved in 50S subunit assembly, possibly as an RNA chaperone, and this activity is independent of its ability to form psi. This result is not without precedent. Depletion of PET56, a 2'-O-methyltransferase specific for G2251 (E. coli numbering) in yeast mitochondria virtually blocks 50S subunit assembly and mitochondrial function (Sirum-Connolly et al. 1995), but the methylation activity of the enzyme is not required (T. Mason, pers. comm.). The absence of FtsJ, a heat shock protein that makes

  13. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Selim Gokay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg, or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg. After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P=0.044 positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  14. Origin and evolution of the protein-repairing enzymes methionine sulphoxide reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing-Hai; Weissbach, Herbert

    2008-08-01

    The majority of extant life forms thrive in an O2-rich environment, which unavoidably induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during cellular activities. ROS readily oxidize methionine (Met) residues in proteins/peptides to form methionine sulphoxide [Met(O)] that can lead to impaired protein function. Two methionine sulphoxide reductases, MsrA and MsrB, catalyse the reduction of the S and R epimers, respectively, of Met(O) in proteins to Met. The Msr system has two known functions in protecting cells against oxidative damage. The first is to repair proteins that have lost activity due to Met oxidation and the second is to function as part of a scavenger system to remove ROS through the reversible oxidation/reduction of Met residues in proteins. Bacterial, plant and animal cells lacking MsrA are known to be more sensitive to oxidative stress. The Msr system is considered an important cellular defence mechanism to protect against oxidative stress and may be involved in ageing/senescence. MsrA is present in all known eukaryotes and eubacteria and a majority of archaea, reflecting its essential role in cellular life. MsrB is found in all eukaryotes and the majority of eubacteria and archaea but is absent in some eubacteria and archaea, which may imply a less important role of MsrB compared to MsrA. MsrA and MsrB share no sequence or structure homology, and therefore probably emerged as a result of independent evolutionary events. The fact that some archaea lack msr genes raises the question of how these archaea cope with oxidative damage to proteins and consequently of the significance of msr evolution in oxic eukaryotes dealing with oxidative stress. Our best hypothesis is that the presence of ROS-destroying enzymes such as peroxiredoxins and a lower dissolved O2 concentration in those msr-lacking organisms grown at high temperatures might account for the successful survival of these organisms under oxidative stress.

  15. Dietary tryptophan and methionine as modulators of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) immune status and inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marina; Azeredo, Rita; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Afonso, António; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamín

    2015-02-01

    Amino acids regulate key metabolic pathways important to immune responses and their nutritional supply may increase synthesis of immune-related proteins. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine on European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) cellular and humoral status. The immunomodulatory effects of tryptophan and methionine during an inflammatory insult was also evaluated after intraperitoneal injection with inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp). A practical isonitrogenous (45% crude protein) and isolipidic (16% crude fat) diets was formulated to include fish meal and a blend of plant feedstuffs as protein sources and fish oil as the main lipid source (CRL diet). Two other diets were formulated similar to the control but including L-tryptophan or L-methionine at ×2 the requirement level (diets TRP and MET, respectively). European seabass weighing 275 g were fed the experimental diets for a period of 15 days before being sampled (trial 1). Then, fish were subjected to a peritoneal inflammation by intraperitoneally injecting UV killed Phdp (10(6) colony forming units ml(-1)) and sampled following 4 and 24 h post-injection (trial 2). Fish injected with a saline solution served as control. The haematological profile, peripheral cell dynamics and several plasma immune parameters were determined in trials 1 and 2, whereas cell migration to the inflammatory focus was also determined in trial 2. MET positively affected European seabass immune status by improving the peripheral leucocyte response, complement activity and bactericidal capacity, a stronger cellular recruitment to the inflammatory focus, and higher plasma peroxidase and bactericidal activities. TRP also seemed to improve immunostimulation, as there was a trend to augment both cell-mediated immunity and humoral capacity. However, TRP failed to improve an inflammatory response, verified by a decrease in blood phagocyte numbers

  16. Construction and Expression of Methionine-rich and Lysine-rich Fusion Gene inBacillus natto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shuang; Luo Chao-chao; Wu Cai-xia; Gao Xue-jun

    2015-01-01

    Methionine and lysine are restrictive essential amino acids of livestock, they are also the most attentive indexes in the feed production to carry out the quality control and quality evaluation. Their contents in feed directly affect livestock protein synthesis. Bacillus natto has excellent probiotic properties. In this experiment, we used the genetic engineering method, fusion PCR technique, to connect methionine-rich gene (zein) from maize endosperm protein with lysine-rich gene (Cflr) from the pepper anther, then the fusion gene was inserted into the expression vector pHT43, and the recombinant plasmid pHT43/zein-Cflr was constructed. The recombinant plasmid was transferred intoBacillus natto, and induced by IPTG for the expression of the fusion gene. We found an apparent band at 40 ku site for the recombinant strain by SDS-PAGE. The contents of methionine and lysine were individually detected with HPLC, the quantities of methionine and lysine in the recombinant strain increased by 18.37% and 24.68% than the wild one, respectively. We also verified the stability of the recombinant bacterium during passaging, and found the stability was 100%. This study provided research-basis for the application of the recombinedBacillus nattoas feed additive.

  17. Pig performance increases with the addition of DL-methionine and L-lysine to ensiled cassava leaf protein diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the impact of supplementation of diets containing ensiled cassava leaves as the main protein source with synthetic amino acids, dl-methionine alone or with L-lysine. In study 1, a total of 40 pigs in five units, all cross-breds between Large White and Mong

  18. Comparison of methionine chelated versus sulfate trace minerals on rate and efficiency of gain and pregnancy rates in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of this experiment were to compare rate and efficiency of gain, and conception rates of yearling heifers supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn as either metal methionine hydroxy analogue chelated trace minerals (CTM; provided as MINTREX) or the same trace minerals in SO4 form. The experimental...

  19. EFFECTS OF RUMEN PROTECTED METHIONINE AND VITAMIN B12 ON RBC PARAMETERS OF DAIRY COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safarkhanlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of rumen-protected methionine and vitamin B12 as well as their interactions on the parameters of red blood cells of dairy cows in early lactation, 16 Holstein cows in early lactation in experiment with randomized complete block design with the 2×2 factorial arrangement used for 42 days. In this experiment, there were four treatments, which in each treatment is placed two cows primi-parous and two cows multi-parous. Treatments included: 1 The group receiving the basal diet, 2 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections, 3 The group receiving the basal diet with rumen-protected methionine, 4 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections and rumen-protected methionine. The results showed that in the use of vitamin B12 and rumen-protected methionine, there is no significant difference between the experimental groups in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin levels and blood hematocrit. Mean corpuscular (cell volume and mean corpuscular (cell hemoglobin did increase with vitamin B12 supplementation. In a general conclusion, it seems that increasing MCV and MCH may result in improvement in oxygenation and in turn lead to improvement on dry matter intake and milk production.

  20. Oxidation of methionine in PrP is dependent upon the oxidant and the amino acid two positions removed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Introduction. Methionine oxidation has been shown both to be associated with prion formation and implicated in the inhibition of amyloid formation in model systems. This work is based on model systems where hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidant. Materials and Methods. We developed...

  1. Feeding rumen-protected methionine pre- and post-partum increases milk protein content and yield in early lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of feeding rumen-protected methionine (MET) from 23 d (±12) before calving until 98 days in milk (DIM) on lactation performance, dry matter intake (DMI), body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) change of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 223) ...

  2. Zinc Methionine Supplementation Impacts Gene and Protein Expression in Calf-fed Holstein Steers with Miniaml Impact on Feedlot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calf-fed Holstein steers were supplemented with a zinc (Zn) methionine supplement (ZnMet; ZINPRO®; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for 115±5 days prior to harvest along with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) for the last 20 days with a 3 day withdrawal to ...

  3. Dietary serine and cystine attenuate the homocysteine-raising effect of dietary methionine: A randomized crossover trial in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Steenge, G.R.; Boelsma, E.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: A high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The increase in tHcy induced by methionine, the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine, might be modulated by other amino acids present in dietary proteins. Objectives: Our objectives were

  4. Toward an Understanding of the Oxidation Process of Methionine Enkephalin: A Combined Electrochemistry, Quantum Chemistry and Quantum Chemical Topology Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergès, Jacqueline; Kamar, Amanda; de Oliveira, Pedro; Pilmé, Julien; Luppi, Eleonora; Houée-Levin, Chantal

    2015-06-11

    Recent experimental results about the oxidation of methionine enkephalin by ·OH radicals indicated an intramolecular electron transfer between the C-terminal methionine radical cation and the tyrosine N-terminus too fast to be observed. We have investigated the thermodynamic possibility of this intramolecular electron transfer by calculating the one-electron redox potentials of both residues for several conformations of the peptide, extracted from the experimental data of the Protein Data Bank (1PLW). Using a QM/MM approach, we show that the redox potential of the Met(•+)/Met couple is higher than that of the TyrOH(•+)/TyrOH one (tyrosine is denoted as TyrOH) for all conformations. The intramolecular electron transfer between both residues (from TyrOH to Met(•+)) is thus always thermodynamically allowed. Previously, we had performed topological studies on the intramolecular electron transfer which predicted this charge transfer. A study by cyclic voltammetry pointed out that the wave belonging to methionine is not present when methionine enkephalin is oxidized and only the direct involvement of the tyrosine residue is observed.

  5. Characterization of a novel methionine sulfoxide reductase A from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ), and its protecting role in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Changbo; Singh, Naresh Kumar; Park, Myungho

    2011-12-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) is a ubiquitous enzyme that has been demonstrated to reduce the S enantiomer of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) to methionine (Met) and can protect cells against oxidative damage. In this study, we isolated a novel MSRA (SlMSRA2) from Micro-Tom (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom) and characterized it by subcloning the coding sequence into a pET expression system. Purified recombinant protein was assayed by HPLC after expression and refolding. This analysis revealed the absolute specificity for methionine-S-sulfoxide and the enzyme was able to convert both free and protein-bound MetSO to Met in the presence of DTT. In addition, the optimal pH, appropriate temperature, and Km and Kcat values for MSRA2 were observed as 8.5, 25oC, 352 ± 25 μM, and 0.066 ± 0.009 S(-1), respectively. Disk inhibition and growth rate assays indicated that SlMSRA2 may play an essential function in protecting E. coli against oxidative damage.

  6. Responses of organic housed laying hens to dietary methionine and energy during a summer and winter season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Ogun, M.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The main dietary challenge in organic laying hen production is to fulfil the digestible methionine (MET) requirement in a diet consisting of ingredients of organic origin only. The aim of the present experiment was to determine the response of organic housed laying hens (26–34 weeks of age) to dieta

  7. Pig performance increases with the addition of DL-methionine and L-lysine to ensiled cassava leaf protein diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the impact of supplementation of diets containing ensiled cassava leaves as the main protein source with synthetic amino acids, dl-methionine alone or with L-lysine. In study 1, a total of 40 pigs in five units, all cross-breds between Large White and Mong Cai

  8. Effects of supplementing pregnant heifers with methionine or melatonin on the anatomy and other characteristics of their lateral hind claws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbraith, H; Rae, M; Omand, T

    2006-01-01

    Three groups of four primiparous Holstein-Friesian heifers were fed throughout pregnancy either a control diet or that diet supplemented with either 5 to 6 g per day of rumen-protected intestinally available methionine or 25 mg melatonin. They were euthanased three days after calving. The dietary...

  9. Characterization of olivetol synthase, a polyketide synthase putatively involved in cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taura, Futoshi; Tanaka, Shinji; Taguchi, Chiho; Fukamizu, Tomohide; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2009-06-18

    Alkylresorcinol moieties of cannabinoids are derived from olivetolic acid (OLA), a polyketide metabolite. However, the polyketide synthase (PKS) responsible for OLA biosynthesis has not been identified. In the present study, a cDNA encoding a novel PKS, olivetol synthase (OLS), was cloned from Cannabis sativa. Recombinant OLS did not produce OLA, but synthesized olivetol, the decarboxylated form of OLA, as the major reaction product. Interestingly, it was also confirmed that the crude enzyme extracts from flowers and rapidly expanding leaves, the cannabinoid-producing tissues of C. sativa, also exhibited olivetol-producing activity, suggesting that the native OLS is functionally expressed in these tissues. The possibility that OLS could be involved in OLA biosynthesis was discussed based on its catalytic properties and expression profile.

  10. Redox Modulation of Cellular Signaling and Metabolism Through Reversible Oxidation of Methionine Sensors in Calcium Regulatory Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2005-01-17

    Adaptive responses associated with environmental stressors are critical to cell survival. These involve the modulation of central signaling protein functions through site-specific and enzymatically reversible oxidative modifications of methionines to coordinate cellular metabolism, energy utilization, and calcium signaling. Under conditions when cellular redox and antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed, the selective oxidation of critical methionines within selected protein sensors functions to down-regulate energy metabolism and the further generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mechanistically, these functional changes within protein sensors take advantage of the helix-breaking character of methionine sulfoxide. Thus, depending on either the ecological niche of the organism or the cellular milieu of different organ systems, cellular metabolism can be fine-tuned to maintain optimal function in the face of variable amounts of collateral oxidative damage. The sensitivity of several calcium regulatory proteins to oxidative modification provides cellular sensors that link oxidative stress to cellular response and recovery. Calmodulin (CaM) is one such critical calcium regulatory protein, which is functionally sensitive to methionine oxidation. Helix destabilization resulting from the oxidation of either Met{sup 144} or Met{sup 145} results in the nonproductive association between CaM and target proteins. The ability of oxidized CaM to stabilize its target proteins in an inhibited state with an affinity similar to that of native (unoxidized) CaM permits this central regulatory protein to function as a cellular rheostat that down-regulates energy metabolism in response to oxidative stress. Likewise, oxidation of a methionine within a critical switch region of the regulatory protein phospholamban is expected to destabilize the phosphorylationdependent helix formation necessary for the release of enzyme inhibition, resulting in a down-regulation of the Ca-ATPase in

  11. Transfer RNA pseudouridine synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, T; Olsson, M

    1990-05-25

    A transfer RNA lacking modified nucleosides was produced by transcription in vitro of a cloned gene that encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycine tRNA. At least three different uridines (in nucleotide positions 13, 32, and 55) of this transcript tRNA are modified to pseudouridine by an extract of S. cerevisiae. Variants of the RNA substrate were also constructed that each had only one of these sites, thus allowing specific monitoring of pseudouridylation at different nucleotide positions. Using such RNAs to assay pseudouridine synthesis, enzymes producing this nucleoside were purified from an extract of S. cerevisiae. The activities corresponding to positions 13, 32, and 55 in the tRNA substrate could all be separated chromatographically, indicating that there is a separate enzyme for each of these sites. The enzyme specific for position 55 (denoted pseudouridine synthase 55) was purified approximately 4000-fold using a combination of DEAE-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, and hydroxylapatite.

  12. The nitric oxide synthase of mouse spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M B; Goin, J C; Boquet, M; Canteros, M G; Franchi, A M; Perez Martinez, S; Polak, J M; Viggiano, J M; Gimeno, M A

    1997-07-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was evidenced in mature mouse spermatozoa by means of biochemical techniques and Western blot. During 120 min of incubation, 10(7) spermatozoa synthesized 7 +/- 2 pmol of L-[14C]citrulline. Besides, L-citrulline formation depended on the incubation time and on the concentration of L-arginine present in the incubation medium. Different concentrations of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) but not aminoguanidine, inhibited L-[14C]citrulline formation. Western-blot analysis of solubilized sperm proteins revealed a unique band of M(r)=140 kDa with the neural, endothelial and inducible NOS antisera tested. These results provide evidence that mature mouse sperm contains a NOS isoform and that spermatozoa have the potential ability to synthesize NO, suggesting a role for endogenous NO on mammalian sperm function.

  13. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaohong; Keller, T C Stevenson; Begandt, Daniela; Butcher, Joshua T; Biwer, Lauren; Keller, Alexander S; Columbus, Linda; Isakson, Brant E

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO)--a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After production, NO diffuses to surrounding cells with a variety of effects. We focus on the physiological role of NO and NO-derived molecules, including microvascular effects on vessel tone and immune response. Regulation of eNOS and NO action is complicated; we address endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of NO regulation with a discussion of pharmacological agents used in clinical and laboratory settings and a proposed role for eNOS in circulating red blood cells.

  14. Binding of S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine to protein MJ0100 triggers an open-to-closed conformational change in its CBS motif pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, María; Encinar, José Antonio; Arribas, Egoitz Astigarraga; Oyenarte, Iker; García, Inmaculada Gómez; Kortazar, Danel; Fernández, José A; Mato, Jose M; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2010-02-26

    Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains are small motifs that are present in proteins with completely different functions. Several genetic diseases in humans have been associated with mutations in their sequence, which has made them promising targets for rational drug design. The protein MJ0100 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii includes a DUF39 domain of so far unknown function and a CBS domain pair (Bateman domain) at its C-terminus. This work presents the crystallographic analysis of four different states of the CBS motif pair of MJ0100 in complex with different numbers of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine (MTA) ligands, providing evidence that ligand-induced conformational reorganization of Bateman domain dimers could be an important regulatory mechanism. These observations are in contrast to what is known from most of the other Bateman domain structures but are supported by recent studies on the magnesium transporter MgtE. Our structures represent the first example of a CBS domain protein complexed with SAM and/or MTA and might provide a structural basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms regulated by SAM upon binding to the C-terminal domain of human CBS, whose structure remains unknown. Copyright (c) 2009. Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineering Giardia lamblia trimethylguanosine synthase (GlaTgs2) to transfer non-natural modifications to the RNA 5'-cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Josephin Marie; Stummer, Daniela; Rentmeister, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Trimethylguanosine synthase from Giardia lamblia (GlaTgs2) naturally catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the exocyclic N(2) atom of the 5'-cap--a hallmark of eukaryotic mRNAs. The wild-type enzyme shows substrate promiscuity and can also use the AdoMet-analog AdoPropen for allyl transfer. Here we report on engineering GlaTgs2 to enhance the activity on AdoPropen. A mutational analysis, involving an alanine scan of 10 residues located around the active site, was performed. Positions V34 and S38 were identified as mutational hot spots and analyzed in greater detail by testing NNK libraries. Kinetic analysis and thermostability measurements revealed V34A as the best variant of GlaTgs2, with a ∼10-fold improved specificity for AdoPropen. Double mutants did not yield additional improvements due to low catalytic efficiencies and thermal destabilization. Homologous Tgs enzymes from Homo sapiens and G. intestinalis were also investigated regarding their catalytic activity on AdoPropen. While neither the human wild-type (WT) enzyme nor any of its variants showed activity on AdoPropen, the homologue from G. intestinalis (GinTgs) was remarkably active on AdoPropen. Introducing the best substitution at the homologous position led to variant T34A with ∼40-fold higher specificity for AdoPropen than the original GlaTgs2 WT.

  16. A Single Amino Acid Substitution Converts Benzophenone Synthase into Phenylpyrone Synthase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klundt, Tim; Bocola, Marco; Lütge, Maren; Beuerle, Till; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2009-01-01

    Benzophenone metabolism provides a number of plant natural products with fascinating chemical structures and intriguing pharmacological activities. Formation of the carbon skeleton of benzophenone derivatives from benzoyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA is catalyzed by benzophenone synthase (BPS), a member of the superfamily of type III polyketide synthases. A point mutation in the active site cavity (T135L) transformed BPS into a functional phenylpyrone synthase (PPS). The dramatic change in both substrate and product specificities of BPS was rationalized by homology modeling. The mutation may open a new pocket that accommodates the phenyl moiety of the triketide intermediate but limits polyketide elongation to two reactions, resulting in phenylpyrone formation. 3-Hydroxybenzoyl-CoA is the second best starter molecule for BPS but a poor substrate for PPS. The aryl moiety of the triketide intermediate may be trapped in the new pocket by hydrogen bond formation with the backbone, thereby acting as an inhibitor. PPS is a promising biotechnological tool for manipulating benzoate-primed biosynthetic pathways to produce novel compounds. PMID:19710020

  17. Structure and Function of Fusicoccadiene Synthase, a Hexameric Bifunctional Diterpene Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengbin; Chou, Wayne K W; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2016-04-15

    Fusicoccin A is a diterpene glucoside phytotoxin generated by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis amygdali that causes the plant disease constriction canker, first discovered in New Jersey peach orchards in the 1930s. Fusicoccin A is also an emerging new lead in cancer chemotherapy. The hydrocarbon precursor of fusicoccin A is the tricyclic diterpene fusicoccadiene, which is generated by a bifunctional terpenoid synthase. Here, we report X-ray crystal structures of the individual catalytic domains of fusicoccadiene synthase: the C-terminal domain is a chain elongation enzyme that generates geranylgeranyl diphosphate, and the N-terminal domain catalyzes the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to form fusicoccadiene. Crystal structures of each domain complexed with bisphosphonate substrate analogues suggest that three metal ions and three positively charged amino acid side chains trigger substrate ionization in each active site. While in vitro incubations reveal that the cyclase domain can utilize farnesyl diphosphate and geranyl diphosphate as surrogate substrates, these shorter isoprenoid diphosphates are mainly converted into acyclic alcohol or hydrocarbon products. Gel filtration chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments indicate that full-length fusicoccadiene synthase adopts hexameric quaternary structure, and small-angle X-ray scattering data yield a well-defined molecular envelope illustrating a plausible model for hexamer assembly.

  18. Selective Gold Recovery and Catalysis in a Highly Flexible Methionine-Decorated Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Marta; Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Grancha, Thais; Fortea-Pérez, Francisco R; Gascon, Jorge; Leyva-Pérez, Antonio; Armentano, Donatella; Pardo, Emilio

    2016-06-29

    A novel chiral 3D bioMOF exhibiting functional channels with thio-alkyl chains derived from the natural amino acid l-methionine (1) has been rationally prepared. The well-known strong affinity of gold for sulfur derivatives, together with the extremely high flexibility of the thioether "arms" decorating the channels, account for a selective capture of gold(III) and gold(I) salts in the presence of other metal cations typically found in electronic wastes. The X-ray single-crystal structures of the different gold adsorbates Au(III)@1 and Au(I)@1 suggest that the selective metal capture occurs in a metal ion recognition process somehow mimicking what happens in biological systems and protein receptors. Both Au(III)@1 and Au(I)@1 display high activity as heterogeneous catalyst for the hydroalkoxylation of alkynes, further expanding the application of these novel hybrid materials.

  19. Response of lactating cows to supplemental rumen protected methionine and Niacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxia GAO; Jianguo LI; Wenbin JIA; Qiufeng LI; Yufeng CAO

    2008-01-01

    Eight Chinese Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to determine the effects of rumen protected methionine (RPMet) and Niacin on milk yield and milk composition of lactating cows with 14 d adaptation and 6-d sampling periods. The cows were fed the control diet or the control diet plus RPMet tion in the diet increased 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) yield (P 0.05) and lactose percentage (P>0.05). Dietary niacin supplementation increased milk yield (P 0.05) and SNF (P>0.05). RPMet supplementation in the diet of lactating cows significantly decreased serum urea nitrogen (P0.05). Niacin supplementation influ-enced the contents of glucose and NEFA in serum, but had no effects on the urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and triglyceride (P>0.05).

  20. Urine acidification and mineral metabolism in growing pigs feddiets supplemented with dietary methionine and benzoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) reduces pH of urine and thereby reduces the emission of ammonia and possibly also odorous sulphur-compounds from slurry. The effect of BA on mineral metabolism in growing pigs is not clear. The objective was therefore to study the effect of BA and methionine (Met) as a sulphur (S...... d adaptation period and a 7 d period with collection of faeces and urine. Benzoic acid was metabolized into hippuric acid which reduced urinary pH by 0.8 pH units (P ... apparent digestibility was not (P = 0.58) affected by BA, but on the 1% Met diets, S excretion into urine was reduced (P = 0.006) by BA. In conclusion, both BA and Met supplementation increased P and Ca apparent digestibility and decreased urinary pH. The increased acid load provided through dietary BA did...

  1. Investigation of the metal binding site in methionine aminopeptidase by density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne Techau; Norrby, Per-Ola; Liljefors, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    All methionine aminopeptidases exhibit the same conserved metal binding site. The structure of this site with either Co2+ ions or Zn2+ ions was investigated using density functional theory. The calculations showed that the structure of the site was not influenced by the identity of the metal ions...... oxygen, which is part of either a water molecule or a hydroxide ion. Within the site of hMetAP-2 the results strongly indicate that a hydroxide ion bridges the metal ions. By contrast, the nature of the oxygen bridging the metal ions within the metal binding site of eMetAP-1 cannot be determined based...... on the results here, due to the similar structural results obtained with a bridging water molecule and a bridging hydroxide ion....

  2. Methionine and cystine double deprivation stress suppresses glioma proliferation via inducing ROS/autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huailei; Zhang, Weiguang; Wang, Kaikai; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Yin, Fei; Li, Chenguang; Wang, Chunlei; Zhao, Boxian; Zhong, Chen; Zhang, Jiakang; Peng, Fei; Bi, Yunke; Shen, Chen; Hou, Xu; Zhang, Daming; Liu, Yaohua; Ai, Jing; Zhao, Shiguang

    2015-01-22

    Cancer cells are highly dependent on methionine and cystine (Met-Cys) for survival and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism is not fully clear. The present study is to investigate the effects of Met-Cys deprivation on glioma cells proliferation. The results showed that Met-Cys double deprivation had synergistic action on elevating ROS level, decreased GSH level and inhibition of glioma cell proliferation. Moreover, both of them deprivation triggered autophagy of glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, Met-Cys double restriction diet inhibited growth of glioma. These results provided a new regulation mechanism of Met-Cys metabolism on affecting glioma cell proliferation, suggesting that targeting Met-Cys metabolism may be a potential strategy for glioma therapy.

  3. Characterization of a methionine-rich protein from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru Mill. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.F.R. Aragão

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae, to which we gave the trivial name of cactin. This protein has a molecular mass of 11.3 kDa and is formed by a light chain (3.67 kDa and a heavy chain (7.63 kDa. This protein was isolated using a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of cactin was determined and found to resemble that of the 2S seed reserve protein from the Brazil nut, a protein remarkable for its high methionine content. The usefulness of cactin as a molecular marker in the taxonomy of the Cactaceae is discussed.

  4. Structure-Functional Study of Tyrosine and Methionine Dipeptides: An Approach to Antioxidant Activity Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Torkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum chemical methods allow screening and prediction of peptide antioxidant activity on the basis of known experimental data. It can be used to design the selective proteolysis of protein sources in order to obtain products with antioxidant activity. Molecular geometry and electronic descriptors of redox-active amino acids, as well as tyrosine and methionine-containing dipeptides, were studied by Density Functional Theory method. The calculated data was used to reveal several descriptors responsible for the antioxidant capacities of the model compounds based on their experimentally obtained antioxidant capacities against ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate and peroxyl radical. A formula to predict antioxidant activity of peptides was proposed.

  5. Ionic immobilization, diversification, and release: application to the generation of a library of methionine aminopeptidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, Punitha; Guerra, Jennifer M; Schoenen, Frank; Huang, Min; Gor, Parul J; Georg, Gunda I; Wang, Jenna L; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Lushington, Gerald H; Mitscher, Lester A; Ye, Qi-Zhuang; Hanson, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    Development of an ionic immobilization, diversification, and release method for the generation of methionine aminopeptidase inhibitors is reported. This method involves the immobilization of 5-bromofuran-2-carboxylic acid and 5-bromothiophene-2-carboxylic acid onto PS-BEMP, followed by Suzuki reaction on a resin-bound intermediate and subsequent release to provide products in moderate yields and excellent purities. Compound potencies were evaluated on the Co(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Fe(II) forms of Escherichia coli MetAP1. The furoic-acid analogs were found to be Mn(II) selective with IC 50 values in the low micromolar range. Qualitative SAR analysis, supplemented by molecular modeling studies, provides valuable information on structural elements responsible for potency and selectivity.

  6. Accuracy of distinguishing between dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors and other epileptogenic brain neoplasms with [¹¹C]methionine PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheims, Sylvain; Rubi, Sebastià; Bouvard, Sandrine; Bernard, Emilien; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Guenot, Marc; Le Bars, Didier; Hammers, Alexander; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs) represent a prevalent cause of epileptogenic brain tumors, the natural evolution of which is much more benign than that of most gliomas. Previous studies have suggested that [(11)C]methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) could help to distinguish DNTs from other epileptogenic brain tumors, and hence optimize the management of patients. Here, we reassessed the diagnostic accuracy of MET-PET for the differentiation between DNT and other epileptogenic brain neoplasms in a larger population. We conducted a retrospective study of 77 patients with focal epilepsy related to a nonrapidly progressing brain tumor on MRI who underwent MET-PET, including 52 with a definite histopathology. MET-PET data were assessed by a structured visual analysis that distinguished normal, moderately abnormal, and markedly abnormal tumor methionine uptake and by semiquantitative ratio measurements. Pathology showed 21 DNTs (40%), 10 gangliogliomas (19%), 19 low-grade gliomas (37%), and 2 high-grade gliomas (4%). MET-PET visual findings significantly differed among the various tumor types (P < .001), as confirmed by semiquantitative analyses (P < .001 for all calculated ratios), regardless of gadolinium enhancement on MRI. All gliomas and gangliogliomas were associated with moderately or markedly increased tumor methionine uptake, whereas 9/21 DNTs had normal methionine uptake. Receiver operating characteristics analysis of the semiquantitative ratios showed an optimal cutoff threshold that distinguished DNTs from other tumor types with 90% specificity and 89% sensitivity. Normal MET-PET findings in patients with an epileptogenic nonrapidly progressing brain tumor are highly suggestive of DNT, whereas a markedly increased tumor methionine uptake makes this diagnosis unlikely. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  7. Accuracy of distinguishing between dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors and other epileptogenic brain neoplasms with [11C]methionine PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheims, Sylvain; Rubi, Sebastià; Bouvard, Sandrine; Bernard, Emilien; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Guenot, Marc; Le Bars, Didier; Hammers, Alexander; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs) represent a prevalent cause of epileptogenic brain tumors, the natural evolution of which is much more benign than that of most gliomas. Previous studies have suggested that [11C]methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) could help to distinguish DNTs from other epileptogenic brain tumors, and hence optimize the management of patients. Here, we reassessed the diagnostic accuracy of MET-PET for the differentiation between DNT and other epileptogenic brain neoplasms in a larger population. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 77 patients with focal epilepsy related to a nonrapidly progressing brain tumor on MRI who underwent MET-PET, including 52 with a definite histopathology. MET-PET data were assessed by a structured visual analysis that distinguished normal, moderately abnormal, and markedly abnormal tumor methionine uptake and by semiquantitative ratio measurements. Results Pathology showed 21 DNTs (40%), 10 gangliogliomas (19%), 19 low-grade gliomas (37%), and 2 high-grade gliomas (4%). MET-PET visual findings significantly differed among the various tumor types (P < .001), as confirmed by semiquantitative analyses (P < .001 for all calculated ratios), regardless of gadolinium enhancement on MRI. All gliomas and gangliogliomas were associated with moderately or markedly increased tumor methionine uptake, whereas 9/21 DNTs had normal methionine uptake. Receiver operating characteristics analysis of the semiquantitative ratios showed an optimal cutoff threshold that distinguished DNTs from other tumor types with 90% specificity and 89% sensitivity. Conclusions Normal MET-PET findings in patients with an epileptogenic nonrapidly progressing brain tumor are highly suggestive of DNT, whereas a markedly increased tumor methionine uptake makes this diagnosis unlikely. PMID:24598358

  8. Increased methionine sulfoxide content of apoA-I in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Jonathan W C; Jenkins, Alicia J; Lyons, Timothy J; Klein, Richard L; Yim, Eunsil; Lopes-Virella, Maria; Carter, Rickey E; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W

    2008-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and premature mortality in diabetes. HDL plays an important role in limiting vascular damage by removing cholesterol and cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides from oxidized low density lipoprotein and foam cells. Methionine (Met) residues in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein of HDL, reduce peroxides in HDL lipids, forming methionine sulfoxide [Met(O)]. We examined the extent and sites of Met(O) formation in apoA-I of HDL isolated from plasma of healthy control and type 1 diabetic subjects to assess apoA-I exposure to lipid peroxides and the status of oxidative stress in the vascular compartment in diabetes. Three tryptic peptides of apoA-I contain Met residues: Q(84)-M(86)-K(88), W(108)-M(112)-R(116), and L(144)-M(148)-R(149). These peptides and their Met(O) analogs were identified and quantified by mass spectrometry. Relative to controls, Met(O) formation was significantly increased at all three locations (Met(86), Met(112), and Met(148)) in diabetic patients. The increase in Met(O) in the diabetic group did not correlate with other biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as N(epsilon)-malondialdehyde-lysine or N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, in plasma or lipoproteins. The higher Met(O) content in apoA-I from diabetic patients is consistent with increased levels of lipid peroxidation products in plasma in diabetes. Using the methods developed here, future studies can address the relationship between Met(O) in apoA-I and the risk, development, or progression of the vascular complications of diabetes.

  9. Reaction of the N-terminal methionine residues in cyanase with diethylpyrocarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P M; Korte, J J; Holcomb, T A

    1994-11-29

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to give ammonia and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is a decamer of identical subunits (M(r) = 17,000). Previous studies have shown that modification of either the single cysteine residue or the single histidine residue in each subunit gives an active decameric derivative that dissociates reversibly to inactive dimer derivative, indicating that decameric structure is required for activity and that the SH and imidazole groups are not required for catalytic activity [Anderson, P. M., Korte, J. J., Holcomb, T. A., Cho, Y.-G., Son, C.-M., & Sung, Y.-C. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15036-15045]. Here the effects of reaction of the reagent diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) with cyanase or mutant cyanases are reported. DEPC reacts stoichiometrically with the histidine residue and at one additional site in each subunit when the enzyme is in the inactive dimer form, preventing reactivation. DEPC reacts stoichiometrically (with the same result on reactivation) at only one site per subunit with the inactive dimer form of cyanase mutants in which the single histidine residue has been replaced by one of several different amino acids by site-directed mutagenesis; the site of the reaction was identified as the amino group of the N-terminal methionine. DEPC does not react with the histidine residue of the active decameric form of wild-type cyanase and does not affect activity of the active decameric form of wild-type or mutant cyanases. Reaction with the N-terminal amino group of methionine apparently prevents reactivation of the mutant enzymes by blocking association to decamer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Taurine chloramine-induced inactivation of cofilin protein through methionine oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shen; Uehara, Hiroshi; Shacter, Emily

    2014-10-01

    Cofilin regulates reorganization of actin filaments (F-actin) in eukaryotes. A recent finding has demonstrated that oxidation of cofilin by taurine chloramine (TnCl), a physiological oxidant derived from neutrophils, causes cofilin to translocate to the mitochondria inducing apoptosis (F. Klamt et al. Nat. Cell Biol.11:1241-1246; 2009). Here we investigated the effect of TnCl on biological activities of cofilin in vitro. Our data show that TnCl-induced oxidation of recombinant human cofilin-1 inhibits its F-actin-binding and depolymerization activities. Native cofilin contains four free Cys and three Met residues. Incubation of oxidized cofilin with DTT does not lead to its reactivation. A double Cys to Ala mutation on the two C-terminal Cys shows similar biological activities as the wild type, but does not prevent the TnCl-induced inactivation. In contrast, incubation of oxidized cofilin with methionine sulfoxide reductases results in its reactivation. Phosphorylation is known to inhibit cofilin activities. We found that Met oxidation also prevents phosphorylation of cofilin, which is reversed by incubating oxidized cofilin with methionine sulfoxide reductases. Interestingly, intact protein mass spectrometry of the oxidized mutant indicated one major oxidation product with an additional mass of 16 Da, consistent with oxidation of one specific Met residue. This residue was identified as Met-115 by peptide mapping and tandem mass spectrometry. It is adjacent to Lys-114, a known residue on globular-actin-binding site, implying that oxidation of Met-115 disrupts the globular-actin-binding site of cofilin, which causes TnCl-induced inactivation. The findings identify Met-115 as a redox switch on cofilin that regulates its biological activity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A deficiency exacerbates acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2017-02-26

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces acute liver injury via enhanced oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) acts as a reactive oxygen species scavenger by catalyzing the cyclic reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide. Herein, we investigated the protective role of MsrA against APAP-induced liver damage using MsrA gene-deleted mice (MsrA(-/-)). We found that MsrA(-/-) mice were more susceptible to APAP-induced acute liver injury than wild-type mice (MsrA(+/+)). The central lobule area of the MsrA(-/-) liver was more impaired with necrotic lesions. Serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in MsrA(-/-) than in MsrA(+/+) mice after APAP challenge. Deletion of MsrA enhanced APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and oxidative stress, leading to increased susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury in MsrA-deficient mice. APAP challenge increased Nrf2 activation more profoundly in MsrA(-/-) than in MsrA(+/+) livers. Expression and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and its target gene expression were significantly elevated in MsrA(-/-) than in MsrA(+/+) livers after APAP challenge. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MsrA protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity. The data provided herein constitute the first in vivo evidence of the involvement of MsrA in hepatic function under APAP challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards Reassignment of the Methionine Codon AUG to Two Different Noncanonical Amino Acids in Bacterial Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro De Simone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic encoding of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs through sense codon reassignment is an efficient tool for expanding the chemical functionality of proteins. Incorporation of multiple ncAAs, however, is particularly challenging. This work describes the first attempts to reassign the sense methionine (Met codon AUG to two different ncAAs in bacterial protein translation. Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS charges two tRNAs with Met: tRNAfMet initiates protein synthesis (starting AUG codon, whereas elongator tRNAMet participates in protein elongation (internal AUG codon(s. Preliminary in vitro experiments show that these tRNAs can be charged with the Met analogues azidohomoalanine (Aha and ethionine (Eth by exploiting the different substrate specificities of EcMetRS and the heterologous MetRS / tRNAMet pair from the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, respectively. Here, we explored whether this configuration would allow a differential decoding during in vivo protein initiation and elongation. First, we eliminated the elongator tRNAMet from a methionine auxotrophic E. coli strain, which was then equipped with a rescue plasmid harboring the heterologous pair. Although the imported pair was not fully orthogonal, it was possible to incorporate preferentially Eth at internal AUG codons in a model protein, suggesting that in vivo AUG codon reassignment is possible. To achieve full orthogonality during elongation, we imported the known orthogonal pair of Methanosarcina mazei pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS / tRNAPyl and devised a genetic selection system based on the suppression of an amber stop codon in an important glycolytic gene, pfkA, which restores enzyme functionality and normal cellular growth. Using an evolved PylRS able to accept Met analogues, it should be possible to reassign the AUG codon to two different ncAAs by using directed evolution. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

  13. Increased susceptibility to experimental steatohepatitis induced by methionine-choline deficiency in HBs-Tg mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao-MiaoFu; RuiSun; Zhi-GangTian; Hai-MingWei

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, about 25% of individuals with chronic hepatitis B have fatty liver disease. Lipogenic diets that are completely devoid of methionine and choline induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, no animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with HBV infection is available, and the influence of viral infection on nutritional hepatic steatosis is unclear. METHODS: We used HBV surface antigen transgenic mice (HBs-Tg mice), which mimic healthy human carriers with hepatitis B surface antigen. The mice were fed with a high-fat methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCD) to build a reliable rodent nutritional model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with HBV infection, and the changes in body weight and serum triglycerides were measured. Hepatocyte ballooning changes were determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The extent of hepatic fat accumulation was evaluated by oil red O staining. Immunohistochemical assays were performed to detect proliferating cell nuclear antigen as an index of cell proliferation. RESULTS: MCD feeding provoked systemic weight loss and liver injury. MCD feeding caused more macrovesicular fat droplets and fat accumulation in the livers of HBs-Tg mice than in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In addition, within 30 days of MCD exposure, more PCNA-positive nuclei were found in the livers of HBs-Tg mice. CONCLUSIONS: HBs-Tg mice fed with a lipogenic MCD form more macrovesicular fat droplets earlier, coincident with more hepatocyte proliferation, resulting in the appearance of increased susceptibility to experimental steatohepatitis in these mice.

  14. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with folic acid/methionine for active targeted delivery of docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravian P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pegah Khosravian,1 Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani,2 Mehdi Khoobi,3 Seyed Naser Ostad,4 Farid Abedin Dorkoosh,1 Hamid Akbari Javar,1,* Massoud Amanlou5,6,* 1Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Radiopharmacy, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Biomaterials, 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 5Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, 6Drug Design and Development Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs are known as carriers with high loading capacity and large functionalizable surface area for target-directed delivery. In this study, a series of docetaxel-loaded folic acid- or methionine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DTX/MSN-FA or DTX/MSN-Met with large pores and amine groups at inner pore surface properties were prepared. The results showed that the MSNs were successfully synthesized, having good pay load and pH-sensitive drug release kinetics. The cellular investigation on MCF-7 cells showed better performance of cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis and an increase in cellular uptake of targeted nanoparticles. In vivo fluorescent imaging on healthy BALB/c mice proved that bare MSN-NH2 are mostly accumulated in the liver but MSN-FA or MSN-Met are more concentrated in the kidney. Importantly, ex vivo fluorescent images of tumor-induced BALB/c mice organs revealed the ability of MSN-FA to reach the tumor tissues. In conclusion, DTX/MSNs exhibited a good anticancer activity and enhanced the possibility of targeted drug delivery for breast cancer. Keywords: targeted delivery, mesoporous silica nanoparticle, folic acid, methionine, docetaxel

  15. Control of methionine metabolism by the SahR transcriptional regulator in Proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novichkov, Pavel S; Li, Xiaoqing; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Arkin, Adam P; Price, Morgan N; Rodionov, Dmitry A

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential element in the metabolism. The sulphur-containing amino acid methionine is a metabolic precursor for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which serves as a coenzyme for ubiquitous methyltrtansferases. Recycling of organic sulphur compounds, e.g. via the SAM cycle, is an important metabolic process that needs to be tightly regulated. Knowledge about transcriptional regulation of these processes is still limited for many free-living bacteria. We identified a novel transcription factor SahR from the ArsR family that controls the SAM cycle genes in diverse microorganisms from soil and aquatic ecosystems. By using comparative genomics, we predicted SahR-binding DNA motifs and reconstructed SahR regulons in the genomes of 62 Proteobacteria. The conserved core of SahR regulons includes all enzymes required for the SAM cycle: the SAH hydrolase AhcY, the methionine biosynthesis enzymes MetE/MetH and MetF, and the SAM synthetase MetK. By using a combination of experimental techniques, we validated the SahR regulon in the sulphate-reducing Deltaproteobacterium Desulfovibrio alaskensis. SahR functions as a negative regulator that responds to the S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). The elevated SAH level in the cell dissociates SahR from its DNA operators and induces the expression of SAM cycle genes. The effector-sensing domain in SahR is related to SAM-dependent methylases that are able to tightly bind SAH. SahR represents a novel type of transcriptional regulators for the control of sulphur amino acid metabolism.

  16. Effect of different levels of L-carnitine and lysine-methionine on broiler blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Hosseintabar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. In the present study a completely randomized 3×3 factorial design was used to analyze the effects of different levels of L-Carnitine, lysine(Lys and methionine (Met on the blood concentrations of energy, protein and lipid metabolites of male broiler chickens. Materials and methods. A total of 270 newly hatched male broiler chickens (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to 9 groups (ten broilers per replicate and three replicates per treatment. The control group was fed a basal diet, whereas the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with L-Carnitine (0 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg and lysine-methionine (0, 15 and 30% for 42 days. On day 42, one bird was randomly chosen per replication, a blood sample was taken and the blood concentrations of glucose (GLU, uric acid (UAc, triglyceride (TG, VLDL, HDL, LDL, total protein (TP, albumin (Alb and total cholesterol (TC were analyzed. Results. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation had a significant effect (p<0.05 on uric acid (UAc, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol (TC. The birds feed L-carnitine plus Lys and Met presented the highest plasmatic UAc level and the lowest plasmatic TC and LDL level. Moreover, L-carnitine significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC when compared with both the control group and the birds feed Lys and Met without L-carnitine. Conclusions. A diet with 150 mg/kg L-carnitine plus 15% Lys and Met seems to be enough to sustain low plasmatic TC, LDL and HDL concentrations on male broiler.

  17. Role of cysteine residues in pseudouridine synthases of different families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, V; Swann, S L; Spedaliere, C J; Mueller, E G

    1999-10-01

    The pseudouridine synthases catalyze the isomerization of uridine to pseudouridine in RNA molecules. An attractive mechanism was proposed based on that of thymidylate synthase, in which the thiol(ate) group of a cysteine side chain serves as the nucleophile in a Michael addition to C6 of the isomerized uridine. Such a role for cysteine in the pseudouridine synthase TruA (also named Psi synthase I) has been discredited by site-directed mutagenesis, but sequence alignments have led to the conclusion that there are four distinct "families" of pseudouridine synthases that share no statistically significant global sequence similarity. It was, therefore, necessary to probe the role of cysteine residues in pseudouridine synthases of the families that do not include TruA. We examined the enzymes RluA and TruB, which are members of different families than TruA and each other. Substitution of cysteine for amino acids with nonnucleophilic side chains did not significantly alter the catalytic activity of either pseudouridine synthase. We conclude, therefore, that neither TruB nor RluA require thiol(ate) groups to effect catalysis, excluding their participation in a Michael addition to C6 of uridine, although not eliminating that mechanism (with an alternate nucleophile) from future consideration.

  18. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the isolated FAD domain of rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase altered in the region of the FAD shielding residue Phe1395.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Adrian J; Marshall, Ker R; Munro, Andrew W; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2004-06-01

    In rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase, Phe1395 is positioned over the FAD isoalloxazine ring. This is replaced by Trp676 in human cytochrome P450 reductase, a tryptophan in related diflavin reductases (e.g. methionine synthase reductase and novel reductase 1), and tyrosine in plant ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase. Trp676 in human cytochrome P450 reductase is conformationally mobile, and plays a key role in enzyme reduction. Mutagenesis of Trp676 to alanine results in a functional NADH-dependent reductase. Herein, we describe studies of rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase FAD domains, in which the aromatic shielding residue Phe1395 is replaced by tryptophan, alanine and serine. In steady-state assays the F1395A and F1395S domains have a greater preference for NADH compared with F1395W and wild-type. Stopped-flow studies indicate flavin reduction by NADH is significantly faster with F1395S and F1395A domains, suggesting that this contributes to altered preference in coenzyme specificity. Unlike cytochrome P450 reductase, the switch in coenzyme specificity is not attributed to differential binding of NADPH and NADH, but probably results from improved geometry for hydride transfer in the F1395S- and F1395A-NADH complexes. Potentiometry indicates that the substitutions do not significantly perturb thermodynamic properties of the FAD, although considerable changes in electronic absorption properties are observed in oxidized F1395A and F1395S, consistent with changes in hydrophobicity of the flavin environment. In wild-type and F1395W FAD domains, prolonged incubation with NADPH results in development of the neutral blue semiquinone FAD species. This reaction is suppressed in the mutant FAD domains lacking the shielding aromatic residue.

  19. Elicitor induction of mRNA activity. Rapid effects of elicitor on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase mRNA activities in bean cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, M A; Dixon, R A; Hahlbrock, K; Lamb, C J

    1983-01-17

    Changes in the activity levels of mRNAs encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase, two characteristic enzymes of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, in elicitor-treated cells of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been investigated by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labelled enzyme subunits synthesised in vitro in an mRNA-dependent rabbit reticulocyte lysate translation system. Elicitor heat-released from cell walls of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose disease of bean, causes marked rapid increases in the polysomal activities of the mRNAs encoding the two enzymes concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity at the onset of phaseollin accumulation during the phytoalexin defence response. Increased polysomal mRNA activities encoding the two enzymes can be observed 30 min after elicitor treatment. The patterns of induction of the mRNA activities are broadly similar with respect to time and elicitor concentration although small but distinct differences between the enzymes were observed in the elicitor concentration giving maximum induction. There is a close correlation between the induction of polysomal mRNA activity and the induction of enzyme synthesis in vivo by elicitor treatment with respect to both the kinetics of induction and the dependence on elicitor concentration. The data indicate that elicitor stimulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase synthesis in vivo is largely a result of increased polysomal activity of the mRNAs encoding these enzymes. Similar patterns of induction of polysomal mRNA activity are observed with elicitor preparations from a variety of sources. The marked increases in polysomal mRNA activities encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase are increases as a proportion of total cellular mRNA activity, indicating that elicitor does not increase these polysomal mRNA activities by stimulation of selective recruitment from the total

  20. Subcellular localization of the homocitrate synthase in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, O; Casqueiro, J; Steidl, S; Gutiérrez, S; Brakhage, A; Martín, J F

    2002-01-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the cellular localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and filamentous fungi of homocitrate synthase, the first enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathway. The homocitrate synthase (HS) gene (lys1) of Penicillium chrysogenum was disrupted in three transformants (HS(-)) of the Wis 54-1255 pyrG strain. The three mutants named HS1(-), HS2(-) and HS3(-) all lacked homocitrate synthase activity and showed lysine auxotrophy, indicating that there is a single gene for homocitrate synthase in P. chrysogenum. The lys1 ORF was fused in frame to the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Homocitrate synthase-deficient mutants transformed with a plasmid containing the lys1-GFP fusion recovered prototrophy and showed similar levels of homocitrate synthase activity to the parental strain Wis 54-1255, indicating that the hybrid protein retains the biological function of wild-type homocitrate synthase. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the HS-GFP fusion protein is maintained intact and does not release the GFP moiety. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of the transformants showed that homocitrate synthase was mainly located in the cytoplasm in P. chrysogenum; in S. cerevisiae the enzyme is targeted to the nucleus. The control nuclear protein StuA was properly targeted to the nucleus when the StuA (targeting domain)-GFP hybrid protein was expressed in P. chrysogenum. The difference in localization of homocitrate synthase between P. chrysogenum and S. cerevisiae suggests that this protein may play a regulatory function, in addition to its catalytic function, in S. cerevisiae but not in P. chrysogenum.

  1. The Pseudouridine Synthases Proceed through a Glycal Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerareddygari, Govardhan Reddy; Singh, Sanjay K; Mueller, Eugene G

    2016-06-29

    The pseudouridine synthases isomerize (U) in RNA to pseudouridine (Ψ), and the mechanism that they follow has long been a question of interest. The recent elucidation of a product of the mechanistic probe 5-fluorouridine that had been epimerized to the arabino isomer suggested that the Ψ synthases might operate through a glycal intermediate formed by deprotonation of C2'. When that position in substrate U is deuterated, a primary kinetic isotope effect is observed, which indisputably indicates that the proposed deprotonation occurs during the isomerization of U to Ψ and establishes the mechanism followed by the Ψ synthases.

  2. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase in CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, M F; Segovia, J L; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-12-01

    Citrate synthase wa studied for the first time in peroxisomes and mitochondria of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Cellular organelles were isolated from Agave americana leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and characterized by the use of catalase and cytochrome oxidase as marker enzymes, respectively. 48,000 X g centrifugation caused the breakdown of the cellular organelles. The presence of a glyoxylate cycle enzyme (citrate synthase) and a glycollate pathway enzyme (catalase) in the same organelles, besides the absence of another glyoxalate cycle enzyme (malate synthase) is reported for the first time, suggesting that peroxisomal and glyoxysomal proteins are synthesized at the same time and housed in he same organelle.

  3. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  4. Homocysteine homeostasis in the rat is maintained by compensatory changes in cystathionine β-synthase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene transcription occurring in response to maternal protein and folic acid intake during pregnancy and fat intake after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Malinowska, Anna M

    2011-07-01

    The reactions of the methionine/homocysteine pathway are mediated by several enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, cystathionine β-synthase, and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Homocysteine homeostasis is regulated by these enzymes. We hypothesized here that the protein and folic acid content in the maternal diet affects methionine/homocysteine metabolism in the progeny. To test this hypothesis, pregnant rats were fed a diet with normal protein and normal folic acid levels (a modified casein-based AIN-93G diet), a protein-restricted and normal folic acid diet, a protein-restricted and folic acid-supplemented diet, or a normal protein and folic acid-supplemented diet. The progeny were fed either the modified AIN-93G diet or a high-fat lard-based diet. Progeny were analyzed for expression of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, cystathionine β-synthase, and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase genes in the liver and for serum homocysteine concentration. Interactions between prenatal and postnatal nutrition were also determined. The progeny of the dams fed the diets supplemented with folic acid showed decreased expression of all 3 genes (P homocysteine concentrations were approximately 15% higher in the male rats (P homocysteine concentrations.

  5. Prostaglandin H synthase immunoreactivity in human gut. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, H B; Rumessen, J J; Qvortrup, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    Prostaglandins exhibit a variety of actions on intestinal smooth muscle depending upon the type, dose and muscle layer studied. As the cellular origin of prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase has not been established with certainty in the human gut wall, we studied the localization of PGH synthase...... in the human duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon by immunohistochemistry. PGH synthase immunoreactivity appeared to be similar in all segments of the intestine. Most smooth muscle cells seemed to contain PGH synthase; however, the reaction in the lamina muscularis mucosae was much stronger than...... in the longitudinal and circular muscle layers. Endothelial cells in capillaries and larger vessels showed a positive reaction. In addition, unidentified cells in subserosa, at the level of Auerbach's plexus and in the submucosa were stained. We concluded that the smooth muscle cells of the human gut has a rather...

  6. Cooperativity of peptidoglycan synthases active in bacterial cell elongation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banzhaf, M.; van den Berg van Saparoea, B.; Terrak, M.; Fraipont, C.; Egan, A.; Philippe, J.; Zapun, A.; Breukink, E.; Nguyen-Distèche, M.; den Blaauwen, T.; Vollmer, W.

    2012-01-01

    Growth of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan sacculus requires the co-ordinated activities of peptidoglycan synthases, hydrolases and cell morphogenesis proteins, but the details of these interactions are largely unknown. We now show that the Escherichia coli peptidoglycan

  7. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiqar Ahmad

    Full Text Available We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase.

  8. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F; Kady, Ismail O

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase.

  9. Sequence analysis of cereal sucrose synthase genes and isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... 1Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, ... script and UA cloning vector (QIAGEN PCR Cloning Kit) was used to clone ..... Expression of a Arabidopsis sucrose synthase gene indicates a role.

  10. Enzyme kinetic modelling and analytical solution of nonlinear rate equation in the transformation of D-methionine into L-methionine in batch reactor using the new homotopy perturbation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Sivasamy

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of biotransformation of D-methionine into L-methionine in the cascade of the enzymes such as, D-amino acid oxidase (D-AAO, L-phenylalanine dehydrogenase (L-PheDH and formate dehydrogenase (FDH is discussed. The model is based on a system of coupled nonlinear reaction equations under non steady-state conditions for biochemical reactions occurring in the batch reactor that describes the substrate and product concentration within the catalyst. Simple analytical expressions for the concentration of substrate and product have been derived for all values of reaction parameters using the new homotopy perturbation method (NHPM. Enzyme reaction rate in terms of concentration and kinetic parameters are also reported. The analytical results are also compared with experimental and numerical ones and a good agreement is obtained. The graphical procedure for estimating the kinetic parameters is also reported.

  11. Insulin transcriptionally regulates argininosuccinate synthase to maintain vascular endothelial function

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, Ricci J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Pendleton, Laura C; Meininger, Cynthia J; Eichler, Duane C.

    2012-01-01

    Diminished vascular endothelial cell nitric oxide (NO) production is a major factor in the complex pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. In this report, we demonstrate that insulin not only maintains endothelial NO production through regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), but also via the regulation of argininosuccinate synthase (AS), which is the rate-limiting step of the citrulline-NO cycle. Using serum starved, cultured vascular endothelial cells, we show that insulin up-regu...

  12. Understanding plant cellulose synthases through a comprehensive investigation of the cellulose synthase family sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eCarroll

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of cellulose as an organizing structure in the plant cell wall was a key event in both the initial colonization and the subsequent domination of the terrestrial ecosystem by vascular plants. A wealth of experimental data has demonstrated the complicated genetic interactions required to form the large synthetic complex that synthesizes cellulose. However, these results are lacking an extensive analysis of the evolution, specialization, and regulation of the proteins that compose this complex. Here we perform an in-depth analysis of the sequences in the cellulose synthase (CesA family. We investigate the phylogeny of the CesA family, with emphasis on evolutionary specialization. We define specialized subfamilies and identify the class-specific regions within the CesA sequence that may explain this specialization. We investigate changes in regulation of CesAs by looking at the conservation of proposed phosphorylation sites. We investigate the conservation of sites where mutations have been documented that impair cellulose synthase function, and compare these sites to those observed in the closest cellulose synthase-like (Csl families to better understand what regions may separate the CesAs from other Csls. Finally we identify two positions with strong conservation of the aromatic trait, but lacking conservation of amino acid identity, which may represent residues important for positioning the sugar substrate for catalysis. These analyses provide useful tools for understanding characterized mutations and post-translational modifications, and for informing further experiments to probe CesA assembly, regulation, and function through site-directed mutagenesis or domain swapping experiments.

  13. Nitric Oxide Synthases in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Ricardo; Crabtree, Mark J.; Sivakumaran, Vidhya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in understanding the role of normal and abnormal constitutive NOS in the heart have revealed molecular targets by which NO modulates myocyte function and morphology, the role and nature of post-translational modifications of NOS, and factors controlling nitroso-redox balance. Localized and differential signaling from NOS1 (neuronal) versus NOS3 (endothelial) isoforms are being identified, as are methods to restore NOS function in heart disease. Critical Issues: Abnormal NOS signaling plays a key role in many cardiac disorders, while targeted modulation may potentially reverse this pathogenic source of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Improvements in the clinical translation of potent modulators of NOS function/dysfunction may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many hearts diseases that are fueled by nitroso-redox imbalance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1078–1099. PMID:22871241

  14. Understanding structure, function, and mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multimeric enzyme complex with an overall molecular weight of about 600,000 Da. The ATP synthase is a molecular motor composed of two separable parts: F1 and Fo. The F1 portion contains the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Fo forms a proton turbine that is embedded in the inner membrane and connected to the rotor of F1. The flux of protons flowing down a potential gradient powers the rotation of the rotor driving the synthesis of ATP. Thus, the flow of protons though Fo is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. This review will discuss the structure/function relationship in the ATP synthase as determined by biochemical, crystallographic, and genetic studies. An emphasis will be placed on linking the structure/function relationship with understanding how disease causing mutations or putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes encoding the subunits of the ATP synthase, will affect the function of the enzyme and the health of the individual. The review will start by summarizing the current understanding of the subunit composition of the enzyme and the role of the subunits followed by a discussion on known mutations and their effect on the activity of the ATP synthase. The review will conclude with a summary of mutations in genes encoding subunits of the ATP synthase that are known to be responsible for human disease, and a brief discussion on SNPs.

  15. Linking pseudouridine synthases to growth, development and cell competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortoriello, Giuseppe; de Celis, José F; Furia, Maria

    2010-08-01

    Eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases direct RNA pseudouridylation and bind H/ACA small nucleolar RNA (snoRNAs), which, in turn, may act as precursors of microRNA-like molecules. In humans, loss of pseudouridine synthase activity causes dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a complex systemic disorder characterized by cancer susceptibility, failures in ribosome biogenesis and telomere stability, and defects in stem cell formation. Considering the significant interest in deciphering the various molecular consequences of pseudouridine synthase failure, we performed a loss of function analysis of minifly (mfl), the pseudouridine synthase gene of Drosophila, in the wing disc, an advantageous model system for studies of cell growth and differentiation. In this organ, depletion of the mfl-encoded pseudouridine synthase causes a severe reduction in size by decreasing both the number and the size of wing cells. Reduction of cell number was mainly attributable to cell death rather than reduced proliferation, establishing that apoptosis plays a key role in the development of the loss of function mutant phenotype. Depletion of Mfl also causes a proliferative disadvantage in mosaic tissues that leads to the elimination of mutant cells by cell competition. Intriguingly, mfl silencing also triggered unexpected effects on wing patterning and cell differentiation, including deviations from normal lineage boundaries, mingling of cells of different compartments, and defects in the formation of the wing margin that closely mimic the phenotype of reduced Notch activity. These results suggest that a component of the pseudouridine synthase loss of function phenotype is caused by defects in Notch signalling.

  16. Alendronate is a specific, nanomolar inhibitor of farnesyl diphosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, J D; Bostedor, R G; Masarachia, P J; Reszka, A A; Rodan, G

    2000-01-01

    Alendronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Recent findings suggest that alendronate and other N-containing bisphosphonates inhibit the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway and interfere with protein prenylation, as a result of reduced geranylgeranyl diphosphate levels. This study identified farnesyl disphosphate synthase as the mevalonate pathway enzyme inhibited by bisphosphonates. HPLC analysis of products from a liver cytosolic extract narrowed the potential targets for alendronate inhibition (IC(50) = 1700 nM) to isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Recombinant human farnesyl diphosphate synthase was inhibited by alendronate with an IC(50) of 460 nM (following 15 min preincubation). Alendronate did not inhibit isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase or GGPP synthase, partially purified from liver cytosol. Recombinant farnesyl diphosphate synthase was also inhibited by pamidronate (IC(50) = 500 nM) and risedronate (IC(50) = 3.9 nM), negligibly by etidronate (IC50 = 80 microM), and not at all by clodronate. In osteoclasts, alendronate inhibited the incorporation of [(3)H]mevalonolactone into proteins of 18-25 kDa and into nonsaponifiable lipids, including sterols. These findings (i) identify farnesyl diphosphate synthase as the selective target of alendronate in the mevalonate pathway, (ii) show that this enzyme is inhibited by other N-containing bisphosphonates, such as risendronate, but not by clodronate, supporting a different mechanism of action for different bisphosphonates, and (iii) document in purified osteoclasts alendronate inhibition of prenylation and sterol biosynthesis.

  17. Utility of 11C-methionine and 11C-donepezil for imaging of Staphylococcus aureus induced osteomyelitis in a juvenile porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Alstrup, Aage Ko; Schønheyder, Henrik C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil positron emission tomography (PET) with (111)In-labeled leukocyte and (99m) Tc-DPD (Tc-99m 3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanedicarboxylic acid) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F...... in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The sequential scan protocol included Computed Tomography, (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil PET, (99m) Tc-DPD and (111)In-labelled leukocytes scintigraphy, and (18)F-FDG PET. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs and gross......-methionine in 79%, (11)C-donepezil in 58%, and (99m) Tc-DPD in none. Overall, (18)F-FDG PET was superior to (111)In-leukocyte SPECT and (11)C-methionine in marking infectious lesions....

  18. Utility of (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil for imaging of Staphylococcus aureus induced osteomyelitis in a juvenile porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Alstrup, Aage Ko; Schønheyder, Henrik C;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil positron emission tomography (PET) with (111)In-labeled leukocyte and (99m) Tc-DPD (Tc-99m 3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanedicarboxylic acid) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F...... in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The sequential scan protocol included Computed Tomography, (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil PET, (99m) Tc-DPD and (111)In-labelled leukocytes scintigraphy, and (18)F-FDG PET. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs and gross......-methionine in 79%, (11)C-donepezil in 58%, and (99m) Tc-DPD in none. Overall, (18)F-FDG PET was superior to (111)In-leukocyte SPECT and (11)C-methionine in marking infectious lesions....

  19. Influence of methionine supplementation of growing diets enriched with lysine on feedlot performance and characteristics of digestion in Holstein steer calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentera, Noemí; Carrasco, Ramsés; Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Plascencia, Alejandro; Zinn, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Two trials were conducted in order to examine the effects of level of supplemental methionine on productive performance, dietary energetic, plasma amino acid concentration, and digestive function. Methods Dietary treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing urea as the only source of supplemental nitrogen supplemented with no supplemental amino acid (control), or control plus 1.01% lysine and 0.032%, 0.064%, 0.096%, or 0.128% methionine. In Trial 1, 150 Holstein steer calves (127±4.9 kg) were utilized to evaluate the influence of treatments on growth-performance, dietary energetic, plasma amino acid concentration during the first 112 days of growing period. During the initial 56-d period calves received the 5 experimental diets. During the subsequent 56-d period all calves were fed the control diet. Results During the initial 56-d period, methionine supplementation increased (linear effect, p<0.01) plasma methionine. In the presence of supplemental lysine, increases on level of methionine in diet did not affect average daily gain. However, increased gain efficiency (quadratic effect, p = 0.03) and estimated dietary net energy (NE; linear effect, p = 0.05). Estimated metabolizable methionine supply was closely associated (R2 = 0.95) with efficiency NE utilization for maintenance and gain. During the subsequent 56-d period, when all calves received the control diet (no amino acid supplementation), plasma amino acid concentrations and growth performance was not different among groups. However, the effects of methionine supplementation during the initial 56-period carried over, so that following a 56-d withdrawal of supplementation, the overall 112-d effects on gain efficiency (quadratic effect, p = 0.05) dietary NE (linear effect, p≤0.05) remained appreciable. In Trial 2, 5 cannulated Holstein steers were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion and amino acid supply to the small intestine. There were no

  20. Methionine biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is tightly controlled by a hierarchical network involving an initiator tRNA-specific T-box riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Sonja M K; Marincola, Gabriella; Geiger, Tobias; Goerke, Christiane; Wolz, Christiane; Ziebuhr, Wilma

    2013-09-01

    In line with the key role of methionine in protein biosynthesis initiation and many cellular processes most microorganisms have evolved mechanisms to synthesize methionine de novo. Here we demonstrate that, in the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, a rare combination of stringent response-controlled CodY activity, T-box riboswitch and mRNA decay mechanisms regulate the synthesis and stability of methionine biosynthesis metICFE-mdh mRNA. In contrast to other Bacillales which employ S-box riboswitches to control methionine biosynthesis, the S. aureus metICFE-mdh mRNA is preceded by a 5'-untranslated met leader RNA harboring a T-box riboswitch. Interestingly, this T-box riboswitch is revealed to specifically interact with uncharged initiator formylmethionyl-tRNA (tRNAi(fMet)) while binding of elongator tRNA(Met) proved to be weak, suggesting a putative additional function of the system in translation initiation control. met leader RNA/metICFE-mdh operon expression is under the control of the repressor CodY which binds upstream of the met leader RNA promoter. As part of the metabolic emergency circuit of the stringent response, methionine depletion activates RelA-dependent (p)ppGpp alarmone synthesis, releasing CodY from its binding site and thereby activating the met leader promoter. Our data further suggest that subsequent steps in metICFE-mdh transcription are tightly controlled by the 5' met leader-associated T-box riboswitch which mediates premature transcription termination when methionine is present. If methionine supply is limited, and hence tRNAi(fMet) becomes uncharged, full-length met leader/metICFE-mdh mRNA is transcribed which is rapidly degraded by nucleases involving RNase J2. Together, the data demonstrate that staphylococci have evolved special mechanisms to prevent the accumulation of excess methionine. We hypothesize that this strict control might reflect the limited metabolic capacities of staphylococci to reuse methionine as, other than

  1. Methionine biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is tightly controlled by a hierarchical network involving an initiator tRNA-specific T-box riboswitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja M K Schoenfelder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In line with the key role of methionine in protein biosynthesis initiation and many cellular processes most microorganisms have evolved mechanisms to synthesize methionine de novo. Here we demonstrate that, in the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, a rare combination of stringent response-controlled CodY activity, T-box riboswitch and mRNA decay mechanisms regulate the synthesis and stability of methionine biosynthesis metICFE-mdh mRNA. In contrast to other Bacillales which employ S-box riboswitches to control methionine biosynthesis, the S. aureus metICFE-mdh mRNA is preceded by a 5'-untranslated met leader RNA harboring a T-box riboswitch. Interestingly, this T-box riboswitch is revealed to specifically interact with uncharged initiator formylmethionyl-tRNA (tRNAi(fMet while binding of elongator tRNA(Met proved to be weak, suggesting a putative additional function of the system in translation initiation control. met leader RNA/metICFE-mdh operon expression is under the control of the repressor CodY which binds upstream of the met leader RNA promoter. As part of the metabolic emergency circuit of the stringent response, methionine depletion activates RelA-dependent (pppGpp alarmone synthesis, releasing CodY from its binding site and thereby activating the met leader promoter. Our data further suggest that subsequent steps in metICFE-mdh transcription are tightly controlled by the 5' met leader-associated T-box riboswitch which mediates premature transcription termination when methionine is present. If methionine supply is limited, and hence tRNAi(fMet becomes uncharged, full-length met leader/metICFE-mdh mRNA is transcribed which is rapidly degraded by nucleases involving RNase J2. Together, the data demonstrate that staphylococci have evolved special mechanisms to prevent the accumulation of excess methionine. We hypothesize that this strict control might reflect the limited metabolic capacities of staphylococci to reuse methionine as

  2. Brady-tachycardia syndrome after radiotherapy for lung cancer. Assessment by computed tomography and carbon-11 methionine positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Takuya; Michihata, Tetsuo; Katagiri, Takashi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Okazaki, Osamu; Izumo, Kazuhide; Harumi, Kenichi

    1999-09-01

    A 74-year-old male who had received radiotherapy (total 54 Gy) for right lung cancer 7 months earlier developed a symptomatic brady-tachycardia syndrome requiring the implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Chest CT showed a pulmonary tumor of 2-cm diameter in the right lower lobe with direct extension into the surrounding tissue, suggesting the possibility of cardiac invasion. Carbon-11 methionine positron emission tomography (PET) indicated the absence of visible invasion of the heart with lung cancer. The brady-tachycardia syndrome, therefore, was considered to be associated with sinus node injury due to radiation. Carbon-11 methionine PET metabolic imaging might play an important role in evaluating noninvasively the cause of the arrhythmia in this patient. (author)

  3. Pre-steady-state kinetic and structural analysis of interaction of methionine γ-lyase from Citrobacter freundii with inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Nikita A; Faleev, Nicolai G; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A; Morozova, Elena A; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Nikulin, Alexei D; Fedorova, Olga S; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2015-01-01

    Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) catalyzes the γ-elimination of l-methionine and its derivatives as well as the β-elimination of l-cysteine and its analogs. These reactions yield α-keto acids and thiols. The mechanism of chemical conversion of amino acids includes numerous reaction intermediates. The detailed analysis of MGL interaction with glycine, l-alanine, l-norvaline, and l-cycloserine was performed by pre-steady-state stopped-flow kinetics. The structure of side chains of the amino acids is important both for their binding with enzyme and for the stability of the external aldimine and ketimine intermediates. X-ray structure of the MGL·l-cycloserine complex has been solved at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure models the ketimine intermediate of physiological reaction. The results elucidate the mechanisms of the intermediate interconversion at the stages of external aldimine and ketimine formation.

  4. The effect of condensed tannins in Lotus corniculatus on plasma metabolism of methionine, cystine and inorganic sulphate by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Waghorn, G C; Barry, T N; Shelton, I D

    1994-12-01

    Fresh Lotus corniculatus containing 27 g extractable condensed tannin (CT)/kg dry matter (DM) and 8 g bound CT/kg DM was fed at hourly intervals to sheep held in metabolism cages to study the effects of CT on nutrient digestion and on metabolism of methionine, cystine and inorganic sulphate in plasma. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was continuously infused into the rumen of half the sheep to remove the effects of CT. Principal measurements in the two groups were plasma irreversible loss (IRL) rate and interconversions of methionine, cystine and inorganic sulphate using 35S labelling. CT in Lotus corniculatus had no effects on the apparent digestion of cellulose and minerals, slightly depressed DM, organic matter and hemicellulose digestion and markedly reduced the apparent digestion of N (P Lotus corniculatus reduced rumen protein degradation and markedly increased utilization of plasma cystine for body synthetic reactions.

  5. Mechanism of oxidation of L-methionine by iron(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex - A kinetic study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Vani; K Krishna Kishore; R Rambabu; L S A Dikshitulu

    2001-08-01

    Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of L-methionine by iron(III)-1, 10-phenanthroline complex have been studied in perchloric acid medium. The reaction is first order each in iron(III) and methionine. Increase in [phenanthroline] increases the rate while increase in [HClO4] decreases it. While the reactive species of the substrate is the zwitterionic form, that of the oxidant is [Fe(phen)2(H2O)2]3+. The proposed mechanism leads to the rate law $$\\dfrac{d[Fe(phen)^{2+}_3]}{dt} = \\dfrac{k_2 K_4 K_3 K^2_2 [Fe^{III}] [\\text{phen}^2] [\\text{Met}]}{(1+K_1 [H^+]) ([H^+]^2 + K_4 K_3 K^2_2[\\text{phen}]^2)}.$$

  6. Chemical shift assignments of zinc finger domain of methionine aminopeptidase 1 (MetAP1) from Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachineni, Kavitha; Arya, Tarun; Singarapu, Kiran Kumar; Addlagatta, Anthony; Bharatam, Jagadeesh

    2015-10-01

    Methionine aminopeptidase Type I (MetAP1) cleaves the initiator methionine from about 70 % of all newly synthesized proteins in almost every living cell. Human MetAP1 is a two domain protein with a zinc finger on the N-terminus and a catalytic domain on the C-terminus. Here, we report the chemical shift assignments of the amino terminal zinc binding domain (ZBD) (1-83 residues) of the human MetAP1 derived by using advanced NMR spectroscopic methods. We were able to assign the chemical shifts of ZBD of MetAP1 nearly complete, which reveal two helical fragments involving residues P44-L49 (α1) and Q59-K82 (α2). The protein structure unfolds upon complex formation with the addition of 2 M excess EDTA, indicated by the appearance of amide resonances in the random coil chemical shift region of (15)NHSQC spectrum.

  7. Studies on Ailanthus altissima cell suspension cultures. Uptake of L-[methyl-(14)C]methionine and incorporation of label into 1-methoxycanthin-6-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L A; Hay, C A; Phillipson, J D; Roberts, M F

    1987-06-01

    Time-course studies of the uptake of L-[methyl (14)C]-methionine have shown rapid uptake by Ailanthus altissima cells when fed at weekly stages throughout the growth cycle. The radio-label from [(14)C]-methionine was shown to be incorporated into 1-methoxycanthin-6-one with the highest level of incorporation being achieved with cells fed late in the growth phase.

  8. KINETIC PARAMETERS AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF RECOMBINANT METHIONINE γ-LYASE FROM CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI, CLOSTRIDIUM SPOROGENES, PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS AND CITROBACTER FREUNDII

    OpenAIRE

    Morozova, E.; Kulikova, V.; Yashin, D.; Anufrieva, N.; Anisimova, N.; Revtovich, S.; Kotlov, M.; Belyi, Y.; Pokrovsky, V.; Demidkina, T.

    2013-01-01

    The steady-state kinetic parameters of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate-dependent recombinant methionine γ -lyase from three pathogenic bacteria, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium sporogenes, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, were determined in β- and γ-elimination reactions. The enzyme from C. sporogenes is characterized by the highest catalytic efficiency in the γ-elimination reaction of L-methionine. It was demonstrated that the enzyme from these three sources exists as a tetramer. The N-terminal poly-his...

  9. Exploration of structure-function relationships in Escherichia coli cystathionine γ-synthase and cystathionine β-lyase via chimeric constructs and site-specific substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, Adrienne L; Jaworski, Allison F; Ahmed, Mohammed; Aitken, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    Cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS) and cystathionine β-lyase (CBL) share a common structure and several active-site residues, but catalyze distinct side-chain rearrangements in the two-step transsulfuration pathway that converts cysteine to homocysteine, the precursor of methionine. A series of 12 chimeric variants of Escherichia coli CGS (eCGS) and CBL (eCBL) was constructed to probe the roles of two structurally distinct, ~25-residue segments situated in proximity to the amino and carboxy termini and located at the entrance of the active-site. In vivo complementation of methionine-auxotrophic E. coli strains, lacking the genes encoding eCGS and eCBL, demonstrated that exchange of the targeted regions impairs the activity of the resulting enzymes, but does not produce a corresponding interchange of reaction specificity. In keeping with the in vivo results, the catalytic efficiency of the native reactions is reduced by at least 95-fold, and α,β versus α,γ-elimination specificity is not modified. The midpoint of thermal denaturation monitored by circular dichroism, ranges between 59 and 80°C, compared to 66°C for the two wild-type enzymes, indicating that the chimeric enzymes adopt a stable folded structure and that the observed reductions in catalytic efficiency are due to reorganization of the active site. Alanine-substitution variants of residues S32 and S33, as well as K42 of eCBL, situated in proximity to and within, respectively, the targeted amino-terminal region were also investigated to explore their role as determinants of reaction specificity via positioning of key active-site residues. The catalytic efficiency of the S32A, S33A and the K42A site-directed variants of eCBL is reduced by less than 10-fold, demonstrating that, while these residues may participate in positioning S339, which tethers the catalytic base, their role is minor.

  10. Biosynthesis of t-anethole in anise: characterization of t-anol/isoeugenol synthase and an O-methyltransferase specific for a C7-C8 propenyl side chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeduka, Takao; Baiga, Thomas J; Noel, Joseph P; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-01-01

    The phenylpropene t-anethole imparts the characteristic sweet aroma of anise (Pimpinella anisum, family Apiaceae) seeds and leaves. Here we report that the aerial parts of the anise plant accumulate t-anethole as the plant matures, with the highest levels of t-anethole found in fruits. Although the anise plant is covered with trichomes, t-anethole accumulates inside the leaves and not in the trichomes or the epidermal cell layer. We have obtained anise cDNA encoding t-anol/isoeugenol synthase 1 (AIS1), an NADPH-dependent enzyme that can biosynthesize t-anol and isoeugenol (the latter not found in anise) from coumaryl acetate and coniferyl acetate, respectively. In addition, we have obtained a cDNA encoding S-[methyl-14C]adenosyl-l-methionine:t-anol/isoeugenol O-methyltransferase 1 (AIMT1), an enzyme that can convert t-anol or isoeugenol to t-anethole or methylisoeugenol, respectively, via methylation of the para-OH group. The genes encoding AIS1 and AIMT1 were expressed throughout the plant and their transcript levels were highest in developing fruits. The AIS1 protein is 59% identical to petunia (Petunia hybrida) isoeugenol synthase 1 and displays apparent Km values of 145 microm for coumaryl acetate and 230 microm for coniferyl acetate. AIMT1 prefers isoeugenol to t-anol by a factor of 2, with Km values of 19.3 microm for isoeugenol and 54.5 microm for S-[methyl-14C]adenosyl-l-methionine. The AIMT1 protein sequence is approximately 40% identical to basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Clarkia breweri phenylpropene O-methyltransferases, but unlike these enzymes, which do not show large discrimination between substrates with isomeric propenyl side chains, AIMT1 shows a 10-fold preference for t-anol over chavicol and for isoeugenol over eugenol.

  11. D-Methionine attenuated cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity through altering ATPase activities and oxidative stress in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Wen; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Young, Yi-Ho; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn

    2006-09-01

    Cisplatin has been used as a chemotherapeutic agent to treat many kinds of malignancies. Its damage to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) system has been reported. However, the underlying biochemical change in the inner ear or central vestibular nervous system is not fully understood. In this study, we attempted to examine whether cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity and D-methionine protection were correlated with the changes of ATPase activities and oxidative stress of ampullary tissue of vestibules as well as cerebellar cortex (the inhibitory center of VOR system) of guinea pigs. By means of a caloric test coupled with electronystagmographic recordings, we found that cisplatin exposure caused a dose-dependent (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg) vestibular dysfunction as revealed by a decrease of slow phase velocity (SPV). In addition, cisplatin significantly inhibited the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in the ampullary tissue with a good dose-response relationship but not those of cerebellar cortex. Regression analysis indicated that a decrease of SPV was well correlated with the reduction of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities of the ampullary tissue. D-Methionine (300 mg/kg) reduced both abnormalities of SPV and ATPase activities in a correlated manner. Moreover, cisplatin exposure led to a significant dose-dependent increase of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide concentrations of the vestibules, which could be significantly suppressed by D-methionine. However, cisplatin did not alter the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide of the cerebellum. In conclusion, cisplatin inhibited ATPase activities and increased oxidative stress in guinea pig vestibular labyrinths. D-Methionine attenuated cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity associated with ionic disturbance through its antioxidative property.

  12. Method for the typing of Clostridium difficile based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabaqchali, S.; O' Farrell, S.; Holland, D.; Silman, R.

    1986-01-01

    A typing method for Clostridium difficile based on the incorporation of (/sup 35/S)methionine into cellular proteins, their separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their visualization by autoradiography is described. On analysis of the radiolabeled-protein profiles, nine distinct groups were observed (A to E and W to Z). The method, which is simple, reproducible, and readily expandable, has been applied in epidemiological studies to demonstrate cross-infection and hospital acquisition of C. difficile.

  13. Influence of methionine/valine-depleted enteral nutrition on nucleic acid and protein metabolism in tumor-bearing rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Cheng He; Jun Cao; Ji-Wei Chen; Ding-Yu Pan; Ya-Kui Zhou

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of methionine/valine-depleted enteral nutrition (EN) on RNA, DNA and protein metabolism in tumor-bearing (TB) rats.METHODS: Sprague-Dawlley (SD) rats underwent jejunostomy for nutritional support. A suspension of Walker256 carcinosarcoma cells was subcutaneously inoculated.48 TB rats were randomly divided in 4 groups: A, B, C and D. The TB rats had respectively received jejunal feedings supplemented with balanced amino acids, methioninedepleted, balanced amino acids and valine-depleted for 6days before injection of 740 KBq 3H- methionine/valine via jejunum. The 3H incorporation rate of the radioactivity into RNA, DNA and proteins in tumor tissues at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 h postinjection of tracers was assessed with liquid scintillation counter.RESULTS: Incorporation of 3H into proteins in groups B and D was (0.500±0.020) % to (3.670±0.110) % and (0.708±0.019) % to (3.813±0.076) % respectively, lower than in groups A [(0.659±0.055) % to (4.492±0.108) %]and C r(0.805±0.098) % to (4.180±0.018) %]. Incorporation of 3H into RNA, DNA in group B was (0.237±0.075) %and (0.231±0.052) % respectively, lower than in group A (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in uptake of 3H by RNA and DNA between group C and D (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Protein synthesis was inhibited by methionine/valine starvation in TB rats and nucleic acid synthesis was reduced after methionine depletion, thus resulting in suppression of tumor growth.

  14. Correlation of microvascular fractal dimension with positron emission tomography [(11)C]-methionine uptake in glioblastoma multiforme: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Grizzi, Fabio; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Casali, Massimiliano; Simonelli, Matteo; Widhalm, Georg; Muzzio, Pier Carlo; Matula, Christian; Chiti, Arturo; Rodriguez y Baena, Riccardo

    2010-09-01

    Neuroradiological and metabolic imaging is a fundamental diagnostic procedure in the assessment of patients with primary and metastatic brain tumors. The correlation between objective parameters capable of quantifying the neoplastic angioarchitecture and imaging data may improve our understanding of the underlying physiopathology and make it possible to evaluate treatment efficacy in brain tumors. Only a few studies have so far correlated the quantitative parameters measuring the neovascularity of brain tumors with the metabolic profiles measured by means of amino acid uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Fractal geometry offers new mathematical tools for the description and quantification of complex anatomical systems, including microvascularity. In this study, we evaluated the microvascular network complexity of six cases of human glioblastoma multiforme quantifying the surface fractal dimension on CD34 immunostained specimens. The microvascular fractal dimension was estimated by applying the box-counting algorithm. As the fractal dimension depends on the density, size and shape of the vessels, and their distribution pattern, we defined it as an index of the whole complexity of microvascular architecture and compared it with the uptake of (11)C-methionine (MET) assessed by PET. The different fractal dimension values observed showed that the same histological category of brain tumor had different microvascular network architectures. Fractal dimension ranged between 1.19 and 1.77 (mean: 1.415+/-0.225), and the uptake of (11)C-methionine ranged between 1.30 and 5.30. A statistically significant direct correlation between the microvascular fractal dimension and the uptake of (11)C-methionine (p=0.02) was found. Our preliminary findings indicate that that vascularity (estimated on the histologic specimens by means of the fractal dimension) and (11)C-methionine uptake (assessed by PET) closely correlate in glioblastoma multiforme and that microvascular

  15. Cloning, tissue expression pattern characterization and chromosome localization of human peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction of some amino acids are one of the molecular mechanisms for regulating the function of proteins. The oxidation of methionine (Met) to methionine sulfoxide (Met(O)) results in decreasing or loss of the biological activity of related proteins. It was found that peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (msrA) can reduce Met(O) to Met and therefore restored the biological function of the oxidized proteins. To reveal the methionine oxidation-reduction mechanism in human body, in this study, the cDNA sequence of bovine msrA was used as an information-probe to screen the human EST database. Based on a contig assembled from homologous ESTs, a 1 256-bp human MSRA cDNA was cloned from several human cDNA libraries. The cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 705 bp in length, which encodes 235 amino acid residues. Homology comparison revealed that human MSRA shares 88% and 61% identities with bovine and Escherichia coli msrA protein respectively. Expression pattern analysis revealed a single 1.6-kb transcript of human MSRA in most human tissues and with highest expression in kidney. By radiation hybrid panel mapping, the gene was localized to human chromosome 8p22-23 between markers D8S518 and D8S550. There are 2 human inherited diseases Keratolytic Winter Erythema and Microcephaly related genes in this region, it is inferred that human MSRA might be the candidate of the two diseases.

  16. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004–2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression models were used to evaluate the association among one-carbon cycle nutrients, MTHFR genetic variants, and prostate cancer. Higher dietary methionine intake was associated with PC risk (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.1–3.9 The risk was most pronounced in men with Gleason sum <7 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.32– 5.73. The association of higher methionine intake and PC risk was only apparent in men who carried at least one MTHFR A1298C allele (OR =6.7; 95%CI = 1.6–27.8, compared to MTHFR A1298A noncarrier men (OR =0.9; 95%CI = 0.24–3.92 (p-interaction =0.045. There was no evidence for associations between B vitamins (folate, B12, and B6 and PC risk. Our results suggest that carrying the MTHFR A1298C variants modifies the association between high methionine intake and PC risk. Larger studies are required to validate these findings.

  17. Facile synthesis of N-6 adenosine modified analogue toward S-adenosyl methionine derived probe for protein arginine methyltransferases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hong; James Dowden

    2011-01-01

    Chemically modified cellular co-factors that provide function, such as immobilization or incorporation of fluorescent dyes, are valuable probes of biological activity. A convenient route to obtain S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet) analogues modified at N-6 adenosine to feature a linker terminating in azide functionality is described herein. Subsequent decoration of such AdoMet analogues with guanidinium terminated linkers leads to novel potential bisubstrate inhibitors for protein arginine methyltransferases, PRMTs.

  18. Effects of methionine and arginine dietary levels on the immunity of broiler chickens submitted to immunological stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LL Rubin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the effects of methionine and arginine on the immune response of broiler chickens submitted to immunological stimuli. Three methionine concentrations (0.31, 0.51, and 0.66% from 1 to 21 days of age; 0.29, 0.49, and 0.64% from 22 to 42 days of age and 2 arginine concentrations (1.33 and 1.83%; 1.14 and 1.64% for the same life periods were tested. Birds were divided into two groups for immunological stimuli (3x2x2 arrangement. Vaccines against Marek's disease, fowl pox, infectious bronchitis, Freund's Complete Adjuvant, Sheep red blood cells (SRBC, and avian tuberculin were administered to one group as immunological stimuli; the other group did not receive any stimulus. The experiment was carried out with 432 one-day-old male Ross broilers, distributed into 12 treatments with 6 replicates of 6 birds each. Performance data were weekly collected. Anti-SRBC antibodies were collected by hemagglutination test and cell immune response (CIR was measured by tubercularization reaction in one wattle 24 hours after administration of the second tuberculin injection at 42 days of age. The weight difference between the two wattles of each bird (one injected with tuberculin and the other not was the measure of CIR. Arginine levels did not influence either bird performance or immune response. Methionine concentrations higher or lower than usually adopted in broiler production (0.51 and 0.49% equally failed to influence the birds' immune humoral response, but the best CIR was observed at the intermediate methionine level. Vaccines administered on the first day of age impaired bird performance up to the 21st day of age.

  19. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Adriana C.; Grant, Delores J.; Williams, Christina D.; Elizabeth Masko; Allott, Emma H.; Kathryn Shuler; Megan McPhail; Alexis Gaines; Elizabeth Calloway; Leah Gerber; Jen-Tsan Chi; Freedland, Stephen J; Cathrine Hoyo

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases) who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004–2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regr...

  20. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, methionine and alcohol intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Holly Ruth; Cramer, Daniel William; Vitonis, Allison F.; DePari, Mary; Terry, Kathryn Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Folate, methionine, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 may influence carcinogenesis due to their roles in the one-carbon metabolism pathway which is critical for DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Low intake of these nutrients has been associated with an increased risk of breast, colon, and endometrial cancers. Previous studies that have examined the relation between these nutrients and ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent and have had limited power to examine the relation by histologic s...

  1. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  2. Dehydration induces expression of GALACTINOL SYNTHASE and RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE in seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuta, Lesław B; Pluskota, Wioletta E; Stelmaszewska, Joanna; Szablińska, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    The exposition of 7-day-old pea seedlings to dehydration induced sudden changes in the concentration of monosaccharides and sucrose in epicotyl and roots tissues. During 24h of dehydration, the concentration of glucose and, to a lesser extent, fructose in seedling tissues decreased. The accumulation of sucrose was observed in roots after 4h and in epicotyls after 8h of stress. Epicotyls and roots also began to accumulate galactinol and raffinose after 8h of stress, when small changes in the water content of tissues occurred. The accumulation of galactinol and raffinose progressed parallel to water withdrawal from tissues, but after seedling rehydration both galactosides disappeared. The synthesis of galactinol and raffinose by an early induction (during the first hour of treatment) of galactinol synthase (PsGolS) and raffinose synthase (PsRS) gene expression as well as a later increase in the activity of both enzymes was noted. Signals possibly triggering the induction of PsGolS and PsRS gene expression and accumulation of galactinol and raffinose in seedlings are discussed.

  3. Cloning and characterization of squalene synthase and cycloartenol synthase from Siraitia grosvenorii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mogrosides and steroid saponins are tetracyclic triterpenoids found in Siraitia grosvenorii. Squalene synthase (SQS and cycloartenol synthase (CAS are key enzymes in triterpenoid and steroid biosynthesis. In this study, full-length cDNAs of SgSQS and SgCAS were cloned by a rapid amplification of cDNA-ends with polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR approach. The SgSQS cDNA has a 1254 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding 417 amino acids, and the SgCAS cDNA contains a 2298 bp ORF encoding 765 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the deduced SgSQS protein has two transmembrane regions in the C-terminal. Both SgSQS and SgCAS have significantly higher levels in fruits than in other tissues, suggesting that steroids and mogrosides are competitors for the same precursors in fruits. Combined in silico prediction and subcellular localization, experiments in tobacco indicated that SgSQS was probably in the cytoplasm or on the cytoskeleton, and SgCAS was likely located in the nucleus or cytosol. These results will provide a foundation for further study of SgSQS and SgCAS gene functions in S. grosvenorii, and may facilitate improvements in mogroside content in fruit by regulating gene expression.

  4. A novel biorational pesticide: efficacy of methionine against Heraclides (Papilio) cresphontes, a surrogate of the invasive Princeps (Papilio) demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Delano S; Cuda, James P; Stevens, Bruce R

    2011-12-01

    ABSTRACT The Southeast Asian citrus-feeding butterfly Princeps (Papilio) demoleus (L.) was recently introduced into the Americas, causing an imminent threat to citrus production and ornamental flora. The human nutrient amino acid methionine has been shown by us to disrupt aminoacid-modulated ion transport systems in caterpillars and other insect larvae that possess an alkaline midgut. Heraclides (Papilio) cresphontes was bioassayed as a United States Department of Agriculture permitted surrogate of the Florida quarantined P. demoleus to test the potential efficacy of methionine. Larvae were allowed to feed ad libitum on wild lime plants with leaves treated with methionine or proline. Methionine caused 100% mortality in first through fourth instars in a time- and dose-dependent manner, as determined by probit analysis whereas proline was not toxic. Wild lime host plants did not exhibit phytotoxicity with methionine treatments during a 14 d test period. It is concluded that methionine is an effective larvicide against H. cresphontes, and therefore may be a candidate environmentally safe biorational pesticide for use against invasive P. demoleus in the Americas.

  5. Relative bioavailability of zinc-methionine chelate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Haiqing; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Zhang, Xueyuan; Li, Hua; Lu, Yufei; Luo, Xugang

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the bioavailability of the organic Zn-methionine chelate relative to inorganic Zn source (ZnSO4•7H2O) for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to one of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn/kg) and two Zn sources (Zn-methionine chelate and Zn sulfate) plus a Zn-unsupplemented control diet containing 29.2 mg of Zn/kg by analysis for an experimental phase of 21 days. Bone and pancreas were collected for testing Zn concentrations and pancreas metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) level at 7 or 21 days of age. The results showed that bone and pancreas Zn concentrations and MT mRNA level in pancreas increased linearly (P chelate relative to ZnSO4•7H2O (100%) were 120 and 115%, respectively (P > 0.22). The results indicated that the Zn from the Zn-methionine chelate was just as bioavailable as the Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.

  6. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  7. The role of amino acid residues in the active site of L-methionine γ-lyase from Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Mitsuki; Kudou, Daizou; Murano, Shouko; Shiba, Tomoo; Sato, Dan; Tamura, Takashi; Harada, Shigeharu; Inagaki, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Cys116, Lys240*, and Asp241* (asterisks indicate residues from the second subunit of the active dimer) at the active site of L-methionine γ-lyase of Pseudomonas putida (MGL_Pp) are highly conserved among heterologous MGLs. In a previous study, we found that substitution of Cys116 for His led to a drastic increase in activity toward L-cysteine and a decrease in that toward L-methionine. In this study, we examined some properties of the C116H mutant by kinetic analysis and 3D structural analysis. We assumed that substitution of Cys116 for His broke the original hydrogen-bond network and that this induced a significant effect of Tyr114 as a general acid catalyst, possibly due to the narrow space in the active site. The C116H mutant acquired a novel β-elimination activity and lead a drastic conformation change in the histidine residue at position 116 by binding the substrate, suggesting that this His residue affects the reaction specificity of C116H. Furthermore, we suggest that Lys240* is important for substrate recognition and structural stability and that Asp241* is also involved in substrate specificity in the elimination reaction. Based on this, we suggest that the hydrogen-bond network among Cys116, Lys240*, and Asp241* contributes to substrate specificity that is, to L-methionine recognition at the active site in MGL_Pp.

  8. Metabolism of tryptophan, methionine and arginine in Diplodus sargus larvae fed rotifers: effect of amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M; Conceição, L E C; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Dinis, M T

    2008-06-01

    Dietary amino acids imbalances have been described when fish larvae are fed rotifers, what may lead to a reduction in growth rate. The tube-feeding technique can be used to assess the effect of free amino acid short term supplementation. In this study supplementation of tryptophan, methionine and arginine were tested in Diplodus sargus. Single crystalline (14)C amino acids as well as a mix of (14)C amino acids were used as tracers to compare results of individual amino acids metabolism with the average of all amino acids. The results show low absorption efficiencies for tryptophan (70%) and arginine (80%) and similar absorption for methionine (90%) when compared with the average of all amino acids. Supplementation of these amino acids seems to be viable but it did not result in higher retention compared to the amino acid mix. This means that tryptophan, methionine and arginine are probably not the limiting amino acid when Diplodus sargus larvae are fed rotifers. However, supplementation in these IAA may be required for their roles as precursors of important molecules other than proteins, in order to improve larval quality and/or performance.

  9. Characterization of a methionine sulfoxide reductase B from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and its protecting role in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Changbo; Liu, Likun; Wang, Myeong Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we isolated a methionine sulfoxide reductase B gene, termed SlMSRB1, from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). In the organ-specific analysis, high expression levels of SlMSRB1 were detected in red mature fruits, leaves and flowers while low transcriptional levels of SlMSRB1 mRNA were observed in stems and roots. In the green fluorescence analysis of SlMSRB1- overexpressed Arabidopsis, signal corresponding to SlMSRB1 was merely detected in chloroplast, suggesting that tomato MSRB1 is a chloroplastial localization protein. Substrate specificity analysis of recombinant SlMSRB1 showed that the enzyme was only targeted to the R epimer of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) and was able to convert both free and protein-bound MetSO back to methionine in the presence of dithithreitol (DTT). In addition, SlMSRB1 exhibited no activity in thioredoxin dependent system or the substitution of cysteine at position 181 in the DTT-dependent reduction system. Finally, overexpression of SlMSRB1 in yeast revealed that the SlMSRB1 gene might play a critical role in protecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae against oxidative stress.

  10. Estimation of available methionine and cysteine in proteins of food products by in vivo and in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniaźek, D; Rakowska, M; Szkilladziowa, W; Grabarek, Z

    1975-09-01

    1. The available methionine and cysteine of proteins were determined by chemical methods after preliminary enzymic hydrolysis. 2. The values for the available methionine and cysteine contents of pure proteins (casein and bovine serum albumin) estimated by chemical methods were similar to those for the total content determined by the method of Moore, Spackman & Stein (1958). 3. Reductions of 15 and 11% respectively, when compared with unprocessed samples, were found in the available methionine contents of sweetened and unsweetened, condensed milks; of roller-dried milk and whey powders, and of mackerel sterilized at 126 degrees, the reductions were 22, 14 and 19% respectively. 4. The available cysteine content of sweetened, condensed milk was reduced by about 32%, whereas for mackerel sterilized at 115 and 126 degrees it was reduced by 64 and 75% respectively. 5. The contents of total sulphur amino acids for these food products did not differ from those for the unprocessed samples. 6. Values obtained for available S amino acid contents by rat bioassay confirmed the results of the in vitro estimations.

  11. Molecular characterization and expression profile of methionine sulfoxide reductase gene family in maize (Zea mays) under abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiantang; Ding, Pengcheng; Li, Qingqing; Gao, YanKun; Chen, Fanguo; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-05-15

    Methionine (Met) oxidation to methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) is a common form of damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation via various environmental stresses. Methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) repairs oxidized Met and protects organisms from oxidative damage. Two types of MSR, A and B, have been identified based on substrate stereo specificity; they share no sequence similarity. In the present study, we characterized six genes encoding the putative MSR from two public databases. We compared them with MSRs from 6 species, and evaluated molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis, tertiary structure and conserved motifs. On the basis of in silico and the qRT-PCR experimental data, we analyzed cDNA sequences and expression patterns of ZmMSR genes in different organs in maize. We found that ZmMSR genes were induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and NaCl, both known to generate oxidative stress. The results show that MSRs are conserved in different species, suggesting that MSRs across different species share common mechanisms related to diverse defense responses.

  12. Methionine ligand lability in bacterial monoheme cytochromes c: an electrochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Benjamin D; Can, Mehmet; Bowman, Sarah E J; Bren, Kara L; Elliott, Sean J

    2011-10-13

    The direct electrochemical analysis of adsorbed redox active proteins has proven to be a powerful technique in biophysical chemistry, frequently making use of the electrode material pyrolytic "edge-plane" graphite. However, many heme-bearing proteins such as cytochromes c have been also examined systematically at alkanethiol-modified gold surfaces, and previously we reported the characterization of the redox properties of a series of bacterial cytochromes c in a side-by-side comparison of carbon and gold electrode materials. In our prior findings, we reported an unanticipated, low potential (E(m) ∼ -100 mV vs SHE) redox couple that could be analogously observed when a variety of monoheme cytochromes c are adsorbed onto carbon-based electrodes. Here we demonstrate that our prior phenomological data can be understood quantitatively in the loss of the methionine ligand of the heme iron, using the cytochrome c from Hydrogenbacter thermophilum as a model system. Through the comparison of wild-type protein with M61H and M61A mutants, in direct electrochemical analyses conducted as a function of temperature and exogenous ligand concentration, we are able to show that Met-ligated cytochromes c have a propensity to lose their Met ligand at graphite surfaces, and that energetics of this process (6.3 ± 0.2 kJ/mol) is similar to the energies associated with "foldons" of known protein folding pathways.

  13. Structure of a microsporidian methionine aminopeptidase type 2 complexed with fumagillin and TNP-470

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, J.; Nemkal, A; Sauder, J; Russell, M; Akiyoshi, D; Shi, W; Almo, S; Weiss, L

    2009-01-01

    Microsporidia are protists that have been reported to cause infections in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They have emerged as human pathogens particularly in patients that are immunosuppressed and cases of gastrointestinal infection, encephalitis, keratitis, sinusitis, myositis and disseminated infection are well described in the literature. While benzimidazoles are active against many species of microsporidia, these drugs do not have significant activity against Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues have been demonstrated to have activity in vitro and in animal models of microsporidiosis and human infections due to E. bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues inhibit methionine aminopeptidase type 2. Encephalitozoon cuniculi MetAP2 (EcMetAP2) was cloned and expressed as an active enzyme using a baculovirus system. The crystal structure of EcMetAP2 was determined with and without the bound inhibitors fumagillin and TNP-470. This structure classifies EcMetAP2 as a member of the MetAP2c family. The EcMetAP2 structure was used to generate a homology model of the E. bieneusi MetAP2. Comparison of microsporidian MetAP2 structures with human MetAP2 provides insights into the design of inhibitors that might exhibit specificity for microsporidian MetAP2.

  14. Tyrosine, cysteine, and S-adenosyl methionine stimulate in vitro [FeFe] hydrogenase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon M Kuchenreuther

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: [FeFe] hydrogenases are metalloenzymes involved in the anaerobic metabolism of H(2. These proteins are distinguished by an active site cofactor known as the H-cluster. This unique [6Fe-6S] complex contains multiple non-protein moieties and requires several maturation enzymes for its assembly. The pathways and biochemical precursors for H-cluster biosynthesis have yet to be elucidated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report an in vitro maturation system in which, for the first time, chemical additives enhance [FeFe] hydrogenase activation, thus signifying in situ H-cluster biosynthesis. The maturation system is comprised of purified hydrogenase apoprotein; a dialyzed Escherichia coli cell lysate containing heterologous HydE, HydF, and HydG maturases; and exogenous small molecules. Following anaerobic incubation of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii HydA1 apohydrogenase with S-adenosyl methionine (SAM, cysteine, tyrosine, iron, sulfide, and the non-purified maturases, hydrogenase activity increased 5-fold relative to incubations without the exogenous substrates. No conditions were identified in which addition of guanosine triphosphate (GTP improved hydrogenase maturation. SIGNIFICANCE: The in vitro system allows for direct investigation of [FeFe] hydrogenase activation. This work also provides a foundation for studying the biosynthetic mechanisms of H-cluster biosynthesis using solely purified enzymes and chemical additives.

  15. (/sup 11/C)methionine pancreatic scanning with positron emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrota, A.; Comar, D.; Cerf, M.; Plummer, D.; Maziere, M.; Kellershohn, C.

    1979-07-01

    By the use of (/sup 11/C)methionine and positron computed tomography (PCT), images of the pancreas were obtained in 32 patients. The injection of between 10 and 20 mCi of this product enables four to six transverse sections to be obtained. Seventeen of the patients studied had no exocrine pancreatic disease, and in all these cases the pancreas was clearly visible. In four cases of pancreatic carcinoma and one of retroperitoneal tumor, there were abnormalities visible. In five cases of chronic pancreatitis, no pancreatic uptake was observed. In a sixth case, concentration was visible, but only in the head of the pancreas. One case of acute pancreatitis, which showed no concentration during the acute phase, returned to normal after recovery. When visible, the pancreas was easily located and distinguishable from the intestinal image, except in two cases that were uninterpretable for technical reasons. No false positive or negative was observed, but a differential diagnosis between cancer and pancreatitis was impossible.

  16. Inhibition of the methionine aminopeptidase 2 enzyme for the treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joharapurkar AA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amit A Joharapurkar, Nirav A Dhanesha, Mukul R Jain Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zydus Research Centre, Cadila Healthcare Limited, Ahmedabad, India Abstract: Worldwide prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled since 1980. Obesity is the result of interactions among the environmental factors, genetic predisposition, and human behavior. Even modest weight reduction in obese patients provides beneficial health outcomes. For effective weight reduction, a drug should either increase energy expenditure or decrease energy intake without causing serious adverse effects. To overcome lack of efficacy and central nervous system related side effects, exploitation of the peripheral mechanism of anti-obesity action is needed. Inhibition of pathological angiogenesis in adipose tissue is one such peripheral mechanism that has attracted the attention of researchers in this area. Although originally developed as anti-cancer agents, methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP2 inhibitors induce significant and sustained weight reduction. Here, we review preclinical and clinical pharmacology of MetAP2 inhibitors. Beloranib is a prototype MetAP2 inhibitor, and currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of obesity. Clinical data of beloranib indicate that MetAP2 inhibitors could be a future treatment option for weight reduction without serious adverse effects. Further clinical data from Phase III trials will add to our growing knowledge of MetAP2 inhibitor potential for anti-obesity therapy. Keywords: angiogenesis, beloranib, body weight, MetAP2, anti-obesity

  17. Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, immune responses, and stress status of broiler chicks subjected to heat-stress conditions. A total of 450 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 5 replicate pens (15 birds each) of 6 experimental treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments including 2 temperature conditions (thermoneutral and heat stress) and 3 supplemental Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 μg/kg as CrMet). For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 35 ± 2°C from 15 to 42 d of age. Results showed that the chicks subjected to heat-stress condition had lower (P heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress suppressed (P heat-stressed chicks, resulting in a significant (P heat-stressed chicks. Dietary inclusion of CrMet improved (P heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress caused a significant (P heat-stressed chicks modulated (P heat-stress-induced growth retardation in broiler chicks. Moreover, supplemental CrMet modulated suppressive effects of heat stress on cellular and humoral immune responses.

  18. Elucidation of roles for vitamin B12 in regulation of folate, ubiquinone, and methionine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Margaret F; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Maezato, Yukari; Anderson, Lindsey N; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Rodionova, Irina A; Carre, Alexandre; Li, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengdong; Clauss, Therese R W; Kim, Young-Mo; Metz, Thomas O; Wright, Aaron T

    2017-02-14

    Only a small fraction of vitamin B12-requiring organisms are able to synthesize B12 de novo, making it a common commodity in microbial communities. Initially recognized as an enzyme cofactor of a few enzymes, recent studies have revealed additional B12-binding enzymes and regulatory roles for B12 Here we report the development and use of a B12-based chemical probe to identify B12-binding proteins in a nonphototrophic B12-producing bacterium. Two unexpected discoveries resulted from this study. First, we identified a light-sensing B12-binding transcriptional regulator and demonstrated that it controls folate and ubiquinone biosynthesis. Second, our probe captured proteins involved in folate, methionine, and ubiquinone metabolism, suggesting that it may play a role as an allosteric effector of these processes. These metabolic processes produce precursors for synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Thereby, B12 likely modulates growth, and by limiting its availability to auxotrophs, B12-producing organisms may facilitate coordination of community metabolism.

  19. Highly potent inhibitors of methionine aminopeptidase-2 based on a 1,2,4-triazole pharmacophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Joseph P; Fisher, Paul W; Hofmann, Glenn A; Kirkpatrick, Robert B; Janson, Cheryl A; Johnson, Randall K; Ma, Chun; Mattern, Michael; Meek, Thomas D; Ryan, M Dominic; Schulz, Christina; Smith, Ward W; Tew, David G; Tomazek, Thaddeus A; Veber, Daniel F; Xiong, Wenfang C; Yamamoto, Yuuichi; Yamashita, Keizo; Yang, Guang; Thompson, Scott K

    2007-08-09

    High-throughput screening for inhibitors of the human metalloprotease, methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP2), identified a potent class of 3-anilino-5-benzylthio-1,2,4-triazole compounds. Efficient array and interative synthesis of triazoles led to rapid SAR development around the aniline, benzylthio, and triazole moeities. Evaluation of these analogs in a human MetAP2 enzyme assay led to the identification of several inhibitors with potencies in the 50-100 picomolar range. The deleterious effects on inhibitor potency by methylation of the anilino-triazole nitrogens, as well as the X-ray crystal structure of triazole 102 bound in the active site of MetAP2, confirm the key interactions between the triazole nitrogens, the active site cobalt atoms, and the His-231 side-chain. The structure has also provided a rationale for interpreting SAR within the triazole series. Key aniline (2-isopropylphenyl) and sulfur substituents (furanylmethyl) identified in the SAR studies led to the identification of potent inhibitors (103 and 104) of endothelial cell proliferation. Triazoles 103 and 104 also exhibited dose-dependent activity in an aortic ring tissue model of angiogenesis highlighting the potential utility of MetAP2 inhibitors as anticancer agents.

  20. Elucidation of roles for vitamin B12 in regulation of folate, ubiquinone, and methionine metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Margaret F.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Maezato, Yukari; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Rodionova, Irina A.; Carre, Alexandre; Li, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengdong; Clauss, Therese R. W.; Metz, Thomas O.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2017-01-01

    Only a small fraction of vitamin B12-requiring organisms are able to synthesize B12 de novo, making it a common commodity in microbial communities. Initially recognized as an enzyme cofactor of a few enzymes, recent studies have revealed additional B12-binding enzymes and regulatory roles for B12. Here we report the development and use of a B12-based chemical probe to identify B12-binding proteins in a nonphototrophic B12-producing bacterium. Two unexpected discoveries resulted from this study. First, we identified a light-sensing B12-binding transcriptional regulator and demonstrated that it controls folate and ubiquinone biosynthesis. Second, our probe captured proteins involved in folate, methionine, and ubiquinone metabolism, suggesting that it may play a role as an allosteric effector of these processes. These metabolic processes produce precursors for synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Thereby, B12 likely modulates growth, and by limiting its availability to auxotrophs, B12-producing organisms may facilitate coordination of community metabolism. PMID:28137868

  1. Crystal structure of dengue virus methyltransferase without S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Christian G; Li, Shi-Hua; Dong, Hongping; Chew, Sock Hui; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Flavivirus methyltransferase is a genetically-validated antiviral target. Crystal structures of almost all available flavivirus methyltransferases contain S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), the methyl donor molecule that co-purifies with the enzymes. This raises a possibility that SAM is an integral structural component required for the folding of dengue virus (DENV) methyltransferase. Here we exclude this possibility by solving the crystal structure of DENV methyltransferase without SAM. The SAM ligand was removed from the enzyme through a urea-mediated denaturation-and-renaturation protocol. The crystal structure of the SAM-depleted enzyme exhibits a vacant SAM-binding pocket, with a conformation identical to that of the SAM-enzyme co-crystal structure. Functionally, equivalent enzymatic activities (N-7 methylation, 2'-O methylation, and GMP-enzyme complex formation) were detected for the SAM-depleted and SAM-containing recombinant proteins. These results clearly indicate that the SAM molecule is not an essential component for the correct folding of DENV methyltransferase. Furthermore, the results imply a potential antiviral approach to search for inhibitors that can bind to the SAM-binding pocket and compete against SAM binding. To demonstrate this potential, we have soaked crystals of DENV methyltransferase without a bound SAM with the natural product Sinefungin and show that preformed crystals are capable of binding ligands in this pocket.

  2. Regulation of Expression of Oxacillin-Inducible Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Baum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall-active antibiotics cause induction of a locus that leads to elevated synthesis of two methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA1 and MsrB in Staphylococcus aureus. To understand the regulation of this locus, reporter strains were constructed by integrating a DNA fragment consisting of the msrA1/msrB promoter in front of a promoterless lacZ gene in the chromosome of wild-type and MsrA1-, MsrB-, MsrA1/MsrB-, and SigB-deficient methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strain SH1000 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COL. These reporter strains were cultured in TSB and the cellular levels of β-galactosidase activity in these cultures were assayed during different growth phases. β-galactosidase activity assays demonstrated that the lack of MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB upregulated the msrA1/msrB promoter in S. aureus strain SH1000. In S. aureus strain COL, the highest level of β-galactosidase activity was observed under the conditions when both MsrA1 and MsrB proteins were absent. The data suggest that the msrA1/msrB locus, in part, is negatively regulated by MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB in S. aureus.

  3. Methionine – Au Nanoparticle Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode: a Novel Platform for Electrochemical Detection of Hydroquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong HE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitive electrochemical sensor based on methionine/gold nanoparticles (MET/AuNPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE was fabricated for the quantitative detection of hydroquinone (HQ. The as-modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The electrochemical performance of the sensor to HQ was investigated by using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry, which revealed its excellent electrocatalytic activity and reversibility towards HQ. The separation of anodic and cathodic peak (∆Ep was decreased from 471 mV to 75 mV. The anodic peak current achieved under the optimum conditions was linear with the HQ concentration ranging from 8 μM to 400 μM with the detection limit 0.12 μM (3σ. The as-fabricated sensor also showed a good selectivity towards HQ without demonstrating interference from other coexisting species. Furthermore, the sensor showed a good performance for HQ detection in environmental water, which suggests its potential practical application. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6477

  4. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases Protect against Oxidative Stress in Staphylococcus aureus Encountering Exogenous Oxidants and Human Neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yun Yun; Schwartz, Jamie; Bloomberg, Sarah; Boyd, Jeffrey M; Horswill, Alexander R.; Nauseef, William M.

    2013-01-01

    To establish infection successfully, S. aureus must evade clearance by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). We studied the expression and regulation of the methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr) that are involved in the repair of oxidized staphylococcal proteins and investigated their influence over the fate of S. aureus exposed to oxidants or PMN. We evaluated a mutant deficient in msrA1 and msrB for susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid and PMN. The expression of msrA1 in wild-type bacteria ingested by human PMN was assessed by real-time PCR. The regulation of msr was studied by screening a library of two-component regulatory system (TCS) mutants for altered msr responses. Relative to the wild-type, bacteria deficient in Msr were more susceptible to oxidants and to PMN. Upregulation of staphylococcal msrA1 occurred within the phagosomes of normal PMN and PMN deficient in NADPH oxidase activity. Furthermore, PMN granule-rich extract stimulated the upregulation of msrA1. Modulation of msrA1 within PMN was shown to be partly dependent on the VraSR TCS. Msr contributes to staphylococcal responses to oxidative attack and PMN. Our study highlights a novel interaction between the oxidative protein repair pathway and the VraSR TCS that is involved in cell wall homeostasis. PMID:24247266

  5. (13)C-metabolic flux analysis in S-adenosyl-L-methionine production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kenshi; Kajihata, Shuichi; Matsuda, Fumio; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is a major biological methyl group donor, and is used as a nutritional supplement and prescription drug. Yeast is used for the industrial production of SAM owing to its high intracellular SAM concentrations. To determine the regulation mechanisms responsible for such high SAM production, (13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) was conducted to compare the flux distributions in the central metabolism between Kyokai no. 6 (high SAM-producing) and S288C (control) strains. (13)C-MFA showed that the levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux in SAM-overproducing strain were considerably increased compared to those in the S228C strain. Analysis of ATP balance also showed that a larger amount of excess ATP was produced in the Kyokai 6 strain because of increased oxidative phosphorylation. These results suggest that high SAM production in Kyokai 6 strains could be attributed to enhanced ATP regeneration with high TCA cycle fluxes and respiration activity. Thus, maintaining high respiration efficiency during cultivation is important for improving SAM production.

  6. Methionine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin in human sympathoadrenal system and pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasa, T; Nakao, K; Ohtsuki, H; Li, S; Imura, H

    1982-03-01

    To elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological significance of methionine- and leucine-enkephalin (Met-and Leu-enkephalin, respectively) in human sympathoadrenal system, the contents of these peptides in normal human sympathetic nervous system, adrenal medulla, and pheochromocytomas were determined by specific radioimmunoassays combined with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Met-enkephalin-LI and Leu-enkephalin-LI, respectively) were detected by radioimmunoassay in adrenal glands, adrenal medulla, stellate ganglia, sympathetic trunks, and celiac ganglia, and their contents in adrenal medulla were highest. Existence of authentic Met- and Leu-enkephalin was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Met-enkephalin was approximately 74% of Met-enkephalin-LI, whereas Leu-enkephalin was approximately 30% of Leu-enkephalin-LI in human adrenal medulla. The ratio of Met- to Leu-enkephalin was 2.6 in human adrenal medulla, whereas it was higher in sympathetic ganglia or trunks. In four cases of pheochromocytoma marked difference in Met- and Leu-enkephalin contents was found between medullary and extramedullary tumors. The contents were about three orders higher and the Met- to Leu-enkephalin ratio was lower in medullary than in extramedullary pheochromocytomas, reflecting the tissues where the tumors arose. These results suggest the physiological roles of Met- and Leu-enkephalin in sympathetic nervous system and adrenal glands and their pathophysiological significances in pheochromocytomas.

  7. NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Le; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2012-12-05

    A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with folic acid/methionine for active targeted delivery of docetaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravian, Pegah; Shafiee Ardestani, Mehdi; Khoobi, Mehdi; Ostad, Seyed Naser; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Amanlou, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are known as carriers with high loading capacity and large functionalizable surface area for target-directed delivery. In this study, a series of docetaxel-loaded folic acid- or methionine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DTX/MSN-FA or DTX/MSN-Met) with large pores and amine groups at inner pore surface properties were prepared. The results showed that the MSNs were successfully synthesized, having good pay load and pH-sensitive drug release kinetics. The cellular investigation on MCF-7 cells showed better performance of cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis and an increase in cellular uptake of targeted nanoparticles. In vivo fluorescent imaging on healthy BALB/c mice proved that bare MSN-NH2 are mostly accumulated in the liver but MSN-FA or MSN-Met are more concentrated in the kidney. Importantly, ex vivo fluorescent images of tumor-induced BALB/c mice organs revealed the ability of MSN-FA to reach the tumor tissues. In conclusion, DTX/MSNs exhibited a good anticancer activity and enhanced the possibility of targeted drug delivery for breast cancer. PMID:27980423

  9. Influence of cysteine and methionine availability on protein peroxide scavenging activity and phenolic stability in emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lisa; Elias, Ryan J

    2014-03-01

    Plant phenolics are secondary metabolites that have been shown to confer beneficial health effects in humans. However, many of these compounds undergo metal-catalysed oxidation reactions, leading to the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species that may negatively impact product stability. In proteins, methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) are capable of reacting directly with peroxides. Thus, the dairy proteins, casein (CAS) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG), were examined for their ability to scavenge H2O2 (400μM) and influence (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) oxidation (400μM) in Tween- or sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-stabilised hexadecane emulsions. To examine the effect that the accessibility of these amino acids have on their peroxide scavenging activities, proteins were pre-treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), a bulky peroxide, to oxidise only solvent accessible Met residues or H2O2, the smallest peroxide, to oxidise buried Met residues. In CAS treatments, higher Met content yielded greater peroxide scavenging activity and EGCG stability. CAS treatments also showed significantly higher peroxide scavenging activity compared to the corresponding BLG treatment. However, BLG peroxide scavenging activity was greatly enhanced in SDS-stabilised emulsions due to protein denaturation and subsequent exposure of previously buried Cys residues.

  10. Recombinant methionine aminopeptidase protein of Babesia microti: immunobiochemical characterization as a vaccine candidate against human babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2016-09-01

    Human babesiosis is the most important zoonotic protozoan infection in the world. This is the first report of the cloning, expression, purification, and immunobiochemical characterization of a methionine aminopeptidase 1 (MetAP1) protein from Babesia microti (B. microti). The gene encodes a MetAP1 protein of B. microti (BmMetAP1) of approximately 66.8 kDa that includes glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag and shows MetAP activity. BmMetAP1 was detected in a lysate of B. microti and further localized in cytoplasm of the B. microti merozoite. rBmMetAP1 was found to be immunogenic, eliciting a high antibody titer in mice. Moreover, rBmMetAP1 stimulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-12 but not IL-4. Finally, rBmMetAP1 was able to provide considerable protection to mice against a B. microti challenge infection based on a reduction in peak parasitemia levels and earlier clearance of the parasite as compared with control mice. Taken together, these results suggest that rBmMetAP1 confers significant protection against experimental B. microti infection and might be considered a potential vaccine target against human babesiosis.

  11. Structural mechanism of S-adenosyl methionine binding to catechol O-methyltransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Tsao

    Full Text Available Methyltransferases possess a homologous domain that requires both a divalent metal cation and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to catalyze its reactions. The kinetics of several methyltransferases has been well characterized; however, the details regarding their structural mechanisms have remained unclear to date. Using catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT as a model, we perform discrete molecular dynamics and computational docking simulations to elucidate the initial stages of cofactor binding. We find that COMT binds SAM via an induced-fit mechanism, where SAM adopts a different docking pose in the absence of metal and substrate in comparison to the holoenzyme. Flexible modeling of the active site side-chains is essential for observing the lowest energy state in the apoenzyme; rigid docking tools are unable to recapitulate the pose unless the appropriate side-chain conformations are given a priori. From our docking results, we hypothesize that the metal reorients SAM in a conformation suitable for donating its methyl substituent to the recipient ligand. The proposed mechanism enables a general understanding of how divalent metal cations contribute to methyltransferase function.

  12. Specific lipidome signatures in central nervous system from methionine-restricted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victòria; Ramírez-Núñez, Omar; Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Spickett, Corinne M; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-06-07

    Membrane lipid composition is an important correlate of the rate of aging of animals. Dietary methionine restriction (MetR) increases lifespan in rodents. The underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated but could include changes in tissue lipidomes. In this work, we demonstrate that 80% MetR in mice induces marked changes in the brain, spinal cord, and liver lipidomes. Further, at least 50% of the lipids changed are common in the brain and spinal cord but not in the liver, suggesting a nervous system-specific lipidomic profile of MetR. The differentially expressed lipids includes (a) specific phospholipid species, which could reflect adaptive membrane responses, (b) sphingolipids, which could lead to changes in ceramide signaling pathways, and (c) the physiologically redox-relevant ubiquinone 9, indicating adaptations in phase II antioxidant response metabolism. In addition, specific oxidation products derived from cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine were significantly decreased in the brain, spinal cord, and liver from MetR mice. These results demonstrate the importance of adaptive responses of membrane lipids leading to increased stress resistance as a major mechanistic contributor to the lowered rate of aging in MetR mice.

  13. Retinol status and expression of retinol-related proteins in methionine-choline deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Takitani, Kimitaka; Koh, Maki; Inoue, Akiko; Kishi, Kanta; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Retinol and its derivative, retinoic acid, have pleiotropic functions including vision, immunity, hematopoiesis, reproduction, cell differentiation/growth, and development. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common diseases in developed countries and encompasses a broad spectrum of forms, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis, which develops further to cirrhosis. Retinol status has an important role in liver homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retinol status and expression of retinol-related proteins, including enzymes and binding proteins, in methionine-choline deficient (MCD) rats as a model of NAFLD. We examined retinol levels in the plasma and liver and gene expression for β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO), lecithIn: retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), ALDH1A2, and cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP)-I in MCD rats. The plasma retinol levels in MCD rats were lower than those in the controls, whereas hepatic retinol levels in MCD rats were higher. BCMO expression in the intestine and liver in MCD rats was lower, whereas that in the testes and the kidneys was higher than in control rats. Expression of LRAT, CRBP-I, ALDH1A1, and ALDH1A2 in the liver of MCD rats was also higher. Altered expression of retinol-related proteins may affect retinol status in NAFLD.

  14. EFFECT OF METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN ON MIGRATION OF MACROPHAGES FROM MICE WITH IMPAIRED LIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of methionine enkephalin (M-Enk) on migration of macrophages from mice with impaired liver and its immunomodulatory mechanisms. Methods Liver of mice was impaired by feeding CCl4 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MMIF) was produced by Con A-stimulated spleen lympho- cytes. Inhibition of macrophage migration was measured in reaction system by adding M-Enk. Results Migration of macrophages in both liver-impaired and control group were suppressed by MMIF, but the suppression might be re- versed by adding 1 μmol/L M-Enk (P<0. 05). M-Enk could significantly inhibit in vitro both of the combination of MMIF with macrophages and production of MMIF from lymphocytes (P<0. 01). Macrophages from liver-imparied group showed a higher sensitivity compared to the control group (P<0. 05). Conclusion The study suggests that opi- oid peptieds play an important role in the modulation of the immune response under stress as liver impairment.

  15. Incorporation of radiolabeled polyamines and methionine into turnip yellow mosaic virus in protoplasts from infected plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, R.; Cohen, S.S.

    1985-07-15

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus contains large amounts of nonexchangeable spermidine and induces an accumulation of spermidine in infected Chinese cabbage. By 7 days after inoculation, a majority of protoplasts isolated from newly emerging leaves stain with fluorescent antibody to the virus. (/sup 14/C)Spermidine (10 microM) was taken up by these cells in amounts comparable to the original endogenous pool within 24 hr. However, after an initial rise, the spermidine content of the cell returned to its original level, implying considerable regulation of the endogenous pool(s). Putrescine and spermine were major products of the metabolism of exogenous spermidine. Radioactivity from exogenous (/sup 14/C)spermidine was also readily incorporated into the ribonucleoprotein component(s) of the virus, where it appeared as both spermidine and spermine. The specific radioactivities of the viral polyamines were approximately twice those of spermidine and spermine extracted from the whole cell. Radioactivity from (2-/sup 14/C)methionine was readily incorporated into the protein, spermidine, and spermine of the virus. Again, the specific activities of these amines were substantially higher in the virus than in the whole cell. Thus, newly formed virus contained predominantly newly synthesized spermidine and spermine. However, inhibition of spermidine synthesis by dicyclohexylamine led to incorporation of preexisting spermidine and increased amounts of spermine into newly formed virus.

  16. Dynamic allostery in the methionine repressor revealed by force distribution analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Stacklies

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fundamental cellular processes such as gene expression are tightly regulated by protein allostery. Allosteric signal propagation from the regulatory to the active site requires long-range communication, the molecular mechanism of which remains a matter of debate. A classical example for long-range allostery is the activation of the methionine repressor MetJ, a transcription factor. Binding of its co-repressor SAM increases its affinity for DNA several-fold, but has no visible conformational effect on its DNA binding interface. Our molecular dynamics simulations indicate correlated domain motions within MetJ, and quenching of these dynamics upon SAM binding entropically favors DNA binding. From monitoring conformational fluctuations alone, it is not obvious how the presence of SAM is communicated through the largely rigid core of MetJ and how SAM thereby is able to regulate MetJ dynamics. We here directly monitored the propagation of internal forces through the MetJ structure, instead of relying on conformational changes as conventionally done. Our force distribution analysis successfully revealed the molecular network for strain propagation, which connects collective domain motions through the protein core. Parts of the network are directly affected by SAM binding, giving rise to the observed quenching of fluctuations. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data. The force distribution analysis suggests itself as a valuable tool to gain insight into the molecular function of a whole class of allosteric proteins.

  17. Type I methionine aminopeptidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a potential target for antifungal drug screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-ling CHEN; Jia LI; Jing-ya LI; Qun-li LUO; Wei-feng MAO; Qiang SHEN; Fa-jun NAN; Qi-zhuang YE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To screen antifungal drug candidates using in vitro and in vivo assays based on type I methionine aminopeptidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScMetAP1). METHODS: A colorimetric assay suitable for high throughput screening (HTS) using recombinant ScMetAP1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli was established for antifungal lead discovery. A series of pyridine-2-carboxylic acid derivatives were characterized and a chemical library of 12 800 pure organic compounds was screened with the in vitro ScMetAP1 assay. Active compounds from the in vitro assay were further evaluated by a growth inhibition assay on yeast strain with deletion of ScMetAP1 gene mapl in comparison with the wild-type yeast strain and the yeast strain with deletion of type II enzyme (ScMetAP2)gene map2. RESULTS: Active ScMetAP1 inhibitors were identified from HTS. Some of the pyridine-2-carboxylic acid derivatives (compound 2 and 3) had selective inhibition of the growth of map2 deletion yeast and weak inhibition on wild-type yeast growth, while no inhibition on mapl deletion yeast. CONCLUSION: ScMetAP1 is a novel potential target for developing antifungal drugs. The in vitro and in vivo ScMetAP1 assays can serve as tools in discovering antifungal drug candidates.

  18. Proteomic analysis of mice fed methionine and choline deficient diet reveals marker proteins associated with steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Lee

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the progression of simple steatosis to steatohepatitis are yet to be elucidated. To identify the proteins involved in the development of liver tissue inflammation, we performed comparative proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Mice fed a methionine and choline deficient diet (MCD developed hepatic steatosis characterized by increased free fatty acid (FFA and triglyceride levels as well as alpha-SMA. Two-dimensional proteomic analysis revealed that the change from the normal diet to the MCD diet affected the expressions of 50 proteins. The most-pronounced changes were observed in the expression of proteins involved in Met metabolism and oxidative stress, most of which were significantly downregulated in NASH model animals. Peroxiredoxin (Prx is the most interesting among the modulated proteins identified in this study. In particular, cross-regulated Prx1 and Prx6 are likely to participate in cellular defense against the development of hepatitis. Thus, these Prx isoforms may be a useful new marker for early stage steatohepatitis. Moreover, curcumin treatment results in alleviation of the severity of hepatic inflammation in steatohepatitis. Notably, curcumin administration in MCD-fed mice dramatically reduced CYP2E1 as well as Prx1 expression, while upregulating Prx6 expression. These findings suggest that curcumin may have a protective role against MCD fed-induced oxidative stress.

  19. Characterisation of the tryptophan synthase alpha subunit in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierl Alfons

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, tryptophan is synthesized from indole-3-glycerole phosphate (IGP by a tryptophan synthase αββα heterotetramer. Plants have evolved multiple α (TSA and β (TSB homologs, which have probably diverged in biological function and their ability of subunit interaction. There is some evidence for a tryptophan synthase (TS complex in Arabidopsis. On the other hand maize (Zea mays expresses the TSA-homologs BX1 and IGL that efficiently cleave IGP, independent of interaction with TSB. Results In order to clarify, how tryptophan is synthesized in maize, two TSA homologs, hitherto uncharacterized ZmTSA and ZmTSAlike, were functionally analyzed. ZmTSA is localized in plastids, the major site of tryptophan biosynthesis in plants. It catalyzes the tryptophan synthase α-reaction (cleavage of IGP, and forms a tryptophan synthase complex with ZmTSB1 in vitro. The catalytic efficiency of the α-reaction is strongly enhanced upon complex formation. A 160 kD tryptophan synthase complex was partially purified from maize leaves and ZmTSA was identified as native α-subunit of this complex by mass spectrometry. ZmTSAlike, for which no in vitro activity was detected, is localized in the cytosol. ZmTSAlike, BX1, and IGL were not detectable in the native tryptophan synthase complex in leaves. Conclusion It was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro that maize forms a tryptophan synthase complex and ZmTSA functions as α-subunit in this complex.

  20. Metionina mais cistina digestível e relação metionina mais cistina digestível: lisina para codornas japonesas Digestible methionine plus cystine and relation digestible methionine plus cystine: lysine for japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Francisco Valiati Marin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o melhor nível de metionina mais cistina digestível e a melhor relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível em diferentes níveis de proteína para codorna em postura. Foram utilizadas 400 codornas japonesas produtoras de ovos de consumo com 45 dias de idade, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 2 x 5, dois níveis de proteína bruta (19,5% e 21,5% e cinco níveis de metionina mais cistina digestível (0,60%; 0,67%; 0,74%; 0,81% e 0,88%, com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Foram analisadas as taxas de postura (%, peso médio dos ovos (g, massa de ovos (g de ovos/ave/dia, consumo de ração (g/ave/dia, conversão alimentar (g de ração/g de ovos, peso e porcentagem de gema (g e %, peso e porcentagem de clara (g e % e peso e porcentagem de casca (g e %. Para o nível de 19,5% de proteína 0,60% de metionina mais cistina digestível e relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível de 0,66% foram suficientes para otimizar a produção. Para o nível de 21,5% de proteína 0,851% de metionina mais cistina digestível com relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível de 0,935% com consumo diário de 223,3mg/ave levou a uma melhor produção de ovos de codornas.This research had the purpose to determine the best level of digestible methionine plus cystine and the best relation of digestible methionine plus cystine:digestible lysine in different levels of protein for laying Japanese quails. 400 laying Japanese quails, with 45 days of age were used in a completely randomized design, with a factorial 2 x 5, two crude protein levels (19,5% and 21,5% and five levels of digestible methionine plus cystine (0,60%; 0,67%; 0,74%; 0,81% e 0,88%, with five replicates and eight quails per experimental unity. There were analysis of the posture rate (%, egg average weight (g egg mass (egg grams/bird/day, feed intake (g/bird/day, feed

  1. Amino-terminal extension present in the methionine aminopeptidase type 1c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is indispensible for its activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Sangaralingam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP is a ubiquitous enzyme in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which catalyzes co-translational removal of N-terminal methionine from elongating polypeptide chains during protein synthesis. It specifically removes the terminal methionine in all organisms, if the penultimate residue is non-bulky and uncharged. The MetAP action for exclusion of N-terminal methionine is mandatory in 50-70% of nascent proteins. Such an activity is required for proper sub cellular localization, additional processing and eventually for the degradation of proteins. Results We cloned genes encoding two such metalloproteases (MtMetAP1a and MtMetAP1c present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and expressed them as histidine-tagged proteins in Escherichia coli. Although they have different substrate preferences, for Met-Ala-Ser, we found, MtMetAP1c had significantly high enzyme turnover rate as opposed to MtMetAP1a. Circular dichroism spectroscopic studies as well as monitoring of enzyme activity indicated high temperature stability (up to 50°C of MtMetAP1a compared to that of the MtMetAP1c. Modelling of MtMetAP1a based on MtMetAP1c crystal structure revealed the distinct spatial arrangements of identical active site amino acid residues and their mutations affected the enzymatic activities of both the proteins. Strikingly, we observed that 40 amino acid long N-terminal extension of MtMetAP1c, compared to its other family members, contributes towards the activity and stability of this enzyme, which has never been reported for any methionine aminopeptidase. Furthermore, mutational analysis revealed that Val-18 and Pro-19 of MtMetAP1c are crucial for its enzymatic activity. Consistent with this observation, molecular dynamic simulation studies of wild-type and these variants strongly suggest their involvement in maintaining active site conformation of MtMetAP1c. Conclusion Our findings unequivocally emphasized that N

  2. Usefulness of {sup 11}C-methionine PET in evaluation of brain lesions with hypo- or isometabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Chung, J. K.; Yeo, J. S.; Lee, D. S.; Jeong, H. W.; Lee, M. C. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Because some brain tumors show iso-or hypometabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET, there have been problems in detection of primary or recurrent tumor and in differentiation from benign lesion with {sup 18}F-FDG PET. We investigated the usefulness of {sup 11}C-methionine PET in characterizing brain lesions in these conditions. In 34 patients with brain lesions (27 for initial diagnosis, 7 for detecting recurrence ) who showed hypo- or isometabolism compared to normal brain tissue on {sup 18}F-FDG PET, we performed {sup 11}C-methionine PET. Five minutes after injection of 550 MBq {sup 11}C-methionine, attenuation corrected brain images were obtained with a dedicated PET scanner. Brain lesions were 18 gliomas, 4 metastatic brain tumors, 2 meningiomas, 1 mixed germ cell tumor and 3 benign tumors and 6 non-tumorous lesions (3 neurocysticercosis, 2 meningiomas, 1 mixed germ cell tumor and 3 benign tumors and 6 non-tumorous lesions (3 neurocysticercosis, 2 tumor necrosis, 1 granuloma). To find the correlation between methione uptake and proliferation activity, Ki 67 proliferation Index in 8 patients or Proliferation index (P1=G2+M+S/total cycle) using DNA flow cytometry in 10 patients were obtained. Of 25 tumorous lesions without definitive hypermetabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET, all except two glioma (92%) showed moderate to high uptake in entire or thick peripheral tumor uptake in {sup 11}C-methionine PET. The uptake ratio of tumor to normal brain in {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-methionine PET were 0.96 {+-}0.32 and 2.43 {+-} 1.26, respectively. Nine benign lesions with hypo- or isometabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET were also no significantly increased {sup 11}C-methionine uptake. {sup 11}C-methionine uptake and proliferation activity were correlated with Ki 67 index or PI (r=0.6). Two glioma shown no increased {sup 11}C-methionine uptake had low proliferative activity (Ki 67 < 1%). {sup 11}C-methionin PET could detect brain tumors and differentiate brain lesions with high

  3. Exigência de metionina + cistina para alevinos de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Digestible methionine + cystine requirement for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings

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    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a exigência de metionina + cistina para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (2,61 ± 0,14g. Foi utilizado o modelo em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, três repetições e cinco peixes por unidade experimental. Foi utilizada ração basal contendo 28% de proteína bruta e 3173kcal ED kg-1 de ração, suplementada com DL-metionina, resultando em rações com 0,87; 0,95; 1,03; 1,11; 1,19 e 1,27% de metionina + cistina. As rações foram fornecidas à vontade durante 41 dias. Não foram observados efeitos (P>0,05 dos níveis de metionina + cistina sobre a taxa de sobrevivência e índice hepato-somático. Foi observado efeito quadrático (PThis study was carried out to determine the methionine + cystine requirement for Nile tilápia, fingerlings (2.61 ± 0.14g. A randomized block designs, with six treatments, three replicates and five fish by experimental unit was used. Basal diet was utilized with 28% crude protein and 3173DE kcal kg-1 of digestible energy, supplemented with DL-methionine, resulting in diets with 0.87; 0.95; 1.03; 1.11; 1.19 and 1.27% of methionine + cystine. Diets were fed to satiation during 41 days. No effects (P>0.05 of methionine + cystine levels on survival rate and hepatosomatic index were observed. A quadratic effect (P<0.05 for weight gain was observed, which increased up to 1.22% methionine + cystine in the diet. Feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio increased (P<0.05 up to 1.00% of methionine + cystine. A quadratic effect (P<0.05 of methionine + cystine level on carcass yield was observed, which increased up to 1.13% of methionine + cystine. The concentration of 1.00% methionine + cystine corresponding to 3.54% crude protein, in the presence of 0.54% methionine in the diet, showed the best njperformance.

  4. Bacillus caldolyticus prs gene encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase, as well as the flanking DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced from the Gram-positive thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. Comparison with the homologous sequences from the mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, revealed a gene (gca......D) encoding N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase upstream of prs, and a gene homologous to ctc downstream of prs. cDNA synthesis with a B. caldolyticus gcaD-prs-ctc-specified mRNA as template, followed by amplification utilising the polymerase chain reaction indicated that the three genes are co......-transcribed. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity among PRPP synthases across a wide phylogenetic range. An E. coli strain harbouring the B. caldolyticus prs gene in a multicopy plasmid produced PRPP synthase activity 33-fold over the activity of a haploid B. caldolyticus strain. B. caldolyticus...

  5. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  6. Association of aberrations in one-carbon metabolism with molecular phenotype and grade of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Pavani, Addepalli; Rupasree, Yedluri; Divyya, Shree; Deepti, Sripurna; Digumarti, Raghunadha Rao; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Prayaga, Aruna; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2012-10-01

    We have earlier demonstrated the role of aberrant one-carbon metabolism in the etiology of breast cancer. In the current study, we examine the clinical utility of these factors in predicting the subtype of breast cancer and as indicators of disease progression. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) approaches were used for genetic analysis. Plasma folate and homocysteine were measured using Axsym folate kit and reverse phase HPLC, respectively. Multiple linear regression models were used to test the predictability of disease progression. Luminal A subtype was associated with late age of onset, higher body mass index and lack of family history of breast cancer. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 5'-UTR 28 bp tandem repeat (OR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.05-4.16) and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T (OR: 4.10, 95% CI: 1.40-11.95) were strongly associated with Luminal B. Reduced folate carrier (RFC1) G80A (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.22-6.97) and methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G (OR: 4.71, 95% CI: 1.66-13.31) polymorphisms were associated with LuminA-HH subtype while MTHFR C677T showed association with HER-enriched (OR: 30.41, 95% CI: 6.47-142.91). Cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (cSHMT) conferred protection against basal-like breast cancer (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.22-0.98). HER-enriched and basal-like subtypes showed positive association with familial breast cancer and inverse association with plasma folate. Hyperhomocysteinemia was observed in Luminal B and basal-like subtypes. Multiple linear regression models of aberrant one-carbon metabolism were found to be moderate predictors of breast cancer grade (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, C = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.87, P = 0.008). To conclude, aberrations in one-carbon metabolism predict the subtype of breast cancer and disease progression.

  7. Mechanistic Diversity in the RuBisCO Superfamily: The Enolase in the Methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imker,H.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2007-01-01

    D-Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), the most abundant enzyme, is the paradigm member of the recently recognized mechanistically diverse RuBisCO superfamily. The RuBisCO reaction is initiated by abstraction of the proton from C3 of the D-ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate substrate by a carbamate oxygen of carboxylated Lys 201 (spinach enzyme). Heterofunctional homologues of RuBisCO found in species of Bacilli catalyze the tautomerization ('enolization') of 2,3-diketo-5-methylthiopentane 1-phosphate (DK-MTP 1-P) in the methionine salvage pathway in which 5-methylthio-D-ribose (MTR) derived from 5'-methylthioadenosine is converted to methionine [Ashida, H., Saito, Y., Kojima, C., Kobayashi, K., Ogasawara, N., and Yokota, A. (2003) A functional link between RuBisCO-like protein of Bacillus and photosynthetic RuBisCO, Science 302, 286-290]. The reaction catalyzed by this 'enolase' is accomplished by abstraction of a proton from C1 of the DK-MTP 1-P substrate to form the tautomerized product, a conjugated enol. Because the RuBisCO- and 'enolase'-catalyzed reactions differ in the regiochemistry of proton abstraction but are expected to share stabilization of an enolate anion intermediate by coordination to an active site Mg{sup 2+}, we sought to establish structure-function relationships for the 'enolase' reaction so that the structural basis for the functional diversity could be established. We determined the stereochemical course of the reaction catalyzed by the 'enolases' from Bacillus subtilis and Geobacillus kaustophilus. Using stereospecifically deuterated samples of an alternate substrate derived from D-ribose (5-OH group instead of the 5-methylthio group in MTR) as well as of the natural DK-MTP 1-P substrate, we determined that the 'enolase'-catalyzed reaction involves abstraction of the 1-proS proton. We also determined the structure of the activated 'enolase' from G

  8. Solubilization of microsomal-associated phosphatidylinositol synthase from germinating soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M L; Carman, G M

    1982-01-01

    CDP-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (CDP-diacylglycerol):myo-inositol phosphatidyltransferase (EC 2.7.8.11, phosphatidylinositol synthase) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylinositol in the endoplasmic reticulum fraction of germinating soybeans (Glycine max L. var Cutler 71). A variety of solubilization agents were examined for their ability to release phosphatidylinositol synthase activity from the microsome fraction. The most effective agent to solubilize the enzyme was the nonionic detergent Brij W-1. A 2.1-fold increase in specific activity was achieved using 1% Brij W-1 with 69% activity solubilized.Maximal solubilization of phosphatidylinositol synthase was completely dependent on Brij W-1 (1%), potassium ions (0.3 m), and manganese ions (0.5 mm). Solubilization of the enzyme was not affected by the protein concentration of microsomes between 3 to 20 milligrams per milliliter. Solubilization was not affected by the pH of solubilization buffer between 6.5 to 8.5. To our knowledge, this is the first phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme solubilized from plant membranes. The Brij W-1-solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase remained at the top of a glycerol gradient, whereas the membrane-associated enzyme sedimented to the bottom of the gradient. Maximal activity of the Brij W-1-solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase was dependent on manganese (5 mm) or magnesium (30 mm) ions, and Triton X-100 (3.6 mm) at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCl buffer. The apparent K(m) values for CDP-diacylglycerol and myo-inositol for the solubilized enzyme was 0.1 mm and 46 mum, respectively. Solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase activity was thermally inactivated at temperatures above 30 degrees C.

  9. Methoxinine - an alternative stable amino acid substitute for oxidation-sensitive methionine in radiolabelled peptide conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Nathalie M; Behe, Martin; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Schibli, Roger; Mindt, Thomas L

    2017-01-01

    Radiolabelled peptides with high specificity and affinity towards receptors that are overexpressed by tumour cells are used in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis (imaging) and therapy of cancer. In some cases, the sequences of peptides under investigations contain methionine (Met), an amino acid prone to oxidation during radiolabelling procedures. The formation of oxidative side products can affect the purity of the final radiopharmaceutical product and/or impair its specificity and affinity towards the corresponding receptor. The replacement of Met with oxidation resistant amino acid analogues, for example, norleucine (Nle), can provide a solution. While this approach has been applied successfully to different radiolabelled peptides, a Met → Nle switch only preserves the length of the amino acid side chain important for hydrophobic interactions but not its hydrogen-bonding properties. We report here the use of methoxinine (Mox), a non-canonical amino acid that resembles more closely the electronic properties of Met in comparison to Nle. Specifically, we replaced Met(15) by Mox(15) and Nle(15) in the binding sequence of a radiometal-labelled human gastrin derivative [d-Glu(10) ]HG(10-17), named MG11 (d-Glu-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 ). A comparison of the physicochemical properties of (177) Lu-DOTA[X(15) ]MG11 (X = Met, Nle, Mox) in vitro (cell internalization/externalization properties, receptor affinity (IC50 ), blood plasma stability and logD) showed that Mox indeed represents a suitable, oxidation-stable amino acid substitute of Met in radiolabelled peptide conjugates. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Interaction of methionine-enkephalins with raft-forming lipids: monolayers and BAM experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanova, A; Jordanova, A; Dzimbova, T; Pajpanova, T; Golovinsky, E; Lalchev, Z

    2014-05-01

    Enkephalins (Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met/Leu) are opioid peptides with proven antinociceptive action in organism. They interact with opioid receptors belonging to G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. It is known that these receptors are located preferably in membrane rafts composed mainly of sphingomyelin (Sm), cholesterol (Cho), and phosphatidylcholine. In the present work, using Langmuir's monolayer technique in combination with Wilhelmy's method for measuring the surface pressure, the interaction of synthetic methionine-enkephalin and its amidated derivative with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), Sm, and Cho, as well as with their double and triple mixtures, was studied. From the pressure/area isotherms measured, the compressional moduli of the lipids and lipid-peptide monolayers were determined. Our results showed that the addition of the synthetic enkephalins to the monolayers studied led to change in the lipid monolayers characteristics, which was more evident in enkephalinamide case. In addition, using Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), the surface morphology of the lipid monolayers, before and after the injection of both enkephalins, was determined. The BAM images showed an increase in surface density of the mixed surface lipids/enkephalins films, especially with double and triple component lipid mixtures. This effect was more pronounced for the enkephalinamide as well. These observations showed that there was an interaction between the peptides and the raft-forming lipids, which was stronger for the amidated peptide, suggesting a difference in folding of both enkephalins. Our research demonstrates the potential of lipid monolayers for elegant and simple membrane models to study lipid-peptide interactions at the plane of biomembranes.

  11. Myeloperoxidase-mediated Methionine Oxidation Promotes an Amyloidogenic Outcome for Apolipoprotein A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gary K L; Witkowski, Andrzej; Gantz, Donald L; Zhang, Tianqi O; Zanni, Martin T; Jayaraman, Shobini; Cavigiolio, Giorgio

    2015-04-24

    High plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) correlate with cardiovascular health, whereas dysfunctional apoA-I is a cause of atherosclerosis. In the atherosclerotic plaques, amyloid deposition increases with aging. Notably, apoA-I is the main component of these amyloids. Recent studies identified high levels of oxidized lipid-free apoA-I in atherosclerotic plaques. Likely, myeloperoxidase (MPO) secreted by activated macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions is the promoter of such apoA-I oxidation. We hypothesized that apoA-I oxidation by MPO levels similar to those present in the artery walls in atherosclerosis can promote apoA-I structural changes and amyloid fibril formation. ApoA-I was exposed to exhaustive chemical (H2O2) oxidation or physiological levels of enzymatic (MPO) oxidation and incubated at 37 °C and pH 6.0 to induce fibril formation. Both chemically and enzymatically oxidized apoA-I produced fibrillar amyloids after a few hours of incubation. The amyloid fibrils were composed of full-length apoA-I with differential oxidation of the three methionines. Met to Leu apoA-I variants were used to establish the predominant role of oxidation of Met-86 and Met-148 in the fibril formation process. Importantly, a small amount of preformed apoA-I fibrils was able to seed amyloid formation in oxidized apoA-I at pH 7.0. In contrast to hereditary amyloidosis, wherein specific mutations of apoA-I cause protein destabilization and amyloid deposition, oxidative conditions similar to those promoted by local inflammation in atherosclerosis are sufficient to transform full-length wild-type apoA-I into an amyloidogenic protein. Thus, MPO-mediated oxidation may be implicated in the mechanism that leads to amyloid deposition in the atherosclerotic plaques in vivo.

  12. Antioxidant properties of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in Fe(2+)-initiated oxidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Andres A; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2004-05-15

    S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is protective against a variety of toxic agents that promote oxidative stress. One mechanism for this protective effect of SAM is increased synthesis of glutathione. We evaluated whether SAM is protective via possible antioxidant-like activities. Aerobic Hepes-buffered solutions of Fe2+ spontaneously oxidize and consume O2 with concomitant production of reactive oxygen species and oxidation of substrates to radical products, e.g., ethanol to hydroxyethyl radical. SAM inhibited this oxidation of ethanol and inhibited aerobic Fe2+ oxidation and consumption of O2. SAM did not regenerate Fe2+ from Fe3+ and was not consumed after incubation with Fe2+. SAM less effectively inhibited aerobic Fe2+ oxidation in the presence of competing chelating agents such as EDTA, citrate, and ADP. The effects of SAM were mimicked by S-adenosylhomocysteine, but not by methionine or methylthioadenosine. SAM did not inhibit Fe2+ oxidation by H2O2 and was a relatively poor inhibitor of the Fenton reaction. Lipid peroxidation initiated by Fe2+ in liposomes was associated with Fe2+ oxidation; these two processes were inhibited by SAM. However, SAM did not show significant peroxyl radical scavenging activity. SAM also inhibited the nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation initiated by Fe2+ + ascorbate in rat liver microsomes. These results suggest that SAM inhibits alcohol and lipid oxidation mainly by Fe2+ chelation and inhibition of Fe2+ autoxidation. This could represent an important mechanism by which SAM exerts cellular protective actions and reduces oxidative stress in biological systems.

  13. Increasing dietary crude protein does not increase the methionine requirement in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strieker, M J; Morris, J G; Kass, P H; Rogers, Q R

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the methionine (met) requirement of kittens is correlated with the concentration of dietary crude protein (CP). The study used 48 male kittens in two replications of six 4 x 4 Latin squares, each representing one concentration of met (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 6.0 or 9.0 g/kg diet) with four CP concentrations (150, 200, 300 and 500 g/kg diet) in 2-week periods. Cystine was present in the lowest CP diet at 5.3 g/kg diet and increased as dietary CP increased. Body weight gain, food intake, nitrogen balance and plasma amino acids, glucose, insulin, cortisol, somatomedin C, T(3) and T(4) concentrations on day 12 were measured. From breakpoint analysis of the nitrogen retention curves, the met requirement of kittens was found to be 3.1, 3.8, 3.1 and 2.4 g met/kg for the 150, 200, 300 and 500 g CP/kg diets, respectively. When met was limiting (1.5 or 2.5 g/kg diet), increasing dietary CP did not decrease, but rather increased food intake, body weight gain and nitrogen retention. Plasma met concentrations increased as dietary met increased and at 2.5-3.5 g met/kg diet were not different among kittens fed the various CP diets. Total plasma T(3) and T(4) increased significantly as dietary CP increased in kittens given the 2.5 and 4.5 g met/kg diets. Results indicate that food intake and possibly altered hormonal secretion play a role in this growth response. In conclusion, the met requirement of growing kittens, unlike omnivores and herbivores studied, was not positively correlated with the concentration of dietary CP.

  14. Effects of Rumen-Protected Methionine on Dairy Performance and Amino Acid Metabolism in Lactating Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Free Met as one of the most limiting AA in dairy cows would be mostly degraded in the rumen. This study was to determine the effect of different levels of Rumen-Protected Met (RPMet on dairy performance and serum amino acid metabolism. Approach: Thirty-six Holstein cows in similar condition were randomly assigned to six experimental treatments with six replicates each. Levels of RPMet in six treatments were 0(control, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 g day-1 per cow, respectively. Results: Treatment had no effect on percentage of milk protein, lactose and SNF. However, milk yield of cows fed 42 g day-1 RPMet was significantly higher than that of the control group and milk fat percentage was significantly increased with 56 g day-1 RPMet supplementation. There was the trend to decrease the concentration of serum amino acids except Met and Arg with the supplementation of RPMet. Serum EAA contents of the group supplementation of 42 g day-1 RPMet were lowest although there were no significant differences among all treatments. Serum BCAA concentrations of cows fed 28 g RPMet were significantly lower than that of the control group. Supplementation of 42 g RPMet could significantly decrease the concentration of NEAA and TAA compared to the control group. Conclusion/Recommendations: Supplementation of rumen-protected methionine improved dairy performance and promoted amino acid utilization in lactating cows in the present experiment. The optimal level of RPMet in the diet was 42 g per cow day-1.

  15. Influence of dietary methionine concentration on growth and nitrogen balance in weanling Quarter Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsco, K N; Coverdale, J A; Wickersham, T A; Shelton, J L

    2011-07-01

    Twenty-four Quarter Horse weanlings (120 ± 10 d) were blocked by age into 4 groups (n=6) for a 56-d trial to evaluate the influence of dietary Met concentration on growth and N balance. Weanling horses were housed by block and individually fed concentrates twice daily at 1.75% BW (as-fed basis). Weanling horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 concentrate treatments: basal (0.20 Met), basal + 0.03% Met (0.23 Met), basal + 0.07% Met (0.27 Met), and basal + 0.11% Met (0.31 Met). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and contained equal amounts of Lys and Thr. Coastal bermudagrass hay (Cynodon dactylon) was individually fed at 0.75% BW (as-fed basis). Growth measurements, BW, rump fat, and plasma were obtained every 7 d. The final 4 d consisted of total collection of urine and feces. Feed, fecal, and urine samples were analyzed for N content, and N balance was calculated. Urine was analyzed for urea and ammonia concentrations. Plasma was analyzed for urea concentration. Grain, hay, and fecal samples were analyzed for nutrient composition. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. Linear, quadratic, and cubic effects were tested in the form of contrasts. There was no influence (P>0.25) of treatment on growth measurements, N balance, or urinary urea or ammonia. Intake of Lys and Thr did not differ (P>0.08) among treatments. Methionine intake increased as expected with increasing Met inclusion in the diet (Phorses. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  16. Methionine+cystine requirement of broiler chickens fed low-density diets under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Usama; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the M+C requirement of straight-run broiler chickens (Hubbard x Hubbard) during the period 4-21 (Exp. 1) and 21-40 (Exp. 2) days of age. Experiments were conducted during summer months (July-August) in open-sided houses, thus exposing chicks to chronic heat stress. Daily min-max temperature averaged 26-37C (Exp. 1) and 23-36C (Exp. 2). M+C deficient basal diets were formulated to contain low-nutrient-density, i.e., 2750 kcal per kg ME, 20.1% CP (Exp. 1), and 2780 kcal per kg ME, 17.0% CP (Exp. 2). Diets were supplemented with DL-methionine to provide total M+C level ranging from 0.64 to 0.89 % (six increments) and 0.54 to 0.79% (six increments), respectively in experiment 1 and 2. Requirements (0.95 of the maximum quadratic response) were found to be 0.77 and 0.75% total M+C, respectively for gain and feed efficiency, during 4-21 days; and 0.67% total M+C for both gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age. Calculated on the digestible M+C basis, the estimates were 0.67 and 0.65% respectively for gain and feed efficiency during 4-21 days of age; and 0.60% for gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age.

  17. The role of active site tyrosine 58 in Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufrieva, Natalya V; Faleev, Nicolai G; Morozova, Elena A; Bazhulina, Natalia P; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Timofeev, Vladimir P; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Nikulin, Alexei D; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2015-09-01

    In the spatial structure of methionine γ-lyase (MGL, EC 4.4.1.11) from Citrobacter freundii, Tyr58 is located at H-bonding distance to the oxygen atom of the phosphate "handle" of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). It was replaced for phenylalanine by site-directed mutagenesis. The X-ray structure of the mutant enzyme was determined at 1.96Å resolution. Comparison of spatial structures and absorption spectra of wild-type and mutant holoenzymes demonstrated that the replacement did not result in essential changes of the conformation of the active site Tyr58Phe MGL. The Kd value of PLP for Tyr58Phe MGL proved to be comparable to the Kd value for the wild-type enzyme. The replacement led to a decrease of catalytic efficiencies in both γ- and β-elimination reactions of about two orders of magnitude as compared to those for the wild-type enzyme. The rates of exchange of C-α- and C-β- protons of inhibitors in D2O catalyzed by the mutant form are comparable with those for the wild-type enzyme. Spectral data on the complexes of the mutant form with the substrates and inhibitors showed that the replacement led to a change of rate the limiting step of the physiological reaction. The results allowed us to conclude that Tyr58 is involved in an optimal positioning of the active site Lys210 at some stages of γ- and β-elimination reactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications.

  18. Histamine chloramine reactivity with thiol compounds, ascorbate, and methionine and with intracellular glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Alexander V; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2003-11-15

    Histamine is stored in granules of mast cells and basophils and released by inflammatory mediators. It has the potential to intercept some of the HOCl generated by the neutrophil enzyme, myeloperoxidase, to produce histamine chloramine. We have measured rate constants for reactions of histamine chloramine with methionine, ascorbate, and GSH at pH 7.4, of 91 M(-1)s(-1), 195 M(-1)s(-1), and 721 M(-1)s(-1), respectively. With low molecular weight thiols, the reaction was with the thiolate and rates increased exponentially with decreasing thiol group pK(a). Comparing rate constants for different chloramines reacting with ascorbate or a particular thiol anion, these were higher when there was less negative charge in the vicinity of the chloramine group. Histamine chloramine was the most reactive among biologically relevant chloramines. Consumption of histamine chloramine and oxidation of intracellular GSH were examined for human fibroblasts. At nontoxic doses, GSH loss over 10 min was slightly greater than that with HOCl, but the cellular uptake of histamine chloramine was 5-10-fold less. With histamine chloramine, GSSG was a minor product and most of the GSH was converted to mixed disulfides with proteins. HOCl gave a different profile of GSH oxidation products, with significantly less GSSG and mixed disulfide formation. There was irreversible oxidation and losses to the medium, as observed with HOCl and other cell types. Thus, histamine chloramine shows high preference for thiols both in isolation and in cells, and in this respect is more selective than HOCl.

  19. The Development of Recurrent Seizures after Continuous Intrahippocampal Infusion of Methionine Sulfoximine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Lee, Tih-Shih W; Eid, Tore

    2009-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase is deficient in astrocytes in the epileptogenic hippocampus in human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). To explore the role of this deficiency in the pathophysiology of MTLE, rats were continuously infused with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO, 0.625 µg/h) or 0.9% NaCl (saline control) unilaterally into the hippocampus. The seizures caused by MSO were assessed by video-intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. All (28 of 28) of the MSO-treated animals and none (0 of 12) of the saline-treated animals developed recurrent seizures. Most recurrent seizures appeared in clusters of 2 days’ duration (median; range, 1 to 12 days). The first cluster was characterized by frequent, predominantly Stage I seizures, which presented after the first 9.5 h of infusion (median; range, 5.5 to 31.7 h). Subsequent clusters of less-frequent, mainly partial seizures occurred after a clinically silent interval of 7.1 days (median; range, 1.8 to 16.2 days). The ictal intracranial EEGs shared several characteristics with recordings of partial seizures in humans, such as a distinct evolution of the amplitude and frequency of the EEG signal. The neuropathology caused by MSO had similarities to hippocampal sclerosis in 23.1% of cases, whereas 26.9% of the animals had minimal neuronal loss in the hippocampus. Moderate to severe diffuse neuronal loss was observed in 50% of the animals. In conclusion, the model of intrahippocampal MSO infusion replicates key features of human MTLE and may represent a useful tool for further studies of the cellular, molecular and electrophysiological mechanisms of this disorder. PMID:19747915

  20. Formyl-methionine as a degradation signal at the N-termini of bacterial proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkov, Konstantin I.; Vu, Tri T. M.; Hwang, Cheol-Sang; Varshavsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In bacteria, all nascent proteins bear the pretranslationally formed N-terminal formyl-methionine (fMet) residue. The fMet residue is cotranslationally deformylated by a ribosome-